Sample records for cocooning infants tdap

  1. Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... adults. Tdap vaccine can protect us from these diseases.TETANUS (Lockjaw) causes painful muscle tightening and stiffness, usually ... complications, which could include pneumonia or death.These diseases are ... or sneezing. Tetanus enters the body through cuts, scratches, or wounds. ...

  2. Silkworm cocoons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roman Neumüller (None; )

    2006-07-05

    Silkworm larvae spin silk cocoons to live in while they go through metamorphosis. They change from silkworm larvae into white silk moths. The silk cocoons are valuable to humans and can be made into silk fabric.

  3. Hofstadter's Cocoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones-Smith, Katherine; Wallace, Connor

    2015-01-01

    Hofstadter showed that the energy levels of electrons on a lattice plotted as a function of magnetic field form an beautiful structure now referred to as "Hofstadter's butterfly". We study a non-Hermitian continuation of Hofstadter's model; as the non-Hermiticity parameter g increases past a sequence of critical values the eigenvalues successively go complex in a sequence of "double-pitchfork bifurcations" wherein pairs of real eigenvalues degenerate and then become complex conjugate pairs. The associated wavefunctions undergo a spontaneous symmetry breaking transition that we elucidate. Beyond the transition a plot of the real parts of the eigenvalues against magnetic field resembles the Hofstadter butterfly; a plot of the imaginary parts plotted against magnetic fields forms an intricate structure that we call the Hofstadter cocoon. The symmetries of the cocoon are described. Hatano and Nelson have studied a non-Hermitian continuation of the Anderson model of localization that has close parallels to the model studied here. The relationship of our work to that of Hatano and Nelson and to PT transitions studied in PT quantum mechanics is discussed.

  4. Factors Associated with Intention to Receive Influenza and Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccines during Pregnancy: A Focus on Vaccine Hesitancy and Perceptions of Disease Severity and Vaccine Safety

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Allison T.; Seib, Katherine; Ault, Kevin A.; Orenstein, Walter A.; Frew, Paula M.; Malik, Fauzia; Cortés, Marielysse; Cota, Pat; Whitney, Ellen A. S.; Flowers, Lisa C.; Berkelman, Ruth L.; Omer, Saad B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Improving influenza and tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine coverage among pregnant women is needed. PURPOSE: To assess factors associated with intention to receive influenza and/or Tdap vaccinations during pregnancy with a focus on perceptions of influenza and pertussis disease severity and influenza vaccine safety. METHODS: Participants were 325 pregnant women in Georgia recruited from December 2012 – April 2013 who had not yet received a 2012/2013 influenza vaccine or a Tdap vaccine while pregnant. Women completed a survey assessing influenza vaccination history, likelihood of receiving antenatal influenza and/or Tdap vaccines, and knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about influenza, pertussis, and their associated vaccines. RESULTS: Seventy-three percent and 81% of women believed influenza and pertussis, respectively, would be serious during pregnancy while 87% and 92% believed influenza and pertussis, respectively, would be serious to their infants. Perception of pertussis severity for their infant was strongly associated with an intention to receive a Tdap vaccine before delivery (p=0.004). Despite perceptions of disease severity for themselves and their infants, only 34% and 44% intended to receive antenatal influenza and Tdap vaccines, respectively. Forty-six percent had low perceptions of safety regarding the influenza vaccine during pregnancy, and compared to women who perceived the influenza vaccine as safe, women who perceived the vaccine as unsafe were less likely to intend to receive antenatal influenza (48% vs. 20%; p < 0.001) or Tdap (53% vs. 33%; p < 0.001) vaccinations. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this baseline survey suggest that while pregnant women who remain unvaccinated against influenza within the first three months of the putative influenza season may be aware of the risks influenza and pertussis pose to themselves and their infants, many remain reluctant to receive influenza and Tdap vaccines antenatally. To improve vaccine uptake in the obstetric setting, our findings support development of evidence-based vaccine promotion interventions which emphasize vaccine safety during pregnancy and mention disease severity in infancy. PMID:25789203

  5. Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis) vaccine - what you need to know

    MedlinePLUS

    Vaccine information statement: Tdap vaccine (Tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/tdap.pdf . Accessed April 21, 2015.

  6. Standing Orderfor Tdap Vaccine OR Declination Consent andAdministration of

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    STIXID____ Standing Orderfor Tdap Vaccine OR Declination Consent andAdministration of I have read the VIS information about the Tdap Vaccine. I know thi, vaccine is a once in a life-tim. booster and this vaccine. I understand the bcncfils and risks ofthe Tdap Vaccine and wish to be vaecinlllCd to protect

  7. Photoprotection by silk cocoons.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasjeet; Rajkhowa, Rangam; Tsuzuki, Takuya; Millington, Keith; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Xungai

    2013-10-14

    A silk cocoon protects a silkworm during its pupal stage from various threats. We systematically investigated the role of fiber, sericin, and embedded crystals in the UV protection of a silk cocoon. Diffuse reflectance and UV absorbance were measured and free radicals generated during exposure to UV radiation were quantified using photoinduced chemiluminescence (PICL). We identified the response to both UV-A and UV-B radiations by silk materials and found that sericin was primarily responsible for UV-A absorption. When sericin was removed, the photoinduced chemiluminescence intensity increased significantly, indicating higher UV-A-induced reactions of cocoons in the absence of sericin. There is progressively higher sericin content toward the outer part of the cocoon shell that allows an effective shield to pupae from UV radiation and resists photodegradation of silk fibers. The study will inspire development of advanced organic photoprotective materials and designing silk-based, free-radical-scavenging antioxidants. PMID:24000973

  8. Mechanical properties of silkworm cocoons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Ping Zhao; Xi-Qiao Feng; Shou-Wen Yu; Wei-Zheng Cui; Feng-Zhu Zou

    2005-01-01

    Silkworm caterpillars, Bombyx mori, construct cocoons in order to protect their moth pupas against possible attacks from the outside. We experimentally measured the mechanical properties (Young's modulus, tensile strength, and thermo-mechanical parameters) of normal compact cocoons and the variations of these properties in the thickness direction of a cocoon. Tension tests were carried out by using rectangular specimens of two

  9. Lipids of silkworm cocoons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Tolibaev; Sh. R. Mad'yarov; A. I. Glushenkova

    1995-01-01

    The lipid complex of silkworm cocoons had been investigated. The qualitative and quantitative compositions of the total neutral lipids and glyco- and phospholipids have been determined. Considerable differences have been noted in the amounts of individual fatty acids in the neutral lipids and the phospholipids.

  10. Carbondioxide gating in silk cocoon.

    PubMed

    Roy, Manas; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Das, Mainak

    2012-12-01

    Silk is the generic name given to the fibrous proteins spun by a number of arthropods. During metamorphosis, the larva of the silk producing arthropods excrete silk-fiber from its mouth and spun it around the body to form a protective structure called cocoon. An adult moth emerges out from the cocoon after the dormant phase (pupal phase) varying from 2 weeks to 9 months. It is intriguing how CO(2)/O(2) and ambient temperature are regulated inside the cocoon during the development of the pupa. Here we show that the cocoon membrane is asymmetric, it allows preferential gating of CO(2) from inside to outside and it regulates a physiological temperature inside the cocoon irrespective of the surrounding environment temperature. We demonstrate that under simulating CO(2) rich external environment, the CO(2) does not diffuse inside the cocoon. Whereas, when CO(2) was injected inside the cocoon, it diffuses out in 20 s, indicating gating of CO(2) from inside to outside the membrane. Removal of the calcium oxalate hydrate crystals which are naturally present on the outer surface of the cocoon affected the complete blockade of CO(2) flow from outside to inside suggesting its role to trap most of the CO(2) as hydrogen bonded bicarbonate on the surface. The weaved silk of the cocoon worked as the second barrier to prevent residual CO(2) passage. Furthermore, we show that under two extreme natural temperature regime of 5 and 50 °C, a temperature of 25 and 34 °C respectively were maintained inside the cocoons. Our results demonstrate, how CO(2) gating and thermoregulation helps in maintaining an ambient atmosphere inside the cocoon for the growth of pupa. Such natural architectural control of gas and temperature regulation could be helpful in developing energy saving structures and gas filters. PMID:22791361

  11. Control of pertussis in infants: time has finally come?

    PubMed

    Safadi, Marco Aurelio P

    2015-06-01

    Despite the success of routine immunization programs against pertussis worldwide, control of the disease in young infants has never been achieved. The greatest risk of disease, hospitalization and death occur in infants, who are too young to have received the primary pertussis immunization course. Different interventions to provide indirect protection to infants were recommended, including vaccination programs with Tdap for adolescents, adults, postpartum women and household contacts of infants, but all of them failed to effectively control the disease in infants. Based on the successful experience of maternal tetanus vaccination, and more recently influenza vaccination, maternal Tdap vaccine has been universally recommended since 2011/2012 in several countries to prevent pertussis in infants. The recent publication of data on the uptake, safety and effectiveness of these programs, as well as impact on disease rates in infants is encouraging, anticipating the possibility to at last control pertussis in this vulnerable age group. PMID:25968349

  12. Oxygen cocoon for patients under intensive care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maas, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Cocoon is made from Teflon film. It includes full-length, pressure zipper on top side and bottom part is rigid pad constructed of burn-resistant material. Cocoon includes oxygen supply port with exhaust port at opposite end.

  13. Cocoon drying through solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kulunk, M.

    1983-12-01

    In this paper, silk cocoon drying operations through solar energy have been presented. Nearly no comprehensive work has been appeared in literature on this unusual application. General mechanism of solar drying methods are presented by some authors for instance, Roman and Jindal. This application seems vitally significant for silk cocoon producer countries like Turkey. The rate of production accelerates year by year and it is about 3000 tons per year presently in Turkey. In Turkey, by now and currently, a water vapour chamber is utilized in the killing process of silkworm. Vapour produced by burning of conventional fuels posses many drawbacks beside being very expensive and also non-renewable. Vapour effects the quality and quantity of silk thread negatively. For instance, the colour of silk cocoon tends to turn to pale instead of being gleamy. This is not tolerable. The length and mass of silk thread obtained per a typical cocoon sample is increased about 10.1 and 16.5 per cent respectively in the average by using solar energy.

  14. KILLING SILKWORM COCOONS BY IRRADIATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsetskhladze

    1962-01-01

    The results of investigations of silkworm cocoon killing by irradiation ; are given. It is shown that the method is a very perspective one. Its ; industrial realization will give both increased raw silk yield and improved ; dynamometric characteristics of silk thread. (auth);

  15. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF STEAM DRYING OF SILKWORM COCOONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Shi-Ruo; Chen Jin-Yong; Arun S. Mujumdar

    1992-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to explore the feasibility of silkworm cocoon drying with superheated steam. The influence of steam drying on the drying kinetics and the technological characteristics of the dried cocoons is discussed. A promising new technology of cocoon drying is suggested to improve cocoon quality and decrease raw cocoon consumption in silk production.

  16. The impact behaviour of silk cocoons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fujia; Hesselberg, Thomas; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2013-07-15

    Silk cocoons, constructed by silkmoths (Lepidoptera), are protective structural composites. Some cocoons appear to have evolved towards structural and material optimisation in order to sustain impact strikes from predators and hinder parasite ingress. This study investigates the protective properties of silk cocoons with different morphologies by evaluating their impact resistance and damage tolerance. Finite element analysis was used to analyse empirical observations of the quasi-static impact response of the silk cocoons, and to evaluate the separate benefits of the structures and materials through the deformation and damage mechanism. We use design principles from composite engineering in order to understand the structure-property-function relationship of silkworm cocoons. Understanding the highly evolved survival strategies of the organisms building natural cocoons will hopefully lead to inspiration that in turn could lead to improved composite design. PMID:23804671

  17. TREATMENT OF SILKWORM COCOONS BY RADIATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. A. Ariffov; I. D. Artmeladze; V. A.. Barnov

    1959-01-01

    The existing methods of silkworm cocoon treatment, including heat, ; chemicals, and vacuum, essentially damage the silk thread and considerably ; decrease the yield of raw silk as compared with untreated cocoons. A possibility ; of treating the silkworm chrysalis by Co⁶° gamma rays was studied in this ; connection. A comparative study of the properties of the silk thread

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Tdap in the Prevention of Pertussis in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    McGarry, Lisa J.; Krishnarajah, Girishanthy; Hill, Gregory; Skornicki, Michelle; Pruttivarasin, Narin; Masseria, Cristina; Arondekar, Bhakti; Pelton, Stephen I.; Weinstein, Milton C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Health benefits and costs of combined reduced-antigen-content tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) immunization among adults ?65 years have not been evaluated. In February 2012, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended expanding Tdap vaccination (one single dose) to include adults ?65 years not previously vaccinated with Tdap. Our study estimated the health and economic outcomes of one-time replacement of the decennial tetanus and diphtheria (Td) booster with Tdap in the 10% of individuals aged 65 years assumed eligible each year compared with a baseline scenario of continued Td vaccination. Methods We constructed a model evaluating the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating a cohort of adults aged 65 with Tdap, by calculating pertussis cases averted due to direct vaccine effects only. Results are presented from societal and payer perspectives for a range of pertussis incidences (25–200 cases per 100,000), due to the uncertainty in estimating true annual incidence. Cases averted were accrued throughout the patient 's lifetime, and a probability tree used to estimate the clinical outcomes and costs (US$ 2010) for each case. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) lost to acute disease were calculated by multiplying cases of mild/moderate/severe pertussis by the associated health-state disutility; QALY losses due to death and long-term sequelae were also considered. Incremental costs and QALYs were summed over the cohort to derive incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Scenario analyses evaluated the effect of alternative plausible parameter estimates on results. Results At incidence levels of 25, 100, 200 cases/100,000, vaccinating adults aged 65 years costs an additional $336,000, $63,000 and $17,000/QALY gained, respectively. Vaccination has a cost-effectiveness ratio less than $50,000/QALY if pertussis incidence is >116 cases/100,000 from societal and payer perspectives. Results were robust to scenario analyses. Conclusions Tdap immunization of adults aged 65 years according to current ACIP recommendations is a cost-effective health-care intervention at plausible incidence assumptions. PMID:24019859

  19. Structure and physical properties of silkworm cocoons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2012-09-01

    Silkworm cocoons have evolved a wide range of different structures and combinations of physical and chemical properties in order to cope with different threats and environmental conditions. We present our observations and measurements on 25 diverse types of cocoons in a first attempt to correlate physical properties with the structure and morphology of the cocoons. These two architectural parameters appear to be far more important than the material properties of the silk fibres themselves. We consider tensile and compressive mechanical properties and gas permeation of the cocoon walls, and in each case identify mechanisms or models that relate these properties to cocoon structure, usually based upon non-woven fibre composites. These properties are of relevance also for synthetic non-woven composite materials and our studies will help formulate bio-inspired design principles for new materials. PMID:22552916

  20. Structure and physical properties of silkworm cocoons

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    Silkworm cocoons have evolved a wide range of different structures and combinations of physical and chemical properties in order to cope with different threats and environmental conditions. We present our observations and measurements on 25 diverse types of cocoons in a first attempt to correlate physical properties with the structure and morphology of the cocoons. These two architectural parameters appear to be far more important than the material properties of the silk fibres themselves. We consider tensile and compressive mechanical properties and gas permeation of the cocoon walls, and in each case identify mechanisms or models that relate these properties to cocoon structure, usually based upon non-woven fibre composites. These properties are of relevance also for synthetic non-woven composite materials and our studies will help formulate bio-inspired design principles for new materials. PMID:22552916

  1. Intergalactic Matter and Cocoons of Radio Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Biman B. Nath

    1994-12-03

    The cocoons surrounding powerful radio sources can be extensive if the jet that feeds the cocoon is light and supersonic. They have been shown to remain overpressured with respect to the ambient medium for most of the life time of the sources. The observed lobes of the radio sources form parts of these extensive cocoons. We show that observations of the lobes of giant radio sources allow one to estimate the {\\it density} of the intergalactic medium (IGM) in which the lobes are embedded. We estimate the IGM density to be of the order of a few percent of the closure density of the universe. We further calculate the radio power of the overpressured cocoon as a function of time and the ambient density.

  2. Proteomic analysis of sericin in Bombyx mori cocoons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Du; Jun Li; Yuyin Chen

    2011-01-01

    Cocoon sericin plays an important role in the reeling of silk and serves as a valuable biomaterial in the field of biomedicine,\\u000a skincare, and food industries; however, knowledge about cocoon sericin proteins has been limited. For a comprehensive study\\u000a on sericin, cocoons of eight varieties of silkworm of different geographic origin and with varied cocoon color were analyzed\\u000a utilizing proteomics

  3. Mechanism of fluorescent cocoon sex identification for silkworms Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YuQing Zhang; XiaoHua Yu; WeiDe Shen; YongLei Ma; LiXia Zhou; NaiXi Xu; ShuQian Yi

    2010-01-01

    By using silkworms, Bombyx mori, fluorescent cocoon sex identification (FCSI) as an experimental material, direct fluorescence spectrometry of the cocoon\\u000a surface indicates that the fluorescent color of silkworm cocoons is made up of two peaks of yellow and blue-purple fluorescence\\u000a emission. The fluorescent difference between male and female cocoons is attributed to the differential absorption of yellow\\u000a fluorescent substances by

  4. Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fujia Chen; David Porter; Fritz Vollrath

    2010-01-01

    The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set

  5. Immunogenicity and safety results from a randomized multicenter trial comparing a Tdap-IPV vaccine (REPEVAX®) and a tetanus monovalent vaccine in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Laurichesse, Henri; Zimmermann, Ulrich; Galtier, Florence; Launay, Odile; Duval, Xavier; Richard, Patrick; Sadorge, Christine; Soubeyrand, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    In adults with a tetanus-prone injury, combined vaccines such as Tdap-IPV (REPEVAX®) can boost immunity against several diseases simultaneously. This Phase IIIb, parallel-group, open-label trial compared antibody responses to Tdap-IPV and tetanus monovalent vaccine (TMV; Vaccin Tétanique Pasteur® or Tetavax®) against tetanus toxoid 10 and 28 d post-vaccination. Between July and December 2009, four centers in France and five in Germany recruited healthy adults who had received a tetanus-containing vaccine 5?10 y previously. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive at the first visit a single dose (0.5 mL) of Tdap-IPV or TMV, with follow-up visits at Day 10 and Day 28. Outcomes: per protocol (PP) population immunogenicity at Day 10 (primary) and at Day 28 (secondary); safety throughout the study. Of 456 adults randomized, 223 received Tdap-IPV and 233 received TMV (PP population: 183 and 199 participants, respectively). All participants receiving Tdap-IPV and 99.0% receiving TMV had an anti-tetanus antibody concentration ? 0.1 IU/mL, confirming non-inferiority of Tdap-IPV to TMV (95% confidence interval of the difference: –1.2, 3.6). Number of adverse events reported was comparable in each group. Injection-site reactions were reported by 76.6% participants receiving Tdap-IPV and 74.6% receiving TMV. Systemic events (e.g., malaise, myalgia and headache) were reported in 47.7% and 39.7% of the Tdap-IPV and the TMV groups, respectively. Tdap-IPV is effective and well-tolerated for use in the management of tetanus-prone injuries in emergency settings in persons for whom a booster against diphtheria, pertussis and poliomyelitis is also needed. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00928785. Research sponsored by Sanofi Pasteur MSD. PMID:23032160

  6. Mechanical properties of silkworm cocoon pelades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Ping Zhao; Xi-Qiao Feng; Wei-Zheng Cui; Feng-Zhu Zou

    2007-01-01

    The pelade, the innermost layer of silkworm cocoon next to the chrysalis, has special microstructures, mechanical properties and protective functions distinctly different from those of all the other layers. In the present paper, a series of static tensile tests and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis were performed for the first time to measure the mechanical properties of pelades, including Young’s modulus,

  7. Demineralization enables reeling of wild silkmoth cocoons.

    PubMed

    Gheysens, Tom; Collins, Andrew; Raina, Suresh; Vollrath, Fritz; Knight, David P

    2011-06-13

    Wild Silkmoth cocoons are difficult or impossible to reel under conditions that work well for cocoons of the Mulberry silkmoth, Bombyx mori . Here we report evidence that this is caused by mineral reinforcement of Wild Silkmoth cocoons and that washing these minerals out allows for the reeling of commercial lengths of good quality fibers with implications for the development of the "Wild Silk" industry. We show that in the Lasiocampid silkmoth Gonometa postica , the mineral is whewellite (calcium oxalate monohydrate). Evidence is presented that its selective removal by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) leaves the gum substantially intact, preventing collapse and entanglement of the network of fibroin brins, enabling wet reeling. Therefore, this method clearly differs from the standard "degumming" and should be referred to as "demineralizing". Mechanical testing shows that such preparation results in reeled silks with markedly improved breaking load and extension to break by avoiding the damage produced by the rather harsh degumming, carding, or dry reeling methods currently in use, what may be important for the development of the silk industries not only in Asia but also in Africa and South America. PMID:21491856

  8. The evolution of cocoons surrounding light, extragalactic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioffi, Denis F.; Blondin, John M.

    1992-01-01

    If the mass density of supersonic, collimated material is less than that of the surrounding medium, a so-called light jet will be enveloped by a cocoon of overpressured shocked gas. Hydrodynamical simulations are used to understand the evolution of the cocoon. The cocoon's evolution is also compared to a simple analytic theory. To reconcile the theory with the simulations, the growth of the jet head must be taken into account. The overpressured cocoon stage exists for a relatively short astronomical time, after which only the region of the cocoon near the jet head remains overpressured. The spatial distribution of the optical emission often observed in distant extragalactic jet systems can be explained with this improved understanding of cocoon evolution.

  9. Sustaining the cocoon: the emotional inoculation produced by complementary therapies in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Garnett, M

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this study is to explore, from a medical sociological perspective, the use of complementary therapies by palliative care nurses. This paper shows how the conceptual vocabulary developed by Giddens [Giddens A. (1990) The Consequences of Modernity. Polity Press, Cambridge; Giddens A. (1991) Modernity and Self-Identity. Polity Press, Cambridge] relating to trust, ontological security, existential anxiety and the importance of protective cocoons, facilitates understanding of the use of complementary therapies in palliative care. This is a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews. During analysis both thematic content and narrative form of the interviews are scrutinized. Analysis shows that the concepts Giddens developed enable the use of complementary therapies to be seen in new ways. In particular, they facilitate the application of a complementary therapy being seen as an emotional inoculation. Similar to the emotional inoculation Giddens speaks about, an infant receiving from its caretaker in childhood which enables a child to have a protective cocoon which it carries round with it throughout life and can draw on when faced with difficulties, the application of a complementary therapy in palliative care can be seen in terms of a booster injection being received by an adult, from their professional caretaker, in time of particular need. This injection sustains a person's protective cocoon at a time of vulnerability. PMID:12787010

  10. Mapping of major quantitative trait loci for economic traits of silkworm cocoon.

    PubMed

    Lie, Z; Cheng, L; Fang-yin, D; Shou-min, F

    2010-01-01

    The quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with cocoon traits in silkworms were mapped in 44 individuals of a backcross of Dazao females with hybrid F(1) males; the hybrid males were from females of inbred C(1)00 strain, which have white cocoons and superior cocoon traits, crossed with males of inbred strain Dazao, which have green cocoons and inferior cocoon traits. Nineteen putative major QTLs of silkworm cocoon traits, five QTLs of whole cocoon weight, four QTLs of cocoon shell weight, six QTLs of pupa weight, and four QTLs of cocoon shell rate were scattered across nine linkage groups. The variances explained by QTLs for whole cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, pupa weight, and cocoon shell rate were 51.0, 73.69, 51.80, and 59.52%, respectively. The numbers of major QTLs with contributions above 10% for these traits were two, three, two, and four, respectively. PMID:20092037

  11. Electricity from the Silk Cocoon Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulachan, Brindan; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Mallick, Chandrakant; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Teotia, Arun Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Bhattacharya, Shantanu; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

    2014-06-01

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM) is an insect engineered structure. We studied the electrical properties of mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Tussar, Antheraea mylitta) SCM. When dry, SCM behaves like an insulator. On absorbing moisture, it generates electrical current, which is modulated by temperature. The current flowing across the SCM is possibly ionic and protonic in nature. We exploited the electrical properties of SCM to develop simple energy harvesting devices, which could operate low power electronic systems. Based on our findings, we propose that the temperature and humidity dependent electrical properties of the SCM could find applications in battery technology, bio-sensor, humidity sensor, steam engines and waste heat management.

  12. Preparation of undegraded native molecular fibroin solution from silkworm cocoons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiromi Yamada; Hiroshi Nakao; Yoko Takasu; Kozo Tsubouchi

    2001-01-01

    The molecular mass of solubilized fibroin prepared from silk was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. It was found that the fibroin molecule was degraded during reeling, degumming (removal of sericin), and dissolution of silk threads. A protocol for the preparation of solubilized fibroin conserving its native molecular size is offered, that is, (1) to use only fresh cocoons (not dry cocoons or

  13. A lepidopterous cocoon evidence for silk in the

    E-print Network

    Panagiotakopulu, Eva

    A lepidopterous cocoon evidence for silk in the Age from Thera and Aegean Bronze E. PANAGIOTAKOPULU of silk?And if silk, where did the stuff, or knowledge of cultivating the silk-worms, come from):420-29 #12;A LEPIDOPTEROUS COCOON FROM THERA & EVIDENCE FOR SILK IN THE AEGEAN BRONZE AGE 421

  14. Low tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination coverage among HIV infected individuals in Austria.

    PubMed

    Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, K; Herkner, H; Touzeau-Roemer, V; Rieger, A; Burgmann, H; Poeppl, W

    2015-07-31

    Current management guidelines of HIV infected adults include recommendation to immunization against common vaccine preventable diseases. This effort is hindered by the scarce knowledge regarding the immunization status of this especially vulnerable patient group. This study analyzed the serostatus for pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus of more than 700 HIV infected individuals residing in Austria. These individuals were representative for the Austrian HIV cohort regarding sex, age, transmission risk and HIV progression markers. Overall, 73.6% were on suppressive HAART, mean CD4 cell count was 603c/?l. Seropositivity was 84% for diphtheria, 51% for tetanus and 1% for pertussis. Migrants had a lower chance of tetanus seropositivity (OR 0.30 (CI 0.21 to 0.43)). Increase in CDC classification were associated with increased diphtheria seropositivity (OR 1.42 (CI 1.02 to 1.98)) and a CD4 nadir<200c/?l was associated with increased pertussis seropositivity (OR 12.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 121). Importantly due to the well preserved immune status of nearly all participants vaccination would be feasible in the majority of the seronegative patients. In patients with a CD4 count>200c/?l, 95% lacked seroprotection to at least one of the antigens included in the triple vaccine Tdap and could be vaccinated. Thus, a proactive approach would largely reduce the number of patients at risk for these vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:26102535

  15. The silkmoth cocoon as humidity trap and waterproof barrier.

    PubMed

    Horrocks, Nicholas P C; Vollrath, Fritz; Dicko, Cedric

    2013-04-01

    To better understand how silkmoth cocoons maintain the correct internal moisture levels for successful pupation, we examined cocoons from the long-domesticated mulberry silkmoth Bombyx mori as well as from two wild silkmoth species, Antheraea pernyi and Philosamia cynthia ricini. We determined fluid-independent values for the porosity, tortuosity and permeability of the inner and outer surfaces of cocoons. Permeabilities were low and, with the exception of A. pernyi cocoons, inner surfaces were less permeable than outer surfaces. B. mori cocoons exhibited the highest permeability overall, but only at the outer surface, while A. pernyi cocoons appeared to show different patterns from the other species tested. We discuss our findings in light of the ecophysiology of the various species and propose a 'tortuous path' model to help explain our results. The model describes how the structure of the inner and outer layers of the cocoon allows it to function as both a humidity trap and a waterproof barrier, providing optimum conditions for the successful development of the pupa. PMID:23388210

  16. Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz [Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

  17. Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2010-10-01

    The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

  18. Electricity from the Silk Cocoon Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Tulachan, Brindan; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Mallick, Chandrakant; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Teotia, Arun Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Bhattacharya, Shantanu; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

    2014-01-01

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM) is an insect engineered structure. We studied the electrical properties of mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Tussar, Antheraea mylitta) SCM. When dry, SCM behaves like an insulator. On absorbing moisture, it generates electrical current, which is modulated by temperature. The current flowing across the SCM is possibly ionic and protonic in nature. We exploited the electrical properties of SCM to develop simple energy harvesting devices, which could operate low power electronic systems. Based on our findings, we propose that the temperature and humidity dependent electrical properties of the SCM could find applications in battery technology, bio-sensor, humidity sensor, steam engines and waste heat management. PMID:24961354

  19. Electricity from the silk cocoon membrane.

    PubMed

    Tulachan, Brindan; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Mallick, Chandrakant; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Teotia, Arun Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Bhattacharya, Shantanu; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

    2014-01-01

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM) is an insect engineered structure. We studied the electrical properties of mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Tussar, Antheraea mylitta) SCM. When dry, SCM behaves like an insulator. On absorbing moisture, it generates electrical current, which is modulated by temperature. The current flowing across the SCM is possibly ionic and protonic in nature. We exploited the electrical properties of SCM to develop simple energy harvesting devices, which could operate low power electronic systems. Based on our findings, we propose that the temperature and humidity dependent electrical properties of the SCM could find applications in battery technology, bio-sensor, humidity sensor, steam engines and waste heat management. PMID:24961354

  20. Simulations of multiphase turbulence in jet cocoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, M.; Alexander, P.

    2007-04-01

    The interaction of optically emitting clouds with warm X-ray gas and hot, tenuous radio plasma in radio jet cocoons is modelled by 2D compressible hydrodynamic simulations. The initial setup is the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at a contact surface of density contrast 104. The denser medium contains clouds of higher density. Optically thin radiation is realized via a cooling source term. The cool phase effectively extracts energy from the other gas which is both, radiated away and used for acceleration of the cold phase. This increases the system's cooling rate substantially and leads to a massively amplified cold mass dropout. We show that it is feasible, given small seed clouds of the order of 100Msolar, that all of the optically emitting gas in a radio jet cocoon may be produced by this mechanism on the propagation time-scale of the jet. The mass is generally distributed as T-1/2 with temperature, with a prominent peak at 14000 K. This peak is likely to be related to the counteracting effects of shock heating and a strong rise in the cooling function. The volume filling factor of cold gas in this peak is of the order of 10-5-10-3 and generally increases during the simulation time. The simulations tend towards an isotropic scale-free Kolmogorov-type energy spectrum over the simulation time-scale. We find the same Mach-number density relation as Kritsuk & Norman and show that this relation may explain the velocity widths of emission lines associated with high-redshift radio galaxies, if the environmental temperature is lower, or the jet-ambient density ratio is less extreme than in their low-redshift counterparts.

  1. Cytotoxicity of Cricula triphenestrata Cocoon Extract on Human Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Sunarintyas, Siti; Siswomihardjo, Widowati; Tontowi, Alva Edy

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Indonesian silkworm cocoon extract of Cricula triphenestrata on human fibroblasts. Methods and Materials. The cocoon shells of the silkworm Cricula triphenestrata were degumming. The shells were mixed with an aqueous solution of 0.3% Na2CO3 at 98°C for 1 hour. The solution was then dialyzed in cellulose membranes against deionized water for 3 days. The cocoon shells extract powder was collected via rotary evaporation and dried under freeze dryer. Cell culture medium was exposed to Cricula triphenestrata cocoon extract (0.01–100??g/mL) for 24 hours. The primary human gingival fibroblasts were exposed to the treated cell culture medium for 24 hours. Cytotoxicity evaluation was done by MTT method. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Result. The result revealed no significant cytotoxicity of Cricula triphenestrata cocoon extract against human fibroblasts at a concentration up to 100??g/mL (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Cricula triphenestrata cocoon extract was not cytotoxic on human gingival fibroblast cells. PMID:22919391

  2. Two consecutive randomized controlled pertussis booster trials in children initially vaccinated in infancy with an acellular vaccine: The first with a five-component Tdap vaccine to 5-year olds and the second with five- or monocomponent Tdap vaccines at age 14-15 years.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, R M; Gustafsson, L; Hallander, H O; Ljungman, M; Olin, P; Gothefors, L; Nilsson, L; Netterlid, E

    2015-07-17

    Prior study children from a DTaP efficacy trial were recruited at ages 5 and 15 years to randomized booster trials addressing immunogenicity and reactogenicity; 475 preschool children received mixed or separate injections of a reduced antigen vaccine (Tdap5, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and an inactivated polio vaccine, and 230 adolescents received the same or another booster vaccine (Tdap1, SSI, Denmark). Pre-vaccination antibody concentrations against pertussis antigens were significantly higher at 15 than 5 years of age, probably due to natural boosting between the studies. Tdap5 induced comparable anti-PT concentrations at both ages, but antibody responses were significantly higher to filamentous haemagglutinin, pertactin and fimbriae 2/3 in adolescents. As expected, a higher amount of PT (Tdap1, 20?g) induced a stronger anti-PT response than a lower amount (Tdap5, 2.5?g). The frequency of adverse events was low and there were no serious adverse reactions. All local reactions had an early onset and a short duration. A large swelling or redness of more than half of the upper arm circumference was reported in 8/475 5-year-olds and in 6/230 15-year-olds. Children vaccinated with Tdap5 reported more moderate pain in adolescence than at preschool age, whereas itching was only reported in preschool children. Sweden introduced DTaP vaccines in 1996 after a 17-year hiatus with no general pertussis vaccination and pertussis was still endemic at the time of the studies. The frequency of adverse events was nevertheless low in both preschool children and adolescents and antibody responses were adequate. These studies document immunogenicity and reactogenicity in a trial cohort consecutively vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccines from infancy to adolescence. The adolescent study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on 26 March 2009 (NCT00870350). PMID:26057135

  3. Mechanical properties and structure of silkworm cocoons: a comparative study of Bombyx mori, Antheraea assamensis, Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea mylitta silkworm cocoons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Kaur, J; Rajkhowa, R; Li, J L; Liu, X Y; Wang, X G

    2013-08-01

    As a protective shell against environmental damage and attack by natural predators, the silkworm cocoon has outstanding mechanical properties. In particular, this multilayer non-woven composite structure can be exceptionally tough to enhance the chance of survival for silkworms while supporting their metabolic activity. Peel, out-of-plane compression and nano-indentation tests and micro-structure analysis were performed on four types of silkworm cocoon walls (domesticated Bombyx mori, semi-domesticated Antheraea assamensis and wild Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea mylitta silkworm cocoons) to understand the structure and mechanical property relationships. The wild silkworm cocoons were shown to be uniquely tough composite structures. The maximum work-of-fracture for the wild cocoons (A. pernyi and A. mylitta) was approximately 1000 J/m(2), which was almost 10 times the value for the domesticated cocoon (Bombyx mori) and 3~4 times the value for the semi-domesticated cocoon (A. assamensis). Calcium oxalate crystals were found to deposit on the outer surfaces of the semi-domesticated and wild cocoons. They did not show influence in enhancing the interlaminar adhesion between cocoon layers but exhibited much higher hardness than the cocoon pelades. PMID:23706202

  4. Addition of arthropod cocoons to house wren nests is correlated with delayed pairing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin P. Eckerle; Charles F. Thompson

    2005-01-01

    Males in the cavity-nesting house wren (Troglodytes aedon) frequently add arthropod cocoons to their nests during building, possibly as an ornamental cue for female choice. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the time to pairing for males that did and did not add cocoons to their nests and for males in whose nests we manipulated the number of cocoons prior

  5. Mechanical properties of cocoons constructed consecutively by a single silkworm caterpillar, Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Q. Huang; H. P. Zhao; X. Q. Feng; W. Cui; Z. Lin; M. Q. Xu

    2008-01-01

    Most animals have the ability to adapt, to some extends and in different ways, the variation or disturbance of environment. In our experiments, we forced a silkworm caterpillar to spin two, three or four thin cocoons by taking it out from the cocoon being constructed. The mechanical properties of these cocoons were studied by static tensile tests and dynamic mechanical

  6. Mechanism of fluorescent cocoon sex identification for silkworms Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhang, YuQing; Yu, XiaoHua; Shen, WeiDe; Ma, YongLei; Zhou, LiXia; Xu, NaiXi; Yi, ShuQian

    2010-11-01

    By using silkworms, Bombyx mori, fluorescent cocoon sex identification (FCSI) as an experimental material, direct fluorescence spectrometry of the cocoon surface indicates that the fluorescent color of silkworm cocoons is made up of two peaks of yellow and blue-purple fluorescence emission. The fluorescent difference between male and female cocoons is attributed to the differential absorption of yellow fluorescent substances by the midgut tissue of 5th instar female silkworms. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and fluorescent spectra indicate that blue-purple fluorescent substances are composed of at least five blue-purple fluorescent pigments, and yellow fluorescent substances are made up of at least three. UV spectra and AlCl? color reaction show that the three fluorescent yellow pigments are flavonoids or their glycosides. Silkworm FCSI is due to selective absorption or accumulation of the yellow fluorescent pigments by the posterior midgut cells of female 5th instar larvae. The cells of the FCSI silkworm midgut, especially the cylinder intestinal cells of the posterior midgut have a component which is a yellow fluorescent pigment-specific binding protein that may be vigorously expressed in the 5th instar larvae. PMID:21046325

  7. Triassic Leech Cocoon From Antarctica Contains Fossil Bell Animal

    E-print Network

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.; Moestrup, Ø jvind; Taylor, Edith L.

    2012-01-01

    that is encased inside the wall layer of a more than 200 Ma leech cocoon from Antarctica. The microfossil consists of a helically contractile stalk that attaches to a main body with a peristomial feeding apparatus and a large Cshaped macronucleus. It agrees...

  8. A carotenoid-binding protein (CBP) plays a crucial role in cocoon pigmentation of silkworm ( Bombyx mori) larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroko Tabunoki; Satoshi Higurashi; Osamu Ninagi; Hiroshi Fujii; Yutaka Banno; Masashi Nozaki; Mika Kitajima; Nami Miura; Shogo Atsumi; Kozo Tsuchida; Hideaki Maekawa; Ryoichi Sato

    2004-01-01

    We examined the role of carotenoid-binding protein (CBP) in yellow cocoon pigmentation. First, using yellow or white cocoon races, we investigated the linkage between the yellow pigmentation and CBP expression. CBP was expressed only in the silk gland of the yellow cocoon races, which utilize carotenoids for cocoon pigmentation. Furthermore, CBP expression in the silk glands of day 1–7 fifth

  9. CPR - infant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... CPR can be lifesaving, but it is best done by someone trained in an accredited CPR course. ...

  10. A hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the unobservable predation rate on sawfly cocoons by small mammals.

    PubMed

    Pinkantayong, Panisara; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kubo, Mamoru; Muramoto, Ken-Ichiro; Kamata, Naoto

    2015-02-01

    Predation by small mammals has been reported as an important mortality factor for the cocoons of sawfly species. However, it is difficult to provide an accurate estimate of newly spun cocoons and subsequent predation rates by small mammals for several reasons. First, all larvae do not spin cocoons at the same time. Second, cocoons are exposed to small mammal predation immediately after being spun. Third, the cocoons of the current generation are indistinguishable from those of the previous generation. We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate these values from annual one-time soil sampling datasets. To apply this model to an actual data set, field surveys were conducted in eight stands of larch plantations in central Hokkaido (Japan) from 2009 to 2012. Ten 0.04-m(2) soil samples were annually collected from each site in mid-October. The abundance of unopened cocoons (I), cocoons emptied by small-mammal predation (M), and empty cocoons caused by something other than small-mammal predation (H) were determined. The abundance of newly spun cocoons, the predation rate by small mammals before and after cocoon sampling, and the annual rate of empty cocoons that remained were estimated. A posterior predictive check yielded Bayesian P-values of 0.54, 0.48, and 0.07 for I, M, and H, respectively. Estimated predation rates showed a significant positive correlation with the number of trap captures of small mammals. Estimates of the number of newly spun cocoons had a significant positive correlation with defoliation intensity. These results indicate that our model showed an acceptable fit, with reasonable estimates. Our model is expected to be widely applicable to all hymenopteran and lepidopteran insects that spin cocoons in soil. PMID:25691994

  11. A hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the unobservable predation rate on sawfly cocoons by small mammals

    PubMed Central

    Pinkantayong, Panisara; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kubo, Mamoru; Muramoto, Ken-ichiro; Kamata, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Predation by small mammals has been reported as an important mortality factor for the cocoons of sawfly species. However, it is difficult to provide an accurate estimate of newly spun cocoons and subsequent predation rates by small mammals for several reasons. First, all larvae do not spin cocoons at the same time. Second, cocoons are exposed to small mammal predation immediately after being spun. Third, the cocoons of the current generation are indistinguishable from those of the previous generation. We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate these values from annual one-time soil sampling datasets. To apply this model to an actual data set, field surveys were conducted in eight stands of larch plantations in central Hokkaido (Japan) from 2009 to 2012. Ten 0.04-m2 soil samples were annually collected from each site in mid-October. The abundance of unopened cocoons (I), cocoons emptied by small-mammal predation (M), and empty cocoons caused by something other than small-mammal predation (H) were determined. The abundance of newly spun cocoons, the predation rate by small mammals before and after cocoon sampling, and the annual rate of empty cocoons that remained were estimated. A posterior predictive check yielded Bayesian P-values of 0.54, 0.48, and 0.07 for I, M, and H, respectively. Estimated predation rates showed a significant positive correlation with the number of trap captures of small mammals. Estimates of the number of newly spun cocoons had a significant positive correlation with defoliation intensity. These results indicate that our model showed an acceptable fit, with reasonable estimates. Our model is expected to be widely applicable to all hymenopteran and lepidopteran insects that spin cocoons in soil. PMID:25691994

  12. Control of an Autonomous Robot Imitating Cocoon Construction Process ???? (????) ?? ?? ?(????) ???? (????)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideaki Morikawa

    A silkworm creates a cocoon extensively using the flexible body. It is useful for construction robots to imitate autonomous behavior of silkworms. We propose a method creating a structure using the physical feature of a mobile robot with a multiple degrees-of-freedom arm. The robot is controlled by reactive behavior with the logistic mapping. Keyword: Silkworm, Construction Robot, Biologically-inspired Robot, Bio-mimetics,

  13. Transgenic silkworms that weave recombinant proteins into silk cocoons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Tomita

    2011-01-01

    As a result of breeding for more than 4,000 years, the silkworm, Bombyx mori, has acquired the ability to synthesize bulk amounts of silk proteins in its silk glands. To utilize this capacity for mass\\u000a production of useful proteins, transgenic silkworms were generated that synthesized recombinant proteins in the silk gland\\u000a and secreted them into the silk cocoon. The silk gland

  14. Transgenic silkworms that weave recombinant proteins into silk cocoons.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Masahiro

    2011-04-01

    As a result of breeding for more than 4,000 years, the silkworm, Bombyx mori, has acquired the ability to synthesize bulk amounts of silk proteins in its silk glands. To utilize this capacity for mass production of useful proteins, transgenic silkworms were generated that synthesized recombinant proteins in the silk gland and secreted them into the silk cocoon. The silk gland is classified into two main regions: the posterior (PSG) and the middle silk gland (MSG). By controlling the expressed regions of the recombinant protein gene in the silk gland, we were able to control the localization of the synthesized protein in the silk thread. Expression in the PSG or MSG led to localization in the insoluble fibroin core or hydrophilic outer sericin layer, respectively. This review focuses on the expression of recombinant protein in the MSG of transgenic silkworms. The recombinant protein secreted in the sericin layer is extractable from the cocoon with only a small amount of endogenous silk protein contamination by soaking the cocoon in mild aqueous solutions. The possibility of utilizing transgenic silkworms as a valuable tool for the mass production of therapeutic and industrially relevant recombinant proteins is discussed. PMID:21184136

  15. Action of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on cocoon spinning in Ceraeochrysa claveri (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; Garcia, Ana Silvia Gimenes; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Santos, Daniela Carvalho

    2013-11-01

    Neem oil is a biopesticide that disturbs the endocrine and neuroendocrine systems of pests and may interfere with molting, metamorphosis and cocoon spinning. The cocoon serves protective functions for the pupa during metamorphosis, and these functions are dependent on cocoon structure. To assess the changes in cocoon spinning caused by neem oil ingestion, Ceraeochrysa claveri larvae, a common polyphagous predator, were fed with neem oil throughout the larval period. When treated with neem oil, changes were observed on the outer and inner surfaces of the C. claveri cocoon, such as decreased wall thickness and impaired ability to attach to a substrate. These negative effects may reduce the effectiveness of the mechanical and protective functions of cocoons during pupation, which makes the specimen more vulnerable to natural enemies and environmental factors. PMID:23993219

  16. Elementary research of the formation mechanism of sex-related fluorescent cocoon of silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hu Xiaolong; Xue Renyu; Cao Guangli; Zhang Xing; Zhang Yilin; Yu Xiaohua; Zhang Yuqing; Gong Chengliang

    To understand mechanisms for the difference of uptaking and transporting the pigments between the male and female in the silkworm,\\u000a Bombyx mori strain of sex-related fluorescent cocoon, the fluorescent pigments in the midgut lumen, midgut, blood, silk glands and cocoon\\u000a were analyzed with thin-layer chromatography, and showed that fluorescent colors of cocoons consisted with that of blood and\\u000a silk glands.

  17. Mechanical properties of cocoons constructed consecutively by a single silkworm caterpillar, Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Q. Huang; H. P. Zhao; X. Q. Feng; W. Cui; Z. Lin; M. Q. Xu

    2008-01-01

    Most animals have the ability to adapt, to some extends and in different ways, the variation or disturbance of environment.\\u000a In our experiments, we forced a silkworm caterpillar to spin two, three or four thin cocoons by taking it out from the cocoon\\u000a being constructed. The mechanical properties of these cocoons were studied by static tensile tests and dynamic mechanical

  18. Utilization of silkworm cocoon waste as a sorbent for the removal of oil from water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Moriwaki; Shiori Kitajima; Masahiro Kurashima; Ayaka Hagiwara; Kazuma Haraguchi; Koji Shirai; Rensuke Kanekatsu; Kenji Kiguchi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the utilization of silkworm cocoon waste, such as pierced or stained cocoons, as a sorbent material for the removal of motor and vegetable oils from water. The oil-sorption capacity, rate and reusability of the material were evaluated. The results show the high sorption capacity of the silkworm cocoon waste sorbent (42–52goil\\/gsorbent for

  19. Comparative proteome analysis of multi-layer cocoon of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Ping; Dong, Zhaoming; Wang, Dandan; Guo, Pengchao; Guo, Xiaomeng; Song, Qianru; Zhang, Weiwei; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    Bombyx mori cocoon has a multi-layer structure that provides optimal protection for silkworm pupa. Research on the mechanical properties of the multi-layer structure revealed structure-property relationships of the cocoon. Here, we investigated the protein components of the B. mori cocoon in terms of its multi-layer structure. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified 286 proteins from the multiple cocoon layers. In addition to fibroins and sericins, we identified abundant protease inhibitors, seroins and proteins of unknown function. By comparing protein abundance across layers, we found that the outermost layer contained more sericin1 and protease inhibitors and the innermost layer had more seroin1. As many as 36 protease inhibitors were identified in cocoons, showing efficient inhibitory activities against a fungal protease. Thus, we propose that more abundant protease inhibitors in the outer cocoon layers may provide better protection for the cocoon. This study increases our understanding of the multi-layer mechanism of cocoons, and helps clarify the biological characteristics of cocoons. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001469. PMID:25860555

  20. Abdominal cocoon: an unusual presentation of small bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Naniwadekar, R G; Kulkarni, S R; Bane, P; Agrarwal, S; Garje, A

    2014-02-01

    Abdominal cocoon is a rare condition. It presents as a thick whitish membrane which covers bowel loops. Because of this presentation, it is also called as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. It is usually diagnosed intra operatively. Treatment of this condition involves resection of the membrane and release of adhesions. Pre-operatively, patient is investigated for recurrent episodes of small bowel obstructions. However, preoperative diagnosis does not change the treatment and management. Investigations done preoperatively help in expediting the treatment with planned laparotomy. PMID:24701524

  1. Research on non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoons based on image processing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yong; Kong, Qing-hua; Wei, Li-fu

    2008-03-01

    The major studied in this dissertation is the non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoon's quality, based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. Through the images collection and the data analysis, procession and calculation of the tested silkworm cocoons with the non-destructive testing technology, internet applications automatically reckon all items of the classification indexes. Finally we can conclude the classification result and the purchase price of the silkworm cocoons. According to the domestic classification standard of the silkworm cocoons, the author investigates various testing methods of silkworm cocoons which are used or have been explored at present, and devices a non-destructive testing scheme of the silkworm cocoons based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. They are dissertated about the project design of the experiment. The precisions of all the implements are demonstrated. I establish Manifold mathematic models, compare them with each other and analyze the precision with technology of databank to get the best mathematic model to figure out the weight of the dried silkworm cocoon shells. The classification methods of all the complementary items are designed well and truly. The testing method has less error and reaches an advanced level of the present domestic non-destructive testing technology of the silkworm cocoons.

  2. Research on non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoons based on image processing technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Gan; Qing-hua Kong; Li-fu Wei

    2008-01-01

    The major studied in this dissertation is the non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoon's quality, based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. Through the images collection and the data analysis, procession and calculation of the tested silkworm cocoons with the non-destructive testing technology, internet applications automatically reckon all items of the classification indexes. Finally we can conclude the

  3. Mechanical properties of cocoons constructed consecutively by a single silkworm caterpillar, Bombyx mori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S. Q.; Zhao, H. P.; Feng, X. Q.; Cui, W.; Lin, Z.; Xu, M. Q.

    2008-04-01

    Most animals have the ability to adapt, to some extends and in different ways, the variation or disturbance of environment. In our experiments, we forced a silkworm caterpillar to spin two, three or four thin cocoons by taking it out from the cocoon being constructed. The mechanical properties of these cocoons were studied by static tensile tests and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. Though external disturbances may cause the decrease in the total weight of silk spun by the silkworm, a gradual enhancement was interestingly found in the mechanical properties of these thin cocoons. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the fractured specimens of the cocoons showed that there exist several different energy dissipation mechanisms occurred simultaneously at macro-, meso-, and micro-scales, yielding a superior capacity of cocoons to adsorb the energy of possible attacks from the outside and to protect efficiently its pupa against damage. Through evolution of millions of years, therefore, the silkworm Bombyx mori seems to have gained the ability to adapt external disturbances and to redesign a new cocoon with optimized protective function when its first cocoon has been damaged for some reasons.

  4. Post-Traumatic Intra-Cocoon Mesenteric Tear: A Case Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saed Jaber; Khalid Dulaijan; Moutamn Sadoun; Khalid Moghazy; Mohsen El-Said

    2011-01-01

    Sclerosing peritonitis, more commonly called abdominal cocoon, is a rare intra-peritoneal disease that is characterized by complete or partial encapsulation of the small intestine by a thick collagenous membrane. This disease mostly presents in the form of small bowel obstruction, however in our case the patient presented with intra-cocoon bleeding following a motor vehicle accident.

  5. Hyperglycemia - infants

    MedlinePLUS

    High blood sugar - infants; High blood glucose level - infants ... Hyperglycemia is abnormally high blood sugar. The medical term for blood sugar is blood glucose. This article discusses hyperglycemia in infants.

  6. Simulations of multi-phase turbulence in jet cocoons

    E-print Network

    Krause, M; Krause, Martin; Alexander, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The interaction of optically emitting clouds with warm X-ray gas and hot, tenuous radio plasma in radio jet cocoons is modelled by 2D compressible hydrodynamic simulations. The initial setup is the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at a contact surface of density contrast 10,000. The denser medium contains clouds of higher density. Optically thin radiation is realised via a cooling source term. The cool phase effectively extracts energy from the other gas which is both, radiated away and used for acceleration of the cold phase. This increases the system's cooling rate substantially and leads to a massively amplified cold mass dropout. We show that it is feasible, given small seed clouds of order 100 solar masses, that all of the optically emitting gas in a radio jet cocoon may be produced by this mechanism on the propagation timescale of the jet. The mass is generally distributed as T^-1/2 with temperature, with a prominent peak at 14,000 K. This peak is likely to be related to the counteracting effects of shock h...

  7. Do stellar and nebular abundances in the Cocoon nebula agree?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Rojas, J.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Esteban, C.

    2015-05-01

    The Cocoon nebula is an apparently spherical Galactic HII region ionized by a single star (BD+46 3474). This nebula seems to be appropriate to investigate the chemical behavior of oxygen and other heavy elements from two different points of view: a detailed analysis of the chemical content of the ionized gas through nebular spectrophotometry and a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the spectrum of the ionizing star using the state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere modelling. In this poster we present the results from a set of high-quality observations, from 2m-4m class telescopes, including the optical spectrum of the ionizing star BD+46 3474, along with long-slit spatially resolved spectroscopy of the nebula. We have used state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere codes to determine stellar parameters and the chemical content of several heavy elements. Traditional nebular techniques along with updated atomic data have been used to compute gaseous abundances of O, N and S in the Cocoon nebula. Thanks to the low ionization degree of the nebula, we could determine total abundances directly from observable ions (no ionization correction factors were needed) for three of the analyzed elements (O, S, and N). The derived stellar and nebular abundances are compared and the influence of the possible presence of the so-called temperature fluctuations on the nebula is discussed. The results of this study are presented in more detail in García-Rojas, Simón-Díaz & Esteban 2014, A&A, 571, A93.

  8. Triassic leech cocoon from Antarctica contains fossil bell animal

    PubMed Central

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.; Moestrup, Øjvind; Taylor, Edith L.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth is limited by the imperfection of the fossil record. One reason for this imperfect record is that organisms without hard parts, such as bones, shells, and wood, have a very low potential to enter the fossil record. Occasionally, however, exceptional fossil deposits that preserve soft-bodied organisms provide a rare glimpse of the true biodiversity during past periods of Earth history. We here present an extraordinary find of a fossil ciliate that is encased inside the wall layer of a more than 200 Ma leech cocoon from Antarctica. The microfossil consists of a helically contractile stalk that attaches to a main body with a peristomial feeding apparatus and a large C-shaped macronucleus. It agrees in every aspect with the living bell animals, such as Vorticella. Vorticellids and similar peritrichs are vital constituents of aquatic ecosystems worldwide, but so far have lacked any fossil record. This discovery offers a glimpse of ancient soft-bodied protozoan biotas, and also highlights the potential of clitellate cocoons as microscopic “conservation traps” comparable to amber. PMID:23213234

  9. Cocoon of the silkworm Antheraea pernyi as an example of a thermally insulating biological interface.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xing; Zhang, Jin; Gao, Weimin; Li, Jingliang; Wang, Xungai

    2014-09-01

    Biological materials are hierarchically organized complex composites, which embrace multiple practical functionalities. As an example, the wild silkworm cocoon provides multiple protective functions against environmental and physical hazards, promoting the survival chance of moth pupae that resides inside. In the present investigation, the microstructure and thermal property of the Chinese tussah silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) cocoon in both warm and cold environments under windy conditions have been studied by experimental and numerical methods. A new computational fluid dynamics model has been developed according to the original fibrous structure of the Antheraea pernyi cocoon to simulate the unique heat transfer process through the cocoon wall. The structure of the Antheraea pernyi cocoon wall can promote the disorderness of the interior air, which increases the wind resistance by stopping most of the air flowing into the cocoon. The Antheraea pernyi cocoon is wind-proof due to the mineral crystals deposited on the outer layer surface and its hierarchical structure with low porosity and high tortuosity. The research findings have important implications to enhancing the thermal function of biomimetic protective textiles and clothing. PMID:25280854

  10. Study on the microstructure of African wild silk cocoon shells and fibers.

    PubMed

    Teshome, Addis; Vollrath, Fritz; Raina, Suresh K; Kabaru, J M; Onyari, J

    2012-01-01

    Silk fibers and cocoon shells from four African wild silkmoths Gonometa postica, Anaphe panda, Argema mimosae and Epiphora bauhiniae-were studied to gain insight into the structure-property-function relations and potential commercial application. The surface and cross-section of cocoon shells and fibers revealed the presence of prominent structural variations. Cocoon shells were multilayered and porous structures constructed from highly cross-linked fibers that are densely packed within the sericin/gum. Fibers had fibrillar sub-structures running along the fiber axis and with greater number and size of voids. The ecological significance and implication of these structures for further application are discussed. PMID:21986544

  11. Pupal cocoons affect sanitary brood care and limit fungal infections in ant colonies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The brood of ants and other social insects is highly susceptible to pathogens, particularly those that penetrate the soft larval and pupal cuticle. We here test whether the presence of a pupal cocoon, which occurs in some ant species but not in others, affects the sanitary brood care and fungal infection patterns after exposure to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum. We use a) a comparative approach analysing four species with either naked or cocooned pupae and b) a within-species analysis of a single ant species, in which both pupal types co-exist in the same colony. Results We found that the presence of a cocoon did not compromise fungal pathogen detection by the ants and that species with cocooned pupae increased brood grooming after pathogen exposure. All tested ant species further removed brood from their nests, which was predominantly expressed towards larvae and naked pupae treated with the live fungal pathogen. In contrast, cocooned pupae exposed to live fungus were not removed at higher rates than cocooned pupae exposed to dead fungus or a sham control. Consistent with this, exposure to the live fungus caused high numbers of infections and fungal outgrowth in larvae and naked pupae, but not in cocooned pupae. Moreover, the ants consistently removed the brood prior to fungal outgrowth, ensuring a clean brood chamber. Conclusion Our study suggests that the pupal cocoon has a protective effect against fungal infection, causing an adaptive change in sanitary behaviours by the ants. It further demonstrates that brood removal–originally described for honeybees as “hygienic behaviour”–is a widespread sanitary behaviour in ants, which likely has important implications on disease dynamics in social insect colonies. PMID:24125481

  12. Mastrus ridibundus parasitoids eavesdrop on cocoon-spinning codling moth, Cydia pomonella, larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumean, Zaid; Unruh, Tom; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Cocoon-spinning larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) employ a pheromone that attracts or arrests conspecifics seeking pupation sites. Such intraspecific communication signals are important cues for illicit receivers such as parasitoids to exploit. We tested the hypothesis that the prepupal C. pomonella parasitoid Mastrus ridibundus Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) exploits the larval aggregation pheromone to locate host prepupae. In laboratory olfactometer experiments, female M. ridibundus were attracted to 3-day-old cocoons containing C. pomonella larvae or prepupae. Older cocoons containing C. pomonella pupae, or larvae and prepupae excised from cocoons, were not attractive. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of bioactive Porapak Q extract of cocoon-derived airborne semiochemicals, ten compounds elicited responses from female M. ridibundus antennae. Comparative GC-mass spectrometry of authentic standards and cocoon-volatiles determined that these compounds were 3-carene, myrcene, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, sulcatone, and geranylacetone. A synthetic 11-component blend consisting of these ten EAD-active compounds plus EAD-inactive (+)-limonene (the most abundant cocoon-derived volatile) was as effective as Porapak Q cocoon extract in attracting both female M. ridibundus and C. pomonella larvae seeking pupation sites. Only three components could be deleted from the 11-component blend without diminishing its attractiveness to M. ridibundus, which underlines the complexity of information received and processed during foraging for hosts. Mastrus ridibundus obviously “eavesdrop” on the pheromonal communication signals of C. pomonella larvae that reliably indicate host presence.

  13. Dissolution properties of silk cocoon shells and degummed fibers from African wild silkmoths.

    PubMed

    Addis, K T; Raina, S K

    2013-10-15

    Silk cocoon shells and degummed fibers from four African wild silkmoth species were studied and compared with the industrial standard, Bombyx mori, for their dissolution properties. Nine M aqueous Lithium bromide, Calcium chloride and Sodium thiocyanate solution systems were used. Efficiency of the solvent systems was determined by the percentage of dissolved silk cocoon shells and degummed fibers after three hours of treatment. Degummed fibers were more readily soluble than the cocoon shells. B. mori cocoon shells (51.5%) and fibers (59.3%) had higher solubility than their wild counterparts. Among the wild species, Gonometa postica cocoon shells and degummed fibers had the highest solubility (37.3 and 51.7%, respectively). Lithium bromide was the most effective dissolving agent for both the cocoon shells and fibers (41.2 and 84.5%, respectively). Argema mimosae, Anaphe panda and Epiphora bauhiniae showed lower solubility across the solution systems used. The Scanning Electron micrographs showed A. panda fibers exhibited gelling property after dissolution while E. bauhiniae and A. mimosae had cracked and broken fibers exposing the fibriliar structures. The difference in the chemical orientation and composition of the fibers might have contributed to the variability in the dissolution behaviour. PMID:24506023

  14. Analysis of a silkworm F? hybrid with yellow cocoon generated by crossing two white-cocoon strains: further evidences for the roles of Cameo2 and CBP in formation of yellow cocoon.

    PubMed

    Chai, Chunli; Zhang, Yujun; Sun, Weizhong; Ding, Guangshu; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yanqun; Dai, Fangyin; Lu, Cheng

    2014-01-15

    In this report, we examined the gene expression related to carotenoid transport for a silkworm F1 hybrid with yellow cocoon generated by crossing two white-cocoon strains, Qiubai and 12-260. Our results showed that, in Qiubai, Cameo2, a transmembrane protein gene belonging to the CD36 family genes, was expressed normally in the silk gland, but no intact carotenoid-binding protein (CBP) mRNA (only the truncated CBP mRNA) was detected in the midgut. In 12-260, we detected the intact CBP mRNA expression in the midgut, but no Cameo2 expression in the silk gland. Regarding the F1 hybrid from crossing Qiubai and 12-260, both Cameo2 and intact CBP mRNA expressed normally in the silk gland and midgut. HPLC detection confirmed that in the F1 hybrid the carotenoids could be absorbed from dietary mulberry leaves through the midgut and transferred to silk gland via the hemolymph, which eventually colored cocoons into yellow. We also identified four CBP mRNA isoforms expressed in the midgut of the F1 hybrid, subsequently named as variants 5-8. Our results provide further evidences for the roles of Cameo2 and CBP in the formation of yellow cocoon of silkworm. PMID:24157262

  15. Infant Mortality

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Workshop Publications and Products PFA Epi Modules Infant Mortality Unfortunately, about 24,000 infants died in the ... may be advised to give birth at special hospitals, especially if they may be at risk of ...

  16. Infant abductors.

    PubMed

    Burgess, A W; Burgess, A G; Dowdell, E B; Hartman, C R; Nahirny, C; Rabun, J B

    1995-09-01

    1. Admitted kidnappers identified four phases involved in stealing an infant as: setting the stage for a baby, planning the abduction, the act of abduction, and post-abduction discovery. 2. Abductors describe personal pressure and interpersonal pressures as motivations in stealing an infant. 3. The act of abducting an infant ranges from the use of no force to lethal force. PMID:7500302

  17. Multiple Interval Mapping for Whole Cocoon Weight and Related Economically Important Traits QTL in Silkworm ( Bombyx mori)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin LI; Cheng LU; Ai-chun ZHAO; Zhong-huai XIANG

    2006-01-01

    A backcrossed population (BC1) derived from a cross between C100 and Dazao was obtained. The quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of the economically important traits for whole cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, ratio of cocoon shell and weight of pupae, etc., were analyzed for the first time using the multiple interval mapping software WinQTLCart2.0. In total 40 QTLs were detected and

  18. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    MedlinePLUS

    IV fluids - infants; TPN - infants; Intravenous fluids - infants; Hyperalimentation - infants ... method of feeding that bypasses the gastrointestinal tract. Fluids are given into a vein. This provides most ...

  19. Elementary research of the formation mechanism of sex-related fluorescent cocoon of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Xiaolong, Hu; Renyu, Xue; Guangli, Cao; Xing, Zhang; Yilin, Zhang; Xiaohua, Yu; Yuqing, Zhang; Chengliang, Gong

    2012-02-01

    To understand mechanisms for the difference of uptaking and transporting the pigments between the male and female in the silkworm, Bombyx mori strain of sex-related fluorescent cocoon, the fluorescent pigments in the midgut lumen, midgut, blood, silk glands and cocoon were analyzed with thin-layer chromatography, and showed that fluorescent colors of cocoons consisted with that of blood and silk glands. The different fluorescent colors of cocoons between the male and female may be mainly caused by the difference of accumulation and transportation for fluorescent pigments in the midgut and in the silk glands. Furthermore the midgut proteins were separated with Native-PAGE, and the proteins respectively recovered from three fluorescent regions presenting on a Native-PAGE gel for the female silkworms were determined using shotgun proteomics and mass spectrometry sequencing, of which 60, 40 and 18 proteins respectively from the region 1, 2 and 3 were identified. It was found that the several kinds of low molecular mass 30 kDa lipoproteins and the actins could be detected in all three regions, troponin, 30 kDa lipoprotein and 27 kDa glycoprotein precursor could be detected in the region 2 and 3, suggesting these proteins may be fluorescent pigments binding candidates proteins. Analysis of gene ontology indicated that the identified proteins in the three regions linked to the cellular component, molecular function, and biological process categories. These results provide a new clew to understand the formation mechanism of sex-related fluorescent cocoon of silkworm. PMID:21604173

  20. A Cocoon Found Inside the Black Widow's Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-02-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory image of the mysterious "Black Widow" pulsar reveals the first direct evidence of an elongated cocoon of high-energy particles. This discovery shows that this billion-year-old rejuvenated pulsar is an extremely efficient generator of a high-speed flow of matter and antimatter particles. Known officially as pulsar B1957+20, the Black Widow received its nickname because it is emitting intense high-energy radiation that is destroying its companion through evaporation. B1957+20, which completes one rotation every 1.6-thousandths of a second, belongs to a class of extremely rapidly rotating neutron stars called millisecond pulsars. The motion of B1957+20 through the galaxy -- at a high speed of almost a million kilometers per hour -- creates a bow shock wave visible to optical telescopes. The Chandra observation shows what cannot be seen in visible light: a second shock wave. This secondary shock wave is created from pressure that sweeps the wind back from the pulsar to form the cocoon of high-energy particles, visible for the first time in the Chandra data. "This is the first detection of a double-shock structure around a pulsar," said Benjamin Stappers, of the Dutch Organization for Research in Astronomy (ASTRON), lead author on a paper describing the research that will appear in the Feb. 28, 2003, issue of Science magazine. "It should enable astronomers to test theories of the dynamics of pulsar winds and their interaction with their environment." B1957+20 X-ray-only image of B1957+20 Scientists believe millisecond pulsars are very old neutron stars that have been spun up by accreting material from their companions. The steady push of the infalling matter on the neutron star spins it up in much the same way as pushing on a merry-go-round makes it rotate faster. The result is an object about 1.5 times as massive as the Sun and ten miles in diameter that rotates hundreds of times per second. The advanced age, very rapid rotation rate and relatively low magnetic field of millisecond pulsars put them in a totally separate class from young pulsars observed in the remnants of supernova explosions. "This star has had an incredible journey. It was born in a supernova explosion as a young and energetic pulsar, but after a few million years grew old and slow and faded from view," said Bryan Gaensler of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., a coauthor of the paper. "Over the next few hundred million years, this dead pulsar had material dumped on it by its companion, and the pulsar's magnetic field has been dramatically reduced. B1957+20 B1957+20 Artist's illustrations of B1957+20 "This pulsar has been through hell, yet somehow it's still able to generate high-energy particles just like its younger brethren," continued Gaensler. The key is the rapid rotation of B1957+20. The Chandra result confirms the theory that even a relatively weakly magnetized neutron star can generate intense electromagnetic forces and accelerate particles to high energies to create a pulsar wind, if it is rotating rapidly enough. Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer observed B1957+20 for over 40,000 seconds on June 21, 2001. Other members of the research team include Victoria Kaspi (McGill University, Montreal), Michiel van der Klis (University of Amsterdam) and Walter Lewin (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program, and TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif., is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass., for the Office of Space Science at NASA Headquarters, Washington.

  1. Fluorescent silk cocoon creating fluorescent diatom using a "Water glass-fluorophore ferry".

    PubMed

    Kusurkar, Tejas S; Tandon, Ishita; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

    2013-01-01

    Fluorophores are ubiquitous in nature. Naturally occurring fluorophores are exceptionally stable and have high quantum yield. Several natural systems have acquired fluorescent signature due to the presence of these fluorophores. Systematic attempt to harvest these fluorophores from natural systems could reap rich commercial benefit to bio-imaging industry. Silk cocoon biomaterial is one such example of natural system, which has acquired a fluorescent signature. The objective of this study is to develop simple, rapid, commercially viable technique to isolate silk cocoon membrane fluorophores and exploring the possibility of using them as fluorescent dye in bio-imaging. Here, we report an innovative water glass (Na2SiO3) based strategy to isolate the silk cocoon fluorophores. Isolated fluorophore is majorly quercetin derivatives and exhibited remarkable photo- and heat stability. Fluorescence and mass spectrometric analysis confirmed presence of a quercetin derivative. We further used this fluorophore to successfully label the silicate shell of diatom species Nitzschia palea. PMID:24256845

  2. Utilization of silkworm cocoon waste as a sorbent for the removal of oil from water.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Shiori; Kurashima, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Ayaka; Haraguchi, Kazuma; Shirai, Koji; Kanekatsu, Rensuke; Kiguchi, Kenji

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate the utilization of silkworm cocoon waste, such as pierced or stained cocoons, as a sorbent material for the removal of motor and vegetable oils from water. The oil-sorption capacity, rate and reusability of the material were evaluated. The results show the high sorption capacity of the silkworm cocoon waste sorbent (42-52 g(oil)/g(sorbent) for motor oil and 37-60 g(oil)/g(sorbent) for vegetable oil). The oil sorbed onto the material could be recovered by squeezing the sorbent, and the squeezed material showed an oil-sorption capacity over 15 g(oil)/g(sorbent). We concluded that the material shows a high performance as a low cost and environmental friendly sorbent for the removal of oil from water. PMID:19008047

  3. Fluorescent silk cocoon creating fluorescent diatom using a “Water glass-fluorophore ferry”

    PubMed Central

    Kusurkar, Tejas S.; Tandon, Ishita; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

    2013-01-01

    Fluorophores are ubiquitous in nature. Naturally occurring fluorophores are exceptionally stable and have high quantum yield. Several natural systems have acquired fluorescent signature due to the presence of these fluorophores. Systematic attempt to harvest these fluorophores from natural systems could reap rich commercial benefit to bio-imaging industry. Silk cocoon biomaterial is one such example of natural system, which has acquired a fluorescent signature. The objective of this study is to develop simple, rapid, commercially viable technique to isolate silk cocoon membrane fluorophores and exploring the possibility of using them as fluorescent dye in bio-imaging. Here, we report an innovative water glass (Na2SiO3) based strategy to isolate the silk cocoon fluorophores. Isolated fluorophore is majorly quercetin derivatives and exhibited remarkable photo- and heat stability. Fluorescence and mass spectrometric analysis confirmed presence of a quercetin derivative. We further used this fluorophore to successfully label the silicate shell of diatom species Nitzschia palea. PMID:24256845

  4. Fossilized spermatozoa preserved in a 50-Myr-old annelid cocoon from Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Mörs, Thomas; Ferraguti, Marco; Reguero, Marcelo A; McLoughlin, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    The origin and evolution of clitellate annelids-earthworms, leeches and their relatives-is poorly understood, partly because body fossils of these delicate organisms are exceedingly rare. The distinctive egg cases (cocoons) of Clitellata, however, are relatively common in the fossil record, although their potential for phylogenetic studies has remained largely unexplored. Here, we report the remarkable discovery of fossilized spermatozoa preserved within the secreted wall layers of a 50-Myr-old clitellate cocoon from Antarctica, representing the oldest fossil animal sperm yet known. Sperm characters are highly informative for the classification of extant Annelida. The Antarctic fossil spermatozoa have several features that point to affinities with the peculiar, leech-like 'crayfish worms' (Branchiobdellida). We anticipate that systematic surveys of cocoon fossils coupled with advances in non-destructive analytical methods may open a new window into the evolution of minute, soft-bodied life forms that are otherwise only rarely observed in the fossil record. PMID:26179804

  5. Isolation, purification and characterization of silk protein sericin from cocoon peduncles of tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rupesh Dash; Soumen Mukherjee; S. C. Kundu

    2006-01-01

    A high molecular weight water-soluble glue protein, sericin was identified in the cocoon peduncle (a strong thread connecting the cocoons to the branches of the tree with a ring) of the tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta. The sericin was isolated by 8M urea containing 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate and ?-mercaptoethenol (2%) or by 1% sodium chloride. The protein was purified

  6. Biological relevance of host plant-derived terpenoid in the cocoons of the tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Bindu; P. Jaisankar; F. Hauer; H. O. Gutzeit; S. C. Kundu

    2006-01-01

    We have characterized and studied the biological functions of a terpenoid derivative in the Indian tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta reared on the primary host plant Arjun, Terminalia arjuna. The compound from insect cocoon turned out to be a terpenoid derivative which resembled oleanane type triterpene (Arjunolic acid) present in the host plant. The plant and cocoon compounds were anti-oxidative

  7. VIRGINIA TECH MASSACRE: WHEN A DISRUPTIVE MEDIA EVENT TRIGGERS AN ONLINE COCOON COMMUNITY1

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Chapter 4 VIRGINIA TECH MASSACRE: WHEN A DISRUPTIVE MEDIA EVENT TRIGGERS AN ONLINE COCOON, the Virginia Tech massacre, in relationship to the way it is experienced by 124 YouTubers from the day massacre ­ online participation­ digital spontaneous shrine ­ YouTube Introduction In this chapter, I give

  8. Potential mode of protection of silkworm pupae from environmental stress by harboring the bacterial biofilm on the surfaces of silk cocoons.

    PubMed

    Halder, Pranab K; Naskar, Deboki; Kumar, Akash; Yao, Juming; Kundu, Subhas C; Ghosh, Anindya S

    2015-02-01

    The silkworm forms cocoon to protect its pupa that survives for months inside the cocoon without being affected by various environmental stresses. To understand the possible mode of pupal survival within the cocoon encasement, we investigate the cause that protects the cocoon. During the end of the spinning process, we have isolated different bacterial species from the cocoon surface. These are identified using molecular techniques and checked for their abilities to form biofilm in vitro. The bacteria are able to form biofilm either individually or in consortia. Of which, Bacillus and Erwinia species are prominent biofilm formers. Interestingly, these bacteria have the ability to form biofilm on the cocoon mimetic surface of the silk protein Sericin Hope that contains only sericin. The origin and the behavior of the bacteria lead us to hypothesize the possible role of biofilm layer on the cocoon surface, which provides protection from adverse environmental conditions. PMID:25292249

  9. Production of a recombinant mouse monoclonal antibody in transgenic silkworm cocoons.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Masashi; Ogawa, Shingo; Takeuchi, Atsushi; Nakakita, Shinichi; Kubo, Yuhki; Miyawaki, Yoshitaka; Hirabayashi, Jun; Tomita, Masahiro

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, we describe the production of transgenic silkworms expressing a recombinant mouse mAb in their cocoons. Two transgenic lines, L- and H-, were generated that carried cDNAs encoding the L- and H-chains of a mouse IgG mAb, respectively, under the control of the enhancer-linked sericin-1 promoter. Cocoon protein analysis indicated that the IgG L- or H-chain was secreted into the cocoons of each line. We also produced a transgenic line designated L/H, which carried both cDNAs, by crossing the L- and H-lines. This line efficiently produced the recombinant mAb as a fully assembled H(2)L(2) tetramer in its cocoons, with negligible L- or H-chain monomer and H-chain dimer production. Thus, the H(2)L(2) tetramer was synthesized in, and secreted from, the middle silk gland cells. Crossing of the L/H-line with a transgenic line expressing a baculovirus-derived trans-activator produced a 2.4-fold increase in mAb expression. The recombinant mAb was extracted from the cocoons with a buffer containing 3 m urea and purified by protein G affinity column chromatography. The antigen-binding affinity of the purified recombinant mAb was identical to that of the native mAb produced by a hybridoma. Analysis of the structure of the N-glycans attached to the recombinant mAb revealed that the mAb contained high mannose-, hybrid- and complex-type N-glycans. By contrast, insect-specific paucimannose-type glycans were not detected. Fucose residues alpha-1,3- and alpha-1,6-linked to the core N-acetylglucosamine residue, both of which are found in insect N-glycans, were not observed in the N-glycans of the mAb. PMID:19740109

  10. Infant formulas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... allergies or colic. Babies who are allergic to cows' milk may also be allergic to soy milk. Hypoallergenic formulas (protein hydrolysate formulas): This type of formula may be helpful for infants who ...

  11. Infant Botulism

    PubMed Central

    Cagan, Eren; Peker, Erdal; Dogan, Murat; Caksen, Huseyin

    2010-01-01

    Infant botulism is a rare condition caused by intestinal colonization with Clostridium botulinum. The enteric toxin causes intestinal immobility and progressive descending paralysis due to the effect on acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction and other cholinergic nerve terminals, particularly in the gut. Herein, we report an infant with infantile botulism because of rare clinically entity, with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment recover no squeal. PMID:25610131

  12. Infant Safe Haven Laws

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the court. Louisiana Infant’s Age Citation: Ch. Code Art. 1150 An infant may be relinquished. The term ‘ ... Who May Relinquish the Infant Citation: Ch. Code Art. 1150; 1151 The terms ‘relinquish’ or ‘relinquishment’ of ...

  13. Transgenic silkworms (Bombyx mori) produce recombinant spider dragline silk in cocoons.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hongxiu; Lan, Xiqian; Zhang, Yuansong; Zhao, Tianfu; Wang, Yujun; Kajiura, Zenta; Nakagaki, Masao

    2010-04-01

    Spider dragline silk is a unique fibrous protein with a combination of tensile strength and elasticity, but the isolation of large amounts of silk from spiders is not feasible. In this study, we generated germline-transgenic silkworms (Bombyx mori) that spun cocoons containing recombinant spider silk. A piggyBac-based transformation vector was constructed that carried spider dragline silk (MaSp1) cDNA driven by the sericin 1 promoter. Silkworm eggs were injected with the vector, producing transgenic silkworms displaying DsRed fluorescence in their eyes. Genotyping analysis confirmed the integration of the MaSp1 gene into the genome of the transgenic silkworms, and silk protein analysis revealed its expression and secretion in the cocoon. Compared with wild-type silk, the recombinant silk displayed a higher tensile strength and elasticity. The results indicate the potential for producing recombinant spider silk in transgenic B. mori. PMID:19633923

  14. Tensile behavior and morphology of differently degummed silkworm ( Bombyx mori) cocoon silk fibres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Jiang; Huifen Liu; Changhe Wang; Lingzhi Wu; Jianguo Huang; Cong Guo

    2006-01-01

    Tensile tests have been performed on silkworm cocoon silk fibres degummed using five different methods: distilled water, boracic acid–sodium borate buffer, sodium carbonate, urea and succinic acid. Using an electronic single-fibre tensile instron, the force–displacement curves were obtained for each condition. Effects of degumming on silk include a decrease in the initial elastic modulus and a decrease in the proportional

  15. C-prolinylquercetins from the yellow cocoon shell of the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chikara Hirayama; Hiroshi Ono; Yasumori Tamura; Masatoshi Nakamura

    2006-01-01

    Two flavonoids containing the l-proline moiety, 6-C-[(2S,5S)-prolin-5-yl] quercetin (prolinalin A) and 6-C-[(2S,5R)-prolin-5-yl] quercetin (prolinalin B), were isolated from the cocoon shell of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Their structural elucidation was achieved by application of acid hydrolysis and spectroscopic methods. These compounds were not found in the leaves of mulberry (Morus alba L.), the host plant of the silkworm, suggesting that

  16. Flavonoid 5-glucosides from the cocoon shell of the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasumori Tamura; Ken-ichi Nakajima; Ken-ichi Nagayasu; Chiyuki Takabayashi

    2002-01-01

    The flavonoid 5-glucosides, quercetin 5,4?-di-O-?-d-glucopyranoside and quercetin 5,7,4?-tri-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, together with the known quercetin 5-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the cocoon shell of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis. These flavonoid glucosides were not present in mulberry leaves, the silkworm's only food, and they are considered to be metabolites produced by the silkworm.

  17. Transgenic silkworms ( Bombyx mori ) produce recombinant spider dragline silk in cocoons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongxiu Wen; Xiqian Lan; Yuansong Zhang; Tianfu Zhao; Yujun Wang; Zenta Kajiura; Masao Nakagaki

    2010-01-01

    Spider dragline silk is a unique fibrous protein with a combination of tensile strength and elasticity, but the isolation\\u000a of large amounts of silk from spiders is not feasible. In this study, we generated germline-transgenic silkworms (Bombyx mori) that spun cocoons containing recombinant spider silk. A piggyBac-based transformation vector was constructed that carried spider dragline silk (MaSp1) cDNA driven by

  18. Fabrication of silk sericin nanofibers from a silk sericin-hope cocoon with electrospinning method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianhua; Khan, Md Majibur Rahman; Yamamoto, Toshio; Tsukada, Masuhiro; Morikawa, Hideaki

    2012-03-01

    In this study, silk sericin nanofibers from sericin hope-silkworm, whose cocoons consist almost exclusively of sericin were successfully prepared by electrospinning method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of the fibers. The effect of spinning conditions, including the concentration of sericin cocoon solution, acceleration voltage, spinning distance and flow rate on the fiber morphologies and the size distribution of sericin nanofibers were examined. The structure and physical properties were also observed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The optimum conditions for producing finely thinner fibrous sericin nanofibers without beads were the concentration of sericin solution above 6-8 wt%, acceleration voltage ranging from 25 to 32 kV, spinning distance above 9 cm, and flow rate above 0.06 cm min(-1). The mean diameter of as spun sericin fibers varied from 114 to 430 nm at the different spinning conditions. In the as-spun fibers, silk sericin was present in a random coil conformation, while after methanol treatment, the molecular structure of silk sericin was transformed into a ?-sheet containing structure. Sericin hope nanofiber demonstrated thermal degradation at lower temperature than the sericin hope cocoon, which probably due to the randomly coiled rich structure of the sericin hope nanofiber. PMID:22198656

  19. Silk hydrogels from non-mulberry and mulberry silkworm cocoons processed with ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Silva, Simone S; Popa, Elena G; Gomes, Manuela E; Oliveira, Mariana B; Nayak, Sunita; Subia, Bano; Mano, João F; Kundu, Subhas C; Reis, Rui L

    2013-11-01

    Matrices based on silk fibroin from the non-mulberry silkworm Antheraea mylitta and the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori have demonstrated good applicability in regenerative medicine. However, the cocoons of A. mylitta are underutilized in part due to their lack of solubility in traditional organic solvents. Therefore, the present work investigates the solubilization and processing of degummed fibers obtained from the cocoons of both silkworm species into hydrogels using ionic liquids (ILs). The developed hydrogels exhibited a rubbery consistency, viscoelastic behavior and rapid degradation in the presence of protease XIV. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy images suggest that human adipose stem cells (hASCs) are able to adhere to and migrate at different levels within the hydrogel structures. Moreover, the MTS assay demonstrated the maintenance of cell metabolic activity for up to 28 days, while DNA quantification showed that hASCs were able to proliferate on the seeded hydrogels. The findings indicate that complete IL removal from the fabricated hydrogels results in a positive hASCs cellular response. Thus the present approach provides a unique opportunity to broaden the processability and application of silk fibroin obtained from A. mylitta cocoons for regenerative medicine, namely cartilage regeneration. PMID:23845228

  20. AN UP-SCATTERED COCOON EMISSION MODEL OF GAMMA-RAY BURST HIGH-ENERGY LAGS

    SciTech Connect

    Toma, Kenji; Wu Xuefeng; Meszaros, Peter, E-mail: toma@astro.psu.ed [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2009-12-20

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope recently detected the most energetic gamma-ray burst so far, GRB 080916C, and reported its detailed temporal properties in an extremely broad spectral range: (1) the time-resolved spectra are well described by broken power-law forms over the energy range of 10 keV-10 GeV, (2) the high-energy emission (at epsilon>100 MeV) is delayed by approx5 s with respect to the epsilon approx< 1 MeV emission, and (3) the emission onset times shift toward later times in higher energy bands. We show that this behavior of the high-energy emission can be explained by a model in which the prompt emission consists of two components: one is the emission component peaking at epsilon approx 1 MeV due to the synchrotron-self-Compton radiation of electrons accelerated in the internal shock of the jet and the other is the component peaking at epsilon approx 100 MeV due to up-scattering of the photospheric X-ray emission of the expanding cocoon (i.e., the hot bubble produced by dissipation of the jet energy inside the progenitor star) off the same electrons in the jet. Based on this model, we derive some constraints on the radius of the progenitor star and the total energy and mass of the cocoon of this GRB, which may provide information on the structure of the progenitor star and the physical conditions of the jet propagating in the star. The up-scattered cocoon emission could be important for other Fermi GRBs as well. We discuss some predictions of this model, including a prompt bright optical emission and a soft X-ray excess.

  1. The silk cocoon of the silkworm, Bombyx mori: Macro structure and its influence on transmural diffusion of oxygen and water vapor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie Blossman-Myer; Warren W. Burggren

    2010-01-01

    The cocoon of insect larvae is thought to help conserve water while affording mechanical protection. If the cocoon is a barrier to water loss, then it must also impose a barrier to inward oxygen diffusion. We tested this hypothesis in pupae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The rate of water loss and oxygen uptake (V?O2) at 25°C was measured in

  2. Isolation and bioactivities of a non-sericin component from cocoon shell silk sericin of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Yan; Wang, Yuan-Jing; Zhou, Li-Xia; Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2012-02-01

    The cocoon shell of the silkworm Bombyx mori consists of silk fibroin fiber (70%) surrounded by a sericin layer made up of sericin (25%) and non-sericin (5%) components. The non-sericin component which consists of carbohydrate, salt, wax, flavonoids and derivatives is often overlooked in applied research into sericin and its hydrolysate. Here, sericin and non-sericin compounds were obtained from the sericin layer of five types of cocoon shell by means of degumming in water followed by extraction and separation in ethanol. These ethanol extracts were found to mainly contain flavonoids and free amino acids possessing scavenging activities of the 2,2-diphenyl -1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and inhibiting activities of tyrosinase, which were much greater than the corresponding activities of the purified sericin proteins. The extracts also strongly inhibited ?-glucosidase while the sericins had no such activity. In particular, the inhibitory activities of the ethanol extract of Daizo cocoons were much greater than those of the other cocoons. The IC(50) values of the Daizo cocoons for DPPH free radicals, tyrosinase, and ?-glucosidase were 170, 27, and 110 ?g mL(-1), respectively. The bioactivities of the non-sericin component were much higher than the activity of sericin alone. In addition, the in vivo test showed preliminarily that the administration of the non-sericin component had effectively resistant activity against streptozocin (STZ) oxidation and that of the purified sericin could also evidently decrease the induction ratio of diabetic mice induced by STZ. Therefore, ethanol extract protocols of the sericin layer of cocoon shells provide a novel stock which, together with sericin protein, has potential uses in functional food, biotechnological and medical applications. PMID:22101964

  3. Some implications of inverse-Compton scattering of hot cocoon radiation by relativistic jets in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Smoot, George F.

    2014-11-01

    Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) relativistic jets are surrounded by hot cocoons which confine jets during their punch out from the progenitor star. These cocoons are copious sources of X-ray photons that can be and are inverse-Compton (IC) scattered to MeV-GeV energies by electrons in the relativistic jet. We provide detailed estimates for IC flux resulting from various interactions between X-ray photons and the relativistic jet, and describe what we can learn about GRBs jets and progenitor stars from the detection (or an upper limit) of these IC scattered photons.

  4. Proton spin-lattice relaxation in silkworm cocoons: physisorbed water and serine side-chain motions.

    PubMed

    Geppi, Marco; Mollica, Giulia; Borsacchi, Silvia; Cappellozza, Silvia

    2010-03-01

    The molecular dynamic behavior of silkworm cocoons produced by a single Bombyx mori strain was investigated by means of high- and low-resolution solid-state NMR experiments. Cocoons with different moisture content were prepared to study the effects of physisorbed water on their molecular dynamics in the MHz regime, which was probed through the measurement of (1)H T(1) relaxation times at 25 MHz in the 25-95 degrees C temperature range. The water content of the different samples was determined from the analysis of (1)H free-induction decays. In addition to the rotation of methyl groups, mostly from alanine, and to the reorientation of physisorbed water molecules, already identified in previous works as relaxation sinks, the reorientation of serine side-chains was here found to contribute to (1)H T(1) above room temperature. The analysis of the trends of (1)H T(1) versus temperature was carried out in terms of semiempirical models describing the three main motional processes, and indicated that methyl rotation, water reorientation and serine side-chain motions are the most efficient relaxation mechanisms below 0 degrees C, between 0 and 60 degrees C, and above 60 degrees C, respectively. The activation energies were found to decrease passing from serine to water to methyl motions. PMID:20136080

  5. Quantitative Mapping of the Orientation of Fibroin -Sheets in B. mori Cocoon Fibers by Scanning Transmission X-ray

    E-print Network

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    a -sheet conformation.4 For example, the primary amino acid sequence of the fibroin core of the cocoQuantitative Mapping of the Orientation of Fibroin -Sheets in B. mori Cocoon Fibers by Scanning silk fiber was derived from scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). The intense C 1s f *amide

  6. Analysis of Genetic Divergence for Classification of Morphological and Larval Gain Characteristics of Peanut Cocoon Silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) Germplasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Salehi Nezhad; S. Z. Mirhosseini

    2009-01-01

    A hierarchical agglomerative clustering analysis was undertaken for grouping the 51 lines silkworm, Bombyx mori L., based on larval gains parameters in the clustering process. The analysis was based on data from one rearing seasons with all 51 peanut cocoon strains of silkworm and varying morphological development potentials. The results indicate that two clusters can be realized based on larval

  7. Solvothermal synthesis and photoluminescence properties of BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons and nanorods with different phases

    SciTech Connect

    Xue Fei; Li Haibo; Zhu Yongchun; Xiong Shenglin; Zhang Xianwen; Wang Tingting; Liang Xin [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Qian Yitai, E-mail: ytqian@ustc.edu.c [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2009-06-15

    Hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons and monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} nanorods have been synthesized in the mixed solvents of glycerol and distilled water with the volume ratio of 2:1 at 200 deg. C. The solvothermal evolution process from hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons to monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} nanorods was observed by varying the reaction time from 1 to 3 h. In the hydrothermal condition at 160 deg. C, the similar phase transformation from hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} to monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} was also observed, accompanying with a morphology transformation from nanorods to octahedron-like microcrystals. It was found that the volume ratio of glycerol to water in the solvothermal condition had a great impact on the shapes of products, while it had no influence on the formation of different phases. The fluorescence spectra of hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons and monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} nanorods were also studied. - Graphical abstract: Hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons were fabricated by solvothermal method at 200 deg. C for 1 h. When the reaction time was increased to 3 h, monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} nanorods were formed.

  8. Recent progress in molecular genetic studies on the carotenoid transport system using cocoon-color mutants of the silkworm.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Kozo; Sakudoh, Takashi

    2015-04-15

    The existence of tissue-specific delivery for certain carotenoids is supported by genetic evidence from the silkworm Bombyx mori and the identification of cocoon color mutant genes, such as Yellow blood (Y), Yellow cocoon (C), and Flesh cocoon (F). Mutants with white cocoons are defective in one of the steps involved in transporting carotenoids from the midgut lumen to the middle silk gland via the hemolymph lipoprotein, lipophorin, and the different colored cocoons are caused by the accumulation of specific carotenoids into the middle silk gland. The Y gene encodes carotenoid-binding protein (CBP), which is expected to function as the cytosolic transporter of carotenoids across the enterocyte and epithelium of the middle silk gland. The C and F genes encode the C locus-associated membrane protein, which is homologous to a mammalian high-density lipoprotein receptor-2 (Cameo2) and scavenger receptor class B member 15 (SCRB15), respectively; these membrane proteins are expected to function as non-internalizing lipophorin receptors in the middle silk gland. Cameo2 and SCRB15 belong to the cluster determinant 36 (CD36) family, with Cameo2 exhibiting specificity not only for lutein, but also for zeaxanthin and astaxanthin, while SCRB15 seems to have specificity toward carotene substrates such as ?-carotene and ?-carotene. These findings suggest that Cameo2 and SCRB15 can discriminate the chemical structure of lutein and ?-carotene from circulating lipophorin during uptake. These data provide the first evidence that CD36 family proteins can discriminate individual carotenoid molecules in lipophorin. PMID:25579881

  9. Hierarchical, multilayered cell walls reinforced by recycled silk cocoons enhance the structural integrity of honeybee combs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Duan, Huiling; Karihaloo, Bhushan L; Wang, Jianxiang

    2010-05-25

    We reveal the sophisticated and hierarchical structure of honeybee combs and measure the elastic properties of fresh and old natural honeycombs at different scales by optical microscope, environmental scanning electron microscope, nano/microindentation, and by tension and shear tests. We demonstrate that the comb walls are continuously strengthened and stiffened without becoming fragile by the addition of thin wax layers reinforced by recycled silk cocoons reminiscent of modern fiber-reinforced composite laminates. This is done to increase its margin of safety against collapse due to a temperature increase. Artificial engineering honeycombs mimic only the macroscopic geometry of natural honeycombs, but have yet to achieve the microstructural sophistication of their natural counterparts. The natural honeycombs serve as a prototype of truly biomimetic cellular materials with hitherto unattainable improvement in stiffness, strength, toughness, and thermal stability. PMID:20439765

  10. A Cocoon of Freshly Accelerated Cosmic Rays Detected by Fermi in the Cygnus Superbubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dumora, D.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hayashi, K.; Hays, E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Martin, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Parent, D.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pohl, M.; Prokhorov, D.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Parkinson, P. M. Saz; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spinelli, P.; Strong, A. W.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Zimmer, S.; Bontemps, S.

    2011-11-01

    The origin of Galactic cosmic rays is a century-long puzzle. Indirect evidence points to their acceleration by supernova shockwaves, but we know little of their escape from the shock and their evolution through the turbulent medium surrounding massive stars. Gamma rays can probe their spreading through the ambient gas and radiation fields. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed the star-forming region of Cygnus X. The 1- to 100-gigaelectronvolt images reveal a 50-parsec-wide cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays that flood the cavities carved by the stellar winds and ionization fronts from young stellar clusters. It provides an example to study the youth of cosmic rays in a superbubble environment before they merge into the older Galactic population.

  11. Luminescence properties of silk cocoon derived carbonaceous fluorescent nanoparticles/PVA hybrid film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Haobin; Zheng, Mingtao; Dong, Hanwu; Lei, Bingfu; Zhang, Haoran; Xiao, Yong; Liu, Yingliang

    2014-09-01

    Carbonaceous fluorescent nanoparticles (CFNs) with broad particle distribution were synthesized by thermal-treatment using carbonation of silk cocoon as raw materials. The experimental results showed tunable emission wavelength of the nanoparticles. The quantum yield of the CFNs was calculated to be 23%. A CFNs/PVA hybrid thin film was prepared from a blend of the CFNs with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) showing interesting green afterglow which could be observed by naked eyes. The afterglow spectrum revealed that the CFNs/PVA thin film had a broad afterglow emission peak located at 520 nm. The afterglow intensity decay curve of the film showed visually recognizable period longer than 140 s. The PVA-PVA hydrogen bonding in the PVA matrix may play a key role for the afterglow.

  12. Peripheral arterial line - infants

    MedlinePLUS

    PAL - infants; Art line - infants ... an "art line." This article addresses PALs in babies. Why is a PAL used? Doctors and nurses use a PAL to watch your baby's blood pressure. A PAL can also be use ...

  13. Parenting Your Infant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... easily. This can lead to choking! Infants Have Personalities Even very tiny infants act in very individual ... and will pass. Reach Out To Family and Friends, or Make New Friends With Other Parents Having ...

  14. Infant CPR Video Demonstration

    MedlinePLUS

    Infant CPR Video Demonstration Video demonstration of CPR instruction for infants. RETURN TO MAIN PAGE These Videos Are For Educational Use Only And Are Not Authorized for Commercial Use. © 1998 - 2011 ...

  15. Tracking Infants "At Risk."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Pamela; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reveals that infants in West Virginia judged at risk were not followed more closely by county health department nurses than infants judged not at risk. Negotiations are underway with divisions in the State Department of Health to identify high-risk infants routinely, notify local health departments, and conduct a screening in order to provide help…

  16. Identification and analysis of the pigment composition and sources in the colored cocoon of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, by HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    This study used the larval tissues and colored cocoons of silkworms, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), that were fed leaves of cultivated mulberry, Husang 32, as experimental material. The pigment composition and content in colored cocoons and tissues of the 5th instar larvae and the mulberry leaves were rapidly detected using organic solvent extraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. It was found that the mulberry leaf mainly contained four types of pigment: lutein (30.86%), ?-carotene (26.3%), chlorophyll a (24.62%), and chlorophyll b (18.21%). The silk glands, blood, and cocoon shells of six yellow-red cocoons were used as the experimental materials. The results showed that there were generally two kinds of carotenoids (lutein and ?-carotene) in the silk gland and cocoon shell, a little violaxanthin was detected in silk gland, and the pigment found in the blood was mainly lutein in all varieties of silkworm tested. Chlorophyll a and b had not been digested and utilized in the yellow-red series of silkworm. The method used to detect visible pigments reported here could be used to breed new colors of cocoons and to develop and utilize the pigments found in mulberry. PMID:25373178

  17. Production of an active feline interferon in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms using the fibroin H-chain expression system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.. Kurihara; H. Sezutsu; T. Tamura; K. Yamada

    2007-01-01

    We constructed the fibroin H-chain expression system to produce recombinant proteins in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms. Feline interferon (FeIFN) was used for production and to assess the quality of the product. Two types of FeIFN fusion protein, each with N- and C-terminal sequences of the fibroin H-chain, were designed to be secreted into the lumen of the posterior silk

  18. Effect of VAM fungi and bacterial biofertilizers on mulberry leaf quality and silkworm cocoon characters under semiarid conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Ram Rao; J. Kodandaramaiah; M. P. Reddy; R. S. Katiyar

    2007-01-01

    The influence of VAM fungi and bacterial biofertilizer (BBF) with 50% reduction in the recommended dose of (N and P) chemical fertilizers on leaf quality traits of mulberry variety (S-13) and its impact on silkworm (PM × NB4D2) growth and cocoon characters were studied under semi-arid conditions. Four different treatments were imposed i.e., T1: Control (only 100% NPK); T2: VAM

  19. Mulberry non-engineered silk gland protein vis-à-vis silk cocoon protein engineered by silkworms as biomaterial matrices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joydip Kundu; Moumita Dewan; Sarani Ghoshal; S. C. Kundu

    2008-01-01

    Silk fibroin from silk gland of Bombyx mori 5th instar larvae was utilized to fabricate films, which may find possible applications as two-dimensional matrices for tissue\\u000a engineering. Bombyx mori cocoon fibroin is well characterized as potential biomaterial by virtue of its good mechanical strength, water stability,\\u000a thermal properties, surface roughness and biocompatibility. The present study aims to characterize the biophysical,

  20. Simplified purification of soluble histidine-tagged green fluorescent protein from cocoon of transgenic silkworm in metal affinity hydroxyapatite chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Sugo; Tomohiko Yoshitake; Masahiro Tomita; Shintaro Kobayashi; Yae Kurosawa; Katsumi Kawamura; Tsuneo Okuyama

    2011-01-01

    Histidine-tagged proteins have been purified with immobilized nickel affinity chromatography. This method, however, bears some serious disadvantages, including carcinogenicity and potential leakage of the nickel and the handling and disposal costs. We developed a novel purification process for water-soluble histidine-tagged green fluorescent protein from the cocoons of transgenic silkworms, unlike conventional E. coli expression system which sometimes produced insoluble and

  1. Disks, Tori, and Cocoons: Emission and Absorption Diagnostics of AGN Environments

    E-print Network

    R. Morganti; L. J. Greenhill; A. B. Peck; D. L. Jones; C. Henkel

    2004-09-21

    One of the most important problems in the study of active galaxies is understanding the detailed geometry, physics, and evolution of the central engines and their environments. The leading models involve an accretion disk and torus structure around a central dense object, thought to be a supermassive black hole. Gas found in the environment of AGN is associated with different structures: molecular accretion disks, larger scale atomic tori, ionized and neutral "cocoons" in which the nuclear regions can be embedded. All of them can be studied at radio wavelengths by various means. Here, we summarize the work that has been done to date in the radio band to characterize these structures. Much has been learned about the central few parsecs of AGN in the last few decades with contemporary instruments but the picture remains incomplete. In order to be able to define a more accurate model of this region, significant advances in sensitivity, spectral and angular resolution, and bandpass stability are required. The necessary advances will only be provided by the Square Kilometer Array and we discuss the possibilities that these dramatic improvements will open for the study of the gas in the central region of AGN.

  2. Heart-respiratory monitor - infants

    MedlinePLUS

    Cardiorespiratory monitor - infants; Apnea monitor - infants; Heart rate monitor - infants ... A heart–respiratory monitor can measure a baby's or child's: Breathing rate Heart beat Oxygen level Caregivers can use ...

  3. Prebiotics in infant formula.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn't. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  4. [Sensory Systems of Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero To Three, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter contains six articles: (1) "Early Flavor Experiences: When Do They Start?" Julie A. Mennella and Gary K. Beauchamp); (2) "Infant Massage" (Tiffany Field); (3) "The Infant's Sixth Sense: Awareness and Regulation of Bodily Processes" (Stephen W. Porges); (4) "Sensory Contributions to Action: A Sensory Integrative Approach" (Marie E.…

  5. Infant--Toddler Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funderburg, Ruth Seth; Forney, Paula

    The Georgia Parent Infant Network for Educational Services (PINES) is a home intervention program currently serving over 300 hearing impaired, visually impaired, and multihandicapped sensory impaired (MHSI) preschoolers. The infant-toddler evaluation component is described, with sections on screening and diagnosis, parent education concerning…

  6. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    Food provides the energy and nutrients that babies need to be healthy. For a baby, breast milk is best. It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start ...

  7. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

    There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

  8. Crying in infants

    PubMed Central

    de Weerth, Carolina; Fuentes, Susana; de Vos, Willem M

    2013-01-01

    Up to around a quarter of all infants cry excessively and unsoothably during their first months of life. This phenomenon has been termed “infant colic.” In most cases, physicians are unable to determine the cause of the colicky behavior. In a recent study, and by means of comprehensive and deep analyses of more than 1000 intestinal phylotypes, we found that infants with colic showed lower microbiota diversity and stability than control infants in the first weeks of life. Colic-control differences in the abundance of certain bacteria were also found at 2 weeks. These microbial signatures possibly explain the colic phenotype. In this addendum we discuss other recent publications on the subject and present previously unpublished analyses of our own. We address possible mechanisms behind the links between microbiota and crying, and present future directions that could further help elucidate the hypothesized relations between intestinal microbiota and infant colic. PMID:23941920

  9. The Excessively Crying Infant: The Mother-Infant Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikander, Birgitta; Helleday, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Examined the feelings of mothers when temporarily leaving their infants--who were perceived to cry excessively--to other caretakers. Found through interviews that the mothers were anxious when separated from the infant, had an intensive perception of the infant's crying, and had difficulty sharing responsibility for the infant. (EV)

  10. Infant feeding in emergencies.

    PubMed

    Kelly, M

    1993-06-01

    Recent experience of emergency relief operations in middle-income countries has shown that infant feeding issues can greatly complicate attempts to protect infant health. The two main problems are: how to protect and support breastfeeding in communities where it is no longer the norm and how to assist artificially fed infants without exposing them to the dramatically increased risks associated with artificial feeding under disaster conditions. This article explores the underlying issues and makes a number of recommendations for policy and programmes. PMID:20958761

  11. Production of an active feline interferon in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms using the fibroin H-chain expression system

    SciTech Connect

    Kurihara, H. [Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories, 1111 Tebiro, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: Hiroyuki_Kurihara@nts.toray.co.jp; Sezutsu, H. [Transgenic Silkworm Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634 (Japan); Tamura, T. [Transgenic Silkworm Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634 (Japan); Yamada, K. [Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories, 1111 Tebiro, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan)

    2007-04-20

    We constructed the fibroin H-chain expression system to produce recombinant proteins in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms. Feline interferon (FeIFN) was used for production and to assess the quality of the product. Two types of FeIFN fusion protein, each with N- and C-terminal sequences of the fibroin H-chain, were designed to be secreted into the lumen of the posterior silk glands. The expression of the FeIFN/H-chain fusion gene was regulated by the fibroin H-chain promoter domain. The transgenic silkworms introduced these constructs with the piggyBac transposon-derived vector, which produced the normal sized cocoons containing each FeIFN/H-chain fusion protein. Although the native-protein produced by transgenic silkworms have almost no antiviral activity, the proteins after the treatment with PreScission protease to eliminate fibroin H-chain derived N- and C-terminal sequences from the products, had very high antiviral activity. This H-chain expression system, using transgenic silkworms, could be an alternative method to produce an active recombinant protein and silk-based biomaterials.

  12. Concentrations of heavy metals in the food, faeces, adults, and empty cocoons of Neodiprion sertifer (Hymenoptera, diprionidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Helioevaara, K.; Vaeisaenen, R. (Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland) Water and Environment Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland))

    1990-07-01

    Heavy metals have an adverse effect in polluted forest ecosystems situated in the vicinity of industrial plants and smelters, but little is known about their accumulation along food chains. In some studies, distinct accumulation has been observed from one trophic level to another, while in others no accumulation has been recorded. Insects can excrete heavy metals directly in the faeces, or avoid food containing high concentrations. They may also excrete these elements during metamorphosis in the larval skins including the gut epithelium, pupal remnants, cocoons, gall-walls, or in the droplet excreted by the imago just after hatching. Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy), the European pine sawfly, has mass-outbreaks at approximately ten-year intervals. It is a severe defoliator of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestries L.), usually exploiting only the previous years' needles. Eggs are laid in autumn, and the species overwinters at the egg stage in the needles. The aim of the present study was to analyze the proportion of copper, iron, nickel and cadmium in newly hatched adult insects, in their larval nutrition, faeces and empty cocoons. Larvae of N. sertifer were reared for this purpose on needles of varying heavy metal levels.

  13. Infant - newborn development

    MedlinePLUS

    ... holding a hand; may take few steps alone SENSORY DEVELOPMENT Hearing -- begins before birth, and is mature at birth. The infant prefers the human voice. Touch, taste, smell -- mature at birth; prefers ...

  14. Infant-Mother Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter

    1979-01-01

    Reviews recent research advances in the areas of individual differences in the way maternal-infant attachment behavior becomes organized, differential experiences associated with various attachment patterns, and the values of such patterns in forecasting subsequent development. (Author/GC)

  15. Sudden infant death syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Breastfeeding reduces some upper respiratory infections that may influence the development of SIDS. Never give honey to a child younger than 1 year old. Honey in very young children may cause infant botulism , which may be associated with SIDS.

  16. Sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adams, Stephen M; Ward, Chad E; Garcia, Karla L

    2015-06-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden unexpected death of a child younger than one year during sleep that cannot be explained after a postmortem evaluation including autopsy, a thorough history, and scene evaluation. The incidence of SIDS has decreased more than 50% in the past 20 years, largely as a result of the Back to Sleep campaign. The most important risk factors relate to the sleep environment. Prone and side sleeping positions are significantly more dangerous than the supine position. Bed sharing with a parent is strongly correlated with an increased risk of SIDS, especially in infants younger than 12 weeks. Apparent life-threatening events are not a risk factor for SIDS. Parents should place infants on their backs to sleep, should not share a bed, and should avoid exposing the infant to tobacco smoke. Other risk-reducing measures include using a firm crib mattress, breastfeeding, keeping vaccinations up to date, avoiding overheating due to overbundling, avoiding soft bedding, and considering the use of a pacifier during sleep once breastfeeding is established. One consequence of the Back to Sleep campaign is a significant increase in the incidence of occipital flattening. Infants who develop a flat spot should be placed with the head facing alternating directions each time he or she is put to bed. Supervised prone positioning while the infant is awake, avoiding excessive use of carriers, and upright positioning while awake are also recommended. PMID:26034855

  17. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Population Profiles > Asian American > Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific ... all older age groups. At a Glance – Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  18. A CD36-related transmembrane protein is coordinated with an intracellular lipid-binding protein in selective carotenoid transport for cocoon coloration.

    PubMed

    Sakudoh, Takashi; Iizuka, Tetsuya; Narukawa, Junko; Sezutsu, Hideki; Kobayashi, Isao; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Banno, Yutaka; Kitamura, Akitoshi; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Takada, Naoko; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Mita, Kazuei; Tamura, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Tsuchida, Kozo

    2010-03-01

    The transport pathway of specific dietary carotenoids from the midgut lumen to the silk gland in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a model system for selective carotenoid transport because several genetic mutants with defects in parts of this pathway have been identified that manifest altered cocoon pigmentation. In the wild-type silkworm, which has both genes, Yellow blood (Y) and Yellow cocoon (C), lutein is transferred selectively from the hemolymph lipoprotein to the silk gland cells where it is accumulated into the cocoon. The Y gene encodes an intracellular carotenoid-binding protein (CBP) containing a lipid-binding domain known as the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid transfer domain. Positional cloning and transgenic rescue experiments revealed that the C gene encodes Cameo2, a transmembrane protein gene belonging to the CD36 family genes, some of which, such as the mammalian SR-BI and the fruit fly ninaD, are reported as lipoprotein receptors or implicated in carotenoid transport for visual system. In C mutant larvae, Cameo2 expression was strongly repressed in the silk gland in a specific manner, resulting in colorless silk glands and white cocoons. The developmental profile of Cameo2 expression, CBP expression, and lutein pigmentation in the silk gland of the yellow cocoon strain were correlated. We hypothesize that selective delivery of lutein to specific tissue requires the combination of two components: 1) CBP as a carotenoid transporter in cytosol and 2) Cameo2 as a transmembrane receptor on the surface of the cells. PMID:20053988

  19. The silkworm Green b locus encodes a quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase that produces green cocoons with UV-shielding properties.

    PubMed

    Daimon, Takaaki; Hirayama, Chikara; Kanai, Masatoshi; Ruike, Yoshinao; Meng, Yan; Kosegawa, Eiichi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

    2010-06-22

    In the silkworm Bombyx mori, dietary flavonoids are metabolized and accumulate in cocoons, thereby causing green coloration. Classical genetic studies suggest that more than seven independent loci are associated with this trait; however, because of the complex inheritance pattern, none of these loci have been characterized molecularly, and a plausible and comprehensive model for their action has not been proposed. Here, we report the identification of the gene responsible for the Green b (Gb) locus involving the green cocoon trait. In +(Gb) animals, glucosylation at the 5-O position of dietary quercetin did not occur, and the total amount of flavonoids in tissues and cocoons was dramatically reduced. We performed positional cloning of Gb and found a 38-kb deletion in a UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) gene cluster associated with the +(Gb) allele. RT-PCR and biochemical studies suggested that deletion of Bm-UGT10286 (UGT) is responsible for Gb and Bm-UGT10286 is virtually the sole source of UGT activity toward the 5-O position of quercetin. Our data show that the regiospecific glucosylation of flavonoids by the quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase can greatly affect the overall bioavailability of flavonoids in animals. Furthermore, we provide evidence that flavonoids increase the UV-shielding activity of cocoons and thus could confer an increased survival advantage to insects contained in these cocoons. This study will lead to greater understanding of mechanisms for metabolism, uptake, and transport of dietary flavonoids, which have a variety of biological activities in animals and beneficial effects on human health. PMID:20534444

  20. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Sudden Unexpected Infant Death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry F. Krous; Roger W. Byard

    Abstract Sudden infant death has haunted humanity since Biblical times, and many people are still confused about how to differentiate sudden infant death syn- drome from other causes of sudden infant death, such asmyocarditis or congenital heart disease. Because of the difficulty of diagnosis, the authors say that SIDS has become a “diagnostic dustbin,” but unnec- essarily so. They provide

  1. Activities for Infant Stimulation or Mother-Infant Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Earladeen

    Specific suggestions are offered for mother-infant activities, sequenced according to developmental levels, which foster the physical and mental development of the infant and the socio-emotional relationship between mother and infant. The activities are intended for use by professionals, paraprofessionals, and mother-teacher aides who work with…

  2. Prediction of Infant-Father and Infant-Mother Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Martha J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Mothers and fathers were interviewed when their child was 3 months old and observed in the Strange Situation when their infant was 12 months old. Infants' security of attachment was predicted by the quality of interaction with parents and by the amount of time parents spent with the infant. (BC)

  3. Massage therapy facilitates mother–infant interaction in premature infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sari Goldstein Ferber; Ruth Feldman; David Kohelet; Jacob Kuint; Shaul Dollberg; Eliana Arbel; Aron Weller

    2005-01-01

    Preterm infants (n=51) received massage therapy in the NICU by their mothers or a female researcher, or no massage (controls). At 3 months, mothers of massaged infants were less intrusive, interactions were more reciprocal, and treated infants were more socially involved compared to controls.

  4. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Parents > General Health > Your Kid's Sleep > Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Print A A A Text Size ... answers is part of what makes sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) so frightening. SIDS is the leading ...

  5. Cronobacter Illness and Infant Formula

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infant formula guidelines [PDF - 361KB] Foodsafety.gov: Baby food and infant formula Handwashing: Clean hands Save Lives , hand- and water-related hygiene tips Put Your Hands Together [PODCAST - 3:48 ...

  6. Tdap Booster Requirements for Secondary Schools

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Spanish-language VISs What's New: VISs Diseases & Vaccines Anthrax Pertussis Chickenpox (varicella) PCV Diphtheria PPSV H. influenzae ( ... IAC • A-Z Index • Site Map • Disclaimer • Content Review • Privacy Immunization Action Coalition • 2550 University Avenue West • ...

  7. Knowledge and attitudes of postpartum women toward immunization during pregnancy and the peripartum period

    PubMed Central

    Beel, Elizabeth Rossmann; Rench, Marcia A; Montesinos, Diana P; Mayes, Betsy; Healy, C Mary

    2013-01-01

    Influenza and pertussis prevention in young infants requires immunizing pregnant women and all caregivers (cocooning). We evaluated the knowledge and attitude of postpartum women about these two recommendations. A survey of predominantly Hispanic, underinsured, medically underserved postpartum women in Houston, Texas was performed during June 2010 through July 2012. Five hundred eleven postpartum women [mean age 28.8 y (18–45); 94% Hispanic] with a mean of 3 children (1–12) participated. Ninety-one (17.8%) were first-time mothers. Four hundred ninety-six (97.1%) received prenatal care; care was delayed in 24.3%. Only 313 (61.3%) received vaccine education while pregnant, and 291 (57%) were immunized. Four hundred seventy-four women (93%) were willing to be immunized during pregnancy if recommended by their healthcare provider, (the most trusted information source for 62%). Immunization of infants or infant caregivers had been discussed with 41% and 10% of mothers, respectively. Two hundred thirty women (45%) had received influenza vaccine; most intended to (79%) or had already received (15%) tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine. Preferred locations for cocooning were hospital or community clinics (97%). Insufficient knowledge (46.6%), cost (31.4%), lack of transportation (26%), work commitments (13.3%), and fear of needles (13.3%) were perceived barriers to cocooning. Level of formal education received by mothers had no effect on the quantity or quality of immunization education received during PNC or their attitude toward immunization. Immunization during pregnancy and cocooning, if recommended by providers, are acceptable in this high-risk population. Healthcare providers, as reported in infant studies, have the greatest influence on vaccine acceptance by pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:23782490

  8. Diminished Reactivity of Postmature Human Infants to Sucrose Compared with Term Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study of healthy 39-week-old infants, so-called term infants, and chronically stressed 42-week-old infants, so-called postmature infants, showed that sucrose was extremely effective in calming term infants but less effective in calming postmature infants. Results supported the hypothesis that sucrose engages an opioid system in infants. (BG)

  9. Infants' perception of chasing.

    PubMed

    Frankenhuis, Willem E; House, Bailey; Barrett, H Clark; Johnson, Scott P

    2013-02-01

    Two significant questions in cognitive and developmental science are first, whether objects and events are selected for attention based on their features (featural processing) or the configuration of their features (configural processing), and second, how these modes of processing develop. These questions have been addressed in part with experiments focused on infants' perception of faces, human body shapes, and biological motion of individual agents. Here, we investigate 4- and 10-month-old infants' (N=192) attention to social motions, specifically to chasing-a ubiquitous, ancient, and fitness-relevant mode of interaction. We constructed computer-generated animations of chasing that had three properties: acceleration, high turning rates, and attraction ("heat-seeking"). In the first experiment we showed chasing side-by-side with a control display of inanimate, billiard-ball-like motions. Infants strongly preferred attending to chasing. In the next three studies, we systematically investigated the effect of each property in turn (acceleration, turning, and attraction) by showing a display of that property side-by-side with the control display. Infants preferentially attended to acceleration, and to attraction, but not to turning. If infants preferred chasing for its configuration, then the sum of the effect sizes of individual properties should be smaller than their combined effects. That is not what we found: instead, on three measures of visual behavior, the summed effects of individual properties equaled (or exceeded) that of chasing. Moreover, although attraction drew little attention and turning no attention at all, acceleration drew (nearly) as much attention as chasing. Our results thus provide evidence that infants preferred chasing because of its features, not its configuration. PMID:23121710

  10. Infants’ perception of chasing

    PubMed Central

    Frankenhuis, Willem E.; House, Bailey; Barrett, H. Clark; Johnson, Scott P.

    2012-01-01

    Two significant questions in cognitive and developmental science are first, whether objects and events are selected for attention based on their features (featural processing) or the configuration of their features (configural processing), and second, how these modes of processing develop. These questions have been addressed in part with experiments focused on infants’ perception of faces, human body shapes, and biological motion of individual agents. Here, we investigate 4- and 10-month-old infants’ (N = 192) attention to social motions, specifically to chasing—a ubiquitous, ancient, and fitness-relevant mode of interaction. We constructed computer-generated animations of chasing that had three properties: acceleration, high turning rates, and attraction (“heat-seeking”). In the first experiment we showed chasing side-by-side with a control display of inanimate, billiard-ball-like motions. Infants strongly preferred attending to chasing. In the next three studies, we systematically investigated the effect of each property in turn (acceleration, turning, and attraction) by showing a display of that property side-by-side with the control display. Infants preferentially attended to acceleration, and to attraction, but not to turning. If infants preferred chasing for its configuration, then the sum of the effect sizes of individual properties should be smaller than their combined effects. That is not what we found: instead, on three measures of visual behavior, the summed effects of individual properties equaled (or exceeded) that of chasing. Moreover, although attraction drew little attention and turning no attention at all, acceleration drew (nearly) as much attention as chasing. Our results thus provide evidence that infants preferred chasing because of its features, not its configuration. PMID:23121710

  11. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, E.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    These proceedings of the first annual SACUS workshop on infant day care contain the papers presented at the conference, plus an appendix--Developmental Objectives for Infants and Toddlers. The papers are: "Infant Day Care--Fads, Facts, and Fancies" by Bettye M. Caldwell; "Family Day Care""A Broad Perspective" by Malcolm S. Host; "Getting…

  12. GLUCOSE EXTREMES IN NEWBORN INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most healthy term infants adapt rapidly to the metabolic demands of extrauterine life by activating their glycogenolytic and gluconeogenic pathways within a few hours after birth. Some infants, although born at term, have disturbed glucose metabolism and are at risk of hypoglycemia (e.g. infants wit...

  13. Infant Assessment: Issues and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Betty L., Ed.; May, Marcia J., Ed.

    The book offers 14 papers presented at two conferences on assessment and intervention with handicapped infants, sponsored by the Western States Technical Assistance Resource. Titles and authors include: "Neonatal Diagnosis of the Neurologically Handicapped" (M. Coleman); "Principles of Infant Assessment" (J. Swanson); "Focus on the Parent-Infant…

  14. Hats for the newborn infant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D M Chaput de Saintonge; K W Cross; M K Shathorn; S R Lewis; J K Stothers

    1979-01-01

    The efficacy of a Gamgee-lined hat in reducing the rate of fall in rectal temperature of infants during the first 30 minutes of life was studied. The trial, which included 211 infants, was randomised, prospective, and controlled. One hundred and seven infants were exposed to overhead radiantheaters. Of these, only 30 had normal deliveries, so the analysis was confined to

  15. Tinea Capitis in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, Brent D.

    2012-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a reasonably common infection among the pediatric population; however, it is still a relatively rare entity among infants less than one year of age. As such, a high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis among infants and an appropriate diagnostic work up should be employed in any case where a dermatophyte infection is suspected. Several methods are available for diagnosis. In addition, proper identification of the specific dermatophyte genera involved should be considered as treatment options may be altered based on the causative pathogen identified. PMID:22468173

  16. Green cocoons in silkworm Bombyx mori resulting from the quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase of UGT86, is an evolved response to dietary toxins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Wang, Meng; Wang, Ying; Sima, Yanghu; Zhang, Dayan; Li, Juan; Yin, Weiming; Xu, Shiqing

    2013-05-01

    The glycosylation of UDP-glucosyltransferases (UGTs) is of great importance in the control and elimination of both endogenous and exogenous toxins. Bm-UGT10286 (UGT86) is the sole provider of UGT activity against the 5-O position of quercetin and directly influences the formation of green pigment in the Bombyx cocoon. To evaluate whether cocoon coloration evolved for mimetic purposes, we concentrated on the expression pattern of Ugt86 and the activities of the enzyme substrates. The expression of Ugt86 was not only detected in the cocoon absorbing and accumulating tissues such as the digestive tube and silk glands, but also in quantity in the detoxification tissues of the malpighian tubes and fat body, as well as in the gonads. As in the green cocoon strains, Ugt86 was clearly expressed in the yellow and white cocoon strains. In vitro, the fusion protein of UGT86 showed quercetin metabolic activity. Nevertheless, Ugt86 expression of 5th instar larvae was not up-regulated in the silk gland by exogenous quercetin. However, it was significantly up-regulated in the digestive tube and gonads (P < 0.05). A similar result was observed in experiments where larvae were exposed to rutin, an insect resistance inducer and growth inhibitor typically found in plants, and to 20-hydroxylecdysone (20E), an insect endocrine and plant source hormone. On the contrary, up-regulated Ugt86 expression was almost nil in larvae exposed to juvenile hormone III (P > 0.05). The results of HPLC revealed that a new substance was formed by mixing 20E with the recombinant UGT86 protein in vitro, indicating that the effect of Ugt86 on 20E was similar to that on exogenous quercetin derived from plant food, and that the effect probably initiated the detoxification reaction against rutin. The conclusion is that the reaction of Ugt86 on the silkworm cocoon pigment quercetin is not the result of active mimetic ecogenesis, but derives from the detoxification of UGTs. PMID:23271130

  17. Improving Infant Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Vince L.

    This speech sketches a picture of post-natal health care in the United States, circa 1979. Between 1970 and 1976, post-natal infant deaths in the first week after birth dropped 32%. During the same period, the post-neonatal decline was just 12%. Statistics are presented which highlight areas of concern. Variation across states, high incidence in…

  18. Infant feeding and vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

  19. [Infants and Toddlers].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue contains four articles which focus on the development of normal and handicapped infants in various settings. "The Baby's World," by Lois Barclay Murphy and Colleen T. Small, emphasizes experiences of sensation and discovery in the first three years of life, noting the role of caregivers and the cultural context. "The…

  20. High blood pressure - infants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... click may be heard if a bicuspid aortic valve occurs with the coarctation. Other tests in infants with high blood pressure will try to find the cause of the problem. Such tests may include: A special type of x-ray that uses a dye to look at ...

  1. ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METHOD...

  2. Infant Development: Recent Advances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, Gavin, Ed.; Slater, Alan, Ed.; Butterworth, George, Ed.

    Noting that the last 30 years have seen enormous increases in the understanding of infancy, this book examines the current state of knowledge regarding infant development. The book's contents stem from meetings of the British Infancy Research Group. Although the book was intended for advanced undergraduates, it would also be useful for advanced…

  3. Renal transplantation in infants.

    PubMed Central

    Najarian, J S; Frey, D J; Matas, A J; Gillingham, K J; So, S S; Cook, M; Chavers, B; Mauer, S M; Nevins, T E

    1990-01-01

    The timing of renal transplantation in infants is controversial. Between 1965 and 1989, 79 transplants in 75 infants less than 2 years old were performed: 23 who were 12 months or younger, 52 who were older than 12 months; 63 donors were living related, 1 was living unrelated, and 15 were cadaver donors; 75 were primary transplants and 4 were retransplants. Infants were considered for transplantation when they were on, or about to begin, dialysis. All had intra-abdominal transplants with arterial anastomosis to the distal aorta. Sixty-four per cent are alive with functioning grafts. The most frequent etiologies of renal failure were hypoplasia (32%) and obstructive uropathy (20%); oxalosis was the etiology in 11%. Since 1983 patient survival has been 95% and 91% at 1 and 5 years; graft survival has been 86% and 73% at 1 and 5 years. For cyclosporine immunosuppressed patients, patient survival is 100% at 1 and 5 years; graft survival is 96% and 82% at 1 and 5 years. There was no difference in outcome between infants who were 12 months or younger versus those who were aged 12 to 24 months; similarly there was no difference between infants and older children. Sixteen (21%) patients died: 5 after operation from coagulopathy (1) and infection (4); and 11 late from postsplenectomy sepsis (4), recurrent oxalosis (3), infection (2), and other causes (2). Routine splenectomy is no longer done. There has not been a death from infection in patients transplanted since 1983. Rejection was the most common cause of graft loss (in 15 patients); other causes included death (with function) (7), recurrent oxalosis (3), and technical complications (3). Overall 52% of patients have not had a rejection episode; mean creatinine level in patients with functioning grafts is 0.8 +/- 0.2 mg/dL. Common postoperative problems include fever, atelectasis, and ileus. At the time of their transplants, the infants were small for age; but with a successful transplant, their growth, head circumference, and development have improved. Transplantation in infants requires an intensive multidisciplinary approach but yields excellent short- and long-term survival rates that are no different from those seen in older children or adults. Living donors should be used whenever possible. Patients with a successful transplantation experience improved growth and development, with excellent rehabilitation. PMID:2396887

  4. Generation of a transgenic silkworm that secretes recombinant proteins in the sericin layer of cocoon: Production of recombinant human serum albumin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shingo Ogawa; Masahiro Tomita; Katsuhiko Shimizu; Katsutoshi Yoshizato

    2007-01-01

    In this study we produced germline transgenic silkworms that spin cocoons containing recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) in the sericin layer. A piggyBac-based transformation vector was constructed that carried HSA cDNA driven by sericin-1 gene promoter, viral enhancer hr3, and gene encoding viral trans-activator IE1. Isolated silk glands were bombarded with the vector and transplanted into host larvae. Three days

  5. Does Parental Marital Separation Affect Infants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kier, Cheryl; Lewis, Charlie

    This study compared the development of 38 infants from separated or divorced families with that of 38 infants from married families in Britain to determine whether parental divorce or separation precipitates cognitive, social, or emotional difficulties in infants. Infants were 11 to 45 months old. Infant-mother attachment was measured using the…

  6. Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this…

  7. Why Is It Important? What Is Infant Mental Health?2 What Is Infant Mental Health?

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    What Is Why Is It Important? ? #12;What Is Infant Mental Health?2 What Is Infant Mental Health? What is infant mental health? Does the term "infant mental health" make you think of a baby on a couch telling his problems to a psychiatrist? So what is infant mental health? Infant mental health reflects

  8. Preference for infant-directed speech in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Butler, Samantha C; O'Sullivan, Laura P; Shah, Bhavesh L; Berthier, Neil E

    2014-11-01

    The current study explores the effects of exposure to maternal voice on infant sucking in preterm infants. Twenty-four preterm infants averaging 35 weeks gestational age were divided randomly into two groups. A contingency between high-amplitude sucking and presentation of maternal voice was instituted for one group while the other group served as a yoked control. No significant differences were observed in sucking of the two groups, but the degree of pitch modulation of the maternal voice predicted an increase in the rate of infant sucking. PMID:25009957

  9. [Drinking water in infants].

    PubMed

    Vitoria Miñana, I

    2004-02-01

    We review types of public drinking water and bottled water and provide recommendations on the composition of water for infants. Water used with any of the commercial infant formulas in Spain should contain less than 25 mg/l of sodium. Drinking water must be boiled for a maximum of one minute (at sea level) to avoid excessive salt concentration. Bottled water need not be boiled. Fluoride content in drinking water should be less than 0.3 mg/l in first year of life to prevent dental fluorosis. Nitrate content in water should be less than 25 mg/l to prevent methemoglobinemia. Water with a calcium concentration of between 50 and 100 mg/l is a dietary source of calcium since it provides 24-56 % of the required daily intake in infancy. PMID:14757021

  10. Infant Pulmonary Function Testing

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Stephanie D.

    2011-01-01

    Infant pulmonary function testing has evolved from a research technique into a diagnostic tool. As such, new current procedural terminology (CPT) codes have been created and are available for use as of January 1, 2010. The technology now available has a range of applications. Through a series of vignettes, this article illustrates the methodology of the tests, some of their applications, and how to code and bill for the procedures. PMID:21540218

  11. Acute mastoiditis in infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Baljosevic; Nikola Mircetic; Vladan Subarevic; Gordana Markovic

    2006-01-01

    We present a retrospective study of 37 infants who were operated for acute mastoiditis during the period 2000–2004 in Mother and Child Health Care Institute, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro. About 23 patients (62.2%) were male and 14 (37.8%) were female. Acute mastoiditis developed just after the first infection of the middle ear in 26 patients (70.3%). All patients had local

  12. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Facts for Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents risk factors and prevention measures related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Offers infant sleep recommendations and five discussion questions to test knowledge of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (DLH)

  13. Individual and Maturational Differences in Infant Expressivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1989-01-01

    Reports that, even though young infants can discriminate among different facial expressions, there are individual differences in infants' expressivity and ability to produce and discriminate facial expressions. (PCB)

  14. Effect of Infant's Perceived Gender on Adolescents' Ratings of the Infant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas Degelman; Veronika Dvorak; Julie Ann Homutoff

    Abstract The role of the perceived gender of an infant and the gender of adolescents on ratings of the infant will be explored. Thirty-six junior high students (18 boys and 18 girls) will view a photo of a 3-month-old infant. Students will be told the infant’s name is either “Larry,” “Laurie,” or they will not be told the infant’s name.

  15. Cardiovascular Malformations Among Preterm Infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsty Tanner; Nilofer Sabrine; Christopher Wren

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Preterm birth and cardiovas- cular malformations are the 2 most common causes of neonatal and infant death, but there are no published population-based reports on the relationship between them. We undertook this study to determine the preva- lence and spectrum of cardiovascular malformations in a preterm population, the prevalence of prematurity among infants with cardiovascular malformations, and the influence

  16. Caring for Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "The Future of Children" focuses on the daily care of infants and toddlers in the United States, including shifting caregiving arrangement for children younger than 3 years, developmental needs of infants and toddlers, findings of recent child care studies, public opinion regarding child care, and recent innovations seeking to…

  17. The Effectiveness of Infant Simulators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Scott W.; McCowan, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using infant simulators with a structured, competency-based curriculum by examining the infant care behavior of adolescents and their attitudes toward parenting and sexual behavior. The sample of 236 students included 112 males and 124 females ranging in age from 14 to 18 years. This sample was randomly…

  18. The cause of infant categorization?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy E. Booth

    2008-01-01

    We asked whether infants are sensitive to causal relations between objects and outcomes and whether this sensitivity supports categorization. Fourteen- and 18-month-old infants were familiarized with objects from a novel category. For some, the objects caused an electronic toy to activate. For others, the objects were present during activation of the toy, but did not cause the event. For the

  19. Evaluating Infant-Family Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Compiling articles from participants of the Leadership Development Initiative Class of 2001-2002, this issue focuses on evaluation of…

  20. Determinants of Infant Behaviour IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss, B. M., Ed.

    This volume consists of reports of individual studies and surveys of research work on mother-infant interactions. It is divided into two parts. The first section presents a wide range of studies on mother-infant relations as exhibited in the behavior of animals. The second part, concerning human behavior, includes studies on the natural history of…

  1. What Is Infant Mental Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

  2. Energy conservation in infants.

    PubMed

    Blass, Elliott

    2015-08-01

    Energy acquisition through suckling has been widely studied in rat and human infants. Processes mediating energy conservation, however, have not received the attention that they deserve. This essay, in honor of Professor Jerry Hogan, discusses parallel behaviors used by rat and human mothers to minimize energy loss in their offspring. Parallel mechanisms underlying energy preservation have been identified in rats and humans, suggesting phylogenetic conservation and possibly continuity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan. PMID:25643950

  3. Infant nutrition and allergy.

    PubMed

    Mišak, Zrinjka

    2011-11-01

    Over the past several decades, the incidence of atopic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis and food allergies has increased dramatically. Although atopic diseases have a clear genetic basis, environmental factors, including early infant nutrition, may have an important influence on their development. Therefore, attempts have been made to reduce the risk of the development of allergy using dietary modifications, mainly focused on longer breast-feeding and delayed introduction or elimination of foods identified as potentially most allergenic. Recently, there is also an increasing interest in the active prevention of atopy using specific dietary components. Many studies have shown that breast-feeding may have the protective effect against future atopic dermatitis and early childhood wheezing. Concerning complementary feeding, there is evidence that the introduction of complementary foods before 4 months of age may increase the risk for atopic dermatitis. However, there is no current convincing evidence that delaying introduction of solids after 6 months of age has a significant protective effect on the development of atopic disease regardless of whether infants are fed cow's milk protein formula or human subject's milk, and this includes delaying the introduction of foods that are considered to be highly allergic, such as fish, eggs and foods containing peanut protein. In conclusion, as early nutrition may have profound implications for long-term health and atopy later in life, it presents an opportunity to prevent or delay the onset of atopic diseases. PMID:21880163

  4. Maternal Responsiveness to Infant Crying, Perceived Infant Temperament and Infant-Mother Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frodi, Ann

    The present study examined longitudinally the origin of a prior finding that mothers who perceived their infant's temperament as either "easy" or "difficult" exhibited a differential psychophysiological response pattern. Additionally examined were the pattern's behavioral correlates and relation to infant-mother attachment. Participants were 57…

  5. Skin equivalent tissue-engineered construct: co-cultured fibroblasts/ keratinocytes on 3D matrices of sericin hope cocoons.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Sunita; Dey, Sancharika; Kundu, Subhas C

    2013-01-01

    The development of effective and alternative tissue-engineered skin replacements to autografts, allografts and xenografts has became a clinical requirement due to the problems related to source of donor tissue and the perceived risk of disease transmission. In the present study 3D tissue engineered construct of sericin is developed using co-culture of keratinocytes on the upper surface of the fabricated matrices and with fibroblasts on lower surface. Sericin is obtained from "Sericin Hope" silkworm of Bombyx mori mutant and is extracted from cocoons by autoclave. Porous sericin matrices are prepared by freeze dried method using genipin as crosslinker. The matrices are characterized biochemically and biophysically. The cell proliferation and viability of co-cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes on matrices for at least 28 days are observed by live/dead assay, Alamar blue assay, and by dual fluorescent staining. The growth of the fibroblasts and keratinocytes in co-culture is correlated with the expression level of TGF-?, b-FGF and IL-8 in the cultured supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The histological analysis further demonstrates a multi-layered stratified epidermal layer of uninhibited keratinocytes in co-cultured constructs. Presence of involucrin, collagen IV and the fibroblast surface protein in immuno-histochemical stained sections of co-cultured matrices indicates the significance of paracrine signaling between keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the expression of extracellular matrix protein for dermal repair. No significant amount of pro inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1? and nitric oxide) production are evidenced when macrophages grown on the sericin matrices. The results all together depict the potentiality of sericin 3D matrices as skin equivalent tissue engineered construct in wound repair. PMID:24058626

  6. Skin Equivalent Tissue-Engineered Construct: Co-Cultured Fibroblasts/ Keratinocytes on 3D Matrices of Sericin Hope Cocoons

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Sunita; Dey, Sancharika; Kundu, Subhas C.

    2013-01-01

    The development of effective and alternative tissue-engineered skin replacements to autografts, allografts and xenografts has became a clinical requirement due to the problems related to source of donor tissue and the perceived risk of disease transmission. In the present study 3D tissue engineered construct of sericin is developed using co-culture of keratinocytes on the upper surface of the fabricated matrices and with fibroblasts on lower surface. Sericin is obtained from “Sericin Hope” silkworm of Bombyx mori mutant and is extracted from cocoons by autoclave. Porous sericin matrices are prepared by freeze dried method using genipin as crosslinker. The matrices are characterized biochemically and biophysically. The cell proliferation and viability of co-cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes on matrices for at least 28 days are observed by live/dead assay, Alamar blue assay, and by dual fluorescent staining. The growth of the fibroblasts and keratinocytes in co-culture is correlated with the expression level of TGF-?, b-FGF and IL-8 in the cultured supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The histological analysis further demonstrates a multi-layered stratified epidermal layer of uninhibited keratinocytes in co-cultured constructs. Presence of involucrin, collagen IV and the fibroblast surface protein in immuno-histochemical stained sections of co-cultured matrices indicates the significance of paracrine signaling between keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the expression of extracellular matrix protein for dermal repair. No significant amount of pro inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1? and nitric oxide) production are evidenced when macrophages grown on the sericin matrices. The results all together depict the potentiality of sericin 3D matrices as skin equivalent tissue engineered construct in wound repair. PMID:24058626

  7. Home monitoring of infants considered at risk for the sudden infant death syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kahn; D. Blum

    1982-01-01

    From 1977 to 1981, 500 infants had been referred to evaluate their risk for the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). These included 186 infants who had presented an event (prolonged apnea, hypotonia, pallor or cyanosis) initated while asleep, 133 siblings and 181 “controls”. All-night polygraphic recordings were performed in all infants, and if indicated by the history of the infants,

  8. Gender Differences in the Relationship Between Mother-Infant Interaction and the Infant's Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallas, Howard B.; Lewis, Michael

    This study examines the relationship between mother-infant behavior and the infant's performance on perceptual-cognitive tasks as a function of the infant's sex. A total of 189 12-week-old infants and their mothers were observed in their homes during 2 hours of infant awake time. In addition, the Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales…

  9. Infant-Directed Speech Facilitates Word Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiessen, Erik D.; Hill, Emily A.; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2005-01-01

    There are reasons to believe that infant-directed (ID) speech may make language acquisition easier for infants. However, the effects of ID speech on infants' learning remain poorly understood. The experiments reported here assess whether ID speech facilitates word segmentation from fluent speech. One group of infants heard a set of nonsense…

  10. Infants Make Quantity Discriminations for Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hespos, Susan J.; Dora, Begum; Rips, Lance J.; Christie, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Infants can track small groups of solid objects, and infants can respond when these quantities change. But earlier work is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 ("N" = 88) used a habituation paradigm to show infants can register changes in the size of piles of sand that they see poured…

  11. Evaluation and treatment of mastitis in infants.

    PubMed

    Montague, Edwin C; Hilinski, Joseph; Andresen, Deborah; Cooley, Anthony

    2013-11-01

    We reviewed cases of mastitis in infants treated at Children's Healthcare of Atlanta from 2005 to 2011. Among infants with breast cultures, Staphylococcus aureus was the most common cause. No infant with a positive breast culture had a concordant positive culture elsewhere. Our findings argue that urine, blood and spinal fluid cultures are unnecessary in well-appearing afebrile infants with mastitis. PMID:24145956

  12. Tuned in parenting and infant sleep patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn E. Priddis

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on infant sleep behaviour that is of concern to mothers of young infants, and disruptive to families. It reports on the incidence of sleep problems in dyads that self?referred to a specialist clinic, and the relationship between the mother's sensitive responsiveness and infant sleep patterns in a sample of 65 Australian infants. It briefly considers an intervention

  13. Sex differences in infant-mother attachment.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sue W; Blunk, Elizabeth M

    2003-02-01

    A sex difference in security of infant attachment was found in a sample of 52 infant-mother dyads. The infants were enrolled in early care and education programs within a predominantly small-town geographic area in the southwest. Security of attachment was assessed using the Strange Situation procedure. Male infants (76%) were significantly more likely to be securely attached than female infants (39%). No other variables related to the infants' early care and education experience or mothers' age, race, marital status, and education were significantly associated with infants' attachment status. PMID:12674262

  14. Nonaccidental head trauma in infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Gerber; Kathryn Coffman

    2007-01-01

    Background  Nonaccidental head trauma in infants is the leading cause of infant death from injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results and discussion  Clinical features that suggest inflicted head trauma include the triad of the so-called shaken baby syndrome, consisting of\\u000a retinal hemorrhage, subdural, and\\/or subarachnoid hemorrhage in an infant with little signs of external trauma. Studies have\\u000a shown that, in general, the average short fall in

  15. Infant rhythms versus parental time: promoting parent-infant synchrony.

    PubMed

    Guedeney, Antoine; Guedeney, Nicole; Tereno, Susana; Dugravier, Romain; Greacen, Tim; Welniarz, Bertrand; Saias, Thomas; Tubach, Florence

    2011-12-01

    Traditional psychoanalytic theories of early development have been put into question by developmental psychology, and particularly by attachment theory. Psychopathology appears to be more linked to interpersonal relationship problems rather than to intra-psychic conflict, as hypothesized in Freudian drive theory. Establishing synchrony between parent and infant is probably one of the major tasks of the first year of life. Attachment theory appears to be an effective paradigm to understand how caregiver responses to stressful infant situations give way to different regulatory strategies, which impact on the effectiveness of the stress buffer systems and its physiological impact on emotion and stress regulation. This paper underlines the importance of synchronization between infant and caregiver; it highlights the key concept of attachment disorganization and of its relationship with sustained social withdrawal as a defence mechanism and an alarm signal when synchronization fails, and underlines the importance of early interventions promoting parent-infant synchrony. PMID:21782020

  16. Infant Transport Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The photo sequence illustrates the movement of an ill infant to a special care hospital by means of a new Pediatric Monitoring and Transport System, in which NASA technology and technical assistance are being applied to an urgent medical problem. Development of the system is a collaborative effort involving several organizations, principally, NASA Ames Research Center and Children's Hospital Medical Center, Oakland, California. Key to the system's efficacy is a custom-designed ambulance-to-hospital and hospital-to-hospital communications network, including two-way voice capability and space-derived biotelemetry; it allows a specialist at the destination hospital to monitor continuously the vital signs of the patient during transit.

  17. Floppy infant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Masanori

    2004-12-01

    Floppiness/hypotonia is a common neurologic symptom in infancy. A variety of neuromuscular disorders and central nervous system (CNS) disorders cause floppy infant syndrome (FIS). CNS disorders are the much more common causes of the syndrome than neuromuscular disorders. On long-term follow up, cerebral palsy and mental retardation turn out to be the 2 most common causes of FIS. This review focuses on neuromuscular causes of FIS. With the advent of molecular diagnosis, a few conditions can be diagnosed by DNA analysis of the peripheral lymphocytes (myotonic dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy); however, for the most part, electrodiagnostic studies and muscle biopsy remain as essential diagnostic tools for FIS. Immunohistochemical study of the biopsied muscle also improves diagnostic capability. Management for most conditions remains supportive. PMID:19078754

  18. Sudden infant death syndrome: links with infant care practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Gantley; D P Davies; A Murcott

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To investigate infant care practices in a small ethnic minority population within Britain that might suggest possible factors contributing to the low incidence of the sudden infant death syndrome in Asian populations. DESIGN--Ethnographic interviewing, a qualitative comparative method drawn from social anthropology. SETTING--Central Cardiff. SUBJECTS--Non-random sample of 60 mothers of Bangladeshi or Welsh ethnic origin and working or middle class

  19. Extradural haematoma in infants.

    PubMed

    Leggate, J R; Lopez-Ramos, N; Genitori, L; Lena, G; Choux, M

    1989-01-01

    The clinical and operative findings of 40 infants treated for Extradural Haematomas (EDH) between 1960 and 1988 are presented. This series represents 19% of the total number of children with EDH during this period. Twenty-five (63%) were male, fifteen (37%) female. They were divided into three groups according to age for comparison. Group A, less than 6 months (11 cases); group B, 7-12 months (16 cases); and group C, 13-24 months (13 cases). Sixteen (40%) resulted from falls less than 1 m. Seven (17.5%) fell whilst walking. Twelve (30%) fell more than 1 m. Two EDH followed obstetric trauma, three occurred as a result of a road traffic accident. A lucid interval was identified in 30 cases, and in 15 it was longer than 24 h. Drowsiness (60%), and delayed vomiting (45%), were the most important symptoms. Anaemia occurred in 19 (47.5%). Thirty-six (90%) had abnormal skull X-rays. Thirty (75%) EDH were parietal, temporal, or temporo-parietal. Two were located in the posterior fossa. There were no frontal EDH in this series in contrast to that found in older children. Twenty-seven (67.5%) EDH were larger than 75 cc in volume. The source of bleeding was identified in 31; in 17 (42.5%) it was from the middle meningeal artery; in 11 (27.5%) from the bone; and in three (7.5%) from the dural surface. The mortality was 12.5% with a 15% morbidity rate, three infants (7.5%), suffering motor deficits, and three requiring medical treatment for epilepsy. PMID:2818846

  20. Infant Mortality and Hispanic Americans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... births, 2010 Race of Mother Infant mortality rate Ratio vs. Non-Hispanic White Non-Hispanic White 5. ... Hispanic White Death Rate Hispanic/ Non- Hispanic White Ratio (1) Congenital malformations 1,290 136.5 2, ...

  1. FastStats: Infant Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2010 [PDF - 132 KB] Recent Declines in Infant Mortality in the United States, 2005–2011 Trends in Circumcision for Male Newborns in U.S. Hospitals: 1979–2010 Understanding Racial and Ethnic Disparities in ...

  2. Wheezing and Asthma in Infants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the lungs that causes the airways to swell, tighten, and produce excess mucus. It can be ... affects the tiny airways called bronchioles. The airways swell, making breathing difficult. Infants are often affected because ...

  3. Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guidelines Safety Infant Formula and Fluorosis Scientific Reviews Fluoride in Drinking Water Health Effects and Environmental Impact ... Growth Reference Statistics Engineering & Operations Training Programs Other Fluoride Products Links to Other Organizations Materials Infection Control ...

  4. Iron supplementation of breastfed infants.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ekhard E; Nelson, Steven E; Jeter, Janice M

    2011-11-01

    Reported here are three studies performed with the objective of finding ways to improve the iron status of breastfed infants and to prevent iron deficiency (ID). Participating infants were exclusively breastfed until 4 months of age; thereafter, they could receive complementary foods and, in some studies, supplemental formula. In the first study, infants were given medicinal iron between the ages of 1 and 5.5 months. During this period, iron status improved and ID was prevented; however, these benefits did not continue after the intervention ceased. In the second study, infants received medicinal iron or an equivalent amount of iron from an iron-fortified cereal between the ages of 4 and 9 months. Again, iron supplementation largely prevented ID from occurring, while non-anemic ID and ID anemia occurred in the control group as well as in the intervention groups before the intervention began. In the third study, infants received dry cereals fortified with electrolytic iron or with ferrous fumarate between the ages of 4 and 9 months. The cereals were equally effective in providing relative protection from ID. The results of these three studies indicate it is possible to protect breastfed infants from ID and IDA. PMID:22043886

  5. Wearable Sensor Systems for Infants

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhihua; Liu, Tao; Li, Guangyi; Li, Tong; Inoue, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant's body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future. PMID:25664432

  6. Antioxidant activities of two sericin proteins extracted from cocoon of silkworm (Bombyx mori) measured by DPPH, chemiluminescence, ORAC and ESR methods.

    PubMed

    Takechi, Tayori; Wada, Ritsuko; Fukuda, Tsubasa; Harada, Kazuki; Takamura, Hitoshi

    2014-05-01

    Recent efforts have focused on the use of sericin proteins extracted from cocoons of silkworm as a healthy food source for human consumption. In this study, we focused on the antioxidative properties of sericin proteins. The antioxidative properties were measured in sericin proteins extracted from the shell of the cocoon, designated hereafter as white sericin protein and yellow-green sericin protein, as well as bread without sericin protein and bread to which white sericin powder had been added using four measurement methods: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), chemiluminescence, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and electron spin resonance (ESR). High antioxidative properties of sericin proteins were indicated by all four methods. A comparison of the two types of sericin proteins revealed that yellow-green sericin protein exhibited high antioxidative properties as indicated by the DPPH, chemiluminescence and ORAC methods. By contrast, a higher antioxidative property was determined in white sericin protein by the ESR method. Consequently, our findings confirmed that sericin proteins have antioxidative properties against multiple radicals. In addition, the antioxidative property of bread was enhanced by the addition of sericin powder to the bread. Therefore, findings of this study suggest that sericin proteins may be efficiently used as beneficial food for human health. PMID:24748975

  7. Antioxidant activities of two sericin proteins extracted from cocoon of silkworm (Bombyx mori) measured by DPPH, chemiluminescence, ORAC and ESR methods

    PubMed Central

    TAKECHI, TAYORI; WADA, RITSUKO; FUKUDA, TSUBASA; HARADA, KAZUKI; TAKAMURA, HITOSHI

    2014-01-01

    Recent efforts have focused on the use of sericin proteins extracted from cocoons of silkworm as a healthy food source for human consumption. In this study, we focused on the antioxidative properties of sericin proteins. The antioxidative properties were measured in sericin proteins extracted from the shell of the cocoon, designated hereafter as white sericin protein and yellow-green sericin protein, as well as bread without sericin protein and bread to which white sericin powder had been added using four measurement methods: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), chemiluminescence, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and electron spin resonance (ESR). High antioxidative properties of sericin proteins were indicated by all four methods. A comparison of the two types of sericin proteins revealed that yellow-green sericin protein exhibited high antioxidative properties as indicated by the DPPH, chemiluminescence and ORAC methods. By contrast, a higher antioxidative property was determined in white sericin protein by the ESR method. Consequently, our findings confirmed that sericin proteins have antioxidative properties against multiple radicals. In addition, the antioxidative property of bread was enhanced by the addition of sericin powder to the bread. Therefore, findings of this study suggest that sericin proteins may be efficiently used as beneficial food for human health. PMID:24748975

  8. Breastfeeding success in infants with giant omphalocele.

    PubMed

    Spatz, Diane L; Schmidt, Katherine J

    2012-12-01

    Infants born with a giant omphalocele often require multiple surgeries requiring a lengthy hospital stay. These vulnerable infants may experience a long period of being NPO (nothing by mouth), followed by slowly advancing to enteral feeds. Human milk is the ideal method of nutrition for all infants and should be used to initiate enteral feeds in infants recovering from omphalocele closure surgeries. Human milk provides immunological, nutritional, and developmental benefits for high-risk infants and may play a critical role in preventing associated morbidities often associated with infants born with giant omphalocele. Because of the stress of hospitalization, mother-infant dyads should be targeted to receive extensive lactation support, which can help ensure maintenance of milk supply and successful transition to breastfeeding once the infant is healthy enough to do so. Two case studies are presented as exemplars, demonstrating that the provision of human milk for even the most vulnerable infants can be achieved. PMID:23187638

  9. Sleep and Attachment in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Schwichtenberg, A J; Shah, Prachi E; Poehlmann, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Infants born preterm are at elevated risk for social emotional difficulties. However, factors contributing to this risk are largely understudied. Within the present study, we explored infant sleep as a biosocial factor that may play a role in infant social emotional development. Within a prospective longitudinal design, we examined parent-reported sleep patterns and observed parenting quality as predictors of infant-mother attachment in 171 infants born preterm. Using structural equation modeling, we examined main effect and moderator models linking infant sleep patterns and parenting with attachment security. Sleep patterns characterized by more daytime sleep and positive/responsive parenting predicted infant attachment security. Parent-reported nighttime sleep patterns were unrelated to attachment in this sample of infants born preterm. These results indicate that daytime sleep and parenting quality may be important for emerging attachment relationships in infants born preterm. PMID:23482430

  10. Analgesia for infants’ circumcision

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Male circumcision (MC) is one of the oldest and most common operations performed all over the world. It can be performed at different ages, using different surgical techniques, for different religious, cultural and medical reasons. Our aim is to examine and compare the various methods of analgesia and different surgical procedures reported in literature that are applied in infant MC. We performed a PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane search in the papers published since 2000: 14 studies met the inclusion criteria, most of them showing that a combined pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention is the best analgesic option, in particular when the dorsal penile nerve block is combined with other treatments. The Mogen surgical procedure seems to be the less painful surgical intervention, when compared with Gomco clamp or PlastiBell device. Only 3 papers studied groups of at least 20 babies each with the use of validated pain scales. Data show a dramatic decrease of pain with dorsal penile nerve block, plus acetaminophen associated to oral sucrose or topic analgesic cream. However, no procedure has been found to definetively eliminate pain; the gold standard procedure to make MC totally painfree has not yet been established. PMID:23759130

  11. Indonesia lowers infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Bain, S

    1991-11-01

    Indonesia's success in reaching World Health Organization (WHO) universal immunization coverage standards is described as the result of a strong national program with timely, targeted donor support. USAID/Indonesia's Expanded Program for Immunization (EPI) and other USAID bilateral cooperation helped the government of Indonesia in its goal to immunize children against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, and measles by age 1. The initial project was to identify target areas and deliver vaccines against the diseases, strengthen the national immunization organization and infrastructure, and develop the Ministry of Health's capacity to conduct studies and development activities. This EPI project spanned the period 1979-90, and set the stage for continued expansion of Indonesia's immunization program to comply with the full international schedule and range of immunizations of 3 DPT, 3 polio, 1 BCG, and 1 measles inoculation. The number of immunization sites has increased from 55 to include over 5,000 health centers in all provinces, with additional services provided by visiting vaccinators and nurses in most of the 215,000 community-supported integrated health posts. While other contributory factors were at play, program success is at least partially responsible for the 1990 infant mortality rate of 58/1,000 live births compared to 72/1,000 in 1985. Strong national leadership, dedicated health workers and volunteers, and cooperation and funding from UNICEF, the World Bank, Rotary International, and WHO also played crucially positive roles in improving immunization practice in Indonesia. PMID:12317022

  12. Parental beliefs, infant temperament, and marital quality: associations with infant-mother and infant-father attachment.

    PubMed

    Wong, Maria S; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C; Brown, Geoffrey L; Neff, Cynthia; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J

    2009-12-01

    The present research examined parental beliefs about the importance of the paternal caregiving role, mothers' and fathers' reports of infant temperament, and observed marital quality as predictors of infant-mother and infant-father attachment security, over and above the effects of parental sensitivity. Infants' attachment security to mothers and fathers were observed in the Strange Situation at 12 and 13 months, respectively (N = 62 two-parent families). Hierarchical regression models revealed that mothers who viewed the paternal caregiving role as important were less likely to have securely attached infants, but only when infant fussiness was high. In addition, fathers who viewed the paternal caregiving role as important were more likely to have securely attached infants, but only when infants' fussiness or marital quality was high. PMID:20001141

  13. Vocal Development of Infants with Very Low Birth Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rvachew, Susan; Creighton, Dianne; Feldman, Naida; Sauve, Reg

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the vocal development of infants born with very low birth weights (VLBW). Samples of vocalizations were recorded from three groups of infants when they were 8, 12 and 18 months of age: preterm VLBW infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), preterm VLBW infants without BPD, and healthy full-term infants. Infants with BPD…

  14. Clinical mimics of infant botulism.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Ann Marie O; Arnon, Stephen S

    2007-04-01

    Since 1992, Human Botulism Immune Globulin has been provided by the California Department of Health Services to infants with probable infant botulism, the intestinal toxemia form of human botulism. Human Botulism Immune Globulin became available in California in 1992-1997 within a randomized, controlled, double-blinded, pivotal clinical trial and subsequently became available nationwide in 1998-2003 in an open-label study until its licensure in October 2003 as BabyBIG. Thereafter, Human Botulism Immune Globulin remained available nationwide as an approved orphan-drug product. To achieve prompt neutralization of circulating botulinum toxin, the decision to treat with Human Botulism Immune Globulin has been based on clinical criteria that include a consistent history and physical findings of bulbar palsies, hypotonia, and weakness. After licensure, the charts of patients who did not have laboratory-confirmed infant botulism were reviewed to identify their actual diagnoses. The approximately 5% of 681 patients treated with Human Botulism Immune Globulin who did not have infant botulism fell into 5 categories: spinal muscular atrophy, metabolic disorders, other infectious diseases, miscellaneous, and probable infant botulism lacking laboratory confirmation. PMID:17403857

  15. Periodicity of Sleep States is Altered in Infants at Risk for the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Harper; B. Leake; H. Hoffman; D. O. Walter; T. Hoppenbrouwers; J. Hodgman; M. B. Sterman

    1981-01-01

    The normal succession of sleep and waking states through a night is disturbed in infants at risk for the sudden infant death syndrome. Compared with normal infants, siblings of the sudden infant death syndrome victims have longer intervals between active sleep epochs at particular times during the night in the newborn period and a decreased tendency to enter short waking

  16. Serum zinc concentration in exclusively breast-fed infants and in infants fed an adapted formula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Vigi; R. Chierici; L. Osti; F. Fagioli; R. Reseazzi

    1984-01-01

    Serum zinc concentrations have been determined in 28 healthy full-term Italian infants of both sexes at birth, as well as at 3 and at 5 months of age. Fourteen exclusively breast-fed infants who served as a control group were compared with 14 infants fed a cow's milk based adapted infant formula. No significant differences in serum zinc concentration between the

  17. Early Day Care, Infant-Mother Attachment, and Maternal Responsiveness in the Infant's First Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchinal, Margaret R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined the relationship between nonmaternal care and infant-mother attachment. Results indicated that full-time, nonmaternal care was not associated with increased insecure attachment and did not negatively affect the associations between infant-mother attachment and the mother's involvement with her infant during the infant's first year of…

  18. Maternal Employment in a Family Context: Effects on Infant-Mother and Infant-Father Attachments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Owen, Margaret Tresch

    1987-01-01

    The relation between resumption of full-time employment by mothers of infants, and subsequent infant-mother and infant-father attachments, was examined. No relation emerged between maternal work status and the quality of infants' attachments to their mothers. (PCB)

  19. Do Young Infants Prefer an Infant-Directed Face or a Happy Face?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hojin I.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Infants' visual preference for infant-directed (ID) faces over adult-directed (AD) faces was examined in two experiments that introduced controls for emotion. Infants' eye movements were recorded as they viewed a series of side-by-side dynamic faces. When emotion was held constant, 6-month-old infants showed no preference for ID faces…

  20. Steps to successfully breastfeed the premature infant.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Laura J

    2006-01-01

    The birth of a premature infant causes emotional upheaval for parents. They often wonder what they can do to help their infant during the critical newborn period. Providing breast milk is one of the most important physiologic benefits a mother can give her premature infant. The advantages of breast milk are numerous. It is the responsibility of those who care for premature infants and their families to provide parents with the support they need to supply the best possible nutrition for their infant. Breastfeeding a premature infant can challenge both the mother and her health care team, however. Infants should be assessed individually for readiness to proceed through the steps leading to successftil breastfeeding. From establishing a milk supply to putting the baby to the breast, parents rely on the nurse for information, instruction, and encouragement. This article identifies obstacles to breastfeeding the premature infant and offers a step-by-step approach for promoting successful breastfeeding in the NICU. PMID:16610481

  1. Continuous Tracking of Behavioral Development in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Mark; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Reports on a strategy of continuous measurement of the frequency of the same infant behavior over time, which was applied to measuring infant development in the prone position, namely, chin lifting, chest lifting, and a creeping response. (BD/BR)

  2. Crying in Newborn and Young Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelsson, Katarina

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the reasons that newborns and young infants cry, the communicative effect and perception of crying, crying in sick and healthy infants, the sound spectograph, and crying for the use of clinical diagnostics. (RJC)

  3. Sudden infant death syndrome: a hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. David

    1997-01-01

    A study of the strikingly low incidence of sudden infant death syndrome in Eastern countries revealed significant differences in infant handling thought to have an etiological bearing; therefore this writer suggested that adoption of certain Eastern methods of nursing may reduce the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome. A dramatic fall in incidence has resulted from implementing one of the

  4. Oxidative Stress in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanie Huggle; John C. Hunsaker; Carolyn M. Coyne; D. Larry Sparks

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex of victims of sudden infant death syndrome and of age-matched infants dying acutely of known causes (non-sudden infant death syndrome controls). Tissue sections were investigated for the presence of neurons expressing signs of elevated levels of free radical using immunohistochemical markers for superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Brain tissues displayed immunopositive neurons in

  5. Programme Planning for Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Teresa; Sims, Margaret

    Caring for infants and toddlers has long been conceptualized in Western society as mothers' work, and consequently devalued. Alternative care for infants and toddlers has lacked a knowledge base like that undergirding preschool education. Factors impeding research on infant/toddler care include strong ideological opposition to nonmaternal care,…

  6. [Drug Exposed Infants and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This bulletin issue addresses the theme of drug-exposed infants and the services required by these infants and their families. "Cocaine-Exposed Infants: Myths and Misunderstandings" (Barbara J. Myers and others) comments on the negative accounts of drug-exposed babies presented by mass media and reviews the mix of positive and negative findings…

  7. Infants' Physical Knowledge Affects Their Change Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Su-hua; Baillargeon, Renee

    2006-01-01

    Prior research suggests that infants attend to a variable in an event category when they have identified it as relevant for predicting outcomes in the category, and that the age at which infants identify a variable depends largely on the age at which they are exposed to appropriate observations. Thus, depending on age of exposure, infants may…

  8. Thirty Years in Infant Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    In the late 1960s and early 1970s, psychiatrists, psychoanalysts, and developmental psychologists pioneered the study of infant mental health. The author, a clinician who helped to develop the field of infant mental health, uses an anecdote-enriched account of his 30-year career to describe the origins and evolution of the infant mental health…

  9. Enacting Caring Pedagogy in the Infant Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Minsun

    2015-01-01

    This single case study was undertaken to explore how an infant head teacher meets the needs of the infants, who express their desire to be cared for, in their caring encounters. Natural daily interactions between infants and the teacher were observed for approximately 10 weeks. Through the qualitative data analysis, the results of this study…

  10. NATIONAL MATERNAL AND INFANT HEALTH SURVEY (NMIHS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMIHS) provides data on maternal and infant health, including prenatal care, birth weight, fetal loss, and infant mortality. The objective of the NMIHS is to collect data needed by Federal, State, and private researchers to study fa...

  11. Prediction of Neurodevelopmental Sequelae in VLBW Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolke, Dieter; And Others

    The study examined pre-, peri-, and neonatal factors in 271 British infants (weighing less than 1500 grams at birth), 188 of whom survived to 2 years. The study represented an attempt to define those factors which predict normal neurodevelopmental outcome in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Surviving infants were seen at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24…

  12. Function of Infant Crying in Stranger Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Colleen S. W.; Jennings, Kay D.

    This study investigated infant crying as a form of communication, with fear considered only one of many possible motivating emotions. Crying, along with fretting and withdrawal, are the major ways infants have to indicate that they desire to change the present situation. Subjects were 91 white, middle class infants whose mothers wete their primary…

  13. Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and may require surgery. No 3. Is your child an infant, and is your infant crying uncontrollably, possibly while pulling his or her knees to the chest, and does your infant have red-colored diarrhea and continue to vomit all liquids? Yes Your child may have an OBSTRUCTION of the intestines called ...

  14. Infants' Developing Understanding of Social Gaze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beier, Jonathan S.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Young infants are sensitive to self-directed social actions, but do they appreciate the intentional, target-directed nature of such behaviors? The authors addressed this question by investigating infants' understanding of social gaze in third-party interactions (N = 104). Ten-month-old infants discriminated between 2 people in mutual versus…

  15. The Goldilocks Effect in Infant Auditory Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Infants must learn about many cognitive domains (e.g., language, music) from auditory statistics, yet capacity limits on their cognitive resources restrict the quantity that they can encode. Previous research has established that infants can attend to only a subset of available acoustic input. Yet few previous studies have directly examined infant…

  16. Locomotor Expertise Predicts Infants' Perseverative Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the development of inhibition in a locomotor context. In a within-subjects design, infants received high- and low-demand locomotor A-not-B tasks. In Experiment 1, walking 13-month-old infants followed an indirect path to a goal. In a control condition, infants took a direct route. In Experiment 2, crawling and walking…

  17. Emotional Determinants of Infant-Mother Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izard, Carroll E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Mothers' emotion and personality characteristics were assessed by behavior ratings and self-reports; infants' characteristics by maternal reports and objective coding. Security of infant-mother attachment in the Ainsworth Strange Situation was predicted by mothers' emotional experience, expressive behavior, and personality traits, and by infants

  18. Instability of Infant-Parent Attachment Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the stability of infant-parent attachment security in samples of 90 infant-mother and 120 infant-father dyads who completed the Ainsworth and Wittig Strange Situation procedure at 6- to 7-month intervals. Significant stability was not discerned in attachment security, with rates of stability ranging from 46% to 55%. (MDM)

  19. Pattern Induction by Infant Language Learners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenny R. Saffran; Erik D. Thiessen

    2003-01-01

    How do infants learn the sound patterns of their native language? By the end of the 1st year, infants have acquired detailed aspects of the phonology and phonotactics of their input language. However, the structure of the learning mechanisms underlying this process is largely unknown. In this study, 9-month-old infants were given the opportunity to induce specific phonological patterns in

  20. Infants Attribute to Agents Goals and Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yuyan; Choi, You-jung

    2012-01-01

    This commentary article is to be published alongside: Hernik, M., & Southgate, V. (2012). What do infants know about agents' goals? The authors see this issue consisting of two closely related questions. First, what is an agent to infants? Second, how do infants attribute goals to agents? Hernik and Southgage (H&S) focused on the second question.…

  1. Motor Development of Infants with Positional Plagiocephaly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Eileen; Majnemer, Annette; Farmer, Jean-Pierre; Barr, Ronald G.; Platt, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent with recommendations to place infants to sleep in supine, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of infants with positional plagiocephaly (PP). Recent evidence suggests that infants who have decreased exposure to prone position may have a higher incidence of PP and may be at risk for a delay in the acquisition of certain motor…

  2. Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers

    PubMed Central

    Izard, Véronique; Sann, Coralie; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Streri, Arlette

    2009-01-01

    Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). Do abstract numerical concepts depend on language or culture, or do they form a part of humans' innate, core knowledge? Here we show that newborn infants spontaneously associate stationary, visual-spatial arrays of 4–18 objects with auditory sequences of events on the basis of number. Their performance provides evidence for abstract numerical representations at the start of postnatal experience. PMID:19520833

  3. Studying infant and toddler play.

    PubMed

    Marino, B L

    1991-02-01

    The play of infants and toddlers is a rich and flexible research modality. Play assessment can be an outcome measure of cognition or social ability, or it can be measured in conjunction with related constructs such as language to give a broad view of early development. Play can also be an effective intervention in studies of cognition, language, motor, or social development. This article offers strategies for the researcher who is interested in infant and toddler play. Emphasis is placed on environmental variables that the researcher manipulates to optimize the child's performance. Play measures are briefly addressed. PMID:1990120

  4. Complete resolution of primary sclerosing peritonitis (“abdominal cocoon”) following long term therapy for Tropheryma whipplei: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Tarquini, Roberto; Colagrande, Stefano; Rosselli, Matteo; Novelli, Marco; Dolenti, Silvia; Valoriani, Alice; Laffi, Giacomo

    2009-01-01

    A 53-year-old man was admitted to our internal medicine unit with intestinal obstruction and signs of systemic inflammatory disease. Clinical history was unremarkable until a few months earlier, when he began suffering from Achilles tendonitis. Diagnostic procedures, including laparotomy, revealed diffuse thickening of the peritoneum resembling sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. Biopsies showed reactive fibrosis. No known secondary causes were found and surgery was technically not feasible. Clinical conditions worsened daily until, on the basis of the overall spectrum of clinical and radiological findings, Whipple’s disease was hypothesised and specific therapy administered, with prompt clinical improvement. Complete disappearance of the cocoon was demonstrated at 1 year clinical/ultrasound/computed tomography follow-up. PMID:21709845

  5. Reducing blood glucose levels in TIDM mice with an orally administered extract of sericin from hIGF-I-transgenic silkworm cocoons.

    PubMed

    Song, Zuowei; Zhang, Mengyao; Xue, Renyu; Cao, Guangli; Gong, Chengliang

    2014-05-01

    In previous studies, we reported that the blood glucose levels of mice with type I diabetes mellitus (TIDM) was reduced with orally administered silk gland powder from silkworms transgenic for human insulin-like growth factor-I (hIGF-I). However, potential safety hazards could not be eliminated because the transgenic silk gland powder contained heterologous DNA, including the green fluorescent protein (gfp) and neomycin resistance (neo) genes. These shortcomings might be overcome if the recombinant hIGF-I were secreted into the sericin layer of the cocoon. In this study, silkworm eggs were transfected with a novel piggyBac transposon vector, pigA3GFP-serHS-hIGF-I-neo, containing the neo, gfp, and hIGF-I genes controlled by the sericin-1 (ser-1) promoter with the signal peptide DNA sequence of the fibrin heavy chain (Fib-H) and a helper plasmid containing the piggyBac transposase sequence under the control of the Bombyx mori actin 3 (A3) promoter, using sperm-mediated gene transfer to generate the transformed silkworms. The hIGF-I content estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was approximately 162.7 ng/g. To estimate the biological activity of the expressed hIGF-I, streptozotocin-induced TIDM mice were orally administered sericin from the transgenic silkworm. The blood glucose levels of the mice were significantly reduced, suggesting that the extract from the transgenic hIGF-I silkworm cocoons can be used as an orally administered drug. PMID:24632065

  6. Infant Mortality: The Shared Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heagarty, Margaret C.

    1990-01-01

    Addresses the causes for and implications of infant mortality. Besides the more immediate causes such as disease, nutrition, and lifestyle, there are the additional hurdles of government bureaucracy, lack of funds, and institutional attitudes that block access to prenatal care. Suggests structural solutions, including a consistent, individual,…

  7. [The Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida's Health, 1976

    1976-01-01

    This collection of articles on the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), drawn from a southeastern regional symposium on the subject, summarizes much of what is known about the occurrence of SIDS, including current information about its causes. The background of state action in Florida is reviewed, with emphasis on the need for increased public and…

  8. Infants' Recognition of Their Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ann

    The ability of infants to recognize their mothers as distinct from others was investigated by presenting 6 boys and 6 girls at two age levels (5 weeks and 13 weeks) with the following six sequential stimulus conditions: (1) mother's face (MO); (2) stranger's face (SO); (3) mother's face with stranger's voice (MS); (4) stranger's face with mother's…

  9. Survival in Infants with Anencephaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Baird; A. D. Sadovnick

    1984-01-01

    There is little available literature on survival data in the form of lifetables for babies born with anencephaly. These data would be valuable in advising parents, who often request very specific information on the length of time their child might survive. Survival is examined for a cohort of anencephalic infants in a well-defined population. Sex-specific survival tables are given, since

  10. Atypical Infant Development. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Marci J., Ed.

    The 13 chapters of this text focus on the complex development issues and interdisciplinary service needs of infants and young children at risk and their families. The text is organized into four sections on: developmental and intervention principles, identification and assessment, developmental issues, and early intervention. Chapter titles and…

  11. Resurgence of Infant Caregiving Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruzek, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Peters, Lindsay C.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to identify the conditions likely to produce resurgence among adult human participants. The preparation was a simulated caregiving context, wherein a recorded infant cry sounded and was terminated contingent upon targeted caregiving responses. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated resurgence with human participants in…

  12. Infants' Perception of Object Trajectories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Scott P.; Bremner, J. Gavin; Slater, Alan; Mason, Uschi; Foster, Kirsty; Cheshire, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    Three experiments investigated 2- to 6-month-olds' perception of the continuity of an object trajectory that was briefly occluded. Results across experiments provided little evidence of veridical responses to trajectory occlusion in the youngest infants, but by 6 months, perception completion was more robust. Results suggest that perceptual…

  13. Infant Massage: Communicating through Touch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Vivian

    1998-01-01

    Describes the benefits of infant massage, particularly for babies with deafness who have hearing parents. Steps for giving baby massages are provided, including placing a hand on the baby's stomach and making eye contact, starting with the legs, looking for cues, and communicating with the baby. (CR)

  14. Infant Care Self-Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Robin D.

    The Infant Care Survey (ICS) was developed to measure new mothers' confidence in their knowledge and skills regarding the care of babies under one year of age. One potential use of this test would be the identification of groups at high risk for health problems or for avoiding medical care. Self-efficacy was an important construct in the…

  15. Quality Training for Infant Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Addressed to trainers of infant day care providers, this presentation indicates knowledge and skills through which trainers can foster competence in caregivers. First, caregivers should be familiar with Eriksonian and Piagetian developmental theory. Second, caregivers should be aware of the guidelines for practice provided by empirical research.…

  16. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  17. Early Identification and Infant Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lintz, Brenda

    1976-01-01

    This article describes the Zucker Center's program in Toledo, Ohio which identifies children with developmental delays and enrolls them in a demonstration infant stimulation program. The center provides educational programs in neonatal care, nutrition, general stimulation, and parenting techniques. Available from: PS 504 969. (JMB)

  18. Hypocalcemic rachitic cardiomyopathy in infants

    PubMed Central

    Elidrissy, Abdelwahab T.H.; Munawarah, Medinah; Alharbi, Khalid M.

    2012-01-01

    Hypocalcemic cardiomyopathy in infants is characterized by heart failure in a previously normal infant with hypocalcemia without organic cardiac lesion. Vitamin D deficiency rickets is increasing in Middle East. In a six month study 136 cases of rickets were diagnosed in the main Children’s Hospital in Almadinah but none of them showed evidence of cardiomyopathy. Concerned of missing this serious complication of rickets we searched pub med and present this review article. Results 61 cases of hypocalcemic cardiomyopathy were reported as case reports with two series of 16 and 15 cases from London and Delhi, respectively. The major features of these cases: the age ranged from one month to 15 months with a mean age of 5 months. All presented with heart failure and hypocalcemia. There was a minor feature of rickets in a few of the cases. All had high alkaline phosphatase. Echocardiology evidence of cardiomyopathy was found in all. Most of them responded to calcium, vitamin D and cardiotonic and diuretics. Discussion We concentrated on pathogenesis of this hypocalcemic cardiomyopathy and reviewed the literature. The evidence available supports that the most likely cause of cardiomyopathy is hypocalcemia. Hypovitamin D also contributes but hyperparathyroidism might have a protective role as we did not detect any evidence of cardiomyopathy with hyperparathyroidism and florid features of rickets. Conclusion We need to look out for cardiomyopathy among infants with hypocalcemia. For prevention maternal supplementation during pregnancy and lactation with up to 2000 units of vitamin D and 400 units for their infants. PMID:24174842

  19. Infants and Toddlers Exploring Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    A good deal of research is beginning to support the idea of emergent mathematics and that, much as with reading, children begin to learn mathematics from the day they are born. Infants and toddlers begin to notice relationships as they interact with their parents or primary caregivers through songs, rocking, and other verbal and nonverbal…

  20. Intraindividual Variability in Infant Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Weerth, Carolina; Hoijtink, Herbert; van Geert, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Used weekly-obtained longitudinal observational data of infant crying, fretting/fussing, and smiling and the time spent in physical contact with mother to examine behavioral variability over a 15-month period. Found evidence of an important intraindividual variability between newborn and 5 months, and 5 and 10 months, but not between 10 and 15…

  1. Obesity in Infants to Preschoolers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Preventing Childhood Obesity: Tips for Parents and Caretakers Obesity in Infants and Preschoolers Infographic The EmpowerMEnt Challenge Resources How to Make a Healthy Home Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children Tips to Make Fast Food Friendlier for Kids Top 10 Tips to Help ...

  2. Fever in Infants and Children

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Fever in Infants and Children See complete list of charts. Because young children are not able to hold a thermometer in their ... two months of age or younger with a fever of 100.4° or higher? Yes This may ...

  3. Superfund Cleanups and Infant Health

    E-print Network

    Currie, Janet

    We are the first to examine the effect of Superfund cleanups on infant health rather than focusing on proximity to a site. We study singleton births to mothers residing within 5km of a Superfund site between 1989-2003 in ...

  4. Sleep Homeostasis in Infant Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S. Blumberg; Jessica E. Middlemis-Brown; Eric D. Johnson

    2004-01-01

    Homeostatic regulation is a defining characteristic of sleep but has rarely been examined in infants. This study presents an automated method of sleep deprivation in which 5-day-old rats were shocked whenever the nuchal muscle became atonic. The intensity of shock was always set at the minimal level required to maintain arousal. Deprived pups exhibited rapid increases in sleep pressure, as

  5. Hearing Aid Fitting in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Brenda M.

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the latest technological advances in hearing aids and explores the available research to help families and professionals make informed decisions when fitting amplification devices on infants and young children. Diagnostic procedures, evaluation techniques, hearing aid selection, circuit and advanced technology options, and…

  6. Neurosonography of hydrocephalus in infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Shackelford

    1986-01-01

    Transfontanel cranial ultrasonography reliably delineates ventricular size and anatomy in small infants. In these children, it is an excellent primary imaging technique for evaluation of the many clinical problems related to ventricular dilatation. Sonography can be useful for: (1) detecting ventriculomegaly, (2) differentiating nonobstructive ventricular dilatation from obstructive enlargement (hydrocephalus), (3) determining the cause of hydrocephalus; (4) aiding in the

  7. Race and birthweight in biracial infants.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, J W; David, R J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of the study was to determine the role of infant race as a determinant of the Black-White disparity in low birthweight (< 2500 g). METHODS. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were performed on Illinois vital records from 1982 and 1983 and on 1980 United States census income data. RESULTS. Fourteen percent of the infants born to Black mothers and White fathers were of low birthweight, compared with 9% of infants born to White mothers and Black fathers and 6% of a random sample of White infants. Both groups of biracial infants were more likely to have been born to unmarried mothers and to reside in very low-income (< $10,000 per year) census tracts than were White infants. When all confounding variables were entered into a logistic model, the adjusted odds ratio of low birthweight for biracial infants born to Black mothers and White fathers equaled 1.4. When biracial infants born to White mothers and Black fathers were compared with White infants, the adjusted odds ratio of low birthweight equaled 1.0. CONCLUSIONS. Paternal and consequent infant race does not affect the birthweight distribution of those born to White mothers and Black fathers. Unidentified factors closely related to maternal race underlie the Black-White disparity in infant birthweight. PMID:8192731

  8. Generalization of word meanings during infant sleep.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Manuela; Wilhelm, Ines; Born, Jan; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-01-01

    Sleep consolidates memory and promotes generalization in adults, but it is still unknown to what extent the rapidly growing infant memory benefits from sleep. Here we show that during sleep the infant brain reorganizes recent memories and creates semantic knowledge from individual episodic experiences. Infants aged between 9 and 16 months were given the opportunity to encode both objects as specific word meanings and categories as general word meanings. Event-related potentials indicate that, initially, infants acquire only the specific but not the general word meanings. About 1.5?h later, infants who napped during the retention period, but not infants who stayed awake, remember the specific word meanings and, moreover, successfully generalize words to novel category exemplars. Independently of age, the semantic generalization effect is correlated with sleep spindle activity during the nap, suggesting that sleep spindles are involved in infant sleep-dependent brain plasticity. PMID:25633407

  9. Go naked: diapers affect infant walking.

    PubMed

    Cole, Whitney G; Lingeman, Jesse M; Adolph, Karen E

    2012-11-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that walking is adversely affected by old-fashioned cloth diapers, and that even modern disposable diapers - habitually worn by most infants in the sample - incur a cost relative to walking naked. Infants displayed less mature gait patterns and more missteps and falls while wearing diapers. Thus, infants' own diapers constitute an ongoing biomechanical perturbation while learning to walk. Furthermore, shifts in diapering practices may have contributed to historical and cross-cultural differences in infant walking. PMID:23106732

  10. Generalization of word meanings during infant sleep

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Manuela; Wilhelm, Ines; Born, Jan; Friederici, Angela D.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep consolidates memory and promotes generalization in adults, but it is still unknown to what extent the rapidly growing infant memory benefits from sleep. Here we show that during sleep the infant brain reorganizes recent memories and creates semantic knowledge from individual episodic experiences. Infants aged between 9 and 16 months were given the opportunity to encode both objects as specific word meanings and categories as general word meanings. Event-related potentials indicate that, initially, infants acquire only the specific but not the general word meanings. About 1.5?h later, infants who napped during the retention period, but not infants who stayed awake, remember the specific word meanings and, moreover, successfully generalize words to novel category exemplars. Independently of age, the semantic generalization effect is correlated with sleep spindle activity during the nap, suggesting that sleep spindles are involved in infant sleep-dependent brain plasticity. PMID:25633407

  11. ECMO in newborn infants: the Melbourne experience.

    PubMed

    Butt, W; Mee, R; McDougall, P; Horton, A; Shann, F; Horton, S

    1992-12-01

    At the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used in the treatment of newborn infants with life-threatening respiratory or cardiac failure since May 1989. The main indications for the use of ECMO are that the disease is reversible, the surviving infant is likely to be normal and there is an 80% likelihood of death without ECMO. Sixteen of 22 (73%) newborn infants have survived at least 6 months after ECMO. Fourteen of 16 (87.5%) infants receiving ECMO (who did not have a congenital diaphragmatic hernia) were functionally normal survivors; the other two infants died. Two of six infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia who received ECMO were discharged and survived to have normal neurological and respiratory function at 6 month follow up. These results are similar to results from other centres internationally. It would appear that ECMO is a useful therapy for near-term newborn infants with otherwise fatal cardiorespiratory failure. PMID:1466935

  12. Analysis of Mother-Infant Interaction in Infants with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonims, Vicky; McConachie, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Delays in development of early social behaviors in babies with Down syndrome are likely to affect patterns of interaction with their caregivers. We videotaped 23 babies in face-to-face interaction with their mothers at 8 and 20 weeks of age and compared them to 23 typically developing infants and their mothers. Social behaviors, mothers'…

  13. Ethical issues in infant feeding after disasters.

    PubMed

    Binns, Colin W; Lee, Mi Kyung; Tang, Li; Yu, Chuan; Hokama, Tomiko; Lee, Andy

    2012-07-01

    In the aftermath of many disasters the silence is punctuated by the crying of infants, hungry infants. The aim of this paper is to discuss ethical issues in feeding infants after disasters. The Asia Pacific region generates 25% of the world's GDP, but experiences 45% of natural disasters and 42% of the economic losses due to disasters. The region has 61% of the world's population, but 86% of the population affected by disasters. Breastfeeding, exclusive to six months and continuing thereafter, is important for growth and the health of the infant in the short term and later in life. In most natural disasters, mothers and infants will both suffer, but in some disasters, such as earthquakes and building collapses, infants can survive in small spaces. Infants separated from mothers require a wet nurse (rarely available) or feeding with infant formula and sterile water. Formula companies often donate supplies of infant formula but distribution should follow ethical principles. Mothers who are injured or short of food can still continue breastfeeding and don't need formula. Where formula must be used, health workers need to follow the highest ethical standards to avoid promoting infant formula to vulnerable communities in the post recovery phase. PMID:22790353

  14. Increased ALZ-50 Immunoreactivity in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Larry Sparks; Daron G. Davis; Karim Rasheed; Teresa M. Landers; Huiachen Liu; Carolyn M. Coyne; John C. Hunsaker

    1996-01-01

    Neuronal expression of the ALZ-50 epitope was investigated in hippocampus and medulla from infants dying of sudden infant death syndrome or known causes (controls). Hippocampal studies include data from 31 infants dying of known causes between 32 weeks' gestation and 16 months postpartum and 46 infants who died of sudden infant death syndrome. The medulla at the level of the

  15. Distinguishing Sudden Infant Death Syndrome From Child Abuse Fatalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kent P. Hymel

    2010-01-01

    Fatal child abuse has been mistaken for sudden infant death syndrome. When a healthy infant younger than 1 year dies suddenly and unexpectedly, the cause of death may be certified as sudden infant death syndrome. Sudden infant death syndrome is more common than infanticide. Parents of sudden infant death syndrome victims typically are anxious to provide unlimited information to pro-

  16. Associations among Attachment Classifications of Mothers, Fathers, and Their Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Howard; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tested 90 infants in the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) with both parents. Found that mothers' Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) scores predicted infant-mother SSPs and fathers' AAIs predicted infant-father SSPs. Counter to expectation, infant-father SSPs were associated with infant-mother SSPs, which might be explained by the influence of…

  17. Observed and Reported Supportive Coparenting as Predictors of Infant-Mother and Infant-Father Attachment Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Neff, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between supportive coparenting and infant-mother and infant-father attachment security. Observed and parent-reported coparenting, and observed maternal and paternal sensitivity were assessed in a sample of 68 families with 3.5-month-old infants. Infant-mother and infant-father attachment security were assessed in…

  18. [The determination of the species classification of Baikal planarian cocoons found in the stomach of the black grayling (Thymallus arcticus baicalensis) by a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene].

    PubMed

    Kuznedelov, K D; Dziuba, E V

    1999-01-01

    Comparative analysis of nucleotide sequences of gene 18S of ribosome RNA was carried out. The results show that the genetic sequences of the given locus could be used as a molecular marker to identify the species of planaria irrespective of ontogenetic stage. The articles deals with problem of specific determination of cocoons of Baikal planaria from the stomach of Baikal black grayling using comparative analysis of nucleotide sequences of ribosome RNA fragments with known sequences determined earlier for Baikal planaria. The cocoons belong to two species of Rimacephalus. The authors discuss also the importance of feeding relationships of planaria and benthophage fish to investigate the biotic factors that influence the evolution of Baikal planaria. PMID:10520297

  19. Optimal growth of preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Corpeleijn, Willemijn E; Kouwenhoven, Stefanie M P; van Goudoever, Johannes B

    2013-01-01

    The cause of growth restriction in preterm infants is multifactorial, but it has been estimated that about 50% of the variance in early postnatal growth can be attributed to nutrition. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants who were born small-for-gestational age (SGA) seem to have the highest risk to become growth restricted. Possibly, the intrauterine growth-retarded preterm infant is metabolically different from its appropriately grown counterpart and therefore has different nutritional needs. Neonatal nutrition and the resulting postnatal growth are major determinants in the short- and long-term outcomes of preterm neonates. Although having favorable effects on neurodevelopmental outcome, rapid postnatal weight gain after a period of nutritional restriction is associated with the development of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in later life. It seems likely that minimization of postnatal growth failure will decrease the need for catch-up growth and thereby decrease the risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors. Monitoring postnatal growth with current growth charts is complicated. Most growth charts that are currently being used are a reflection of current (nutritional) practices and are not a prescription of how VLBW should grow under optimal conditions. In addition to body weight, other aspects of growth such as lean body mass and length gain should also be taken into account when assessing the quality of postnatal growth. Noninvasive measurements of infant body composition are useful tools in evaluating the success of different nutritional interventions. However, all currently available methods have substantial drawbacks. A relatively new and promising method is air displacement plethysmography. This method still needs to be validated in preterm neonates. In conclusion, neonatal nutrition is a major determinant in the short- and long-term outcomes of preterm neonates. Monitoring postnatal growth is complicated by the lack of prescriptive growth charts and noninvasive measurements to assess the quality of growth. PMID:23428694

  20. Social information guides infants’ selection of foods

    PubMed Central

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; McKee, Caitlin B.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of socially conveyed emotions and speech on infants’ preferences in the food domain. After watching films in which two unfamiliar actresses each spoke while eating a different kind of food, 12-month-old infants were allowed to choose between the two foods. In Experiment 1, infants selected a food endorsed by a speaker of their native language who displayed positive affect over a food endorsed by a foreign-language speaker who displayed negative affect. In Experiment 2, both actresses displayed positive affect yet spoke in different languages, and infants again selected the food associated with the speaker of their native language. The findings contrast with previous research in which infants and toddlers have shown little selectivity when presented with foods that differ in their intrinsic properties such as color, texture, and familiarity. Although infants may lack capacities for evaluating foods on their own, they do look to other people for guidance in food selection. PMID:19809590

  1. Monilial Infections in Infants and Their Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Salamon, Miriam; Bass, Martin J.

    1983-01-01

    To explore the association of monilia in infants and their mothers, the office charts of 45 mother-infant pairs were reviewed. There was a significant association (p<.01) between monilia in infants and their mothers. In seven out of eight instances, the mother's infection was diagnosed after her infant's. Monilial infections were more common in males and in infants of lower socioeconomic status, but the difference in incidence was not statistically significant. The major problem of this study is that it was a chart review using data collected routinely in the course of care. The stage is set for a prospective study that can best be done by family physicians, who provide day-to-day care for both mothers and infants. PMID:20469403

  2. How Infants Learn About the Visual World

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    The visual world of adults consists of objects at various distances, partly occluding one another, substantial and stable across space and time. The visual world of young infants, in contrast, is often fragmented and unstable, consisting not of coherent objects but rather surfaces that move in unpredictable ways. Evidence from computational modeling and from experiments with human infants highlights three kinds of learning that contribute to infants' knowledge of the visual world: learning via association, learning via active assembly, and learning via visual-manual exploration. Infants acquire knowledge by observing objects move in and out of sight, forming associations of these different views. In addition, the infant's own self-produced behavior—oculomotor patterns and manual experience, in particular—are important means by which infants discover and construct their visual world. PMID:21116440

  3. Maternal postpartum behavior and the emergence of infant-mother and infant-father synchrony in preterm and full-term infants: the role of neonatal vagal tone.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth; Eidelman, Arthur I

    2007-04-01

    Relations between maternal postpartum behavior and the emergence of parent-infant relatedness as a function of infant autonomic maturity were examined in 56 premature infants (birthweight = 1000-1500 g) and 52 full-term infants. Maternal behavior, mother depressive symptoms, and infant cardiac vagal tone were assessed in the neonatal period. Infant-mother and infant-father synchrony, maternal and paternal affectionate touch, and the home environment were observed at 3 months. Premature birth was associated with higher maternal depression, less maternal behaviors, decreased infant alertness, and lower coordination of maternal behavior with infant alertness in the neonatal period. At 3 months, interactions between premature infants with their mothers and fathers were less synchronous. Interaction effects of premature birth and autonomic maturity indicated that preterm infants with low vagal tone received the lowest amounts of maternal behavior in the postpartum and the least maternal touch at 3 months. Infant-mother and infant-father synchrony were each predicted by cardiac vagal tone and maternal postpartum behavior in both the preterm and full-term groups. Among preterm infants, additional predictors of parent-infant synchrony were maternal depression (mother only) and the home environment (mother and father). Findings are consistent with evolutionary perspectives on the higher susceptibility of dysregulated infants to rearing contexts and underscore the compensatory mechanisms required for social-emotional growth under risk conditions for parent-infant bonding. PMID:17380505

  4. Anatomy of the infant head

    SciTech Connect

    Bosma, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ.

  5. Infant room-sharing and prone sleep position in sudden infant death syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. R Scragg; A. W Stewart; E. A Mitchell; J. M. D Thompson; B. J Taylor; S. M Williams; R. P. K Ford; I. B Hassall

    1996-01-01

    SummaryBackground There is evidence that the risk of sudden infant death syndrome is lower among ethnic groups in which parents generally share a room with the infant for sleeping. We investigated whether the presence of other family members in the infant's sleeping room affects the risk of the sudden infant death syndrome.Methods The case-control study covered a region with 78%

  6. Race\\/Ethnicity, Apgar and Infant Mortality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamie Mihoko Doyle; Samuel Echevarria; W. Parker Frisbie

    2003-01-01

    Objective. Our general objective of this study is to furtherassess the predictive validity of Apgar scores on infant mortality using a national-level data setallowing for race\\/ethnic-specific variation. Method. This analysis is based on the 1989–1991NCHS Linked Birth\\/Infant Death files. Multivariate, multinomial logistic regression modelswere constructed adjusting for maternal behavioral and health risks, socioeconomic and demographicfactors, and infant characteristics. Results. After

  7. Infants' perception of pitch: Number of harmonics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marsha G. Clarkson; Rhonda L. Martin; Sheridan G. Miciek

    1996-01-01

    This experiment assessed 7-month-old infants' discrimination of harmonic complexes containing two, three, or five harmonics. In an operant head-turn procedure, infants learned to discriminate between complexes having fundamental frequencies of 160 Hz and 200 Hz. Infants were then presented complexes that contained different-frequency harmonics and were required to categorize them on the basis of their fundamental frequencies. Finally, the fundamental

  8. Infant Mortality: A Challenge to the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Bureau (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    From 1956-1960 an estimated 34,000 infants annually failed to survive in many parts of the United States due to risks far in excess of those for some areas of the country. There is a growing gap between death rates for white and nonwhite infants in the United States, with the excess mortality rate of nonwhite infants continuing to rise. Only 15…

  9. The Lost Infant: Impact on the Family

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    Stillbirth, sudden infant death syndrome, death of a premature infant or death of an infant through disease give rise grieving processes with many features in common. Feelings, particularly between the parents, and between parents and surviving children, must be dealt with if the grief reaction is to achieve a normal resolution. The family physician can be extremely helpful in bringing these issues to light. PMID:21293723

  10. Necrotizing enterocolitis in full-term infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Ostlie; Troy L. Spilde; Shawn D. St Peter; Nick Sexton; Kelly A. Miller; Ronald J. Sharp; George K. Gittes; Charles L. Snyder

    2003-01-01

    ObjectivesAlthough necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is primarily a disease of prematurity, full-term infants account for approximately 10% of cases. Previous studies have reported conflicting results regarding NEC in full-term (FT) versus preterm (PT) infants. A review of all infants diagnosed with NEC at our institution over the past 3 decades was performed to identify factors associated with this disease in full-term

  11. [On regional differences in infant mortality].

    PubMed

    Kannisto, V

    1988-01-01

    Regional differences in infant mortality are examined using the examples of Finland and Portugal. The author concludes that no single model "can explain the dependence of infant mortality on social and economic variables in all countries nor necessarily at different periods in the same country." The continuing link between traditional social and religious values and higher levels of infant mortality in Portugal is noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12281201

  12. Relations of Motor and Vocal Milestones in Typically Developing Infants and Infants with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobo-Lewis, Alan B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Comparison of ages at which typically developing infants and infants with Down syndrome achieved vocal and motor milestones found that rhythmic behaviors (canonical babbling, hand-banging) were associated with each other and somewhat delayed in Down syndrome infants. Postural behaviors (stepping, standing, sitting, creeping) were also associated…

  13. Infants as Others: Uncertainties, Difficulties and (Im)possibilities in Researching Infants' Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwick, Sheena; Bradley, Ben; Sumsion, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers are trying to understand what daily life is like for infants in non-parental care from the perspectives of the infants themselves. In this article, we argue that it is profoundly difficult, if not impossible, to know how infants experience their worlds with any certainty and, indeed, whether they do or do not possess…

  14. Impact of Changes in Infant Death Classification on the Diagnosis of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brooke M. Moore; Kathleen L. Fernbach; Marsha J. Finkelstein; Patrick L. Carolan

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the hypothesis that a decline in sudden infant death syndrome in Minnesota is associated with increases in other categories of sudden unexpected infant death. Matched birth and death certificates, autopsy reports, and home visit questionnaires were reviewed for 722 sudden unexpected infant deaths that occurred from January 1, 1996 through December 31, 2002. Descriptive data and cause

  15. Apneas During Sleep in Infants: Possible Relationship with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Guilleminault; Rosa Peraita; Marianne Souquet; William C. Dement

    1975-01-01

    Several types of apnea are described in premature infants and in infants who have survived breathing-stoppage episodes which may be related to the sudden infant death syndrome. Upper airway apnea appears to induce the greatest changes: oxygen desaturation is more pronounced than in a central apnea of similar duration, and secondary cardiac changes are observed earlier and are more severe.

  16. Effect of Pediatric Well Child Care on the Mother-Infant Relationship and Infant Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Patrick H.; Whitt, J. Kenneth

    The purpose of this paper was to examine whether a pediatrician in well child care could promote mother-child interaction in the infant's first 6 months of life, and whether this intervention could affect the infant's cognitive development. Thirty-two mothers and their healthy, first born infants were followed by one pediatrician at 2, 4, 8, 15…

  17. Sex of Infant Differences in Mother-Infant Interaction: A Reinterpretation of Past Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Valerie J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the nature and consistency differences in mother-infant interaction affected by sex of infant, and reviews past interpretations. Offers an alternative interpretation, drawing on evidence from animal studies, studies of pregnant women, and work by epidemiologists and ethologists on sex ratio data that suggests mothers of male infants may…

  18. Infants Entering Foster Care Compared to Other Infants Using Birth Status Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needell, Barbara; Barth, Richard P.

    1998-01-01

    A study compared 26,460 maltreated infants who entered foster care between 1989 and 1994 with a random sample of 68,401 other infants. Infants in care were more than twice as likely to have single parents and low birth weight, and twice as likely to have been born with a birth abnormality. (Author/CR)

  19. The Leiden Infant Simulator Sensitivity Assessment (LISSA): Parenting an Infant Simulator as Your Own Baby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Biro, Szilvia; Voorthuis, Alexandra; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2015-01-01

    Observation of parental sensitivity in a standard procedure, in which caregivers are faced with the same level of infant demand, enables the comparison of sensitivity "between" caregivers. We developed an ecologically valid standardized setting using an infant simulator with interactive features, the Leiden Infant Simulator Sensitivity…

  20. Infant Abuse, Neglect, and Failure-to-Thrive: Mother-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Kim N.; And Others

    This study was designed to investigate whether or not degree of child maltreatment is related in some meaningful way to the interactional characteristics of the mother/infant dyad and to the infant's developmental status. A group of 53 mother/infant dyads was divided into five diagnostic groups: nonaccidental trauma combined with…

  1. Infant temperament characteristics related to sudden infant death syndrome and its risk factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor A. Kelmanson

    2006-01-01

    Three major components have been repeatedly implicated for the origin(s) of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): system, minor sickness and surroundings. All these factors also frame infant temperament, and therefore it seems logical to suppose that the babies who either succumb to or are at risk of SIDS may present with certain behavioural features. The infants who have died of

  2. Facial Diversity and Infant Preferences for Attractive Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Judith H.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three studies examined infant preferences for attractive faces of White males, White females, Black females, and infants. Infants viewed pairs of faces rated for attractiveness by adults. Preferences for attractive faces were found for all facial types. (BC)

  3. Developmental Psychology Profiles of Observed Infant Anger Predict Preschool

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Developmental Psychology Profiles of Observed Infant Anger Predict Preschool Behavior Problems., & Goldsmith, H. H. (2014, August 25). Profiles of Observed Infant Anger Predict Preschool Behavior Problems0037693 #12;Profiles of Observed Infant Anger Predict Preschool Behavior Problems: Moderation by Life

  4. Parental Differences in Infant-Directed Emotional Communication 

    E-print Network

    Goodman, Lynnel 1990-

    2012-04-30

    Past research on parent- infant communication has failed to examine how parents communicate emotions differently and the relationships that infant sex and infant attachment may have with parental communication. The present research examines how...

  5. Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J.; Gallardo, Constance C.; Joseph, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants’ safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver–infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants. PMID:18955228

  6. Touch and massage for medically fragile infants.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J; Gallardo, Constance C; Joseph, Michael H; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2009-12-01

    Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver-infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants. PMID:18955228

  7. Infant botulism: review and clinical update.

    PubMed

    Rosow, Laura K; Strober, Jonathan B

    2015-05-01

    Botulism is a rare neuromuscular condition, and multiple clinical forms are recognized. Infant botulism was first identified in the 1970s, and it typically occurs in infants younger than 1 year of age who ingest Clostridium botulinum spores. A specific treatment for infant botulism, intravenous botulism immunoglobulin (BIG-IV or BabyBIG®), was developed in 2003, and this treatment has substantially decreased both morbidity and hospital costs associated with this illness. This article will review the pathogenesis of infant botulism as well as the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition. PMID:25882077

  8. Current Understanding of What Infants See.

    PubMed

    Hyvärinen, Lea; Walthes, Renate; Jacob, Namita; Chaplin, Kay Nottingham; Leonhardt, Mercè

    2014-01-01

    The current understanding of what infants see varies greatly among healthcare and education specialists. Even among ophthalmologists and pediatric neurologists in charge of clinical examinations of infants, opinions vary on what infants perceive, recognize, and use for communication and learning. It is, therefore, of interest to review publications from several specialties to learn whether new information is available on the development of visual functions and use of vision. Ten percent of total publications on this subject are reviewed here based on the usefulness of their content for improving early diagnosis and intervention of vision disorders in infants. PMID:25478306

  9. Infant botulism: clinical spectrum and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J A; Glasgow, L A; Warpinski, J R; Olson, C

    1980-12-01

    Between 1977 and 1979, 12 cases of infant botulism were diagnosed in Utah, and 87 control patients (normal, nonbotulism neurologic disease, and nonbotulism systemic disease) were evaluated. Observations from these patients suggest an expanded clinical spectrum of infant botulism including asymptomatic carriers of organism; mild hypotonia and failure to thrive; typical cases with constipation, bulbar weakness, and hypotonia; and children with a picture compatible with sudden infant death syndrome. Clostridium botulinum was isolated from the stools of three normal control infants and nine control infants who had neurologic diseases that were clearly not infant botulism. These infants were termed "asymptomatic carriers" of the organism. The occurrence of the asymptomatic carrier state suggests that a diagnosis of infant botulism cannot be made on a basis of culture results alone, but must rest in historical documentation and physical confirmation of progressive bulbar and extremity weakness with ultimate complete resolution of symptoms and findings over a period of several months. A common set of environmental features characterizes the home environment of children with infant botulism and "asymptomatic carriers" and includes: nearby constructional or agricultural soil disruption, dusty and windy conditions, a high water table, and alkaline soil conditions. PMID:7005856

  10. Human milk for the premature infant.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Mark A

    2013-02-01

    Premature infants are at risk for growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of bioactive molecules. Human milk must be fortified for premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother's own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment, decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis, and should be the primary enteral diet for premature infants. Donor milk is a resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk. Challenges include the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies, and limited supply. PMID:23178065

  11. Infant Safe Sleep Checklist Purpose: The goal of creating a safe sleep environment for infants is to reduce the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and other

    E-print Network

    Garfunkel, Eric

    Infant Safe Sleep Checklist Purpose: The goal of creating a safe sleep environment for infants is to reduce the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and other sleep-related deaths such as accidental with a method for reviewing the infant's sleep environment. This checklist can serve as a basis for providing

  12. Prevention of pertussis through adult vaccination.

    PubMed

    Suryadevara, Manika; Domachowske, Joseph B

    2015-07-01

    Pertussis is a vaccine preventable respiratory infection. Young infants are at high risk of developing severe complications from infection. Despite high rates of pediatric vaccine uptake, there continues to be increases in pertussis cases, likely due to waning immunity from childhood vaccine and increased transmission through adults. Currently, pertussis booster vaccine (Tdap) is recommended for unimmunized adults and for women in the third trimester of each pregnancy; yet adult Tdap coverage remains low. Administering Tdap vaccine at non-traditional vaccination clinics and at sites where adults are accessing care for their children are effective in improving adult Tdap uptake. While most are willing to receive vaccine when recommended by their provider, lack of provider recommendation is a major obstacle to immunization. Future studies to understand barriers to provider vaccine recommendations need to be undertaken to develop interventions to improve adult Tdap vaccine uptake and reduce pertussis infection in the susceptible population. PMID:25912733

  13. Two-Month-Old Infants' Sensitivity to Social Contingency in Mother-Infant and Stranger-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ann E.; Rochat, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Two-month-old infants (N = 29) participated in face-to-face interactions with their mothers and with strangers. The contingent responsiveness for smiles and vocalizations, while attending to the partner, was assessed for each partner in both interactions. For smiles and for vocalizations, infants were less responsive to the stranger relative to…

  14. The missing link: Mothers’ neural response to infant cry related to infant attachment behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Ablow, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses a gap in the attachment literature by investigating maternal neural response to cry related to infant attachment classifications and behaviors. Twenty-two primiparous mothers and their 18-month old infants completed the Strange Situation Procedure (SS) to elicit attachment behaviors. During a separate functional MRI session, mothers were exposed to their own infant’s cry sound, as well as an unfamiliar infant’s cry and control sound. Maternal neural response to own infant cry related to both overall attachment security and specific infant behaviors. Mothers of less secure infants maintained greater activation to their cry in left parahippocampal and amygdala regions and the right posterior insula. consistent with a negative schematic response bias. Mothers of infants exhibiting more avoidant or contact maintaining behaviors during the SS showed diminished response across left prefrontal, parietal, and cerebellar areas involved in attentional processing and cognitive control. Mothers of infants exhibiting more disorganized behavior showed reduced response in bilateral temporal and subcallosal areas relevant to social cognition and emotion regulation. No differences by attachment classification were found. Implications for attachment transmission models are discussed. PMID:22982277

  15. Developing a Standard Approach to Examine Infant Mortality: Findings from the State Infant Mortality Collaborative (SIMC)

    PubMed Central

    Kroelinger, Charlan D.; Dudgeon, Matthew; Goodman, David; Ramos, Lauren Raskin; Barfield, Wanda D.

    2015-01-01

    States can improve pregnancy outcomes by using a standard approach to assess infant mortality. The State Infant Mortality Collaborative (SIMC) developed a series of analyses to describe infant mortality in states, identify contributing factors to infant death, and develop the evidence base for implementing new or modifying existing programs and policies addressing infant mortality. The SIMC was conducted between 2004 and 2006 among five states: Delaware, Hawaii, Louisiana, Missouri, and North Carolina. States used analytic strategies in an iterative process to investigate contributors to infant mortality. Analyses were conducted within three domains: data reporting (quality, reporting, definitional criteria, and timeliness), cause and timing of infant death (classification of cause and fetal, neonatal, and postneonatal timing), and maturity and weight at birth/maturity and birth weight-specific mortality. All states identified the SIMC analyses as useful for examining infant mortality trends. In each of the three domains, SIMC results were used to identify important direct contributors to infant mortality including disparities, design or implement interventions to reduce infant death, and identify foci for additional analyses. While each state has unique structural, political, and programmatic circumstances, the SIMC model provides a systematic approach to investigating increasing or static infant mortality rates that can be easily replicated in all other states and allows for cross-state comparison of results. PMID:23108735

  16. Developing a standard approach to examine infant mortality: findings from the State Infant Mortality Collaborative (SIMC).

    PubMed

    Stampfel, Caroline; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Dudgeon, Matthew; Goodman, David; Ramos, Lauren Raskin; Barfield, Wanda D

    2012-12-01

    States can improve pregnancy outcomes by using a standard approach to assess infant mortality. The State Infant Mortality Collaborative (SIMC) developed a series of analyses to describe infant mortality in states, identify contributing factors to infant death, and develop the evidence base for implementing new or modifying existing programs and policies addressing infant mortality. The SIMC was conducted between 2004 and 2006 among five states: Delaware, Hawaii, Louisiana, Missouri, and North Carolina. States used analytic strategies in an iterative process to investigate contributors to infant mortality. Analyses were conducted within three domains: data reporting (quality, reporting, definitional criteria, and timeliness), cause and timing of infant death (classification of cause and fetal, neonatal, and postneonatal timing), and maturity and weight at birth/maturity and birth weight-specific mortality. All states identified the SIMC analyses as useful for examining infant mortality trends. In each of the three domains, SIMC results were used to identify important direct contributors to infant mortality including disparities, design or implement interventions to reduce infant death, and identify foci for additional analyses. While each state has unique structural, political, and programmatic circumstances, the SIMC model provides a systematic approach to investigating increasing or static infant mortality rates that can be easily replicated in all other states and allows for cross-state comparison of results. PMID:23108735

  17. Personalizing Care with Infants, Toddlers and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surbeck, Elaine, Ed.; Kelley, Michael F., Ed.

    This publication deals with the present crisis in infant/toddler care. It presents information on infant/toddler development and optimal caregiving paractices, citing recent research on appropriate practices and the impact of poor versus quality care. The book is divided into two sections. In the first section, "Development and Program…

  18. Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Triadic Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter Hobson, R.; Patrick, Matthew P. H.; Crandell, Lisa E.; Garcia Perez, Rosa M.; Lee, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Background and method: The aim of this study was to examine whether a mother's sensitivity towards her one-year-old infant is related to the infant's propensity to engage in "triadic" relations--that is, to orientate to an adult's engagement with objects and events in the world, for example in sharing experiences with an adult. In order to…

  19. Brain Weight and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geir Falck; Jovan Rajs

    1995-01-01

    Increased brain weights have been reported in the literature to occur among infants who have died from sudden infant death syndrome, suggesting that cerebral edema might play a role in the cause of death among these children. We have compared brain weights from children between the ages of 1 week and 1 year, autopsied between 1980 and 1992. One group

  20. The epidemiology of sudden infant death syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Murphy; R. G. Newcombe; J. R. Sibert

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-nine cases of sudden infant death syndrome were identified among 47 413 liveborn deliveries to Cardiff residents during the years 1965-73 and 1975-77. Nineteen predictive factors available on the Cardiff Birth Survey record were evaluated individually and jointly in terms of their power to identify risk of sudden and unexpected infant death.

  1. Dummies and the sudden infant death syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E A Mitchell; B J Taylor; R P Ford; A W Stewart; D M Becroft; J M Thompson; R Scragg; I B Hassall; D M Barry; E M Allen

    1993-01-01

    The association between dummy use and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) was investigated in 485 deaths due to SIDS in the postneonatal age group and compared with 1800 control infants. Parental interviews were completed in 87% of subjects. The prevalence of dummy use in New Zealand is low and varies within New Zealand. Dummy use in the two week period

  2. Infants Experience Perceptual Narrowing for Nonprimate Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Varga, Krisztina; Frick, Janet E.; Fragaszy, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing--a phenomenon in which perception is broad from birth, but narrows as a function of experience--has previously been tested with primate faces. In the first 6 months of life, infants can discriminate among individual human and monkey faces. Though the ability to discriminate monkey faces is lost after about 9 months, infants…

  3. Cisapride Decreases Gastroesophageal Reflux in Preterm Infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald L. Ariagno; Myrna A. Kikkert; Majid Mirmiran; Carol Conrad; Roger B. Baldwin

    Objective. Gastrointestinal prokinetic agents, such as cisapride, are commonly used in pediatric practice to improve gastric emptying, to decrease emesis, to improve lower esophageal sphincter tone, and to im- prove irritability and feeding aversion associated with gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Although cisapride seems to be effective in infants from 2 months to 14 years old, data for younger and preterm infants

  4. Infant Botulism and Raised Intraocular Pressure.

    PubMed

    Eberly, Matthew D; Uber, Ian; Kieling, Christopher R; Birdsong, Richard H

    2009-11-01

    Infant botulism is an exceedingly rare disease. Because confirmatory laboratory testing is not available for several days after time of presentation, infant botulism remains a clinical diagnosis. The authors demonstrate how raised intraocular pressure may provide an additional clinical clue to making the diagnosis. PMID:19873952

  5. Infant-Mother Relationship and Object Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafica, Felicisima C.; Uzgiris, Ina C.

    The aims of this study were: (1) to specify who the infant-mother relationship evolves, and (2) to demonstrate how the development of object concept affects the evolution of that relationship. Subjects were 19 male and 17 female Caucasian infants from 4 to 12 months of age. The development of an interpersonal relationship was assessed through the…

  6. Infants' Ability to Parse Continuous Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hespos, Susan J.; Saylor, Megan M.; Grossman, Stacy R.

    2009-01-01

    In a series of 3 experiments, the authors examined 6- and 8-month-old infants' capacities to detect target actions in a continuous action sequence. In Experiment 1, infants were habituated to 2 different target actions and subsequently were presented with 2 continuous action sequences that either included or did not include the familiar target…

  7. Object Permanence in Young Infants: Further Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baillargeon, Renee; DeVos, Julie

    1991-01-01

    Observed the reactions of 3.5-month-old infants looking at a carrot that should have but did not appear in a window after passing behind a screen. The results of this and several similar experiments indicated that 3.5-month-old infants are able to represent and reason about hidden objects. (BC)

  8. Nap-Dependent Learning in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hupbach, Almut; Gomez, Rebecca L.; Bootzin, Richard R.; Nadel, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Sleep has been shown to aid a variety of learning and memory processes in adults (Stickgold, 2005 ). Recently, we showed that infants' learning also benefits from subsequent sleep such that infants who nap are able to abstract the general grammatical pattern of a briefly presented artificial language (Gomez, Bootzin & Nadel, 2006 ). In the present…

  9. Cardiac conduction disorders in six infants with \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B R Keeton; E Southall; N Rutter; R H Anderson; E A Shinebourne; D P Southall

    1977-01-01

    Cardiac conduction disorders caused sudden serious illnesses in six infants that might have been fatal if diagnosis and treatment had been delayed. These cases provide circumstantial evidence to support a link between cardiac conduction disorders and some sudden infant deaths. A further potential long-term effect of these disorders is illustrated in one child in whom psychomotor retardation seemed to develop

  10. Pupil Dilation and Object Permanence in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirois, Sylvain; Jackson, Iain R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relative merits of looking time and pupil diameter measures in the study of early cognitive abilities of infants. Ten-month-old infants took part in a modified version of the classic drawbridge experiment used to study object permanence (Baillargeon, Spelke, & Wasserman, 1985). The study involved a factorial design where…

  11. Art and the Infant-Toddler Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Marilyn

    Stages in the development of art expression in infants and toddlers are briefly described and illustrated in this paper. Following this overview, suggestions are made about ways to introduce infants and toddlers to various developmentally appropriate media and how to support the artistic efforts of very young children. Materials recommended…

  12. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  13. Acute Mastoiditis in Infants and Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles M. Ginsburg; Raul Rudoy; John D. Nelson

    1980-01-01

    During a 25-year period, 57 cases of acute mastoiditis occurred in infants and young children who ranged in age from 2 months to 12 years of age. All patients had abnormalities of the tympanic membrane and most had fever and localized edema and redness of the overlying skin. Fifty per cent of the infants who were less than one year

  14. Undernutrition malnutrition in infants in developing countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We commend Dr. Humphrey on an insightful and well-written editorial on infant underweight malnutrition and thank her for her interest in our study on this topic. In our trial, provision of fortified spread, a novel lipid-based nutrient supplement, to Malawian infants was associated with a markedly ...

  15. Rifampin use and safety in hospitalized infants.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Christopher J; Ericson, Jessica; Kohman, Jordan; Corey, Kaitlyn L; Oh, Morgan; Onabanjo, Janet; Hornik, Christoph P; Clark, Reese H; Benjamin, Daniel K; Smith, P Brian; Chu, Vivian H

    2015-05-01

    Objective?This study aims to examine the use and safety of rifampin in the hospitalized infants. Study Design?Observational study of clinical and laboratory adverse events among infants exposed to rifampin from 348 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group between 1997 and 2012. Result?Overall, 2,500 infants received 4,279 courses of rifampin; mean gestational age was 27 weeks (5th, 95th percentile; 23, 36) and mean birth weight was 1,125?g (515; 2,830). Thrombocytopenia (121/1,000 infant days) and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (25/1,000 infant days) were the most common laboratory adverse events. The most common clinical adverse events were medical necrotizing enterocolitis (64/2,500 infants, 3%) and seizure (60/2,500 infants, 2%). Conclusion?The overall incidence of adverse events among infants receiving rifampin appears low; however, additional studies to further evaluate safety and dosing of rifampin in this population are needed. PMID:25594217

  16. Reducing Infant Mortality. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Despite the wide range of expertise that has been brought to bear on reducing infant mortality across the nation, the first year of life remains a time of considerable risk for many babies. Although the U.S. spends more on health care than any other country, its infant mortality rate remains higher than that of most other industrialized nations.…

  17. Enhancing Early Communication through Infant Sign Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Rachel H.; Cotnoir-Bichelman, Nicole M.; McKerchar, Paige M.; Tate, Trista L.; Dancho, Kelly A.

    2007-01-01

    Existing research suggests that there may be benefits to teaching signing to hearing infants who have not yet developed vocal communication. In the current study, each of 4 infants ranging in age from 6 to 10 months was taught a simple sign using delayed prompting and reinforcement. In addition, Experiment 1 showed that 2 children independently…

  18. Aural temperature of the newborn infant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Stratton

    1977-01-01

    The aural, oesophageal, and rectal temperatures of 10 term infants were monitored during changes in environmental temperature. The aural temperature in normal infants was found to be consistently higher than at any other site. It is suggested that this finding is due to the local heating effect of brain metabolism and shows the important contribution to total body heat production

  19. Update in Maternal and Infant Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Elizabeth M.

    1989-01-01

    This review emphasizes research that confirms or questions established practices regarding maternal and infant nutrition. Controversial issues include weight gain and use of vitamins and mineral supplements during pregnancy and the effects of second-hand smoke. Infant nutrition topics include use of unmodified cow's milk, level of fat, and…

  20. Optimizing Infant Development: Strategies for Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine

    This guide for infant day care providers examines the importance of early experience for brain development and strategies for providing optimal infant care. The introduction discusses the current devaluation of day care and idealization of maternal care and identifies benefits of quality day care experience for intellectual development, sleep…

  1. Who's Vulnerable in Infant Child Care Centers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Earline D.; Moukaddem, Virginia E.

    1992-01-01

    Maintains that infants and toddlers, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to a variety of infectious diseases from infant-toddler child care centers. These diseases include infectious diarrhea; rubella; cytomeglovirus; hepatitis A, and haemophilus influenza type B. Suggests ways to prevent the spread of such diseases. (BB)

  2. The "Effects" of Infant Day Care Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay

    1988-01-01

    Examines evidence concerning developmental correlates of nonmaternal care in the infant's first year with respect to infant-mother attachment and subsequent social development. Concludes that more than 20 hours a week of nonmaternal care may be a risk factor contributing to developmental difficulties. (SKC)

  3. The "Effects" of Infant Day Care Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay

    Evidence concerning the developmental correlates of nonmaternal care in the first year of life are examined with respect to infant-mother attachment and subsequent social development. Even though the evidence is not without its inconsistencies, a circumstantial case, consistent with attachment theory, can be made that extensive infant day care…

  4. Temperament, Emotionality, and Infant Social Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ross A.

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on the role of temperament in early psychosocial interaction, specifically as it relates to infant-mother attachment. Also considers how temperament may influence the infant's cognitions, emotions, and behaviors and thus affect his or her adaptation to social events. (HOD)

  5. Development of Categorical Exclusivity in Young Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eimas, Peter D.; And Others

    Previous research has shown that 3- to 4-month-old infants form a global categorical representation for cats that includes female lions, whereas 6- to 7-month-old infants differentiate between cats and lions. Three experiments using familiarization-novelty preference procedures attempted to determine whether the differentiation of a global…

  6. Cytochemical Leukocyte Reactions in Normal Newborn Infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Corberand; J. Pris; C. Régnier

    1973-01-01

    The scores of five cytochemical leukocyte reactions (myeloperoxydases, leukocyte alkaline phosphatases, nonspecific esterases, cell polysaccharides and Soudan black) were established in a group of 100 healthy neonates from normal pregnancies. Comparisons between infant and adult findings show that leukocyte alkaline phosphatase activity is distinctly higher in infants whereas that of mieloperoxydases and of lymphocyte cell polysaccharides is lower. The interpretation

  7. Brief report: sound output of infant humidifiers.

    PubMed

    Royer, Allison K; Wilson, Paul F; Royer, Mark C; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2015-06-01

    The sound pressure levels (SPLs) of common infant humidifiers were determined to identify the likely sound exposure to infants and young children. This primary investigative research study was completed at a tertiary-level academic medical center otolaryngology and audiology laboratory. Five commercially available humidifiers were obtained from brick-and-mortar infant supply stores. Sound levels were measured at 20-, 100-, and 150-cm distances at all available humidifier settings. Two of 5 (40%) humidifiers tested had SPL readings greater than the recommended hospital infant nursery levels (50 dB) at distances up to 100 cm. In this preliminary study, it was demonstrated that humidifiers marketed for infant nurseries may produce appreciably high decibel levels. Further characterization of the effect of humidifier design on SPLs and further elucidation of ambient sound levels associated with hearing risk are necessary before definitive conclusions and recommendations can be made. PMID:25904578

  8. Red flag causes of vomiting in infants.

    PubMed

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Whinney, Jennifer; Fernando, Andrew Michael

    2014-04-01

    Vomiting is a common presentation in infants and is mostly due to a benign cause. Although vomiting is usually considered to be gastrointestinal in origin, it can be due to dysfunction of other organ systems, some of which may be life threatening. Community practitioners are often the first health professionals to come across these infants. They should assess these infants keeping in mind the 'red flags'. Suspicion of a serious disorder should be followed by prompt referral to a medical professional. This article aims to highlight the commonly encountered causes of vomiting in infants and provides some suggestions to be followed by community practitioners while dealing with an infant presenting with vomiting. PMID:24941728

  9. MOTHER-INFANT INTERACTION IMPROVES WITH A DEVELOPMENTAL INTERVENTION FOR MOTHER-PRETERM INFANT DYADS

    PubMed Central

    White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen F.; Fabiyi, Camille; Rankin, Kristin M.; Li, Zhyouing; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    While premature infants have a high need for positive interactions, both infants and their mothers are challenged by the infant‘s biological immaturity. This randomized clinical trial of 198 premature infants born at 29–34 weeks gestation and their mothers examined the impact of the H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant’s Environment) intervention on mother-premature infant interaction patterns at 6-weeks corrected age (CA). Mothers had at least 2 social environmental risk factors such as minority status or less than high school education. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the H-HOPE intervention group or an attention Control group. H-HOPE is an integrated intervention that included (1) twice-daily infant stimulation using the ATVV (auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular-rocking stimulation) and (2) four maternal participatory guidance sessions plus two telephone calls by a nurse-community advocate team. Mother-infant interaction was assessed at 6-weeks CA using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training–Feeding Scale (NCAST, 76 items) and the Dyadic Mutuality Code (DMC, 6-item contingency scale during a 5-minute play session). NCAST and DMC scores for the Control and H-HOPE groups were compared using t-tests, chi-square tests and multivariable analysis. Compared with the Control group (n = 76), the H-HOPE group (n = 66) had higher overall NCAST scores and higher maternal Social-Emotional Growth Fostering Subscale scores. The H-HOPE group also had significantly higher scores for the overall infant subscale and the Infant Clarity of Cues Subscale (p < 0.05). H-HOPE dyads were also more likely to have high responsiveness during play as measured by the DMC (67.6% versus 58.1% of controls). After adjustment for significant maternal and infant characteristics, H-HOPE dyads had marginally higher scores during feeding on overall mother-infant interaction (? = 2.03, p = .06) and significantly higher scores on the infant subscale (? = 0.75, p = .05) when compared to controls. In the adjusted analysis, H-HOPE dyads had increased odds of high versus low mutual responsiveness during play (OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 0.97, 5.80). Intervening with both mother and infant is a promising approach to help premature infants achieve the social interaction patterns essential for optimal development. PMID:23962543

  10. Young Infants Match Facial and Vocal Emotional Expressions of Other Infants

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant-Molina, Mariana; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Flom, Ross

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that infants recognize emotional expressions of adults in the first half-year of life. We extended this research to a new domain, infant perception of the expressions of other infants. In an intermodal matching procedure, 3.5- and 5-month-old infants heard a series of infant vocal expressions (positive and negative affect) along with side-by-side dynamic videos in which one infant conveyed positive facial affect and another infant conveyed negative facial affect. Results demonstrated that 5-month-olds matched the vocal expressions with the affectively congruent facial expressions, whereas 3.5-month-olds showed no evidence of matching. These findings indicate that by 5 months of age, infants detect, discriminate, and match the facial and vocal affective displays of other infants. Further, because the facial and vocal expressions were portrayed by different infants and shared no face-voice synchrony, temporal or intensity patterning, matching was likely based on detection of a more general affective valence common to the face and voice. PMID:24302853

  11. The impact of infant crying on the parent-infant relationship.

    PubMed

    Oldbury, Sarah; Adams, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Infant crying is distressing for parents, evoking a range of difficult feelings. Infants who cry often maybe perceived as difficult by their parents, with negative effects on bonding and attachment. Infant crying as a stimulus for child-abuse is also highlighted, as parents' feelings of frustration may provoke harmful responses towards the child. A non-exhaustive literature review was conducted, exploring the impact of infant crying on parents, using CASP tools to support the analysis of twenty qualitative and quantitative studies, published between 2003 and 2013. This paper reports the findings of the review, with a specific focus on the effects of infant crying on the parent-infant relationship. The findings suggest parents may experience anxiety, depression, helplessness, anger and frustration in response to infant crying. Negative effects on bonding and parental perception of the baby are identified. Parents may also experience thoughts of harming their baby, and subsequent feelings of guilt and shame. Universal interventions to help parents prepare for parenthood, and to respond positively to crying are strongly recommended. Opportunities for parents to discuss their feelings towards their infant should be maximised, reducing the impact of infant crying on bonding and attachment. Parents should be empowered to develop strategies and sources of support to help them cope. Early identification of parents experiencing difficulties in coping with infant crying is essential, and risk in relation to potential abuse must be assessed. Health visitors have a key role in providing such support. PMID:25812239

  12. International Child Care Practices Study: infant sleeping environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandre Jenik; John Vance; Karen Walmsley; Katie Pollard; Michelle Freemantle; Dot Ewing; Christa Einspieler; Heidemarie Engele; Petra Ritter; G. Elske Hildes-Ripstein; Monica Arancibia; Xiaocheng Ji; Haiqi Li; E. A. S Nelson; Crystal Bedard; Karin Helweg-Larsen; Katrine Sidenius; Susan Karlqvist; Christian Poets; Eva Barko; Bernadette Kiberd; Mary McDonnell; Gianpaolo Donzelli; Raffaele Piumelli; Luca Landini; Arturo Giustardi; Hiroshi Nishida; Stephanie Fukui; Toshiko Sawaguchi; Masataka Ino; Takeshi Horiuchi; Koki Oguchi; Barry J Taylor; Sheila Williams; Yildiz Perk; David Tappin; Joseph Milerad; Maria Wennborg; N Aryayev; V Nepomyashchaya

    2001-01-01

    Background: The International Child Care Practices Study (ICCPS) has collected descriptive data from 21 centres in 17 countries. In this report, data are presented on the infant sleeping environment with the main focus being sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) risk factors (bedsharing and infant using a pillow) and protective factors (infant sharing a room with adult) that are not yet

  13. Biobehavioral Organization in Securely and Insecurely Attached Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, G.; Grossmann, K. E.

    1993-01-01

    A biobehavioral perspective may help settle disagreements about the validity and interpretation of infants' different behavioral patterns of attachment. A study of 41 infants demonstrated that insecure-avoidant infants, despite showing less overt distress after short separations from their mother than secure infants, exhibited arousal patterns as…

  14. When Do Infants Begin to Follow a Point?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertenthal, Bennett I.; Boyer, Ty W.; Harding, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Infants' understanding of a pointing gesture represents a major milestone in their communicative development. The current consensus is that infants are not capable of following a pointing gesture until 9-12 months of age. In this article, we present evidence from 4- and 6-month-old infants challenging this conclusion. Infants were tested with…

  15. Infant Day Care: Hazard or Mental Health Resource?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempf, Sharon Hartwell

    Hazards in infant care may occur in an institution, day care setting or family day care home whenever caretakers disregard the individual needs of infants. Whether group care of infants becomes a mental health hazard or a resource depends upon several factors. In such situations, an infant may fail to establish the close ties with a single…

  16. Infants’ Perception of Expressive Behaviors: Differentiation of Multimodal Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arlene S. Walker-Andrews

    1997-01-01

    The literature on infants’ perception of facial and vocal expressions, combined with data from studies on infant-directed speech, mother–infant interaction, and social referencing, supports the view that infants come to recognize the affective expressions of others through a perceptual differentiation process. Recognition of affective expressions changes from a reliance on multimodally presented information to the recognition of vocal expressions and

  17. Relationships between Preterm Infants and Their Parents: Disruption and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmi, Ayelet; Harmon, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    The birth and hospitalization of a preterm infant have powerful effects on the emerging parent-infant relationship. Characteristics of parents, infant factors, and factors in the hospital and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) environments--in addition to the circumstances surrounding preterm birth--may disrupt parent-infant relationships.…

  18. Linguistic Significance of Babbling: Evidence from a Tracheostomized Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, John L.; Pearson, Dawn M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the phonetic patterns and linguistic development of an infant who was tracheostomized during the period that infants normally begin to produce syllabic vocalization. It was found that the infant had developed only a tenth of the canonical syllables expected in normally developing infants, a small inventory of consonant-like segments, and…

  19. Preserved Visual Representations despite Change Blindness in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Su-hua; Mitroff, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    Combining theoretical hypotheses of infant cognition and adult perception, we present evidence that infants can maintain visual representations despite their failure to detect a change. Infants under 12 months typically fail to notice a change to an object's height in a covering event. The present experiments demonstrated that 11-month-old infants…

  20. Rectal-skin temperature difference in septicaemic newborn infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Messaritakis; D Anagnostakis; H Laskari; C Katerelos

    1990-01-01

    Serial skin (sole) and rectal temperatures were simultaneously taken from 55 healthy and 26 septicaemic newborn infants to find out prospectively whether septicaemic newborn infants have any thermoregulatory reaction to the septicaemia, and whether regular temperature measurements could help in the early diagnosis of septicaemia. The septicaemic infants were divided into three groups: the first comprised eight feverish infants, the

  1. "Songese": Maternal Structuring of Musical Interaction with Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal structure of mother-infant interactions with songs, with particular attention to two aspects: 1) the singing of the mothers to their infants, and 2) the non-verbal behaviours mothers and infants produce in synchrony with the musical beat. Four mother-infant dyads were video-recorded when the…

  2. Infant Negative Emotionality and Attachment: Implications for Preschool Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karrass, Jan; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the extent to which dimensions of infant negative temperament in the first year predicted IQ at age 3, and whether these associations depended on the quality of the infant-mother attachment relationship. In a sample of 63 infant-mother dyads, mothers completed Rothbart's (1981) IBQ when infants were 4 and 12…

  3. Infant-mother attachment among the Dogon of Mali.

    PubMed

    True, M M; Pisani, L; Oumar, F

    2001-01-01

    This study of mothers and infants from the Dogon ethnic group of Mali, West Africa examined three attachment hypotheses: (1) that infant attachment security is linked to the quality of mother-infant communication, (2) that mothers of secure infants respond more sensitively to their infants than do mothers of insecure infants, and (3) that infant disorganization is linked to maternal frightened or frightening behaviors. Participants were 27 mother-infant pairs from a rural town and 15 mother-infant pairs from two agrarian villages; infants ranged in age from 10 to 12.5 months at the first assessment. The distribution of the Strange Situation classifications was 67% secure, 0% avoidant, 8% resistant, and 25% disorganized. Infant attachment security was significantly related to the quality of mother-infant communication as observed in a well-infant exam. The correlation between infant attachment security ratings and maternal sensitivity (assessed in the home) was modest and approached significance. Mothers of disorganized infants had significantly higher ratings of frightened or frightening behaviors. Maternal sensitivity predicted little of the variance in infant security; however, the addition of the frightened/frightening variable in the regression equation tripled the explained variance. The findings are discussed in light of Dogon childrearing practices and key tenets of attachment theory. PMID:11699681

  4. Temperamental precursors of infant attachment with mothers and fathers.

    PubMed

    Planalp, Elizabeth M; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M

    2013-12-01

    The degree to which parent sensitivity and infant temperament distinguish attachment classification was examined. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the effect of parent sensitivity and infant temperament on infant-mother and infant-father attachment. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, and their infants (N = 135) when the infant was 3-, 5-, 7-, 12-, and 14-months old. Temperament was measured using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003); parent sensitivity was coded during the Still Face Paradigm (Tronick, Als, Adamson, Wise, & Brazelton, 1978); attachment was coded using the Strange Situation (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978). Results indicate that mothers and fathers were less sensitive with insecure-avoidant infants. Whereas only one difference was found for infant-mother attachment groups and temperament, five significant differences emerged for infant-father attachment groups, with the majority involving insecure-ambivalent attachment. Infants classified as ambivalent with fathers were higher in perceptual sensitivity and cuddliness and these infants also showed a greater increase in low-intensity pleasure over time compared with other infants. Results indicate the importance of both parent sensitivity and infant temperament, though operating in somewhat different ways, in the development of the infant-mother and infant-father attachment relationship. PMID:24103401

  5. Quantification of periodic breathing in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Mary A; Fairchild, Karen D; Patel, Manisha; Sinkin, Robert A; Clark, Matthew T; Moorman, J Randall; Lake, Douglas E; Kattwinkel, John; Delos, John B

    2015-07-01

    Periodic breathing (PB), regular cycles of short apneic pauses and breaths, is common in newborn infants. To characterize normal and potentially pathologic PB, we used our automated apnea detection system and developed a novel method for quantifying PB. We identified a preterm infant who died of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and who, on review of her breathing pattern while in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), had exaggerated PB.We analyzed the chest impedance signal for short apneic pauses and developed a wavelet transform method to identify repetitive 10-40 second cycles of apnea/breathing. Clinical validation was performed to distinguish PB from apnea clusters and determine the wavelet coefficient cutoff having optimum diagnostic utility. We applied this method to analyze the chest impedance signals throughout the entire NICU stays of all 70 infants born at 32?weeks' gestation admitted over a two-and-a-half year period. This group includes an infant who died of SIDS and her twin.For infants of 32?weeks' gestation, the fraction of time spent in PB peaks 7-14?d after birth at 6.5%. During that time the infant that died of SIDS spent 40% of each day in PB and her twin spent 15% of each day in PB.This wavelet transform method allows quantification of normal and potentially pathologic PB in NICU patients. PMID:26012526

  6. The Relationship between Quality of Infant-Mother Attachment and Infant Competence in Initial Encounters with Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Lamb, Michael E.

    1979-01-01

    The security of attachment between 18-month-old infants and their mothers was assessed in the Ainsworth strange situation (SS). Infant dyads created according to their SS classification were observed in unstructured peer interaction. Results indicated a relationship between quality of infant-mother attachment and infant peer competence. (JMB)

  7. Preventing infant abductions: an infant security program transitioned into an interdisciplinary model.

    PubMed

    Hiner, Jacqueline; Pyka, Jeanine; Burks, Colleen; Pisegna, Lily; Gador, Rachel Ann

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring the safety of infants born in a hospital is a top priority and, therefore, requires a solid infant security plan. Using an interdisciplinary approach and a systematic change process, nursing leadership in collaboration with clinical nurses and security personnel analyzed the infant security program at this community hospital to identify vulnerabilities. By establishing an interdisciplinary approach to infant security, participants were able to unravel a complicated concept, systematically analyze the gaps, and agree to a plan of action. This resulted in improved communication and clarification of roles between the nursing and security divisions. Supply costs decreased by 17.4% after the first year of implementation. Most importantly, this project enhanced and strengthened the existing infant abduction prevention measures, hard wired the importance of infant security, and minimized vulnerabilities. PMID:22293642

  8. [Group therapy with parents of premature infants].

    PubMed

    Neubauer, A P

    1987-08-01

    The birth of a premature infant means a heavy emotional burden on the parents which can considerably disturb the attachment process. Between October 1985 and March 1987 31 parents of very small premature infants participated in a parent-support group under a pediatrician's guidance. This group has proved useful to help these parents to overcome their emotional crisis. The efficiency of this kind of group is described but also its limitations. Positive results of the parent-support group on the later development of the infants are to be expected but have still to be verified by means of a prospective study. PMID:3657817

  9. Active noise control for infant incubators.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xun; Gujjula, Shruthi; Kuo, Sen M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an active noise control system for infant incubators. Experimental results show that global noise reduction can be achieved for infant incubator ANC systems. An audio-integration algorithm is presented to introduce a healthy audio (intrauterine) sound with the ANC system to mask the residual noise and soothe the infant. Carbon nanotube based transparent thin film speaker is also introduced in this paper as the actuator for the ANC system to generate the destructive secondary sound, which can significantly save the congested incubator space and without blocking the view of doctors and nurses. PMID:19964974

  10. Lead content of milk and infant formula

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.

    1980-03-01

    Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's milk, and human milk were 0.135 g/ml, 0.03 g/ml, 0.01 g/ml, 0.53 g/ml, and 0.02 g/ml respectively. (2 references, 2 tables)

  11. Brain vein disorders in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Raets, Marlou; Dudink, Jeroen; Raybaud, Charles; Ramenghi, Luca; Lequin, Maarten; Govaert, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The brain veins of infants are in a complex phase of remodelling in the perinatal period. Magnetic resonance venography and susceptibility-weighted imaging, together with high-resolution Doppler ultrasound, have provided new tools to aid study of venous developmental anatomy and disease. This review aims to provide a comprehensive background of vein development and perinatal venous lesions in preterm and term-born infants, and to encourage further research in both the fetus and the newborn infant, with the aim of preventing or mitigating parenchymal injury related to diseases involving veins. PMID:25212961

  12. Sleep Homeostasis in Infant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Blumberg, Mark S.; Middlemis-Brown, Jessica E.; Johnson, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Homeostatic regulation is a defining characteristic of sleep but has rarely been examined in infants. This study presents an automated method of sleep deprivation in which 5-day-old rats were shocked whenever the nuchal muscle became atonic. The intensity of shock was always set at the minimal level required to maintain arousal. Deprived pups exhibited rapid increases in sleep pressure, as evidenced by increased attempts to enter sleep and subsequent increases in sensory threshold; this increased sensory threshold was not due to sensory adaptation of peripheral receptors. In addition, myoclonic twitching was suppressed during the 30-min deprivation period, leading to rebound twitching during recovery sleep. These results provide the earliest demonstration of the homeostatic regulation of sleep in an altricial mammal. PMID:15598134

  13. Resurgence of Infant Caregiving Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bruzek, Jennifer L; Thompson, Rachel H; Peters, Lindsay C

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to identify the conditions likely to produce resurgence among adult human participants. The preparation was a simulated caregiving context, wherein a recorded infant cry sounded and was terminated contingent upon targeted caregiving responses. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated resurgence with human participants in this negative reinforcement preparation. Results of Experiment 2 showed that responses with a longer history of reinforcement showed a stronger resurgence effect relative to responses with a shorter and more recent history of reinforcement. These results show that the resurgence phenomenon occurs across populations and types of reinforcers. Additionally, results indicate that length of reinforcement history is a variable that may affect the magnitude of resurgence. PMID:20514165

  14. 75 FR 23777 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ...Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula Requirements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...collection regarding the manufacture of infant formula, including infant formula labeling, quality control procedures,...

  15. Differences and similarities between father-infant interaction and mother-infant interaction.

    PubMed

    Yago, Satoshi; Hirose, Taiko; Okamitsu, Motoko; Okabayashi, Yukiko; Hiroi, Kayoko; Nakagawa, Nozomi; Omori, Takahide

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare father-infant interaction with mother-infant interaction, and explore differences and similarities between parents. Related factors for quality of father-infant interaction were also examined. Sixteen pairs of parents with infants aged 0 to 36 months were observed for play interaction between parents and their children. Results suggested no significant differences between parents, but children's interactions were significantly more contingent with fathers than mothers (p =.045). Significant correlations between parents were found in socialemotional growth fostering encouragement for children during interaction (? =.73, p =.001). Paternal depressive symptoms were significantly correlated to paternal sensitivity to child's cues (? =-.59, p =.017). PMID:24658960

  16. Mothers' insightfulness regarding their infants' internal experience: relations with maternal sensitivity and infant attachment.

    PubMed

    Koren-Karie, Nina; Oppenheim, David; Dolev, Smadar; Sher, Efrat; Etzion-Carasso, Ayelet

    2002-07-01

    This study examined the associations among mothers' insightfulness into their infants' internal experience, mothers' sensitivity to their infants' signals, and infants' security of attachment to their mothers. The insightfulness of 129 mothers of 12-month-old infants was assessed by showing mothers 3 videotaped segments of observations of their infants and themselves and interviewing them regarding their infants' and their own thoughts and feelings. Interviews were classified into 1 insightful and 3 noninsightful categories. Mothers' sensitivity was assessed during play sessions at home and at the laboratory, and infant-mother attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation. Mothers classified as positively insightful were rated as more sensitive and were more likely to have securely attached children than were mothers not classified as positively insightful. Insightfulness also accounted for variance in attachment beyond the variance explained by maternal sensitivity. These findings add an important dimension to research on caregiving, suggesting that mothers' seeking of explanations for the motives underlying their infants' behavior is related to both maternal sensitivity and infant attachment. PMID:12090483

  17. Young infants have biological expectations about animals.

    PubMed

    Setoh, Peipei; Wu, Di; Baillargeon, Renée; Gelman, Rochel

    2013-10-01

    What are the developmental origins of our concept of animal? There has long been controversy concerning this question. At issue is whether biological reasoning develops from earlier forms of reasoning, such as physical and psychological reasoning, or whether from a young age children endow animals with biological properties. Here we demonstrate that 8-mo-old infants already expect novel objects they identify as animals to have insides. Infants detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and agentive (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) was revealed to be hollow. Infants also detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and furry (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) either was shown to be hollow or rattled (when shaken) as although mostly hollow. Young infants' expectations about animals' insides may serve as a foundation for the development of more advanced biological knowledge. PMID:24003134

  18. Development of Infants With Idiopathic External Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Ayelet; Cohen, Rony; Viner, Ilana; Diamond, Gary; Shuper, Avinoam

    2015-07-01

    External hydrocephalus in an infant is a condition in which the rate of growth of head circumference exceeds the expectations of the Nellhouse curve together with increased size of the subarachnoid spaces. Developmental milestones of 20 infants (aged 0-16 months) with external hydrocephalus were studied by the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. The areas of development that were studied were visual reception, fine motor, expressive language, receptive language, and total Mullen score. There were no significant differences between the study group and the general population in all 5 scores. The only prominent feature of our external hydrocephalus patients was hypotonia (transient in 9 [45%] and persistent in 2 [10%]). Although the term external hydrocephalus describes a roentgenographic presentation, the term benign enlargement of subarachnoid space is preferred in infants similar to our group by better describing the benign nature of the phenomenon in appropriately selected infants. PMID:25348416

  19. Do infants have a sense of fairness?

    PubMed Central

    Sloane, Stephanie; Baillargeon, Renée; Premack, David

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined infants’ expectations about how an experimenter should distribute resources and rewards to others. In Experiment 1, 19-month-olds expected an experimenter to divide two items equally, as opposed to unequally, between two individuals. Infants held no particular expectation when the individuals were replaced with inanimate objects, or when the experimenter simply removed covers in front of the individuals to reveal the items (instead of distributing them). In Experiment 2, 21-month-olds expected an experimenter to give a reward to each of two individuals when both had worked to complete an assigned chore, but not when one of the individuals had done all the work while the other played. Infants held this expectation only when the experimenter could determine through visual inspection who had worked and who had not. Together, these results provide converging evidence that infants in the second year of life already possess context sensitive-expectations relevant to fairness. PMID:22258431

  20. Contribution of Infant Characteristics to Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frodi, Ann M.

    1981-01-01

    The review suggested that atypical infants/children (with mental, physical, or behavioral abnormalities) are at risk for child abuse. An explanatory model of abuse was outlined and several studies described whose findings provide support for the model. (Author)

  1. Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants Search the Consumer Updates Section Get ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (221 K) Acetaminophen Safety (Podcast) On this page Overdosing Has Been ...

  2. Chronic boric acid poisoning in infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K OSullivan; M Taylor

    1983-01-01

    We report 7 infants suffering from seizures induced by chronic boric acid ingestion. The boric acid was given by dipping a soother in a proprietary borax and honey mixture. The babies have remained well since the mixture was withheld.

  3. Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

    2013-01-01

    Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). A group of 5-month-olds (n = 201) were classified as short or long lookers. At 24, 36, and 48 months of age, children completed age-appropriate EF tasks. Infant short lookers (i.e., more efficient information processors) exhibited higher EF throughout early childhood as compared to infant long lookers, even after controlling for verbal ability (a potential indicator of intelligence). These findings are discussed in relation to the emergence of executive attention. PMID:23711103

  4. Human milk for the premature infant

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065

  5. Pharmacokinetics of bumetanide in critically ill infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice E. Sullivan; Madolin K. Witte; Toyoko S. Yamashita; Carolyn M. Myers; Jeffrey L. Blumer

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Define the pharmacokinetics of bumetanide after single intravenous doses in volume-overloaded critically ill infants.Methods: A prospective, open-label study was carried out in a group of 58 infants aged 0 to 6 months who required diuretic therapy. Each patient received a single dose of intravenous bumetanide. Doses selected in sequential order ranged from 0.005 to 0.10 mg\\/kg. Hematologic and serum

  6. Trisomy 13 in Two Infants with Cyclops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsuko Fujimoto; Allan J. Ebbin; Joseph W. Towner; Miriam G. Wilson

    1973-01-01

    Two infants with cyclops malformation were born at the University of Southern California Medical Center during the past three years. The karyotypes of both infants demonstrated an extra chromosome No. 13: one with 47,XX,+13 and one with 46,XX,-14,+t(13q14q). The physical findings, karyotypes with trypsin-Giemsa banding, and association of trisomy 13 syndrome with cyclops malformation are presented.

  7. Nutrition, The Infant and the Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ger T. Rijkers; Laetitia Niers; Marianne Stasse-Wolthuis; Frans M. Rombouts

    \\u000a The human newborn possesses a functional but immature immune system in order to provide defense against a world teeming with\\u000a microorganisms. Breast milk contains a number of biological active compounds which support the infant’s immune system. These\\u000a include secretory IgAs, which confer specific protection against enteric pathogens, as well as many other immunological active\\u000a ingredients. A number of these ingredients

  8. Haemodynamic consequences of phototherapy in term infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. N. L. Benders; F. van Bel; M. van de Bor

    1999-01-01

    The effect of blue-light phototherapy on cardiac output and brain and kidney perfusion was studied in 12 term infants with\\u000a pulsed Doppler ultrasound. Mean (SD) gestational age and birth weight were 39.0 (1.6) weeks and 3438 (533)?g respectively.\\u000a Mean (SD) age of the infants at which phototherapy was initiated was 3.5 (0.8) days. Left ventricular output (LVO), mean\\u000a left pulmonary

  9. Fatal outcome of methemoglobinemia in an infant

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.; Bonrud, P.A.; Dosch, T.L.; Kilness, A.W.; Senger, K.A.; Busch, D.C.; Meyer, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    Cases of methemoglobinemia in infants and older members of farm families are probably more common than they realize. In a 1982 survey of 353 physicians in the ten-county Big Sioux region in eastern South Dakota, 29 physicians reported having treated about 80 cases of methemoglobinemia, of which 64 had occurred more than ten years earlier. This preventable, treatable intoxication continues to contribute to infant mortality today. A case history is presented.

  10. Ethanol Pharmacokinetics in Neonates and Infants

    PubMed Central

    Marek, Elizabeth; Kraft, Walter K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ethanol has been used for years in neonatal and infant liquid medications, yet the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of ethanol in this vulnerable population have not been well characterized. The purpose of this review is to raise awareness of ethanol use as an excipient in neonatal and infant medications and to provide insight, based on the available evidence, into clearance rates of ethanol in babies. We also discuss ethanol pharmacokinetics in adults, theoretical pharmacokinetic changes in neonates and infants as it may apply to ethanol disposition, and case reports involving ethanol exposure in neonates and infants. Materials and methods This study was a narrative review in which relevant papers were selected using databases and scientific search engines such as PubMed with the key words ethanol, infant, and newborninfant. Results It remains unclear what ethanol exposure is safe for neonates and infants. The Food and Drug Administration and American Academy of Pediatrics have both taken action, by either setting limits of ethanol content in over-the-counter medications or by recommending restricted exposure to ethanol-containing pediatric formulations. Conclusions Until the short- and long-term health effects of chronic ethanol administration can be further characterized, ethanol-containing medications should be used with caution. PMID:25379066

  11. Rhythmic grouping biases constrain infant statistical learning

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jessica F.; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2012-01-01

    Linguistic stress and sequential statistical cues to word boundaries interact during speech segmentation in infancy. However, little is known about how the different acoustic components of stress constrain statistical learning. The current studies were designed to investigate whether intensity and duration each function independently as cues to initial prominence (trochaic-based hypothesis) or whether, as predicted by the Iambic-Trochaic Law (ITL), intensity and duration have characteristic and separable effects on rhythmic grouping (ITL-based hypothesis) in a statistical learning task. Infants were familiarized with an artificial language (Experiments 1 & 3) or a tone stream (Experiment 2) in which there was an alternation in either intensity or duration. In addition to potential acoustic cues, the familiarization sequences also contained statistical cues to word boundaries. In speech (Experiment 1) and non-speech (Experiment 2) conditions, 9-month-old infants demonstrated discrimination patterns consistent with an ITL-based hypothesis: intensity signaled initial prominence and duration signaled final prominence. The results of Experiment 3, in which 6.5-month-old infants were familiarized with the speech streams from Experiment 1, suggest that there is a developmental change in infants’ willingness to treat increased duration as a cue to word offsets in fluent speech. Infants’ perceptual systems interact with linguistic experience to constrain how infants learn from their auditory environment. PMID:23730217

  12. Segmental production in Mandarin-learning infants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Mei; Kent, Raymond D

    2010-03-01

    The early development of vocalic and consonantal production in Mandarin-learning infants was studied at the transition from babbling to producing first words. Spontaneous vocalizations were recorded for 24 infants grouped by age: G1 (0 ; 7 to 1 ; 0) and G2 (1 ; 1 to 1 ; 6). Additionally, the infant-directed speech of 24 caregivers was recorded during natural infant-adult interactions to infer language-specific effects. Data were phonetically transcribed according to broad categories of vowels and consonants. Vocalic development, in comparison with reports for children of other linguistic environments, exhibited two universal patterns: the prominence of [symbol: see text] and [symbol: see text], and the predominance of low and mid vowels over high vowels. Language-specific patterns were also found, e.g. the early appearance and acquisition of low vowels [symbol: see text]. Vowel production was similar in G1 and G2, and a continuum of developmental changes brought infants' vocalization closer to the adult model. Consonantal development showed two universal patterns: labials and alveolars occurred more frequently than velars; and nasals developed earlier than fricatives, affricates and liquids. We also found two language-specific patterns: alveolars were more prominent than labials and affricates developed early. Universal and language-specific characteristics in G1 continued to be prominent in G2. These data indicate that infants are sensitive to the ambient language at an early age, and this sensitivity influences the nature of their vocalizations. PMID:19490748

  13. Factors influencing infant mortality in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Swenson, I E; Nguyen, M T; Pham, B S; Vu, Q N; Vu, D M

    1993-07-01

    Selected determinants of overall infant mortality in Vietnam were examined using data from the 1988 Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey, and factors underlying neonatal and post-neonatal mortality were also compared. Effects of community development characteristics, including health care, were studied by logistic regression analysis in a subsample of rural children from the 1990 Vietnam Accessibility of Contraceptives Survey. Infant neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rates showed comparable distributions by birth order, maternal age, pregnancy intervals, mother's education and urban-rural residence. Rates were highest among first order births, births after an interval of less than 12 months, births to illiterate mothers and to those aged under 21 or over 35 years of age. Logistic regression analysis showed that the most significant predictor of infant mortality was residence in a province where overall infant mortality was over 40 per 1000 live births. In the rural subsample, availability of public transport was the most persistent community development predictor of infant mortality. Reasons for the low infant mortality rates in Vietnam compared to countries with similar levels of economic development are discussed. PMID:8360224

  14. Marketing Breastfeeding—Reversing Corporate Influence on Infant Feeding Practices

    PubMed Central

    Graff, Kristina M.

    2008-01-01

    Breast milk is the gold standard for infant nutrition and the only necessary food for the first 6 months of an infant’s life. Infant formula is deficient and inferior to breast milk in meeting infants’ nutritional needs. The infant formula industry has contributed to low rates of breastfeeding through various methods of marketing and advertising infant formula. Today, in New York City, although the majority of mothers initiate breastfeeding (~85%), a minority of infants is breastfed exclusively at 8 weeks postpartum (~25%). The article reviews the practices of the formula industry and the impact of these practices. It then presents the strategic approach taken by the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and its partners to change hospital practices and educate health care providers and the public on the benefits of breast milk, and provides lessons learned from these efforts to make breastfeeding the normative and usual method of infant feeding in New York City. PMID:18463985

  15. Female parity, maternal kinship, infant age and sex influence natal attraction and infant handling in a wild colobine (Colobus vellerosus).

    PubMed

    B?descu, Iulia; Sicotte, Pascale; Ting, Nelson; Wikberg, Eva C

    2015-04-01

    Primate females often inspect, touch and groom others' infants (natal attraction) and they may hold and carry these infants in a manner resembling maternal care (infant handling). While natal attraction and infant handling occur in most wild colobines, little is known about the factors influencing the expression of these behaviors. We examined the effects of female parity, kinship, and dominance rank, as well as infant age and sex in wild Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana. We collected data via focal sampling of females in 2008 and 2009 (N = 61) and of infants in 2010 (N = 12). Accounting for the individuals who interacted with our focal subjects, this study includes 74 females and 66 infants in 8 groups. We recorded female agonistic interactions ad libitum to determine dominance ranks. We used partial pedigree information and genotypes at 17 short tandem repeat loci to determine kinship. We knew female parity, infant age and sex from demographic records. Nulliparous females showed more natal attraction and infant handling than parous females, which may suggest that interactions with infants are more adaptive for nulliparous females because they learn mothering skills through these behaviors. Compared to non-kin, maternal kin were more likely to handle infants. Maternal kin may be permitted greater access to infants because mothers are most familiar with them. Handlers may incur inclusive fitness benefits from infant handling. Dominance rank did not affect female interactions with infants. The youngest infants received the most natal attraction and infant handling, and male infants were handled more than female infants. The potential benefits of learning to mother and inclusive fitness, in combination with the relatively low costs of natal attraction and infant handling, may explain the high rates of these behaviors in many colobines. PMID:25399677

  16. Mother–infant cosleeping, breastfeeding and sudden infant death syndrome: What biological anthropology has discovered about normal infant sleep and pediatric sleep medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. McKenna; Helen L. Ball; Lee T. Gettler

    2007-01-01

    Twenty years ago a new area of inquiry was launched when anthropologists proposed that an ev- olutionary perspective on infancy could contribute to our understanding of unexplained infant deaths. Here we review two decades of research examining parent-infant sleep practices and the variability of maternal and infant sleep physiology and behavior in social and solitary sleeping environments. The results challenge

  17. Caregivers Provide More Labeling Responses to Infants' Pointing than to Infants' Object-Directed Vocalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zhen; Gros-Louis, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Existing studies have observed a robust relationship between infants' pointing gestures and language outcomes. By contrast, infants' overall vocal production is not related to language outcomes. One possible explanation for the association between pointing and language is that pointing gestures, as compared to vocalizations, may elicit more verbal…

  18. Assessment of compliance with home cardiorespiratory monitoring in infants at risk of sudden infant death syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean M. Silvestri; David R. Hufford; Jane Durham; Sheilah M. Pearsall; Mary Ann Oess; Debra E. Weese-Mayer; Carl E. Hunt; Suzette M. Levenson; Michael J. Corwin

    1995-01-01

    Objectives: Documented monitoring was used to evaluate prospectively (1) the level of compliance among infants in whom cardiorespiratory monitoring was clinically indicated and (2) factors that might influence compliance: diagnosis, socioeconomic status, maternal age and education, and alarms. Study design: Sixty-seven infants (51% female, 49% term) were sequentially enrolled, and monitoring was prescribed for the following indications: siblings of sudden

  19. Infant Temperament Characteristics Related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Its Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2006-01-01

    Three major components have been repeatedly implicated for the origin(s) of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): system, minor sickness and surroundings. All these factors also frame infant temperament, and therefore it seems logical to suppose that the babies who either succumb to or are at risk of SIDS may present with certain behavioral…

  20. Sequence Learning in 4-Month-Old Infants: Do Infants Represent Ordinal Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, David J.; Berent, Iris

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated how 4-month-old infants represent sequences: Do they track the statistical relations among specific sequence elements (e.g., AB, BC) or do they encode abstract ordinal positions (i.e., B is second)? Infants were habituated to sequences of 4 moving and sounding elements--3 of the elements varied in their ordinal position…

  1. The Mother-Infant Relationship and Infant Development: The Effect of Pediatric Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitt, J. Kenneth; Casey, Patrick H.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-two mother/infant dyads were randomly assigned to groups provided with routine well-child care and to discussions of either infant social development (intervention treatment) or accident prevention and nutrition (control). Findings revealed more sensitivity, cooperativeness, appropriateness of interaction, and appropriateness of play in the…

  2. [Three Years of Infant Observation with Mrs. Bick, Founder of Infant Observation, Tavistock Clinic in London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magagna, Jeanne

    Discussed from a psychoanalytic perspective are areas of special difficulty in the phases of a three-year training observation of an infant and his family under the supervision of a 79-year-old child psychoanalyst and teacher. Specific attention is given to the child in relation to his family, the role of the observer in containing mother/infant…

  3. Early infant diet and ERP Correlates of Speech Stimuli Discrimination in 9 month old infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processing and discrimination of speech stimuli were examined during the initial period of weaning in infants enrolled in a longitudinal study of infant diet and development (the Beginnings Study). Event-related potential measures (ERP; 128 sites) were used to compare the processing of speech stimul...

  4. Parent-Infant Interaction in Infant Siblings at Risk of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Ming Wai; Green, Jonathan; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark; Charman, Tony; Plummer, Faye

    2012-01-01

    Recent models of the early emergence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) propose an interaction between risk susceptibility and the infant's social environment, resulting in a progressively atypical developmental trajectory. The infant's early social environmental experience consists mostly of interaction with caregivers, yet there has been little…

  5. Bone mineral content (BMC) and serum vitamin D concentrations of infants fed partially hydrolyzed infant formulas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the study was to compare the bone status of healthy, term infants fed partially hydrolyzed whey formulas during the first 3 mo of life. Between 0 and 8 d of age, 89 infants were randomized to Good Start Supreme (GSS) or an experimental whey-based formula (EF) to 84 d of age. BMC was a...

  6. The Power of an Infant's Smile: Maternal Physiological Responses to Infant Emotional Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Mizugaki, Sanae; Maehara, Yukio; Okanoya, Kazuo; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

    2015-01-01

    Infant emotional expressions, such as distress cries, evoke maternal physiological reactions. Most of which involve accelerated sympathetic nervous activity. Comparatively little is known about effects of positive infant expressions, such as happy smiles, on maternal physiological responses. This study investigated how physiological and psychological maternal states change in response to infants’ emotional expressions. Thirty first-time mothers viewed films of their own 6- to 7-month-old infants’ affective behavior. Each observed a video of a distress cry followed by a video showing one of two expressions (randomly assigned): a happy smiling face (smile condition) or a calm neutral face (neutral condition). Both before and after the session, participants completed a self-report inventory assessing their emotional states. The results of the self-report inventory revealed no effects of exposure to the infant videos. However, the mothers in the smile condition, but not in the neutral condition, showed deceleration of skin conductance. These findings demonstrate that the mothers who observed their infants smiling showed decreased sympathetic activity. We propose that an infant’s positive emotional expression may affect the branch of the maternal stress-response system that modulates the homeostatic balance of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. PMID:26065903

  7. Infant dreaming and fetal memory: A possible explanation of sudden infant death syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Christos

    1995-01-01

    During rapid-eye-movement sleep, when we dream, the brain is thought to be processing stored memory. The memory of a newborn infant is dominated by its fetal experience, and the infant is likely to dream about its life in the womb. Research with lucid (or conscious) dreaming has shown that dream images are supported by the corresponding body actions, using those

  8. Young Infants' Vocalizations towards Mother versus Stranger: Associations with the Infant-Mother Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volker, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    Infants' differential vocal response (DVR) towards their mother and a female stranger at 3 months of age has been predominantly investigated as an index of early cognitive functioning. The present study explored the relationship between DVR and different infant and mother indicators of the developing relationship quality in a sample of 23…

  9. A Proposed Tactile Vision-Substitution System for Infants Who Are Blind Tested on Sighted Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segond, Herve; Weiss, Deborah; Sampaio, Eliana

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes the attraction of stimulation produced by a visuotactile sensory substitution device, which was designed to provide optical information to infants who are blind via a tactile modality. The device was first tested on sighted infants, to demonstrate that this type of stimulation on the abdomen is pleasant and rewarding in…

  10. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant...

  11. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant...

  12. Mother Infant Interactions in Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): Spatial Relationships, Communication, and Opportunities

    E-print Network

    Maestripieri, Dario

    Mother Infant Interactions in Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): Spatial This study investigated mother infant interactions in lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla conducive to infant social learning. Eleven gorilla mother infant dyads were focally observed in weekly 1-hr

  13. 45 CFR 1340.15 - Services and treatment for disabled infants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...involving an infant older than one year of age...medically indicated treatment from disabled infants...medically indicated treatment from disabled infants...medically indicated treatment from disabled infants...prescribing specific medical treatments for specific...

  14. The mother-infant relationship and infant development: the effect of pediatric intervention.

    PubMed

    Whitt, J K; Casey, P H

    1982-08-01

    This study examined the impact of intervention provided in the context of pediatric health supervision visits on the mother-infant relationship during the first 6 months of life. 32 mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned at birth to either an intervention or attention control group, each of which received routine well-child care plus discussions regarding infant social development or accident prevention and nutrition, respectively. Blind assessment of infant and mother behavior frequencies, responsive behavior sequences, and affective relationship characteristics during a 21-min play observation revealed more sensitivity, cooperativeness, appropriateness of interaction, and appropriateness of play by the intervention group pairs, although differences in Bayley Mental Scales and the Uzgiris and Hunt subscales did not attain significance. Post hoc inspection of the behavioral correlates of the affective relationship characteristics provided support for molar assessment of mother-infant interaction as an adjunct to contemporary methods of behavioral microanalytic study. PMID:7128259

  15. How Does Microanalysis of Mother-Infant Communication Inform Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Attachment?

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Beatrice; Steele, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Microanalysis research on 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication operates like a “social microscope” and identifies aspects of maternal sensitivity and the origins of attachment with a more detailed lens. We hope to enhance a dialogue between these two paradigms, microanalysis of mother-infant communication and maternal sensitivity and emerging working models of attachment. The prediction of infant attachment from microanalytic approaches and their contribution to concepts of maternal sensitivity are described. We summarize aspects of one microanalytic study by Beebe and colleagues (2010) that documents new communication patterns between mothers and infants at 4 months that predict future disorganized (vs. secure) attachment. The microanalysis approach opens up a new window on the details of the micro-processes of face-to-face communication. It provides a new, rich set of behaviors with which to extend our understanding of the origins of infant attachment and of maternal sensitivity. PMID:24299136

  16. A new infant oscillatory ventilator.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, M K; Holdcroft, A; Sapsed-Byrne, S; Whitwam, J G

    1990-03-01

    A new, simple and inexpensive oscillatory ventilator is described in which a rotating jet mounted in the breathing duct generates cyclically positive and negative pressures in the airway with a sinusoidal flow waveform. Unlike conventional oscillatory ventilators it is free from restrictions to inspiratory or expiratory gas flows and open to atmosphere at all times, making it intrinsically a safe system for ventilation. A prototype rotating jet oscillatory ventilator designed for application in infants was evaluated in rabbits (mean weight 3.8 kg). The positive peak and mean airway pressures were significantly less during oscillatory ventilation at 300 and 420 b.p.m. compared with normal and high frequency positive pressure ventilation at 30 and 300 b.p.m., respectively, while maintaining blood-gas tensions within the normal range. An increase in the oscillatory frequency from 300 to 420 b.p.m. provided no further benefit in terms of airway pressure, tidal volume or blood-gas tensions. PMID:2109628

  17. Infant dreaming and fetal memory: a possible explanation of sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Christos, G A

    1995-04-01

    During rapid-eye-movement sleep, when we dream, the brain is thought to be processing stored memory. The memory of a newborn infant is dominated by its fetal experience, and the infant is likely to dream about its life in the womb. Research with lucid (or conscious) dreaming has shown that dream images are supported by the corresponding body actions, using those muscles which remain active during rapid-eye-movement sleep. We suggest that sudden infant death syndrome or cot death may be a result of an infant dreaming about its life (or memory) as a fetus. In the course of that dream, since a fetus does not breathe (in the usual sense) the infant may cease to breathe and may die. This simple hypothesis is consistent with all of the known facts about sudden infant death syndrome (pathological and epidemiological), such as the age at death curve (the observed exponential decay and possibly the peak at 2-3 months), the higher risk with the prone sleeping position (but not excluding the supine position), and the observed climatic variation (seasonal and regional) in the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome. Many of these well-established facts have no other known explanation and other theories can generally only account for a few of the known facts about sudden infant death syndrome. Our hypothesis is also supported by recent findings that, as a group, sudden infant death syndrome infants have a higher proportion of rapid-eye-movement sleep, and also that they have an average higher heart rate (corresponding to possible fetal dreams) but only during rapid-eye-movement sleep.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7666822

  18. Immunological evidence for a bacterial toxin aetiology in sudden infant death syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Siarakas; Alissa Jane Brown; William G. Murrell

    1999-01-01

    Toxin-specific antibodies to clostridial, enterobacterial and staphylococcal toxins implicated in sudden infant death syndrome were studied in sera from sudden infant death syndrome infants and a comparison group of infants (babies with phenylketonuria). The results indicated a higher proportion of sera from sudden infant death syndrome infants contained IgA that bound to clostridial and enterobacterial toxins but a higher proportion

  19. Conditions of Continuity and Discontinuity in Infant Negative Emotionality: Newborn to Five Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Margaret; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Compared infants who had evidenced similar levels of crying as neonates but differed at five months of age. For initially high-crying infants, mothers' personality and marital quality, and infant variables discriminated stable from changing infants. Mother sensitivity and infant responsiveness at five months were related to continuity of infants

  20. An Analysis of Marital and Infant Factors in Evolving Family Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Nancy Illback

    The impact of two levels of infant organization and marital satisfaction on parent-infant interaction patterns was investigated in 25 couples. It was predicted that (1) disorganized infants would have a negative impact on the parent-infant relationship, and that (2) parent-infant interaction with disorganized infants would be more negative among…

  1. The use of filters with small infants.

    PubMed

    Whitelock, David E; de Beer, David A H

    2006-06-01

    The use of breathing system filters may be particularly beneficial in small infants, compared with older children and adults, because of their greater need for warming and humidification of inspired gases as well as their increased susceptibility to lower respiratory tract contamination. The only evidence available regarding the safety and efficacy of breathing system filters in small infants comes from a few small studies conducted on intensive care patients, however. These studies have suggested that the use of HME filters may be effective in preserving body temperature and airway humidity while decreasing fluid build-up in the breathing system and therefore reducing breathing system contamination. Nonetheless, the use of filters has not been shown to decrease the incidence of VAP in small infants. In contrast,their use in adult intensive care patients, particularly those requiring prolonged ventilation, has been associated with a decrease in the infection rate. The use of breathing system filters is not associated with a statistically significant increase in the rate of complications, despite the potentially greater hazards associated with their use in small infants compared with older children and adults. In practice the use of breathing system filters, even in small infants, rarely causes any major clinical problems that cannot be prevented with a high degree of vigilance and appropriate monitoring. This vigilance is particularly important to prevent the serious morbidity and even mortality that may result from filter occlusion; when subjected to excessive loading, smaller filters are more prone to obstruction than are their larger counterparts. The increased resistance provided by smaller filters should not translate into a clinically significant increase in the work of breathing during general anesthesia, because it is common practice to ventilate small infants for all but the shortest of surgical procedures. An increase in the work of breathing may, however, become more significant when spontaneous ventilation is established at the end of a surgical case. It remains unclear whether the use of filters allows the safe reuse of breathing systems in small infants. None of the breathing system filters tested by the MHRA had a zero-percent penetrance to sodium chloride particles, and pediatric filters generally had a higher penetrance than their adult counterparts. This finding suggests that there is a potential, albeit small, risk of cross-contamination. The exact risk depends on the type of filter used and on the particular patient undergoing anesthesia or ventilation in the ICU. Although no evidence has been published showing cross-infection occurring when any filter has been used in the anesthesia breathing system for adults or small infants, the level of filtration performance required to allow the safe reuse of anesthesia breathing systems in small infants remains unanswered. Because the incidence of lower respiratory tract colonization is low in unselected small infants, a study with sufficient power to answer accurately the questions regarding the safety of breathing system reuse in small infants would be very difficult to conduct. The effect of filters on post operative infection rates may in fact be of less significance than the adoption of adequate standards of hygiene (eg, hand washing and the use of gloves).Further research is needed to determine if the variations in filtration efficiency demonstrated by the MHRA have any effects on patient outcome. This research might allow setting an effective minimal level of filtration performance for breathing system filters for use in small infants. On a practical note, the publication of the MHRA assessments of breathing system filters provides a useful tool for objective comparison of the different filters available for use in small infants, even though the relevance of the flow used to test pediatric filters has been criticized. Individual institutions will need to formulate policies for the use of breathing system filters for clinical reasons as well as for cost

  2. Infants Generalize Representations of Statistically Segmented Words

    PubMed Central

    Graf Estes, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    The acoustic variation in language presents learners with a substantial challenge. To learn by tracking statistical regularities in speech, infants must recognize words across tokens that differ based on characteristics such as the speaker’s voice, affect, or the sentence context. Previous statistical learning studies have not investigated how these types of non-phonemic surface form variation affect learning. The present experiments used tasks tailored to two distinct developmental levels to investigate the robustness of statistical learning to variation. Experiment 1 examined statistical word segmentation in 11-month-olds and found that infants can recognize statistically segmented words across a change in the speaker’s voice from segmentation to testing. The direction of infants’ preferences suggests that recognizing words across a voice change is more difficult than recognizing them in a consistent voice. Experiment 2 tested whether 17-month-olds can generalize the output of statistical learning across variation to support word learning. The infants were successful in their generalization; they associated referents with statistically defined words despite a change in voice from segmentation to label learning. Infants’ learning patterns also indicate that they formed representations of across word syllable sequences during segmentation. Thus, low probability sequences can act as object labels in some conditions. The findings of these experiments suggest that the units that emerge during statistical learning are not perceptually constrained, but rather are robust to naturalistic acoustic variation. PMID:23112788

  3. Sudden infant deaths: from epidemiology to physiology.

    PubMed

    Kahn, A; Sawaguchi, T; Sawaguchi, A; Groswasser, J; Franco, P; Scaillet, S; Kelmanson, I; Dan, B

    2002-09-14

    The incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has dropped significantly in most countries following the development of education campaigns on the avoidance of risk factors for SIDS. However, questions have been raised about the physiological mechanism responsible for the effects of these environmental risk factors. Since 1985, a series of prospective, multicentric studies have been developed to address these questions; over 20,000 infants were recorded during one night in a sleep laboratory and among these, 40 infants eventually died of SIDS. In this review, the following methods were employed: sleep recordings and analysis, monitoring procedure, data analysis of sleep stages, cardiorespiratory and oxygen saturation, scoring of arousals, spectral analysis of the heart rate and the determination of arousal thresholds, and statistical analysis and the results including sleep apneas, arousals and heart rate and autonomic controls in both future SIDS victims and normal infants were introduced separately. In addition, the physiological effect of prenatal risk factors (maternal smoking during gestation) and postnatal risk factors (administration of sedative drugs, prone sleeping position, ambient temperature, sleeping with the face covered by a bed sheet, pacifiers and breastfeeding) in normal infants were analyzed. In conclusion, the physiological studies undertaken on the basis of epidemiological findings provide some clues about the physiological mechanisms linked with SIDS. Although the description of the mechanisms responsible for SIDS is still far from complete, it appears to involve both arousal responses and cardiac autonomic controls during sleep-wake processes. PMID:12350296

  4. Vocal congruence in mother-infant play.

    PubMed

    Beebe, B; Alson, D; Jaffe, J; Feldstein, S; Crown, C

    1988-05-01

    Turn-taking is the fundamental temporal structure of adult dialogue. This structure defines two types of joint silence: intrapersonal pause (silence bounded by the vocalizations of a single speaker) and switching pause (silence bounded by the vocalizations of different speakers). Switching pauses mark the boundaries of the turn exchange. In adult conversation the mean durations of both types of pause are characteristically matched between partners. This matching, termed "vocal congruence," occurs developmentally earlier in the case of switching pauses. We hypothesized and confirmed that mothers and infants match switching pauses but not intrapersonal pauses at 4 months, even though the infants' vocalizations are prelinguistic. Second, since there are known affective correlates of vocal congruence in adult conversation, we hypothesized a similar affective correlate for mother-infant vocal congruence. We found, for the intrapersonal pause only, that the degree of matching within a dyad correlates with infant affective engagement. We conclude, from switching pause congruence, that a turn-taking dialogic structure is being regulated in the mother-infant pair at 4 months in the same way as seen in adult conversation. Thus, both the temporal structure of adult dialogue and its affective correlate are prelinguistic. PMID:3411533

  5. Intravenous Lipids for Preterm Infants: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Ghassan SA; Kaabneh, Mahmmoud AF; Almasaeed, Mai N; Alquran, Mohammad IA

    2015-01-01

    Extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW) are born at a time when the fetus is undergoing rapid intrauterine brain and body growth. Continuation of this growth in the first several weeks postnatally during the time these infants are on ventilator support and receiving critical care is often a challenge. These infants are usually highly stressed and at risk for catabolism. Parenteral nutrition is needed in these infants because most cannot meet the majority of their nutritional needs using the enteral route. Despite adoption of a more aggressive approach with amino acid infusions, there still appears to be a reluctance to use early intravenous lipids. This is based on several dogmas that suggest that lipid infusions may be associated with the development or exacerbation of lung disease, displace bilirubin from albumin, exacerbate sepsis, and cause CNS injury and thrombocytopena. Several recent reviews have focused on intravenous nutrition for premature neonate, but very little exists that provides a comprehensive review of intravenous lipid for very low birth and other critically ill neonates. Here, we would like to provide a brief basic overview, of lipid biochemistry and metabolism of lipids, especially as they pertain to the preterm infant, discuss the origin of some of the current clinical practices, and provide a review of the literature, that can be used as a basis for revising clinical care, and provide some clarity in this controversial area, where clinical care is often based more on tradition and dogma than science. PMID:25698888

  6. Is Infant Immunity Actively Suppressed or Immature?

    PubMed Central

    Gervassi, Ana L; Horton, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Almost 7 million children under the age 5 die each year, and most of these deaths are attributable to vaccine-preventable infections. Young infants respond poorly to infections and vaccines. In particular, dendritic cells secrete less IL-12 and IL-18, CD8pos T cells and NK cells have defective cytolysis and cytokine production, and CD4pos T cell responses tend to bias towards a Th2 phenotype and promotion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). The basis for these differences is not well understood and may be in part explained by epigenetic differences, as well as immaturity of the infant’s immune system. Here we present a third possibility, which involves active suppression by immune regulatory cells and place in context the immune suppressive pathways of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), CD5pos B cells, and Tregs. The immune pathways that these immune regulatory cells inhibit are similar to those that are defective in the infant. Therefore, the immune deficiencies seen in infants could be explained, in part, by active suppressive cells, indicating potential new avenues for intervention. PMID:25429207

  7. WIC's promotion of infant formula in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kent, George

    2006-01-01

    Background The United States' Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) distributes about half the infant formula used in the United States at no cost to the families. This is a matter of concern because it is known that feeding with infant formula results in worse health outcomes for infants than breastfeeding. Discussion The evidence that is available indicates that the WIC program has the effect of promoting the use of infant formula, thus placing infants at higher risk. Moreover, the program violates the widely accepted principles that have been set out in the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and in the human right to adequate food. Summary There is no good reason for an agency of government to distribute large quantities of free infant formula. It is recommended that the large-scale distribution of free infant formula by the WIC program should be phased out. PMID:16722534

  8. Gross Motor Development in Infants Blind from Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelson, Edna; Fraiberg, Selma

    1974-01-01

    Longitudinal study of patterns of gross motor development in congenitally blind infants indicated that neuromuscular maturation and postural achievements were similar to those of sighted infants, but that self-initiated mobility and locomotion were delayed. (ST)

  9. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... births, 2002* Race of Mother Infant Mortality Rate Ratio vs. Non-Hispanic White Non-Hispanic White 5. ... by territory Race of Mother Infant Mortality Rate Ratio** vs. Non-Hispanic White Non-Hispanic White (U.S. ...

  10. Maternal and Infant Iron Status and First Year Illness

    E-print Network

    Douglas, Sarah E.

    2011-04-20

    was to investigate the relationship between maternal and infant body iron and infant illness. The primary investigation recruited 350 pregnant women between 8 and 20 weeks gestation. The subjects were recruited from local Kansas City hospitals including Kansas...

  11. Social Evaluations of 7- and 8-Month-Old Infants 

    E-print Network

    Kasperbauer, Tyler

    2012-07-16

    A landmark experiment by Kiley Hamlin, Karen Wynn, and Paul Bloom demonstrated that infants as young as 6 months old possess previously unrecognized abilities to form social evaluations. In the experiment, infants were shown a shape that was made...

  12. Maternal Behavior and Perceived Sex of Infant: Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Caroline; Lloyd, Barbara

    1978-01-01

    Mothers of firstborn infants were videotaped playing with a six-month-old infant with sex-appropriate or cross-sex clothes and names. Toy choice and interaction styles varied with the perceived sex of the child. (BD)

  13. Melatonin concentrations in the sudden infant death syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturner, W. Q.; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M. H.; Gleason, R. E.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The melatonin levels in various body fluids of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants are compared with those of infants of comparable age who died of other causes to examine a possible relationship between pineal function and SIDS. After adjusting for age differences, cerebrospinal fluid melatonin levels are found to be significantly lower in the SIDS infants. It is suggested that diminished melatonin production may be characteristic of SIDS and could represent an impairment in the maturation of physiologic circadian organization.

  14. Contributions of infant word learning to language development

    PubMed Central

    Swingley, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Infants learn the forms of words by listening to the speech they hear. Though little is known about the degree to which these forms are meaningful for young infants, the words still play a role in early language development. Words guide the infant to his or her first syntactic intuitions, aid in the development of the lexicon, and, it is proposed, may help infants learn phonetic categories. PMID:19933136

  15. Infant Care and Childhood Performance in East Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munroe, Ruth H.; Munroe, Robert L.

    This paper reports on a followup study of the long-term effects of infant care patterns among the Logoli people of East Africa. In the original study, 12 infants, ages 7-13 months, were observed to obtain a measure of the frequency with which the infant was held by the mother and others, latency of response to the infant's crying, and the number…

  16. Perinatal predictors of sleep disturbances in young infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Kelmanson

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to identify risk factors of sleep disturbances in 2-month-old infants. It comprised 198 infants (86 boys,\\u000a 112 girls) who were singletons born in St. Petersburg, Russia, in 2007. The mothers were asked to complete questionnaires\\u000a addressing major infant, maternal, and demographic characteristics. Preexisting medical records were scrutinized. The mothers\\u000a were requested to describe infant sleep troubles. The baby was defined as

  17. Challenges to Bonnet Monkey (Macaca radiata) Social Groups: Mother–Infant Dyad and Infant Social Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Laudenslager, Mark L.; Natvig, C.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, S.M.; Blevins, M.; Corcoran, C.; Pierre, P.J.; Bennett, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The mother-infant dyad is crucial to early development in a variety of species. The complexity of social groupings in nonhuman primates makes this relationship resilient as well as susceptible to early challenges associated with environmental chaos. Quantitative behavior observations of bonnet monkey mother-infant interactions were collected from 28 mother-infant dyads between one and twelve months of age. Social groups were subjected to several prenatal and/or postnatal housing relocations within a single year resulting in two study groups. One group experienced relocations (ATYPICAL, n = 14) and the second group (TYPICAL, n = 14) was conceived and reared in the same location. Behaviors in the ethogram included mother-infant interactions and infant social interactions with other members of the group. Observations between ages of two to four months were analyzed by a mixed model analysis of variance including fixed effects of per and postnatal history (TYPICAL, ATYPICAL), age, and history by age interaction and random effects of mother and infant nested within mother. A significant effect of relocation history was noted on a number of infant behaviors. ATYPICAL infants were out of direct contact with their mother at an earlier age but remained in her proximity. Control of proximity shifted to offsrping in the ATYPICAL group compared to the TYPICAL group. Furthermore, greater social interactions between two and four months of age with other members of the social group as well as the ir mother were observed in the ATYPICAL group. It is suggested that continuous challenge associated with relocation may affect the infant at later developmental ages due to these early differences in ways that are yet unclear. PMID:20583143

  18. Infant regulation of intake: the effect of free glutamate content in infant formulas1234

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Alison K; Beauchamp, Gary K; Mennella, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    Background: We recently discovered that infants randomly assigned to a formula high in free amino acids (extensive protein hydrolysate formula; ePHF) during infancy consumed less formula to satiation and gained less weight than did infants fed an isocaloric formula low in free amino acids (cow milk formula; CMF). Objective: Because ePHF and CMF differ markedly in concentrations of free glutamate, we tested the hypothesis that the higher glutamate concentrations in ePHF promote satiation and satiety. Design: In this counterbalanced, within-subject study, infants <4 mo of age (n = 30) visited our laboratory for 3 sets of 2 consecutive infant-led formula meals over 3 test days. Infants were fed 1 of 3 isocaloric formulas during each first meal: CMF, ePHF, or CMF with added free glutamate to approximate concentrations in ePHF (CMF+glu). When infants signaled hunger again, they were fed a second meal of CMF. From these data, we calculated satiety ratios for each of the 3 formulas by dividing the intermeal interval by the amount of formula consumed during that particular first meal. Results: Infants consumed significantly less CMF+glu (P < 0.02) and ePHF (P < 0.04) than CMF during the first meals. They also showed greater levels of satiety after consuming CMF+glu or ePHF: satiety ratios for CMF+glu (P < 0.03) and ePHF (P < 0.05) were significantly higher than for CMF. Conclusion: These findings suggest a role of free glutamate in infant intake regulation and call into question the claim that formula feeding impairs infants’ abilities to self regulate energy intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00957892. PMID:22357724

  19. Quantitative Linking Hypotheses for Infant Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Yurovsky, Daniel; Hidaka, Shohei; Wu, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The study of cognitive development hinges, largely, on the analysis of infant looking. But analyses of eye gaze data require the adoption of linking hypotheses: assumptions about the relationship between observed eye movements and underlying cognitive processes. We develop a general framework for constructing, testing, and comparing these hypotheses, and thus for producing new insights into early cognitive development. We first introduce the general framework – applicable to any infant gaze experiment – and then demonstrate its utility by analyzing data from a set of experiments investigating the role of attentional cues in infant learning. The new analysis uncovers significantly more structure in these data, finding evidence of learning that was not found in standard analyses and showing an unexpected relationship between cue use and learning rate. Finally, we discuss general implications for the construction and testing of quantitative linking hypotheses. MATLAB code for sample linking hypotheses can be found on the first author's website. PMID:23110071

  20. The excessively crying infant: etiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Akhnikh, Samira; Engelberts, Adèle C; van Sleuwen, Bregje E; L'Hoir, Monique P; Benninga, Marc A

    2014-04-01

    Excessive crying, often described as infantile colic, is the cause of 10% to 20% of all early pediatrician visits of infants aged 2 weeks to 3 months. Although usually benign and self-limiting, excessive crying is associated with parental exhaustion and stress. However, an underlying organic cause is found in less than 5% of these infants. In the majority of cases, treatment consists not of "curing the colic," although usually it is possible to reduce crying, but of helping the parents to get through this challenging period in their baby's development. The aims of this review are to discuss definition, etiology, and evaluate different treatment regimes in infants who cry excessively. PMID:24716561

  1. Fatal progressive vaccinia in two immunodeficient infants.

    PubMed

    Olding-Stenkvist, E; Nordbring, F; Larsson, E; Lindblom, B; Wigzell, H

    1980-01-01

    Fatal progressive vaccinia developed in two infants, a girl and a boy, vaccinated at the age of 2 months. Immunodeficiencies comprised both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. In the girl low levels of immunoglobulins and a defect function of lymphocytes was demonstrated. The boy had hypogammaglobulinemia and lack of T-lymphocytes. There was a marked hypoplasia of thymus and lymphoid organs in both infants. Both infants had the haplotype A3, B8 and in the boy a crossing over had taken place within the HLA region. No effect was achieved with antivaccinia immunoglobulin and concomitant antiviral therapy (thiosemicarbazone, adenine arabinoside). Interferon therapy gave no clinical improvement, nor did transfer factor. PMID:6937980

  2. Clinical safety assessment of infant nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fewtrell, M S

    2012-01-01

    Data on clinical safety and efficacy are ideally collected in a randomized clinical trial or, failing this, an observational study. Suitable outcomes vary depending on the intervention and population group, and certain outcomes such as growth may test both efficacy and safety. The use of growth as an important safety outcome has some limitations since it is currently not clear what represents an 'optimal' growth pattern. Several issues currently make the conduct and interpretation of infant nutrition trials challenging. These include difficulties in recruiting exclusively formula-fed infants, particularly given the emotive nature of infant feeding; the involvement of industry leading to real or perceived conflicts of interest; increased regulation and bureaucracy; and particular issues with long-term follow-up studies, notably cohort attrition. This paper addresses the implications of these issues and some potential solutions. PMID:22699768

  3. Assessment and management of pain in infants

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, P; Mathew, J

    2003-01-01

    Infants, including newborn babies, experience pain similarly and probably more intensely than older children and adults. They are also at risk of adverse long term effects on behaviour and development, through inadequate attention towards pain relief in early life. However, the issue of analgesia in young babies has been largely neglected in most clinical settings, despite subjecting them to painful diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Several therapeutic and preventive strategies, including systemic and local pharmacological and non-pharamacological interventions, are reported to be effective in relieving pain in infants. A judicious application of these interventions, backed by awareness and sensitivity to pain perception, on the part of the caregivers is likely to yield the best results. This article is a review of the mechanisms of pain perception, objective assessment, and management strategies of pain in infants. PMID:12954954

  4. Escherichia coli and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bettelheim, Karl A.; Goldwater, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the association of strains of Escherichia coli with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and the possible role these bacteria play in this enigmatic condition. The review addresses evidence for E. coli in SIDS infants, potential sources of E. coli in the environment, colonization by commensal and pathogenic strains, the variety of currently accepted pathotypes, and how these pathotypes could compromise intestinal integrity and induce inflammation. Both intestinal and extraintestinal pathotypes are compared in relation to the apparent liability in which virulence traits can be gained or lost by strains of E. coli. The way in which E. coli infections fit with current views on infant sleeping position and other SIDS risk factors is highlighted.

  5. Managing Hypertension in the Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Nickavar, Azar; Assadi, Farahnak

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension in newborn infants, particularly those requiring intensive care, is becoming increasingly recognized, with prevalence of 0.2-3%. Recent studies have established normative tables for blood pressure (BP) in both term and pre-term infants based on the gestational age, postnatal age, gender, weight and height, identifying the neonates at increased risk for early-onset cardiovascular disease. Common causes of neonatal hypertension include thromboembolic complications secondary to umbilical artery catheterization, congenital renal structural malformation, renovascular disease, aortic coarctation, as well as acute kidney injury and certain medications. A careful diagnostic evaluation should lead to identification of the underlying cause of hypertension in most infants. Treatment options should be tailored to the severity; and underlying cause of hypertension, including intravenous and/or oral therapy. This review summarizes recent work in these areas, focusing on optimal BP measurement, definition, evaluation and management of hypertension as well as advances in drug therapy of neonatal hypertension. PMID:24791189

  6. Infants learn baby signs from video.

    PubMed

    Dayanim, Shoshana; Namy, Laura L

    2015-05-01

    There is little evidence that infants learn from infant-oriented educational videos and television programming. This 4-week longitudinal experiment investigated 15-month-olds' (N = 92) ability to learn American Sign Language signs (e.g., patting head for hat) from at-home viewing of instructional video, either with or without parent support, compared to traditional parent instruction and a no-exposure control condition. Forced-choice, elicited production, and parent report measures indicate learning across all three exposure conditions, with a trend toward more robust learning in the parent support conditions, regardless of medium. There were no differences between experimental and control conditions in the acquisition of corresponding verbal labels. This constitutes the first experimental evidence of infants' ability to learn expressive communication from commercially available educational videos. PMID:25622926

  7. Pertussis and Influenza Vaccination Among Insured Pregnant Women - Wisconsin, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Koepke, Ruth; Kahn, Danielle; Petit, Ashley B; Schauer, Stephanie L; Hopfensperger, Daniel J; Conway, James H; Davis, Jeffrey P

    2015-07-17

    On February 22, 2013, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) revised recommendations for vaccination of pregnant women to recommend tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) during every pregnancy, optimally at 27-36 weeks of gestation, to prevent pertussis among their newborns. Since 2004, influenza vaccination has been recommended for pregnant women in any trimester to prevent influenza and associated complications for mother and newborn. To evaluate vaccination of pregnant women in Wisconsin after the 2013 Tdap recommendation, health insurance claims data for approximately 49% of Wisconsin births were analyzed. The percentage of women who received Tdap during pregnancy increased from 13.8% of women delivering during January 2013 (63.1% of whom received Tdap 2-13 weeks before delivery) to 51.0% of women delivering during March 2014 (90.9% of whom received Tdap 2-13 weeks before delivery). Among women delivering during November 2013-March 2014, 49.4% had received influenza vaccine during pregnancy. After the 2013 recommendation, Tdap vaccination among pregnant women increased but plateaued at rates similar to influenza vaccination rates. Prenatal care providers should implement, evaluate, and improve Tdap and influenza vaccination programs, and strongly recommend that pregnant patients receive these vaccines to prevent severe illness and complications among mothers and infants. PMID:26182193

  8. Infant Affect during Parent--Infant Interaction at 3 and 6 Months: Differences between Mothers and Fathers and Influence of Parent History of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Erika E.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2004-01-01

    Fifty families participated in mother-infant and father-infant still-face interaction at infant ages 3 and 6 months as part of a study of affect in early parent-infant relationships. Infants' positive and negative affect and parents' positive affect and physical play were coded from videotapes. Consistent with previous research, during the normal…

  9. Maternal regulation of infant brain state.

    PubMed

    Sarro, Emma C; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2014-07-21

    Patterns of neural activity are critical for sculpting the immature brain, and disrupting this activity is believed to underlie neurodevelopmental disorders [1-3]. Neural circuits undergo extensive activity-dependent postnatal structural and functional changes [4-6]. The different forms of neural plasticity [7-9] underlying these changes have been linked to specific patterns of spatiotemporal activity. Since maternal behavior is the mammalian infant's major source of sensory-driven environmental stimulation and the quality of this care can dramatically affect neurobehavioral development [10], we explored, for the first time, whether infant cortical activity is influenced directly by interactions with the mother within the natural nest environment. We recorded spontaneous neocortical local field potentials in freely behaving infant rats during natural interactions with their mother on postnatal days ?12-19. We showed that maternal absence from the nest increased cortical desynchrony. Further isolating the pup by removing littermates induced further desynchronization. The mother's return to the nest reduced this desynchrony, and nipple attachment induced a further reduction but increased slow-wave activity. However, maternal simulation of pups (e.g., grooming and milk ejection) consistently produced rapid, transient cortical desynchrony. The magnitude of these maternal effects decreased with age. Finally, systemic blockade of noradrenergic beta receptors led to reduced maternal regulation of infant cortical activity. Our results demonstrate that during early development, mother-infant interactions can immediately affect infant brain activity, in part via a noradrenergic mechanism, suggesting a powerful influence of the maternal behavior and presence on circuit development. PMID:24980504

  10. Comorbidities in Infants with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Qubty, William F.; Mrelashvili, Anna; Kotagal, Suresh; Lloyd, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: The clinical characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in infants have been insufficiently characterized. Our aim was to describe identifiable comorbidities in infants with obstructive sleep apnea, which may assist in recognizing these patients earlier in their disease course and help improve management. Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective study involving infants 0-17 months of age with a diagnosis of OSA on the basis of clinical features and nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) at the Mayo Clinic Center for Sleep Medicine between 2000 and 2011. Patients were excluded if they had central apnea accounting for greater than 50% of respiratory events. OSA severity was determined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Results: One hundred thirty-nine patients were included. Based upon the AHI, they were subdivided into mild (AHI < 5; 30%), moderate (AHI 5-9; 30%), or severe (AHI > 10; 40%) categories. Comorbidities included gastroesophageal reflux in 95/139 (68%), periodic limb movements in sleep in 59/139 (42%), craniofacial abnormalities in 52/139 (37%), neuromuscular abnormalities in 47/139 (34%), prematurity in 41/139 (29%), genetic syndromes in 41/139 (29%), laryngomalacia/tracheomalacia in 38/139 (27%), and epilepsy in 23/139 (17%) of subjects. Severity of OSA correlated with prematurity, having a genetic syndrome, or neuromuscular abnormality. Multispecialty evaluation was needed for 119/139 (86%). Conclusion: Comorbidities in infants with OSA differ from those of older children. Based upon the comorbidities identified in our study population, it appears that appropriate management of infants with OSA requires a multidisciplinary approach involving genetics, gastroenterology, pulmonology, otolaryngology, neurology, and general pediatrics. Citation: Qubty WF, Mrelashvili A, Kotagal S, Lloyd RM. Comorbidities in infants with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(11):1213-1216. PMID:25325583

  11. Caregivers' Playfulness and Infants' Emotional Stress during Transitional Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jeesun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the playfulness of the teachers of infants and its relations to infants' emotional distress during the transitional time at a child care centre. The study used a qualitative case study. Two infant caregivers in a university-based child care centre participated in this study. For the three-month research…

  12. Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…

  13. Infants' Visual Localization of Visual and Auditory Targets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtold, A. Gordon; And Others

    This study is an investigation of 2-month-old infants' abilities to visually localize visual and auditory peripheral stimuli. Each subject (N=40) was presented with 50 trials; 25 of these visual and 25 auditory. The infant was placed in a semi-upright infant seat positioned 122 cm from the center speaker of an arc formed by five loudspeakers. At…

  14. Does Breastfeeding Reduce the Risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Vennemann; T. Bajanowski; B. Brinkmann; G. Jorch; K. Yucesan; C. Sauerland; E. A. Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND. In the last 20 years, the prevention campaigns to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome were very successful. In some countries the advice to breastfeed is included in the campaigns' messages, but in other countries it is not. OBJECTIVE. To examine the association between type of infant feeding and sudden infant death syndrome. METHODS. The German Study

  15. The common bacterial toxins hypothesis of sudden infant death syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A Morris

    1999-01-01

    The background to the common bacterial toxin hypothesis of sudden infant death syndrome is presented. The idea is that some cases of sudden infant death syndrome are due to the lethal effects of nasopharyngeal bacterial toxins which can act synergistically to trigger the events leading to death. The concept is consistent with the age distribution of sudden infant death syndrome,

  16. Gluconeogenesis continues in premature infants receiving total parenteral nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the contribution of total gluconeogenesis, to glucose production in preterm infants receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) providing glucose exceeding normal infant glucose turnover rate, eight infants (0.955 +/- 0.066 kg, 26.5 - 0.5 wks, 4-1 d) were studied while receiving routine ...

  17. Socioeconomic Status and Infant Mortality in Texas, 1970-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parpia, Banoo; And Others

    Results suggested that socioeconomic factors were not major determinants of differences in infant mortality in Texas in the 1970's. Data on live births and infant deaths for 254 Texas counties were obtained from the Texas Department of Health for each of the 11 years from 1970 to 1980. Infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates were…

  18. Infant Mortality on the Yakama Indian Reservation, 1914-1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trafzer, Clifford E.

    1999-01-01

    Infants under age 1 constituted the most deaths recorded for any age group among Native people on the Yakama Indian Reservation (Washington), between 1914 and 1964. Poverty conditions, including poor diet and unsanitary housing; social anomie; and lack of adequate health care contributed to infant deaths. Data tables and figures detail infant…

  19. Preparing Infant-Family Practitioners: A Work in Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggbeer, Linda; Mann, Tammy; Gilkerson, Linda

    2003-01-01

    This article explores what it takes to prepare practitioners to work effectively in the infant-family field and describes efforts to meet training needs. A multifaceted effort to prepare and support practitioners who work with infants, toddlers, and families has been central to the growth of the infant-family field. Part C of IDEA and Early Head…

  20. Supporting Infant Teachers in Their Care of Fussy Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurie, Cindy; Baker, Marsha

    2008-01-01

    Child care teachers cope with juggling multiple competing demands: (1) managing relationships with parents; (2) coping with individual infant temperaments; and (3) meeting the group needs of the other infants in their care. Infant teachers often play a unique role in that they may be the first adults to listen and understand what the experience of…

  1. Interactive Silences within Spontaneous Early Infant-Father "Dialogues"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkinaki, Theano

    2008-01-01

    The present longitudinal and naturalistic study aims to investigate infants' and fathers' facial expressions of emotions during pauses preceding and following spontaneous early infant-father conversation. Studying emotional expressions in the course of pauses in early infant-father interaction is important because it may extend our knowledge on…

  2. Acute hemodialysis of infants weighing less than five kilograms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H Sadowski; William E Harmon; Kathy Jabs

    1994-01-01

    Acute hemodialysis of infants weighing less than five kilograms. The records of 33 infants weighing 5 kg or less who received acute hemodialysis treatment at Children's Hospital between 1980 and 1991 were reviewed. Dialysis was initiated to treat hyperammonemia (8), primary renal or renovascular disease (7), and acute renal failure (18). The infants weighed 2.2 to 4.0 kg at birth

  3. Prediction of Infant Performance From Neonatal and Developmental Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, John F., Jr.; And Others

    This three-part study of early identification of developmental deficiencies in high risk infants was undertaken to determine whether infant performance can be predicted from neonatal and developmental criteria. Part I of the study began in 1977 and used 284 high risk infants as subjects. Part II was initiated in 1978. Subjects were 14 full-term,…

  4. Visual Processing and Infant Ocular Latencies in the Overlap Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaga, Otilia M.; Colombo, John

    2006-01-01

    Young infants have repeatedly been shown to be slower than older infants to shift fixation from a midline stimulus to a peripheral stimulus. This is generally thought to reflect maturation of the neural substrates that mediate the disengagement of attention, but this developmental difference may also be attributable to young infants' slower…

  5. Perceptual and Motor Development in Infants and Children. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cratty, Bryant J.

    Motor behavior, motor performance, and motor learning are discussed at length within the context of infant and child development. Individual chapters focus on the following: the sensory-motor behavior of infants; analysis of selected perceptual-motor programs; beginnings of movement in infants; gross motor attributes in early childhood; visual…

  6. Infant and Child Nutrition Participant Materials for Notebook

    E-print Network

    UNIT 17: Infant and Child Nutrition Participant Materials for Notebook #12;Navigating for Success Infant and Child Nutrition p 1 Infant and Child Nutrition Nutrition participants are often parents, positive feeding relationships, and principles of child nutrition so they can effectively teach

  7. Plasma l -arginine concentrations in premature infants with necrotizing enterocolitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel A. Zamora; Harish J. Amin; Douglas D. McMillan; Paul Kubes; Gordon H. Fick; J. Decker Butzner; Howard G. Parsons; R. Brent Scott

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether l -arginine concentrations (the substrate for nitric oxide synthesis) are lower in premature infants in whom necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) develops than in unaffected infants.Methods: We measured arginine and nutritional intake, plasma arginine, glutamine, total amino acids, and ammonia concentrations in 53 premature infants (mean gestational age ± SD: 27 ± 1.7 weeks) at risk of NEC.

  8. Ordinary Variations in Maternal Caregiving Influence Human Infants' Stress Reactivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amie Ashley Hane; Nathan A. Fox

    2006-01-01

    Wesoughttoextendearlier work byexamining whether there are ordinary variations in human maternal caregiving behavior (MCB) that are related to stress re- activity in infants. We observed 185 mother-infant dyads and used standard coding systems to identify variations in caregiving behavior. We then created two extreme groups and found that infants receiving low-quality MCB showed more fearfulness, less positive joint attention, and

  9. The Development of Phonetic Representation in Bilingual and Monolingual Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Tracey C.; Yoshida, Katherine A.; Hill, Karen; Werker, Janet F.

    2007-01-01

    The development of native language phonetic representations in bilingual infants was compared to that of monolingual infants. Infants (ages 6-8, 10-12, and 14-20 months) from English-French or English-only environments were tested on their ability to discriminate a French and an English voice onset time distinction. Although 6- to 8-month-olds…

  10. Celebrating 25 Years of Working with Infants, Toddlers, and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. This issue focuses on the organization's 25 years of working with infants, toddlers, and families. The articles are as follows: (1) "Hope Is a…

  11. Agents of Change in Foster Care for Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Conceived by the Zero to Three Child Welfare Task Force, this issue focuses on agents of change for infants and toddlers in foster…

  12. Rule-Transfer in the Infant Visual Expectation Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Michael E.; Haith, Marshall M.

    This study investigated: (1) whether infants can develop expectations for events that alternate along the vertical axis; and (2) whether infants who form expectations with one action set can transfer them to a different action set--that is, from vertical to horizontal eye movements. A total of 32 infants of 3 months of age saw one of two picture…

  13. Agar Ingestion Combined with Phototherapy in Jaundiced Newborn Infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Finn Ebbesen; Jørn Møller

    1977-01-01

    49 jaundiced, nonimmunized newborn infants with a birth weight of more than 2,000 g were given phototherapy with white light for more than 36 h. The average period of treatment was 61 h. 24 infants received 250 mg agar at the beginning of each meal at 3-hour intervals during phototherapy. 25 infants received phototherapy only. Serum bilirubin levels were decreased

  14. Vitamin E Serum Levels in Newborn Infants Undergoing Phototherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Hadjigeorgiou; F. Tzortzatou; A. Malamitsi-Puchner; J. Papadatos; D. Papadakis; D. Nicolopoulos

    1980-01-01

    The serum vitamin E levels of 11 full-term and 10 premature infants, jaundiced and subjected to phototherapy, were measured and compared with 9 premature and 10 full-term jaundiced control infants. No differences were observed before or after phototherapy or 1 week after stopping it. The same negative results were noted in the two groups of infants regarding the values of

  15. An Infant Monitoring System Using CO2 Sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hung Cao; Lun-Chen Hsu; T. Ativanichayaphong; Jeongsik Sin; H. E. Stephanou; J.-C. Chiao

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed an infant monitoring system to reduce the potential risks for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). This system can be used for infants at home or in a hospital nursery room. The system consists of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) sensors and active radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. A commercial metal-oxide based CO2 sensor was chosen and

  16. Effect of Social Reinforcement on Infant Activity: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouts, Gregory T.

    This paper presents a pilot study designed to suggest an experiential interpretation of the development of extreme activity levels in infants (specifically, hyperactivity) and to demonstrate that general activity in infants may be influenced by the reinforcement contingencies established by mothers. Subjects were three 13-week-old infants. Operant…

  17. Therapeutic Observation of an Infant in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakelyn, Jenifer

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a clinical research study of therapeutic observation of an infant in foster care. Infants and children under five represent more than half of all children entering care in the UK. The emotional needs of this population tend to be overlooked. This study aimed to find out about the experience of an infant or young child in care,…

  18. Effects of Infant Massage on Attachment Security: An Experimental Manipulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jump, Vonda K.

    The formation of attachments is an important phenomenon occurring in the realm of socioemotional development. This study examined the impact of infant massage on infants' subsequent attachment security. Fifty-seven mother-infant dyads (48 dyads from Head Start, 9 from the community at large) were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group…

  19. [Working with Infants, Toddlers, and Families in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on providing services to infants with special needs in rural areas. In "Old Threads, New Patterns: Reaching Out to Rural Families," Deborah Harris-Usner discusses bringing infant mental health care and parent-infant psychotherapy to rural New Mexico. In "The People of Kids Place: Creating and Maintaining…

  20. Day-Care Experience and Infant-Mother Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauh, Hellgard; And Others

    The Berlin Longitudinal Study of Early Adaptation to Novel Situations examined early day-care experiences and the security of infant-mother attachment. Thirty-four infants entering day care before their first birthday and 20 infants entering between 12 and 18 months were compared in their reactions to day care during the first 4 weeks of…

  1. Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Native > Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska Natives have 1.6 times the infant mortality rate as non-Hispanic whites. American Indian/Alaska Native babies are 1.8 times as ...

  2. Infants, Toddlers, and Terror: Supporting Parents, Helping Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Responding to family needs in the wake of September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, this issue focuses on infants, toddlers, and terror. Articles…

  3. Father?infant Interactions are Enhanced by Massage Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christy Cullen; Tiffany Field; Angelica Escalona; Kristin Hartshorn

    2000-01-01

    Infants were given massages by their fathers for 15 minutes prior to their daily bedtime for one month. By the end of the study, the fathers who massaged their infants were more expressive and showed more enjoyment and more warmth during floor?play interactions with their infants.

  4. United States Air Force Child Care Center Infant Care Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Ardyn; And Others

    Intended to guide Air Force infant caregivers in providing high quality group care for infants 6 weeks to 6 months of age, this infant care guide must be used in conjunction with other Air Force regulations on day care, such as AFR 215-1, Volume VI (to be renumbered AFR 215-27). After a brief introductory chapter (Chapter I), Chapter II indicates…

  5. Emotional Eavesdropping: Infants Selectively Respond to Indirect Emotional Signals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repacholi, Betty M.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether 18-month-olds learn from emotions directed to a third party. Infants watched an adult perform actions on objects, and an Emoter expressed Anger or Neutral affect toward the adult in response to her actions. The Emoter then became neutral and infants were given access to the objects. Infants' actions were influenced…

  6. Infectious causes of sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alfelali, Mohammad; Khandaker, Gulam

    2014-12-01

    Investigators have long suspected the role of infection in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Evidence of infectious associations with SIDS is accentuated through the presence of markers of infection and inflammation on autopsy of SIDS infants and isolates of some bacteria and viruses. Several observational studies have looked into the relation between seasonality and incidence of SIDS, which often showed a winter peak. These all may suggest an infectious aetiology of SIDS. In this review we have summarised the current literature on infectious aetiologies of SIDS by looking at viral, bacterial, genetic and environmental factors which are believed to be associated with SIDS. PMID:25441371

  7. Milestones in the development of infant numeracy.

    PubMed

    Van de Rijt, B A; Van Luit, J E

    1999-03-01

    This article deals with the development of numeracy among young children of the four to seven year age group. The research investigation described had two aims: to see how early numeracy develops in children of different ages; and to see whether there are fixed points which might serve as milestones in the development of infant numeracy. The results of this investigation involving 96 children indicate a strong development of numeracy skills during this period. With reference to the literature, it is also shown that certain items of a test previously developed for this purpose may be taken as core items that do indeed represent milestones in the development of infant numeracy. PMID:10216465

  8. [Fusobacterium necrophorum septicemia in an infant].

    PubMed

    François, P; Plasse, M; Frappat, P; Guthmann, J P; Dubourgel, S; Pincemaille, O; Beaudoing, A

    1989-10-01

    In a 9 month-old infant admitted to hospital for a fever with chilles, anaerobic blood cultures isolated Fusobacterium necrophorum. On the 5th day of intravenous treatment with amoxicillin and metronidazole clinical signs of mastoiditis, the likely source of the sepsis, became apparent. Septicemias with Fusobacterium necrophorum are usually observed in teenagers and young adults during an acute bout of tonsilitis. This type of infection is exceptional in infants and requires a careful search for a primary focus in facial cavities and in the base of the skull. PMID:2604512

  9. Value of sequential MRI in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Linda S; Volpe, Joseph J

    2013-12-10

    Since the introduction of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s, there has been a pronounced decrease in overall mortality of premature infants as well as a decrease in the incidence of severe white matter injury, best known as cystic periventricular leukomalacia (c-PVL).(1) While cranial ultrasonography readily visualizes large lesions in the white matter (periventricular hemorrhagic infarction and c-PVL), this technique is not sufficiently sensitive to recognize the much more common and less severe noncystic white matter lesions.(2) The absolute number of extremely preterm infants is increasing because of improved survival rates.(e1.) PMID:24212397

  10. Alopecia areata universalis in an infant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jo Anne LaRow; Judith Mysliborski; I. Paul Rappaport; Guy A. Rouleau; J. Andrew Carlson

    2001-01-01

    Background  Alopecia areata (AA) is common during childhood and rarely reported in infants. The four reported cases of AA in infants all\\u000a exhibited circumscribed patches of alopecia that appeared at birth or shortly thereafter.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  We report a case of alopecia areata universalis that developed after birth along with fingernail changes of shortening (onychomadesis)\\u000a and onycholysis. Scalp biopsy at 2 years of

  11. The infant microbiome development: mom matters

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Noel T.; Bakacs, Elizabeth; Combellick, Joan; Grigoryan, Zoya; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    The infant microbiome plays an essential role in human health and its assembly is determined by maternal– offspring exchanges of microbiota. This process is affected by several practices, including Cesarean section (C-section), perinatal antibiotics, and formula feeding, that have been linked to increased risks of metabolic and immune diseases. Here we review recent knowledge about the impacts on infant microbiome assembly, discuss preventive and restorative strategies to ameliorate the effects of these impacts, and highlight where research is needed to advance this field and improve the health of future generations. PMID:25578246

  12. The effect of infant mental health treatment on the development of attachment in infants at risk for maltreatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory Allen Proulx

    1999-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of infant mental health treatment on the development of attachment in infants at-risk for abuse or neglect. Fifteen mother-infant dyads participating in treatment for an average of 12.23 months were compared to an equal number of dyads just entering treatment. ^ Infants were assessed between 11 and 22 months of age

  13. Infants' Evolving Representations of Object Motion during Occlusion: A Longitudinal Study of 6- to 12-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gredeback, Gustaf; von Hofsten, Claes

    2004-01-01

    Infants' ability to track temporarily occluded objects that moved on circular trajectories was investigated in 20 infants using a longitudinal design. They were first seen at 6 months and then every 2nd month until the end of their 1st year. Infants were presented with occlusion events covering 20% of the target's trajectory (effective occlusion…

  14. The Effect of the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program on Mother-Infant Interaction after Very Preterm Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijssen, Dominique; Wolf, Marie-Jeanne; Koldewijn, Karen; Houtzager, Bregje A.; Van Wassenaer, Aleid; Tronick, Ed; Kok, Joke; Van Baar, Anneloes

    2010-01-01

    Background: Prematurity and perinatal insults lead to increased developmental vulnerability. The home-based Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) was designed to improve development of preterm infants. In a multicenter randomized controlled trial the effect of IBAIP on mother-infant interaction was studied as a secondary…

  15. Broadening the Study of Infant Security of Attachment: Maternal Autonomy-Support in the Context of Infant Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whipple, Natasha; Bernier, Annie; Mageau, Genevieve A.

    2011-01-01

    Although security of attachment is conceptualised as a balance between infants' attachment and exploratory behaviours, parental behaviours pertaining to infant exploration have received relatively little empirical attention. Drawing from self-determination theory, this study seeks to improve the prediction of infant attachment by assessing…

  16. Modeling Dyadic Processes Using Hidden Markov Models: A Time Series Approach to Mother-Infant Interactions during Infant Immunization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifter, Cynthia A.; Rovine, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The focus of the present longitudinal study, to examine mother-infant interaction during the administration of immunizations at 2 and 6?months of age, used hidden Markov modelling, a time series approach that produces latent states to describe how mothers and infants work together to bring the infant to a soothed state. Results revealed a…

  17. Manipulation of Infant-Like Traits Affects Perceived Cuteness of Infant, Adult and Cat Faces

    E-print Network

    Little, Tony

    pre- dominance of the brain capsule (a large forehead), large and low lying eyes, and a bulging cheek (Berman et al. 1975; Fullard & Reiling 1976), and both adults and teenagers show preferences for infants

  18. GI symptoms in infants are a potential target for fermented infant milk formulae: a review.

    PubMed

    van de Heijning, Bert J M; Berton, Amelie; Bouritius, Hetty; Goulet, Olivier

    2014-09-01

    Besides pre- and pro-biotic-containing infant formulae, fermented infant formulae are commonly used to relieve or prevent symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort in young infants. During the fermentation process in cow's milk-based formulae, the beneficial bacteria modulate the product by forming several beneficial compounds, which contribute to the alleviation of the symptoms observed. This review summarizes the clinical evidence on the impact of fermented infant formulae on common pediatric GI-symptoms. The potential mechanisms involved are discussed: i.e., the lactose and protein (in-) digestibility, effects on gastric emptying and gut transit and modulation of the colonic microbiota. Although initial evidence indicates a beneficial effect of fermented formulae on GI discomfort in newborns, validation and confirmation of the clinical proof obtained so far is warranted, as well as further research to (more fully) understand the mode of action. PMID:25255831

  19. Transition to child care: associations with infant-mother attachment, infant negative emotion, and cortisol elevations.

    PubMed

    Ahnert, Lieselotte; Gunnar, Megan R; Lamb, Michael E; Barthel, Martina

    2004-01-01

    Seventy 15-month-old infants were studied at home before starting child care, during adaptation (mothers present) and separation (first 9 days without mothers) phases, and 5 months later. Security of infant-mother attachment was assessed before and 3 months after child care began. In the separation phase, salivary cortisol rose over the first 60 min following the mothers' departures to levels that were 75% to 100% higher than at home. Compared with insecure infants, secure infants had markedly lower cortisol levels during the adaptation phase and higher fuss and cry levels during the separation phase, and their fuss and cry levels were significantly correlated with their cortisol levels. Attachments remained secure or became secure if mothers spent more days adapting their children to child care. PMID:15144478

  20. Unattractive infant faces elicit negative affect from adults.

    PubMed

    Schein, Stevie S; Langlois, Judith H

    2015-02-01

    We examined the relationship between infant attractiveness and adult affect by investigating whether differing levels of infant facial attractiveness elicit facial muscle movement correlated with positive and negative affect from adults (N=87) using electromyography. Unattractive infant faces evoked significantly more corrugator supercilii and levator labii superioris movement (physiological correlates of negative affect) than attractive infant faces. These results suggest that unattractive infants may be at risk for negative affective responses from adults, though the relationship between those responses and caregiving behavior remains elusive. PMID:25658199