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1

Tdap and Td vaccines  

MedlinePLUS

Tdap immunization; Td immunization; Diphtheria vaccination; Tetanus vaccination; Pertussis vaccination ... for Disease Control and Prevention. General recommendations on immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ( ...

2

Silkworm cocoons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm larvae spin silk cocoons to live in while they go through metamorphosis. They change from silkworm larvae into white silk moths. The silk cocoons are valuable to humans and can be made into silk fabric.

Roman Neumüller (None;)

2006-07-05

3

Tdap: the need to educate and immunize.  

PubMed

The resurgence of pertussis is puzzling, especially given the requirement that children complete recommended immunizations prior to school entry. Are adult carriers unknowingly infecting children? What do adult caregivers know about pertussis and the tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) booster vaccine? How can the incidence of pertussis in children younger than 2 years, a group most at risk for complications of the disease, be reduced? This article examines the incidence of pertussis and strategies to reduce pertussis incidence in the United States. If the need for Tdap vaccine is identified and favorably received by adults, immunization programs can be arranged at worksites to better protect infants who are most at risk for pertussis. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(11):468-474.]. PMID:25216054

Rittle, Chad; Lang, Yolanda C; Wenskovitch, John E

2014-11-01

4

Tdap coverage in a military beneficiary population: room for improvement.  

PubMed

Pertussis has had a resurgence in recent years. Women of child-bearing age and adults with infant contact are important reservoirs of infection because of waning immunity. Recent infant deaths and outbreaks led to new tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine recommendations, but vaccination rates remain low. A performance improvement project was started at Walter Reed Army Medical Center to target women of child-bearing age. Women treated in Gynecology had their electronic medical record screened for Tdap during their vital signs assessment. Those eligible for vaccination were directed to the Immunization Clinic. The intervention was considered successful if the patient received the vaccine within 30 days of the visit. Data were compiled on vaccination rates 1 month before and 1 and 3 months after the start of the performance improvement project. Only 13.9% of all patients had a documented Tdap at any time. During the first month following the intervention, vaccination rates within 30 days of the appointment increased from 0.38% to 6.5% (p < 0.005). The effect waned at 3 months following intervention, with only 1.1% of patients vaccinated within 30 days of the appointment. Overall vaccination rates remain low, and future studies should focus on barriers to vaccination to prevent morbidity and mortality. PMID:24083928

Lam, Sherrell T; George, Susan; Dunlow, Susan; Nelson, Michael; Hartzell, Joshua D

2013-10-01

5

Hofstadter's Cocoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hofstadter showed that the energy levels of electrons on a lattice plotted as a function of magnetic field form an beautiful structure now referred to as "Hofstadter's butterfly". We study a non-Hermitian continuation of Hofstadter's model; as the non-Hermiticity parameter g increases past a sequence of critical values the eigenvalues successively go complex in a sequence of "double-pitchfork bifurcations" wherein pairs of real eigenvalues degenerate and then become complex conjugate pairs. The associated wavefunctions undergo a spontaneous symmetry breaking transition that we elucidate. Beyond the transition a plot of the real parts of the eigenvalues against magnetic field resembles the Hofstadter butterfly; a plot of the imaginary parts plotted against magnetic fields forms an intricate structure that we call the Hofstadter cocoon. The symmetries of the cocoon are described. Hatano and Nelson have studied a non-Hermitian continuation of the Anderson model of localization that has close parallels to the model studied here. The relationship of our work to that of Hatano and Nelson and to PT transitions studied in PT quantum mechanics is discussed.

Jones-Smith, Katherine; Wallace, Connor

2014-06-01

6

Hofstadter's Cocoon  

E-print Network

Hofstadter showed that the energy levels of electrons on a lattice plotted as a function of magnetic field form an beautiful structure now referred to as "Hofstadter's butterfly". We study a non-Hermitian continuation of Hofstadter's model; as the non-Hermiticity parameter $g$ increases past a sequence of critical values the eigenvalues successively go complex in a sequence of "double-pitchfork bifurcations" wherein pairs of real eigenvalues degenerate and then become complex conjugate pairs. The associated wavefunctions undergo a spontaneous symmetry breaking transition that we elucidate. Beyond the transition a plot of the real parts of the eigenvalues against magnetic field resembles the Hofstadter butterfly; a plot of the imaginary parts plotted against magnetic fields forms an intricate structure that we call the Hofstadter cocoon. The symmetries of the cocoon are described. Hatano and Nelson have studied a non-Hermitian continuation of the Anderson model of localization that has close parallels to the model studied here. The relationship of our work to that of Hatano and Nelson and to PT transitions studied in PT quantum mechanics is discussed.

Katherine Jones-Smith; Connor Wallace

2014-07-01

7

Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis) Vaccine and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... or visit us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . Tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis and Tdap Vaccine and Pregnancy ... advice from your health care professional. What are tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis? Tetanus is a bacterial disease. ...

8

Standing Orderfor Tdap Vaccine OR Declination Consent and Administration of  

E-print Network

understand after receiving this vaccine the next time I have a wound that requires tetanus vaccine, I: _____ ---~-~- Standing Order I} Give Tdap (Tetanus, Diphtheria. Pertussis), O.5ml-IM x 1. ~-:;--;M

Leistikow, Bruce N.

9

Standing Orderfor Tdap Vaccine OR Declination Consent andAdministration of  

E-print Network

STIXID____ Standing Orderfor Tdap Vaccine OR Declination Consent andAdministration of I have read the VIS information about the Tdap Vaccine. I know thi, vaccine is a once in a life-tim. booster and this vaccine. I understand the bcncfils and risks ofthe Tdap Vaccine and wish to be vaecinlllCd to protect

Leistikow, Bruce N.

10

November 30, 2010 OSHA Mandate for Tdap Vaccine  

E-print Network

Tetanus (Lockjaw), Diptheria and Pertussis (Whooping Cough). Employee Health's roving flu clinic cart, and those working at a health care facility, must be offered Tdap vaccine to protect against Pertussis the vaccine was offered. This immunization is especially important due to the recent Pertussis outbreak

Leistikow, Bruce N.

11

Oxygen cocoon for patients under intensive care  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cocoon is made from Teflon film. It includes full-length, pressure zipper on top side and bottom part is rigid pad constructed of burn-resistant material. Cocoon includes oxygen supply port with exhaust port at opposite end.

Maas, J. W.

1975-01-01

12

Abdominal cocoon secondary to disseminated tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Abdominal cocoon, also known as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, represents a rare entity where a variable length of the small bowel is enveloped by a fibrocollagenous membrane giving the appearance of a cocoon. It may be asymptomatic and is often diagnosed incidentally at laparotomy. We present a rare case of abdominal cocoon due to abdominal tuberculosis. PMID:25239980

Puppala, Radha; Sripathi, Smiti; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Koteshwar, Prakashini; Singh, Jyoti

2014-01-01

13

Cocoon drying through solar energy  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, silk cocoon drying operations through solar energy have been presented. Nearly no comprehensive work has been appeared in literature on this unusual application. General mechanism of solar drying methods are presented by some authors for instance, Roman and Jindal. This application seems vitally significant for silk cocoon producer countries like Turkey. The rate of production accelerates year by year and it is about 3000 tons per year presently in Turkey. In Turkey, by now and currently, a water vapour chamber is utilized in the killing process of silkworm. Vapour produced by burning of conventional fuels posses many drawbacks beside being very expensive and also non-renewable. Vapour effects the quality and quantity of silk thread negatively. For instance, the colour of silk cocoon tends to turn to pale instead of being gleamy. This is not tolerable. The length and mass of silk thread obtained per a typical cocoon sample is increased about 10.1 and 16.5 per cent respectively in the average by using solar energy.

Kulunk, M.

1983-12-01

14

Tdap (Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis) Vaccine: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... www.immunize.org/vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis can be very serious diseases, ... Tdap vaccine can protect us from these diseases. TETANUS (Lockjaw) causes painful muscle tightening and stiffness, usually ...

15

Cost-Effectiveness of Tdap Vaccination of Adults Aged >=65 Years in the Prevention of Pertussis in the US: A Dynamic Model of Disease Transmission  

PubMed Central

Objectives In February 2012, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) advised that all adults aged ?65 years receive a single dose of reduced-antigen-content tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap), expanding on a 2010 recommendation for adults >65 that was limited to those with close contact with infants. We evaluated clinical and economic outcomes of adding Tdap booster of adults aged ?65 to “baseline” practice [full-strength DTaP administered from 2 months to 4–6 years, and one dose of Tdap at 11–64 years replacing decennial Td booster], using a dynamic model. Methods We constructed a population-level disease transmission model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of supplementing baseline practice by vaccinating 10% of eligible adults aged ?65 with Tdap replacing the decennial Td booster. US population effects, including indirect benefits accrued by unvaccinated persons, were estimated during a 1-year period after disease incidence reached a new steady state, with consequences of deaths and long-term pertussis sequelae projected over remaining lifetimes. Model outputs include: cases by severity, encephalopathy, deaths, costs (of vaccination and pertussis care) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) associated with each strategy. Results in terms of incremental cost/QALY gained are presented from payer and societal perspectives. Sensitivity analyses vary key parameters within plausible ranges. Results For the US population, the intervention is expected to prevent >97,000 cases (>4,000 severe and >5,000 among infants) of pertussis annually at steady state. Additional vaccination costs are $4.7 million. Net cost savings, including vaccination costs, are $47.7 million (societal perspective) and $44.8 million (payer perspective). From both perspectives, the intervention strategy is dominant (less costly, and more effective by >3,000 QALYs) versus baseline. Results are robust to sensitivity analyses and alternative scenarios. Conclusions Immunization of eligible adults aged ?65, consistent with the current ACIP recommendation, is cost saving from both payer and societal perspectives. PMID:24416118

McGarry, Lisa J.; Krishnarajah, Girishanthy; Hill, Gregory; Masseria, Cristina; Skornicki, Michelle; Pruttivarasin, Narin; Arondekar, Bhakti; Roiz, Julie; Pelton, Stephen I.; Weinstein, Milton C.

2014-01-01

16

Flavonoids from the cocoon of Rondotia menciana.  

PubMed

Two flavonol glycosides along with four known flavonoids were isolated from the cocoon of the mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae: Bombycinae), a closely related species of the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori, both of which feed on leaves of mulberry (Morus alba). The two glycosides were characterized as quercetin 3-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-d-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-d-galactopyranoside, based on spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. The flavonol galactosides found in the cocoon were not present in the host plant, nor in the cocoon of the silkworm, B. mori. Notably, flavonol glucosides, which are the main constituents of cocoon flavonoids in B. mori mori, were not found in the R. menciana cocoon. The present result strongly suggests that R. menciana is quite unique in that they predominantly use an UDP-galactosyltransferase for conjugation of dietary flavonoids, whereas UDP-glucosyltransferases are generally used for conjugation of plant phenolics and xenobiotics in other insects. PMID:23830693

Hirayama, Chikara; Ono, Hiroshi; Meng, Yan; Shimada, Toru; Daimon, Takaaki

2013-10-01

17

VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Td or Tdap Vaccine(Tetanus-Diphtheria or  

E-print Network

INFORMATION STATEMENT Td or Tdap Vaccine(Tetanus-Diphtheria or Tetanus-Diphtheria-Pertussis) What You Need://www.immunize.org/vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis can be very serious diseases. TETANUS. ·Itcanleadtotighteningofmusclesintheheadandneckso the victim cannot open his mouth or swallow, or sometimes even breathe. Tetanus kills about 1 out

Stein, William

18

Oligochaete cocoon remains as evidence of past lake pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cores taken in L. Orta, a large, deep ammonia and copper polluted lake in North Italy, revealed the presence of sub-fossil cocoons of a tubificid (Spirosperma ferox) and of a lumbriculid (Stylodrilus lemani?) in sediment layers corresponding to a period prior to the beginning of heavy industrial pollution (1926). The findings point out the possible use of sub-fossil cocoons of

Carla Bonacina; Giuliano Bonomi; Carlo Monti

1986-01-01

19

Electricity from the silk cocoon membrane.  

PubMed

Silk cocoon membrane (SCM) is an insect engineered structure. We studied the electrical properties of mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Tussar, Antheraea mylitta) SCM. When dry, SCM behaves like an insulator. On absorbing moisture, it generates electrical current, which is modulated by temperature. The current flowing across the SCM is possibly ionic and protonic in nature. We exploited the electrical properties of SCM to develop simple energy harvesting devices, which could operate low power electronic systems. Based on our findings, we propose that the temperature and humidity dependent electrical properties of the SCM could find applications in battery technology, bio-sensor, humidity sensor, steam engines and waste heat management. PMID:24961354

Tulachan, Brindan; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Mallick, Chandrakant; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Teotia, Arun Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Bhattacharya, Shantanu; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

2014-01-01

20

Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites  

SciTech Connect

The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

Chen Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz [Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS (United Kingdom)

2010-10-15

21

Triassic Leech Cocoon From Antarctica Contains Fossil Bell Animal  

E-print Network

KU ScholarWorks | http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu Triassic Leech Cocoon From Antarctica Contains Fossil Bell Animal 2012 by Benjamin Bomfleur, Hans Kerp, Thomas N. Taylor, Øjvind Moestrup, and Edith L. Taylor This work has been made available.... The original published version can be found at the link below. Bomfleur, B., Kerp, H., Taylor, T., Moestrup, Ø., and Taylor, E. 2012. Triassic Leech Cocoon From Antarctica Contains Fossil Bell Animal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109...

Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.; Moestrup, Ø jvind; Taylor, Edith L.

2012-01-01

22

Cytotoxicity of Cricula triphenestrata Cocoon Extract on Human Fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Indonesian silkworm cocoon extract of Cricula triphenestrata on human fibroblasts. Methods and Materials. The cocoon shells of the silkworm Cricula triphenestrata were degumming. The shells were mixed with an aqueous solution of 0.3% Na2CO3 at 98°C for 1 hour. The solution was then dialyzed in cellulose membranes against deionized water for 3 days. The cocoon shells extract powder was collected via rotary evaporation and dried under freeze dryer. Cell culture medium was exposed to Cricula triphenestrata cocoon extract (0.01–100??g/mL) for 24 hours. The primary human gingival fibroblasts were exposed to the treated cell culture medium for 24 hours. Cytotoxicity evaluation was done by MTT method. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Result. The result revealed no significant cytotoxicity of Cricula triphenestrata cocoon extract against human fibroblasts at a concentration up to 100??g/mL (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Cricula triphenestrata cocoon extract was not cytotoxic on human gingival fibroblast cells. PMID:22919391

Sunarintyas, Siti; Siswomihardjo, Widowati; Tontowi, Alva Edy

2012-01-01

23

Mechanical properties and structure of silkworm cocoons: a comparative study of Bombyx mori, Antheraea assamensis, Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea mylitta silkworm cocoons.  

PubMed

As a protective shell against environmental damage and attack by natural predators, the silkworm cocoon has outstanding mechanical properties. In particular, this multilayer non-woven composite structure can be exceptionally tough to enhance the chance of survival for silkworms while supporting their metabolic activity. Peel, out-of-plane compression and nano-indentation tests and micro-structure analysis were performed on four types of silkworm cocoon walls (domesticated Bombyx mori, semi-domesticated Antheraea assamensis and wild Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea mylitta silkworm cocoons) to understand the structure and mechanical property relationships. The wild silkworm cocoons were shown to be uniquely tough composite structures. The maximum work-of-fracture for the wild cocoons (A. pernyi and A. mylitta) was approximately 1000 J/m(2), which was almost 10 times the value for the domesticated cocoon (Bombyx mori) and 3~4 times the value for the semi-domesticated cocoon (A. assamensis). Calcium oxalate crystals were found to deposit on the outer surfaces of the semi-domesticated and wild cocoons. They did not show influence in enhancing the interlaminar adhesion between cocoon layers but exhibited much higher hardness than the cocoon pelades. PMID:23706202

Zhang, J; Kaur, J; Rajkhowa, R; Li, J L; Liu, X Y; Wang, X G

2013-08-01

24

A rare cause of small bowel obstruction: Abdominal cocoon  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION The clinical manifestations of abdominal ‘cocoon’ are non-specific and hence its diagnosis is rarely made preoperatively and the management is often delayed. Surgery remains the main stay of treatment with satisfactory outcome and comprises excision of the fibrous membrane, meticulous adhesionolysis and release of the entrapped small bowel. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 45-year-old male patient presented with 6-month history of progressive subacute small bowel obstruction. After initial radiological investigations, he underwent diagnostic laparoscopy and was misdiagnosed as abdominal tuberculosis. He was started on anti-tuberculous therapy, but exploratory laparotomy was carried out after failure to respond to anti-tuberculous therapy. At laparotomy, the abdominal ‘cocoon’ which was encapsulating the entire small bowel was excised, and the adhesions were carefully lysed. The patient remained well and without recurrence at 1-year follow-up. DISCUSSION Abdominal ‘cocoon’ is a rare cause of subacute, acute and chronic small bowel obstruction. Its diagnosis is rarely made preoperatively. CONCLUSION Abdominal ‘cocoon’ should be thought of as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. It may be mistaken with abdominal tuberculosis. Surgery remains the mainstay of curative treatment. PMID:22522743

Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed; Bojal, Shoukat

2012-01-01

25

Short Communication AVOIDANCE, WEIGHT LOSS, AND COCOON PRODUCTION ASSESSMENT FOR  

E-print Network

Short Communication AVOIDANCE, WEIGHT LOSS, AND COCOON PRODUCTION ASSESSMENT FOR EISENIA FETIDA) was hindered only at very high C60 concentrations (5% by weight), and C60 (up to 1%) was not avoided and did;30:2542­2545. # 2011 SETAC Keywords--Earthworm Avoidance test Reproduction Nanoparticle Ecotoxicity INTRODUCTION

Alvarez, Pedro J.

26

Transgenic silkworms produce recombinant human type III procollagen in cocoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the generation of transgenic silkworms that produce cocoons containing recombinant human collagen. A fusion cDNA was constructed encoding a protein that incorporated a human type III procollagen mini-chain with C-propeptide deleted, a fibroin light chain (L-chain), and an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). This cDNA was ligated downstream of the fibroin L-chain promoter and inserted into a piggyBac

Masahiro Tomita; Hiroto Munetsuna; Tsutomu Sato; Takahiro Adachi; Rika Hino; Masahiro Hayashi; Katsuhiko Shimizu; Namiko Nakamura; Toshiki Tamura; Katsutoshi Yoshizato

2002-01-01

27

Energetic Impact of Jet Inflated Cocoons in Relaxed Galaxy Clusters  

E-print Network

Jets from active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the cores of galaxy clusters have the potential to be a major contributor to the energy budget of the intracluster medium (ICM). To study the dependence of the interaction between the AGN jets and the ICM on the parameters of the jets themselves, we present a parameter survey of two-dimensional (axisymmetric) ideal hydrodynamic models of back-to-back jets injected into a cluster atmosphere (with varying Mach numbers and kinetic luminosities). We follow the passive evolution of the resulting structures for several times longer than the active lifetime of the jet. The simulations fall into roughly two classes, cocoon-bounded and non-cocoon bounded sources. We suggest a correspondence between these two classes and the Faranoff-Riley types. We find that the cocoon-bounded sources inject significantly more entropy into the core regions of the ICM atmosphere, even though the efficiency with which energy is thermalized is independent of the morphological class. In all cases, a large fraction (50--80%) of the energy injected by the jet ends up as gravitational potential energy due to the expansion of the atmosphere.

John C. Vernaleo; Christopher S. Reynolds

2007-08-29

28

Mechanical properties of cocoons constructed consecutively by a single silkworm caterpillar, Bombyx mori  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most animals have the ability to adapt, to some extends and in different ways, the variation or disturbance of environment. In our experiments, we forced a silkworm caterpillar to spin two, three or four thin cocoons by taking it out from the cocoon being constructed. The mechanical properties of these cocoons were studied by static tensile tests and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. Though external disturbances may cause the decrease in the total weight of silk spun by the silkworm, a gradual enhancement was interestingly found in the mechanical properties of these thin cocoons. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the fractured specimens of the cocoons showed that there exist several different energy dissipation mechanisms occurred simultaneously at macro-, meso-, and micro-scales, yielding a superior capacity of cocoons to adsorb the energy of possible attacks from the outside and to protect efficiently its pupa against damage. Through evolution of millions of years, therefore, the silkworm Bombyx mori seems to have gained the ability to adapt external disturbances and to redesign a new cocoon with optimized protective function when its first cocoon has been damaged for some reasons.

Huang, S. Q.; Zhao, H. P.; Feng, X. Q.; Cui, W.; Lin, Z.; Xu, M. Q.

2008-04-01

29

Research on non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoons based on image processing technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major studied in this dissertation is the non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoon's quality, based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. Through the images collection and the data analysis, procession and calculation of the tested silkworm cocoons with the non-destructive testing technology, internet applications automatically reckon all items of the classification indexes. Finally we can conclude the classification result and the purchase price of the silkworm cocoons. According to the domestic classification standard of the silkworm cocoons, the author investigates various testing methods of silkworm cocoons which are used or have been explored at present, and devices a non-destructive testing scheme of the silkworm cocoons based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. They are dissertated about the project design of the experiment. The precisions of all the implements are demonstrated. I establish Manifold mathematic models, compare them with each other and analyze the precision with technology of databank to get the best mathematic model to figure out the weight of the dried silkworm cocoon shells. The classification methods of all the complementary items are designed well and truly. The testing method has less error and reaches an advanced level of the present domestic non-destructive testing technology of the silkworm cocoons.

Gan, Yong; Kong, Qing-hua; Wei, Li-fu

2008-03-01

30

Rare etiology of mechanical intestinal obstruction: Abdominal cocoon syndrome  

PubMed Central

Abdominal cocoon syndrome is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction with unknown etiology. Diagnosis of this syndrome, which can be summarized as the small intestine being surrounded by a fibrous capsule not containing the mesothelium, is difficult in the preoperative period. A 47-year-old male patient was referred to the emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting for two days. The abdominal computed tomography examination detected dilated small intestinal loops containing air-fluid levels clustered in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen and surrounded by a thick, saclike, contrast-enhanced membrane. During exploratory surgery, a capsular structure was identified in the upper left quadrant with a regular surface that was solid-fibrous in nature. Abdominal cocoon syndrome is a rarely seen condition, for which the preoperative diagnosis is difficult. The combination of physical examination and radiological signs, and the knowledge of “recurrent characteristics of the complaints” that can be learned by a careful history, may be helpful in diagnosis.

Uzunoglu, Yener; Altintoprak, Fatih; Yalkin, Omer; Gunduz, Yasemin; Cakmak, Guner; Ozkan, Orhan V; Celebi, Fehmi

2014-01-01

31

Cocoon of the silkworm Antheraea pernyi as an example of a thermally insulating biological interface.  

PubMed

Biological materials are hierarchically organized complex composites, which embrace multiple practical functionalities. As an example, the wild silkworm cocoon provides multiple protective functions against environmental and physical hazards, promoting the survival chance of moth pupae that resides inside. In the present investigation, the microstructure and thermal property of the Chinese tussah silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) cocoon in both warm and cold environments under windy conditions have been studied by experimental and numerical methods. A new computational fluid dynamics model has been developed according to the original fibrous structure of the Antheraea pernyi cocoon to simulate the unique heat transfer process through the cocoon wall. The structure of the Antheraea pernyi cocoon wall can promote the disorderness of the interior air, which increases the wind resistance by stopping most of the air flowing into the cocoon. The Antheraea pernyi cocoon is wind-proof due to the mineral crystals deposited on the outer layer surface and its hierarchical structure with low porosity and high tortuosity. The research findings have important implications to enhancing the thermal function of biomimetic protective textiles and clothing. PMID:25280854

Jin, Xing; Zhang, Jin; Gao, Weimin; Li, Jingliang; Wang, Xungai

2014-09-01

32

Pupal cocoons affect sanitary brood care and limit fungal infections in ant colonies  

PubMed Central

Background The brood of ants and other social insects is highly susceptible to pathogens, particularly those that penetrate the soft larval and pupal cuticle. We here test whether the presence of a pupal cocoon, which occurs in some ant species but not in others, affects the sanitary brood care and fungal infection patterns after exposure to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum. We use a) a comparative approach analysing four species with either naked or cocooned pupae and b) a within-species analysis of a single ant species, in which both pupal types co-exist in the same colony. Results We found that the presence of a cocoon did not compromise fungal pathogen detection by the ants and that species with cocooned pupae increased brood grooming after pathogen exposure. All tested ant species further removed brood from their nests, which was predominantly expressed towards larvae and naked pupae treated with the live fungal pathogen. In contrast, cocooned pupae exposed to live fungus were not removed at higher rates than cocooned pupae exposed to dead fungus or a sham control. Consistent with this, exposure to the live fungus caused high numbers of infections and fungal outgrowth in larvae and naked pupae, but not in cocooned pupae. Moreover, the ants consistently removed the brood prior to fungal outgrowth, ensuring a clean brood chamber. Conclusion Our study suggests that the pupal cocoon has a protective effect against fungal infection, causing an adaptive change in sanitary behaviours by the ants. It further demonstrates that brood removal–originally described for honeybees as “hygienic behaviour”–is a widespread sanitary behaviour in ants, which likely has important implications on disease dynamics in social insect colonies. PMID:24125481

2013-01-01

33

Mastrus ridibundus parasitoids eavesdrop on cocoon-spinning codling moth, Cydia pomonella, larvae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cocoon-spinning larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) employ a pheromone that attracts or arrests conspecifics seeking pupation sites. Such intraspecific communication signals are important cues for illicit receivers such as parasitoids to exploit. We tested the hypothesis that the prepupal C. pomonella parasitoid Mastrus ridibundus Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) exploits the larval aggregation pheromone to locate host prepupae. In laboratory olfactometer experiments, female M. ridibundus were attracted to 3-day-old cocoons containing C. pomonella larvae or prepupae. Older cocoons containing C. pomonella pupae, or larvae and prepupae excised from cocoons, were not attractive. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of bioactive Porapak Q extract of cocoon-derived airborne semiochemicals, ten compounds elicited responses from female M. ridibundus antennae. Comparative GC-mass spectrometry of authentic standards and cocoon-volatiles determined that these compounds were 3-carene, myrcene, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, sulcatone, and geranylacetone. A synthetic 11-component blend consisting of these ten EAD-active compounds plus EAD-inactive (+)-limonene (the most abundant cocoon-derived volatile) was as effective as Porapak Q cocoon extract in attracting both female M. ridibundus and C. pomonella larvae seeking pupation sites. Only three components could be deleted from the 11-component blend without diminishing its attractiveness to M. ridibundus, which underlines the complexity of information received and processed during foraging for hosts. Mastrus ridibundus obviously “eavesdrop” on the pheromonal communication signals of C. pomonella larvae that reliably indicate host presence.

Jumean, Zaid; Unruh, Tom; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

2005-01-01

34

Physiological and biochemical aspects of flight metabolism in cocoon-enclosed adults of the fruit beetle, Pachnoda sinuata.  

PubMed

We studied several aspects of flight metabolism in cocoon-enclosed adults of the fruit beetle Pachnoda to investigate their flight capability. The majority of adults which were forcefully removed from their pupal cocoon flew off within 5 min of exposure to bright sunlight. Most of the beetles which did not fly voluntarily were, however, capable of flight. Compared with 2-4 week old adults of the same species, cocoon-enclosed adults have higher reserves of glycogen in flight muscles and fat body, whereas the level of total carbohydrates in the haemolymph and the concentration of proline in haemolymph, flight muscles and fat body were similar.Enzymes involved in carbohydrate breakdown (MDH, GAPDH) were more active in flight muscles and fat body of cocoon-enclosed adults compared with adults, while enzymes of proline metabolism in the flight muscles (AlaT, NAD-ME) and fat body (AlaT, NADP-ME) had similar activities in cocoon-enclosed adults and adults. An enzyme of the beta-oxidation of fatty acids (HOAD) had similar activities in flight muscles and fat body of cocoon-enclosed adults and adults.Mitochondria isolated from flight muscles of adults removed prematurely from their cocoon favour the oxidation of proline and pyruvate. Pyruvate, however, is oxidized at higher rates than by mitochondria isolated from flight muscles of adults.During a short lift-generating flight, cocoon-enclosed adults proved that their flight muscles are capable of strong flight performance. During these flights, cocoon-enclosed adults consume proline and carbohydrates at a similar rate to that of adults.The endogenous AKH peptide, Mem-CC, has hyperprolinaemic and hypertrehalosaemic activity in cocoon-enclosed adults. The hypertrehalosaemic effect, however, is stronger in cocoon-enclosed adults than in adults.The content of Mem-CC in corpora cardiaca of larvae (3rd instar), cocoon-enclosed adults and 1 day-old adults is similar at 5-6 pmol per pair of corpora cardiaca, whereas it is higher in 10 day-old adults and 20 day-old adults (37 and 15 pmol per pair corpora cardiaca, respectively).From these results we conclude that cocoon-enclosed adults comply with all the prerequisites for flight performance before they leave their pupal cocoon. Furthermore, cocoon-enclosed adults have a more pronounced carbohydrate-based metabolism before they leave their cocoon compared with adults, which suggests that carbohydrate breakdown is mainly involved in such activities as leaving the cocoon and burrowing activity thereafter. PMID:12770124

Auerswald, Lutz; Gäde, Gerd

2002-02-01

35

Safety and immunogenicity of one dose of MenACWY-CRM, an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine, when administered to adolescents concomitantly or sequentially with Tdap and HPV vaccines.  

PubMed

This Phase III study evaluates an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal CRM(197) conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM (Novartis Vaccines), when administered concomitantly or sequentially with two other recommended adolescent vaccines; combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. In this single-centre study, 1620 subjects 11-18 years of age, were randomized to three groups (1:1:1) to receive MenACWY-CRM concomitantly or sequentially with Tdap and HPV. Meningococcal serogroup-specific serum bactericidal assay using human complement (hSBA), and antibodies to Tdap antigens and HPV virus-like particles were determined before and 1 month after study vaccinations. Proportions of subjects with hSBA titres > or =1:8 for all four meningococcal serogroups (A, C, W-135, Y) were non-inferior for both concomitant and sequential administration. Immune responses to Tdap and HPV antigens were comparable when these vaccines were given alone or concomitantly with MenACWY-CRM. All vaccines were well tolerated; concomitant or sequential administration did not increase reactogenicity. MenACWY-CRM was well tolerated and immunogenic in subjects 11-18 years of age, with comparable immune responses to the four serogroups when given alone or concomitantly with Tdap or HPV antigens. This is the first demonstration that these currently recommended adolescent vaccines could be administered concomitantly without causing increased reactogenicity. PMID:20189491

Arguedas, A; Soley, C; Loaiza, C; Rincon, G; Guevara, S; Perez, A; Porras, W; Alvarado, O; Aguilar, L; Abdelnour, A; Grunwald, U; Bedell, L; Anemona, A; Dull, P M

2010-04-19

36

Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (abdominal cocoon) in adult male. A case report  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Abdominal cocoon (sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis) (SEP) is a rare condition, mostly affecting adolescent girls living in tropical/subtropical region. Its etiology is unknown. It may cause acute or sub-acute intestinal obstruction. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report here a 39 year old male who complained of long standing colicky abdominal pain, with significant weight loss. Abdomen CT scan showed clumping of ileal loops at the level of umbilicus, with a thin capsule surrounding it. Laparoscopy revealed abdominal cocoon, biopsy of which showed dense hypocellular fibro-collagenous tissue with no neoplastic or granulomatous process. Excision of fibrous tissue and release of adhesions was done. Patient was symptoms free after five months follow up. DISCUSSION Abdominal exploration is usually needed for the diagnosis and treatment of abdominal cocoon. A thick fibrotic peritoneal wrapping of the bowel is usually found. Complete recovery is the result in majority of cases after surgical removal of the wrap causing the cocoon. CONCLUSION Primary sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (cocoon abdomen) diagnosis needs a high index of suspicion, as signs and symptoms are nonspecific and imaging findings are not always conclusive. Careful excision of the accessory peritoneal sac and lysis of adhesions between bowels is the best treatment. Prognosis is generally good. PMID:25217877

Al Ani, Amer Hashim; Al Zayani, Najah; Najmeddine, Mohammad; Jacob, Sunitha; Nair, Sunil

2014-01-01

37

VIRGINIA TECH MASSACRE: WHEN A DISRUPTIVE MEDIA EVENT TRIGGERS AN ONLINE COCOON COMMUNITY1  

E-print Network

shootings such as Columbine, this episode of violence was immediately characterised as the Virginia Tech of the shooting to six weeks later in order to question communal association in the new media setting-existing or lasting ties. Key words: school shooting ­ disruptive media event ­ cocoon community ­ Virginia Tech

Boyer, Edmond

38

An unusual case of ingestion of a moth cocoon in a 14-month-old girl  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case report of a 14-month-old girl who ingested a moth cocoon, which resulted in dramatic symptoms of irritability, drooling, and anorexia. Direct laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, and esophagoscopy under general anesthesia revealed copious, tenaciously adherent, barbed hairs embedded in her tongue and buccal mucosa. Removal of the hairs with irrigation, suction, and brushing was unsuccessful and was eventually abandoned.

Paul A. Tripi; Richard Lee; Joe B. Keiper; Andrew W. Jones; James E. Arnold

2010-01-01

39

Forecasting outbreaks of the douglas-fir tussock moth from lower crown cocoon samples. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

A predictive technique using a simple linear regression was developed to forecast the midcrown density of small tussock moth larvae from estimates of cocoon density in the previous generation. The regression estimator was derived from field samples of cocoons and larvae taken from a wide range of nonoutbreak tussock moth populations. The accuracy of the predictions was demonstrated on an operational basis in an independent tussock moth outbreak.

Mason, R.R.; Scott, D.W.; Paul, H.G.

1993-03-01

40

Cocoon-like self-degradable DNA nanoclew for anticancer drug delivery.  

PubMed

A bioinspired cocoon-like anticancer drug delivery system consisting of a deoxyribonuclease (DNase)-degradable DNA nanoclew (NCl) embedded with an acid-responsive DNase I nanocapsule (NCa) was developed for targeted cancer treatment. The NCl was assembled from a long-chain single-stranded DNA synthesized by rolling-circle amplification (RCA). Multiple GC-pair sequences were integrated into the NCl for enhanced loading capacity of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). Meanwhile, negatively charged DNase I was encapsulated in a positively charged acid-degradable polymeric nanogel to facilitate decoration of DNase I into the NCl by electrostatic interactions. In an acidic environment, the activity of DNase I was activated through the acid-triggered shedding of the polymeric shell of the NCa, resulting in the cocoon-like self-degradation of the NCl and promoting the release of DOX for enhanced therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25336272

Sun, Wujin; Jiang, Tianyue; Lu, Yue; Reiff, Margaret; Mo, Ran; Gu, Zhen

2014-10-22

41

Sample selection, preparation methods, and the apparent tensile properties of silkworm (B. mori) cocoon silk.  

PubMed

Reported literature values of the tensile properties of natural silk cover a wide range. While much of this inconsistency is the result of variability that is intrinsic to silk, some is also a consequence of differences in the way that silk is prepared for tensile tests. Here we explore how measured mechanical properties of Bombyx mori cocoon silk are affected by two intrinsic factors (the location from which the silk is collected within the cocoon, and the color of the silk), and two extrinsic factors (the storage conditions prior to testing, and different styles of reeling the fiber). We find that extrinsic and therefore controllable factors can affect the properties more than the intrinsic ones studied. Our results suggest that enhanced inter-laboratory collaborations, that lead to standardized sample collection, handling, and storage protocols prior to mechanical testing, would help to decrease unnecessary (and complicating) variation in reported tensile properties. PMID:22057343

Reed, Emily J; Bianchini, Lindsay L; Viney, Christopher

2012-06-01

42

Successful delivery after IVF-ET in an abdominal cocoon patient: case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Abdominal cocoon (AC) is a rare condition of uncertain etiology. We report the case of a 29-year-old infertile Chinese woman with AC, who successfully got twin pregnancy and delivery through in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET). And this review discusses the current concepts of its pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatments. AC might lead to tubal infertility and IVF-ET would be the most effective remedy for the patients desiring pregnancy. PMID:23638238

Hu, Dan; Wang, Rui; Xiong, Ting; Zhang, Han Wang

2013-01-01

43

Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis (Cocoon Bowel) Presenting after Laparotomy for Splenic Abscess  

PubMed Central

Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, previously referred to as cocoon bowel, is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction that often results in obstruction due to the development of a fibrous enhancing membrane that encases multiple small bowel loops. We present a case of a patient who presented to our institution with abdominal distension and guarding. Computed tomography was obtained which revealed findings concerning for sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. Sonographic imaging was also obtained and provides correlative imaging. PMID:24421919

Caldwell, Jason; Dyer, Andrew

2013-01-01

44

Hyperglycemia - infants  

MedlinePLUS

High blood sugar - infants; High blood glucose level - infants ... Hyperglycemia is abnormally high blood sugar. The medical term for blood sugar is blood glucose. This article discusses hyperglycemia in infants.

45

The Cocoon nebula and its ionizing star: do stellar and nebular abundances agree?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Main-sequence massive stars embedded in an H ii region should have the same chemical abundances as the surrounding nebular gas+dust. The Cocoon nebula (IC 5146), a close-by Galactic H ii region ionized by a narrow line B0.5 V single star (BD+46 3474), is an ideal target to compare nebular and stellar abundances in detail in the same Galactic region. Aims: We investigate the chemical content of oxygen and other elements in the Cocoon nebula from two different points of view: an empirical analysis of the nebular spectrum, and a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the associated early B-type star using state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere modeling. By comparing the stellar and nebular abundances, we aim to indirectly address the long-standing problem of the discrepancy found between abundances obtained from collisionally excited lines and optical recombination lines in photoionized nebulae. Methods: We collected long-slit spatially resolved spectroscopy of the Cocoon nebula and a high-resolution optical spectrum of the ionizing star. Standard nebular techniques along with updated atomic data were used to compute the physical conditions and gaseous abundances of O, N, and S in eight apertures extracted across a semidiameter of the nebula. We performed a self-consistent spectroscopic abundance analysis of BD+46 3474 based on the atmosphere code FASTWIND to determine the stellar parameters and Si, O, and N abundances. Results: The Cocoon nebula and its ionizing star, located at a distance of 800±80 pc, have a chemical composition very similar to the Orion nebula and other B-type stars in the solar vicinity. This result agrees with the high degree of homogeneity of the present-day composition of the solar neighborhood (up to 1.5 Kpc from the Sun) as derived from the study of the local cold-gas interstellar medium. The comparison of stellar and nebular collisionally excited line abundances in the Cocoon nebula indicates that O and N gas+dust nebular values agree better with stellar values assuming small temperature fluctuations on the order of those found in the Orion nebula (t2 = 0.022). For S, the behaviour is somewhat puzzling, and different conclusions can be reached depending on the atomic data set used. Based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated by the Isaac Newton Group and with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association. Both telescopes are at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

García-Rojas, J.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Esteban, C.

2014-11-01

46

A cosmic ray cocoon along the X-ray jet of M87?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relativistic jets propagating through an ambient medium must produce some observational effects along their side boundaries because of interactions across the large velocity gradient. One possible effect of such an interaction would be a sheared magnetic field structure at the jet boundaries, leading to a characteristic radio polarization pattern. As proposed by Ostrowski, another effect can come from the generation of a high-energy cosmic ray component at the boundary, producing dynamic effects on the medium surrounding the jet and forming a cocoon dominated by cosmic rays with a decreased thermal gas emissivity. We selected this process for our first attempt to look for the effects of this type of interaction. We analysed the Chandra X-ray data for the radio galaxy M87 in order to verify if the expected regions of diminished emissivity may be present near the spectacular X-ray jet in this source. The detailed analysis of the data, merged from 42 separate observations, shows signatures of lower emissivity surrounding the jet. In particular we detect an intensity dip along the part of the jet, which would be approximately 1.5 × 0.15 kpc2 in size, if situated along the jet which is inclined towards us. Due to a highly non-uniform X-ray background in the central region, we are not able to claim the discovery of a cosmic ray cocoon around the M87 jet: we only have demonstrated that the data show morphological structures which could be accounted for if a cosmic ray cocoon exists.

Dainotti, M. G.; Ostrowski, M.; Harris, D.; Siemiginowska, A.; Siejkowski, H.

2012-10-01

47

Some implications of inverse-Compton scattering of hot cocoon radiation by relativistic jets in gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) relativistic jets are surrounded by hot cocoons which confine jets during their punch out from the progenitor star. These cocoons are copious sources of X-ray photons that can be and are inverse-Compton (IC) scattered to MeV-GeV energies by electrons in the relativistic jet. We provide detailed estimates for IC flux resulting from various interactions between X-ray photons and the relativistic jet, and describe what we can learn about GRBs jets and progenitor stars from the detection (or an upper limit) of these IC scattered photons.

Kumar, Pawan; Smoot, George F.

2014-11-01

48

Combined effects of copper, desiccation, and frost on the viability of earthworm cocoons  

SciTech Connect

The effects of heavy metal pollution on earthworms have been extensively studied, but no studies have examined how earthworms react if they are simultaneously exposed to metal pollution and climatic stress. This question has been addressed in a laboratory study where cocoons of Aporrectodea caliginosa and Dendrobaena octaedra were initially exposed to copper in aqueous solutions of copper chloride and thereafter exposed to realistic degrees of either desiccation or frost. Earthworm embryos absorbed copper in amounts comparable to concentrations found in various tissues of earthworms from metal-polluted soils. Desiccation and copper exposure in combination had synergistic effects on survival rates for both species. For example, at full saturation, the NOEC (the highest tested concentration with no statistically significant effect) for copper of A. caliginosa was 12 mg/L, whereas at 97% relative humidity it was only 6 mg/L. Frost and copper exposure in combination also showed synergistic effects in some experiments. No cocoons of A. caliginosa exposed to 20 mg copper/L were viable after exposure to {minus}3 C but at 0 C viability was as high as 95%. The same tendency was seen in D. octaedra but not as clearly as in A/. caliginosa. A change of the environmental conditions (moisture, temperature) to increasing severity caused a shift in the statistically derived NOEC toward lower critical values of copper. The involvement of combination effects in ecotoxicological tests could therefore improve risk assessment of soil-polluting compounds.

Holmstrup, M. [National Environmental Research Inst., Silkeborg (Denmark). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology; Petersen, B.F. [National Environmental Research Inst., Silkeborg (Denmark). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology]|[Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark); Larsen, M.M. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Marine Ecology and Microbiology

1998-01-01

49

Solvothermal synthesis and photoluminescence properties of BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons and nanorods with different phases  

SciTech Connect

Hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons and monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} nanorods have been synthesized in the mixed solvents of glycerol and distilled water with the volume ratio of 2:1 at 200 deg. C. The solvothermal evolution process from hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons to monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} nanorods was observed by varying the reaction time from 1 to 3 h. In the hydrothermal condition at 160 deg. C, the similar phase transformation from hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} to monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} was also observed, accompanying with a morphology transformation from nanorods to octahedron-like microcrystals. It was found that the volume ratio of glycerol to water in the solvothermal condition had a great impact on the shapes of products, while it had no influence on the formation of different phases. The fluorescence spectra of hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons and monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} nanorods were also studied. - Graphical abstract: Hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons were fabricated by solvothermal method at 200 deg. C for 1 h. When the reaction time was increased to 3 h, monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} nanorods were formed.

Xue Fei; Li Haibo; Zhu Yongchun; Xiong Shenglin; Zhang Xianwen; Wang Tingting; Liang Xin [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Qian Yitai, E-mail: ytqian@ustc.edu.c [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

2009-06-15

50

Luminescence properties of silk cocoon derived carbonaceous fluorescent nanoparticles/PVA hybrid film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonaceous fluorescent nanoparticles (CFNs) with broad particle distribution were synthesized by thermal-treatment using carbonation of silk cocoon as raw materials. The experimental results showed tunable emission wavelength of the nanoparticles. The quantum yield of the CFNs was calculated to be 23%. A CFNs/PVA hybrid thin film was prepared from a blend of the CFNs with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) showing interesting green afterglow which could be observed by naked eyes. The afterglow spectrum revealed that the CFNs/PVA thin film had a broad afterglow emission peak located at 520 nm. The afterglow intensity decay curve of the film showed visually recognizable period longer than 140 s. The PVA-PVA hydrogen bonding in the PVA matrix may play a key role for the afterglow.

Feng, Haobin; Zheng, Mingtao; Dong, Hanwu; Lei, Bingfu; Zhang, Haoran; Xiao, Yong; Liu, Yingliang

2014-09-01

51

[Trend in the emergence of flea imagoes from cocoons in the nests of a mountain gopher (Spermophilus musicus) in the central Caucasian highland natural focus of plague].  

PubMed

The results of observations of a trend in the emergence of flea imagoes from cocoons in the nests of mountain gopher (Spermophilus musicus) (Elbrus region) confirm that the dominant species: Citellophilus tesquorum elbrusensis and Ctenophthalmus golovi golovi have two generations. Emergence of first-generation imagoes from cocoons is recorded in July-August in the nests where the grophers constantly inhabit in May-June. These are brood-rearing and other summer nests and, to a lesser degree, former wintering ones. Hatching of the bulk of second-generation flea imagoes is observed in the nests constantly inhabited by grophers in July-August (these are nests made from summer holes and renovable wintering nests). The onset of emergence of second-generation imagoes from cocoons in both flea species is noted in September; some specimens hibernate in the cocoons, by emerging from them next April. PMID:23437722

Beliavtseva, L I

2012-01-01

52

Identification and Analysis of the Pigment Composition and Sources in the Colored Cocoon of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, by HPLC-DAD  

PubMed Central

This study used the larval tissues and colored cocoons of silkworms, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), that were fed leaves of cultivated mulberry, Husang 32, as experimental material. The pigment composition and content in colored cocoons and tissues of the 5th instar larvae and the mulberry leaves were rapidly detected using organic solvent extraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. It was found that the mulberry leaf mainly contained four types of pigment: lutein (30.86%), ?-carotene (26.3%), chlorophyll a (24.62%), and chlorophyll b (18.21%). The silk glands, blood, and cocoon shells of six yellow-red cocoons were used as the experimental materials. The results showed that there were generally two kinds of carotenoids (lutein and ?-carotene) in the silk gland and cocoon shell, a little violaxanthin was detected in silk gland, and the pigment found in the blood was mainly lutein in all varieties of silkworm tested. Chlorophyll a and b had not been digested and utilized in the yellow-red series of silkworm. The method used to detect visible pigments reported here could be used to breed new colors of cocoons and to develop and utilize the pigments found in mulberry.

Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

53

Identification and analysis of the pigment composition and sources in the colored cocoon of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, by HPLC-DAD.  

PubMed

This study used the larval tissues and colored cocoons of silkworms, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), that were fed leaves of cultivated mulberry, Husang 32, as experimental material. The pigment composition and content in colored cocoons and tissues of the 5th instar larvae and the mulberry leaves were rapidly detected using organic solvent extraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. It was found that the mulberry leaf mainly contained four types of pigment: lutein (30.86%), ?-carotene (26.3%), chlorophyll a (24.62%), and chlorophyll b (18.21%). The silk glands, blood, and cocoon shells of six yellow-red cocoons were used as the experimental materials. The results showed that there were generally two kinds of carotenoids (lutein and ?-carotene) in the silk gland and cocoon shell, a little violaxanthin was detected in silk gland, and the pigment found in the blood was mainly lutein in all varieties of silkworm tested. Chlorophyll a and b had not been digested and utilized in the yellow-red series of silkworm. The method used to detect visible pigments reported here could be used to breed new colors of cocoons and to develop and utilize the pigments found in mulberry. PMID:25373178

Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

54

Abdominal cocoon syndrome (idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis): how easy is its diagnosis preoperatively? A case report.  

PubMed

The abdominal cocoon syndrome (or idiopathic encapsulating peritonitis) is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction. It has been reported predominantly in adolescent girls living in tropical/subtropical region in which diagnosis is only made at laparotomy in most cases. The cause and pathogenesis of the condition have not been elucidated. Prolonged administration of practalol, meconium peritonitis, and tuberculous infection of the female genital tract have been incriminated as possible causes. The author reports a case of a female patient with recurrent intestinal obstruction treated for years but failed to settle down on conservative treatment during her last hospital admission and had to undergo surgery. Preoperative diagnosis of this syndrome as the cause of her intestinal obstruction was not made until at laparotomy, when a thick fibrotic peritoneal wrapping of the bowel in a concertina-like fashion with some adhesions was found. Excision of this membrane and adhesiolysis were carried out without any need for bowel resection, and this led to relief of the obstruction and patient's complete recovery. Awareness of this benign condition in the differential diagnosis of intestinal obstruction will result in early diagnosis and correct management and prevent unnecessary bowel resections and bad outcomes. PMID:23738183

Awe, Julius A A

2013-01-01

55

Infant botulism  

MedlinePLUS

... baby may be examined to check for the botulinum toxin or bacteria. Electromyography (EMG) can be done to ... Botulism immune globulin is the main treatment for this condition. Infants that receive this treatment have shorter ...

56

Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

Adacel® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Boostrix® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine)

57

[Infant feeding].  

PubMed

Infants are vulnerable: their growth and their development depend largely on their nutritional status. It is important to propose for them an optimal food. The human milk is unquestionably the best choice for the infant. When breastfeeding is not possible, the choice of the milk is made among hundreds of formulas for infants. They are regulated by a European directive. The healthcare professionals have to recommend as often as possible an infant formula: low protein content, predominance of whey proteins, enrichment with long chain fatty acids, lactose, addition of pre- or probiotics. The formulas for specific indications will be recommended in case of particular situations after verification that the complaints (constipation, regurgitations, stomach pains) cannot be corrected by simple dietary measures (increasing of the intakes of meals with a concomitant reduction of the volume of the meals). The food diversification is recommended between 17 and 26 weeks according to the neuromuscular capacities of the infant. These meals must be presented with a spoon to assure a sufficient nutritional intake. In Belgium, the use is to begin with fruits. One should avoid adding biscuits or sugar. The meal of vegetables will be introduced a little later. It should consist of starchy foods, vegetables with some fat to which the meat will be added. Numerous foods (biscuits, croissants and similar products, chips) should never be part of the ordinary menu, but should be reserved for particular occasions. The education of the children should begin from this age on. PMID:23091938

Robert, M

2012-09-01

58

Chalkbrood transmission in the alfalfa leafcutting bee: the impact of disinfecting bee cocoons in loose cell management systems.  

PubMed

Understanding pathogen transmission could illuminate new methods for disease prevention. A case in point is chalkbrood in the alfalfa leafcutting bee [Megachile rotundata (F.)]. Propagation of this solitary bee is severely hampered by chalkbrood, a larval disease caused by Ascosphaera aggregata (Ascomycota). Alfalfa leafcutting bees nest in existing cavities in wood or hollow reeds and overwinter as larvae. In the early summer, emerging adults frequently must chew through dead, diseased siblings that block their exit, becoming contaminated with chalkbrood spores in the process. When alfalfa leafcutting bees are used as a commercial pollinator, the cocoons are removed from nesting boards to reduce chalkbrood transmission, but the disease is still common. To determine if these removed cocoons (called loose cells) are an important source of disease transmission, they were disinfected with a fungicide before bees were incubated, and released in the field. Chalkbrood prevalence among the progeny of the treated bees was reduced up to 50% in one field trial, but not significantly when tested in an on-farm trial. Thus, substantial disease transmission still occurred when the loose cells were disinfected, and even when clean nesting materials were used. In conclusion, pathogen transmission must still be occurring from another source that has yet to be identified. Another possible source of transmission could arise from bees that emerge midsummer in populations with a high percent of multivoltinism, but dirty nesting boards and feral bees also may be minor sources of transmission. PMID:22251678

James, R R

2011-08-01

59

Production of an active feline interferon in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms using the fibroin H-chain expression system  

SciTech Connect

We constructed the fibroin H-chain expression system to produce recombinant proteins in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms. Feline interferon (FeIFN) was used for production and to assess the quality of the product. Two types of FeIFN fusion protein, each with N- and C-terminal sequences of the fibroin H-chain, were designed to be secreted into the lumen of the posterior silk glands. The expression of the FeIFN/H-chain fusion gene was regulated by the fibroin H-chain promoter domain. The transgenic silkworms introduced these constructs with the piggyBac transposon-derived vector, which produced the normal sized cocoons containing each FeIFN/H-chain fusion protein. Although the native-protein produced by transgenic silkworms have almost no antiviral activity, the proteins after the treatment with PreScission protease to eliminate fibroin H-chain derived N- and C-terminal sequences from the products, had very high antiviral activity. This H-chain expression system, using transgenic silkworms, could be an alternative method to produce an active recombinant protein and silk-based biomaterials.

Kurihara, H. [Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories, 1111 Tebiro, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: Hiroyuki_Kurihara@nts.toray.co.jp; Sezutsu, H. [Transgenic Silkworm Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634 (Japan); Tamura, T. [Transgenic Silkworm Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634 (Japan); Yamada, K. [Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories, 1111 Tebiro, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan)

2007-04-20

60

Infants and Sleep Safety  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Infant and Newborn Care Parenting Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Transcript Sharing beds is not safe for infants ... were more likely to have been sleeping face down and surrounded by objects, such as blankets or ...

61

Infant distress.  

PubMed

This case was one that would put many EMS personnel out of their comfort zones. The presentation of an unstable child is enough to have some providers put on their blinders and focus solely on the respiratory causes and overlook the cardiac. This child had been unstable most of the evening and by the time EMS was summoned was in severe need of treatment. The diagnosis of WPW in the field is almost impossible, especially when there is no history with the patient. Quick recognition of the infant's symptoms and analysis of the ECG allowed the paramedics to deliver the correct treatment for the arrhythmia while ensuring the respiratory issues weren't overlooked. The rapid treatment and transport were a significant part PMID:24984434

Keating, Brad

2014-05-01

62

The enhanced photocatalytic and bactericidal activities of carbon microsphere-assisted solvothermally synthesized cocoon-shaped Sn(4+)-doped ZnO nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Cocoon-shaped Sn(4+)-doped ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized by a solvothermal method using carbon microspheres as a template. The optimum doping level for photocatalysis is 3% (g. atom). Powder X-ray diffractograms show that the ZnO has a primitive hexagonal crystal structure and that doping ZnO with Sn(4+) increases the unit cell lengths and the Zn-O bond lengths. Larger crystal growth along the c-axis is also observed. The measured size of the cocoon-shaped Sn(4+)-doped ZnO nanoparticles is larger than the mean crystallite size. Solid state impedance spectroscopy studies reveal that Sn(4+)-doping increases the charge transfer resistance. Doping does not significantly modify the optical band gap, but does suppress green emission. A decrease in the number of crystal defects due to oxygen vacancies is likely to be a reason for the enhanced photocatalytic properties of the cocoon-shaped Sn(4+)-doped ZnO nanoparticles. Doping ZnO with Sn(4+) enhances the bactericidal activity as well. PMID:23913133

Karunakaran, Chockalingam; SakthiRaadha, SakthiDasan; Gomathisankar, Paramasivan; Vinayagamoorthy, Pazhamalai

2013-10-14

63

Infant - newborn development  

MedlinePLUS

... uninterrupted sleep per day. Breast-fed infants will feed about every 2 hours. Formula-fed infants should ... feedings. During periods of rapid growth, they may feed more often. You don't need to give ...

64

Auditory Responses of Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty infants, 3- to 12-months-old, participated in a study designed to differentiate the auditory response characteristics of normally developing infants in the age ranges 3 - 5 months, 6 - 8 months, and 9 - 12 months. (Author)

Watrous, Betty Springer; And Others

1975-01-01

65

Industrialization and Infant Mortality  

E-print Network

and less pollution from cooking with wood or coal. We havecoal, which helped reduce infant mortality. At the same time, pollutioncoal, which helped reduce infant mortality. At the same time, pollution

Federman, Maya; Levine, David I.

2005-01-01

66

High blood pressure - infants  

MedlinePLUS

Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... Bronchopulmonary dysplasia Renal artery stenosis In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

67

Exceptional Infant. Volume 1: The Normal Infant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains a collection of papers that focus on normal infant development, particularly from the standpoint of learning. Written by leading experts from a member of disciplines, these papers deal with topics such as: the examination and observation of infants, including neurological, neuropsychological, and neurobehavioral aspects;…

Hellmuth, Jerome, Ed.

68

Infants of depressed mothers.  

PubMed

Depression is the most frequent psychiatric disorder and has long-term, compromising effects on the mother-infant relationship and the child's development. The infant continuously faces a climate of negative affect that disrupts the interactive experience of the infant and the mother. This article presents findings on the impact of maternal depression on the infant affective state and the specific interactive patterns associated with infant affect regulation. Mother-infant interactions were studied using microanalytic, second-by-second methods in the laboratory and also by using naturalistic home observations. The empirical findings highlight the impact of maternal depression on the infant affective state and on the capacity for repairing states of miscoordination. The impact is seen not only in severely and acutely depressed mothers, but in mothers who have only high levels of depressive symptoms. These infants develop negative affective states that bias their interactions with others and exacerbate their affective problems. Further findings with regard to gender-specific effects show that male infants are more vulnerable than female infants to maternal depression. The findings point out the need for therapeutic interventions that focus on the mother-infant dyad and infant affective state in the treatment of maternal depression. PMID:19373622

Tronick, Edward; Reck, Corrina

2009-01-01

69

Effect of repetitive infant-infant separation of young monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of several methodological difficulties inherent in mother-infant separation, an alternative procedure, that of repetitive, short-term, infant-infant separations, is proposed. Results from 3 studies employing this procedure with 4 young rhesus monkeys indicate that: (a) each short-term infant-infant separation produced behavior patterns similar to those exhibited by infants separated from their mothers; (b) Ss did not adapt to the

Stephen J. Suomi; Harry F. Harlow; Carol J. Domek

1970-01-01

70

Outcomes in preterm infants.  

PubMed

Preterm birth is defined as birth before 37 completed weeks gestation, and it is estimated that each day, across the world over 41,000 infants are born before this gestational age. The risk of adverse consequences declines with increasing gestational age. While this paper focuses on the consequences of preterm birth, the adverse consequences for infants born at 38 and 39 weeks gestation are also of a higher risk than those for infants born at 40 weeks gestation, with the neonatal mortality risk increasing again in infants born beyond the 42nd week of gestation. PMID:24794180

Platt, M J

2014-05-01

71

Heart-respiratory monitor - infants  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiorespiratory monitor - infants; Apnea monitor - infants; Heart rate monitor - infants ... A heart–respiratory monitor can measure a baby's or child's: Breathing rate Heart beat Oxygen level Caregivers can use ...

72

78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers and components thereof. The complaint names as respondent Atom Medical International, Inc. of Japan. The complainant requests that the Commission issue a limited exclusion order,...

2013-09-06

73

Antioxidant activities of two sericin proteins extracted from cocoon of silkworm (Bombyx mori) measured by DPPH, chemiluminescence, ORAC and ESR methods  

PubMed Central

Recent efforts have focused on the use of sericin proteins extracted from cocoons of silkworm as a healthy food source for human consumption. In this study, we focused on the antioxidative properties of sericin proteins. The antioxidative properties were measured in sericin proteins extracted from the shell of the cocoon, designated hereafter as white sericin protein and yellow-green sericin protein, as well as bread without sericin protein and bread to which white sericin powder had been added using four measurement methods: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), chemiluminescence, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and electron spin resonance (ESR). High antioxidative properties of sericin proteins were indicated by all four methods. A comparison of the two types of sericin proteins revealed that yellow-green sericin protein exhibited high antioxidative properties as indicated by the DPPH, chemiluminescence and ORAC methods. By contrast, a higher antioxidative property was determined in white sericin protein by the ESR method. Consequently, our findings confirmed that sericin proteins have antioxidative properties against multiple radicals. In addition, the antioxidative property of bread was enhanced by the addition of sericin powder to the bread. Therefore, findings of this study suggest that sericin proteins may be efficiently used as beneficial food for human health. PMID:24748975

TAKECHI, TAYORI; WADA, RITSUKO; FUKUDA, TSUBASA; HARADA, KAZUKI; TAKAMURA, HITOSHI

2014-01-01

74

[Sensory Systems of Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter contains six articles: (1) "Early Flavor Experiences: When Do They Start?" Julie A. Mennella and Gary K. Beauchamp); (2) "Infant Massage" (Tiffany Field); (3) "The Infant's Sixth Sense: Awareness and Regulation of Bodily Processes" (Stephen W. Porges); (4) "Sensory Contributions to Action: A Sensory Integrative Approach" (Marie E.…

Zero To Three, 1993

1993-01-01

75

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

76

Crying in infants  

PubMed Central

Up to around a quarter of all infants cry excessively and unsoothably during their first months of life. This phenomenon has been termed “infant colic.” In most cases, physicians are unable to determine the cause of the colicky behavior. In a recent study, and by means of comprehensive and deep analyses of more than 1000 intestinal phylotypes, we found that infants with colic showed lower microbiota diversity and stability than control infants in the first weeks of life. Colic-control differences in the abundance of certain bacteria were also found at 2 weeks. These microbial signatures possibly explain the colic phenotype. In this addendum we discuss other recent publications on the subject and present previously unpublished analyses of our own. We address possible mechanisms behind the links between microbiota and crying, and present future directions that could further help elucidate the hypothesized relations between intestinal microbiota and infant colic. PMID:23941920

de Weerth, Carolina; Fuentes, Susana; de Vos, Willem M

2013-01-01

77

Cepheids and their 'Cocoons'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at Cerro Paranal, Chile, and the CHARA Interferometer at Mount Wilson, California, a team of French and North American astronomers has discovered envelopes around three Cepheids, including the Pole star. This is the first time that matter is found surrounding members of this important class of rare and very luminous stars whose luminosity varies in a very regular way. Cepheids play a crucial role in cosmology, being one of the first "steps" on the cosmic distance ladder. ESO PR Photo 09/06 ESO PR Photo 09/06 Model Image of Cepheid L Carinae (VINCI, MIDI/VLTI) The southern Cepheid L Carinae was observed with the VINCI and MIDI instrument at the VLTI, while Polaris (the Pole Star) and Delta Cephei (the prototype of its class) were scrutinised with FLUOR on CHARA, located on the other side of the equator. FLUOR is the prototype instrument of VINCI. Both were built by the Paris Observatory (France). For most stars, the observations made with the interferometers follow very tightly the theoretical stellar models. However, for these three stars, a tiny deviation was detected, revealing the presence of an envelope. "The fact that such deviations were found for all three stars, which however have very different properties, seems to imply that envelopes surrounding Cepheids are a widespread phenomenon", said Pierre Kervella, one of the lead authors. The envelopes were found to be 2 to 3 times as large as the star itself. Although such stars are rather large - about fifty to several hundreds of solar radii - they are so far away that they can't be resolved by single telescopes. Indeed, even the largest Cepheids in the sky subtend an angle of only 0.003 arc second. To observe this is similar to viewing a two-storey house on the Moon. Astronomers have thus to rely on the interferometric technique, which combines the light of two or more distant telescopes, thereby providing the angular resolution of a unique telescope as large as the separation between them. With the VLTI, it is possible to achieve a resolution of 0.001 arc second or less. "The physical processes that have created these envelopes are still uncertain, but, in analogy to what happens around other classes of stars, it is most probable that the environments were created by matter ejected by the star itself", said Antoine Mérand, lead-author of the second paper describing the results. Cepheids pulsate with periods of a few days. As a consequence, they go regularly through large amplitude oscillations that create very rapid motions of its apparent surface (the photosphere) with velocities up to 30 km/s, or 108 000 km/h! While this remains to be established, there could be a link between the pulsation, the mass loss and the formation of the envelopes. Notes Cepheids are commonly used as distance indicators, thanks to the existence of a basic relation between their intrinsic brightness and their pulsation period. By measuring the period of a Cepheid star, its intrinsic brightness can be deduced and from the observed apparent brightness, the distance may then be calculated. As they are intrinsically very bright stars, and can be observed in distant galaxies, this remarkable property has turned these yellow supergiant stars into primary 'standard candles' for extragalactic distance estimations (see ESO PR 25/04). L Carinae is the brightest Cepheid in the sky, and also the one that presents the largest apparent angular diameter. This is a massive supergiant star, having about 10 times the mass of the Sun and a radius approximately 180 times that of the Sun. Polaris is a peculiar star as it is located very close to the North celestial pole (hence its name). It is classified as a Cepheid, but it shows very weak pulsations compared to the other stars of its class. Delta Cephei is the prototype of the Cepheids. It was discovered to be a variable star in the 18th century by the English amateur John Goodricke, and it is still one of the brightest members of the Cepheid class. Its short period is ch

2006-02-01

78

Tdap Booster Requirements for Secondary Schools  

MedlinePLUS

... Smallpox Meningococcal Tetanus Mumps View All Talking about Vaccines Adjuvants Mitochondrial Disorders Alternative Medicine Multiple Injections Autism Religious Concerns Dr. Sears' Schedule Talking with Parents ...

79

Pregnant? Get Tdap in Your Third Trimester  

MedlinePLUS

... Stages & Populations Travelers' Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for our Features Get Email Updates ... American College of Nurse-Midwives [89 KB] Features Media Sign up for our Features Get Email Updates ...

80

Prediction of infant's motor development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to predict motor development using indicators from infant's early motor performance. A group of 46 infants were tested with Alberta Infant Motor Scale and were divided in two groups according to the interval time of assessment (2 and 6 months). The results for the first group revealed that supine position could predict infant's motor

Sophia Charitou; Katerina Asonitou; Dimitra Koutsouki

2010-01-01

81

Breastfed infants metabolize perchlorate.  

PubMed

Bifidobacteria are the dominant intestinal bacteria in breastfed infants. It is known that they can reduce nitrate. Although no direct experiments have been conducted until now, inferred pathways for Bifidobacterium bifidum include perchlorate reduction via perchlorate reductase. We show that when commercially available strains of bifidobacteria are cultured in milk, spiked with perchlorate, perchlorate is consumed. We studied 13 breastfed infant-mother pairs who provided 43 milk samples and 39 infant urine samples, and 5 formula-fed infant-mother pairs who provided 21 formula samples and 21 infant urine samples. Using iodine as a conservative tracer, we determined the average urinary iodine (UI) to milk iodine (MI) concentration ratio to be 2.87 for the breastfed infants. For the same samples, the corresponding perchlorate concentration ratio was 1.37 (difference significant, p < 0.001), indicating that perchlorate is lost. For the formula fed infant group the same ratios were 1.20 and 1.58; the difference was not significant (p = 0.68). However, the small number of subjects in the latter group makes it more difficult to conclude definitively whether perchlorate reduction does or does not occur. PMID:22497505

Shelor, C Phillip; Kirk, Andrea B; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Kroll, Martina; Campbell, Catrina A; Choudhary, Pankaj K

2012-05-01

82

[The infant with leukemia].  

PubMed

Infant leukemia is rare and especially in newborn leukemoid reactions should be excluded by careful cytogenetic analysis before starting cytotoxic therapy. Infants have either acute lymphoblastic leukemia, monoblastic leukemia or acute undifferentiated leukemia. At present they have a bad outlook due to many coinciding unfavorable initial disease characteristics: high leukocyte count, liver and spleen enlargement, meningeal involvement, no expression of common ALL antigen, and a high frequency of pseudodiploid cells, that is with a translocation 4;II. The immaturity of organs and systems makes it difficult to treat these infants, and requires optimal supportive care. Therapeutic protocols for prospective clinical trials for leukemia in this age group are urgently needed. PMID:3287687

Kamps, W A; Sjamsoedin-Visser, E J; van Wering, E R

1988-04-01

83

Milk Allergy in Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... Milk Allergy Unsafe Formulas Switching Formulas About Milk Allergy Almost all infants are fussy at times. But ... kids and adults. Continue Symptoms of a Milk Allergy Symptoms of cow's milk protein allergy will generally ...

84

Birth Weight and Infant Growth: Optimal Infant Weight Gain versus Optimal Infant Weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Infant growth assessment often focuses on “optimal” infant weights and lengths at specific ages, while de-emphasizing infant\\u000a weight gain. Objective of this study was to examine infant growth patterns by measuring infant weight gain relative to birth\\u000a weight. Methods: We conducted this study based on data collected in a prospective cohort study including 3,302 births with follow up examinations

Xu Xiong; Joan Wightkin; Jeanette H. Magnus; Gabriella Pridjian; Juan M. Acuna; Pierre Buekens

2007-01-01

85

Reducing infant mortality.  

PubMed

Public health and social policies at the population level (e.g., oral rehydration therapy and immunization) are responsible for the major reduction in infant mortality worldwide. The gap in infant mortality rates between developing and developed regions is much less than that in maternal mortality rates. This indicates that maternal and child health (MCH) programs and women's health care should be combined. Since 1950, 66% of infant deaths occur in the 1st 28 days, indicating adverse prenatal and intrapartum events (e.g., congenital malformation and birth injuries). Infection, especially pneumonia and diarrhea, and low birth weight are the major causes of infant mortality worldwide. An estimated US$25 billion are needed to secure the resources to control major childhood diseases, reduce malnutrition 50%, reduce child deaths by 4 million/year, provide potable water and sanitation to all communities, provide basic education, and make family planning available to all. This cost for saving children's lives is lower than current expenditures for cigarettes (US$50 billion in Europe/year). Vitamin A supplementation, breast feeding, and prenatal diagnosis of congenital malformations are low-cost strategies that can significantly affect infant well-being and reduce child mortality in many developing countries. The US has a higher infant mortality rate than have other developed countries. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the US National Institutes of Health are focusing on prematurity, low birth weight, multiple pregnancy, violence, alcohol abuse, and poverty to reduce infant mortality. Obstetricians should be important members of MCH teams, which also include traditional birth attendants, community health workers, nurses, midwives, and medical officers. We have the financial resources to allocate resources to improve MCH care and to reduce infant mortality. PMID:12288145

Johnson, T R

1994-01-01

86

Infant psychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

Infant mental health problems include difficulties to regulate emotions or attention, crying, sleeping or feeding problems as well as aggressive behavior. Early identifications of these problems help to change developmental trajectories and improve developmental outcomes. Psychiatric assessment and classification have to take into account the rapid processes of development as well as the inseparable linkage between symptoms of the infant, psychosocial risks in the family environment, and parent-child relations. The proposed DSM-5 classification system presents a systematic description of mental health disorders which are relevant for infant psychiatry. However, the proposal has provided rather limited attention to developmental differences and parent-infant relations. Therefore, additional classification systems, like the Zero-to-Three (DC: 0-3R), are strongly recommended. In terms of assessment and in accordance with the guidelines of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, infant psychiatrists have to consider the close relation between somatic and mental health and the interplay between behaviors of the caregiver and the infant. Therefore, the assessment has to be multidisciplinary and relationship based. A standard assessment in infancy includes a clinical interview, behavior observations, caregiver questionnaires, and a pediatric screening. All assessments should pay attention to motor, cognitive, language, and social-emotional development. Because infant development is embedded in the family context, socio-economic factors, parents' mental problems, including drug abuse, domestic violence, and trauma history should be assessed. The treatment has to be oriented toward symptoms and development and has to address underlying medical conditions. The focus should be on parent-child interactions. Evidence-based interventions are based on attachment theory, use social-learning perspectives, and behavioral approaches. PMID:23229140

Bolten, Margarete I

2013-02-01

87

Iron intake of infants: the importance of infant cereals.  

PubMed Central

Since 1976 many baby foods have been reformulated and the iron used to fortify infant cereals has been changed to a more bioavailable form. Therefore, the dietary intake of iron by infants from 1 to 18 months of age was assessed in a longitudinal survey conducted in Toronto and Montreal between 1977 and 1979. Except in the 1st and 18th months the mean daily iron consumption of the infants was above that recommended in the Dietary Standard for Canada. The main source of this nutrient was infant cereals. Examination of the diets of the infants who did not have the recommended daily intake of iron showed that they did not consume sufficient amounts of infant cereals and other iron-rich foods. These results indicate that without such cereals it is difficult to provide infants with the amount of iron they need. Therefore, infants should receive these cereals during the first 2 years of life. PMID:7332896

Yeung, D. L.; Pennell, M. D.; Leung, M.; Hall, J.; Anderson, G. H.

1981-01-01

88

Wheezing and Asthma in Infants  

MedlinePLUS

Wheezing and Asthma in Infants KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Asthma > Wheezing and Asthma in Infants Print A A A Text Size ... of asthma.) My Baby Is Wheezing. Is It Asthma? If your baby has a cold and is ...

89

Infants' perception of chasing  

PubMed Central

Two significant questions in cognitive and developmental science are first, whether objects and events are selected for attention based on their features (featural processing) or the configuration of their features (configural processing), and second, how these modes of processing develop. These questions have been addressed in part with experiments focused on infants’ perception of faces, human body shapes, and biological motion of individual agents. Here, we investigate 4- and 10-month-old infants’ (N = 192) attention to social motions, specifically to chasing—a ubiquitous, ancient, and fitness-relevant mode of interaction. We constructed computer-generated animations of chasing that had three properties: acceleration, high turning rates, and attraction (“heat-seeking”). In the first experiment we showed chasing side-by-side with a control display of inanimate, billiard-ball-like motions. Infants strongly preferred attending to chasing. In the next three studies, we systematically investigated the effect of each property in turn (acceleration, turning, and attraction) by showing a display of that property side-by-side with the control display. Infants preferentially attended to acceleration, and to attraction, but not to turning. If infants preferred chasing for its configuration, then the sum of the effect sizes of individual properties should be smaller than their combined effects. That is not what we found: instead, on three measures of visual behavior, the summed effects of individual properties equaled (or exceeded) that of chasing. Moreover, although attraction drew little attention and turning no attention at all, acceleration drew (nearly) as much attention as chasing. Our results thus provide evidence that infants preferred chasing because of its features, not its configuration. PMID:23121710

Frankenhuis, Willem E.; House, Bailey; Barrett, H. Clark; Johnson, Scott P.

2012-01-01

90

Longitudinal Observation of Infant Temperament  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Convergent validity, temporal stability, and age-related patterning of measures of infant temperament were examined in a longitudinal study of 46 infants at three, six, and nine months of age. Infant Behavior Questionnaire and home observations showed convergent validity. Composite measures of positive and negative reactivity and overall…

Rothbart, Mary Klevjord

1986-01-01

91

Partnering to Improve Infant Immunizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arizona Partnership for Infant Immunization (TAPII) is a public-private partnership intended to achieve the year 2000 goal of 90% infant immunizations. Created in 1992 as a means to develop a statewide approach to improving infant immunization rates, TAPII is a broad-based partnership that includes public health departments, managed care plans, professional organizations, medical organizations, pharmaceutical companies, businesses, the faith

Douglas Hirano

1998-01-01

92

Parents’ Sung Performances for Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naive listeners rated the style of singing in mothers’ and fathers’ sung performances for infants and their simulations of those performances (Experiment 1). Performances in an infant’s presence were judged as more expressive — either more playful or more soothing — than were simulations. Parents’ style of singing, as reflected in these ratings, differed as a function of the sex

SANDRA E. TREHUB; DAVID S. HILL; STUART B. KAMENETSKY

1997-01-01

93

Perspectives on Infant Day Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings of the first annual SACUS workshop on infant day care contain the papers presented at the conference, plus an appendix--Developmental Objectives for Infants and Toddlers. The papers are: "Infant Day Care--Fads, Facts, and Fancies" by Bettye M. Caldwell; "Family Day Care""A Broad Perspective" by Malcolm S. Host; "Getting…

Elardo, Richard, E.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

94

Tinea Capitis in Infants  

PubMed Central

Tinea capitis is a reasonably common infection among the pediatric population; however, it is still a relatively rare entity among infants less than one year of age. As such, a high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis among infants and an appropriate diagnostic work up should be employed in any case where a dermatophyte infection is suspected. Several methods are available for diagnosis. In addition, proper identification of the specific dermatophyte genera involved should be considered as treatment options may be altered based on the causative pathogen identified. PMID:22468173

Michaels, Brent D.

2012-01-01

95

[The determination of the species classification of Baikal planarian cocoons found in the stomach of the black grayling (Thymallus arcticus baicalensis) by a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene].  

PubMed

Comparative analysis of nucleotide sequences of gene 18S of ribosome RNA was carried out. The results show that the genetic sequences of the given locus could be used as a molecular marker to identify the species of planaria irrespective of ontogenetic stage. The articles deals with problem of specific determination of cocoons of Baikal planaria from the stomach of Baikal black grayling using comparative analysis of nucleotide sequences of ribosome RNA fragments with known sequences determined earlier for Baikal planaria. The cocoons belong to two species of Rimacephalus. The authors discuss also the importance of feeding relationships of planaria and benthophage fish to investigate the biotic factors that influence the evolution of Baikal planaria. PMID:10520297

Kuznedelov, K D; Dziuba, E V

1999-01-01

96

Mother Infant Literacy Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based upon the Mother-Infant Literacy Knowledge (MILK) program--in which imprisoned mothers are allowed to care for their children until they are one year old--a study investigated how placing parents in a print rich environment affects parental ability to provide their children with book oriented experiences. The study was conducted in a…

Sledge, Andrea Celine

97

[Infants and Toddlers].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter theme issue contains four articles which focus on the development of normal and handicapped infants in various settings. "The Baby's World," by Lois Barclay Murphy and Colleen T. Small, emphasizes experiences of sensation and discovery in the first three years of life, noting the role of caregivers and the cultural context. "The…

Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

1989-01-01

98

Colic in infants  

PubMed Central

Introduction Colic in infants causes one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for colic in infants? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 27 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: advice to increase carrying, advice to reduce stimulation, casein hydrolysate milk, cranial osteopathy, crib vibrator device, focused counselling, gripe water, infant massage, low-lactose milk, simethicone, soya-based infant feeds, spinal manipulation, and whey hydrolysate milk. PMID:21729336

2010-01-01

99

Infants Parse Dynamic Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies investigated whether 10- to 11-month-olds possess skills for parsing ongoing behavior along boundaries correlated with initiation and completion of intentions. Found that infants showed renewed interest in test videos in which motion paused in the midst of an actor's pursuit of intentions; suspended motion at intentional boundary…

Baldwin, Dare A.; Baird, Jodie A.; Saylor, Megan M.; Clark, M. Angela

2001-01-01

100

Improving Infant Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This speech sketches a picture of post-natal health care in the United States, circa 1979. Between 1970 and 1976, post-natal infant deaths in the first week after birth dropped 32%. During the same period, the post-neonatal decline was just 12%. Statistics are presented which highlight areas of concern. Variation across states, high incidence in…

Hutchins, Vince L.

101

Infant Neurobehavioral Development  

PubMed Central

The trend toward single-room neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) is increasing; however scientific evidence is, at this point, mostly anecdotal. This is a critical time to assess the impact of the single-room NICU on improving medical and neurobehavioral outcomes of the preterm infant. We have developed a theoretical model that may be useful in studying how the change from an open-bay NICU to a single-room NICU could affect infant medical and neurobehavioral outcome. The model identifies mediating factors that are likely to accompany the change to a single-room NICU. These mediating factors include family centered care, developmental care, parenting and family factors, staff behavior and attitudes, and medical practices. Medical outcomes that plan to be measured are sepsis, length of stay, gestational age at discharge, weight gain, illness severity, gestational age at enteral feeding, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Neurobehavioral outcomes include the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) scores, sleep state organization and sleep physiology, infant mother feeding interaction scores, and pain scores. Preliminary findings on the sample of 150 patients in the open-bay NICU showed a “baseline” of effects of family centered care, developmental care, parent satisfaction, maternal depression, and parenting stress on the neurobehavioral outcomes of the newborn. The single-room NICU has the potential to improve the neurobehavioral status of the infant at discharge. Neurobehavioral assessment can assist with early detection and therefore preventative intervention to maximize developmental outcome. We also present an epigenetic model of the potential effects of maternal care on improving infant neurobehavioral status. PMID:21255702

Lester, Barry M.; Miller, Robin J.; Hawes, Katheleen; Salisbury, Amy; Bigsby, Rosemarie; Sullivan, Mary C.; Padbury, James F.

2011-01-01

102

Does Parental Marital Separation Affect Infants?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the development of 38 infants from separated or divorced families with that of 38 infants from married families in Britain to determine whether parental divorce or separation precipitates cognitive, social, or emotional difficulties in infants. Infants were 11 to 45 months old. Infant-mother attachment was measured using the…

Kier, Cheryl; Lewis, Charlie

103

Infant Pulmonary Function Testing  

PubMed Central

Infant pulmonary function testing has evolved from a research technique into a diagnostic tool. As such, new current procedural terminology (CPT) codes have been created and are available for use as of January 1, 2010. The technology now available has a range of applications. Through a series of vignettes, this article illustrates the methodology of the tests, some of their applications, and how to code and bill for the procedures. PMID:21540218

Davis, Stephanie D.

2011-01-01

104

Infant feeding practices.  

PubMed

Nutrient intakes of thirty-nine infants were determined by a combination dietary record/recall method at two, four, eight, and twelve weeks of age. Infants were grouped according to feeding method: Formula only formula plus solid foods, human milk only, and human milk plus solid foods. The contribution of various types of solid foods and milk to total energy and nutrient intakes within each feeding regimen was determined. The effect of feeding regimen upon renal concentrating capacity was assessed by determining plasma osmolality, sodium, and urea in blood samples drawn at four and eight weeks of age. Results indicate that milk was the major source of energy and of ten of the thirteen nutrients tabulated at all ages examined. Data also suggest that solid foods replace, rather than supplement, human milk or formula on a caloric basis. The feeding methods examined did not influence plasma osmolality and sodium levels, despite significant differences in dietary renal solute load observed between breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Plasma urea levels were positively correlated with protein intakes at eight weeks of age. Implications of the data for counseling parents are discussed. PMID:7440862

Marlin, D W; Picciano, M F; Livant, E C

1980-12-01

105

Infant-directed prosody helps infants map sounds to meanings  

PubMed Central

Adults typically use an exaggerated, distinctive speaking style when addressing infants. However, the effects of infant-directed (ID) speech on infants’ learning is not yet well understood. This research investigates how ID speech affects how infants perform a key function in language acquisition, associating the sounds of words with their meanings. Seventeen-month-old infants were presented with two label-object pairs in a habituation-based word learning task. In Experiment 1, the labels were produced in adult-directed (AD) speech. In Experiment 2, the labels were produced in ID prosody; they had higher pitch, greater pitch variation, and longer durations than the AD labels. We found that infants failed to learn the labels in AD speech, but succeeded in learning the same labels when they were produced in ID speech. Experiment 3 investigated the role of variability in learning from ID speech. When the labels were presented in ID prosody with no variation across tokens, infants failed to learn them. Our findings indicate that ID prosody can affect how readily infants map sounds to meanings and that the variability in prosody that is characteristic of ID speech may play a key role in its effect on learning new words. PMID:24244106

Estes, Katharine Graf; Hurley, Karinna

2012-01-01

106

Infant Neurosensory Development: Considerations for Infant Child Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infant brain development is a dynamic process dependent upon endogenous and exogenous stimulation and a supportive environment. A critical period of brain and neurosensory development occurs during the third trimester and into the "fourth" trimester (first three months of life). Disruption, damage, or deprivation in the infant's social and…

Marshall, Jennifer

2011-01-01

107

Infants' Behavioral and Physiological Profile and Mother-Infant Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to (a) identify and profile groups of infants according to their behavioral and physiological characteristics, considering their neurobehavioral organization, social withdrawal behavior, and endocrine reactivity to stress, and to (b) analyze group differences in the quality of mother-infant interaction. Ninety-seven 8-week-old…

Costa, Raquel; Figueiredo, Barbara

2012-01-01

108

Differential maternal treatment of infant twins: effects of infant behaviors.  

PubMed

This project utilized twins to study differential mother-sibling interactions. The use of twins circumvented the traditional confounds of studying siblings of different ages or at two points in time. When the twins were 7 and 9 months of age, mothers spent 2.5 min alone with each infant in an attempt to elicit child vocalizations. The mother and infant behaviors were coded both microanalytically and globally. The infant attention behaviors were influenced primarily by unique environment, whereas the temperament behaviors were influenced by both unique environmental and genetic effects. Mothers tended to treat both children similarly, regardless of zygosity, suggesting that maternal characteristics drove the mother-infant interactions. Thus, even though identical twins were more similar on some measures than fraternal twins, mothers tended to treat both types of twins comparably regardless of infant characteristics or behaviors. PMID:8990532

DiLalla, L F; Bishop, E G

1996-11-01

109

How Unstreamed Are Infant Schools?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While not wishing to assert that many infant schools actually grouped their separate classes by ability, the author believes that many infant classes maintain a system of grouping which suggests that a hidden system of streaming still exists. Details some of the possible reasons for this practice. (Author/RK)

Dixon, Annabelle

1978-01-01

110

The Effectiveness of Infant Simulators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of using infant simulators with a structured, competency-based curriculum by examining the infant care behavior of adolescents and their attitudes toward parenting and sexual behavior. The sample of 236 students included 112 males and 124 females ranging in age from 14 to 18 years. This sample was randomly…

Roberts, Scott W.; McCowan, Richard J.

2004-01-01

111

What Is Infant Mental Health?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

2012-01-01

112

Determinants of Infant Behaviour IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume consists of reports of individual studies and surveys of research work on mother-infant interactions. It is divided into two parts. The first section presents a wide range of studies on mother-infant relations as exhibited in the behavior of animals. The second part, concerning human behavior, includes studies on the natural history of…

Foss, B. M., Ed.

113

Caring for Infants and Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "The Future of Children" focuses on the daily care of infants and toddlers in the United States, including shifting caregiving arrangement for children younger than 3 years, developmental needs of infants and toddlers, findings of recent child care studies, public opinion regarding child care, and recent innovations seeking to…

Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

2001-01-01

114

Binaural Perception in Young Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes three experiments which demonstrated the presence of binaural perception abilities (the ability to use both ears) in 4-month-old but not in 2-month-old infants. All of the experiments employed a visual fixation habituation-dishabituation paradigm in which infants were given a series of visual fixation trials while binaural…

Bundy, Robert S.

115

Evaluating Infant-Family Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Compiling articles from participants of the Leadership Development Initiative Class of 2001-2002, this issue focuses on evaluation of…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

2003-01-01

116

Number Sense in Human Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments used a preferential looking method to investigate 6-month-old infants' capacity to represent numerosity in visual-spatial displays. Building on previous findings that such infants discriminate between arrays of eight versus 16 discs, but not eight versus 12 discs (Xu & Spelke, 2000), Experiments 1 and 2 investigated whether…

Xu, Fei; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Goddard, Sydney

2005-01-01

117

[Infant and Toddler Communication Disorders].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter issue contains four articles all addressing aspects of intervention with infants and toddlers having communication disorders. The first, "Assessing the Communication of Infants and Toddlers: Integrating a Socioemotional Perspective" (Barry M. Prizant and Amy M. Wetherby) describes a new instrument, the Communication and Symbolic…

Pawl, Jeree, Ed.

1990-01-01

118

Infant Gaze Following during Parent-Infant Coviewing of Baby Videos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 122 parent–infant dyads were observed as they watched a familiar or novel infant-directed video in a laboratory setting. Infants were between 12-15 and 18-21 months old. Infants were more likely to look toward the TV immediately following their parents' look toward the TV. This apparent social influence on infant looking at television…

Demers, Lindsay B.; Hanson, Katherine G.; Kirkorian, Heather L.; Pempek, Tiffany A.; Anderson, Daniel R.

2013-01-01

119

Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

2009-01-01

120

Approaches to management of the handicapped infant.  

PubMed

A form of management which has proven helpful in a developmental intervention program for handicapped infants is described. The use of ordinal rather than normative assessments when monitoring the infant's development and when teaching families about their infants is advocated. Two cases demonstrate ways to enhance the functioning of the handicapped infant and his family. PMID:65440

Stone, N W

1977-02-01

121

Infant Attractiveness Predicts Maternal Behaviors and Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between infant attractiveness and maternal behavior by observing mothers feeding and playing with their firstborn infants immediately after giving birth and when the infants were three months of age. Found that mothers of more attractive infants were more affectionate and playful compared with mothers of less attractive…

Langlois, Judith H.; And Others

1995-01-01

122

Donor Human Milk for Preterm Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

As survival rates for preterm infants improve, more attention is being focused on improving the quality of survival through optimal nutritional management. The benefits of human milk for term infants are well recognized, with current research suggesting that human milk may especially benefit the preterm infant. Some mothers are unable or unwilling to provide breastmilk for their infants. Although not

Nancy E Wight

2001-01-01

123

Maternal-infant interaction and autonomic function in healthy infants and infants with transposition of the great arteries.  

PubMed

The quality of maternal-infant interaction is a critical factor in the development of infants' autonomic function and social engagement skills. In this secondary data analysis, relationships among infant and maternal affect and behavior and quality of dyadic interaction, as measured by the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment, and infant autonomic function, as measured by heart rate variability, were examined during feeding at 2 weeks and 2 months of age in 16 healthy infants and in 15 infants with transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Contrary to previous research, at 2 weeks infant age, mothers of infants with TGA had significantly higher scores in affect and behavior than did mothers of healthy infants. The affect and behavior and quality of dyadic interaction of infants with TGA also did not differ from that of healthy infants. Although infants' social engagement skills did not differ by health condition (TGA or healthy), these skills did differ by parasympathetic nervous system function: infants better able to suppress vagal activity with challenge had more positive and less dysregulated affect and behavior, regardless of health status. These findings suggest that maternal-infant interactions for some cardiac disease subgroups may not differ from healthy dyads. Additional research is required to identify both healthy and ill infants with delayed autonomic maturation and to develop and test interventions to enhance critical interactive functions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25352237

Harrison, Tondi M; Ferree, Allison

2014-12-01

124

Nonaccidental head trauma in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Nonaccidental head trauma in infants is the leading cause of infant death from injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results and discussion  Clinical features that suggest inflicted head trauma include the triad of the so-called shaken baby syndrome, consisting of\\u000a retinal hemorrhage, subdural, and\\/or subarachnoid hemorrhage in an infant with little signs of external trauma. Studies have\\u000a shown that, in general, the average short fall in

Paula Gerber; Kathryn Coffman

2007-01-01

125

Treating infants' colic  

PubMed Central

QUESTION Young parents often visit my office because their infants are crying inconsolably. Results of physical examination are unremarkable, so colic is the most likely cause. Colic has been known for many years, but I am unaware of any good remedy for it. Are there any modern, effective, safe methods of managing colic? ANSWER In most cases, colic is a “noisy phenomenon” for which there is no good explanation or treatment. Changing babies’ feedings rarely helps, and effective pharmacologic remedies are as yet unavailable. Several behavioural and complementary therapies have been suggested, but they have not been found effective. Addressing parental concerns and explaining about colic is the best solution until the colic goes away. PMID:16190173

Rogovik, Alex L.; Goldman, Ran D.

2005-01-01

126

Infant Moon: Moon Mix!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate the Moon's infancy and model how an ocean of molten rock (magma) helped shape the Moon that we see today. Learners create a simple model of this process by mixing household items of different densities in a bottle and allowing to them to settle into separate layers. Learners decide which materials make the best model for the infant Moon. Learners may examine a type of Earth rock (named anorthosite) that is also found on the Moon and that would have been shaped by the processes explored here. This activity station is part of a sequence of stations that can be set up to help learners trace the Moon's 4.5-billion-year history from "infancy" to the imagined future. Learners tie together major events in the Moon's geologic history as a series of comic panels in their Marvel Moon comic books.

Institute, Lunar A.

2010-01-01

127

Infant temperament contributes to early infant growth: A prospective cohort of African American infants  

PubMed Central

Background Prospective studies linking infant temperament, or behavioral style, to infant body composition are lacking. In this longitudinal study (3 to 18 months), we seek to examine the associations between two dimensions of infant temperament (distress to limitations and activity level) and two anthropometric indicators (weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) and skin fold (SF) measures) in a population at high risk of overweight. Methods Data are from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Project, a longitudinal study of North Carolina low income African American mother-infant dyads (n = 206). Two temperament dimensions were assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. A high distress to limitations score denotes an infant whose mother perceives that s/he often cries or fusses, and a high activity level score one who moves his/her limbs and squirms frequently. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using ordinary least squares regression. Fixed effects longitudinal models were used to estimate anthropometric outcomes as a function of time varying infant temperament. Results In longitudinal models, increased activity levels were associated with later decreased fatness and WLZ. In contrast, high levels of distress to limitations were associated with later increased fatness at all time points and later increased WLZ at 12 months. Conclusion Infant temperament dimensions contribute to our understanding of the role of behavior in the development of the risk of overweight in the formative months of life. Identification of modifiable risk factors early in life may help target strategies for establishing healthy lifestyles prior to the onset of overweight. PMID:19656377

Slining, Meghan M; Adair, Linda; Goldman, Barbara Davis; Borja, Judith; Bentley, Margaret

2009-01-01

128

Tactile Recognition Memory in Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-five one-year-olds were administered two tasks (each of which consisted of a familiarization stage followed by a recognition stage) in order to determine whether infants can recognize the shapes of objects by touch alone. (CM)

Gottfried, Allen W.; Rose, Susan A.

1980-01-01

129

Probabilistic inference in human infants.  

PubMed

In this chapter, we review empirical evidence in support of infants' ability to make rudimentary probabilistic inferences. A recent surge of research in cognitive developmental psychology examines whether human learners, from infancy through adulthood, reason in ways consistent with Bayesian inference. However, when exploring this question an important first step is to identify the available inference mechanisms and computational machinery that might allow infants and young children to make inductive inferences. A number of recent studies have asked if infants may be "intuitive statisticians," making inferences about the relationship between samples and populations in both looking-time and choice tasks. Furthermore, infants make these inferences under a variety of sampling conditions and integrate prior domain knowledge into their probability calculations. The competences demonstrated in the reviewed experiments appear to draw on an intuitive probability notion that is early emerging and does not appear to be available for conscious reflection. PMID:23205407

Denison, Stephanie; Xu, Fei

2012-01-01

130

Superfund Cleanups and Infant Health  

E-print Network

We are the first to examine the effect of Superfund cleanups on infant health rather than focusing on proximity to a site. We study singleton births to mothers residing within 5km of a Superfund site between 1989 and 2003 ...

Currie, Janet

2011-02-23

131

Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities  

MedlinePLUS

... Allergies and Food Sensitivities Ages & Stages Listen Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities Article Body Human breast milk ... While rare—especially amon g breastfed babies—milk allergies can be severe or fatal. Most babies eventually ...

132

Infant and Toddler Outdoor Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summer is the time to take full advantage of the myriad wonders of nature--and all the outdoor play spaces--with children and toddlers. In this article, the author presents several outdoor summer activities for infants and toddlers.

Honig, Alice Sterling

2005-01-01

133

Predictors of Maternal Sensitivity to Infant Distress  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Objective The present study was designed to examine the extent to which mothers’ emotional (i.e., empathy, negative emotions) and cognitive (i.e., accurate detection of distress, goals about infant crying, and emotion efficacy) responses to infant distress are related to maternal sensitivity in tasks designed to elicit infant distress. Mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to distress were assessed both prenatally in response to unfamiliar infants and postnatally in response to own infant. The extent to which prenatal and postnatal measures correlated with one another and with sensitivity to distress was examined. Design One-hundred and one mothers were interviewed prenatally about their responses to videotapes of crying infants, then videotaped interacting with their own infants at 6-months postpartum in two emotionally arousing tasks during which maternal sensitivity and infant distress were rated, and participated in a video-recall interview about their thoughts and feelings during the emotionally arousing tasks. Results Mothers’ prenatal and postnatal goals in relation to infant distress and emotional reactions to infant distress were the most consistent predictors of sensitivity, but prenatal accurate detection of infant distress also predicted sensitivity. Furthermore, mothers’ goals, emotional reactions to crying, and accurate distress detection buffered maternal sensitivity from the negative effect of observed infant distress. That is, infant distress was less strongly negatively associated with sensitivity when mothers had more infant-oriented goals, reported fewer negative emotions in response to infant crying, or were skilled at detecting infant distress. Conclusions Assessing mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress provides insights into the origins of sensitivity to infant distress. Methodological issues relevant to assessing mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress are raised. PMID:20824194

Leerkes, Esther M.

2010-01-01

134

Coronary artery grafting in infants  

PubMed Central

Background Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiac vale repair is an uncommon surgery in infants. CABG is technically demanding in infants due to the small size not only of the coronary arteries but also the potential graft arteries. The short and long-term outcome of surgery is not known and thus has largely been avoided. Results We report the case histories of two infants in whom CABG was undertaken successfully as a life-saving measure. Case 1: This infant needed an arterial switch operation after which the right coronary artery (RCA) was stenosed resulting in low cardiac output. After the right internal mammary artery (RIMA) was used to anastamose the RCA, the hemodynamic status improved drastically. Case 2: This infant underwent surgical correction for Anomalous Left Coronary Artery from Pulmonary Artery (ALCAPA). Postoperatively, she was in low cardiac output. She was found to have an occluded left coronary artery and mitral regurgitation (MR). After she underwent left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to Left Anterior Descending (LAD) anastamosis and mitral valve repair, the clinical condition improved dramatically. Conclusion CABG is an uncommon operation in infants. This surgery is technically difficult. The long term results are not known and there are very few reports for the same. Though such an operation is best avoided, it can be used as a desperate life saving measure. PMID:22368554

Gopal, MR; Maskari, S; Zacharias, S; Valliathu, J

2009-01-01

135

Hats for the newborn infant.  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of a Gamgee-lined hat in reducing the rate of fall in rectal temperature of infants during the first 30 minutes of life was studied. The trial, which included 211 infants, was randomised, prospective, and controlled. One hundred and seven infants were exposed to overhead radiantheaters. Of these, only 30 had normal deliveries, so the analysis was confined to the infants who were not subjected to radiant heat, and in this group no conclusions were drawn about the efficacy of a hat or a radiant heater. In the 104 infants not subjected to radiant heat, body weight, initial rectal temperature, the application of hat, the environmental temperature, and the duration of exposure while naked were all found to influence measureably the rate of fall in rectal temperature during the first 30 minutes. Gamgee-lined hats should be routinely used to minimise heat loss, especially in small infants exposed at birth, during surgical operations, and during investigations necessitating prolonged exposure. PMID:387172

Chaput de Saintonge, D M; Cross, K W; Shathorn, M K; Lewis, S R; Stothers, J K

1979-01-01

136

Analgesia for infants' circumcision  

PubMed Central

Male circumcision (MC) is one of the oldest and most common operations performed all over the world. It can be performed at different ages, using different surgical techniques, for different religious, cultural and medical reasons. Our aim is to examine and compare the various methods of analgesia and different surgical procedures reported in literature that are applied in infant MC. We performed a PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane search in the papers published since 2000: 14 studies met the inclusion criteria, most of them showing that a combined pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention is the best analgesic option, in particular when the dorsal penile nerve block is combined with other treatments. The Mogen surgical procedure seems to be the less painful surgical intervention, when compared with Gomco clamp or PlastiBell device. Only 3 papers studied groups of at least 20 babies each with the use of validated pain scales. Data show a dramatic decrease of pain with dorsal penile nerve block, plus acetaminophen associated to oral sucrose or topic analgesic cream. However, no procedure has been found to definetively eliminate pain; the gold standard procedure to make MC totally painfree has not yet been established. PMID:23759130

2013-01-01

137

16 CFR 1216.2 - Requirements for infant walkers.  

...2014-01-01 false Requirements for infant walkers. 1216.2 Section 1216.2 Commercial...ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR INFANT WALKERS § 1216.2 Requirements for infant walkers. Each infant walker shall comply...

2014-01-01

138

21 CFR 880.5130 - Infant radiant warmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...5130 Infant radiant warmer. (a) Identification. The infant radiant warmer is a device consisting of an infrared heating element intended to be placed over an infant to maintain the infant's body temperature by means of...

2011-04-01

139

Vocal Development of Infants with Very Low Birth Weight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the vocal development of infants born with very low birth weights (VLBW). Samples of vocalizations were recorded from three groups of infants when they were 8, 12 and 18 months of age: preterm VLBW infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), preterm VLBW infants without BPD, and healthy full-term infants. Infants with BPD…

Rvachew, Susan; Creighton, Dianne; Feldman, Naida; Sauve, Reg

2005-01-01

140

Marital and Infant Factors in the Emerging Parent-Infant Relationship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of infant responsiveness and marital satisfaction on parent-infant reciprocity in face-to-face interactions are examined in this study. Thirty-two middle to upper-middle class couples attending LaMaze classes were recruited for the study. There were equal numbers of male and female infants. When the infants were approximately three…

Cook, Nancy Illback

141

Running head: INFANTS SUBSTANCES AND QUANTITIES Infants' Representations for Substance Quantities  

E-print Network

Running head: INFANTS SUBSTANCES AND QUANTITIES Infants' Representations for Substance Quantities In this paper we sought to characterize infants' ability to represent substance quantities. We asked whether 10 with substances, but positive results with solid objects. The present perspective suggests that infants can track

Hespos, Susan J.

142

Serum zinc concentration in exclusively breast-fed infants and in infants fed an adapted formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum zinc concentrations have been determined in 28 healthy full-term Italian infants of both sexes at birth, as well as at 3 and at 5 months of age. Fourteen exclusively breast-fed infants who served as a control group were compared with 14 infants fed a cow's milk based adapted infant formula. No significant differences in serum zinc concentration between the

V. Vigi; R. Chierici; L. Osti; F. Fagioli; R. Reseazzi

1984-01-01

143

Sudden Infant Death and Sofa Sleeping  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... of the player. Sudden Infant Death and Sofa Sleeping HealthDay October 13, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Child ... today about sudden infant death and a common sleeping environment in your home. Researchers analyzed data for ...

144

Mercury Levels in Infants Receiving Routine Immunizations  

MedlinePLUS

... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Mercury Levels in Infants Receiving Routine Immunizations Study I: Infant Metabolism of Thimerosal versus Methyl Mercury NIAID-supported studies at the University of Rochester ...

145

Continuous Tracking of Behavioral Development in Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a strategy of continuous measurement of the frequency of the same infant behavior over time, which was applied to measuring infant development in the prone position, namely, chin lifting, chest lifting, and a creeping response. (BD/BR)

Roberts, Mark; And Others

1978-01-01

146

Infants with AIDS: Implications for Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the impact of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) on the developmental processes of infants. Excerpts from three case histories are presented to highlight physical, socio-emotional, and cognitive impairment in infants. (Author/BB)

Wayment, Heidi A.

1988-01-01

147

Contrast discrimination in human infants.  

PubMed

The ability to detect differences in spatial contrast is crucial to object recognition and identification. This ability is generally examined by measuring the contrast discrimination function. This function represents, for a variety of conditions, the smallest contrast difference required to discriminate otherwise identical patterns. We examined human infants' ability to discriminate patterns on the basis of differences in spatial contrast. The forced-choice preferential looking procedure was used to estimate contrast increment thresholds at a number of background contrasts. The Weber fractions of 6- and 12-week-old infants were about 1 log unit higher than adult values for background contrasts ranging from 0.14 to 0.55. Furthermore, the slopes of infants' discrimination functions were much shallower than those of adults. These age differences in contrast discrimination imply certain changes in the neural mechanisms that underlie contrast encoding. They also aid our understanding of the anomalies observed in early pattern vision. PMID:2965747

Stephens, B R; Banks, M S

1987-11-01

148

Breastmilk contaminants and infant behavior  

SciTech Connect

Recent work has shown that certain heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (p,p{prime}-DDE) can affect newborn behavior via transplacental exposure. In this study, a number of fluids were collected from a sample of mothers and infants, with gas liquid chromatography used to determine the levels of environmental contaminants in breastmilk obtained in the first postpartum week. Analysis of the first 15 cases revealed normal concentrations of metals, no detectable traces of PCBs, and detectable levels of heptachlor epoxide and p,p{prime}-DDE in breastmilk. No significant associations were found between metals and infant development, but p,p{prime}-DDE was inversely related to perceptual performance and motor scores at 2-1/2 years. These results suggest that contaminants in human milk may affect infant behavior beyond the newborn period, although prediction from other sources must also be considered.

Worobey, J.; Thomas, D.A.; Lewis, M. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick (United States))

1990-02-26

149

Fathers' and mothers' speech to young infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fathers' and mothers' speech to infants was obtained during face-to-face interaction in a laboratory setting. Thirty-two father-infant pairs and 40 mother-infant pairs participated. Infants were divided equally by sex and among two age groups with mean ages of 3 and 9 months. Parental utterances were transcribed from videotapes. The utterances were analyzed in terms of their structure and content. There

Jan C. Kruper; Ina C. Užgiris

1987-01-01

150

Maternal fatness and viability of preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the effect of maternal fatness on the mortality of infants born preterm up to the corrected age of 18 months 795 mother-infant pairs were studied. Maternal fatness was defined by Quetelet's index (weight\\/(height2)) and all infants weighed less than 1850 g at birth. In 771 mother-infant pairs maternal age, complications of pregnancy, mode of delivery, parity, social class,

A Lucas; R Morley; T J Cole; M F Bamford; A Boon; P Crowle; J F B Dossetor; R Pearse

1988-01-01

151

Infant Crying Among Recent African Immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in non-Western cultures have shown that infants cry very little, probably because they are carried constantly by caregivers. Western literature suggests that the bouts of persistent crying found in infants at least in part result from Western caregiving practices. This study was conducted to describe crying patterns of a small sample (n = 8) of infants born to recent

Doris A. Bleah; Marsha L. Ellett

2010-01-01

152

Locomotor Expertise Predicts Infants' Perseverative Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined the development of inhibition in a locomotor context. In a within-subjects design, infants received high- and low-demand locomotor A-not-B tasks. In Experiment 1, walking 13-month-old infants followed an indirect path to a goal. In a control condition, infants took a direct route. In Experiment 2, crawling and walking…

Berger, Sarah E.

2010-01-01

153

Infants and Toddlers, 2001-2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is comprised of the 2001-2002 issues of a quarterly journal for teachers and parents of children in Montessori infant and toddler programs. The spring 2001 issue presents articles on the history of infant and toddler programs in Italy and how to fulfill infant needs in Montessori child care, and on learning activities in the kitchen…

Kroenke, Lillian DeVault, Ed.

2002-01-01

154

Pattern Induction by Infant Language Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do infants learn the sound patterns of their native language? By the end of the 1st year, infants have acquired detailed aspects of the phonology and phonotactics of their input language. However, the structure of the learning mechanisms underlying this process is largely unknown. In this study, 9-month-old infants were given the opportunity to induce specific phonological patterns in

Jenny R. Saffran; Erik D. Thiessen

2003-01-01

155

Young Children's Interest in Unfamiliar Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of children's gender perceptions of infants as "like me" or "not like me" on their behavioral interest in infants were experimentally manipulated. Thirty-seven boys and 34 girls at two age levels were observed in 10-minute encounters with unfamiliar seven-month-old infants and their mothers. (Author/RH)

Melson, Gail F.; Fogel, Alan

1982-01-01

156

The Power of Touch: Massage for Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The potential benefits of massage for infants are discussed, including the role of touch on attachment and bonding and implications of massage for special needs infants. Research results on the benefits of massage for the infant and caregiver are covered, including increased bonding and enhanced growth and development. Historical information on…

Schneider, Elaine Fogel

1996-01-01

157

Do Infants Show Generalized Imitation of Gestures?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments were conducted to investigate generalized imitation of manual gestures in 1- to 2-year-old infants. In Experiment 1, 6 infants were first trained four baseline matching relations (e.g., when instructed "Do this," to raise their arms after they saw the experimenter do so). Next, four novel gestures that the infants did not match in…

Horne, Pauline J.; Erjavec, Mihela

2007-01-01

158

Infant autonomic functioning and neonatal abstinence syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundNeonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) expression is widely variable among affected infants and the reasons for this variability are largely unknown; mechanisms that predispose infants to NAS expression are not understood. It has been postulated that the regulatory problems of prenatally drug exposed infants are manifested in dysfunctional vagal regulation of autonomic processes. The current study examines whether cardiac vagal tone,

Lauren M. Jansson; Janet A. DiPietro; Andrea Elko; Martha Velez

2010-01-01

159

Lead content of milk and infant formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's

1980-01-01

160

Motor Development of Infants with Positional Plagiocephaly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concurrent with recommendations to place infants to sleep in supine, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of infants with positional plagiocephaly (PP). Recent evidence suggests that infants who have decreased exposure to prone position may have a higher incidence of PP and may be at risk for a delay in the acquisition of certain motor…

Kennedy, Eileen; Majnemer, Annette; Farmer, Jean-Pierre; Barr, Ronald G.; Platt, Robert W.

2009-01-01

161

The Goldilocks Effect in Infant Auditory Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants must learn about many cognitive domains (e.g., language, music) from auditory statistics, yet capacity limits on their cognitive resources restrict the quantity that they can encode. Previous research has established that infants can attend to only a subset of available acoustic input. Yet few previous studies have directly examined infant

Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Aslin, Richard N.

2014-01-01

162

Shaken Infants: Controversies and Medical Evidence Revisted  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expert medical testimony in shaken infants is often critical for the successful prosecution of offenders. This article reviews recent controversies regarding shaken infants, and attempts to see what the evidence base says. These controversies centre around whether shaking can cause injuries to the brain of an infant, and whether the signs from other conditions can be distinguished from the signs

Teo Eng

163

The Neural Substrates of Infant Speech Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants often pay special attention to speech sounds, and they appear to detect key features of these sounds. To investigate the neural foundation of speech perception in infants, we measured cortical activation using near-infrared spectroscopy. We presented the following three types of auditory stimuli while 3-month-old infants watched a silent…

Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro

2014-01-01

164

Infant Communicative Behaviors and Maternal Responsiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative…

DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.

2014-01-01

165

High-frequency sensitivity in infants.  

PubMed

Auditory thresholds were determined for infants and adults to half-octave bands of noise centered at 10,000 and 19,000 hertz. Adults were significantly more sensitive than infants at 10,000 hertz, but at 19,000 hertz, adults and infants had comparable thresholds. PMID:7352294

Schneider, B; Trehub, S E; Bull, D

1980-02-29

166

Infant Developmental Outcomes: A Family Systems Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the current study was to examine whether parental mental health, parent-infant relationship, infant characteristics and couple's relationship factors were associated with the infant's development. Forty-two families took part at three time points. The first, at 3?months postpartum, involved a video recorded observation…

Parfitt, Ylva; Pike, Alison; Ayers, Susan

2014-01-01

167

Early Aggressive Nutrition for the Premature Infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition for sick newborn infants, both term and preterm, has been evolving since the first published report of use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in an infant. The more preterm infants have posed an even greater challenge, because optimal timing for use of enteral nutrition is an additional factor for completing their nutritional demands. Although benefiting the immune system among

Anjali Parish; Jatinder Bhatia

2008-01-01

168

Origins of Individual Differences in Infant Shyness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full adoption design was used to investigate the etiology of individual differences in infant shyness. The sample included 152 adopted infants tested at ages 1 and 2, their biological and adoptive parents, and 120 matched nonadoptive families participating in the Colorado Adoption Project. In this first report of parent-offspring resemblance for shyness in infancy, we found that infant shyness

Denise Daniels; Robert Plomin

1985-01-01

169

Infant feeding: which is the best practice?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the various ways of feeding infants from birth to one year since what an infant eats at this stage in life is crucial to his\\/her future health. Critically discusses the various practices of feeding infants, which are breast-feeding, artificial feeding, mixed feeding, and weaning. Reports on the investigations done in various countries of Europe, North America, some countries in

M. N. Anokwulu

2002-01-01

170

Attentional processing of infant emotion during late pregnancy and mother–infant relations after birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mother–infant relationship has an important influence on maternal mental health and infant development. Evidence suggests\\u000a that this relationship is enhanced by a mother’s sensitive response towards her infant’s distress. We proposed that attentional\\u000a processing of infant distress may indicate individual differences in this response. Research also suggests that maternal responses\\u000a develop during pregnancy. We therefore hypothesised that more sensitive

Rebecca M. Pearson; Stafford L. Lightman; Jonathan Evans

2011-01-01

171

Infant-mother and infant-father synchrony: The coregulation of positive arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the coregulation of positive affect during mother-infant and father-infant in- teractions, 100 couples and their first-born child were videotaped in face-to-face interactions. Parents' and infant's affective states were coded in one-second frames, and synchrony was measured with time- series analysis. The orientation, intensity, and temporal pattern of infant positive arousal were assessed. Synchrony between same-gender parent-infant dyads was

Ruth Feldman

2003-01-01

172

Infant leukaemias and cot deaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infant leukaemias differ from childhood leukaemias in ways which suggest that when haemopoietic neoplasms combine fetal origins with rapid growth rates they prevent normal development of the reticuloendothelial system and thus cause the sudden death of apparently healthy babies (stillbirths or cot deaths). Cot deaths are commoner in boys and have a peak incidence during the first half of infancy-that

A Stewart

1975-01-01

173

Measurement and the Newborn Infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of newborn babies is widely regarded as being too inaccurate to justify its regular practice. It is common for infants to be weighed at birth and for no other measurements to be made. Although such assumptions are superficially correct, it is possible to train people to perform accurate measurements and for improved performance to be sustained. Accurate sequential measurements

Alan T. Gibson; Sally Carney; Neil P. Wright; Jeremy K. H. Wales

2003-01-01

174

JAMA Patient Page: Premature Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... can be difficult for parents, doctors, and nurses. Medical research studies provide information about treatments and the likely course of an illness, but they cannot predict how each infant will recover from being born too ... (before birth) medical care, avoiding any exposure to tobacco smoke, avoiding ...

175

Some Thoughts about Infant Daycare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public concern about day care now focuses on infants and toddlers who began receiving out-of-home care before they had established attachments to their parents. In 1987, public conscience was inflamed by a series of reports in the popular media and the professional literature that underscored potential risks inherent in out-of-home care intiated…

Lamb, Michael E.; Sternberg, Kathleen J.

176

Infants' Recognition of Their Mothers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability of infants to recognize their mothers as distinct from others was investigated by presenting 6 boys and 6 girls at two age levels (5 weeks and 13 weeks) with the following six sequential stimulus conditions: (1) mother's face (MO); (2) stranger's face (SO); (3) mother's face with stranger's voice (MS); (4) stranger's face with mother's…

Bigelow, Ann

177

Atypical Infant Development. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 13 chapters of this text focus on the complex development issues and interdisciplinary service needs of infants and young children at risk and their families. The text is organized into four sections on: developmental and intervention principles, identification and assessment, developmental issues, and early intervention. Chapter titles and…

Hanson, Marci J., Ed.

178

Music Therapy with Premature Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

Standley, Jayne

2003-01-01

179

Hypocalcemic rachitic cardiomyopathy in infants  

PubMed Central

Hypocalcemic cardiomyopathy in infants is characterized by heart failure in a previously normal infant with hypocalcemia without organic cardiac lesion. Vitamin D deficiency rickets is increasing in Middle East. In a six month study 136 cases of rickets were diagnosed in the main Children’s Hospital in Almadinah but none of them showed evidence of cardiomyopathy. Concerned of missing this serious complication of rickets we searched pub med and present this review article. Results 61 cases of hypocalcemic cardiomyopathy were reported as case reports with two series of 16 and 15 cases from London and Delhi, respectively. The major features of these cases: the age ranged from one month to 15 months with a mean age of 5 months. All presented with heart failure and hypocalcemia. There was a minor feature of rickets in a few of the cases. All had high alkaline phosphatase. Echocardiology evidence of cardiomyopathy was found in all. Most of them responded to calcium, vitamin D and cardiotonic and diuretics. Discussion We concentrated on pathogenesis of this hypocalcemic cardiomyopathy and reviewed the literature. The evidence available supports that the most likely cause of cardiomyopathy is hypocalcemia. Hypovitamin D also contributes but hyperparathyroidism might have a protective role as we did not detect any evidence of cardiomyopathy with hyperparathyroidism and florid features of rickets. Conclusion We need to look out for cardiomyopathy among infants with hypocalcemia. For prevention maternal supplementation during pregnancy and lactation with up to 2000 units of vitamin D and 400 units for their infants. PMID:24174842

Elidrissy, Abdelwahab T.H.; Munawarah, Medinah; Alharbi, Khalid M.

2012-01-01

180

What Do Infants Really Eat?  

PubMed

This article compares the feeding practices of healthy infants reported by their mothers in studies spanning two decades. Nutrient intakes are largely adequate and feeding practices are changing to meet recommendations, but breast-feeding rates do not meet public health guidelines. PMID:11984433

Ryan, Claire; Dwyer, Johanna; Ziegler, Paula; Yang, Eunju; Moore, Linda; Song, Won O.

2002-01-01

181

Superfund Cleanups and Infant Health  

E-print Network

We are the first to examine the effect of Superfund cleanups on infant health rather than focusing on proximity to a site. We study singleton births to mothers residing within 5km of a Superfund site between 1989-2003 in ...

Currie, Janet

182

abnormalities in infants and toddlers  

E-print Network

, Akshoomoff 2000). Similarly, patients with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) have decreased cerebellar volumesCerebellar abnormalities in infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome Wendy Jones* PhD, The Salk-mail: jones@crl.ucsd.edu One commonly observed neuroanatomical abnormality in adults with Williams syndrome

Bellugi, Ursula

183

Infants' Memory for Musical Performances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluated 6- and 7-month-olds' preference and memory for expressive recordings of sung lullabies. In Experiment 1, both age groups preferred lower-pitched to higher-pitched renditions of unfamiliar lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants were tested after 2 weeks of daily exposure to a lullaby at one pitch level. Seven-month-olds listened…

Volkova, Anna; Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn

2006-01-01

184

Infant Memory for Musical Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined memory of 7-month-olds after 2-week retention interval for passages of two Mozart movements heard daily for 2 weeks. Results suggested that the infants retained familiarized music in long-term memory and that their listening preferences were affected by the extent to which familiar passages were removed from the musical…

Saffran, Jenny R.; Loman, Michelle M.; Robertson, Rachel R. W.

2000-01-01

185

Infant Mortality: 1989 Research Accomplishments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collected in this document are reports of the National Institutes of Health's 1989 accomplishments in research on the problem of infant mortality. Reports are provided by the: (1) National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; (2) National Cancer Institute; (3) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; (4) National Institute of…

National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

186

Fetal Antecedents of Infant Temperament.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined fetal heart rate and movement in 31 healthy fetuses from 20 weeks through birth and at age 6 months. Found that more active fetuses were more difficult, unpredictable, unadaptable, and active as infants that were less active fetuses, and that higher fetal heart rate was associated with lower emotional tone, activity level, and…

DiPietro, Janet A.; And Others

1996-01-01

187

Infants' Perception of Object Trajectories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filling in the gaps in what humans see is a fundamental perceptual skill, but little is known about the developmental origins of occlusion perception. Three experiments were conducted with infants between 2 and 6 months of age to investigate perception of the continuity of an object trajectory that was briefly occluded. The pattern of results across experiments provided little evidence

Scott P. Johnson; J. Gavin Bremner; Alan Slater; Uschi Mason; Kirsty Foster; Andrea Cheshire

2003-01-01

188

Frequency Discrimination in Young Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frequency difference thresholds were determined for fourteen 4- to 9-month-old infants (mean age, 6 months 10 days) using a discrimination learning paradigm, following a one-up, two-down staircase procedure. The subject heard 500 msec tone bursts repeated at a rate of one per sec, with a fixed standard frequency. At various points in this pulse…

Olsho, Lynne Werner; And Others

189

Sleep Homeostasis in Infant Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homeostatic regulation is a defining characteristic of sleep but has rarely been examined in infants. This study presents an automated method of sleep deprivation in which 5-day-old rats were shocked whenever the nuchal muscle became atonic. The intensity of shock was always set at the minimal level required to maintain arousal. Deprived pups exhibited rapid increases in sleep pressure, as

Mark S. Blumberg; Jessica E. Middlemis-Brown; Eric D. Johnson

2004-01-01

190

What is known about infant colic?  

PubMed

The ancient Greeks were the first to mention infant colic in recorded history; yet in 2002, the cause of infant colic is still unknown. Review of the infant colic literature suggests there are at least five possible explanations-cow's milk/soy protein allergy or intolerance; immature gastrointestinal system; immature central nervous system; difficult infant temperament; and parent-infant interaction problems consisting of either the transfer of parental anxiety to the infant or the inability of the infant to give clear cues about needs to the caregiver. It is likely the cause of infant colic is multifactorial because it has proven to be so elusive. One or more of the above explanations (or as yet an undiscovered explanation) is likely to play a role in the development of colic in a given infant. Determining the most probable explanation for each infant and then selecting interventions based on this explanation is likely to be more successful in preventing or decreasing the length or frequency of episodes than the various trial-and-error approaches to treatment currently recommended by healthcare providers. Infant colic is an important clinical problem that is amenable to nursing intervention. PMID:12682526

Cirgin Ellett, Marsha L

2003-01-01

191

Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed, and children's saliva was sampled before, during, and after standardized procedures designed to elicit emotional arousal. Results revealed cocaine-exposed infants had a high amplitude trajectory of cortisol reactivity compared to non-cocaine-exposed infants. Infant gender and caregiving instability moderated this association. The findings support a dual hazard vulnerability model and have implications for evolutionary-developmental theories of individual differences in biological sensitivity to context. PMID:19467009

Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

2009-01-01

192

Do Infants Influence their Quality of Care? Infants' Communicative Gestures Predict Caregivers' Responsiveness  

PubMed Central

Infants’ effects on adults are a little studied but important aspect of development. What do infants do that increases caregiver responsiveness in childcare environments? Infants’ communicative behaviors (i.e. smiling, crying) affect mothers’ responsiveness; and preschool children’s language abilities affect teachers’ responses in the classroom setting. However, the effects of infants’ intentional communications on either parents’ or non-parental caregivers’ responsiveness have not been examined. Using longitudinal video data from an infant classroom where infant signing was used along with conventional gestures (i.e. pointing), this study examines whether infants’ use of gestures and signs elicited greater responsiveness from caregivers during daily interactions. Controlling child age and individual child effects, infants’ gestures and signs used specifically to respond to caregivers elicited more responsiveness from caregivers during routine interactions. Understanding the effects of infants’ behaviors on caregivers is critical for helping caregivers understand and improve their own behavior towards children in their care. PMID:19560826

Vallotton, Claire D.

2012-01-01

193

Analysis of Mother-Infant Interaction in Infants with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Delays in development of early social behaviors in babies with Down syndrome are likely to affect patterns of interaction with their caregivers. We videotaped 23 babies in face-to-face interaction with their mothers at 8 and 20 weeks of age and compared them to 23 typically developing infants and their mothers. Social behaviors, mothers'…

Slonims, Vicky; McConachie, Helen

2006-01-01

194

Distinguishing Mother-Infant Interaction from Stranger-Infant Interaction at 2, 4, and 6 Months of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Observers watched videotaped face-to-face mother-infant and stranger-infant interactions of 12 infants at 2, 4, or 6 months of age. Half of the observers saw each mother paired with her own infant and another infant of the same age (mother tapes) and half saw each infant paired with his or her mother and with a stranger (infant tapes). Observers…

Bigelow, Ann E.; Power, Michelle; Mcquaid, Nancy; Ward, Ashley; Rochat, Philippe

2008-01-01

195

Infant autonomic functioning and neonatal abstinence syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) expression is widely variable among affected infants and the reasons for this variability are largely unknown; mechanisms that predispose infants to NAS expression are not understood. It has been postulated that the regulatory problems of prenatally drug exposed infants are manifested in dysfunctional vagal regulation of autonomic processes. The current study examines whether cardiac vagal tone, an indicator of parasympathetic neuroregulation, provides a marker for autonomic dysregulation subsequently expressed as NAS in prenatally opioid-exposed newborns. Methods Heart period (HP) and cardiac vagal tone (V) were derived from electrocardiogram data collected from 64 methadone-exposed infants on postnatal days 1 and 3. The postpartum NAS course was assessed serially. Results Infants with lower V on day 1 had significantly higher NAS symptomatology on day 3. Boys had more severe NAS symptoms than girls through the first 4 days of life and, among infants receiving pharmacologic treatment for NAS, boys required longer treatment course and hospitalizations. Greater poly-drug exposure, detected through toxicology screening throughout pregnancy, and cocaine use in particular, were associated with lower V and shorter HP (faster heart rate) in newborns. Multiple regression models accounted for 25 to 35% of the variance in NAS symptoms and duration of hospitalization in methadone-exposed infants. Significant predictors included infant sex, SSRI/SNRI use, and cigarette smoking. Conclusions Results support the hypothesis of a biologic vulnerability of autonomic regulatory functioning in methadone-exposed infants and greater male infant vulnerability to maternal methadone use. PMID:20189732

Jansson, Lauren M.; DiPietro, Janet A.; Elko, Andrea; Velez, Martha

2010-01-01

196

Normative Features of Black Infant-Parent Attachment Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Characteristic patterns of infant-parent relationships were examined in a sample of Black infants presumed to be at low risk for psychopathological development. Infant responses toward parents and a stranger in a structured laboratory play session were analyzed to determine normative patterns of Black infant-parent attachments. Infant exploratory…

Jackson, Jacquelyne Faye

197

A History of Infant Feeding  

PubMed Central

The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

2009-01-01

198

Anatomy of the infant head  

SciTech Connect

This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ.

Bosma, J.F.

1986-01-01

199

Iliopsoas abscess in an infant.  

PubMed

Iliopsoas abscess (IPA) is uncommon in childhood and very rare in the neonate and infant. We present a case of IPA after an umbilical granuloma in an infant. A baby girl with a birth weight of 2,970 g was born at thirty-seven weeks and two days gestation by Caesarean Section. On the fourteenth day after birth, her umbilicus was wet and developed the granulomatous formation. At two months of age, she presented with right leg and groin swelling with mild bluish discoloration and without fever. She had poor movement of her right leg and showed apparent discomfort. Her umbilicus was dry and there was no granulomatous material. Ultrasonography and computed tomography demonstrated an iliopsoas abscess in the right position. Therefore, an extraperitoneal surgical drainage was performed, aspirating yellowish pus. Culture of the purulent material revealed Staphylococcus aureus. Systemic antibiotic therapy was continued for ten days. After three days of drainage, full-range motion of the right leg was gained, and then after eleven days, CT findings comfirmed the disappearance of the iliopsoas abscess. IPA is extremely rare and it is difficult to diagnose. However, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of an infant with poor leg movement and swelling of the groin to the femur. PMID:24705769

Ishibashi, Hiroki; Oshio, Takehito; Sogami, Tomoko; Nii, Akira; Mori, Hiroki; Yada, Keigo; Shimada, Mitsuo

2014-01-01

200

Observed and Reported Supportive Coparenting as Predictors of Infant-Mother and Infant-Father Attachment Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined associations between supportive coparenting and infant-mother and infant-father attachment security. Observed and parent-reported coparenting, and observed maternal and paternal sensitivity were assessed in a sample of 68 families with 3.5-month-old infants. Infant-mother and infant-father attachment security were assessed in…

Brown, Geoffrey L.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Neff, Cynthia

2010-01-01

201

Infants' Vagal Regulation in the Still-Face Paradigm Is Related to Dyadic Coordination of Mother-Infant Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated relations between mother-infant dyadic coordination and infants' physiological responses. Mothers (N=73) and 3-month-old male and female infants were observed in the still-face paradigm, and mothers' and infants' affective states were coded at 1-s intervals. Synchrony and levels of matching between mother-infant affective…

Moore, Ginger A.; Calkins, Susan D.

2004-01-01

202

How Infants Learn About the Visual World  

PubMed Central

The visual world of adults consists of objects at various distances, partly occluding one another, substantial and stable across space and time. The visual world of young infants, in contrast, is often fragmented and unstable, consisting not of coherent objects but rather surfaces that move in unpredictable ways. Evidence from computational modeling and from experiments with human infants highlights three kinds of learning that contribute to infants' knowledge of the visual world: learning via association, learning via active assembly, and learning via visual-manual exploration. Infants acquire knowledge by observing objects move in and out of sight, forming associations of these different views. In addition, the infant's own self-produced behavior—oculomotor patterns and manual experience, in particular—are important means by which infants discover and construct their visual world. PMID:21116440

Johnson, Scott P.

2010-01-01

203

Assessing Vocal Development in Infants and Toddlers  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine changes in prelinguistic vocal productions during the first 20 months of life. Vocalizations were classified into 23 mutually exclusive and exhaustive types, and grouped into five ascending levels using the Stark Assessment of Early Vocal Development-Revised (SAEVD-R). Data from 30 typically developing infants, aged 0–20 months, show that older infants attained higher developmental levels on the SAEVD-R than younger infants. Infants 0–2, 3–5, and 6–8 months of age primarily produced vocalizations from Levels 1 (Reflexive), 2 (Control of Phonation), and 3 (Expansion). Infants 9–20 months of age also produced vocalizations from Level 4 (Basic Canonical Syllables). Only infants from 16–20 months of age produced Level 5 (Advanced Forms) vocalizations in significant quantities. The outcomes indicate that the SAEVD-R is a valuable instrument for evaluating prelinguistic vocal development. PMID:16728333

Nathani, Suneeti; Ertmer, David J.

2012-01-01

204

Using Language to Navigate the Infant Mind  

PubMed Central

How do infants represent objects, actions, and relations in events? In this review, we discuss an approach to studying this question that begins with linguistic theory—specifically, semantic structures in language. On the basis of recent research exploring infant cognition and prominent linguistic analyses, we examine whether infants' representations of motion events are articulated in terms of the components proposed by Talmy (1985; e.g., path, manner) and whether infants' event representations are defined in terms of broad semantic roles (agent, patient, source, goal) as proposed by Jackendoff (1990) and Dowty (1991). We show how recent findings in infant cognition are consistent with the idea that the infant's representation of events is a close reflection of the linguistic categories. We especially highlight research that is explicitly guided by linguistic categories likely to have correlates in nonlinguistic cognition to illustrate the usefulness of using language to pose questions about early conceptual representations. PMID:20161142

Wagner, Laura; Lakusta, Laura

2009-01-01

205

Maternal behavior and perceived sex of infant.  

PubMed

Eleven mothers interacted with one six-month-old male infant, dresses either as a male or female. Differences were found in overall maternal stimulation and toy handling as a function of perceived sex of the baby. Mothers interviewed reported that treatment of their own infants was not differentiated by sex. Results indicate that mothers behave according to their expectations rather than infant cues, although unaware of their stereotyping. PMID:1247092

Will, J A; Self, A; Datan, N

1976-01-01

206

Optimizing growth in the preterm infant.  

PubMed

Most very low birth weight preterm infants experience postnatal growth failure in the neonatal ICU. In an attempt to minimize this phenomenon, the nutritional support of these infants has tended to become more aggressive in recent years and has become a focus of much study. Despite this attention, many questions remain unresolved. This article examines several of these issues, including the controversies regarding optimal postnatal growth velocity, early aggressive nutritional support, and the transition to enteral nutrition in preterm infants. PMID:19161873

Uhing, Michael R; Das, Utpala G

2009-03-01

207

The Social Context of Infant Intention Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional looking-time paradigms are often used to assess infants’ attention to socio-cognitive phenomena, but the link between these laboratory scenarios and real-world interactions is unclear. The current study investigated hypothesized relations between traditional social-cognitive looking-time paradigms and their real-world counterparts in caregiver-infant social interaction. Seventy-five 10- to 12-month-old infants participated in a structured play session with their caregiver, as well

Sarah Dunphy-Lelii; Jennifer LaBounty; Henry M. Wellman

2012-01-01

208

Infant Mortality: A Challenge to the Nation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From 1956-1960 an estimated 34,000 infants annually failed to survive in many parts of the United States due to risks far in excess of those for some areas of the country. There is a growing gap between death rates for white and nonwhite infants in the United States, with the excess mortality rate of nonwhite infants continuing to rise. Only 15…

Children's Bureau (DHEW), Washington, DC.

209

The Lost Infant: Impact on the Family  

PubMed Central

Stillbirth, sudden infant death syndrome, death of a premature infant or death of an infant through disease give rise grieving processes with many features in common. Feelings, particularly between the parents, and between parents and surviving children, must be dealt with if the grief reaction is to achieve a normal resolution. The family physician can be extremely helpful in bringing these issues to light. PMID:21293723

Higgins, G. L.

1980-01-01

210

Race\\/Ethnicity, Apgar and Infant Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Our general objective of this study is to furtherassess the predictive validity of Apgar scores on infant mortality using a national-level data setallowing for race\\/ethnic-specific variation. Method. This analysis is based on the 1989–1991NCHS Linked Birth\\/Infant Death files. Multivariate, multinomial logistic regression modelswere constructed adjusting for maternal behavioral and health risks, socioeconomic and demographicfactors, and infant characteristics. Results. After

Jamie Mihoko Doyle; Samuel Echevarria; W. Parker Frisbie

2003-01-01

211

Infant social attention predicts preschool social cognition.  

PubMed

Recent research examining infants' understanding of intentional action claims to be studying the early origins or precursors of children's later theories of mind If these infant understandings are continuous with later preschool achievements, there should be empirical connections between the two. We provide initial evidence that infants' social attention predicts later social cognition. Specifically, 14-month-olds' habituation to human intentional action significantly predicts later preschool mentalistic construal of persons, as measured on a Theory of Mind Scale. PMID:15595369

Wellman, Henry M; Phillips, Ann T; Dunphy-Lelii, Sarah; LaLonde, Nicole

2004-06-01

212

The Infant Parent Training Institute: A Developmental Model for Training Infant Mental Health Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Infant Parent Training Institute (IPTI) at Jewish Family and Children's Service of Greater Boston offers integrated clinical and theoretical infant mental health training. The curriculum reflects the belief that nurturing and reflective relationships promote optimal learning and growth. A specialty in infant mental health requires knowledge…

Arons, Judith; Epstein, Ann; Sklan, Susan

2011-01-01

213

Infants' and Mothers' Offers and Requests: The Effects of Physical Context and Infant Walking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how change occurs in infant gestural communication. Five infants were videotaped once a week from 10 to 12 months and twice a week from 12 to 15 months during play sessions with their mothers in a laboratory playroom. These sessions consisted of 10 minutes of a structured play context in which infants were seated at a table at…

Messinger, Daniel; Fogel, Alan

214

Analysis of HIV tropism in Ugandan infants  

PubMed Central

HIV-infected infants may have CXCR4-using (X4-tropic) HIV, CCR5-using (R5-tropic) HIV, or a mixture of R5-tropic and X4-tropic HIV (dual/mixed, DM HIV). The level of infectivity for R5 virus (R5-RLU) varies among HIV-infected infants. HIV tropism and R5-RLU were measured in samples from HIV-infected Ugandan infants using a commercial assay. DM HIV was detected in 7/72 (9.7%) infants at the time of HIV diagnosis (birth or 6–8 weeks of age, 4/15 (26.7%) with subtype D, 3/57 (5.3 %) with other subtypes, P=0.013). A transition from R5-tropic to DM HIV was observed in only two (6.7%) of 30 infants over 6–12 months. Six (85.7%) of seven infants with DM HIV died, compared to 21/67 (31.3%) infants with R5-tropic HIV (p=0.09). Higher R5-RLU at 6–8 weeks was not associated with decreased survival. Infants with in utero infection had a higher median R5-RLU than infants who were HIV-uninfected at birth (p=0.025). PMID:21073438

Church, Jessica D.; Huang, Wei; Mwatha, Anthony; Musoke, Philippa; Jackson, J. Brooks; Bagenda, Danstan; Omer, Saad B.; Donnell, Deborah; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Eure, Chineta; Guay, Laura A.; Taylor, Allan; Bakaki, Paul M.; Matovu, Flavia; McConnell, Michelle; Fowler, Mary Glenn; Eshleman, Susan H.

2010-01-01

215

Transitioning premature infants from gavage to breast.  

PubMed

Breast milk provides physiologic and neurodevelopmental protection for premature infants. Most hospitals are breast-milk friendly, but the number of premature infants breastfeeding successfully at discharge is relatively small. There are evidence-based techniques to improve the odds of premature infants breastfeeding at discharge and into the first year of life. Measures that help the infant make the transition to the breast include kangaroo care, nonnutritive sucking, avoidance of bottles, and consistent and supportive staff. A guide to management of the transition process is provided in this article. PMID:18232586

Nye, Carla

2008-01-01

216

Human milk supplementation for preterm infants.  

PubMed

Nutrition support of the premature infant must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and associated medical conditions. The beneficial effects of human milk extend to the feeding of premature infants. However, nutritional concerns arise because the quantity of nutrients in human milk may not meet the great nutrient needs of the premature infant born weighing less than 1500 g. Human milk fortifiers are available to provide optimum nutrition. This review summarizes the benefits and limitations of human milk for the premature infant. PMID:16214768

Schanler, Richard J

2005-10-01

217

Socially guided attention influences infants' communicative behavior.  

PubMed

For effective prelinguistic communication, infants must be able to direct their attention, vocalizations, and nonverbal gestures in social interactions. The purpose of our study was to examine how different styles of caregiver responses influenced infant attentional and communicative behavior in social interactions, based on prior studies that have shown influences of responsiveness on attention, language and cognitive outcomes. Infants were exposed to redirective and sensitive behavior systematically using an ABA design to examine real-time changes in infants' behavior as a function of caregiver responses. During the two baseline "A" periods, caregivers were instructed to play as they would at home. During the social response "B" period, caregivers were instructed to respond sensitively to infants' behavior on one visit and redirectively on the other visit. Results demonstrated that when caregivers behaved redirectively, infants shifted their attention more frequently and decreased the duration of their visual attention. Caregiver responses also resulted in changes in vocal and gesture production. Infants decreased their production of caregiver-directed vocalizations, gestures, and gesture-vocal combinations during in the redirective condition. Results suggest that caregiver sensitive responding to infants' attentional focus may be one influence on infants' attentional and prelinguistic communicative behavior. PMID:23906941

Miller, Jennifer L; Gros-Louis, Julie

2013-12-01

218

An Ecological Model for Premature Infant Feeding  

PubMed Central

Premature infants are at increased risk for poor health, feeding difficulties, and impaired mother-infant interaction leading to developmental delay. Social-environmental risks, such as poverty or minority status, compound these biologic risks, placing premature infants in double jeopardy. Guided by an ecological model, the Hospital-Home Transition: Optimizing Prematures’ Environment (H-HOPE) intervention combines the Auditory, Tactile, Visual, and Vestibular intervention with participatory guidance provided by a nurse and community advocate to address the impact of multiple risk factors on premature infants’ development. PMID:19614884

White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen

2013-01-01

219

Attention to infants in the first year.  

PubMed

The time spent by 158 infants in contact with their carers at 6, 13, 26 and 52 weeks was reviewed prospectively. Periods of contact in the categories of (1) physical care, (2) holding the crying or sleeping infant, and (3) playing and interacting with the infant were recorded using 24-h log diaries completed by the mother. The mean total carer contact time over a 24-h day did not change significantly in the first year, varying between 6.5 and 73 h. Between 6 and 52 weeks, time spent by the mother in physical care declined significantly from 207 to 143 min and in holding the crying or sleeping infant from 61 to 17 min (P < 0.05 and 0.0001 respectively). There were no significant changes in the amount of time spent in playing and interacting with the infant over the first year by the mother and father, the time being on average 52.7 and 25.0 min respectively. Play and interaction with a non-parental carer increased significantly from 14 to 69 min (P < 0.0001). Relationships between infant size and holding became weaker as the infant became older. Infant gender, socioeconomic status and duration of breast-feeding did not influence infant contact time. PMID:10921438

Baildam, E M; Hillier, V F; Menon, S; Bannister, R P; Bamford, F N; Moore, W M; Ward, B S

2000-05-01

220

An ecological model for premature infant feeding.  

PubMed

Premature infants are at increased risk for poor health, feeding difficulties, and impaired mother-infant interaction, leading to developmental delay. Social-environmental risks, such as poverty or minority status, compound these biological risks, placing premature infants in double jeopardy. Guided by an ecological model, the Hospital-Home Transition: Optimizing Prematures' Environment intervention combines the auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular intervention with participatory guidance provided by a nurse and community advocate to address the impact of multiple risk factors on premature infants' development. PMID:19614884

White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen

2009-01-01

221

Parental Differences in Infant-Directed Emotional Communication  

E-print Network

Past research on parent- infant communication has failed to examine how parents communicate emotions differently and the relationships that infant sex and infant attachment may have with parental communication. The present research examines how...

Goodman, Lynnel 1990-

2012-04-30

222

Facial Diversity and Infant Preferences for Attractive Faces.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies examined infant preferences for attractive faces of White males, White females, Black females, and infants. Infants viewed pairs of faces rated for attractiveness by adults. Preferences for attractive faces were found for all facial types. (BC)

Langlois, Judith H.; And Others

1991-01-01

223

Developmental Psychology Profiles of Observed Infant Anger Predict Preschool  

E-print Network

Developmental Psychology Profiles of Observed Infant Anger Predict Preschool Behavior Problems., & Goldsmith, H. H. (2014, August 25). Profiles of Observed Infant Anger Predict Preschool Behavior Problems0037693 #12;Profiles of Observed Infant Anger Predict Preschool Behavior Problems: Moderation by Life

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

224

Infant Safe Sleep Checklist Purpose: The goal of creating a safe sleep environment for infants is to reduce the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and other  

E-print Network

Infant Safe Sleep Checklist Purpose: The goal of creating a safe sleep environment for infants is to reduce the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and other sleep-related deaths such as accidental with a method for reviewing the infant's sleep environment. This checklist can serve as a basis for providing

Garfunkel, Eric

225

In press, Infancy. Infant Affect at 3 and 6 Months 1 Infant Affect During Parent-Infant Interaction  

E-print Network

the value of considering family history of psychopathology when examining individual differences in infants at 3 and 6 Months: Differences Between Mothers and Fathers and Influence of Parent History the still-face condition, infants of parents with a lifetime history of depression were more likely

Cohn, Jeffrey F.

226

Infant gaze following during parent-infant coviewing of baby videos.  

PubMed

A total of 122 parent-infant dyads were observed as they watched a familiar or novel infant-directed video in a laboratory setting. Infants were between 12-15 and 18-21 months old. Infants were more likely to look toward the TV immediately following their parents' look toward the TV. This apparent social influence on infant looking at television was not solely due to the common influence of the television program on looking behavior. Moreover, infant looks that were preceded by parent looks tended to be longer in length than those that were not preceded by parent looks, suggesting that infants assign greater value to media content attended to by their parents. Thus, parental patterns of attention to television may influence early viewing behavior. PMID:23072612

Demers, Lindsay B; Hanson, Katherine G; Kirkorian, Heather L; Pempek, Tiffany A; Anderson, Daniel R

2013-01-01

227

Giant thymolipoma in an infant.  

PubMed

Thymolipomas are benign neoplasms that usually occur in adults and are rarely described in children. They are usually detected incidentally but can be of massive size and lead to respiratory compromise. A 6-month-old boy presented with respiratory distress and an anterior mediastinal mass which proved to be a thymolipoma. He underwent surgical resection and remains well on follow-up. Although rare, thymolipomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis even in infants presenting with an anterior mediastinum mass. PMID:24621238

Parakh, Ankit; Singh, Varinder; Subramaniam, R; Narula, Mahender Kaur; Agarwala, Surendra Kumar; Shukla, Shailaja

2014-08-01

228

Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

2010-01-01

229

Infant Object Segregation Implies Information Integration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues for an informational processing explanation for young infants' ability to use featural cues to differentiate objects, centering on the development of infants' ability to integrate both featural and object information. Considers information processing propositions and evidence on object segregation. (JPB)

Cohen, Leslie B.; Cashon, Cara H.

2001-01-01

230

Who's Vulnerable in Infant Child Care Centers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that infants and toddlers, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to a variety of infectious diseases from infant-toddler child care centers. These diseases include infectious diarrhea; rubella; cytomeglovirus; hepatitis A, and haemophilus influenza type B. Suggests ways to prevent the spread of such diseases. (BB)

Kendall, Earline D.; Moukaddem, Virginia E.

1992-01-01

231

Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

2010-01-01

232

Infants Segment Continuous Events Using Transitional Probabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout their 1st year, infants adeptly detect statistical structure in their environment. However, little is known about whether statistical learning is a primary mechanism for event segmentation. This study directly tests whether statistical learning alone is sufficient to segment continuous events. Twenty-eight 7- to 9-month-old infants

Stahl, Aimee E.; Romberg, Alexa R.; Roseberry, Sarah; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn

2014-01-01

233

The Cradle Board and Infant Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit deals with Iroquois culture of the past and the aspects of that culture which continue to exist in the longhouse tradition at the present time. The unit contains three sections: (1) an outline of the concept, Indian infant care, and the vocabulary, objectives, and materials; (2) a lesson plan on the mode of caring for infants in Native…

Clute, Myron; And Others

234

Infant Categorization of Faces: Ladies First  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We review and provide empirical evidence to show that infants categorize and process male and female faces differently, with an advantage in processing female faces. To understand this asymmetry in categorization and processing of male and female faces, we evaluate three mechanisms influencing infant categorization of male and female faces:…

Ramsey, J.L.; Langlois, J.H.; Marti, N.C.

2005-01-01

235

Infant walker use, injuries, and motor development  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To study the impact of infant walker use on motor development and injuries. POPULATION: One hundred and eighty five parents or primary care givers who attended a Singapore government polyclinic from September 1993 to February 1994, with their infants between 7 to 10 months, for a developmental assessment session. SETTING: A government polyclinic in Singapore. METHODS: The parent or

M. M. Thein; J. Lee; V. Tay; S. L. Ling

1997-01-01

236

Infant Eyes: A Window on Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking "under the hood" if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants' gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous…

Aslin, Richard N.

2012-01-01

237

Daily Programming for Infants in Day Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes an infant day care curriculum which provides guidelines for programs that are involved with very young children. The goal of such programs should be the development of children's self confidence, love of learning, and feelings of importance and success. Activities for infants and toddlers should stimulate intellectual…

Taylor, Arlette; Ryan, Margaret

238

Art and the Infant-Toddler Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stages in the development of art expression in infants and toddlers are briefly described and illustrated in this paper. Following this overview, suggestions are made about ways to introduce infants and toddlers to various developmentally appropriate media and how to support the artistic efforts of very young children. Materials recommended…

Lamb, Marilyn

239

Imitation of Televised Models by Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children aged 14 and 24 months were shown television depictions of adults manipulating toys in novel ways. Infants at both ages showed imitation of television models, even after 24-hour delays. This deferred imitation has social and policy implications as it suggests that television viewing can potentially affect infant behavior and development…

Meltzoff, Andrew N.

1988-01-01

240

Cooing, Crying, Cuddling: Infant Brain Development. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting recent neuroscience research findings suggesting that caregivers play a vital role in brain development, this videotape explores the process of brain development during the first 15 months of life and presents implications for infant care. Part 1 of the 28-minute video discusses basic infant development and brain research, focusing on how…

National Association for the Education of Young Children, Washington, DC.

241

Paraprofessionals in Infant/Family Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Zero to Three is a single focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that sometimes practice needs to be "translated" into research, as with understanding the phenomenon of paraprofessional workers in…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

2002-01-01

242

Infant Contingency Learning in Different Cultural Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three-month-old Cameroonian Nso farmer and German middle-class infants were compared regarding learning and retention in a computerized mobile task. Infants achieving a preset learning criterion during reinforcement were tested for immediate and long-term retention measured in terms of an increased response rate after reinforcement and after a…

Graf, Frauke; Lamm, Bettina; Goertz, Claudia; Kolling, Thorsten; Freitag, Claudia; Spangler, Sibylle; Fassbender, Ina; Teubert, Manuel; Vierhaus, Marc; Keller, Heidi; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Knopf, Monika

2012-01-01

243

Lateral Asymmetries in Infant Melody Perception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments investigated lateral asymmetries in eight-month-olds' perception of contour-altered and contour-preserved melody changes. Found that infants who heard a contour-altered change showed a left-ear advantage, whereas infants who heard a contour-preserved change showed a right-ear advantage. The pattern of lateralization for melody…

Balaban, Marie T.; Anderson, Linda M.; Wisniewski, Amy B.

1998-01-01

244

Air Pollution and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Sudden infant death syn- drome (SIDS) affects 1 in 1000 live births and is the most common cause of infant death after the perinatal period. Objective. To determine the influence of air pollution on the incidence of SIDS. Methods. Time-series analyses were performed to compare the daily mortality rates for SIDS and the daily air pollution concentrations in each

Robert Dales; Richard T. Burnett; Marc Smith-Doiron; David M. Stieb; Jeffrey R. Brook

2009-01-01

245

Feeding the normal infant, child and adolescent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal infants and children from around the world, when placed in a healthy environment, grow and develop at a similar rate as a matter of course by effectively utilizing the energy and nutrients derived from the diet. The form in which food is best provided varies with age. Infants should be given human milk as the sole source of dietary

Alan A. Jackson

2011-01-01

246

Development of Categorical Exclusivity in Young Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has shown that 3- to 4-month-old infants form a global categorical representation for cats that includes female lions, whereas 6- to 7-month-old infants differentiate between cats and lions. Three experiments using familiarization-novelty preference procedures attempted to determine whether the differentiation of a global…

Eimas, Peter D.; And Others

247

Immune Vulnerability of Infants to Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

One of the challenges faced by the infant immune system is learning to distinguish the myriad of foreign but nonthreatening antigens encountered from those expressed by true pathogens. This balance is reflected in the diminished production of proinflammatory cytokines by both innate and adaptive immune cells in the infant. A downside of this bias is that several factors critical for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection are significantly restricted in infants, including TNF, IL-1, and IL-12. Furthermore, infant T cells are inherently less capable of differentiating into IFN-?-producing T cells. As a result, infected infants are 5–10 times more likely than adults to develop active tuberculosis (TB) and have higher rates of severe disseminated disease, including miliary TB and meningitis. Infant TB is a fundamentally different disease than TB in immune competent adults. Immunotherapeutics, therefore, should be specifically evaluated in infants before they are routinely employed to treat TB in this age group. Modalities aimed at reducing inflammation, which may be beneficial for adjunctive therapy of some forms of TB in older children and adults, may be of no benefit or even harmful in infants who manifest much less inflammatory disease. PMID:23762096

Vanden Driessche, Koen; Marais, Ben J.; Fink, Pamela J.; Urdahl, Kevin B.

2013-01-01

248

Reducing Infant Mortality. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the wide range of expertise that has been brought to bear on reducing infant mortality across the nation, the first year of life remains a time of considerable risk for many babies. Although the U.S. spends more on health care than any other country, its infant mortality rate remains higher than that of most other industrialized nations.…

Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

2009-01-01

249

Update in Maternal and Infant Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review emphasizes research that confirms or questions established practices regarding maternal and infant nutrition. Controversial issues include weight gain and use of vitamins and mineral supplements during pregnancy and the effects of second-hand smoke. Infant nutrition topics include use of unmodified cow's milk, level of fat, and…

Johnston, Elizabeth M.

1989-01-01

250

Ipratropium bromide for symptomatic preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve preterm infants, median gestational age 31.5 weeks, were entered into a randomised, placebocontrolled trial of bronchodilator therapy. Their postnatal age was a median of 17.5 months and all suffered from recurrent respiratory symptoms. The infants received either inhaled placebo or 40 ?g of ipratropium bromide (active therapy) three times a day utilising a coffee cup as a spacer device.

B. Yuksel; A. Greenough

1991-01-01

251

Motor Acquisition Rate in Brazilian Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) with the aim of characterizing motor acquisition rate in 70 healthy 0-6-month-old Brazilian infants, as well as comparing both emergence (initial age) and establishment (final age) of each skill between the study sample and the AIMS normative data. New motor skills were continuously acquired…

Lopes, Virlaine Bardella; de Lima, Carolina Daniel; Tudella, Eloisa

2009-01-01

252

Young infants have biological expectations about animals  

E-print Network

to be different from those of artifacts (1, 2); they realize that the insides of an animal are essential for its" and the "biological" hypotheses. According to the nonbiological hypothesis, infants do not endow animals hypothesis differ greatly in their theoretical views on how infants come to understand self

253

Preference patterns in infant vowel perception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infants show directional asymmetries in vowel discrimination tasks that reveal an underlying perceptual bias favoring more peripheral vowels. Polka and Bohn (2003) propose that this bias is language independent and plays an important role in the development of vowel perception. In the present study we measured infant listening preferences for vowels to assess whether a perceptual bias favoring peripheral vowels can be measured more directly. Monolingual (French and English) and bilingual infants completed a listening preference task using multiple natural tokens of German /dut/ and /dyt/ produced by a male talker. In previous work, discrimination of this vowel pair by German-learning and by English-learning infants revealed a robust directional asymmetry in which /u/ acts as a perceptual anchor; specifically, infants had difficulty detecting a change from /u/ to /y/, whereas a change from /y/ to /u/ was readily detected. Preliminary results from preference tests with these stimuli show that most infants between 3 and 5 months of age also listen longer to /u/ than to /y/. Preference data obtained from older infants and with other vowel pairs will also be reported to further test the claim that peripheral vowels have a privileged perceptual status in infant perception.

Molnar, Monika T.; Polka, Linda

2001-05-01

254

Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…

Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

2014-01-01

255

Sudden infant death syndrome: an overview.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) depends on a thorough and complete autopsy. Many of the infants who die of SIDS have common findings. There are certain steps to be taken for prevention and diagnosis of SIDS. Further investigation of this syndrome still is necessary. PMID:1436735

Graff, M A; Ramos, D G

1992-09-01

256

Training Student Teachers to Reposition Infants Frequently  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluated the effects of an intervention designed to increase the variety of positions experienced by infants in a child-care setting. Six student teachers were trained, using a multicomponent intervention, to reposition infants according to a chart. The intervention was successful in increasing the mean percentage of correct position changes…

Cotnoir-Bichelman, Nicole M.; Thompson, Rachel H.; McKerchar, Paige M.; Haremza, Jessica L.

2006-01-01

257

Treatment - mother-infant relationship psychotherapy.  

PubMed

In this chapter, we briefly describe several modes of parent-infant-psychotherapy, an efficient way of treating parent-infant relationship disorders. We then focus on treatment for postnatally depressed mothers. Perinatal depression defines an episode of major or minor depression occurring during pregnancy or the first 12 months after birth. Attachment-based parent-infant interventions are particularly helpful in the context of maternal perinatal depression, as postpartum depression has a special link with unresolved trauma and losses in the mother's childhood. The goal of treatment is to improve the mother's mood but also to prevent or reduce the effects of postpartum depression on the child. Infants of perinatally depressed mothers are at risk for a large array of negative outcomes, including attachment insecurity (particularly disorganised attachment), social-skills deficits, cognitive difficulties, behaviour problems, and later psychopathology. The 'ghosts in the nursery' concept refers to the painful or disturbed early childhood experiences coming from the mother's past, which haunt the present mother-infant relationship. By addressing the mother's unresolved attachment conflicts (in her relationship to her own parents), it is believed that the development of a more adaptive parenting and a more secure and less disorganised attachment between the mother and her infant is facilitated. Changes in parent- infant interaction are not dependent on the port of entry (e.g. child's behaviour, parent's representation or parent-infant relationship). The perspective of attachment is key to install a therapeutic alliance with parents. PMID:24045134

Guedeney, Antoine; Guedeney, Nicole; Wendland, Jaqueline; Burtchen, Nina

2014-01-01

258

Toys and Social Interaction between Infant Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results showed that infants as young as 10 months of age are responsive to the person and behavior of an unfamiliar peer and that they are no less responsive than older infants (22-24 months of age) to the social versus nonsocial aspects of a novel setting. (Author/JMB)

Eckerman, Carol O.; Whatley, Judith L.

1977-01-01

259

Infants' Individuation of Agents and Inert Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the violation-of-expectancy method, we investigated 10-month-old infants' ability to rely on dynamic features in object individuation processes. Infants were first familiarized to events in which two different objects repeatedly appeared and disappeared, one at a time from behind a screen; at test, the screen was removed, revealing either…

Surian, Luca; Caldi, Stefania

2010-01-01

260

The Distribution of Visual Attention in Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants were familiarized with geometric forms and were then tested with a novel form paired with the familiar one. Compared to infants who had longer looks at the display, those who had shorter looks demonstrated more broadly distributed looks, showed more looks and shifts, and inspected more stimulus areas; and their shifts included more…

Jankowski, Jeffery J.; Rose, Susan A.

1997-01-01

261

Electroencephalography and brain damage in preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a sensitive method for detection of brain injury in preterm infants. Although the acute and chronic EEG changes are mainly non-specific regarding type of damage, they correlate with later neurological and cognitive function. In infants developing brain white matter damage, acute EEG findings include depression of background activity and presence of epileptic seizure activity. The chronic EEG

Lena Hellström-Westas; Ingmar Rosén

2005-01-01

262

Strategies for Feeding the Preterm Infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to many experts in neonatal nutrition, the goal for nutrition of the preterm infant should be to achieve a postnatal growth rate approximating that of the normal fetus of the same gestational age. Unfortunately, most preterm infants, especially those born very preterm with extremely low birth weight, are not fed sufficient amounts of nutrients to produce normal fetal rates

2008-01-01

263

Enteral feeding of the preterm infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preterm infants pose a major nutritional challenge. The importance of early nutrition is emphasized by accumulating evidence that it influences long-term health and development as well as short-term growth and outcome. Human milk has many benefits for preterm infants. In the short term it is better tolerated than formula milk with a lower risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. In the longer

Mary Fewtrell; Alan Lucas

2002-01-01

264

Infants' Ability to Parse Continuous Actions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a series of 3 experiments, the authors examined 6- and 8-month-old infants' capacities to detect target actions in a continuous action sequence. In Experiment 1, infants were habituated to 2 different target actions and subsequently were presented with 2 continuous action sequences that either included or did not include the familiar target…

Hespos, Susan J.; Saylor, Megan M.; Grossman, Stacy R.

2009-01-01

265

The determinants of infant mortality in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines factors associated with infant survival in Pakistan. It uses data from the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey 1991, a nationally representative sample survey of the Government of Pakistan, funded by the World Bank. The infant mortality rate was still very high in Pakistan until the early 1990s, at 100 deaths per 1000 live births. The study shows that

Sohail Agha

2000-01-01

266

The Creative Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stemming from the core idea that infant and toddler care should be based on building relationships, this curriculum provides a foundation for staff development. Section 1, "Why a Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers?" examines key quality indicators; discusses curriculum components; describes how to use it to make decisions throughout a typical…

Dombro, Amy Laura; And Others

267

Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…

Cohen, Libby

268

Perception of Serial Order in Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Serial order is fundamental to perception, cognition and behavioral action. Three experiments investigated infants' perception, learning and discrimination of serial order. Four- and 8-month-old infants were habituated to three sequentially moving objects making visible and audible impacts and then were tested on separate test trials for their…

Lewkowicz, David J.

2004-01-01

269

Duodenal obstruction in Nigerian newborns and infants.  

PubMed

Experience with the management of congenital duodenal obstruction in a tropical environment is analysed with a view to highlighting some of the problems and suggesting solutions. 30 infants with duodenal obstruction were treated at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital between 1978 and 1985. 15 (50%) infants had duodenal atersia. 7 (23%) had Ladd's bands, 6 (20%) had duodenal diaphragm and there was one bay with partial duodenal obstruction caused by a duplication cyst. The associated abnormalities encountered in 7 infants are distal bowel atresia (3), partial situs inversus (3) and Trisomy 21 (1). Delay in presentation and inadequate facilities constituted the major constraints. 7 of the 25 infants that had corrective surgery died, a mortality of 28%. All the infants that were treated within the first 8 days of life survived. After this period survival was restricted to those with incomplete obstruction. Mortality can be reduced by the provision of adequate facilities and health education. PMID:3508631

Adeyemi, S D

1986-01-01

270

Shining light on infants' discovery of structure.  

PubMed

Learning and discovery seem often to begin with noting patterns. Human infants are skilled at pattern detection, even patterns only definable at an abstract level, which is key to their acquisition of complex knowledge systems such as language and music. However, research examining infants' abstract rule learning has generated inconsistent results. We propose that apparent domain differences in infants' abstract rule learning may be the result of extraneous stimulus variation and discrepancies in the methodologies employed across studies probing this skill. We discuss how a behavioral methodology indexing infants' online learning would be valuable in furthering understanding of infants' (as well as adults') abstract rule learning and its neurophysiological concomitants. We outline current research aimed at developing such an index, and we propose future research, pairing such techniques with neurophysiological methods, aimed at shining more light on human skill at discovering structure. PMID:24851348

Mendoza, Jennifer K; Baldwin, Dare

2014-01-01

271

Mental health of parents caring for infants.  

PubMed

The postpartum period is a sensitive time due to the presence and demands of the developing infant. The care provided by a mother to her infant during this period may be compromised if she is suffering from postnatal depression or postpartum psychosis. Evidence has been emerging which suggests that postnatal depression and postpartum psychoses have adverse effects on the quality of the mother-infant relationship and also on the infant's subsequent cognitive and emotional development. Presented is a review of the literature relating to how these conditions impact on parenting and infant outcomes, what measures are in place to detect these conditions and evidence-based models of best clinical practice are proposed. PMID:14615925

Murray, L; Cooper, P; Hipwell, A

2003-08-01

272

Cefoperazone pharmacokinetics in preterm infants.  

PubMed Central

The elimination pharmacokinetics of cefoperazone, a new cephalosporin, were studied in 15 preterm infants ranging in gestational age from 32 to 36 weeks and in postnatal age from 1 to 6 days. The infants received a single dose of either 50 or 250 mg of cefoperazone per kg by intravenous infusion. Blood samples were collected at specified times after completion of the drug infusion and then assayed for cefoperazone. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental analysis. Mean values for plasma half-life, elimination rate constant, apparent steady-state volume of distribution, and total body clearance were 5.53 h, 0.15 h-1, 124 ml/kg, and 36 ml/h per kg, respectively, for the group receiving a 50-mg/kg dose and 5.76 h, 0.14 h-1, 111 ml/kg, and 35 ml/h per kg, respectively, for the group receiving a 250-mg/kg dose. Positive correlations between gestational age and clearance and elimination rate were detected. A 50-mg/kg dose every 12 h ensured adequate serum levels for most of the common neonatal pathogens. Other than a transient rise in eosinophils in four subjects, no adverse effects were noted. PMID:6221693

Bosso, J A; Chan, G M; Matsen, J M

1983-01-01

273

Sudden infant death syndrome in Washington State: why are Native American infants at greater risk than white infants?  

PubMed

Washington State reports one of the highest rates of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in the United States; within the state, Native Americans have the highest rate of any racial group. To explore this apparent genetic predisposition, we conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study. Using the state's linked birth and death certificate file for 1984 to 1988, we compared infants whose mothers were coded as "American Indian" with infants whose mothers were coded as "white." Native American infants were more than three times more likely than white infants to die of SIDS (crude relative risk = 3.25; 95% confidence interval = 2.41 to 4.38). However, this elevated risk diminished after adjustment for differences between Native American and white mothers in age, marital status, parity, and smoking status during pregnancy (adjusted relative risk = 1.82; 95% confidence interval = 1.28 to 2.58). The high SIDS rate of Washington's Native Americans appears to be due to the high prevalence of SIDS risk factors among Native American mothers, rather than to a genetic predisposition in the infants. Because many of these maternal factors are related to socioeconomic status, it is likely that programs to improve the overall health of Native Americans might lessen both the impact of SIDS and that of other causes of infant morbidity and death. PMID:1640290

Irwin, K L; Mannino, S; Daling, J

1992-08-01

274

Birth timing and the mother-infant relationship predict variation in infant behavior and physiology.  

PubMed

The current study explored whether birth timing, known to influence the mother-infant relationship, also affected infant physiology up to 9 months later and infant behavior at weaning. Infant blood samples were collected at 5.75 and 8.75 months of age to assess functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as well as the antibody response to a Cholera vaccination. Path analysis indicated infants born late in the birth season had less Relaxed relationships with their mothers. A less-Relaxed relationship was associated with greater infant Positive Engagement and Distress, which were negatively correlated, suggesting infants may have different strategies of coping with this type of relationship. Low Relaxed scores were also associated with higher infant cortisol concentrations at 5.75 months, which was associated with a reduced immune response to a vaccination 3 months later. Together these results indicate that the influence of birth timing on the mother-infant relationship may have consequences for infant development. PMID:22886319

Vandeleest, Jessica J; Mendoza, Sally P; Capitanio, John P

2013-12-01

275

Vestibular Stimulation and Development of the Small Premature Infant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to explore the effects of vestibular stimulation on the developmental behavior, respiratory functioning, weight and length gains, and morbidity and mortality rates of premature infants. A total of 20 infants participated in this study in 4 groups of 5 infants each. Group A infants were placed in a motorized hammock within…

Neal, Mary V.

276

Give and Take: The Development of Conventional Infant Gestures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Observed infants' manual gestures while playing with mothers. Infants were more likely than mothers to request objects and less likely to respond to requests for objects. Vocalization accompanying requests increased with age. Infant gazing was most likely during offers that infants initiated without preceding maternal request. Unsolicited offers…

Messinger, Daniel S.; Fogel, Alan

1998-01-01

277

TYPICAL INFANTS Ability to self-initiate independent mobility  

E-print Network

with a larger sample of typically developing infants Replicate usability study with infants with motor of emotional, cognitive, and social development in 7-9m. Infants1 Associated with more flexible memory session To report on the development of a mobile robot system which allows infants to experience self

Stansfield, Sharon

278

Depressive Symptoms among Rural Bangladeshi Mothers: Implications for Infant Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine how maternal depressive symptoms are related to infant development among low-income infants in rural Bangladesh and to examine how the relationship is affected by maternal perceptions of infant irritability and observations of caregiving practices. Methods: Development was measured among 221 infants at 6 and 12 months with…

Black, Maureen M.; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Zaman, K.; McNary, Scot W.; Le, Katherine; El Arifeen, Shams; Hamadani, Jena D.; Parveen, Monowara; Yunus, Md.; Black, Robert E.

2007-01-01

279

Chapter 16: Origins of shared attention in human infants  

E-print Network

reflects a complex and nuanced interplay between infants' neural learning processes, their perceptual-motor by considering evidence from typically developing infants, infants with disabilities, juvenile nonhuman animals331 Chapter 16: Origins of shared attention in human infants Gedeon O. Deák and Jochen Triesch From

280

Contextual Basis of Maternal Perceptions of Infant Temperament  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To elucidate the differential saliency of infant emotions to mothers across interactive contexts, the authors examined the moderating role of observed infant affect during interactions with mother in the relation between maternal and laboratory-based ratings of infant temperament. Fifty-nine developmentally healthy 9-month-old infants were…

Hane, Amie Ashley; Fox, Nathan A.; Polak-Toste, Cindy; Ghera, Melissa M.; Guner, Bella M.

2006-01-01

281

Infant Negative Emotionality and Attachment: Implications for Preschool Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined the extent to which dimensions of infant negative temperament in the first year predicted IQ at age 3, and whether these associations depended on the quality of the infant-mother attachment relationship. In a sample of 63 infant-mother dyads, mothers completed Rothbart's (1981) IBQ when infants were 4 and 12…

Karrass, Jan; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

2004-01-01

282

Biobehavioral Organization in Securely and Insecurely Attached Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A biobehavioral perspective may help settle disagreements about the validity and interpretation of infants' different behavioral patterns of attachment. A study of 41 infants demonstrated that insecure-avoidant infants, despite showing less overt distress after short separations from their mother than secure infants, exhibited arousal patterns as…

Spangler, G.; Grossmann, K. E.

1993-01-01

283

Families, Not Parents, Differ: Development of Communication in Finnish Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study on Finnish families was conducted to identify developmental differences in family-level communication among mothers, fathers, and their infants during the second half of the infant's first year, and associations with infants' later language and communicative skills. We examined coregulated communication of parent-infant

Haapakoski, Maija; Silven, Maarit

2009-01-01

284

Relationships between Preterm Infants and Their Parents: Disruption and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The birth and hospitalization of a preterm infant have powerful effects on the emerging parent-infant relationship. Characteristics of parents, infant factors, and factors in the hospital and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) environments--in addition to the circumstances surrounding preterm birth--may disrupt parent-infant relationships.…

Talmi, Ayelet; Harmon, Robert J.

2003-01-01

285

Role of Gut Microbiota in Early Infant Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract is crucial for the overall health of the infant, and establishment and maintenance of non-pathogenic intestinal microbiota may reduce several neonatal infl ammatory conditions. Much effort has therefore been devoted to manipulation of the composition of the microbiota through 1) the role of early infant nutrition, particularly breast milk, and supplementation of infant

R Wall; R. P Ross; C. A Ryan; S Hussey; B Murphy; G. F Fitzgerald; C Stanton

2009-01-01

286

WIC's promotion of infant formula in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The United States' Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) distributes about half the infant formula used in the United States at no cost to the families. This is a matter of concern because it is known that feeding with infant formula results in worse health outcomes for infants than breastfeeding. DISCUSSION: The evidence that is

George Kent

2006-01-01

287

Preserved Visual Representations despite Change Blindness in Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combining theoretical hypotheses of infant cognition and adult perception, we present evidence that infants can maintain visual representations despite their failure to detect a change. Infants under 12 months typically fail to notice a change to an object's height in a covering event. The present experiments demonstrated that 11-month-old infants

Wang, Su-hua; Mitroff, Stephen R.

2009-01-01

288

Breastfeeding and the Mother-Infant Relationship--A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A positive effect of breastfeeding on the mother-infant relationship is often assumed in the scientific literature, but this has not been systematically reviewed. This review aims to clarify the role of breastfeeding in the mother-infant relationship, which is conceptualized as the maternal bond toward the infant and infant attachment toward the…

Jansen, Jarno; de Weerth, Carolina; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne

2008-01-01

289

Attachment Security in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared 34 infants of very low birth weight (VLBW) and 40 full-term infants, using Ainsworth's Strange Situation procedure and Waters' Attachment Q-Set. Found that, at 14 months, VLBW infants were more likely than full-term infants to be insecurely attached when rated using the Q-Set but not when using the Strange Situation. (MDM)

Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; And Others

1996-01-01

290

Effects of cocaine exposure on infant development: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the effects of maternal cocaine use on the developing human fetus and infant in terms of methodological problems; the physiological action of cocaine on adults and on the developing fetus; the epidemiology of cocaine use; effects on fetal and infant mortality; growth of cocaine-exposed fetuses and infants; physical anomalies; evidence for and against infant withdrawal from cocaine; neurological

Barbara J. Myers; Gena C. Britt; Diane E. Lodder; Kathy A. Kendall; Margaret G. Williams-Petersen

1992-01-01

291

Mechanical analysis of infant carrying in hominoids  

PubMed Central

In all higher nonhuman primates, species survival depends upon safe carrying of infants clinging to body hair of adults. In this work, measurements of mechanical properties of ape hair (gibbon, orangutan, and gorilla) are presented, focusing on constraints for safe infant carrying. Results of hair tensile properties are shown to be species-dependent. Analysis of the mechanics of the mounting position, typical of heavier infant carrying among African apes, shows that both clinging and friction are necessary to carry heavy infants. As a consequence, a required relationship between infant weight, hair–hair friction coefficient, and body angle exists. The hair–hair friction coefficient is measured using natural ape skin samples, and dependence on load and humidity is analyzed. Numerical evaluation of the equilibrium constraint is in agreement with the knuckle-walking quadruped position of African apes. Bipedality is clearly incompatible with the usual clinging and mounting pattern of infant carrying, requiring a revision of models of hominization in relation to the divergence between apes and hominins. These results suggest that safe carrying of heavy infants justify the emergence of biped form of locomotion. Ways to test this possibility are foreseen here. PMID:18030438

2007-01-01

292

Finger drawing by infant chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes).  

PubMed

We introduced a new technique to investigate the development of scribbling in very young infants. We tested three infant chimpanzees to compare the developmental processes of scribbling between humans and chimpanzees. While human infants start to scribble on paper at around the age of 18 months, our 13- to 23-month-old infant chimpanzees had never been observed scribbling prior to this study. We used a notebook computer with a touch-sensitive screen. This apparatus was able to record the location of the subjects' touches on the screen. Each touch generated a fingertip-sized dot at the corresponding on-screen location. During spontaneous interactions with this apparatus, all three infants and two mother chimpanzees left scribbles with their fingers on the screen. The scribbles contained not only simple dots or short lines, but also curves and hook-like lines or loops, most of which were observed in the instrumental drawings of adult chimpanzees. The results suggest that perceptual-motor control for finger drawing develops in infant chimpanzees. Two of the infants performed their first scribble with a marker on paper at the age of 20-23 months. Just prior to this, they showed a rapid increase in combinatory manipulation of objects. These findings suggest that the development of combinatory manipulation of objects as well as that of perceptual-motor control may be necessary for the emergence of instrumental drawing on paper. PMID:14605946

Tanaka, Masayuki; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

2003-12-01

293

Chronic family adversity and infant attachment security.  

PubMed

A beginning step in the prevention of psychopathology in children is the identification of conditions and events associated with a disproportionately high incidence of behavior problems. Rutter, Cox, Tupling, Berger and Yule (1975a, British Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 493-509) have reported a dramatic increase in the probability of children's adjustment difficulties as a function of multiple family stressors. However, this association has never been tested with infants. Among instruments of infant behavior, attachment classification has been found to be a significant predictor of later adjustment problems, particularly among low-income samples. The present investigation examines the relation between six significant familial stressors and infant attachment security in a sample of 100 low-income parent-infant dyads. Family stressors included parental criminality, maternal depressive symptomatology, maternal personality risk, overcrowding in the home, and the quality of the relationship with a significant other. Cumulative family adversity was found to differentiate secure from insecure infants, but only among families with three or four stressors present. There also was moderate support for one hypothesis derived from attachment theory, namely that stressors more closely associated with maternal functioning are more common among families with insecurely attached infants. Conceptual links between stressors and attachment are discussed, including pathways by which chronic stressors may interfere with the formation and maintenance of secure mother-infant attachment relations. PMID:8245142

Shaw, D S; Vondra, J I

1993-10-01

294

Mechanical analysis of infant carrying in hominoids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In all higher nonhuman primates, species survival depends upon safe carrying of infants clinging to body hair of adults. In this work, measurements of mechanical properties of ape hair (gibbon, orangutan, and gorilla) are presented, focusing on constraints for safe infant carrying. Results of hair tensile properties are shown to be species-dependent. Analysis of the mechanics of the mounting position, typical of heavier infant carrying among African apes, shows that both clinging and friction are necessary to carry heavy infants. As a consequence, a required relationship between infant weight, hair-hair friction coefficient, and body angle exists. The hair-hair friction coefficient is measured using natural ape skin samples, and dependence on load and humidity is analyzed. Numerical evaluation of the equilibrium constraint is in agreement with the knuckle-walking quadruped position of African apes. Bipedality is clearly incompatible with the usual clinging and mounting pattern of infant carrying, requiring a revision of models of hominization in relation to the divergence between apes and hominins. These results suggest that safe carrying of heavy infants justify the emergence of biped form of locomotion. Ways to test this possibility are foreseen here.

Amaral, Lia Q.

2008-04-01

295

Preterm infants--odontological aspects.  

PubMed

Preterm birth is associated with medical complications and treatments postnatally and disturbances in growth and development. Primary and permanent teeth develop during this postnatal period. The overall aim of the present thesis was to elucidate the effects of preterm birth and postnatal complications on oral health and the dentoalveolar development during adolescence, and to study the effects of preterm birth on caries during childhood, in a well-defined group of preterm infants. In the same group, explore the development of the primary and permanent teeth and compare the results with a matched control group and control teeth. The subjects consisted of 40 (45) of 56 surviving infants, born < 29 weeks of gestational age (GA), and matched healthy children born at term. The material consisted of 44 teeth from 14 of the preterm adolescents and 36 control teeth from healthy children. Clinical examinations and dental cast analysis were performed during adolescence and morbidity was noted. Retrospective information from medical and dental records was obtained. Dental enamel was analyzed in a polarized light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Further, chemical analyses of enamel and dentin were performed with X-ray microanalysis. The results showed that during adolescence, more preterms had plaque and gingival inflammation, lower salivary secretion, more S. mutans and severe hypomineralization. Retrospectively, less caries was noted at six years of age, but more children had hypomineralization in the primary dentition. Angle Class II malocclusion, large over-bite and deep bite associated with medical diagnoses were frequent. Furthermore, smaller dental arch perimeters in girls, at 16 years of age, and smaller tooth size in the incisors, canines and first molars were found. The morphological findings were confirmed in the XRMA analyses. In postnatal enamel, varying degrees of porosities > 5% and incremental lines were seen. Lower values of Ca and Ca/C ratio and higher values of C were found. Ca/P ratio in both enamel and dentine indicates normal hydroxyapatite in both groups. No single medical diagnosis, postnatal treatment or morbidity in adolescents could explain the findings. As a conclusion, there are indications for poor oral outcome in this group of preterm infants during adolescence, and disturbed mineralization in primary teeth. PMID:22755470

Rythén, Marianne

2012-01-01

296

Identification of hearing disorder by multi-band entropy cepstrum extraction from infant's cry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infant's cry is a multimodal behavior that contains a lot of information about the infant, particularly, information about the health of the infant. In this paper a new feature in infant cry analysis is presented for recognition two groups: infants with hearing disorder and normal infants, by Mel frequency multi-band entropy cepstrum extraction from infant's cry. Signal processing stage is

Mahmoud Mansouri Jam; Hamed Sadjedi

2009-01-01

297

The influence of infant food advertising on infant feeding practices in St. Vincent.  

PubMed

A survey designed to examine the extent to which infant food advertising could be shown measurably to influence infant feeding practices was carried out in St. Vincent in the eastern Caribbean. A questionnaire was administered to mothers of about 200 children one to two years old, nearly a complete sample in each of two towns. Infant food advertising was found to be uncommon. The typical infant feeding pattern, largely a combination of both breast feeding and bottle feeding, had existed for decades. Despite the fact that this was not a very appropriate setting for such a study and that there were a number of methodological constraints, the results of two multiple regression analyses suggested that the more a mother was influenced by infant food advertising, the sooner she began to bottle feed and the sooner she stopped breastfeeding. The cessation of all promotion of commercial infant foods, to the public as well as to health professionals, is called for. PMID:7076379

Greiner, T; Latham, M C

1982-01-01

298

Prebiotics and probiotics in infant nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction<\\/o:p><\\/span><\\/strong>In general breast-fed infants suffer less from infection, which could be partly explained by the specificcompostion<\\/span>and metabolic activity of their intestinalmicroflora<\\/span>. During the last two decades, many attempts have been made to mimic the intestinal flora of breast fed infants in formula fed infants. Bothprebiotics<\\/span>andprobiotics<\\/span>based concepts have been developed to beneficially change the intestinalmicroflora<\\/span>and thus

A. Bakker-Zierikzee

2005-01-01

299

Validity of the Test of Infant Motor Performance for discriminating among infants with varying risk for poor motor outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective was to assess the ability of the Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) to discriminate among infants with varying degrees of risk for motor developmental morbidity on the basis of perinatal medical complications. Study design: Ninety-eight infants were tested weekly with the TIMP until 4 months of age. Comparisons were made among 5 groups of infants: (1)

Suzann K. Campbell; Donald Hedeker

2001-01-01

300

[An infant with unexplained epilepsy].  

PubMed

A 6-month-old male infant with an unremarkable past medical history was admitted to the emergency department in an epileptic state. The seizures were resistant to treatment with conventional drugs. The child was sedated, intubated and admitted to the intensive care department. Despite extensive investigations no underlying disease was found. The seizures persisted and the child was repeatedly admitted to the hospital. Four months after the first presentation, ventricular fibrillation occurred from which the child was successfully resuscitated. His stomach appeared to contain a disinfectant and a severe ethanol-intoxication was found, leading to the diagnosis "Munchausen syndrome by proxy". The incidence of this syndrome is underestimated. Recognition of this potentially fatal phenomenon is often difficult, resulting in a delay in diagnosis. Paediatricians and general practitioners should be aware of this syndrome in children presenting with an unusual disease or an unusual medical history reported by the parents or care providers. PMID:21176267

van Gaal, J Carlijn; Petru, Ronald; Sie, Lilian T J

2010-01-01

301

Infant Overweight Is Associated with Delayed Motor Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine how infant overweight and high subcutaneous fat relate to infant motor development. Study design Participants were from the Infant Care, Feeding, and Risk of Obesity Project, a prospective, longitudinal study of low-income African-American mother-infant dyads assessed from 3 to 18 months of age (836 observations on 217 infants). Exposures were overweight (weight-for-length z-score $90th percentile of 2000

Meghan Slining; Linda S. Adair; Barbara Davis Goldman; Judith B. Borja; Margaret Bentley

2010-01-01

302

Is There Mother–Infant Bonding in Primates?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of mother–infant bonding was stimulated by concepts and data imported from animal research. However, the occurrence of mother–infant bonding in nonhuman primates has not been systematically investigated. Information obtained from naturalistic observations of infant adoption, experimental studies of infant cross-fostering, and studies of mother–infant recognition in primates suggest that the first few days of the postpartum period are

Dario Maestripieri

2001-01-01

303

Mother's early perception of her infant's difficult temperament, parenting stress and early mother–infant interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigated factors contributing to mother's early perception of her infant's difficult temperament. One hundred and twenty-four motherinfant dyads participated in the study. Mother's perception of the infant's temperament was assessed with the Infant Characteristics Questionnaire (ICQ). The influence of motherinfant interaction, mother's mental health and parenting stress were investigated. Motherinfant interaction was videotaped during a face-to-face interaction

Mirjami Mäntymaa; Kaija Puura; Ilona Luoma; Raili K. Salmelin; Tuula Tamminen

2006-01-01

304

Spontaneous leg movements of infants with Down syndrome and nondisabled infants.  

PubMed

Infants with Down syndrome (DS) represent a population in which new behaviors are acquired significantly more slowly than in nondisabled infants. We propose that infants' spontaneous movements hold a key to understanding the process of development--of integrating intrinsic dynamics and function. In this investigation, we compared the spontaneous leg movements of 10 infants with DS and 2 groups of nondisabled (ND) infants matched for chronological age and motor age. In contrast to common perceptions, we did not observe a significant difference in the frequency of movements between infants with DS and ND infants. But, infants with DS demonstrated significantly fewer of the most complex patterned leg movements, that is, kicking patterns. Further, the frequency with which both DS and ND infants kicked was significantly correlated with the age at which they began to walk. Biomechanical variables were identified, as well, that related to their emergent movement patterns. These data are consistent with Edelman's proposal that spontaneous movements that occur repeatedly in regions of the organism's functional work space facilitate the development of stable behavioral patterns and emphasize the role of the interaction of multiple subsystems in the emergence of new behaviors. PMID:8556903

Ulrich, B D; Ulrich, D A

1995-12-01

305

Mother-infant interaction improves with a developmental intervention for mother-preterm infant dyads.  

PubMed

While premature infants have a high need for positive interactions, both infants and their mothers are challenged by the infant's biological immaturity. This randomized clinical trial of 198 premature infants born at 29-34 weeks gestation and their mothers examined the impact of the H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant's Environment) intervention on mother-premature infant interaction patterns at 6-weeks corrected age (CA). Mothers had at least 2 social environmental risk factors such as minority status or less than high school education. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the H-HOPE intervention group or an attention control group. H-HOPE is an integrated intervention that included (1) twice-daily infant stimulation using the ATVV (auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular-rocking stimulation) and (2) four maternal participatory guidance sessions plus two telephone calls by a nurse-community advocate team. Mother-infant interaction was assessed at 6-weeks CA using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training-Feeding Scale (NCAST, 76 items) and the Dyadic Mutuality Code (DMC, 6-item contingency scale during a 5-min play session). NCAST and DMC scores for the Control and H-HOPE groups were compared using t-tests, chi-square tests and multivariable analysis. Compared with the Control group (n = 76), the H-HOPE group (n = 66) had higher overall NCAST scores and higher maternal Social-Emotional Growth Fostering Subscale scores. The H-HOPE group also had significantly higher scores for the overall infant subscale and the Infant Clarity of Cues Subscale (p < 0.05). H-HOPE dyads were also more likely to have high responsiveness during play as measured by the DMC (67.6% versus 58.1% of controls). After adjustment for significant maternal and infant characteristics, H-HOPE dyads had marginally higher scores during feeding on overall mother-infant interaction (? = 2.03, p = 0.06) and significantly higher scores on the infant subscale (? = 0.75, p = 0.05) when compared to controls. In the adjusted analysis, H-HOPE dyads had increased odds of high versus low mutual responsiveness during play (OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 0.97, 5.80). Intervening with both mother and infant is a promising approach to help premature infants achieve the social interaction patterns essential for optimal development. PMID:23962543

White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen F; Fabiyi, Camille; Rankin, Kristin M; Li, Zhyouing; Liu, Li

2013-12-01

306

Breast vs. bottle: differences in the growth of Croatian infants.  

PubMed

The aim of the paper was to compare the growth of rural Croatian infants with 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth standards and to evaluate the potential preventive influence of breastfeeding on the development of obesity in infancy. Two hundred three infant-mother pairs from Baranja, an Eastern region of Croatia, were enrolled into this study. Retrospective evaluation of infants' medical charts was used to obtain anthropometric data recorded at the birth, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age. Infant feeding mode was self-reported by mothers. Breastfed infants gained the least weight of all observed groups. Up to 6 months of age, formula fed infants had the highest weight gain and after 6 months of age, mixed milk fed infants had the highest weight gain. At 12 months of age, 6.4% of all study infants and 7.6% of mixed milk fed infants were at risk of overweight, while the same risk for the group of breastfed infants was 4%. Most of the study infants achieved higher values of body mass and length than the child growth standards. Exclusively breastfed infants, in comparison with other study groups (formula fed infants, mixed milk fed infants and cow's milk fed infants), had lower weight-for-length z-scores during the first year, which suggests that breastfeeding may have a preventive impact on obesity development. PMID:21108738

Mandi?, Zlatko; Piri?ki, Antonija Perl; Kenjeri?, Daniela; Hani?ar, Branka; Tanasi?, Igor

2011-10-01

307

Young infants have biological expectations about animals.  

PubMed

What are the developmental origins of our concept of animal? There has long been controversy concerning this question. At issue is whether biological reasoning develops from earlier forms of reasoning, such as physical and psychological reasoning, or whether from a young age children endow animals with biological properties. Here we demonstrate that 8-mo-old infants already expect novel objects they identify as animals to have insides. Infants detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and agentive (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) was revealed to be hollow. Infants also detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and furry (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) either was shown to be hollow or rattled (when shaken) as although mostly hollow. Young infants' expectations about animals' insides may serve as a foundation for the development of more advanced biological knowledge. PMID:24003134

Setoh, Peipei; Wu, Di; Baillargeon, Renée; Gelman, Rochel

2013-10-01

308

Sleeping infants safely - considerations for GPs.  

PubMed

The sudden death of an infant is a traumatic experience for both families and health practitioners. The most common cause of sudden infant death is SIDS, defined as 'the sudden and unexpected death of an infant under 1 year of age, with onset of lethal episode apparently occurring during sleep, that remains unexplained after a thorough investigation including performance of a complete autopsy review of the circumstances of death and clinical history'. In 2004, SIDS accounted for 4.5% of deaths in infants aged less than 1 year in New South Wales. Evidence suggests the most common age of death from SIDS is 2-5 months, with a peak incidence at around 3-4 months. PMID:20369140

Wilson, Leigh; Quine, Susan; Lewis, Milton

2010-01-01

309

Cortical specialization for music in preverbal infants  

E-print Network

Audition is perhaps the most developed and acute sense available to infants at birth. One theory supported by speech and music researchers alike proposes that the auditory system is biased to salient properties such as pitch and allocates processing...

Fava, Eswen Elizabeth

2009-05-15

310

Do infants have a sense of fairness?  

PubMed Central

Two experiments examined infants’ expectations about how an experimenter should distribute resources and rewards to others. In Experiment 1, 19-month-olds expected an experimenter to divide two items equally, as opposed to unequally, between two individuals. Infants held no particular expectation when the individuals were replaced with inanimate objects, or when the experimenter simply removed covers in front of the individuals to reveal the items (instead of distributing them). In Experiment 2, 21-month-olds expected an experimenter to give a reward to each of two individuals when both had worked to complete an assigned chore, but not when one of the individuals had done all the work while the other played. Infants held this expectation only when the experimenter could determine through visual inspection who had worked and who had not. Together, these results provide converging evidence that infants in the second year of life already possess context sensitive-expectations relevant to fairness. PMID:22258431

Sloane, Stephanie; Baillargeon, Renee; Premack, David

2012-01-01

311

Chronic boric acid poisoning in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report 7 infants suffering from seizures induced by chronic boric acid ingestion. The boric acid was given by dipping a soother in a proprietary borax and honey mixture. The babies have remained well since the mixture was withheld.

K OSullivan; M Taylor

1983-01-01

312

21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than a dietary supplement...the label shall bear, if such food is fabricated from two or more...including spices, flavoring, and coloring. (b) If such food, or any ingredient...

2010-04-01

313

21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than a dietary supplement...the label shall bear, if such food is fabricated from two or more...including spices, flavoring, and coloring. (b) If such food, or any ingredient...

2012-04-01

314

21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than a dietary supplement...the label shall bear, if such food is fabricated from two or more...including spices, flavoring, and coloring. (b) If such food, or any ingredient...

2013-04-01

315

21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.  

... Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than a dietary supplement...the label shall bear, if such food is fabricated from two or more...including spices, flavoring, and coloring. (b) If such food, or any ingredient...

2014-04-01

316

21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than a dietary supplement...the label shall bear, if such food is fabricated from two or more...including spices, flavoring, and coloring. (b) If such food, or any ingredient...

2011-04-01

317

Manipulatory motivation in the infant rhesus monkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests of the manipulative behavior of infant rhesus monkeys in a series of problems measuring manipulatory motivation and proficiency showed the amount and efficiency of manipulation to increase with age and practice. It is suggested that \\

Harry F. Harlow; Nancy C. Blazek; G. E. McClearn

1956-01-01

318

Infants segment continuous events using transitional probabilities.  

PubMed

Throughout their 1st year, infants adeptly detect statistical structure in their environment. However, little is known about whether statistical learning is a primary mechanism for event segmentation. This study directly tests whether statistical learning alone is sufficient to segment continuous events. Twenty-eight 7- to 9-month-old infants viewed a sequence of continuous actions performed by a novel agent in which there were no transitional movements that could have constrained the possible upcoming actions. At test, infants distinguished statistically intact units from less predictable ones. The ability to segment events using statistical structure may help infants discover other cues to event boundaries, such as intentions, and carve up the world of continuous motion in meaningful ways. PMID:24749627

Stahl, Aimee E; Romberg, Alexa R; Roseberry, Sarah; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn

2014-01-01

319

Necrotizing enterocolitis in infants of multiple gestation.  

PubMed

We examined the records of ten pairs of twins and one set of triplets among whom one or more infants had necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Perinatal asphyxia and respiratory distress were less common in the firstborn infants. It might, therefore, be anticipated that necrotizing enterocolitis was less common in this group. We found the reverse to be true. In all of the twin pairs twin A had NEC, and in no case did only twin B have NEC. The disease developed in triplet B but not in triplets A or C. Examination of associated risk factors revealed that the firstborn infants were more stable, were fed sooner, and had feedings advanced somewhat more rapidly than their counterparts. We re-emphasize that there are unrecognized risk factors in the pathogenesis of NEC and that a high index of suspicion should be maintained for all premature infants despite their apparent stability. PMID:3740002

Samm, M; Curtis-Cohen, M; Keller, M; Chawla, H

1986-09-01

320

Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants  

MedlinePLUS

... Pediatrics Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk. Pediatrics . 2012. 129: e827-e841. Stettler N, Bhatia J, Parish A, Stallings VA. Feeding healthy infants, children, and adolescents. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman ...

321

Prenatal maternal stress programs infant stress regulation.  

E-print Network

and Infant Stress Regulation The results of this studyResults from animal models indicate that fetal exposure to both maternal stress andstress responses was examined using hierarchical linear growth curve modeling. Results—

Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A

2011-01-01

322

Infant attention and early childhood executive function.  

PubMed

Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). A group of 5-month-olds (n = 201) were classified as short or long lookers. At 24, 36, and 48 months of age, children completed age-appropriate EF tasks. Infant short lookers (i.e., more efficient information processors) exhibited higher EF throughout early childhood as compared to infant long lookers, even after controlling for verbal ability (a potential indicator of intelligence). These findings are discussed in relation to the emergence of executive attention. PMID:23711103

Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

2014-01-01

323

Feeding Problems in Infants and Children  

MedlinePLUS

... an allergy or more severe intolerance to cow's milk (LACTOSE INTOLERANCE) or wheat (CELIAC DISEASE). See your baby's doctor. Infants who are lactose intolerant may benefit from switching to a soy formula. Toddlers may ...

324

Elimination Problems in Infants and Children  

MedlinePLUS

... information about changes in an infant or child's bowel movements. SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS SELF-CARE Begin Here 1. Does your child have frequent, watery bowel movements? Yes DIARRHEA is often caused by a gastrointestinal ...

325

Necrotizing Enterocolitis in the Premature Infant  

PubMed Central

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains one of the most catastrophic comorbidities associated with prematurity. In spite of extensive research, the disease remains unsolved. The aims of this paper are to present the current state of the science on the pathogenesis of NEC, summarize the clinical presentation and severity staging of the disease, and highlight the nursing assessments required for early identification of NEC and ongoing care for infants diagnosed with this gastrointestinal disease. The distributions of systemic and intestinal clinical signs that are most sensitive to nursing assessment and associated with Bell Staging Criteria are presented. This descriptive data is representative of 117 cases of NEC diagnosed in low gestational age infants (<29 weeks gestation). The data highlights the clinical signs most commonly observed in infants with NEC, and thus, provides NICU nurses an evidence-based guide for assessment and care of infants with NEC. PMID:21730907

Gregory, Katherine E.; DeForge, Christine E.; Natale, Kristan M.; Phillips, Michele; Van Marter, Linda J.

2013-01-01

326

Young infants have biological expectations about animals  

PubMed Central

What are the developmental origins of our concept of animal? There has long been controversy concerning this question. At issue is whether biological reasoning develops from earlier forms of reasoning, such as physical and psychological reasoning, or whether from a young age children endow animals with biological properties. Here we demonstrate that 8-mo-old infants already expect novel objects they identify as animals to have insides. Infants detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and agentive (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) was revealed to be hollow. Infants also detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and furry (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) either was shown to be hollow or rattled (when shaken) as although mostly hollow. Young infants’ expectations about animals’ insides may serve as a foundation for the development of more advanced biological knowledge. PMID:24003134

Setoh, Peipei; Wu, Di; Baillargeon, Renée; Gelman, Rochel

2013-01-01

327

Baby Carriage: Infants Walking With Loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintaining balance is a central problem for new walkers. To examine how infants cope with the additional balance control problems induced by load carriage, 14-month-olds were loaded with 15% of their body weight in shoulder-packs. Both symmetrical and asymmetrical loads disrupted alternating gait patterns and caused less mature footfall patterns. Walking was most severely compromised by back loads. Infants with

Jessie S. Garciaguirre; Karen E. Adolph; Patrick E. Shrout

2007-01-01

328

The muscle relaxants in infants and children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Many anaesthetists have been reluctant to apply the use of muscle relaxants to anaesthesia for infants and children. Endotracheal\\u000a intubation, controlled respiration, and muscle relaxation are facilitated by the use of these drugs to the advantage of both\\u000a patient and surgeon, in infants and children as much as in adults.\\u000a \\u000a Succinylcholine is used a great deal in anaesthesia at the

T. J. McCaughey

1962-01-01

329

Cholestasis in infants with immune hydrops fetalis.  

PubMed

Rhesus (Rh) hemolytic disease of the newborn represents a broad spectrum of symptoms in the fetus and newborn, ranging from mild to severe hemolytic anemia and hydrops fetalis. Cholestasis is a common problem in infants with immune hydrops fetalis (IHF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and course of cholestasis in infants with IHF due to Rh alloimmunization. Infants with IHF during the 10-year follow-up were retrospectively included in the study. Demographics, laboratory parameters, and prenatal and postnatal interventions were recorded. The incidence of cholestasis and certain risk factors were investigated. A total of 30 infants with IHF with a mean gestational age 33 ± 2.6 weeks were included. Of these, 15 infants (50%) survived to discharge. The incidence of cholestasis was 60% (18/30). Cholestasis was diagnosed within a median 3 (0-7) days. All cholestatic infants who survived recovered within three months. In conclusion, cholestasis in IHF is frequent, transient and has an early onset. PMID:24577980

Takc?, Sahin; Alarcon-Martinez, Tu?ba; Bozkaya, Davut; Yi?it, ?ule; Korkmaz, Ay?e; Yurdakök, Murat

2013-01-01

330

Invasive Enterobacter sakazakii Disease in Infants  

PubMed Central

Enterobacter sakazakii kills 40%–80% of infected infants and has been associated with powdered formula. We analyzed 46 cases of invasive infant E. sakazakii infection to define risk factors and guide prevention and treatment. Twelve infants had bacteremia, 33 had meningitis, and 1 had a urinary tract infection. Compared with infants with isolated bacteremia, infants with meningitis had greater birthweight (2,454 g vs. 850 g, p = 0.002) and gestational age (37 weeks vs. 27.8 weeks, p = 0.02), and infection developed at a younger age (6 days vs. 35 days, p<0.001). Among meningitis patients, 11 (33%) had seizures, 7 (21%) had brain abscess, and 14 (42%) died. Twenty-four (92%) of 26 infants with feeding patterns specified were fed powdered formula. Formula samples associated with 15 (68%) of 22 cases yielded E. sakazakii; in 13 cases, clinical and formula strains were indistinguishable. Further clarification of clinical risk factors and improved powdered formula safety is needed. PMID:16965695

Braden, Christopher R.

2006-01-01

331

Ethanol Pharmacokinetics in Neonates and Infants  

PubMed Central

Introduction Ethanol has been used for years in neonatal and infant liquid medications, yet the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of ethanol in this vulnerable population have not been well characterized. The purpose of this review is to raise awareness of ethanol use as an excipient in neonatal and infant medications and to provide insight, based on the available evidence, into clearance rates of ethanol in babies. We also discuss ethanol pharmacokinetics in adults, theoretical pharmacokinetic changes in neonates and infants as it may apply to ethanol disposition, and case reports involving ethanol exposure in neonates and infants. Materials and methods This study was a narrative review in which relevant papers were selected using databases and scientific search engines such as PubMed with the key words ethanol, infant, and newborninfant. Results It remains unclear what ethanol exposure is safe for neonates and infants. The Food and Drug Administration and American Academy of Pediatrics have both taken action, by either setting limits of ethanol content in over-the-counter medications or by recommending restricted exposure to ethanol-containing pediatric formulations. Conclusions Until the short- and long-term health effects of chronic ethanol administration can be further characterized, ethanol-containing medications should be used with caution. PMID:25379066

Marek, Elizabeth; Kraft, Walter K.

2014-01-01

332

Labels Facilitate Infants' Comparison of Action Goals  

PubMed Central

Understanding the actions of others depends on the insight that these actions are structured by intentional relations. In a number of conceptual domains, comparison with familiar instances has been shown to support children’s and adults’ ability to discern the relational structure of novel instances. Recent evidence suggests that this process supports infants’ analysis of others’ goal-directed actions (Gerson & Woodward, 2012). The current studies evaluated whether labeling, which has been shown to support relational learning in other domains, also supports infants’ sensitivity to the goal structure of others’ actions. Ten-month-old infants observed events in which a familiar action, grasping, was aligned (simultaneously presented) with a novel tool use action, and both actions were accompanied by a matched label. Following this training, infants responded systematically to the goal structure of the tool use actions in a goal imitation paradigm. In control conditions, when the aligned actions were accompanied by non-word vocalizations, or when labeling occurred without aligned actions, infants did not respond systematically to the tool use action. These findings indicate that labels supported infants’ comparison of the aligned actions, and this comparison facilitated their understanding of the novel action as goal-directed. PMID:24976796

Gerson, Sarah A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

2013-01-01

333

Marketing Breastfeeding--Reversing Corporate Influence on Infant Feeding Practices  

PubMed Central

Breast milk is the gold standard for infant nutrition and the only necessary food for the first 6 months of an infant’s life. Infant formula is deficient and inferior to breast milk in meeting infants’ nutritional needs. The infant formula industry has contributed to low rates of breastfeeding through various methods of marketing and advertising infant formula. Today, in New York City, although the majority of mothers initiate breastfeeding (~85%), a minority of infants is breastfed exclusively at 8 weeks postpartum (~25%). The article reviews the practices of the formula industry and the impact of these practices. It then presents the strategic approach taken by the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and its partners to change hospital practices and educate health care providers and the public on the benefits of breast milk, and provides lessons learned from these efforts to make breastfeeding the normative and usual method of infant feeding in New York City. PMID:18463985

Graff, Kristina M.

2008-01-01

334

Infant formula and infant nutrition: bioactive proteins of human milk and implications for composition of infant formulas.  

PubMed

Human milk contains an abundance of biologically active components that are highly likely to contribute to the short- and long-term benefits of breastfeeding. Many of these components are proteins; this article describes some of these proteins, such as ?-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, osteopontin, and milk fat globule membrane proteins. The possibility of adding their bovine counterparts to infant formula is discussed as well as the implications for infant health and development. An important consideration when adding bioactive proteins to infant formula is that the total protein content of formula needs to be reduced, because formula-fed infants have significantly higher concentrations of serum amino acids, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen than do breastfed infants. When reducing the protein content of formula, the amino acid composition of the formula protein becomes important because serum concentrations of the essential amino acids should not be lower than those in breastfed infants. Both the supply of essential amino acids and the bioactivities of milk proteins are dependent on their digestibility: some proteins act only in intact form, others act in the form of larger or small peptides formed during digestion, and some are completely digested and serve as a source of amino acids. The purity of the proteins or protein fractions, potential contaminants of the proteins (such as lipopolysaccharide), as well as the degree of heat processing used during their isolation also need to be considered. It is likely that there will be more bioactive components added to infant formulas in the near future, but guidelines on how to assess their bioactivities in vitro, in animal models, and in clinical studies need to be established. The extent of testing needed is likely going to depend on the degree of complexity of the components and their bioequivalence with the human compounds whose effects they are intended to mimic. PMID:24452231

Lönnerdal, Bo

2014-03-01

335

Mother–infant cosleeping, breastfeeding and sudden infant death syndrome: What biological anthropology has discovered about normal infant sleep and pediatric sleep medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty years ago a new area of inquiry was launched when anthropologists proposed that an ev- olutionary perspective on infancy could contribute to our understanding of unexplained infant deaths. Here we review two decades of research examining parent-infant sleep practices and the variability of maternal and infant sleep physiology and behavior in social and solitary sleeping environments. The results challenge

James J. McKenna; Helen L. Ball; Lee T. Gettler

2007-01-01

336

Sudden infant death syndrome in infants born to HIV-infected and opiate-using mothers  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was undertaken to determine the role of opiate use during pregnancy as a predisposing factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in infants born to HIV?infected mothers. Methods In order to identify all infant deaths and their cause and association with maternal opiate use, the data of a nationwide prospective cohort study of HIV?infected mothers and their children were extracted and analysed for a 13?year period. Results 24 (5.1%) infant deaths were observed out of 466 infants followed up until death or at least 12?months of life. 3 (0.6%) of them were due to non?accidental trauma and were not associated with maternal opiate use. 7 (1.5%) died due to SIDS, which was confirmed by autopsy. All SIDS cases occurred in infants born to mothers reporting use of opiates during pregnancy (n?=?124). The relative risk of SIDS compared to the general population was 18 (95% CI 9 to 38) for all infants of HIV?infected mothers, and 69 (95% CI 33 to 141) for those with intrauterine opiate exposure (p<0.001). Conclusions Compared to the Swiss general population, the risk for SIDS in this cohort of infants born to HIV?infected mothers was greatly increased, but only for mothers reporting opiate use during pregnancy. This effect appeared not to be mediated by prematurity, low birth weight, perinatal HIV infection or antiretroviral drug exposure. PMID:17556395

Kahlert, Christian; Rudin, Christoph; Kind, Christian; (SHCS), and the Swiss HIV Cohort Study

2007-01-01

337

Exploring Factors of Readiness to Learn about Infant Feeding in Mothers of NICU Infants  

E-print Network

Abstract Teaching the postpartum mother who has an infant in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) about infant feeding may be delayed if the nurse does not determine readiness to learn (RTL) and confidence to feed (CTF) and/or makes assumptions...

Hadsell, Christine Ann

2013-08-31

338

Parent-Infant Interaction in Infant Siblings at Risk of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent models of the early emergence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) propose an interaction between risk susceptibility and the infant's social environment, resulting in a progressively atypical developmental trajectory. The infant's early social environmental experience consists mostly of interaction with caregivers, yet there has been little…

Wan, Ming Wai; Green, Jonathan; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark; Charman, Tony; Plummer, Faye

2012-01-01

339

Spontaneous Leg Movements of Infants with Down Syndrome and Nondisabled Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the spontaneous leg movements of 10 infants with Down Syndrome to those of nondisabled infants matched for chronological age and motor age. Contrary to expectations, no significant difference was found in the frequency of leg movements between the two groups. However, Down Syndrome subjects demonstrated significantly fewer of the most…

Ulrich, Beverly D.; Ulrich, Dale A.

1995-01-01

340

Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: The Types of Foods Fed to Hispanic Infants and Toddlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the prevalence of breastfeeding and formula feeding, the age of introduction to specific foods, and the types of foods and beverages consumed by His- panic infants and toddlers compared with similarly aged non-Hispanic infants and toddlers living in the United States. Design Descriptive and comparative analysis of dietary recall data and responses to specific interview questions, which

JULIE A. MENNELLA; PAULA ZIEGLER; RONETTE BRIEFEL; TIMOTHY NOVAK

341

Neurologic examination of preterm infants at term age: Comparison with term infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives The aim was to establish the range of neurologic findings in preterm infants reaching term age, their relation to gestational age at birth, and the possible differences with healthy term newborns tested during the first days of life. Study design The Dubowitz neonatal neurologic examination was performed at term age in 157 low-risk preterm infants born between 25 and

Eugenio Mercuri; Andrea Guzzetta; Sabrina Laroche; Daniela Ricci; IngeLot vanHaastert; Anna Simpson; Rita Luciano; Caroline Bleakley; Maria F. Frisone; Leena Haataja; Giuseppe Tortorolo; Franco Guzzetta; Linda de Vries; Frances Cowan; Lilly Dubowitz

2003-01-01

342

Infants in Multirisk Families. Case Studies in Preventive Intervention. Clinical Infants Reports Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Work conducted by the Clinical Infant Development Program (CIDP) of the National Institute of Mental Health, involving 47 multirisk families and their infants over a period of several years, is described. Part I contains four detailed case studies by Delise Williams, Euthymia Hibbs, Serena Wieder and others, providing data for comprehensive…

Greenspan, Stanley I., Ed.; And Others

343

Sequence Learning in 4-Month-Old Infants: Do Infants Represent Ordinal Information?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated how 4-month-old infants represent sequences: Do they track the statistical relations among specific sequence elements (e.g., AB, BC) or do they encode abstract ordinal positions (i.e., B is second)? Infants were habituated to sequences of 4 moving and sounding elements--3 of the elements varied in their ordinal position…

Lewkowicz, David J.; Berent, Iris

2009-01-01

344

The Rhythmic Structure of Mother-Infant Interaction in Term and Preterm Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quantifies behavioral periodicities or cycles during face-to-face interaction between three- and five-year-old term and preterm infants and their mothers. Compares the temporal organization of social interaction between term and preterm infants. Spectral and cross-spectral techniques showed the existence of periodicities. Differences were found…

Lester, Barry M.; And Others

1985-01-01

345

Impact of Maternal Physical Activity and Infant Feeding Practices on Infant Weight Gain and Adiposity  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence supports the contribution of intrauterine environmental exposures on obesity risk in offspring. Few studies have included maternal and infant lifestyle factors. Our objective was to study the impact of maternal physical activity, infant feeding, and screen time on offspring weight gain and adiposity. In a prospective cohort study, 246 mothers underwent testing during pregnancy to assess glucose tolerance status and insulin sensitivity. Anthropometry and questionnaires on physical activity, infant feeding, and screen time were completed. Multiple-linear regression was performed to examine the impact of maternal and infant factors on infant weight gain and weight-for-length z-score at 1 year. Infant weight outcomes were negatively predicted by maternal pregravid vigorous/sport index and exclusive breastfeeding duration. After adjustment, each unit increase in maternal pregravid vigorous/sport index decreased infant weight gain by 218.6 g (t = 2.44, P = 0.016) and weight-for-length z-score by 0.20 (t = 2.17, P = 0.031). Each month of exclusive breastfeeding reduced infant weight gain by 116.4?g (t = 3.97, P < 0.001) and weight-for-length z-score by 0.08 (t = 2.59, P = 0.01). Maternal pregravid physical activity and exclusive breastfeeding duration are associated with weight gain and adiposity as early as 1 year of age. PMID:23056043

Chu, Lisa; Retnakaran, Ravi; Zinman, Bernard; Hanley, Anthony J. G.; Hamilton, Jill K.

2012-01-01

346

Infant Feeding Practices and Early Flavor Experiences in Mexican Infants: An Intra-Cultural Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe study explored the maternal beliefs and practices related to pregnancy, breastfeeding, and infant feeding among women living in several regions in Mexico. We hypothesized that, despite the culinary diversity within Mexico, there would be similar patterns in the types of flavors and foods eaten by mothers and fed to infants.

Julie A. Mennella; Bernardo Turnbull; Paula J. Ziegler; Homero Martinez

2005-01-01

347

[Acute enterovirus uveitis in infants].  

PubMed

Enterovirus uveitis (EU) is a new infant eye disease that was first detected and identified in Russia in 1980-1981. Three subtypes of human echoviruses (EV19K, EV11A, and EV11/B) caused 5 nosocomial outbreaks of EU in different Siberian cities and towns in 1980-1989, by affecting more than 750 children mainly below one year of age. Sporadic and focal EU cases (more than 200) were also retrospectively diagnosed in other regions of Russia and in different countries of the former Soviet Union. There were following clinical manifestations: common symptoms of the infection; acute uveitis (rapid focal iridic destruction, pupillary deformities, formation of membranes in the anterior chamber of the eye); and in 15-30% of cases severe complications, cataract, glaucoma, vision impairments. Uveitis strains EV19 and EV11 caused significant uveitis in primates after inoculation into the anterior chamber of the eye, as well as sepsis-like fatal disease with liver necrosis after venous infection. The uveitis strains are phylogenetically and pathogenetically close for primates to strains EV19 and EV11 isolated from young children with sepsis-like disease. The contents of this review have been published in the Reviews in Medical Virology, 2004, vol. 14, p. 241-254. PMID:16078433

Lashkevich, V A; Koroleva, G A; Lukashev, A N; Denisova, E V; Katargina, L A; Khoroshilova-Maslova, I P

2005-01-01

348

How Does Microanalysis of Mother-Infant Communication Inform Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Attachment?  

PubMed Central

Microanalysis research on 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication operates like a “social microscope” and identifies aspects of maternal sensitivity and the origins of attachment with a more detailed lens. We hope to enhance a dialogue between these two paradigms, microanalysis of mother-infant communication and maternal sensitivity and emerging working models of attachment. The prediction of infant attachment from microanalytic approaches and their contribution to concepts of maternal sensitivity are described. We summarize aspects of one microanalytic study by Beebe and colleagues (2010) that documents new communication patterns between mothers and infants at 4 months that predict future disorganized (vs. secure) attachment. The microanalysis approach opens up a new window on the details of the micro-processes of face-to-face communication. It provides a new, rich set of behaviors with which to extend our understanding of the origins of infant attachment and of maternal sensitivity. PMID:24299136

Beebe, Beatrice; Steele, Miriam

2013-01-01

349

Mother Infant Interactions in Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): Spatial Relationships, Communication, and Opportunities  

E-print Network

Mother Infant Interactions in Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): Spatial This study investigated mother infant interactions in lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla conducive to infant social learning. Eleven gorilla mother infant dyads were focally observed in weekly 1-hr

Maestripieri, Dario

350

Ethnicity and infant mortality in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Malaysian infant mortality differentials are a worthwhile subject for study, because socioeconomic development has very clearly had a differential impact by ethnic group. The Chinese rates of infant mortality are significantly lower than the Malay or Indian rates. Instead of examining the obvious access to care issues, this study considered factors related to the culture of infant care. Practices include the Chinese confinement of the mother in the first month after childbirth ("pe'i yue") and Pillsbury's 12 normative rules for Malaysian Chinese care. Malay practices vary widely by region and history. Indian mothers are restricted by diet. Data-recording flaws do not permit analysis of Sarawak or Sabah. The general assumption that Western medicine favors better health for mothers and infants is substantiated among peninsular communities, however, there are also negative impacts which affect infant mortality. The complex interaction of factors impacting on infant mortality reported in seven previous studies is discussed. A review of these studies reveals that immediate causes are infections, injuries, and dehydration. Indirect causes are birth weight or social and behavioral factors such as household income or maternal education. Indirect factors, which are amenable to planned change and influence the biological proximate determinants of infant mortality, are identified as birth weight, maternal age at birth, short pregnancy intervals or prior reproductive loss, sex of the child, birth order, duration of breast feeding and conditions of supplementation, types of household water and sanitation, year of child's birth, maternal education, household income and composition, institution of birth, ethnicity, and rural residence. Nine factors are identified empirically as not significant: maternal hours of work in the child's first year, maternal occupation, distance from home to workplace, presence of other children or servants, incidence of epidemics in the child's first year of life, community types of sanitation, prices and availability of infant foods, and access to various types of medical care. Future empirical study should consider factors such as class differences, place of residence, or extent of illiteracy as underlying or related to ethnicity. Policy-makers should be aware that future decline in infant mortality rates may depend on the blending of traditional with modern practices. PMID:12287522

Dixon, G

1993-06-01

351

Infants' physical knowledge affects their change detection  

PubMed Central

Prior research suggests that infants attend to a variable in an event category when they have identified it as relevant for predicting outcomes in the category, and that the age at which infants identify a variable depends largely on the age at which they are exposed to appropriate observations. Thus, depending on age of exposure, infants may identify the same variable at different ages in different event categories. A good case in point is the variable height, which is identified at about 3.5 months in occlusion events, but only at about 12 months in covering events and 14 months in tube events. In the present experiments, 11-month-olds detected a change to an object’s height in an occlusion but not a covering event, and 12.5-month-olds detected a similar change in a covering but not a tube event. Thus, infants succeeded in detecting a change to an object’s height in an event where height had been identified as a relevant variable, but failed to detect the exact same change in another event where height had not yet been identified as a relevant variable. These findings provide evidence that infants’ physical knowledge affects which changes they detect in physical events. Possible mechanisms underlying these findings are also discussed, in light of recent accounts of change detection in adults. PMID:16472318

Wang, Su-hua; Baillargeon, Renee

2012-01-01

352

[Data mining and characteristics of infant mortality].  

PubMed

This study aims to identify patterns in maternal and fetal characteristics in the prediction of infant mortality by incorporating innovative techniques like data mining, with proven relevance for public health. A database was developed with infant deaths from 2000 to 2004 analyzed by the Committees for the Prevention of Infant Mortality, based on integration of the Information System on Live Births (SINASC), Mortality Information System, and Investigation of Infant Mortality in the State of Paraná. The data mining software was WEKA (open source). The data mining conducts a database search and provides rules to be analyzed to transform the data into useful information. After mining, 4,230 rules were selected: teenage pregnancy plus birth weight < 2,500 g, or post-term birth plus teenage mother with a previous child or intercurrent conditions increase the risk of neonatal death. The results highlight the need for greater attention to teenage mothers, newborns with birth weight < 2,500 g, post-term neonates, and infants of mothers with intercurrent conditions, thus corroborating other studies. PMID:20464072

Vianna, Rossana Cristina Xavier Ferreira; Moro, Claudia Maria Cabral de Barra; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Carvalho, Deborah; Nievola, Julio Cesar

2010-03-01

353

Native American infant mortality in Wisconsin.  

PubMed

An infant mortality rate is an important public health measure because it may indicate unmet health needs or unfavorable environmental factors. The infant mortality rate for Native Americans in Wisconsin has decreased over the past several years, although there remains a discrepancy between Native Americans, all races combined and the Healthy People 2000 goal. The Wisconsin American Indian Infant Mortality Review Project (WAIIMR) conducted a study to understand local underlying factors that contributed to infant deaths and to recommend local health initiatives that could be developed to have a positive impact on the health of infants and mothers. The results from the WAIIMR Project and more recent Wisconsin birth record data are discussed in this paper. Two risk factors, levels of prenatal care and maternal smoking during pregnancy, show discrepancies between races and warrant further investigation. Native American communities in Wisconsin are addressing risk factors affecting maternal and child health through projects such as Honoring Our Children and The Michigan/Wisconsin Epidemiology Center. PMID:10752386

McCusker, D; Clifton, H; Miller-Korth, N

2000-01-01

354

An automated Hirschberg test for infants.  

PubMed

A novel automated method to measure eye misalignment in infants is presented. The method uses estimates of the Hirschberg ratio (HR) and angle Kappa (the angle between the visual and optical axis) for each infant to calculate the angle of eye misalignment. The HR and angle Kappa are estimated automatically from measurements of the direction of the optical axis and the coordinates of the center of the entrance pupil and corneal reflexes in each eye when infants look at a set of images that are presented sequentially on a computer monitor. The HR is determined by the slope of the line that describes the direction of the optical axis as a function of the distance between the center of the entrance pupil and the corneal reflexes. The peak of the distribution of possible angles Kappa during the image presentation determines the value of angle Kappa. Experiments with five infants showed that the 95% limits of agreement between repeated measurements of angle Kappa are ± 0.61 (°). The maximum error in the estimation of eye alignment in orthotropic infants was 0.9 (°) with 95% limits of agreement between repeated measurements of 0.75 (°). PMID:20934943

Model, Dmitri; Eizenman, Moshe

2011-01-01

355

Immunological evidence for a bacterial toxin aetiology in sudden infant death syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxin-specific antibodies to clostridial, enterobacterial and staphylococcal toxins implicated in sudden infant death syndrome were studied in sera from sudden infant death syndrome infants and a comparison group of infants (babies with phenylketonuria). The results indicated a higher proportion of sera from sudden infant death syndrome infants contained IgA that bound to clostridial and enterobacterial toxins but a higher proportion

Steven Siarakas; Alissa Jane Brown; William G. Murrell

1999-01-01

356

75 FR 51178 - Safety Standard for Infant Walkers; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Part 1216 Safety Standard for Infant Walkers; Correction AGENCY: Consumer Product...document established a standard for infant walkers. The Commission is correcting a typographical...provision concerning warning statements on walkers with parking brakes. DATES:...

2010-08-19

357

An Experimental Device to Record Infant Head Movements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes methods used to record infant head position and the limits of these methods. An experimental device is proposed which records infant head turning and head righting when the vestibular system is stimulated. (Author/DB)

Jouen, Francois

1981-01-01

358

Infant Temperament: An Evaluation of Children with Down Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The current study investigated differences in the development of temperament for normally developing infants and infants with Down Syndrome (DS). DS has been described as the most prevalent cause for mental retardation, and its effects on the central nervous system may also influence the development of temperament. Parents of 3 to 12 month-old normally developing infants and infants with DS completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R). Results indicated that parents of infants with DS described their children as exhibiting higher levels of temperament dimensions associated with Orienting/Regulating Capacity, and lower levels of attributes collectively referred to as Negative Affectivity, relative to comparison children. Specifically, infants with DS were reported to exhibit lower levels of Distress to Limitations, higher levels of Low Intensity Pleasure, Duration of Orienting, Falling Reactivity, and Cuddliness/Affiliation. No significant differences were found between IBQ-R factor intercorrelations for children with DS and normatively developing infants. PMID:18354741

Gartstein, Maria A.; Marmion, Julia; Swanson, Heather L.

2008-01-01

359

Developmental Changes in Infants' Sensitivity to Octave-Band Noises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Localization responses to octave-band noises with center frequencies at 200, 400, 1000, 2000, 4000, and 10,000 Hz were obtained from infants 6, 12, and 18 months old in order to investigate infants' auditory sensitivity. (MP)

Trehub, Sandra E.; And Others

1980-01-01

360

Social Evaluations of 7- and 8-Month-Old Infants  

E-print Network

A landmark experiment by Kiley Hamlin, Karen Wynn, and Paul Bloom demonstrated that infants as young as 6 months old possess previously unrecognized abilities to form social evaluations. In the experiment, infants were shown a shape that was made...

Kasperbauer, Tyler

2012-07-16

361

Assessment and management of pain in infants  

PubMed Central

Infants, including newborn babies, experience pain similarly and probably more intensely than older children and adults. They are also at risk of adverse long term effects on behaviour and development, through inadequate attention towards pain relief in early life. However, the issue of analgesia in young babies has been largely neglected in most clinical settings, despite subjecting them to painful diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Several therapeutic and preventive strategies, including systemic and local pharmacological and non-pharamacological interventions, are reported to be effective in relieving pain in infants. A judicious application of these interventions, backed by awareness and sensitivity to pain perception, on the part of the caregivers is likely to yield the best results. This article is a review of the mechanisms of pain perception, objective assessment, and management strategies of pain in infants. PMID:12954954

Mathew, P; Mathew, J

2003-01-01

362

Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the relationship between air pollution, measured as concentration of suspended particulates in the atmosphere, and infant mortality due to pneumonia in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. Multiple linear regression (progressive or stepwise method) was used to analyze infant mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhea, and all causes in 1980, by geographic area, income level, and degree of contamination. While the variable proportion of families with income equivalent to more than two minimum wages was included in the regressions corresponding to the three types of infant mortality, the average contamination index had a statistically significant coefficient (b = 0.2208; t = 2.670; P = 0.0137) only in the case of mortality due to pneumonia. This would suggest a biological association, but, as in any ecological study, such conclusions should be viewed with caution. The authors believe that air quality indicators are essential to consider in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.

Penna, M.L.; Duchiade, M.P. (Instituto de Medicina Social, Universidad del Estado del Rio de Janeiro (Brasil))

1991-03-01

363

A new and simple infant assessment table.  

PubMed

Oral examination of an infant forms an important first step toward a lifetime of excellent oral health. Examining an infant during the first visit and the subsequent preventive examination visits may be challenging to dentists and pediatric dentists. There are few concerns regarding the effective oral examination using the traditional "knee-to-knee" position. This paper presents a new, simple infant examination table (INFANTT) to facilitate this examination. This table has many advantages, which includes its stability and simplicity. It is non-threatening and resembles common household furniture. Various modifications of the basic design are also possible to suit the individual dentist's preferences and dental office needs. Additionally, it is possible to use this INFANTT for performing fluoride varnish applications, taking radiographs of the anterior teeth and extraction of natal, neonatal teeth and traumatized teeth. PMID:24047850

Muthu, M S; Farzan, J M; Prathibha, K M

2013-01-01

364

Some characteristics of infants preferred toys.  

PubMed

Mothers of 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-old infants indicated on a written questionnaire their child's favorite toys. The objects were coded on four different dimensions; (a) whether the preference was for a specific object or for a general class of objects, (b) the material composition of the object, (c) the stimulation provided by the object, and (d) the infant's actions with object. At 3 months of age less than half of the infants had a favorite object, but by the end of the first year almost 90% had at least one favorite toy. A number of age and gender differences were found in the relative frequencies of the object, characteristics investigated. These are discussed in terms of the cognitive, motivational, and environmental characteristics typical of different development levels during the first year of life. PMID:7130969

Furby, L; Wilke, M

1982-06-01

365

Quantitative Linking Hypotheses for Infant Eye Movements  

PubMed Central

The study of cognitive development hinges, largely, on the analysis of infant looking. But analyses of eye gaze data require the adoption of linking hypotheses: assumptions about the relationship between observed eye movements and underlying cognitive processes. We develop a general framework for constructing, testing, and comparing these hypotheses, and thus for producing new insights into early cognitive development. We first introduce the general framework – applicable to any infant gaze experiment – and then demonstrate its utility by analyzing data from a set of experiments investigating the role of attentional cues in infant learning. The new analysis uncovers significantly more structure in these data, finding evidence of learning that was not found in standard analyses and showing an unexpected relationship between cue use and learning rate. Finally, we discuss general implications for the construction and testing of quantitative linking hypotheses. MATLAB code for sample linking hypotheses can be found on the first author's website. PMID:23110071

Yurovsky, Daniel; Hidaka, Shohei; Wu, Rachel

2012-01-01

366

Inefficient phagosome maturation in infant macrophages.  

PubMed

The quantitative and qualitative differences between the immune systems of infants and adults have been extensively investigated in the context of adaptive immunity. Here, we demonstrate that the infantile innate immune system is immature and weak against bacterial infections. Upon infection by Escherichia coli, macrophages from infantile mice showed a lower performance in killing the bacteria. In infant macrophages, bacteria were taken up relatively normally and delivered into lysosomal compartments, but not efficiently digested. The inefficient bacterial killing in infant macrophages was correlated with impaired acidification of the lysosomal compartments and reduced lysosomal recruitment of Rab7, an essential component of the acidification process. The acidification defect was not intrinsic to the cells, and was rescued by pretreatment with interferon-gamma. Thus, we propose that the limited capacity of phagosome maturation is one of the major causes of the high sensitivity to infectious microorganisms during infancy and that the specific cytokine milieu shapes the nature of infantile innate immunity. PMID:18692022

Saito, Fumiji; Kuwata, Hirotaka; Oiki, Eiji; Koike, Masato; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Honda, Kenya; Takeda, Kiyoshi

2008-10-10

367

Challenges to bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) social groups: Mother-infant dyad and infant social interactions.  

PubMed

The mother-infant dyad is crucial to early development in a variety of species. The complexity of social groupings in nonhuman primates makes this relationship resilient as well as susceptible to early challenges associated with environmental chaos. Quantitative behavior observations of bonnet monkey mother-infant interactions were collected from 28 mother-infant dyads between one and twelve months of age. Social groups were subjected to several prenatal and/or postnatal housing relocations within a single year resulting in two study groups. One group experienced relocations (ATYPICAL, n = 14) and the second group (TYPICAL, n = 14) was conceived and reared in the same location. Behaviors in the ethogram included mother-infant interactions and infant social interactions with other members of the group. Observations between ages of two to four months were analyzed by a mixed model analysis of variance including fixed effects of per and postnatal history (TYPICAL, ATYPICAL), age, and history by age interaction and random effects of mother and infant nested within mother. A significant effect of relocation history was noted on a number of infant behaviors. ATYPICAL infants were out of direct contact with their mother at an earlier age but remained in her proximity. Control of proximity shifted to offsrping in the ATYPICAL group compared to the TYPICAL group. Furthermore, greater social interactions between two and four months of age with other members of the social group as well as the ir mother were observed in the ATYPICAL group. It is suggested that continuous challenge associated with relocation may affect the infant at later developmental ages due to these early differences in ways that are yet unclear. PMID:20583143

Laudenslager, Mark L; Natvig, C; Mikulich-Gilbertson, S M; Blevins, M; Corcoran, C; Pierre, P J; Bennett, A J

2010-07-01

368

Infant regulation of intake: the effect of free glutamate content in infant formulas1234  

PubMed Central

Background: We recently discovered that infants randomly assigned to a formula high in free amino acids (extensive protein hydrolysate formula; ePHF) during infancy consumed less formula to satiation and gained less weight than did infants fed an isocaloric formula low in free amino acids (cow milk formula; CMF). Objective: Because ePHF and CMF differ markedly in concentrations of free glutamate, we tested the hypothesis that the higher glutamate concentrations in ePHF promote satiation and satiety. Design: In this counterbalanced, within-subject study, infants <4 mo of age (n = 30) visited our laboratory for 3 sets of 2 consecutive infant-led formula meals over 3 test days. Infants were fed 1 of 3 isocaloric formulas during each first meal: CMF, ePHF, or CMF with added free glutamate to approximate concentrations in ePHF (CMF+glu). When infants signaled hunger again, they were fed a second meal of CMF. From these data, we calculated satiety ratios for each of the 3 formulas by dividing the intermeal interval by the amount of formula consumed during that particular first meal. Results: Infants consumed significantly less CMF+glu (P < 0.02) and ePHF (P < 0.04) than CMF during the first meals. They also showed greater levels of satiety after consuming CMF+glu or ePHF: satiety ratios for CMF+glu (P < 0.03) and ePHF (P < 0.05) were significantly higher than for CMF. Conclusion: These findings suggest a role of free glutamate in infant intake regulation and call into question the claim that formula feeding impairs infants’ abilities to self regulate energy intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00957892. PMID:22357724

Ventura, Alison K; Beauchamp, Gary K; Mennella, Julie A

2012-01-01

369

[Prematurity and infant-parent attachment disturbances. Assessment and intervention].  

PubMed

Premature birth is a factor of impaired infant-parent attachment. In addition it is frequently associated with other factors of impaired attachment related either to the infant (mainly the various pathologies of the premature infants and the hospitalization) and/or to the parents, specially the mother. The main characteristics of the normal process of infant-parent interaction are described as a basis for the early recognition and assessment of impaired interaction and preventive intervention. PMID:9759195

Battisti, O; Adant-François, A; Bertrand, J M; Kalenga, M; Langhendries, J P

1998-05-01

370

Sex differences in interest in infants across the lifespan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated sex differences in interest in infants among children, adolescents, young adults, and older individuals.\\u000a Interest in infants was assessed with responses to images depicting animal and human infants versus adults, and with verbal\\u000a responses to questionnaires. Clear sex differences, irrespective of age, emerged in all visual and verbal tests, with females\\u000a being more interested in infants than

Dario Maestripieri; Suzanne Pelka

2002-01-01

371

Contributions of infant word learning to language development  

PubMed Central

Infants learn the forms of words by listening to the speech they hear. Though little is known about the degree to which these forms are meaningful for young infants, the words still play a role in early language development. Words guide the infant to his or her first syntactic intuitions, aid in the development of the lexicon, and, it is proposed, may help infants learn phonetic categories. PMID:19933136

Swingley, Daniel

2009-01-01

372

Affective and physiological factors predicting maternal response to infant crying  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated physiological, affective, and perceptual factors hypothesized to predict how quickly 45 primiparous mothers of 7–9-month-old infants would respond to non-distressed infant crying. Aversiveness ratings of the non-distressed cries of one's “own” infant and physiological reactivity to one's “own” infant crying accounted for a significant amount of the variance in a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis of speed

Tamara Del Vecchio; Abbe Walter; Susan G. O’Leary

2009-01-01

373

Growth of the exclusively breast-fed infant1  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate how long human milk alone would be adequate for the physical growth of the infant, we studied 96 infants of mothers in La Leche League International from the Washington, D.C-Baltimore area who had exclusively breast-fed their infants for at least 6 months within the past 2 years. The average duration of exclusive breast-feeding was 7 months; three infants

Chung Hae Ahn; William C. MacLean

374

Early School-Age Outcomes of Late Preterm Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.Late preterm infants represent a significant portion of preterm deliveries. Until recently, these infants have received little attention because of assumptions that they carry minimal risk for long-term morbidities. The purpose of this study was to compare prekindergarten and kindergarten outcomes among healthy late preterm infants, 340?7 to 366?7 weeks' gestation at birth, and healthy term infants, 370?7 to 416?7

Steven Benjamin Morse; Hao Zheng; Yiwei Tang; Jeffrey Roth

2009-01-01

375

Posture support improves object individuation in infants.  

PubMed

A hierarchical progression in infants' ability to use surface features, such as color, as a basis for object individuation in the first year has been well established (Tremoulet, Leslie, & Hall, 2000; Wilcox, 1999). There is evidence, however, that infants' sensitivity to surface features can be increased through multisensory (i.e., visuohaptic) exploration of objects (Wilcox, Woods, Chapa, & McCurry, 2007). Three studies were conducted to investigate the effect of multisensory experience on infants' sensitivity to pattern information. Experiments 1 and 2 confirmed that 5.5- and 6.5-month-olds do not spontaneously use pattern differences to individuate objects and revealed that 6.5- but not 5.5-month-olds can be primed to attend to pattern differences if allowed multisensory experience with the objects prior to the individuation task. However, the 5.5-month-olds also had greater difficulty maintaining a self-sitting posture during the multisensory priming experience. In Experiment 3, 4.5- and 5.5-month-olds were given full postural support during the multisensory exploration period. In this situation, the 5.5-month-olds successfully individuated the objects, but even with full postural support, 4.5-month-old infants did not use the pattern differences to individuate the objects. These results demonstrate that multisensory priming is effective with infants as young as 5.5 months and extends multisensory priming to another surface feature, pattern. Furthermore, these results indicate that constraints are placed on the multisensory experience by the physical and motor development of the infant. PMID:23046431

Woods, Rebecca J; Wilcox, Teresa

2013-08-01

376

Posture Support Improves Object Individuation in Infants  

PubMed Central

A hierarchical progression in infants’ ability to use surface features, such as color, as a basis for object individuation in the first year has been well established (Tremoulet, Leslie, & Hall, 2001; Wilcox, 1999). There is evidence, however, that infants’ sensitivity to surface features can be increased through multisensory (i.e., visuo-haptic) exploration of objects (Wilcox, Woods, Chapa, & McCurry, 2007). Three studies were conducted to investigate the effect of multisensory experience on infants’ sensitivity to pattern information. Experiments 1 and 2 confirmed that 5.5- and 6.5-month-olds do not spontaneously use pattern differences to individuate objects and revealed that 6.5- but not 5.5-month-olds can be primed to attend to pattern differences if allowed multisensory experience with the objects prior to the individuation task. However, the 5.5-month-olds also had greater difficulty maintaining a self-sitting posture during the multisensory priming experience. In Experiment 3, 4.5- and 5.5-month-olds were given full postural support during the multisensory exploration period. In this situation, the 5.5-month-olds successfully individuated the objects, but even with full postural support, 4.5-month-old infants did not use the pattern differences to individuate the objects. These results demonstrate that multisensory priming is effective with infants as young as 5.5 months and extends multisensory priming to another surface feature, pattern. Furthermore, these results indicate that constraints are placed on the multisensory experience by the physical and motor development of the infant. PMID:23046431

Woods, Rebecca J.; Wilcox, Teresa

2013-01-01

377

Asymmetry in infants' selective attention to facial features during visual processing of infant-directed speech  

PubMed Central

Two experiments used eye tracking to examine how infant and adult observers distribute their eye gaze on videos of a mother producing infant- and adult-directed speech. Both groups showed greater attention to the eyes than to the nose and mouth, as well as an asymmetrical focus on the talker's right eye for infant-directed speech stimuli. Observers continued to look more at the talker's apparent right eye when the video stimuli were mirror flipped, suggesting that the asymmetry reflects a perceptual processing bias rather than a stimulus artifact, which may be related to cerebral lateralization of emotion processing. PMID:24062705

Smith, Nicholas A.; Gibilisco, Colleen R.; Meisinger, Rachel E.; Hankey, Maren

2013-01-01

378

Infants' Recognition of Pictorial Representations of Real Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability of 5-month-old infants to recognize two-dimensional (pictorial) representations of three-dimensional objects was investigated. Subjects were 24 5-month-old infants. The novelty preference technique was employed: all infants were familiarized with a three-dimensional object--a doll. Following familiarization, three novelty tests were…

Strauss, Mark S.; And Others

379

Visual Expectation and Dimensions of Infant Information Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six-month-old African-American infants' expectation of a visual stimulus was related to developmental measures. Reaction time was related to eye fixation in tests that measured visual recognition memory (VRM) and presented objects of different shapes to the infant. Reaction time and infants' stimulus expectation predicted VRM novelty preference.…

Jacobson, Sandra W.; And Others

1992-01-01

380

Diet Counseling During the Infant Oral Health Visit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diet counseling is an integral part of anticipatory guidance during the infant oral health visit. Similar to dietary instructions for children of all ages, the primary emphasis is on sugar intake frequency. There are, however, other infant-specific dietary issues that must also be addressed during the infant oral health visit. Breast-feeding should be promoted during the first year of life,

S. M. Hashim Nainar

2004-01-01

381

Probable Congenital Babesiosis in Infant, New Jersey, USA  

PubMed Central

Only 2 neonates with transplacentally or perinatally acquired (congenital) babesiosis have been reported. We describe a probable third congenital case of babesiosis in a 26-day-old infant; transmission was determined on the basis of a blood smear from the infant (15% parasitemia) and serologic results from the infant and mother. PMID:19402971

Sethi, Sonia; Alcid, David; Kesarwala, Hemant

2009-01-01

382

Emotional adjustment and concerns of Korean mothers of premature infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the emotional adjustment and concerns of 50 Korean mothers of premature infants from hospitalization through six weeks after discharge. Five themes emerged: self-blame, concern about the infant, reluctance to express negatives, fear of stigmatizing responses to the infant by others, and delayed joy in mothering. Three Korean cultural beliefs influenced mothers’ responses to premature birth: maternal responsibility

Inhae Lee; Kathleen F. Norr; Kasil Oh

2005-01-01

383

Measurements, Morality, and the Politics of “Normal” Infant Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the birth and early life of an infant is similar throughout the world, meanings ascribed to infants differ according to cultural values and beliefs. This essay describes how scholars and healers have come to see the infant as distinct from other types of people, and what implications this distinction carries for how health care is practiced. The first portion

Leslie Butt

1999-01-01

384

Physical Activity and Walking Onset in Infants with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants with Down syndrome (DS) are described as being less active and they also experience significant delays in motor development. It is hypothesized that early infant physical activity may be influential for the acquisition of independent walking. Physical activity was monitored longitudinally in 30 infants with DS starting at an average age of…

Lloyd, Meghann; Burghardt, Amy; Ulrich, Dale A.; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa

2010-01-01

385

SEX DIFFERENCES IN INTEREST IN INFANTS ACROSS THE LIFESPAN  

E-print Network

of socializa- tion. Rather, they probably reflect a combination of genetic predispositions and prenatal tests, with females being more interested in infants than males. Male interest in infants remained a biological adaptation for parenting. KEY WORDS: Adaptation; Development; Interest in infants; Prenatal

Maestripieri, Dario

386

Discrimination of Large and Small Numerosities by Human Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six experiments investigated infants' sensitivity to numerosity in auditory sequences. In prior studies (Lipton & Spelke, 2003), 6-month-old infants discriminated sequences of 8 versus 16 but not 8 versus 12 sounds, and 9-month-old infants discriminated 8 versus 12 but not 8 versus 10 sounds, when the continuous variables of rate, sound duration,…

Lipton, Jennifer S.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

2004-01-01

387

Can Blind Infants and Children Use Sonar Sensory Aids?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on auditory-spatial perception in sighted and blind infants is reviewed in an attempt to understand the implications of this work for the blind infant's and child's use of sonar aids. A critical review of studies of sonar aid use by blind infants and children is provided. It is concluded that although there is some evidence that blind children can

G. Keith Humphrey; Peter C. Dodwell; Darwin W. Muir; Diane E. Humphrey

1988-01-01

388

Infant Smiling during Social Interaction: Arousal Modulation or Activation Indicator?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study of infant smiling, 20 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in normal face-to-face interaction when the infants were 9 and 14 weeks of age. Videotapes were used to determine which of two classes of smiling behavior models, either arousal modulation or activation indicator, was most supported by empirical data. Arousal modulation models…

Ewy, Richard

389

Infant Preferences for Attractive Faces: Rudiments of a Stereotype?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies, one with two- to three-month-olds and one with six- to eight-month-olds, examined infant preferences for attractive faces. A visual preference technique was used. Infants were shown slides of faces of adult women previously rated for attractiveness. When shown pairs of attractive and unattractive faces, older and younger infants

Langlois, Judith H.; And Others

1987-01-01

390

Interactive Silences within Spontaneous Early Infant-Father "Dialogues"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present longitudinal and naturalistic study aims to investigate infants' and fathers' facial expressions of emotions during pauses preceding and following spontaneous early infant-father conversation. Studying emotional expressions in the course of pauses in early infant-father interaction is important because it may extend our knowledge on…

Kokkinaki, Theano

2008-01-01

391

Social Regulatory Effects of Infant Nondistress Vocalization on Maternal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the social regulatory function of infant nondistress vocalization in modulating maternal response. Thirteen infants and their mothers were observed weekly in a face-to-face interaction situation from 4 to 24 weeks. After the occurrences and the speech quality of infant nondistress vocalization were identified, maternal…

Hsu, Hui-Chin; Fogel, Alan

2003-01-01

392

Infant and Child Development Inf. Child Dev. 17: 2542 (2008)  

E-print Network

theory in infant motor development and specifically (1) how the interactions among the parts of a system is on the dynamics of infant motor development, and the possibility that the theory of dynamical systems and itsInfant and Child Development Inf. Child Dev. 17: 25­42 (2008) Published online in Wiley Inter

Berthouze, Luc

393

Toward Teaching a Robot "Infant" using Emotive Communication Acts  

E-print Network

to that of a developing infant. In doing so, this approach attempts to take advantage of this special sort of environment, this work explores robot learning in a similar environment to that of a developing infant. It is known, behavior, motivations, motor skills and expressive acts. Since an infant's emotions and drives guide

394

The Syntax of Human Infant Neil E. Berthier  

E-print Network

in the world. Development occurs in a manner that allows for skill optimization [22]. Infant reaching uses of this paper is the describe development of infant reaching over the first two years and then consider how the behavioral syntax might be related to current theories of motor control. 2 Syntax of infant reaching At birth

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

395

Trends in Infant Mortality, North Carolina: 1940 to 1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents data analyzed by county and multicounty planning region which indicate that North Carolina's infant mortality rate has declined by 59 percent since 1940. (In 1940, approximately 58 infants for every 1,000 live births died in North Carolina before their first birthday.) This reduction in infant deaths is comparable to that…

Brannon, Yevonne S.; Clifford, William B.

396

Trauma symptoms among infants exposed to intimate partner violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine whether infants have a traumatic response to intimate partner violence (male violence toward their female partner; IPV) experienced by their mothers, two questions were explored: (1) Is the number of infant trauma symptoms related to the infant's temperament and the mother's mental health? (2) Does severity of violence moderate those relationships?

G. Anne Bogat; Erika DeJonghe; Alytia A. Levendosky; William S. Davidson; Alexander von Eye

2006-01-01

397

Therapeutic Observation of an Infant in Foster Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes a clinical research study of therapeutic observation of an infant in foster care. Infants and children under five represent more than half of all children entering care in the UK. The emotional needs of this population tend to be overlooked. This study aimed to find out about the experience of an infant or young child in care,…

Wakelyn, Jenifer

2011-01-01

398

Infants' Discrimination of Female Singing Voices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There's extensive research on infant's discrimination of speaking voices but few studies have focused on infant's discrimination of singing voices. Most investigations on infants' perception of timbre in music have been based on instrumental sounds. We completed an experiment with 7-and 13-month-olds (n = 16 and n = 17…

Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Davila, Yvonne

2014-01-01

399

Infant Reactivity: Physiological Correlates of Newborn and 5Month Temperament  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between measures of heart period and vagal tone and infant reactivity was investigated in a longitudinal study of infants from birth to 5 months of age. At 2 days of age, electrocardiogram (EKG) was recorded and a pacifier-withdrawal task was administered. At 5 months of age, EKG was recorded, after which infants and mothers participated in a laboratory

Cynthia A. Stifter; Nathan A. Fox

1990-01-01

400

Early Infant Morbidity in the City of São Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Early infant morbidities may produce adverse outcomes in subsequent life. A low Apgar score is a convenient measure of early infant morbidity. We study determinants of early infant morbidity (sex, plurality, mode of delivery, prior losses, gestational age, prenatal care and birth weight, parity and maternal age, race, maternal education and community development) for the 1998-birth cohort, City of

Carla J Machado; Ken Hill

2003-01-01

401

The Effects of Maternal Mood on Mother-Infant Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effects of depressed mood on mother-infant interaction were studied in 30 mother-infant dyads using a mood induction procedure consisting of neutral or self-referent statements. Among results were that mothers in the depression induction condition were less successful in eliciting positive responses from their infants than were controls.…

Zekoski, Ellen M.; And Others

1987-01-01

402

Infant Vocalization When Alone: Possibility of Early Sound Playing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five-month-old infants' vocalization when alone was investigated. Several researchers have reported observing that young infants vocalize in comfortable states without any response from others. As is implied by episodic reports in previous studies, it is possible that infants vocalize to play with their own vocal sound. Producing and listening to…

Shimada, Yohko M.

2012-01-01

403

Infants Perceive Human Point-Light Displays as Solid Forms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While five-month-old infants show orientation-specific sensitivity to changes in the motion and occlusion patterns of human point-light displays, it is not known whether infants are capable of binding a human representation to these displays. Furthermore, it has been suggested that infants do not encode the same physical properties for humans and…

Moore, Derek G.; Goodwin, Julia E.; George, Rachel; Axelsson, Emma L.; Braddick, Fleur M. B.

2007-01-01

404

Early Interactions between Infants and Their Postpartum Depressed Mothers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated whether infants of mothers who were depressed postpartum would behave like infants of non-depressed mothers who simulated depression. A total of 24 mothers and their 3-month-old infants were videotaped during face-to-face interactions. All mothers were given the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait…

Field, Tiffany

405

Infants, Toddlers, and Terror: Supporting Parents, Helping Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Responding to family needs in the wake of September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, this issue focuses on infants, toddlers, and terror. Articles…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

2002-01-01

406

Social Regulatory Effects of Infant Nondistress Vocalization on Maternal Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the social regulatory function of infant nondistress vocalization in modulating maternal response. Thirteen infants and their mothers were observed weekly in a face-to-face interaction situation from 4 to 24 weeks. After the occurrences and the speech quality of infant nondistress vocalization were identified, maternal contingent responses to these vocalizations were also coded. Each responsive action was further

Hui-Chin Hsu; Alan Fogel

2003-01-01

407

Mother–Infant Responsiveness: Timing, Mutual Regulation, and Interactional Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual regulation during the naturalistic interaction of 150 mothers and their 4-month-old infants was investigated from a dynamic systems perspective. Microanalyses of a wide range of behaviors and analysis of contingencies indicated that a 3-s time period best captured contingencies. Both mothers and infants communicated primarily through vocal signals and responses, although maternal touches and infant looks also elicited responses.

Laurie A. Van Egeren; Marguerite S. Barratt; Mary A. Roach

2001-01-01

408

Prenatal Care and Infant Birth Outcomes Among Medicaid Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infant morbidity due to low birth weight and preterm births results in emotional suffering and significant direct and indirect costs. African American infants continue to have worse birth outcomes than white infants. This study examines relationships between newborn hospital costs, maternal risk factors, and prenatal care in Medicaid recipients in an impoverished rural county in South Carolina. Medicaid African American

DO MPH V. James Guillory; DrPH Michael E. Samuels; Janice C. Probst; MHA Glynda Sharp

2003-01-01

409

Brain injury in the premature infant – from pathogenesis to prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain injury in the premature infant is an extremely important problem, in part because of the large absolute number of infants affected yearly. The two principal brain lesions that underlie the neurological manifestations subsequently observed in premature infants are periventricular hemorrhagic infarction and periventricular leukomalacia. The emphases of this article are the neurology, neuropathology and pathogenesis of these two lesions.

Joseph J Volpe

1997-01-01

410

Supplementation of mothers' milk for preterm infants: Mineral bioavailability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of multi-nutrient supplements for preterm infants fed mother's milk is common practice in neonatal intensive care units to provide sufficient amounts of minerals and other nutrients. The research delineated in this thesis investigated calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron bioavailability from supplemented mother's milk for preterm infants. Multi-nutrient supplementation to mother's milk had the benefit for preterm infants of achieving

Ine P. M Wauben

1997-01-01

411

The Effects of Infant Simulators on Early Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the effects of infant simulators (computerized dolls designed to simulate normal infants) on 236 8th-grade students. Findings indicated that the doll experience had a significant impact on the students, especially females. It helped them to learn about the challenges of infant care, and to think of the implications before engaging in…

Divine, James H.; Cobbs, Gene

2001-01-01

412

Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…

Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael

2008-01-01

413

Evidence for Reliable and Valid Dimensions of Infant Temperament.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reliability and validity of three measures of infant temperament were compared in this study. The measures included the revised Carey (1978) Infant Temperament Questionnaire, a version of the Bayley (1969) Infant Behavior Record revised for completion by the parent, and a modified version of Buss and Plomin's (1975) EASI, an acronym standing…

MacPhee, David

414

Conditions for Young Infants' Failure to Perceive Trajectory Continuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

When viewing an event in which an object moves behind an occluder on part of its trajectory, 4-month-old infants perceive the trajectory as continuous only when time or distance out of sight is short. Little is known, however, about the conditions under which young infants perceive trajectories to be discontinuous. In the present studies we focus first on infants' perception

J. Gavin Bremner; Scott P. Johnson; Alan Slater; Uschi Mason; Andrea Cheshire; Joanne Spring

2006-01-01

415

Infant Attention to Intentional Action Predicts Preschool Theory of Mind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines whether there are continuities between infant social attention and later theory of mind. Forty-five children were studied as infants and then again as 4-year-olds. Measures of infant social attention (decrement of attention during habituation to displays of intentional action) significantly predicted later theory of mind…

Wellman, Henry M.; Lopez-Duran, Sarah; LaBounty, Jennifer; Hamilton, Betsy

2008-01-01

416

Infant Mortality and the Health of Societies. Worldwatch Paper 47.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demographic data are used in this report to present information about infant mortality in more- and less-developed countries. One chapter is devoted to rising infant mortality rates in developed countries, which defy the typical post-World War II pattern. Severe economic conditions are linked to this increase. Direct causes of infant deaths are…

Newland, Kathleen

417

Infants in foster care: relational and environmental factors affecting attachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the effect of relational and environmental factors affecting attachment security in 46 infants placed in foster homes. The study found that a majority of infants (67%) in the participant group were securely attached. Additionally, of the insecurely attached, a larger percentage of infants than anticipated displayed disorganized\\/disoriented patterns of attachment. The study found that organization of

S. A. Cole

2005-01-01

418

Infant Affect during Parent--Infant Interaction at 3 and 6 Months: Differences between Mothers and Fathers and Influence of Parent History of Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty families participated in mother-infant and father-infant still-face interaction at infant ages 3 and 6 months as part of a study of affect in early parent-infant relationships. Infants' positive and negative affect and parents' positive affect and physical play were coded from videotapes. Consistent with previous research, during the normal…

Forbes, Erika E.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

2004-01-01

419

Multiphase Turbulence in Extragalactic Jet Cocoons  

E-print Network

of the cold gas ­ some clues: · Shock excitation (line ratios & widths) in small sources => jet somehow stirs (>106 K) surrounding the jet and the galaxy? => if some part of the shocked ambient gas would cool, all on these Problems: · Origin of the cold optical gas? · How does the jet plasma interact with the cold gas? Origin

Krause, Martin

420

Mother-infant, father-infant interaction and involvement in childcare and household labor among Taiwanese families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mother-infant and father-infant interactions were observed in the home, and parents provided estimates of their involvement in caregiving and household activities in 25 Taiwanese families. Observations indicated that mothers held infants more than did fathers and were more likely to feed, smile at, vocalize to, and engage in object play with than were fathers. Fathers engaged in more rough play

Li-Ching Sun; Jaipaul L. Roopnarine

1996-01-01

421

Broadening the Study of Infant Security of Attachment: Maternal Autonomy-Support in the Context of Infant Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although security of attachment is conceptualised as a balance between infants' attachment and exploratory behaviours, parental behaviours pertaining to infant exploration have received relatively little empirical attention. Drawing from self-determination theory, this study seeks to improve the prediction of infant attachment by assessing…

Whipple, Natasha; Bernier, Annie; Mageau, Genevieve A.

2011-01-01

422

[Mother-infant interaction and the origin of self awareness in the nursing infant].  

PubMed

The mother is the principal care-giving partner of the infant and an important source for the development of self-awareness and self-esteem. The importance of the early relational experiences of the nursing infant with its mother has been widely emphasized by the psychoanalytical approach. Through this special interaction with the parent, the infant gradually internalized images leading to the individuated self and to self-love. The purpose of this paper is to present succinctly some of the broad theoretical positions regarding the forming of the self in the nursing infant, first within the "classical" psychoanalytical current, then under the impact of more recent research in experimental psychology which have given rise to new syntheses. Empirically, the capacity for self-recognition may be observed during early childhood by means of a child's reactions in front of the mirror; therefore, the work dealing with this phenomenon will be discussed briefly. PMID:1394017

Spooner, D; Ricard, M; Saucier, J F

1992-08-01

423

GI Symptoms in Infants Are a Potential Target for Fermented Infant Milk Formulae: A Review  

PubMed Central

Besides pre- and pro-biotic-containing infant formulae, fermented infant formulae are commonly used to relieve or prevent symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort in young infants. During the fermentation process in cow’s milk-based formulae, the beneficial bacteria modulate the product by forming several beneficial compounds, which contribute to the alleviation of the symptoms observed. This review summarizes the clinical evidence on the impact of fermented infant formulae on common pediatric GI-symptoms. The potential mechanisms involved are discussed: i.e., the lactose and protein (in-) digestibility, effects on gastric emptying and gut transit and modulation of the colonic microbiota. Although initial evidence indicates a beneficial effect of fermented formulae on GI discomfort in newborns, validation and confirmation of the clinical proof obtained so far is warranted, as well as further research to (more fully) understand the mode of action. PMID:25255831

van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Berton, Amelie; Bouritius, Hetty; Goulet, Olivier

2014-01-01

424

GI symptoms in infants are a potential target for fermented infant milk formulae: a review.  

PubMed

Besides pre- and pro-biotic-containing infant formulae, fermented infant formulae are commonly used to relieve or prevent symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort in young infants. During the fermentation process in cow's milk-based formulae, the beneficial bacteria modulate the product by forming several beneficial compounds, which contribute to the alleviation of the symptoms observed. This review summarizes the clinical evidence on the impact of fermented infant formulae on common pediatric GI-symptoms. The potential mechanisms involved are discussed: i.e., the lactose and protein (in-) digestibility, effects on gastric emptying and gut transit and modulation of the colonic microbiota. Although initial evidence indicates a beneficial effect of fermented formulae on GI discomfort in newborns, validation and confirmation of the clinical proof obtained so far is warranted, as well as further research to (more fully) understand the mode of action. PMID:25255831

van de Heijning, Bert J M; Berton, Amelie; Bouritius, Hetty; Goulet, Olivier

2014-09-01

425

Infant preferences for attractive faces: a cognitive explanation.  

PubMed

Research on infant face perception has shown that infants' preferences for attractive faces exist well before socialization from parents, peers, and the media can affect these preferences. Four studies assessed a cognitive explanation for the development of attractiveness preferences: cognitive averaging and infant preferences for mathematically averaged faces, or prototypes. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that both adults and 6-month-old infants prefer prototypical, mathematically averaged faces. Studies 3 and 4 demonstrated that 6-month-olds can abstract the central tendency from a group of naturalistic faces. Taken together, the studies suggest that infants' preferences for attractive faces can be explained by general information-processing mechanisms. PMID:10380874

Rubenstein, A J; Kalakanis, L; Langlois, J H

1999-05-01

426

Indexing Individual Objects in Infant Working Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Needham's findings that infants individuate objects by feature, within the framework of brain mechanisms that index or track individual objects, drawing upon theories of attention and working memory developed in the study of adults. Considers Needham's work as contributing to an understanding of categorization and the effect of object…

Leslie, Alan M.; Kaldy, Zsuzsa

2001-01-01

427

Pathogenesis of early atherosclerotic lesions in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

High serologic lipid levels, infections, and genetic susceptibility have been proposed as possible etiologic factors of initial atherosclerotic lesions of the coronary arteries in infancy. At a recent WHO annual meeting, it was stated that breast milk substitutes cause irreparable damage in infants. This prompted us to verify whether formula feeding and parental cigarette smoking might play a role in

Luigi Matturri; Giulia Ottaviani; Giancarlo Corti; Anna M Lavezzi

2004-01-01

428

Behavior Guidance for Infants and Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides guidance to parents regarding behavior of infants and toddlers, including behavior development and problems. It offers common sense advice and practical examples. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction: What Is Misbehavior of Babies?", discussing "crying" as an appropriate behavior for meeting physical and emotional needs, and…

Honig, Alice Sterling

429

Responses of the Newborn Infant to Overheating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of newborn babies to overheating were investigated by exposing them to progressively higher incubator air temperatures until either sweating occurred or the rectal temperature reached 37.9 °C. 112 studies were performed on 83 healthy term and preterm infants. Activity, posture, heart rate, respiratory rate, skin colour and abdominal skin and hand temperature were monitored. Most babies regardless of

V. A. Harpin; G. Chellappah; N. Rutter

1983-01-01

430

Easy Toys for Infants and Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides instructions for creating inexpensive activities and toys for infants and toddlers to supplement major toy purchases in early care programs. Includes instructions for making bean bags, cellophane snakes, sock bracelets, one-piece puzzles, milk carton blocks, a pounding bench, paint gloves, and people puzzles. (KB)

Texas Child Care, 2002

2002-01-01

431

Chronic boric acid poisoning in infants.  

PubMed Central

We report 7 infants suffering from seizures induced by chronic boric acid ingestion. The boric acid was given by dipping a soother in a proprietary borax and honey mixture. The babies have remained well since the mixture was withheld. PMID:6625636

O'Sullivan, K; Taylor, M

1983-01-01

432

Initial Morphological Learning in Preverbal Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do children learn the internal structure of inflected words? We hypothesized that bound functional morphemes begin to be encoded at the preverbal stage, driven by their frequent occurrence with highly variable roots, and that infants in turn use these morphemes to interpret other words with the same inflections. Using a preferential looking…

Marquis, Alexandra; Shi, Rushen

2012-01-01

433

Routines. Infant/Toddler Caregiving: A Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use in conjunction with videos illustrating key concepts and caregiving techniques, this guide focuses on how the daily routines of caring for infants and toddlers can become opportunities for promoting the child's learning and development and for deepening the relationship between child and caregiver. Special attention is given to…

Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

434

Infants' Reasoning about Others' False Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research suggests that children younger than age 3 or 4 do not understand that an agent may be deceived by an object's misleading appearance. The authors asked whether 14.5-month-olds would give evidence in a violation-of-expectation task that they understand that agents may form false perceptions. Infants first watched events in which an…

Song, Hyun-joo; Baillargeon, Renee

2008-01-01

435

Mental and motor development in infant twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Used the Bayley Scales of Infant Development to evaluate the mental and motor development of 261 pairs of twins at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 mo. of age. Results show that with a small allowance for prematurity, the twins displayed essentially the same rate of progression in development as singletons. The correlations between developmental scores obtained at successive

Ronald S. Wilson; Eileen B. Harpring

1972-01-01

436

Responding to infants: Fine motor development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adults should interact with infants to meet their individual needs. The chart below lists the growth and needs of a baby for development of fine motor skills. It should be stressed that the use of chronological age in the developmental chart is only for convenience. We wish to emphasize that the child's behavior and abilities are the important criteria in

Inez D. Moyer

1984-01-01

437

Infant “surprise” expressions as coordinative motor structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study found that the facial action of moderately or widely opening the mouth is accompanied by brow raising in infnats, thus producing surprise expressions in non-surprise situations. Infants (age = 5 months and 7 months) were videotaped as they were presented with toys that they often grasped and brought to their mouths. Episodes of mouth opening were identified and

Linda A. Camras; Linda Lambrecht; George F. Michel

1996-01-01

438

A Gentle Approach for Young Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gentle Approach is a method for lifting infants younger than 6 months that promotes security and reassurance during adult-imposed changes in position. Developed at the Emmi Pilker National Methodological Institute for Residential Nurseries in Budapest, Hungary, the approach provides continual support and less opportunity for unprotected…

Suskind, Diana; Kozma, Marta

439

Infants and Toddlers: Soothing and Comforting Babies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Babies thrive on security. In early months, secure feelings stem from being warm, cuddled closely, and comfortable in their tummies (and in having clean bottoms!). In this article, the author discusses how to soothe infants and toddlers. The strategies to help ease babies' distress are described. Some of the recommended strategies include: (1) to…

Honig, Alice Sterling

2004-01-01

440

Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Infant Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants exposed to alcohol prenatally, even when they do not suffer from fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), may be at high risk for many of the negative outcomes typically found among children of alcoholics including hyperactivity and other behavioral and learning problems. A series of studies are described designed to investigate the incidence and persistence of central nervous system (CNS) related

Claire D. Coles; Iris E. Smith; Arthur Falek

1987-01-01

441

Abdominal lymphangioma in a preterm infant.  

PubMed

A newborn infant, noted on prenatal ultrasonography to have a huge, multiseptated cystic intraabdominal mass, had severe respiratory failure at birth because of a massively distended abdomen. Acute treatment included removal of 1.7 L of serous fluid, aggressive respiratory support, and numerous diagnostic studies. Definitive therapy was excision of the cyst by laparoscopy. Pathologic examination showed cystic lymphangioma. PMID:8866304

Salvador, A; Rosenberg, H K; Horrow, M M; Kumar, S L

1996-01-01

442

Environmentally-induced methemoglobinemia in an infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired methemoglobinemia results from the exposure to various chemicals and drugs able to oxidize hemoglobin at a rate exceeding the normal enzymatic capacity for hemoglobin reduction. Levels of methemoglobin exceeding 60-70% may be associated with coma and death. We describe a case of complete, uneventful recovery involving a 10 week-old infant who presented to the Emergency Department with profound sudden

Bonnie S. Dean; Gaylord Lopez; Edward P. Krenzelok

1992-01-01

443

Prenatal Drug Exposure: Infant and Toddler Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript provides an overview of the current scientific literature on the impact of maternal drug use, specifically opioids and cocaine, during pregnancy on the acute and long-term outcomes of infants and toddlers from birth through age 3 years. Emphasis with regard to opioids is placed on heroin and opioid substitutes used to treat opioid addiction, including methadone, which has

Emmalee S. Bandstra; Connie E. Morrow; Elana Mansoor; Veronica H. Accornero

2010-01-01

444

Learning capacities of the infant rhesus monkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed response, patterned string tests and discrimination learning problems administered at intervals during the rhesus monkey's first year of life show the feasibility of estimating the learning capacity of infant monkeys. Individual discrimination problems were learned at 150 days of age and ability to form learning sets was demonstrated. Delayed responses up to 40 sec. were successfully acquired. Parallel and

William A. Mason; Nancy C. Blazek; Harry F. Harlow

1956-01-01

445

Neurologic Outcome Score for Infants and Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To develop and validate a practical outcome instrument applicable to a broad range of neurologic deficits in children. Methods: Reliability testing of a draft version of the Neurologic Outcome Scale for Infants and Children (NOSIC) in 100 children with a wide range of ages and levels of neurologic function was performed. After review of the reliability data by a

Pamela J. Okada; Kelly D. Young; Jill M. Baren; Soledad S. Raroque; Kenneth R. Huff; Jacqueline B. Wiebe; Peter L. Stavinoha; Roger J. Lewis

2003-01-01

446

Corticosteroids in infant chronic lung disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corticosteroids in infant chronic lung disease. C. May, A. Greenough. Chronic lung disease (CLD), defined as chronic oxygen dependency at 36 weeks postmenstrual age, is increasing and associated with chronic respiratory morbidity and high health care utilisation at follow up. Many strategies, tested in randomised trials, have failed to reduce CLD. In contrast, corticosteroids if given systemically within the first

A. Greenough; Lung Biology; Anne Greenough

447

Amplification, Technology, and Cochlear Implants for Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early amplification is crucial to efficient habilitation and development of oral communication skills in hearing-impaired infants. Initial evaluation and fitting of amplification is a joint effort by the audiologist, therapist, and parents, whether the child uses traditional hearing aids or cochlear implants, and should be supplemented by a…

Adam, Arlie J.

1993-01-01

448

Matching Behavior in the Young Infant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines infant matching of adult tongue protrusion behavior. Investigates whether (1) this matching behavior represents selective imitation or a released response that can be elicited by a broad but delimited class of incentive stimuli and (2) whether stimulation of tongue protrusion enhances the response and delays its decline. (JMB)

Jacobson, Sandra W.

1979-01-01

449

Infant Learning: Historical, Conceptual, and Methodological Challenges  

E-print Network

personal scientific history, (2) key controversies in the field, (3) a tribute to highly talented graduate Society on Infant Studies (ISIS) ISSN: 1525-0008 print /1532-7078 online DOI: 10.1111/infa.12036 #12;this address is a little bit of "all of the above". I begin with some history on the general topic of learning

Aslin, Richard N.

450

Severe and unrecognised: pertussis in UK infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To diagnose pertussis using culture, polymerase chain reaction, and serology, in children admitted to intensive care units (PICUs) and some paediatric wards in London, and in their household contacts to determine the source of infection.Methods: Infants <5 months old admitted to London PICUs between 1998 and 2000 with respiratory failure, apnoea and\\/or bradycardia, or acute life threatening episodes (ALTE),

N S Crowcroft; R Booy; T Harrison; L Spicer; J Britto; Q Mok; P Heath; I Murdoch; M Zambon; R George; E Miller

2003-01-01

451

Dopamine research ......................... 3 Infant attachment ............................. 4  

E-print Network

1 INSIDE Dopamine research ......................... 3 Infant attachment for parents. Their children are failing in school, they're not following directions and they're having issue. The parents have not been able to find answers elsewhere and many times they have been blamed

452

Infant Sign Training and Functional Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We taught manual signs to typically developing infants using a reversal design and caregiver-nominated stimuli. We delivered the stimuli on a time-based schedule during baseline. During the intervention, we used progressive prompting and reinforcement, described by Thompson et al. (2004, 2007), to establish mands. Following sign training, we…

Normand, Matthew P.; Machado, Mychal A.; Hustyi, Kristin M.; Morley, Allison J.

2011-01-01

453

Is Infant Immunity Actively Suppressed or Immature?  

PubMed Central

Almost 7 million children under the age 5 die each year, and most of these deaths are attributable to vaccine-preventable infections. Young infants respond poorly to infections and vaccines. In particular, dendritic cells secrete less IL-12 and IL-18, CD8pos T cells and NK cells have defective cytolysis and cytokine production, and CD4pos T cell responses tend to bias towards a Th2 phenotype and promotion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). The basis for these differences is not well understood and may be in part explained by epigenetic differences, as well as immaturity of the infant's immune system. Here we present a third possibility, which involves active suppression by immune regulatory cells and place in context the immune suppressive pathways of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), CD5pos B cells, and Tregs. The immune pathways that these immune regulatory cells inhibit are similar to those that are defective in the infant. Therefore, the immune deficiencies seen in infants could be explained, in part, by active suppressive cells, indicating potential new avenues for intervention.

Gervassi, Ana L.; Horton, Helen

2014-01-01

454

Minimally invasive surgery in neonates and infants  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has significantly improved the field of surgery, with benefits including shorter operating time, improved recovery time, minimizing stress and pain due to smaller incisions, and even improving mortality. MIS procedures, including their indications, impact, limitations, and possible future evolution in neonates and infants, are discussed in this article. PMID:21180496

Lin, Tiffany; Pimpalwar, Ashwin

2010-01-01

455

Treating otitis media in children and infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Otitis media (OM) or middle ear infection is a common condition in children and infants and can manifest from birth, with the peak incidence of infections occurring in children aged 3–18 months. The standard allopathic medical approach is prescription of antibiotics, although the most common causes of otitis are bacteria which frequently show resistance to several types of antibiotics.The wholistic

S. Catty

2005-01-01

456

Nasal Obstruction in the Neonate and Infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neonate is a preferential nasal breather; therefore, nasal obstruction in the neonatal period may cause significant sequelae. Although the uncommon choanal atresia is the main condition to be excluded, many other possible causes exist. A systematic approach to the workings of nasal obstruction in the neonate and infant is outlined so that appropriate management can be instituted.

Harvey Coates

1992-01-01

457

Alcohol Use and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite general evidence of fetal toxicities associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), there has been limited research focusing on the effects of parental alcohol use on SIDS occurrence, either directly or in interaction with other risk conditions. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on parental, especially maternal,…

Friend, Karen B.; Goodwin, Matthew S.; Lipsitt, Lewis P.

2004-01-01

458

Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile in Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile was studied prospectively in 451 newborn infants by daily screening of fecal samples. Colonization rates in three postnatal wards ranged from 2% to 52%. Many colonizations were sporadic, but on two wards there was evidence of clustering. On one of these occasions prospective environmental sampling yielded C. difficile organisms from a potential common source. Mothers

H. E. Larson; F. E. Barclay; P. Honour; I. D. Hill

1982-01-01

459

Infant Malnutrition: Shame of our Nation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that severe infant malnutrition is shockingly widespread in the United States, that the effects of malnutrition in infancy are now recognized to be much more devastating than had hitherto been known, and that the probable relationship between poverty, malnutrition, and mental deficiency is far too strong to overlook. [Available from…

Low, Merritt Burnham

1975-01-01

460

Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

2011-01-01

461

Tracheobronchomegaly in preterm infants on mechanical ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracheobronchomegaly (TBM) was diagnosed on chest radiographs as an apparent dilatation of the trachea and main bronchi in four premature infants on prolonged mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome. In a retrospective study, the parameters of assisted ventilation, the Apgar score, the presence of conatal or later infection, and hypotension were reviewed and analyzed as factors possibly contributing to the

Ž. Zupan?i?; J. Primoži?

1995-01-01

462

Explaining Language Choice in Early Infant Bilingualism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether language context affects language choice in a Spanish-English bilingual infant from age 1;3 to 1;10. Most studies of child bilingualism assume that communicative competence occurs at a stage in language development after the onset of syntactic constructions, but this paper hypothesizes that once the child begins to…

Quay, Suzanne

463

Preterm Infants' Responses to Aversive Stimuli.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Irritability levels and activity reactivity to aversive tactile stimuli were compared for 144 full-term neonates and 191 preterm infants. Irritability ratings increased across the five trials both during and post stimulation for full-term females and males and for preterm females, but not for preterm males. Activity ratings decreased across trials…

Riese, Marilyn L.

464

Early interventions for infants of depressed mothers.  

PubMed

Infants of mothers who remain depressed for 1 year after birth have a distinct profile of behavioral, physiologic, and biochemical dysregulation. Their mothers also have a distinct profile that can be used to target those in need of intervention. These interventions may include mood induction, massage therapy, interaction coaching, and natural buffers such as nondepressed fathers and caregivers. PMID:9794974

Field, T

1998-11-01

465

[Clinical Responses To Infants and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal issue focuses on family service clinical responses to infants and families. In "The Therapeutic Relationship as Human Connectedness," Jeree H. Pawl stresses the importance of caregivers creating in children the sense and experience of human connectedness that arises from the feeling of existing in the mind of someone else--that is,…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

1995-01-01

466

Malnutrition, Infant Stimulation and Mental Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents research data regarding infant nutrition and mother-child interaction among Latin American families of lower socioeconomic status. The one factor distinguishing mothers of malnourished and mothers of control children was that the latter maintained regular contact with the outside world by listening to the radio. (Author/DB)

Cravioto, Joaquin; Arrieta, Ramiro

1981-01-01

467

Breastfeeding in Depressed Mother-Infant Dyads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviewed depressed and non-depressed mothers on their breastfeeding practices and perceptions of their infants' feeding behavior. Found that, compared to non-depressed mothers, depressed mothers breast fed less often, stopped breastfeeding earlier, and scored lower on a breastfeeding confidence scale. Mothers who breastfed rather than bottle…

Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Feijo, Larissa

2002-01-01

468

The Social Context of Infant Intention Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional looking-time paradigms are often used to assess infants' attention to sociocognitive phenomena, but the link between these laboratory scenarios and real-world interactions is unclear. The current study investigated hypothesized relations between traditional social-cognitive looking-time paradigms and their real-world counterparts…

Dunphy-Lelii, Sarah; LaBounty, Jennifer; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.

2014-01-01

469

Infants and Toddlers Meet the Natural World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children observe, listen, feel, taste, and take apart while exploring everything in their environment. Teachers can cultivate nature investigations with very young children by offering infants natural objects they can explore and investigate. When adults introduce nature in the earliest stages of development, children will be open to new ideas and…

McHenry, Jolie D.; Buerk, Kathy J.

2008-01-01

470

The Dynamics of Infant Visual Foraging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human infants actively forage for visual information from the moment of birth onward. Although we know a great deal about how stimulus characteristics influence looking behavior in the first few postnatal weeks, we know much less about the intrinsic dynamics of the behavior. Here we show that a simple stochastic dynamical system acts…

Robertson, Steven S.; Guckenheimer, John; Masnick, Amy M.; Bacher, Leigh F.

2004-01-01

471

Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Hydrocephalic Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The authors present the first report evaluating neonates with chronic hydrocephalus using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS). The goals of the study were (1) to determine absolute brain metabolite concentrations in premature infants and neonates with hydrocephalus and age-matched controls, (2) conduct an initial survey of potential biochemical abnormalities of the newborn hydrocephalic brain, and (3) determine whether

Sean A. McNatt; J. Gordon McComb; Marvin D. Nelson; Stefan Bluml

2007-01-01

472

Infant formulas for preterm infants: in-hospital and post-discharge.  

PubMed

The availability and composition of preterm and post-discharge formulas (PDFs) have undergone considerable changes over the last decade. Human milk, supplemented with multi-component fortifier, is the preferred feed for very preterm infants as it has beneficial effects for both short- and long-term outcomes compared with formula. If supply of mother's milk or donor milk is inadequate, a breast milk substitute specifically designed for premature infants is the next option. Preterm formula is intended to provide nutrient intakes to match intrauterine growth and nutrient accretion rates and is enriched with energy, macronutrients, minerals, vitamins, and trace elements compared with term infant formulas. Post-natal longitudinal growth failure has been reported almost universally in extremely preterm infants. Since 2009, a nutritionally enriched PDF specifically designed for preterm infants post hospital discharge with faltering growth has been available in Australia and New Zealand. This formula is an intermediary between preterm and term formulas and contains more energy (73 kcal/100 mL), protein (1.9 g/100 mL), minerals, vitamins, and trace elements than term formulas. Although the use of a PDF is based on sound nutritional knowledge, the 2012 Cochrane Systematic Review of 10 trials comparing feeding preterm infants with PDF and term formula did not demonstrate any short- or long-term benefits. Health professionals need to make individual decisions on whether and how to use PDF. PMID:22970671

Tudehope, David I; Page, Denise; Gilroy, Melissa

2012-09-01

473

Effects of the acoustic properties of infant-directed speech on infant word recognition1  

PubMed Central

A number of studies have examined the acoustic differences between infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech, suggesting that the exaggerated acoustic properties of IDS might facilitate infants’ language development. However, there has been little empirical investigation of the acoustic properties that infants use for word learning. The goal of this study was thus to examine how 19-month-olds’ word recognition is affected by three acoustic properties of IDS: slow speaking rate, vowel hyper-articulation, and wide pitch range. Using the intermodal preferential looking procedure, infants were exposed to half of the test stimuli (e.g., Where’s the book?) in typical IDS style. The other half of the stimuli were digitally altered to remove one of the three properties under investigation. After the target word (e.g., book) was spoken, infants’ gaze toward target and distractor referents was measured frame by frame to examine the time course of word recognition. The results showed that slow speaking rate and vowel hyper-articulation significantly improved infants’ ability to recognize words, whereas wide pitch range did not. These findings suggest that 19-month-olds’ word recognition may be affected only by the linguistically relevant acoustic properties in IDS. PMID:20649233

Song, Jae Yung; Demuth, Katherine; Morgan, James

2010-01-01

474

Infants Learn What They Want to Learn: Responding to Infant Pointing Leads to Superior Learning  

PubMed Central

The majority of current developmental models prioritise a pedagogical approach to knowledge acquisition in infancy, in which infants play a relatively passive role as recipients of information. In view of recent evidence, demonstrating that infants use pointing to express interest and solicit information from adults, we set out to test whether giving the child the leading role in deciding what information to receive leads to better learning. Sixteen-month-olds were introduced to pairs of novel objects and, once they had pointed to an object, were shown a function for either the object they had chosen, or the object they had ignored. Ten minutes later, infants replicated the functions of chosen objects significantly more than those of un-chosen objects, despite having been equally visually attentive during demonstrations on both types of objects. These results show that offering information in response to infants’ communicative gestures leads to superior learning (Experiment 1) and that this difference in performance is due to learning being facilitated when infants’ pointing was responded to, not hindered when their pointing was ignored (Experiment 2), highlighting the importance of infants’ own active engagement in acquiring information. PMID:25290444

Begus, Katarina; Gliga, Teodora; Southgate, Victoria

2014-01-01

475

Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant reactivity and regulation  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of prenatal cocaine exposure and associated risk factors on infant reactivity and regulation at 7 months of infant age. Participants consisted of 167 mother-infant dyads participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of prenatal cocaine exposure, who completed the arm-restraint procedure at the 7-month assessment (87 cocaine exposed, 80 non-cocaine exposed). We hypothesized that cocaine exposed infants would display higher arousal or reactivity and lower regulation during a procedure designed to arouse anger/frustration. Results indicated that cocaine exposed infants were more reactive to increases in the level of stress from trial 1 to trial 2 but exhibited no change in the number of regulatory strategies as stress increased, unlike the control group infants. Infant birth weight moderated the association between cocaine exposure and infant regulation. Among cocaine exposed infants, those with lower birth weight displayed higher reactivity compared to those with higher birth weight. Contrary to expectations, there were no indirect effects between cocaine exposure and infant reactivity/regulation via environmental risk, parenting, or birth weight. Results are supportive of a teratological model of prenatal cocaine exposure for infant reactivity/regulation in infancy. PMID:18822371

Eiden, Rina D.; McAuliffe, Shannon; Kachadourian, Lorig; Coles, Claire; Colder, Craig; Schuetze, Pamela

2009-01-01

476

Cry analysis in infants resuscitated for apnea of infancy1  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of the present study was to examine the acoustic features of crying demonstrated by infants who experienced apnea of infancy (AOI) and compare these features to a non-AOI group of infants. Based on past physiological descriptions of AOI, three predictions in regard to the influence of AOI on acoustic cry features were proposed: (1) the rate of crying would be significantly faster among infants with AOI, (2) the latency of crying onset would be significantly longer among infants with AOI and (3) the F0 characterizing an overall episode of crying would be significantly lower among infants with AOI Patients and Methods Pain-induced crying episodes were collected from a group of healthy term infants (HT) and those with AOI. One complete crying episode was obtained from each infant and analyzed acoustically with regard to durational and spectral features of the cry. Results Infants comprising the AOI group were found to demonstrate a significantly longer cry latency and lower F0 compared to HT infants Conclusions The acoustic cry features measured for the AOI infants are discussed with regard to past reports of poor arousal and decreased muscle tone. A model of AOI crying is proposed whereby the autonomic nervous system and associated pathways are slower to interpret pain stimulus compared to HT infants. PMID:17493692

Robb, Michael P.; Crowell, David H.; Dunn-Rankin, Peter

2014-01-01

477

Effect of situation on mother-infant interaction.  

PubMed

Research has shown that the early parent-infant relationship is of critical importance for children's developmental outcomes. While the effect of different settings on mother-infant interactive behavior is well studied, only few researchers systematically examined the effect of situational variables on mother-infant interaction. In the present study the effect of situational variables within the home setting on the quality of mother-infant interaction at 6 months was examined as well as the consistency in the quality of behaviors of mother and infant across these situations. During a home visit 292 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in three different situations (i.e., free play, face-to-face play, and diaper change). Interactive behaviors of mother and infant were assessed with the NICHD global ratings scales. Results showed substantial effects of situation on the interactive behavior of the mother-infant dyad. Despite the observed situational effects maternal sensitivity to non-distress, intrusiveness, stimulation of development, and positive regard and all five infant behavioral scales remained stable across the different situations. Insight into situational effects within the home setting on the quality of mother-infant interactive behavior may assist researchers to make well-informed decisions about measuring the parent-infant interaction in one or more specific situations. PMID:23261788

Maas, A Janneke B M; Vreeswijk, Charlotte M J M; van Bakel, Hedwig J A

2013-02-01

478

Observation and initiation of joint action in infants.  

PubMed

Infants imitate others' individual actions, but do they also replicate others' joint activities? To examine whether observing joint action influences infants' initiation of joint action, forty-eight 18-month-old infants observed object demonstrations by 2 models acting together (joint action), 2 models acting individually (individual action), or 1 model acting alone (solitary action). Infants' behavior was examined after they were given each object. Infants in the joint action condition attempted to initiate joint action more often than infants in the other conditions, yet they were equally likely to communicate for other reasons and to imitate the demonstrated object-directed actions. The findings suggest that infants learn to replicate others' joint activity through observation, an important skill for cultural transmission of shared practices. PMID:22277061

Fawcett, Christine; Liszkowski, Ulf

2012-01-01

479

The power of human gaze on infant learning.  

PubMed

Social learning enables infants to acquire information, especially through communication. However, it is unknown whether humans are the prime source of information for infant learning. Here we report that humans have a powerful influence on infants' object learning compared with nonhuman agents (robots). Twelve-month-old infants were shown videos in which a human or a robot gazed at an object. The results demonstrated that the infants followed the gaze direction of both agents, but only human gaze facilitated their object learning: Infants showed enhanced processing of, and preferences for, the target object gazed at by the human but not by the robot. Importantly, an extended fixation on a target object without the orientation of human gaze did not produce these effects. Together, these findings show the importance of humanness in the gazer, suggesting that infants may be predisposed to treat humans as privileged sources of information for learning. PMID:23672983

Okumura, Yuko; Kanakogi, Yasuhiro; Kanda, Takayuki; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Itakura, Shoji

2013-08-01

480

Affiliative vocalizations in infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).  

PubMed

In Experiment 1, infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were separated and then reunited with mothers, united with a male, or placed in an empty cage. Infants girned more when with mothers or the male than when alone. Girns declined over time when infants were united with the male. Coo rates were high when the infant was alone or with the male. Shrieks, barks, and fear-related behavior were higher with the male. In Experiment 2 the vocalizations of infants were examined during separation when alone or when mothers or a male were in the same room. Infants cooed more when mothers or a male were present. Cooing increased over time, with a greater increase in the mothers' presence. Girns were given to both mothers and males, but more were given to mothers. Coos and girns are both affiliative vocalizations but are differentially modulated as infants cease cooing when they receive contact comfort. PMID:1395495

Kalin, N H; Shelton, S E; Snowdon, C T

1992-09-01

481

Outcomes of extremely preterm infants following severe intracranial hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Objective Severe intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is an important prognostic variable in extremely preterm (EPT) infants. We examined imaging and clinical variables that predict outcomes in EPT infants with severe ICH. Study design Retrospective analysis of 353 EPT infants with severe ICH. Outcomes were compared by examining: i) unilateral vs. bilateral ICH; and ii) presence vs. absence of hemorrhagic parenchymal infarction (HPI). Regression analyses identified variables associated with death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). Results Bilateral ICH and HPI had higher rates of adverse outcomes and were independently associated with death/NDI. HPI was the most important variable for infants of lower birth weight, and bilateral ICH for larger infants. For infants surviving to 36 weeks, shunt placement was most associated with death/NDI. Conclusions Bilateral ICH and the presence of HPI in EPT infants with severe ICH are associated with death/NDI, though the importance depends on birth weight and survival to 36 weeks. PMID:24370654

Davis, Alexis S.; Hintz, Susan R.; Goldstein, Ricki F.; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Bann, Carla M.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Bell, Edward F.; Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R.; Walsh, Michele C.; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.

2014-01-01

482

Infant formula companies battle for breast.  

PubMed

The infant formula manufacturer Mead Johnson has filed a lawsuit in Ontario courts against its competitor Ross Abbott for false advertising of its new Similac brand of infant formula. Mead Johnson contends that the Ross Abbott advertisement of Similac as providing benefits similar to mother's milk is false and misleading. Breast feeding specialists agree with Mead Johnson's claim. Yet, one year earlier, Mead Johnson claimed that its infant formula is modeled after mother's milk. The Infant Feeding Action Coalition (INFACT) Canada had complained to the Competition Bureau that called for Mead Johnson to cease its claim. Court documents reveal that both companies disregard the World Health Organization (WHO) International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes. This code prohibits manufacturers from advertising directly to pregnant women and mothers. Two Ross Abbott spokespersons have different responses to their advertising practices: increasing emphasis on consumer promotion and support of the principle and objective of the WHO Code. Both companies have sought support of health professionals in Canada. In July 1996 Mead Johnson sent letters to about 7000 clinicians declaring "as someone who cares about infant health and nutrition as much as we do" and "...the most alarming concern is that, although there is no scientific basis for such claims, mothers believe them to be true." Ross Abbott responded to these letters by sending physicians letters declaring "Our business is built on trust, and we assure you that you may trust in Similac Advance and the benefits we have ascribed to it." The two companies will meet again in court on September 30, 1996. PMID:12320465

1996-01-01

483

Endothelial keratoplasty with infant donor tissue  

PubMed Central

Here we report a case of endothelial keratoplasty with infant donor tissue obtained after brain death. A 52-year-old man with endothelial dysfunction of unknown cause in the right eye underwent non-Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (nDSAEK) with tissue from an infant donor (2 years). Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. Best corrected visual acuity and donor central endothelial cell density were recorded preoperatively and postoperatively. Infant donor tissue preparation with a microkeratome set at 300 ?m was successful; the donor tissue was extremely elastic and soft compared with adult tissue. The central endothelial cell density of the infant donor tissue was as high as 4,291 cells/mm2. No complications were observed during donor tissue (8.0 mm in diameter) insertion with the double-glide technique (Busin glide with intraocular lens sheet glide) or any of the other procedures. Best corrected visual acuity improved from 1.7 logMAR (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution; 0.02 decimal visual acuity) preoperatively to 0.2 logMAR (0.6) after 6 months and 0.1 logMAR (0.8) after 1 year. The central endothelial cell density after 6 months was 4,098 cells/mm2 (representing a 4.5% cell loss from preoperative donor cell measurements), and the central endothelial cell density after 1 year was 4,032 cells/mm2 (6.0% decrease). Infant donor tissue may be preferably used for DSAEK/nDASEK, since it may not be suitable for penetrating keratoplasty or Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty.

Kobayashi, Akira; Yokogawa, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Natsuko; Masaki, Toshinori; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

2014-01-01

484

Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics in infant formula for full term infants: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics are being added to infant formula to promote growth and development in infants. Previous reviews (2007 to 2011) on term infants given probiotics or prebiotics focused on prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity. This review focused on growth and clinical outcomes in term infants fed only infant formula containing synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics. Methods Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared term infant formula containing probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics to conventional infant formula with / without placebo among healthy full term infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Where appropriate, meta-analysis was performed; heterogeneity was explored using subgroup and sensitivity analyses. If studies were too diverse a narrative synthesis was provided. Results Three synbiotic studies (N = 475), 10 probiotics studies (N = 933) and 12 prebiotics studies (N = 1563) were included. Synbiotics failed to significantly increase growth in boys and girls. Use of synbiotics increased stool frequency, had no impact on stool consistency, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Probiotics in formula also failed to have any significant effect on growth, stool frequency or consistency. Probiotics did not lower the incidence of diarrhoea, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Prebiotics in formula did increase weight gain but had no impact on length or head circumference gain. Prebiotics increased stool frequency but had no impact on stool consistency, the incidence of colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. There was no impact of prebiotics on the volume of formula tolerated, infections and gastrointestinal microflora. The quality of evidence was compromised by imprecision, inconsistency of results, use of different study preparations and publication bias. Authors’ conclusions There is not enough evidence to state that supplementation of term infant formula with synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics does result in improved growth or clinical outcomes in term infants. There is no data available to establish if synbiotics are superior to probiotics or prebiotics. PMID:23035863

2012-01-01

485

Type of object motion facilitates word mapping by preverbal infants.  

PubMed

This study assessed whether specific types of object motion, which predominate in maternal naming to preverbal infants, facilitate word mapping by infants. A total of 60 full-term 8-month-old infants were habituated to two spoken words, /bæf/ and /wem/, synchronous with the handheld motions of a toy dragonfly and a fish or a lamb chop and a squiggly. They were presented in one of four experimental motion conditions-shaking, looming, upward, and sideways-and one all-motion control condition. Infants were then given a test that consisted of two mismatch (change) and two control (no-change) trials, counterbalanced for order. Results revealed that infants learned the word-object relations (i.e., looked longer on the mismatch trials relative to the control trials) in the shaking and looming motion conditions but not in the upward, sideways, and all-motion conditions. Infants learned the word-object relations in the looming and shaking conditions likely because these motions foreground the object for the infants. Thus, the type of gesture an adult uses matters during naming when preverbal infants are beginning to map words onto objects. The results suggest that preverbal infants learn word-object relations within an embodied system involving matches between infants' perception of motion and specific motion properties of caregivers' naming. PMID:24211772

Matatyaho-Bullaro, Dalit J; Gogate, Lakshmi; Mason, Zachary; Cadavid, Steven; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohammed

2014-02-01

486

Cardiomyopathy and cardiomegaly in stillborn infants of diabetic mothers.  

PubMed

To report the incidence of cardiomegaly in stillborn normally formed infants of mothers with diabetes mellitus. This is a retrospective study with institutional ethics approval. The presence of cardiomegaly was recorded in stillborn infants of diabetic mothers (N = 27) and compared with that recorded in stillborn large-for-gestational age (LGA > 90th percentile, n = 18) and stillborn appropriately grown (10th to 90th percentiles, n = 107) nondiabetic infants. Blinded to the clinical details, the histology slides were reviewed to measure cardiac wall thickness and to record the presence or absence of myocardial fiber disarray. Stillborn infants of mothers with diabetes mellitus, when compared with appropriately grown stillborn nondiabetic infants and when adjusted for birth weight, had heavier hearts, thicker ventricular free wall measurements, and lighter brains. While cardiomegaly was reported in 22% of stillborn LGA infants, comparison with stillborn appropriately grown infants revealed no difference in heart weights corrected for birth weight. Comparison of LGA nondiabetic infants with stillborn diabetes mellitus infants revealed greater actual heart weight/expected for birth weight (P < 0.05) and lighter brains (actual brain weight/expected for birth weight, P < 0.05) in the diabetes mellitus group. Cardiomegaly is a common finding in stillborn infants of mothers with diabetes mellitus and may contribute to the risk of fetal death in these pregnancies. PMID:18237240

Russell, Noirin E; Holloway, Peter; Quinn, Stephen; Foley, Michael; Kelehan, Peter; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

2008-01-01

487

Distinguishing infant prolonged crying from sleep-waking problems  

PubMed Central

Objective Infants who cry a lot, or are unsettled in the night, are common sources of concern for parents and costly problems for health services. The two types of problems have been linked together and attributed to a general disturbance of infant regulation. Yet the infant behaviours involved present differently, at separate ages and times of day. To clarify causation, this study aims to assess whether prolonged crying at 5–6 weeks (the peak age for crying) predicts which infants are unsettled in the night at 12 weeks of age (when most infants become settled at night). Methods Data from two longitudinal studies are analysed. Infant crying data were obtained from validated behaviour diaries; sleep-waking data from standard parental questionnaires. Results A significant, weak relationship was found between crying at 5–6 weeks and 12-week night waking and signalling in one study, but not the other. Most infants who met the definition for prolonged crying/colic at 5–6 weeks were settled during the night at 12 weeks of age; they were not more likely than other infants to be unsettled. Conclusions Most infants who cry a lot at 5–6 weeks of age ‘sleep through the night’ at 12 weeks of age. This adds to evidence that the two types of problematic behaviour have different causes, and that infant sleep-waking problems usually involve maintenance of signalling behaviours rather than a generalised disturbance. PMID:21220260

St James-Roberts, Ian; Peachey, Emma

2011-01-01

488

When do infants begin to follow a point?  

PubMed

Infants' understanding of a pointing gesture represents a major milestone in their communicative development. The current consensus is that infants are not capable of following a pointing gesture until 9-12 months of age. In this article, we present evidence from 4- and 6-month-old infants challenging this conclusion. Infants were tested with a spatial cueing paradigm in Experiment 1 (500-ms stimulus-target onset asynchrony [SOA]) and Experiment 2 (100-ms SOA). The results revealed that the younger infants shifted their attention in the cued direction when presented with a pointing gesture and with a foil (i.e., same size and shape as pointing gesture) at both SOAs. Older infants shifted their attention only in response to the pointing gesture at 100-ms SOA. Experiment 3 tested infants' preferences for the social stimulus (i.e., pointing gesture) relative to the foil and a non-social stimulus (i.e., an arrow). The results revealed that infants are biased to selectively attend to the pointing gesture. Taken together, these results suggest that 4- and 6-month-old infants are capable of preferentially selecting and following a pointing gesture. It is theorized that this early capacity assists infants in their developing understanding of triadic forms of communication. PMID:24911570

Bertenthal, Bennett I; Boyer, Ty W; Harding, Samuel

2014-08-01

489

The nature of infant color categorization: Evidence from eye movements on a target detection task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants respond categorically to color. However, the nature of infants’ categorical responding to color is unclear. The current study investigated two issues. First, is infants’ categorical responding more absolute than adults’ categorical responding? That is, can infants discriminate two stimuli from the same color category? Second, is color categorization in infants truly perceptual? Color categorization was tested by recording adults’

Anna Franklin; Michael Pilling; Ian Davies

2005-01-01

490

Phytoestrogens in Soy-Based Infant Foods: Concentrations, Daily Intake and Possible Biological Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to estrogenic compounds may pose a developmental hazard to infants. Soy products, which contain the phytoestrogens, genistein and daidzein, are becoming increasingly popular as infant foods. To begin to evaluate the potential of the phytoestrogens in these products to affect infants, we measured total genistein and daidzein contents of commercially-available soy-based infant formulae, infant cereals, dinners and rusks. We

C. H. G. Irvine; M. G. Fitzpatrick; S. L. Alexander

491

Effect of gender on the interactions between mothers and their medically at?risk infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined effects of gender on interactions between mothers and their medically at?risk infants: 108 premature infants, 67 medically fragile infants, and 83 infants seropositive for HIV. Systematic observation and the HOME Inventory were used to describe the mother–infant interaction. General Linear Mixed Models were used to determine whether the effect of gender was longitudinally related to the interactions

June Cho; Margaret S. Miles; Michael Belyea

2009-01-01

492

Stress in Fathers of Moderately and Late Preterm Infants: A Randomised Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The atypical behaviour of preterm infants can elicit stress in fathers and influence their ability to perceive and interpret infants' cues. This study investigated whether fathers of moderately and late preterm infants were more stressed than fathers of term infants. In a randomised controlled trial, we also studied the effect of the Mother-Infant

Ravn, Ingrid Helen; Lindemann, Rolf; Smeby, Nina Aarhus; Bunch, Eli Haugen; Sandvik, Leiv; Smith, Lars

2012-01-01

493

Can infant lung function predict respiratory morbidity during the first year of life in preterm infants?  

PubMed

Compared with term-born infants, preterm infants have increased respiratory morbidity in the first year of life. We investigated whether lung function tests performed near term predict subsequent respiratory morbidity during the first year of life and compared this to standard clinical parameters in preterms. The prospective birth cohort included randomly selected preterm infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Lung function (tidal breathing and multiple-breath washout) was measured at 44 weeks post-menstrual age during natural sleep. We assessed respiratory morbidity (wheeze, hospitalisation, inhalation and home oxygen therapy) after 1 year using a standardised questionnaire. We first assessed the association between lung function and subsequent respiratory morbidity. Secondly, we compared the predictive power of standard clinical predictors with and without lung function data. In 166 preterm infants, tidal volume, time to peak tidal expiratory flow/expiratory time ratio and respiratory rate were significantly associated with subsequent wheeze. In comparison with standard clinical predictors, lung function did not improve the prediction of later respiratory morbidity in an individual child. Although associated with later wheeze, noninvasive infant lung function shows large physiological variability and does not add to clinically relevant risk prediction for subsequent respiratory morbidity in an individual preterm. PMID:24696112

Proietti, Elena; Riedel, Thomas; Fuchs, Oliver; Pramana, Isabelle; Singer, Florian; Schmidt, Anne; Kuehni, Claudia; Latzin, Philipp; Frey, Urs

2014-06-01

494

Reducing infant mortality in rural America: evaluation of the Rural Infant Care Program.  

PubMed Central

The Rural Infant Care Program (RICP), initiated in 1979, was developed to improve perinatal health care in ten rural sites with histories of high infant mortality rates. Time-series regression models indicate that neonatal mortality rates were reduced, following program initiation, by 2.6 per 1,000 live births (p = .0002); black neonatal mortality rates were reduced by an estimated 4.5 per 1,000 (p = .0004). Three sets of comparison areas exhibited no significant changes in rates. Postneonatal mortality rates did not increase in the target areas following initiation of RICP, indicating that deaths were not merely being postponed. Nine of ten individual sites showed reductions in infant mortality following program initiation. Birthweight-specific mortality data indicated that the decline was due mainly to reductions in neonatal mortality among low-birthweight infants. No reductions in the incidence of low birthweight were observed in the target areas. Substantial gaps in the delivery of prenatal care remained due to the continuing poverty of the population and the resultant lack of financial coverage for health services. We conclude that improved perinatal medical care can reduce infant mortality in poor rural areas to average levels experienced in the United States, and that the high rates still observed in some rural counties are unnecessary. PMID:3570814

Gortmaker, S L; Clark, C J; Graven, S N; Sobol, A M; Geronimus, A

1987-01-01

495

Implications of changing the amount of thickener in thickened infant formula for infants with dysphagia.  

PubMed

When a dysphagic infant is prescribed thickened infant formula (TIF) as a treatment method, some clinicians determine their own addition rates of thickener to meet the specific needs of the infant rather than relying on the directions on the tin. In this study the rheological behaviour of a TIF at different addition levels of thickener was measured to determine whether there was a difference in full rheological response and in viscosity. In addition, the time taken for the TIF to reach a near-stable viscosity was also measured. One hundred grams of Karicare® infant formula was made up according to the manufacturer’s instructions and Karicare® feed thickener was added at levels of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 g, respectively. A strain-controlled rheometer (ARES) with Couette geometry was used to rheologically characterise the TIF at the different levels of thickener addition. There was a significant difference in viscosity between the low levels and the higher levels of addition thickener (p < 0.05). Also, the low levels of thickener addition showed Newtonian-like behaviour, whereas the higher levels of addition were shear-thinning. The time taken for the thickener to reach a near-stable viscosity was found to be 10 min. Guidelines for thickened infant formula need to take into account the different levels of thickener addition rates. PMID:24658846

September, Cindy; Nicholson, Timothy M; Cichero, Julie A Y

2014-08-01

496

Gastrointestinal ultrasound in neonates, infants and children.  

PubMed

Today US plays an important and increasing role in the assessment of many, partially age-specific conditions in the GI tract in neonates, infants and children. Knowledge of the potential capabilities of US and its restrictions together with a skillful performance of GI US examination can provide essential anatomic and functional diagnostic information in many pediatric GI disorders. The aim of this review is to highlight the potential of ultrasound (US) in the evaluation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in neonates, infants and children. Basic and potential applications of modern US tools in pediatric GI tract are addressed, the GI US examination technique is discussed - including some common and/or typical clinical applications of and indications for US. PMID:24840480

Lobo, Maria Luisa; Roque, Mariana

2014-09-01

497

Number-space mapping in human infants.  

PubMed

Mature representations of number are built on a core system of numerical representation that connects to spatial representations in the form of a mental number line. The core number system is functional in early infancy, but little is known about the origins of the mapping of numbers onto space. In this article, we show that preverbal infants transfer the discrimination of an ordered series of numerosities to the discrimination of an ordered series of line lengths. Moreover, infants construct relationships between numbers and line lengths when they are habituated to unordered pairings that vary positively, but not when they are habituated to unordered pairings that vary inversely. These findings provide evidence that a predisposition to relate representations of numerical magnitude to spatial length develops early in life. A central foundation of mathematics, science, and technology therefore emerges prior to experience with language, symbol systems, or measurement devices. PMID:20483843

de Hevia, Maria Dolores; Spelke, Elizabeth S

2010-05-01

498

Hypercalcemia in infants presenting with apnea.  

PubMed Central

To our knowledge apnea in infants has not been associated with hypercalcemia. We describe seven hypercalcemic infants aged 2 days to 3 months who had presented with apnea; six of the seven were otherwise healthy. The apneic attacks were brief, and normal breathing was restored spontaneously or after tactile stimulation. The attacks stopped and the apnea monitoring was discontinued when the children were 1 month to 2 years of age. The only abnormal finding common to all of the patients was hypercalcemia. Idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia was diagnosed in six of the patients and familial benign hypercalcemia in one. Our findings suggest that determination of the plasma calcium level be included in the investigation of apnea in infancy. PMID:2207905

Kooh, S W; Binet, A

1990-01-01

499

Central corneal thickness measurements in premature infants  

PubMed Central

AIM To evaluate the central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements of premature infants METHODS The premature infants who were born between 25-34wk of gestational age (GA) were retrieved for the study. All CCT measurements were performed within the first 2d of their life under topical anesthesia by using an ultrasonic pachymeter. RESULTS The mean CCT of 200 eyes was 647.79±63.94 µm. The mean CCT of the right and left eyes were similar (647.30±64.72 µm and 648.29±63.47 µm consecutively). The mean CCT of the girls was 642.08±54.89 µm and the boys was 653.07±71.14 µm, with no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). But there was a negative correlation of the CCT with GA and birth weight (BW) (P<0.01). CONCLUSION The CCT values of premature babies were negatively correlated with GA and BW. PMID:24967198

Gunay, Murat; Celik, Gokhan; Gunay, Betul Onal; Dogru, Mahmut; Gursoy, Tugba; Ovali, Husnu Fahri

2014-01-01

500

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Pyomyositis in an Infant  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is endemic to many parts of the world. It may have variable clinical presentations, especially in the pediatric age group. Presented here is the case of a 9-month old infant who was referred for infectious disease opinion when his thigh induration failed to improve after surgical drainage and a course of oral antibiotic therapy. Mycobacterial PCR on the operative sample fluid was found to be positive; and mycobacterial culture grew M. tuberculosis. He received 9 months of treatment with anti-TB medications, with excellent results and complete recovery. This is the first report of TB pyomyositis in an infant; and highlights the need to have a high index of suspicion for unusual organisms when conventional therapy fails to demonstrate expected results. PMID:23919207

Malik, ZA; Shehab, M

2013-01-01

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