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1

Tdap vaccination during pregnancy to reduce pertussis infection in young infants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Question What is the basis for the new recommendations to vaccinate pregnant women against pertussis after the first trimester? Answer There have been outbreaks of epidemic proportions of pertussis, mostly among young infants who have not received sufficient passive immunity from their mothers. This strategy of vaccination during pregnancy aims at stopping these life-threatening epidemics.

Matlow, Jeremy N.; Pupco, Anna; Bozzo, Pina; Koren, Gideon

2013-01-01

2

Silkworm cocoons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm larvae spin silk cocoons to live in while they go through metamorphosis. They change from silkworm larvae into white silk moths. The silk cocoons are valuable to humans and can be made into silk fabric.

Roman Neumüller (None;)

2006-07-05

3

Tdap Booster Requirements for Secondary Schools  

MedlinePLUS

... Dakota Tennessee Yes Tdap Gr 7 October 2010 Texas Yes Tdap Gr 7 SY 2009?10 Utah ... the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (Grant No. 5U38IP000290) at the Centers for Disease Control ...

4

Tdap coverage in a military beneficiary population: room for improvement.  

PubMed

Pertussis has had a resurgence in recent years. Women of child-bearing age and adults with infant contact are important reservoirs of infection because of waning immunity. Recent infant deaths and outbreaks led to new tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine recommendations, but vaccination rates remain low. A performance improvement project was started at Walter Reed Army Medical Center to target women of child-bearing age. Women treated in Gynecology had their electronic medical record screened for Tdap during their vital signs assessment. Those eligible for vaccination were directed to the Immunization Clinic. The intervention was considered successful if the patient received the vaccine within 30 days of the visit. Data were compiled on vaccination rates 1 month before and 1 and 3 months after the start of the performance improvement project. Only 13.9% of all patients had a documented Tdap at any time. During the first month following the intervention, vaccination rates within 30 days of the appointment increased from 0.38% to 6.5% (p < 0.005). The effect waned at 3 months following intervention, with only 1.1% of patients vaccinated within 30 days of the appointment. Overall vaccination rates remain low, and future studies should focus on barriers to vaccination to prevent morbidity and mortality. PMID:24083928

Lam, Sherrell T; George, Susan; Dunlow, Susan; Nelson, Michael; Hartzell, Joshua D

2013-10-01

5

Association of postpartum maternal tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine administration and timeliness of infant immunization.  

PubMed

A retrospective cohort study was conducted on infants of mothers delivering at an inner-city hospital in October 2009 where postpartum maternal tetanus toxoid, reduced diptheria toxoid and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination had been initiated in May 2008. We compared mothers and infants in a Tdap intervention group discharged July 2008 (n = 250) with a pre-Tdap control group discharged July 2007 (n = 238). Postpartum maternal Tdap impacted positively timeliness of early infant immunization. PMID:23694833

Kaur, Ishminder; George, Krissa J; Pena-Ricardo, Carolina; Kelly, Barbara A; Watson, Barbara

2013-11-01

6

Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap)/Tetanus, Diphtheria (Td) Vaccines  

MedlinePLUS

... tetanus. Since then, tetanus and diphtheria cases have dropped by about 99% and pertussis cases by about ... or Tdap vaccine, or has had Guillain Barré Syndrome (GBS). Anyone who has a moderate or severe ...

7

Carbondioxide gating in silk cocoon.  

PubMed

Silk is the generic name given to the fibrous proteins spun by a number of arthropods. During metamorphosis, the larva of the silk producing arthropods excrete silk-fiber from its mouth and spun it around the body to form a protective structure called cocoon. An adult moth emerges out from the cocoon after the dormant phase (pupal phase) varying from 2 weeks to 9 months. It is intriguing how CO(2)/O(2) and ambient temperature are regulated inside the cocoon during the development of the pupa. Here we show that the cocoon membrane is asymmetric, it allows preferential gating of CO(2) from inside to outside and it regulates a physiological temperature inside the cocoon irrespective of the surrounding environment temperature. We demonstrate that under simulating CO(2) rich external environment, the CO(2) does not diffuse inside the cocoon. Whereas, when CO(2) was injected inside the cocoon, it diffuses out in 20 s, indicating gating of CO(2) from inside to outside the membrane. Removal of the calcium oxalate hydrate crystals which are naturally present on the outer surface of the cocoon affected the complete blockade of CO(2) flow from outside to inside suggesting its role to trap most of the CO(2) as hydrogen bonded bicarbonate on the surface. The weaved silk of the cocoon worked as the second barrier to prevent residual CO(2) passage. Furthermore, we show that under two extreme natural temperature regime of 5 and 50 °C, a temperature of 25 and 34 °C respectively were maintained inside the cocoons. Our results demonstrate, how CO(2) gating and thermoregulation helps in maintaining an ambient atmosphere inside the cocoon for the growth of pupa. Such natural architectural control of gas and temperature regulation could be helpful in developing energy saving structures and gas filters. PMID:22791361

Roy, Manas; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Das, Mainak

2012-07-12

8

Changes in Tdap and MCV4 Vaccine Coverage Following Enactment of a Statewide Requirement of Tdap Vaccination for Entry Into Sixth Grade  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We evaluated changes in tetanus toxoid, reduced diptheria toxoid, acellular pertussis (Tdap), and tetravalen meningococcal (MCV4) vaccine coverage following enactment of a New York State mandate requiring Tdap before entering sixth grade. Methods. Using data from a hospital-based immunization registry, we measured Tdap and MCV4 coverage among youths aged 11 to 14 years in New York City at 3 time points: premandate, mandate year 1, and mandate year 2. Results. Among overlapping cohorts of 4316 (premandate), 4131 (mandate year 1), and 3639 (mandate year 2) youths, Tdap coverage increased steadily over time (29%, 58%, and 83%, respectively). Increases were observed among all ages. Across the same time points, MCV4 coverage also increased (10%, 30%, and 60%, respectively). Most adolescents did not receive MCV4 during the same visit they received Tdap. Conclusions. A Tdap school-entry mandate was associated with substantial increases in immunization coverage, even in age groups not directly affected by the mandate. At the postmandate time points, MCV4 coverage remained lower than Tdap coverage. Provider education should emphasize the importance of reviewing vaccine records and administering all recommended vaccines at every clinical encounter.

Stockwell, Melissa S.; Colgrove, James; Natarajan, Karthik; Rickert, Vaughn I.

2010-01-01

9

The impact behaviour of silk cocoons.  

PubMed

Silk cocoons, constructed by silkmoths (Lepidoptera), are protective structural composites. Some cocoons appear to have evolved towards structural and material optimisation in order to sustain impact strikes from predators and hinder parasite ingress. This study investigates the protective properties of silk cocoons with different morphologies by evaluating their impact resistance and damage tolerance. Finite element analysis was used to analyse empirical observations of the quasi-static impact response of the silk cocoons, and to evaluate the separate benefits of the structures and materials through the deformation and damage mechanism. We use design principles from composite engineering in order to understand the structure-property-function relationship of silkworm cocoons. Understanding the highly evolved survival strategies of the organisms building natural cocoons will hopefully lead to inspiration that in turn could lead to improved composite design. PMID:23804671

Chen, Fujia; Hesselberg, Thomas; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

2013-07-15

10

Td (Tetanus and Diphtheria) or Tdap (Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis) Vaccine: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Td or Tdap Vaccine What You Need to Know (Tetanus and Diphtheria or Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis) Many Vaccine Information Statements are available in Spanish and ...

11

USING COCOON TO BUILD GLOBALIZED WEBPAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalization systems are designed to internationalize webpages by making them available in various languages. In this paper, we describe design and implementation of a system called CGF (Cocoon-based Globalization Framework) to build globalized webpages, based on a popular Apache Cocoon web development framework. CGF supports users in various roles, including creators of webpages and text translators, and separates these roles

Tomasz Müldner; Zhinan Shen; Li Bo Ya

12

Silk cocoon drying in forced convection type solar dryer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thin layer silk cocoon drying was studied in a forced convection type solar dyer. The drying chamber was provided with several trays on which the cocoons loaded in thin layer. The hot air generated in the solar air heater was forced into drying chamber to avoid the direct exposure of sunlight and UV radiation on cocoons. The drying air

Panna Lal Singh

2011-01-01

13

Illusion and reality in Tahiti's tourist cocoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the idea of tourist ‘cocoons’ – carefully managed spaces of illusion – in Tahiti\\/French Polynesia. Using the concept of heterotopia, I focus on resort hotels, where 90% of tourists stay. In Tahiti, these include ‘natural’ landscapes (white-sand beaches, turquoise lagoons, and colorful fish darting through tropical coral), hotel architecture (with its neo-Polynesian structures and overwater bungalows), and

Miriam Kahn

2011-01-01

14

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Tdap in the Prevention of Pertussis in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Objectives Health benefits and costs of combined reduced-antigen-content tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) immunization among adults ?65 years have not been evaluated. In February 2012, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended expanding Tdap vaccination (one single dose) to include adults ?65 years not previously vaccinated with Tdap. Our study estimated the health and economic outcomes of one-time replacement of the decennial tetanus and diphtheria (Td) booster with Tdap in the 10% of individuals aged 65 years assumed eligible each year compared with a baseline scenario of continued Td vaccination. Methods We constructed a model evaluating the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating a cohort of adults aged 65 with Tdap, by calculating pertussis cases averted due to direct vaccine effects only. Results are presented from societal and payer perspectives for a range of pertussis incidences (25–200 cases per 100,000), due to the uncertainty in estimating true annual incidence. Cases averted were accrued throughout the patient 's lifetime, and a probability tree used to estimate the clinical outcomes and costs (US$ 2010) for each case. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) lost to acute disease were calculated by multiplying cases of mild/moderate/severe pertussis by the associated health-state disutility; QALY losses due to death and long-term sequelae were also considered. Incremental costs and QALYs were summed over the cohort to derive incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Scenario analyses evaluated the effect of alternative plausible parameter estimates on results. Results At incidence levels of 25, 100, 200 cases/100,000, vaccinating adults aged 65 years costs an additional $336,000, $63,000 and $17,000/QALY gained, respectively. Vaccination has a cost-effectiveness ratio less than $50,000/QALY if pertussis incidence is >116 cases/100,000 from societal and payer perspectives. Results were robust to scenario analyses. Conclusions Tdap immunization of adults aged 65 years according to current ACIP recommendations is a cost-effective health-care intervention at plausible incidence assumptions.

McGarry, Lisa J.; Krishnarajah, Girishanthy; Hill, Gregory; Skornicki, Michelle; Pruttivarasin, Narin; Masseria, Cristina; Arondekar, Bhakti; Pelton, Stephen I.; Weinstein, Milton C.

2013-01-01

15

Fish mucous cocoons: the 'mosquito nets' of the sea.  

PubMed

Mucus performs numerous protective functions in vertebrates, and in fishes may defend them against harmful organisms, although often the evidence is contradictory. The function of the mucous cocoons that many parrotfishes and wrasses sleep in, while long used as a classical example of antipredator behaviour, remains unresolved. Ectoparasitic gnathiid isopods (Gnathiidae), which feed on the blood of fish, are removed by cleaner fish during the day; however, it is unclear how parrotfish and wrasse avoid gnathiid attacks at night. To test the novel hypothesis that mucous cocoons protect against gnathiids, we exposed the coral reef parrotfish Chlorurus sordidus (Scaridae) with and without cocoons to gnathiids overnight and measured the energetic content of cocoons. Fish without mucous cocoons were attacked more by gnathiids than fish with cocoons. The energetic content of mucous cocoons was estimated as 2.5 per cent of the fish's daily energy budget fish. Therefore, mucous cocoons protected against attacks by gnathiids, acting like mosquito nets in humans, a function of cocoons and an efficient physiological adaptation for preventing parasite infestation that is not used by any other animal. PMID:21084337

Grutter, Alexandra S; Rumney, Jennifer G; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Waldie, Peter; Franklin, Craig E

2010-11-17

16

Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon)  

PubMed Central

Background Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon) is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction, especially in adult population. Diagnosis is usually incidental at laparotomy. We discuss one such rare case, outlining the fact that an intra-operative surprise diagnosis could have been facilitated by previous investigations. Case presentation A 56 year-old man presented in A&E department with small bowel ileus. He had a history of 6 similar episodes of small bowel obstruction in the past 4 years, which resolved with conservative treatment. Pre-operative work-up did not reveal any specific etiology. At laparotomy, a fibrous capsule was revealed, in which small bowel loops were encased, with the presence of interloop adhesions. A diagnosis of abdominal cocoon was established and extensive adhesiolysis was performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and follow-up. Conclusion Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, although rare, may be the cause of a common surgical emergency such as small bowel ileus, especially in cases with attacks of non-strangulating obstruction in the same individual. A high index of clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent character of small bowel ileus combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies. Clinicians must rigorously pursue a preoperative diagnosis, as it may prevent a "surprise" upon laparotomy and result in proper management.

Serafimidis, Costas; Katsarolis, Ioannis; Vernadakis, Spyros; Rallis, George; Giannopoulos, George; Legakis, Nikolaos; Peros, George

2006-01-01

17

Ultrastructural properties of the Theromyzon (Annelida: Hirudinae) cocoon membrane.  

PubMed

The cocoon of the leech Theromyzon trizonare consists of fibrils packed into an arrangement that produces both C- and S-like patterns of bow-shaped lines in sections oblique through the membrane. Sections normal to the cocoon membrane show layers containing cross-sections of fibrils (approximately 16 nm dia.) that are separated by a center-to-center distance of approximately 23 nm. In cross-section, each fibril presents a central hole approximately 5 nm in diameter. A structureless layer covers most of the exterior surface of the cocoon membrane, and short protuberances are apparent in some zones. PMID:15003615

Dimitriu, Corneliu; Shain, Daniel H

2004-01-01

18

Cost-effectiveness of targeted vaccination to protect new-borns against pertussis: Comparing neonatal, maternal, and cocooning vaccination strategies.  

PubMed

Pertussis (whooping cough) is a severe infectious disease in infants less than 6 months old. Mass vaccination programmes have been unable to halt transmission effectively. Strategies to protect new-borns against infection include vaccination of the neonate or the mother directly after birth (cocooning), or the mother during pregnancy (maternal). Here we investigate the cost-effectiveness of these three strategies in the Netherlands. Costs for health care utilization and productivity losses, as well as impact on quality of life were calculated for a 10-year vaccination programme, assuming that vaccine-induced immunity lasts 5 years. Cocooning was the most attractive option from a cost-effectiveness viewpoint (€89,000/QALY). However, both cocooning and maternal vaccination would reduce the disease burden in infants and mothers vaccinated (about 17-20 QALY/year). Specifically, with a persistent epidemic as seen in 2012, there is need for reconsidering the vaccination schedules against pertussis in order to increase protection of the vulnerable new-borns. PMID:24075918

Lugnér, Anna K; van der Maas, Nicoline; van Boven, Michiel; Mooi, Frits R; de Melker, Hester E

2013-09-27

19

An Unlikely Silk: The Composite Material of Green Lacewing Cocoons  

SciTech Connect

Spiders routinely produce multiple types of silk; however, common wisdom has held that insect species produce one type of silk each. This work reports that the green lacewing (Mallada signata, Neuroptera) produces two distinct classes of silk. We identified and sequenced the gene that encodes the major protein component of the larval lacewing cocoon silk and demonstrated that it is unrelated to the adult lacewing egg-stalk silk. The cocoon silk protein is 49 kDa in size and is alanine rich (>40%), and it contains an {alpha}-helical secondary structure. The final instar lacewing larvae spin protein fibers of {approx}2 {mu}m diameter to construct a loosely woven cocoon. In a second stage of cocoon construction, the insects lay down an inner wall of lipids that uses the fibers as a scaffold. We propose that the silk protein fibers provide the mechanical strength of the composite lacewing cocoon whereas the lipid layer provides a barrier to water loss during pupation.

Weisman, Sarah; Trueman, Holly E.; Mudie, Stephen T.; Church, Jeffrey S.; Sutherland, Tara D.; Haritos, Victoria S. (CSIRO/MSE); (CSIRO)

2009-01-15

20

Matter content in AGN jets: constraint from cocoon dynamics?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The matter content of jets in active galactic nuclei is examined in a new way. We model the dynamical expansion of its cocoon embedded in the intra-cluster medium (ICM). By comparing the observed shape of the cocoon with that expected from the theoretical model, we estimate the total pressure (Pc) and electron temperature (Te) of the cocoon. The number density of the total electrons (ne-) is constrained by using the non-thermal spectrum of the hot spot and the analysis of the momentum balance between the jet thrust and the rum pressure of ICM. Together with the obtained Pc, Te and ne-, we constrain the matter content in the jets. We find that, in the case of Cygnus A, the ratio of number density of protons to that of electrons is of order of 10-3 . This implies the existence of a large number of positron in the jet.

Kino, M.; Kawakatu, N.

2005-11-01

21

Cocoons and hatchlings of Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny 1826) (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) in Benghazi, Libya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and laboratory studies were conducted during the period May 1993–April 1994 on the cocoons and hatchlings ofAporrectodea calignosa(Savigny 1826), a common earthworm found in Benghazi, Libya. Cocoon production started in August 1993 and continued until April 1994. A positive correlation between soil moisture (r=0.74;p< 0.05) and cocoon production, and a negative one between soil temperature (r=?0.85;p< 0.05) on cocoon

G. Achuthan Nair; Suaad Ali Bennour

1998-01-01

22

Water balance of field-excavated aestivating Australian desert frogs, the cocoon-forming Neobatrachus aquilonius and the non-cocooning Notaden nichollsi (Amphibia: Myobatrachidae).  

PubMed

Burrowed aestivating frogs of the cocoon-forming species Neobatrachus aquilonius and the non-cocooning species Notaden nichollsi were excavated in the Gibson Desert of central Australia. Their hydration state (osmotic pressure of the plasma and urine) was compared to the moisture content and water potential of the surrounding soil. The non-cocooning N. nichollsi was consistently found in sand dunes. While this sand had favourable water potential properties for buried frogs, the considerable spatial and temporal variation in sand moisture meant that frogs were not always in positive water balance with respect to the surrounding soil. The cocoon-forming N. aquilonius was excavated from two distinct habitat types, a claypan in which frogs had a well-formed cocoon and a dune swale where frogs did not have a cocoon. Cocoons of excavated frogs ranged in thickness from 19.4 microm to 55.61 microm and consisted of 81-229 layers. Cocooned claypan N. aquilonius were nearing exhaustion of their bladder water reserves and had a urine osmolality approaching that of the plasma. By contrast, non-cocooned N. aquilonius from the dune swale were fully hydrated, although soil moisture levels were not as high as calculated to be necessary to maintain water balance. Both species had similar plasma arginine vasotocin (AVT) concentrations ranging from 9.4 to 164 pg ml(-1), except for one cocooned N. aquilonius with a higher concentration of 394 pg ml(-1). For both species, AVT showed no relationship with plasma osmolality over the lower range of plasma osmolalities but was appreciably increased at the highest osmolality recorded. This study provides the first evidence that cocoon formation following burrowing is not obligatory in species that are capable of doing so, but that cocoon formation occurs when soil water conditions are more desiccating than for non-cocooned frogs. PMID:16916967

Cartledge, Victoria A; Withers, Philip C; McMaster, Kellie A; Thompson, Graham G; Bradshaw, S Don

2006-09-01

23

Abdominal Cocoon and Adhesiolysis: A Case Report and a Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Abdominal cocoon is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction. It is difficult to diagnose in most of the cases preoperatively. Surgical removal of the membrane resulted in complete recovery in the majority of the cases. The exact etiology of abdominal cocoon is still unknown. We reported a male patient who presented with features of intestinal obstruction and has been diagnosed as abdominal cocoon intraoperatively.

Al-Thani, Hassan; El Mabrok, Jamila; Al Shaibani, Noof; El-Menyar, Ayman

2013-01-01

24

A Study on the Price Behavior of Cocoon and Raw Silk in Tamil Nadu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of sericulture industry is mainly based on proper and highly efficient marketing which assures good prices to the farmers. Efficient marketing helps in minimizing wide fluctuations in cocoon prices. It is found that fluctuations are due to variations in cocoon quality, absence of quality control, intervention of middlemen and poor marketing facilities. The prices paid to the cocoons

A Selvaraj; K R Vijaysanthi

2011-01-01

25

A cysteine-rich protein in the Theromyzon (Annelida: Hirudinea) cocoon membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aquatic leech, Theromyzon rude, secretes a flexible, proteinaceous cocoon that is resistant to a broad range of denaturing conditions (e.g. heat, denaturing chemicals). We have partially solubilized the Theromyzon cocoon membrane in 10% acetic acid and identified two major protein fragments. Microsequencing of both Theromyzon cocoon protein (Tcp) fragments generated an identical stretch of the amino-terminal sequence that was

Tarin A. Mason; Patrick J. Mcilroy; Daniel H. Shain

2004-01-01

26

Probing the Nature of the Vela X Cocoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vela X is a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) associated with the active pulsar B0833-45 and contained within the Vela supernova remnant (SNR). A collimated X-ray filament (``cocoon'') extends south-southwest from the pulsar to the center of Vela X. VLA observations uncovered radio emission coincident with the eastern edge of the cocoon, and H.E.S.S. has detected TeV ?-ray emission from this region as well. Using XMM-Newton archival data, covering the southern portion of this feature, we analyze the X-ray properties of the cocoon. The X-ray data are best fit by an absorbed nonequilibrium plasma model with a power-law component. Our analysis of the thermal emission shows enhanced abundances of O, Ne, and Mg within the cocoon, indicating the presence of ejecta-rich material from the propagation of the SNR reverse shock, consistent with Vela X being a disrupted PWN. We investigate the physical processes that excite the electrons in the PWN to emit in the radio, X-ray, and ?-ray bands. The radio and nonthermal X-ray emission can be explained by synchrotron emission. We model the ?-ray emission by inverse Compton scattering of electrons off of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons. We use a three-component broken power law to model the synchrotron emission, finding an intrinsic break in the electron spectrum at ~5×106 keV and a cooling break at ~5.5×1010 keV. This cooling break along with a magnetic field strength of 5×10-6 G indicate that the synchrotron break occurs at ~1 keV.

LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Slane, Patrick O.; de Jager, Okkie C.

2008-12-01

27

Cocoon bifurcation in three-dimensional reversible vector fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cocoon bifurcation is a set of rich bifurcation phenomena numerically observed by Lau (1992 Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos 2 543-58) in the Michelson system, a three-dimensional ODE system describing travelling waves of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. In this paper, we present an organizing centre of the principal part of the cocoon bifurcation in more general terms in the setting of reversible vector fields on {\\mathbb{R}}^3 . We prove that in a generic unfolding of an organizing centre called the cusp-transverse heteroclinic chain, there is a cascade of heteroclinic bifurcations with an increasing length close to the organizing centre, which resembles the principal part of the cocoon bifurcation. We also study a heteroclinic cycle called the reversible Bykov cycle. Such a cycle is believed to occur in the Michelson system, as well as in a model equation of a Josephson Junction (van den Berg et al 2003 Nonlinearity 16 707-17). We conjecture that a reversible Bykov cycle is, in its unfolding, an accumulation point of a sequence of cusp-transverse heteroclinic chains. As a first result in this direction, we show that a reversible Bykov cycle is an accumulation point of reversible generic saddle-node bifurcations of periodic orbits, the main ingredient of the cusp-transverse heteroclinic chain.

Dumortier, Freddy; Ibáñez, Santiago; Kokubu, Hiroshi

2006-02-01

28

A cross sectional survey of attitudes, awareness and uptake of the parental pertussis booster vaccine as part of a cocooning strategy, Victoria, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background The Victorian Government Department of Health funded a diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis vaccine for parents of infants from June 2009 to June 2012 as part of a cocooning strategy for the control of pertussis. The aim of this study was to assess parents’ attitudes and awareness of the vaccination program, and to estimate vaccine uptake. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 253 families with a child born in the first quarter of 2010 residing within five metropolitan and four rural local government areas in Victoria was conducted. Univariate analyses were performed to describe the relationship between demographic variables, knowledge and awareness of the disease, the vaccine program and vaccine uptake. Multivariate analyses examining predictors for awareness of the vaccine program and for the uptake of vaccination were also conducted. Results One hundred and five families were surveyed (response rate 43%). Of these, 93% indicated that they had heard of ‘pertussis’ or ‘whooping cough’ and 75% of mothers and 69% of fathers were aware the pertussis vaccine was available and funded for new parents. Overall, 70% of mothers and 53% of fathers were vaccinated following their child’s birth, with metropolitan fathers less likely to be vaccinated as rural fathers (RR?=?0.6, p?=?0.002). Being a younger mother (p?=?0.02) or father (p?=?0.047), and being an Australian-born father (RR?=?1.9, p?=?0.03) were found to predict uptake of the vaccine in parents. Conclusion Parents indicated a reasonable level of knowledge of pertussis and a willingness to be vaccinated to protect their child. However, vaccine uptake estimates indicated further opportunity for program improvement. Future cocooning strategies would benefit from specifically targeting fathers and metropolitan maternity hospitals to increase vaccine uptake. Wider promotion of the availability of vaccine providers may increase uptake to maximise the success of cocooning programs. Further investigation of the effectiveness of the cocooning strategy in decreasing infant morbidity and mortality is required.

2013-01-01

29

Immunogenicity and safety results from a randomized multicenter trial comparing a Tdap-IPV vaccine (REPEVAX®) and a tetanus monovalent vaccine in healthy adults: new considerations for the management of patients with tetanus-prone injuries.  

PubMed

In adults with a tetanus-prone injury, combined vaccines such as Tdap-IPV (REPEVAX®) can boost immunity against several diseases simultaneously. This Phase IIIb, parallel-group, open-label trial compared antibody responses to Tdap-IPV and tetanus monovalent vaccine (TMV; Vaccin Tétanique Pasteur® or Tetavax®) against tetanus toxoid 10 and 28 d post-vaccination. Between July and December 2009, four centers in France and five in Germany recruited healthy adults who had received a tetanus-containing vaccine 5-10 y previously. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive at the first visit a single dose (0.5 mL) of Tdap-IPV or TMV, with follow-up visits at Day 10 and Day 28. Outcomes: per protocol (PP) population immunogenicity at Day 10 (primary) and at Day 28 (secondary); safety throughout the study. Of 456 adults randomized, 223 received Tdap-IPV and 233 received TMV (PP population: 183 and 199 participants, respectively). All participants receiving Tdap-IPV and 99.0% receiving TMV had an anti-tetanus antibody concentration ? 0.1 IU/mL, confirming non-inferiority of Tdap-IPV to TMV (95% confidence interval of the difference: -1.2, 3.6). Number of adverse events reported was comparable in each group. Injection-site reactions were reported by 76.6% participants receiving Tdap-IPV and 74.6% receiving TMV. Systemic events (e.g., malaise, myalgia and headache) were reported in 47.7% and 39.7% of the Tdap-IPV and the TMV groups, respectively. Tdap-IPV is effective and well-tolerated for use in the management of tetanus-prone injuries in emergency settings in persons for whom a booster against diphtheria, pertussis and poliomyelitis is also needed. PMID:23032160

Laurichesse, Henri; Zimmermann, Ulrich; Galtier, Florence; Launay, Odile; Duval, Xavier; Richard, Patrick; Sadorge, Christine; Soubeyrand, Benoit

2012-10-02

30

Elementary research of the formation mechanism of sex-related fluorescent cocoon of silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand mechanisms for the difference of uptaking and transporting the pigments between the male and female in the silkworm,\\u000a Bombyx mori strain of sex-related fluorescent cocoon, the fluorescent pigments in the midgut lumen, midgut, blood, silk glands and cocoon\\u000a were analyzed with thin-layer chromatography, and showed that fluorescent colors of cocoons consisted with that of blood and\\u000a silk glands.

Hu Xiaolong; Xue Renyu; Cao Guangli; Zhang Xing; Zhang Yilin; Yu Xiaohua; Zhang Yuqing; Gong Chengliang

31

Spider cocoons and their suspension systems as barriers to generalist and specialist predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study tests hypotheses regarding spider cocoons and their suspension systems as barriers to generalist and specialist\\u000a predators. Evidence presented here suggests that the suspension systems ofMecynogea lemniscata andArgiope aurantia cocoons are effective barriers against small generalists such as ants, but fail to stop large generalists such as birds.\\u000a Cocoon covers were found to be generally ineffective against generalist predators.

Craig S. Hieber

1992-01-01

32

Post-Traumatic Intra-Cocoon Mesenteric Tear: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Sclerosing peritonitis, more commonly called abdominal cocoon, is a rare intra-peritoneal disease that is characterized by complete or partial encapsulation of the small intestine by a thick collagenous membrane. This disease mostly presents in the form of small bowel obstruction, however in our case the patient presented with intra-cocoon bleeding following a motor vehicle accident.

Jaber, Saed; Dulaijan, Khalid; Sadoun, Moutamn; Moghazy, Khalid; El-Said, Mohsen

2011-01-01

33

Intra- and interspecific predation on the cocoons of Erpobdella octoculata (L.) (Annelida: Hirudinea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In laboratory experiments, eleven out of twenty-one invertebrate species and all of the three fish species tested fed on freshly laid flaccid cocoons of Erpobdella octoculata, though predation was only severe from a dytiscid beetle, E. octoculata and the fish species. There was a tendency for more cocoons to be eaten by starved than fed predators. Only snail species damaged

Johnstone O. Young

1988-01-01

34

Mastrus ridibundus parasitoids eavesdrop on cocoon-spinning codling moth, Cydia pomonella, larvae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cocoon-spinning larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) employ a pheromone that attracts or arrests conspecifics seeking pupation sites. Such intraspecific communication signals are important cues for illicit receivers such as parasitoids to exploit. We tested the hypothesis that the prepupal C. pomonella parasitoid Mastrus ridibundus Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) exploits the larval aggregation pheromone to locate host prepupae. In laboratory olfactometer experiments, female M. ridibundus were attracted to 3-day-old cocoons containing C. pomonella larvae or prepupae. Older cocoons containing C. pomonella pupae, or larvae and prepupae excised from cocoons, were not attractive. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of bioactive Porapak Q extract of cocoon-derived airborne semiochemicals, ten compounds elicited responses from female M. ridibundus antennae. Comparative GC-mass spectrometry of authentic standards and cocoon-volatiles determined that these compounds were 3-carene, myrcene, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, sulcatone, and geranylacetone. A synthetic 11-component blend consisting of these ten EAD-active compounds plus EAD-inactive (+)-limonene (the most abundant cocoon-derived volatile) was as effective as Porapak Q cocoon extract in attracting both female M. ridibundus and C. pomonella larvae seeking pupation sites. Only three components could be deleted from the 11-component blend without diminishing its attractiveness to M. ridibundus, which underlines the complexity of information received and processed during foraging for hosts. Mastrus ridibundus obviously “eavesdrop” on the pheromonal communication signals of C. pomonella larvae that reliably indicate host presence.

Jumean, Zaid; Unruh, Tom; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

2005-01-01

35

Elementary research of the formation mechanism of sex-related fluorescent cocoon of silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

To understand mechanisms for the difference of uptaking and transporting the pigments between the male and female in the silkworm, Bombyx mori strain of sex-related fluorescent cocoon, the fluorescent pigments in the midgut lumen, midgut, blood, silk glands and cocoon were analyzed with thin-layer chromatography, and showed that fluorescent colors of cocoons consisted with that of blood and silk glands. The different fluorescent colors of cocoons between the male and female may be mainly caused by the difference of accumulation and transportation for fluorescent pigments in the midgut and in the silk glands. Furthermore the midgut proteins were separated with Native-PAGE, and the proteins respectively recovered from three fluorescent regions presenting on a Native-PAGE gel for the female silkworms were determined using shotgun proteomics and mass spectrometry sequencing, of which 60, 40 and 18 proteins respectively from the region 1, 2 and 3 were identified. It was found that the several kinds of low molecular mass 30 kDa lipoproteins and the actins could be detected in all three regions, troponin, 30 kDa lipoprotein and 27 kDa glycoprotein precursor could be detected in the region 2 and 3, suggesting these proteins may be fluorescent pigments binding candidates proteins. Analysis of gene ontology indicated that the identified proteins in the three regions linked to the cellular component, molecular function, and biological process categories. These results provide a new clew to understand the formation mechanism of sex-related fluorescent cocoon of silkworm. PMID:21604173

Xiaolong, Hu; Renyu, Xue; Guangli, Cao; Xing, Zhang; Yilin, Zhang; Xiaohua, Yu; Yuqing, Zhang; Chengliang, Gong

2011-05-22

36

Utilization of silkworm cocoon waste as a sorbent for the removal of oil from water.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate the utilization of silkworm cocoon waste, such as pierced or stained cocoons, as a sorbent material for the removal of motor and vegetable oils from water. The oil-sorption capacity, rate and reusability of the material were evaluated. The results show the high sorption capacity of the silkworm cocoon waste sorbent (42-52 g(oil)/g(sorbent) for motor oil and 37-60 g(oil)/g(sorbent) for vegetable oil). The oil sorbed onto the material could be recovered by squeezing the sorbent, and the squeezed material showed an oil-sorption capacity over 15 g(oil)/g(sorbent). We concluded that the material shows a high performance as a low cost and environmental friendly sorbent for the removal of oil from water. PMID:19008047

Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Shiori; Kurashima, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Ayaka; Haraguchi, Kazuma; Shirai, Koji; Kanekatsu, Rensuke; Kiguchi, Kenji

2008-10-07

37

Mystery tubes coiled around deep-water tropical gorgonians: fecampiid cocoons (Platyhelminthes: Fecampiida) resembling Solenogastres (Mollusca)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the examination of a large suite of tropical deep-water molluscs, a number of Solenogastres were found, some of them typically curled around gorgonian stems. A subsequent closer examination of the Solenogastres revealed another type of object also curled around the gor- gonians, which strongly resembled Solenogastres but lacked their external features. These objects proved to be cocoons with egg

Claudia Handl; Philippe Bouchet

2007-01-01

38

The function of lichen flakes and white spider cocoons on the outer surface of birds' nests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predictions from two hypotheses for the adaptive significance of the application of lichen flakes and white silk cocoons to the outer surface of bird nests are compared. The hypotheses are: (a) concealment by resemblance to the branches to which the nest is attached, and (b) concealment by light reflection to make the nest dissolve into the background beyond the

M. H. Hansell

1996-01-01

39

Isolation, purification and characterization of silk protein sericin from cocoon peduncles of tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta.  

PubMed

A high molecular weight water-soluble glue protein, sericin was identified in the cocoon peduncle (a strong thread connecting the cocoons to the branches of the tree with a ring) of the tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta. The sericin was isolated by 8M urea containing 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate and beta-mercaptoethenol (2%) or by 1% sodium chloride. The protein was purified by gel filtration chromatography. In SDS-PAGE, a single band of approximately 200kDa was detected both in non-reducing and reducing conditions. Amino acid analysis showed that the protein is enriched in glycine and serine. There is a slight difference observed in amino acid composition between the sericin from cocoon peduncle and cocoon of A. mylitta. Secondary structure estimation by circular dichroism spectrometry showed 36.7% beta-sheets, 52.7% random coils, 10.6% turns and no helices. PMID:16620954

Dash, Rupesh; Mukherjee, Soumen; Kundu, S C

2006-03-07

40

An unusual case in surgical emergency: Abdominal cocoon and its laparoscopic management  

PubMed Central

Small bowel obstruction associated with abdominal cocoon (AC) is a rarely encountered surgical emergency. This condition is characterised by a thick fibrous membrane which encases the small bowel partially or completely. It is usually difficult to be able to make a definitive diagnosis in the presence of obscure clinical and radiological findings. Diagnosis is usually made at laparotomy when the encasement of the small bowel within a cocoon-like sac is visualised. Here, we report on a 29-year-old male patient who presented with acute small bowel obstruction and was eventually diagnosed with AC at laparoscopy. In this case, laparoscopic excision of the fibrous sac and extensive adhesiolysis resulted in complete recovery. Although rare, the diagnosis of AC should be kept in cases of patients with intestinal obstruction combined with relevant imaging findings. Laparoscopy should also be considered for the management of this condition in suitable patients.

Ertem, Metin; Ozben, Volkan; Gok, Hakan; Aksu, Ersin

2011-01-01

41

Transgenic silkworms (Bombyx mori) produce recombinant spider dragline silk in cocoons.  

PubMed

Spider dragline silk is a unique fibrous protein with a combination of tensile strength and elasticity, but the isolation of large amounts of silk from spiders is not feasible. In this study, we generated germline-transgenic silkworms (Bombyx mori) that spun cocoons containing recombinant spider silk. A piggyBac-based transformation vector was constructed that carried spider dragline silk (MaSp1) cDNA driven by the sericin 1 promoter. Silkworm eggs were injected with the vector, producing transgenic silkworms displaying DsRed fluorescence in their eyes. Genotyping analysis confirmed the integration of the MaSp1 gene into the genome of the transgenic silkworms, and silk protein analysis revealed its expression and secretion in the cocoon. Compared with wild-type silk, the recombinant silk displayed a higher tensile strength and elasticity. The results indicate the potential for producing recombinant spider silk in transgenic B. mori. PMID:19633923

Wen, Hongxiu; Lan, Xiqian; Zhang, Yuansong; Zhao, Tianfu; Wang, Yujun; Kajiura, Zenta; Nakagaki, Masao

2009-07-25

42

Safety and immunogenicity of one dose of MenACWY-CRM, an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine, when administered to adolescents concomitantly or sequentially with Tdap and HPV vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Phase III study evaluates an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal CRM197 conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM (Novartis Vaccines), when administered concomitantly or sequentially with two other recommended adolescent vaccines; combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. In this single-centre study, 1620 subjects 11–18 years of age, were randomized to three groups (1:1:1) to receive MenACWY-CRM concomitantly or

A. Arguedas; C. Soley; C. Loaiza; G. Rincon; S. Guevara; A. Perez; W. Porras; O. Alvarado; L. Aguilar; A. Abdelnour; U. Grunwald; L. Bedell; A. Anemona; P. M. Dull

2010-01-01

43

Mystery tubes coiled around deep-water tropical gorgonians: fecampiid cocoons (Platyhelminthes: Fecampiida) resembling Solenogastres (Mollusca).  

PubMed

During the examination of a large suite of tropical deep-water molluscs, a number of Solenogastres were found, some of them typically curled around gorgonian stems. A subsequent closer examination of the Solenogastres revealed another type of object also curled around the gorgonians, which strongly resembled Solenogastres but lacked their external features. These objects proved to be cocoons with egg capsules, each containing two eggs or young larvae, typical of the parasitic platyhelminth group Fecampiida. PMID:17143569

Handl, Claudia; Bouchet, Philippe

2006-12-02

44

Water balance and arginine vasotocin in the cocooning frog Cyclorana platycephala (hylidae).  

PubMed

It is well established that forming a cocoon, for frog species capable of doing so, markedly reduces evaporative water loss; however, the capacity of cocooned frogs to maintain hydration during extended estivation is not well understood. The combined effects of long-term estivation and water loss were examined in the cocoon-forming species Cyclorana platycephala by assessing the hydration state of the frogs throughout a 15-mo estivation period. Frogs lost mass throughout the 15-mo period to a maximum of 36%+/-6.5% of their initial standard mass. Plasma osmolality reached maximal levels by the ninth month of estivation at 487 mOsm kg(-1) and then remained stable to the fifteenth month of estivation. Urine osmolality continued to increase to the fifteenth month of estivation, at which point plasma and urine concentrations were isosmotic. The use of bladder water to counter losses from circulation was indicated by the relatively slow rate of increase in plasma osmolality with mass loss and the progressive increase in urine osmolality. For estivating frogs, evidence was found for a possible threshold relationship between plasma osmolality and plasma arginine vasotocin (AVT) concentration. After estivation, plasma AVT concentrations decreased markedly after 15-mo estivators were placed in water for 2 h, suggesting that high levels of AVT may not be integral to rapid rehydration in this species. PMID:18040971

Cartledge, Victoria A; Withers, Philip C; Bradshaw, S Don

2007-11-16

45

Silk hydrogels from non-mulberry and mulberry silkworm cocoons processed with ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Matrices based on silk fibroin from the non-mulberry silkworm Antheraea mylitta and the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori have demonstrated good applicability in regenerative medicine. However, the cocoons of A. mylitta are underutilized in part due to their lack of solubility in traditional organic solvents. Therefore, the present work investigates the solubilization and processing of degummed fibers obtained from the cocoons of both silkworm species into hydrogels using ionic liquids (ILs). The developed hydrogels exhibited a rubbery consistency, viscoelastic behavior and rapid degradation in the presence of protease XIV. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy images suggest that human adipose stem cells (hASCs) are able to adhere to and migrate at different levels within the hydrogel structures. Moreover, the MTS assay demonstrated the maintenance of cell metabolic activity for up to 28days, while DNA quantification showed that hASCs were able to proliferate on the seeded hydrogels. The findings indicate that complete IL removal from the fabricated hydrogels results in a positive hASCs cellular response. Thus the present approach provides a unique opportunity to broaden the processability and application of silk fibroin obtained from A. mylitta cocoons for regenerative medicine, namely cartilage regeneration. PMID:23845228

Silva, Simone S; Popa, Elena G; Gomes, Manuela E; Oliveira, Mariana B; Nayak, Sunita; Subia, Bano; Mano, João F; Kundu, Subhas C; Reis, Rui L

2013-07-09

46

Developing a Web 2.0 telemedical education system: the AJAX-Cocoon portal.  

PubMed

Web 2.0 technologies such as wikis, podcasts/vodcasting, blogs and semantic portals could be quite effective tools in e-learning for health professionals. If effectively deployed, such tools can offer a way to enhance students', clinicians' and patients' learning experiences, and deepens levels of learners' engagement and collaboration within medical learning environments. However, Web 2.0 requires simplicity of use as well as integration with modern web technologies. This article presents a Web 2.0 telemedical portal, which provides a social community-learning paradigm from the desk of the physician, the student, the hospital administrator, or the insurer. The presented portal utilises RESTful web services and techniques like content syndication, mushups and Asynchronous JavaScript API and XML (AJAX). The designed portal is based on the Apache Cocoon RESTful framework for sharing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) medical case studies. Central to this article is the integration between Cocoon and AJAX. The proposed AJAX-Cocoon portal utilises a JSP portlet architecture, which manages the interaction dynamics and overcomes the shortcomings of the JSR 168 and WSRP 1.0 standards. PMID:18583294

Mohammed, S; Orabi, A; Fiaidhi, J; Orabi, M

2008-01-01

47

Changes in body fluids of the cocooning fossorial frog Cyclorana australis in a seasonally dry environment.  

PubMed

We investigated changes in the lymph (equivalent to plasma) and urine of the cocooning frog Cyclorana australis during the dry season in monsoonal northern Australia. Frogs in moist soil for two days were fully hydrated (lymph 220 mOsm kg(-1), urine 49 mOsm kg(-1)). From five weeks onwards the soil was dry (matric potential <-8000 kPa). Aestivating frogs at three and five months formed cocoons in shallow (<20 cm) burrows and retained bladder fluid (25-80% of standard mass). After three months, urine but not lymph osmolality was elevated. After five months, lymph (314 mOsm kg(-1)) and urine (294 mOsm kg(-1)) osmolality and urea concentrations were elevated. Urea was a major contributing osmolyte in urine and accumulated in lymph after five months. Lymph sodium concentration did not change with time, whereas potassium increased in urine after five months. Active animals had moderate lymph osmolality (252 mOsm kg(-1)), but urea concentrations remained low. Urine was highly variable in active frogs, suggesting that they tolerate variation in hydration state. Despite prolonged periods in dry soil, osmolality increase in C. australis was not severe. Aestivation in a cocoon facilitates survival in shallow burrows, but such a strategy may only be effective in environments with seasonally reliable rainfall. PMID:21777688

Reynolds, Stephen J; Christian, Keith A; Tracy, Christopher R; Hutley, Lindsay B

2011-07-13

48

Cocoon production, morphology, hatching pattern and fecundity in seven tropical earthworm species - a laboratory-based investigation.  

PubMed

Data on the reproductive biology of seven Indian species of earthworms, viz. Perionyx excavatus Perrier, Lampito mauritii Kinberg, Polypheretima elongata (Perrier), Pontoscolex corethrurus (Muller), Eutyphoeus gammiei (Beddard), Dichogaster modiglianii (Rosa) and Drawida nepalensis Michaelsen are presented. The peregrine earthworms such as Perionyx excavatus, Pontoscolex corethrurus, Dichogaster modiglianii, and Polypheretima elongata are considered to be continuous breeders with high fecundity. Native Lampito mauritii and Drawida nepalensis are semi-continuous and Eutyphoeus gammiei discrete breeders. There is a dramatic increase in cocoon production by most earthworm species of Tripura in the summer and monsoon with a corresponding peak during April and July. Cocoon production decreased or ceased during winter. Temperature affected the incubation period of cocoons. With increase in temperature, incubation period increased in the endogeic worms, Pontoscolex corethrurus, Polypheretima elongata and Drawida nepalensis and decreased in the epigeic worms, Perionyx excavatus and Dichogaster modiglianii, within a temperature range between 28-32 degrees C under laboratory conditions. There was a significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation between number of hatchlings per cocoon and incubation period in Lampito mauritii. High rate of cocoon production, short development time with high hatching success, as well as continuous breeding strategies in the epigeic species Perionyx excavatus and Dichogaster modiglianii and the top soil endogeic species, Pontoscolex corethrurus, Drawida nepalensis and Lampito mauritii, indicate their possible usefulness in vermiculture. The giant anecic worm, Eutyphoeus gammiei, which has a very long cocoon development time, discrete breeding strategy and very low rate of cocoon production, is not a suitable species for vermiculture. PMID:12089477

Bhattacharjee, Gautam; Chaudhuri, P S

2002-06-01

49

A cosmic ray cocoon along the X-ray jet of M87?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relativistic jets propagating through an ambient medium must produce some observational effects along their side boundaries because of interactions across the large velocity gradient. One possible effect of such an interaction would be a sheared magnetic field structure at the jet boundaries, leading to a characteristic radio polarization pattern. As proposed by Ostrowski, another effect can come from the generation of a high-energy cosmic ray component at the boundary, producing dynamic effects on the medium surrounding the jet and forming a cocoon dominated by cosmic rays with a decreased thermal gas emissivity. We selected this process for our first attempt to look for the effects of this type of interaction. We analysed the Chandra X-ray data for the radio galaxy M87 in order to verify if the expected regions of diminished emissivity may be present near the spectacular X-ray jet in this source. The detailed analysis of the data, merged from 42 separate observations, shows signatures of lower emissivity surrounding the jet. In particular we detect an intensity dip along the part of the jet, which would be approximately 1.5 × 0.15 kpc2 in size, if situated along the jet which is inclined towards us. Due to a highly non-uniform X-ray background in the central region, we are not able to claim the discovery of a cosmic ray cocoon around the M87 jet: we only have demonstrated that the data show morphological structures which could be accounted for if a cosmic ray cocoon exists.

Dainotti, M. G.; Ostrowski, M.; Harris, D.; Siemiginowska, A.; Siejkowski, H.

2012-10-01

50

AN UP-SCATTERED COCOON EMISSION MODEL OF GAMMA-RAY BURST HIGH-ENERGY LAGS  

SciTech Connect

The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope recently detected the most energetic gamma-ray burst so far, GRB 080916C, and reported its detailed temporal properties in an extremely broad spectral range: (1) the time-resolved spectra are well described by broken power-law forms over the energy range of 10 keV-10 GeV, (2) the high-energy emission (at epsilon>100 MeV) is delayed by approx5 s with respect to the epsilon approx< 1 MeV emission, and (3) the emission onset times shift toward later times in higher energy bands. We show that this behavior of the high-energy emission can be explained by a model in which the prompt emission consists of two components: one is the emission component peaking at epsilon approx 1 MeV due to the synchrotron-self-Compton radiation of electrons accelerated in the internal shock of the jet and the other is the component peaking at epsilon approx 100 MeV due to up-scattering of the photospheric X-ray emission of the expanding cocoon (i.e., the hot bubble produced by dissipation of the jet energy inside the progenitor star) off the same electrons in the jet. Based on this model, we derive some constraints on the radius of the progenitor star and the total energy and mass of the cocoon of this GRB, which may provide information on the structure of the progenitor star and the physical conditions of the jet propagating in the star. The up-scattered cocoon emission could be important for other Fermi GRBs as well. We discuss some predictions of this model, including a prompt bright optical emission and a soft X-ray excess.

Toma, Kenji; Wu Xuefeng; Meszaros, Peter, E-mail: toma@astro.psu.ed [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2009-12-20

51

A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by Fermi in the Cygnus superbubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conspicuous stellar clusters, with high densities of massive stars, powerful stellar winds, and intense UV flux, have formed over the past few million years in the large molecular clouds of the Cygnus X region, 1.4 kpc away from the Sun. By capturing the gamma-ray signal of young cosmic rays spreading in the interstellar medium surrounding the clusters, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has confirmed the long-standing hypothesis that massive-star forming regions host cosmic-ray factories. The 50-pc wide cocoon of energetic particles appears to fill the interstellar cavities carved by the stellar activity. The cocoon provides a first test case to study the impact of wind-powered turbulence on the early phases of cosmic-ray diffusion (between the sources and the Galaxy at large) and to study the acceleration potential of this type of superbubble environment for in-situ cosmic-ray production or to energize Galactic cosmic rays passing by.

Grenier, Isabelle A.; Tibaldo, Luigi; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

2013-02-01

52

Analysis of Genetic Divergence for Classification of Morphological and Larval Gain Characteristics of Peanut Cocoon Silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) Germplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hierarchical agglomerative clustering analysis was undertaken for grouping the 51 lines silkworm, Bombyx mori L., based on larval gains parameters in the clustering process. The analysis was based on data from one rearing seasons with all 51 peanut cocoon strains of silkworm and varying morphological development potentials. The results indicate that two clusters can be realized based on larval

M. Salehi Nezhad; S. Z. Mirhosseini

2009-01-01

53

Structural model of an antistasin/notch-like fusion protein from the cocoon wall of the aquatic leech, Theromyzon tessulatum.  

PubMed

The aquatic leech, Theromyzon tessulatum, secretes a proteinaceous cocoon with extraordinary physical properties (e.g., proteolytic, thermal resiliency). The deduced amino acid sequence of a major protein (Tcp-Theromyzon cocoon protein) from the T. tessulatum cocoon wall has been used to model the endogenous structure of the Tcp protein. The Tcp protein sequence comprises six internal repeats, each containing 12 ordered Cys residues. Amino acid alignments suggest that the region Cys1-->6 is homologous to antistasin, a leech anticoagulant, and Cys7-->12 is homologous to an epidermal growth factor-like domain found in notch-class proteins, which play critical roles in development, signaling, and adhesion throughout the Animalia. Modeling of individual domains (i.e., antistasin and notch) positions multiple hydrophobic and charged residues on the surface. When the antistasin and notch domains were fused, hydrophobic pockets appeared that may facilitate a polymerization mechanism. Collectively, the predicted features of our Tcp model are consistent with the physical properties of the leech cocoon wall. PMID:16523290

Mason, Tarin A; McIlroy, Patrick J; Shain, Daniel H

2006-03-08

54

Infant botulism.  

PubMed

Infant botulism is a rare disease that affects infant less than 12 months of age. The illness results from absorption of botulinum toxin produced in situ by neurotoxigenic clostridia that can temporarily colonize the intestinal tract of infants. To date, all inhabited continents except Africa have reported cases of infant botulism. Recognition of cases seem directly related to physician awareness and clinical suspicion. This review summarizes microbiological, clinical and epidemiological features of infant botulism. PMID:19636165

Fenicia, Lucia; Anniballi, Fabrizio

2009-01-01

55

Infant botulism  

MedlinePLUS

... partially close Infant appears "floppy" Infant doesn't gag Loss of head control Paralysis that spreads downward ... a decreased muscle tone, a missing or decreased gag reflex, missing or decreased deep tendon reflexes, and ...

56

Towards detecting the ‘adhesive cocoon’ of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) by cine-MRI: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionPeritoneal dialysis (PD) is the preferred method for long-term management of patients with end-stage renal failure. Over time, peritoneal fibrosis leads to dysfunction and in some to encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS). This is characterised by a diffuse visceral film forming a tightening cocoon, which ultimately ‘strangles’ its contents. The patients present with bowel obstruction leading to eventual small intestinal failure,

B Wright; J Fenner; A Summers; C Hutchinson; H Hurst; M Wilkie; S Herrick; P Brenchley; R Gillott; P A Spencer; T Augustine; K D Bardhan

2011-01-01

57

The social life of infants in the context of infectious disease transmission; social contacts and mixing patterns of the very young.  

PubMed

Insight into how humans interact helps further understanding of the transmission of infectious diseases. For diseases such as pertussis, infants are at particular risk for severe outcomes. To understand the contact pattern of infants, especially those too young to be vaccinated, we sent contact diaries to a representative sample of 1000 mothers in the United Kingdom. We received 115 responses with a total of 758 recorded contacts. The average number of daily contacts for an infant was 6.68 overall and 5.7 for those aged ?10 weeks. Of the latter, 2.1 (37%) contacts were with non-household members and were >15 minutes duration, suggesting that a cocooning programme may miss a substantial proportion of exposures leading to disease transmission. The least contact was between adolescents and infants. Thus the impact of adolescent (pertussis) vaccination on infants would likely be limited, unless it reduces transmission to other age groups whose contact with infants is greater. PMID:24146835

van Hoek, Albert Jan; Andrews, Nick; Campbell, Helen; Amirthalingam, Gayatri; Edmunds, W John; Miller, Elizabeth

2013-10-16

58

The Social Life of Infants in the Context of Infectious Disease Transmission; Social Contacts and Mixing Patterns of the Very Young  

PubMed Central

Insight into how humans interact helps further understanding of the transmission of infectious diseases. For diseases such as pertussis, infants are at particular risk for severe outcomes. To understand the contact pattern of infants, especially those too young to be vaccinated, we sent contact diaries to a representative sample of 1000 mothers in the United Kingdom. We received 115 responses with a total of 758 recorded contacts. The average number of daily contacts for an infant was 6.68 overall and 5.7 for those aged ?10 weeks. Of the latter, 2.1 (37%) contacts were with non-household members and were >15 minutes duration, suggesting that a cocooning programme may miss a substantial proportion of exposures leading to disease transmission. The least contact was between adolescents and infants. Thus the impact of adolescent (pertussis) vaccination on infants would likely be limited, unless it reduces transmission to other age groups whose contact with infants is greater.

van Hoek, Albert Jan; Andrews, Nick; Campbell, Helen; Amirthalingam, Gayatri; Edmunds, W. John; Miller, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

59

Chalkbrood transmission in the alfalfa leafcutting bee: the impact of disinfecting bee cocoons in loose cell management systems.  

PubMed

Understanding pathogen transmission could illuminate new methods for disease prevention. A case in point is chalkbrood in the alfalfa leafcutting bee [Megachile rotundata (F.)]. Propagation of this solitary bee is severely hampered by chalkbrood, a larval disease caused by Ascosphaera aggregata (Ascomycota). Alfalfa leafcutting bees nest in existing cavities in wood or hollow reeds and overwinter as larvae. In the early summer, emerging adults frequently must chew through dead, diseased siblings that block their exit, becoming contaminated with chalkbrood spores in the process. When alfalfa leafcutting bees are used as a commercial pollinator, the cocoons are removed from nesting boards to reduce chalkbrood transmission, but the disease is still common. To determine if these removed cocoons (called loose cells) are an important source of disease transmission, they were disinfected with a fungicide before bees were incubated, and released in the field. Chalkbrood prevalence among the progeny of the treated bees was reduced up to 50% in one field trial, but not significantly when tested in an on-farm trial. Thus, substantial disease transmission still occurred when the loose cells were disinfected, and even when clean nesting materials were used. In conclusion, pathogen transmission must still be occurring from another source that has yet to be identified. Another possible source of transmission could arise from bees that emerge midsummer in populations with a high percent of multivoltinism, but dirty nesting boards and feral bees also may be minor sources of transmission. PMID:22251678

James, R R

2011-08-01

60

Infant Formula  

MedlinePLUS

... iron-fortified formula. Some formulas are made from soy milk instead of cow's milk. If your baby seems ... cow's milk, your doctor may suggest using a soy-milk formula. If you’re not breastfeeding, use infant ...

61

[Infant botulism].  

PubMed

We report a case of botulism in a 40 day old infant. The patient presented a descending flaccid paralysis requiring mechanical ventilation for 12 days. She is the first European patient treated with Human Botulism Immune Globulin. A few weeks later a second case of infant botulism was detected in our geographical region in Southern Spain. We emphasise the importance of an early diagnosis and treatment with Human Botulism Immune Globulin to decrease morbidity. PMID:18447997

López Laso, E; Pérez Navero, J L; Rumbao Aguirre, J; Mateos González, M E; Méndez García, M; Cárdenas Aranzana, M J; Ibarra de la Rosa, I

2008-05-01

62

[Infant botulism].  

PubMed

Infant botulism is a rare disease that affects infants below the age of 12 months following absorption of neurotoxins produced by ingested Clostridium botulinum spores. The clinical manifestations are caused by symmetrical cranial nerve palsies followed by descending, symmetric flaccid paralysis of voluntary muscles. Presenting symptoms include constipation, lethargy, mydriasis and ptosis. The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical examination and confirmed by isolating the toxin in serum or stools. Treatment consists of supportive intensive care and treatment with antitoxins. PMID:20569659

Hoffmann, Thomas; Mølbak, Kåre; Paerregaard, Anders

2010-06-21

63

Infant botulism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infant botulism results from the absorption of heat-labile neurotoxin produced in situ by ingested Clostridium botulinum. Honey and environmental exposure are the main sources of acquisition of the organism. Clinical manifestations are owing to progressive neuromuscular blockade, initially of muscles innervated by cranial nerves and later of the trunk, extremities and diaphragm. Presynaptic autonomic nerves are also affected. The diagnosis

I Brook

2007-01-01

64

Green cocoons in silkworm Bombyx mori resulting from the quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase of UGT86, is an evolved response to dietary toxins.  

PubMed

The glycosylation of UDP-glucosyltransferases (UGTs) is of great importance in the control and elimination of both endogenous and exogenous toxins. Bm-UGT10286 (UGT86) is the sole provider of UGT activity against the 5-O position of quercetin and directly influences the formation of green pigment in the Bombyx cocoon. To evaluate whether cocoon coloration evolved for mimetic purposes, we concentrated on the expression pattern of Ugt86 and the activities of the enzyme substrates. The expression of Ugt86 was not only detected in the cocoon absorbing and accumulating tissues such as the digestive tube and silk glands, but also in quantity in the detoxification tissues of the malpighian tubes and fat body, as well as in the gonads. As in the green cocoon strains, Ugt86 was clearly expressed in the yellow and white cocoon strains. In vitro, the fusion protein of UGT86 showed quercetin metabolic activity. Nevertheless, Ugt86 expression of 5th instar larvae was not up-regulated in the silk gland by exogenous quercetin. However, it was significantly up-regulated in the digestive tube and gonads (P < 0.05). A similar result was observed in experiments where larvae were exposed to rutin, an insect resistance inducer and growth inhibitor typically found in plants, and to 20-hydroxylecdysone (20E), an insect endocrine and plant source hormone. On the contrary, up-regulated Ugt86 expression was almost nil in larvae exposed to juvenile hormone III (P > 0.05). The results of HPLC revealed that a new substance was formed by mixing 20E with the recombinant UGT86 protein in vitro, indicating that the effect of Ugt86 on 20E was similar to that on exogenous quercetin derived from plant food, and that the effect probably initiated the detoxification reaction against rutin. The conclusion is that the reaction of Ugt86 on the silkworm cocoon pigment quercetin is not the result of active mimetic ecogenesis, but derives from the detoxification of UGTs. PMID:23271130

Xu, Xu; Wang, Meng; Wang, Ying; Sima, Yanghu; Zhang, Dayan; Li, Juan; Yin, Weiming; Xu, Shiqing

2012-12-28

65

Infant botulism.  

PubMed

Constipation in children is rarely thought of as a serious health condition. It is, however, one of the leading symptoms of the pathologic sequence in infantile botulism. The pathogenesis, common clinical manifestations, and common grounds in treatment and prognosis in infant botulism are summarized. The nursing role is presented, focusing on airway management, nutritional needs, environmental support, and parental role in an intensive care unit. An exemplar case study is presented. PMID:8206775

Mygrant, B I; Renaud, M T

66

The enhanced photocatalytic and bactericidal activities of carbon microsphere-assisted solvothermally synthesized cocoon-shaped Sn(4+)-doped ZnO nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Cocoon-shaped Sn(4+)-doped ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized by a solvothermal method using carbon microspheres as a template. The optimum doping level for photocatalysis is 3% (g. atom). Powder X-ray diffractograms show that the ZnO has a primitive hexagonal crystal structure and that doping ZnO with Sn(4+) increases the unit cell lengths and the Zn-O bond lengths. Larger crystal growth along the c-axis is also observed. The measured size of the cocoon-shaped Sn(4+)-doped ZnO nanoparticles is larger than the mean crystallite size. Solid state impedance spectroscopy studies reveal that Sn(4+)-doping increases the charge transfer resistance. Doping does not significantly modify the optical band gap, but does suppress green emission. A decrease in the number of crystal defects due to oxygen vacancies is likely to be a reason for the enhanced photocatalytic properties of the cocoon-shaped Sn(4+)-doped ZnO nanoparticles. Doping ZnO with Sn(4+) enhances the bactericidal activity as well. PMID:23913133

Karunakaran, Chockalingam; Sakthiraadha, Sakthidasan; Gomathisankar, Paramasivan; Vinayagamoorthy, Pazhamalai

2013-08-02

67

Infant botulism.  

PubMed

Infant botulism results from the absorption of heat-labile neurotoxin produced in situ by ingested Clostridium botulinum. Honey and environmental exposure are the main sources of acquisition of the organism. Clinical manifestations are owing to progressive neuromuscular blockade, initially of muscles innervated by cranial nerves and later of the trunk, extremities and diaphragm. Presynaptic autonomic nerves are also affected. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds and is confirmed by recovery of the organism or by detection of toxin in the stool. Management includes meticulous supportive intensive care that may include mechanical ventilation and administration of human botulinum immunoglobulin in severe cases. PMID:17314986

Brook, I

2007-03-01

68

Infants in Foster Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article highlights the importance of attachment issues for infants placed in foster care. We offer a framework for understanding how early separation and maltreatment may affect infants' ability to securely rely on a foster parent. We argue that disruptions in foster infants' primary attachment relationships, combined with a history of maltreatment, place these infants at risk for developing predominantly

K. Chase Stovall; Mary Dozier

1998-01-01

69

Infant - newborn development  

MedlinePLUS

... months Crawling may begin Infant can walk while holding an adult's hand Infant is able to sit steadily, without support, for long periods of time Infant learns to sit down from a standing ... while holding onto furniture 9 - 12 months Infant begins to ...

70

Skin Equivalent Tissue-Engineered Construct: Co-Cultured Fibroblasts/ Keratinocytes on 3D Matrices of Sericin Hope Cocoons.  

PubMed

The development of effective and alternative tissue-engineered skin replacements to autografts, allografts and xenografts has became a clinical requirement due to the problems related to source of donor tissue and the perceived risk of disease transmission. In the present study 3D tissue engineered construct of sericin is developed using co-culture of keratinocytes on the upper surface of the fabricated matrices and with fibroblasts on lower surface. Sericin is obtained from "Sericin Hope" silkworm of Bombyx mori mutant and is extracted from cocoons by autoclave. Porous sericin matrices are prepared by freeze dried method using genipin as crosslinker. The matrices are characterized biochemically and biophysically. The cell proliferation and viability of co-cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes on matrices for at least 28 days are observed by live/dead assay, Alamar blue assay, and by dual fluorescent staining. The growth of the fibroblasts and keratinocytes in co-culture is correlated with the expression level of TGF-?, b-FGF and IL-8 in the cultured supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The histological analysis further demonstrates a multi-layered stratified epidermal layer of uninhibited keratinocytes in co-cultured constructs. Presence of involucrin, collagen IV and the fibroblast surface protein in immuno-histochemical stained sections of co-cultured matrices indicates the significance of paracrine signaling between keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the expression of extracellular matrix protein for dermal repair. No significant amount of pro inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1? and nitric oxide) production are evidenced when macrophages grown on the sericin matrices. The results all together depict the potentiality of sericin 3D matrices as skin equivalent tissue engineered construct in wound repair. PMID:24058626

Nayak, Sunita; Dey, Sancharika; Kundu, Subhas C

2013-09-13

71

Skin Equivalent Tissue-Engineered Construct: Co-Cultured Fibroblasts/ Keratinocytes on 3D Matrices of Sericin Hope Cocoons  

PubMed Central

The development of effective and alternative tissue-engineered skin replacements to autografts, allografts and xenografts has became a clinical requirement due to the problems related to source of donor tissue and the perceived risk of disease transmission. In the present study 3D tissue engineered construct of sericin is developed using co-culture of keratinocytes on the upper surface of the fabricated matrices and with fibroblasts on lower surface. Sericin is obtained from “Sericin Hope” silkworm of Bombyx mori mutant and is extracted from cocoons by autoclave. Porous sericin matrices are prepared by freeze dried method using genipin as crosslinker. The matrices are characterized biochemically and biophysically. The cell proliferation and viability of co-cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes on matrices for at least 28 days are observed by live/dead assay, Alamar blue assay, and by dual fluorescent staining. The growth of the fibroblasts and keratinocytes in co-culture is correlated with the expression level of TGF-?, b-FGF and IL-8 in the cultured supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The histological analysis further demonstrates a multi-layered stratified epidermal layer of uninhibited keratinocytes in co-cultured constructs. Presence of involucrin, collagen IV and the fibroblast surface protein in immuno-histochemical stained sections of co-cultured matrices indicates the significance of paracrine signaling between keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the expression of extracellular matrix protein for dermal repair. No significant amount of pro inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1? and nitric oxide) production are evidenced when macrophages grown on the sericin matrices. The results all together depict the potentiality of sericin 3D matrices as skin equivalent tissue engineered construct in wound repair.

Nayak, Sunita; Dey, Sancharika; Kundu, Subhas C.

2013-01-01

72

Effects of metal-contaminated soils on the growth, sexual development, and early cocoon production of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, with particular reference to zinc.  

PubMed

Juvenile Eisenia fetida (Savigny) were exposed for 20 weeks to an uncontaminated soil and to soils contaminated with cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc collected from seven sites at different distances from a smelting works at Avonmouth, southwest England. The survival, growth (= weight after 5 weeks exposure), time to sexual maturation (= percentages of adults present after 8 weeks), and reproduction (= number of cocoons produced by the worms) were compared with soil metal concentrations. Of the parameters measured, growth and sexual maturation time had the lowest EC50 values. The effects of metal-contaminated soils could be attributed both to the direct toxicity of the metals and to changes in the "scope for growth" of the exposed worms. A comparison of the results with those of an earlier toxicity test conducted with adult worms indicated that juveniles are more sensitive to metals than adults. Significant toxic effects on the growth and sexual maturation times of juveniles were detected in soils from sites for which no significant effects on the cocoon production of adults could be detected. The greater sensitivity of juvenile worms indicates the importance of considering effects on a variety of life history stages when conducting a risk assessment of the effects of pollutants in soils. Although E. fetida does not occur naturally in soils at Avonmouth, the present study provides evidence to support the suggestion that pollution from the smelter is responsible for the absence of worms within 2 km of the factory. Results presented in this paper, and from previous studies, suggest the observed absence is due to the effects of zinc on the growth and maturation of juveniles and the cocoon production rate of adult worms. PMID:8930509

Spurgeon, D J; Hopkin, S P

1996-10-01

73

Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis) Vaccine and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... painful muscle spasms throughout the body. Even with modern care, 10-20% of individuals with tetanus die ... tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis for teens and adults. Childhood vaccination for these diseases does not provide lifelong ...

74

Knowledge and attitudes of postpartum women toward immunization during pregnancy and the peripartum period.  

PubMed

Influenza and pertussis prevention in young infants requires immunizing pregnant women and all caregivers (cocooning). We evaluated the knowledge and attitude of postpartum women about these two recommendations. A survey of predominantly Hispanic, underinsured, medically underserved postpartum women in Houston, Texas was performed during June 2010 through July 2012. 511 postpartum women [mean age 28.8 y (18-45); 94% Hispanic] with a mean of 3 children (1-12) participated. Ninety-one (17.8%) were first-time mothers. 496 (97.1%) received prenatal care; care was delayed in 24.3%. Only 313 (61.3%) received vaccine education while pregnant and 291 (57%) were immunized. Four hundred 74 women (93%) were willing to be immunized during pregnancy if recommended by their healthcare provider, (the most trusted information source for 62%). Immunization of infants or infant caregivers was discussed with 41% and 10% of mothers, respectively. 230 women (45%) had received influenza vaccine; most intended to (79%) or had already received (15%) tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine. Preferred locations for cocooning were hospital or community clinics (97%). Insufficient knowledge (46.6%), cost (31.4%), lack of transportation (26%), work commitments (13.3%), and fear of needles (13.3%) were perceived barriers to cocooning. Level of formal education received by mothers had no effect on the quantity or quality of immunization education received during PNC or their attitude toward immunization. Immunization during pregnancy and cocooning, if recommended by providers, are acceptable in this high-risk population. Healthcare providers, as reported in infant studies, have the greatest influence on vaccine acceptance by pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:23782490

Rossmann Beel, Elizabeth; Rench, Marcia A; Montesinos, Diana P; Mayes, Betsy; Healy, C Mary

2013-06-19

75

Gastroesophageal Reflux in Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... and GERD in infants? When the lower esophageal sphincter—the muscle that acts as a valve between ... developed in infants, GER can occur. While the sphincter muscle is still developing, it may push stomach ...

76

Sudden infant death syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden death of an infant under 1 year of age which remains unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. It is a major cause of postneonatal mor- tality in developed countries. Generally, the infant is found

Ümit Ünüvar; Halis DOKGÖZ

77

Parenting and infant sleep.  

PubMed

Infant sleep undergoes dramatic evolution during the first year of life. This process is driven by underlying biological forces but is highly dependent on environmental cues including parental influences. In this review the links between infant sleep and parental behaviors, cognitions, emotions and relationships as well as psychopathology are examined within the context of a transactional model. Parental behaviors, particularly those related to bedtime interactions and soothing routines, are closely related to infant sleep. Increased parental involvement is associated with more fragmented sleep. Intervention based on modifying parental behaviors and cognitions have direct effect on infant sleep. It appears that parental personality, psychopathology and related cognitions and emotions contribute to parental sleep-related behaviors and ultimately influence infant sleep. However, the links are bidirectional and dynamic so that poor infant sleep may influence parental behaviors and poor infant sleep appears to be a family stressor and a risk factor for maternal depression. PMID:19631566

Sadeh, Avi; Tikotzky, Liat; Scher, Anat

2009-07-23

78

Feedback at the Working Surface: A Joint X-ray and Low-Frequency Radio Spectral Study of the Cocoon Shock in Cygnus A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on preliminary results from a joint spectral analysis of the cocoon shock region in Cygnus A using deep archival Chandra data and new low-frequency radio data from LOFAR. Being both bright in X-rays and the most powerful radio source in the local universe, the FRII radio galaxy Cygnus A represents an ideal opportunity to study the interaction between the jets produced by the central AGN and the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM) in which that AGN is embedded. Using the entire 235 ksec archival Chandra exposure, we have performed a spatially resolved, X-ray spectral analysis of the ICM in Cygnus A. By combining the resulting X-ray images and temperature maps with spectral index maps between 30-80 MHz and 120-180 MHz calculated from a recent, deep LOFAR observation, we can resolve the X-ray and radio emitting plasmas in any given region on spatial scales of 3-4 kpc over the central 100 kpc. We clearly resolve the cocoon shock surrounding Cygnus A and determine the Mach number of the shock as a function of position angle. Temperature jumps associated with this shock are detected over a large fraction of the total shock circumference. Significant non-thermal emission is also detected in the regions surrounding the SE and NW leading edges of the shock near the hotspots. In this talk, we will present a detailed analysis of the energetics of this interface region between the radio plasma inside the cocoon shock and the X-ray emitting gas outside the shock. Inside the shock, we will present constraints on the emission mechanisms in the jet, counter-jet, and hotspots based on the combined radio and X-ray spectra. Using maps of the spectral age derived from the LOFAR data and independent age estimates based on various cavity features seen in the X-ray image, we will present a picture of the evolution of the shock region in Cygnus A over the past 50 Myr. Finally, we will discuss the implications these observations have for AGN feedback models as well as the energy transfer mechanism itself.

Wise, Michael W.; Rafferty, D. A.; McKean, J. P.

2013-04-01

79

Sleep and Infant Learning  

PubMed Central

Human neonates spend the majority of their time sleeping. Despite the limited waking hours available for environmental exploration, the first few months of life are a time of rapid learning about the environment. The organization of neonate sleep differs qualitatively from adult sleep, and the unique characteristics of neonatal sleep may promote learning. Sleep contributes to infant learning in multiple ways. First, sleep facilitates neural maturation, thereby preparing infants to process and explore the environment in increasingly sophisticated ways. Second, sleep plays a role in memory consolidation of material presented while the infant was awake. Finally, emerging evidence indicates that infants process sensory stimuli and learn about contingencies in their environment even while asleep. As infants make the transition from reflexive to cortically mediated control, learned responses to physiological challenges during sleep may be critical adaptations to promote infant survival.

Tarullo, Amanda R.; Balsam, Peter D.; Fifer, William P.

2010-01-01

80

Infant botulism mimicking Hirschprung's disease.  

PubMed

We report a case of infant botulism presenting as primary colonic ileus--mimicking Hirschprung's megacolon. Infant botulism should be considered in any infant with constipation and neurologic abnormalities. PMID:19853738

O'Reilly, Eamon B; Montenegro, Brian; Arnold, John; Tomita, Sandra

2009-10-01

81

Infant botulism mimicking Hirschprung's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of infant botulism presenting as primary colonic ileus—mimicking Hirschprung's megacolon. Infant botulism should be considered in any infant with constipation and neurologic abnormalities.

Eamon B. O'Reilly; Brian Montenegro; John Arnold; Sandra Tomita

2009-01-01

82

FastStats: Infant Health  

MedlinePLUS

... States, trend tables with data on child health Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2009 Period Linked Birth/Infant ... Data Set [PDF - 466 KB] Recent Declines in Infant Mortality in the United States, 2005–2011 Understanding Racial ...

83

78 FR 37706 - Safety Standards for Infant Walkers and Infant Swings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and 1223 Safety Standards for Infant Walkers and Infant Swings AGENCY...numerous durable infant or toddler products, including infant...standards for durable infant or toddler products. The law requires...term ``durable infant or toddler product'' explicitly...

2013-06-24

84

78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers and components thereof. The complaint names as respondent Atom Medical International, Inc. of Japan. The complainant requests that the Commission issue a limited exclusion order,...

2013-09-06

85

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

86

Intracranial Tumors in Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prognosis in infants with brain tumors has historically been very poor. This study reviews 16 infants under the age of 12 months with brain tumors who presented to our institution between 1988 and 1999. The aim was to describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of these patients and to establish if newer diagnostic and treatment modalities have improved

Helen K. Young; Heather Johnston

2004-01-01

87

Cerebral Asymmetry in Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes two experiments conducted to replicate the reported findings (Entus, 1975) that infants demonstrate a right ear advantage in the perception of dichotically presented syllables. Using the non-nutritive sucking paradigm, 48 infants 1-3 months of age were presented with verbal stimuli contingent upon criterion level sucking.…

Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Corballis, Michael C.

88

Industrialization and Infant Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

On average, infant mortality rates are lower in more industrialized nations, yet health and mortality worsened during early industrialization in some nations. This study examines the effects of growing manufacturing employment on infant mortality across 274 Indonesian districts from 1985 to 1995, a time of rapid industrialization. Compared with cross-national studies we have a larger sample size of regions, more

Maya Federman; David I. Levine

2005-01-01

89

[The determination of the species classification of Baikal planarian cocoons found in the stomach of the black grayling (Thymallus arcticus baicalensis) by a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene].  

PubMed

Comparative analysis of nucleotide sequences of gene 18S of ribosome RNA was carried out. The results show that the genetic sequences of the given locus could be used as a molecular marker to identify the species of planaria irrespective of ontogenetic stage. The articles deals with problem of specific determination of cocoons of Baikal planaria from the stomach of Baikal black grayling using comparative analysis of nucleotide sequences of ribosome RNA fragments with known sequences determined earlier for Baikal planaria. The cocoons belong to two species of Rimacephalus. The authors discuss also the importance of feeding relationships of planaria and benthophage fish to investigate the biotic factors that influence the evolution of Baikal planaria. PMID:10520297

Kuznedelov, K D; Dziuba, E V

90

Multivariate Model of Infant Competence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a multivariate model of early infant competence formulated from variables representing infant-environment transaction including: birthweight, habituation index, personality ratings of infant social orientation and task orientation, ratings of maternal responsiveness to infant distress and social signals, and observational…

Kierscht, Marcia Selland; Vietze, Peter M.

91

Hearing loss - infants  

MedlinePLUS

... Central hearing loss results from damage to the auditory nerve itself, or the brain pathways that lead ... used to screen newborn infants for hearing loss: Auditory brain stem response (ABR) test. This test uses ...

92

Bidirectional priming in infants.  

PubMed

In associative priming, the direct activation of one concept indirectly activates others that are associated with it, depending on the directionality of the association. We asked whether associative priming in preverbal infants is bidirectional. Infants associated a puppet imitation task with an operant train task by watching an adult model target actions on the puppet in the incidental context of the train. Later, priming of the forgotten memory of the train task reactivated the infants' memory of the puppet task (Experiment 1), and priming of the infants' forgotten memory of the puppet task reactivated their memory of the train task (Experiment 2). The finding that associative priming was bidirectional offers new insights into the nature of the mnemonic networks formed early in infancy. Additionally, the fact that the present association was formed rapidly and incidentally suggests that a fast mapping, general learning mechanism, like that posited to mediate word-object learning, was responsible for its encoding. PMID:12035886

Barr, Rachel; Vieira, Aurora; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

2002-03-01

93

Sudden infant death syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Crib death; SIDS ... SIDS. Unfortunately, SIDS remains a significant cause of death in infants under one year old. Thousands of ... affects boys more often than girls. Most SIDS deaths occur in the winter. The following have been ...

94

Infant Botulism (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... can occur when a child ingests spores of Clostridium botulinum bacteria, which are found in dirt and dust ... toxin wear off. Prevention Like many germs, the Clostridium botulinum spores that cause botulism in infants are everywhere ...

95

Milk Allergy in Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... Milk Allergy Unsafe Formulas Switching Formulas About Milk Allergy Almost all infants are fussy at times. But ... kids and adults. Continue Symptoms of a Milk Allergy Symptoms of cow's milk protein allergy will generally ...

96

Gastroesophageal reflux in infants  

MedlinePLUS

Gastroesophageal reflux is a condition in which stomach contents leak backward from the stomach into the esophagus (the ... leak back into the esophagus. This is called gastroesophageal reflux (GERD). In infants, a small amount of gastroesophageal ...

97

Cow's milk - infants  

MedlinePLUS

... infants be fed breast milk or iron-fortified formula during the first 12 months of life. Between ... may be added. Breast milk or iron-fortified formula, along with age-appropriate solid foods and juices ...

98

[Prebiotics in infant health].  

PubMed

The composition of human milk is the main base for the development of infant formulas concerning its macronutrients and micronutrients contents and bioactive compounds. Technological advances in the composition of human milk have identified a great number of bioactive compounds such as prebiotics which are responsible for immunological protection and the prevention of different pathologies. In order to achieve similar benefits, they are part of the contents of infant formulas. PMID:21283944

Chirdo, Fernando G; Menéndez, Ana M; Pita Martín de Portela, María L; Sosa, Patricia; Toca, María del C; Trifone, Liliana; Vecchiarelli, Carmen

2011-02-01

99

Iron intake of infants: the importance of infant cereals.  

PubMed Central

Since 1976 many baby foods have been reformulated and the iron used to fortify infant cereals has been changed to a more bioavailable form. Therefore, the dietary intake of iron by infants from 1 to 18 months of age was assessed in a longitudinal survey conducted in Toronto and Montreal between 1977 and 1979. Except in the 1st and 18th months the mean daily iron consumption of the infants was above that recommended in the Dietary Standard for Canada. The main source of this nutrient was infant cereals. Examination of the diets of the infants who did not have the recommended daily intake of iron showed that they did not consume sufficient amounts of infant cereals and other iron-rich foods. These results indicate that without such cereals it is difficult to provide infants with the amount of iron they need. Therefore, infants should receive these cereals during the first 2 years of life.

Yeung, D. L.; Pennell, M. D.; Leung, M.; Hall, J.; Anderson, G. H.

1981-01-01

100

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Sudden Unexpected Infant Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Sudden infant death has haunted humanity since Biblical times, and many people are still confused about how to differentiate sudden infant death syn- drome from other causes of sudden infant death, such asmyocarditis or congenital heart disease. Because of the difficulty of diagnosis, the authors say that SIDS has become a “diagnostic dustbin,” but unnec- essarily so. They provide

Henry F. Krous; Roger W. Byard

101

An analysis of sudden infant death syndrome in Aboriginal infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this case-control study was to identify antenatal and perinatal risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in Aboriginal infants in Western Australia (WA). Gases were all Aboriginal infants born in WA from 1980 to 1990 inclusive and classified as dying from SIDS in WA. Controls consisted of a matched group and a random group both selected

L. M. Alessandri; A. W. Read; P. R. Burton; F. J. Stanley

1996-01-01

102

Choking - infant under 1 year  

MedlinePLUS

... the infant's head downward, lower than the body. Give up to 5 quick, forceful blows between the infant's ... middle of his breastbone just below the nipples. Give up to 5 quick thrusts down, compressing the chest ...

103

Mother-to-Infant Attachment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three separate studies were conducted. Study 1 tried to determine whether the infant's contribution to a reciprocal interaction, which the mother perceives is necessary to the formation of mother-to-infant attachment. In the second study observations were...

J. H. Kennel M. H. Klaus D. Drotar M. A. Trause

1980-01-01

104

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents > General Health > Your Kid's Sleep > Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Print A A A Text Size ... answers is part of what makes sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) so frightening. SIDS is the leading ...

105

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)  

MedlinePLUS

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) Basics In-Depth Expert Answers Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: ...

106

Prevention of Pertussis, Tetanus, and Diptheria Among Pregnant and Postpartum Women and Their Infants. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 57, No. RR-4, May 30, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2005, two tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines were licensed and recommended for use in adults and adolescents in the United States: ADACEL (sanofi pasteur, Swiftwater, Pennsylvania), which is licensed for ...

2008-01-01

107

Infants' perception of chasing.  

PubMed

Two significant questions in cognitive and developmental science are first, whether objects and events are selected for attention based on their features (featural processing) or the configuration of their features (configural processing), and second, how these modes of processing develop. These questions have been addressed in part with experiments focused on infants' perception of faces, human body shapes, and biological motion of individual agents. Here, we investigate 4- and 10-month-old infants' (N=192) attention to social motions, specifically to chasing-a ubiquitous, ancient, and fitness-relevant mode of interaction. We constructed computer-generated animations of chasing that had three properties: acceleration, high turning rates, and attraction ("heat-seeking"). In the first experiment we showed chasing side-by-side with a control display of inanimate, billiard-ball-like motions. Infants strongly preferred attending to chasing. In the next three studies, we systematically investigated the effect of each property in turn (acceleration, turning, and attraction) by showing a display of that property side-by-side with the control display. Infants preferentially attended to acceleration, and to attraction, but not to turning. If infants preferred chasing for its configuration, then the sum of the effect sizes of individual properties should be smaller than their combined effects. That is not what we found: instead, on three measures of visual behavior, the summed effects of individual properties equaled (or exceeded) that of chasing. Moreover, although attraction drew little attention and turning no attention at all, acceleration drew (nearly) as much attention as chasing. Our results thus provide evidence that infants preferred chasing because of its features, not its configuration. PMID:23121710

Frankenhuis, Willem E; House, Bailey; Barrett, H Clark; Johnson, Scott P

2012-10-31

108

Growth curves for preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commonly used growth curves for preterm infants are four decades old and may not be suitable for the current population. Uncertainty exists regarding the most suitable curves for monitoring the growth of preterm infants. While intrauterine growth rate appears to be the ideal growth that needs to be attained by the preterm infants, it may not be feasible given

Shripada C. Rao; Jeffrey Tompkins

2007-01-01

109

Infant Colic, Distress, and Crying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature regarding infant colic is critically reviewed. Although there have been a number of theories proposed as to etiology of colic, the literature is characterized by difficulties in definition, methodologic problems, and numerous claims as to both etiology and management that are anecdotal. Infant colic is best conceptualized as the end result of a complex transaction between the infant

Peter Hewson; Frank Oberklaid; Samuel Menahem

1987-01-01

110

Recent trends in infant nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two recent studies have been carried out on the feeding practices of infants in the UK. The national survey of infant feeding reveals that although overall breast-feeding rates have improved over recent years, rates among sectors of the population with low rates have not improved. A survey of infants of Asian parentage living in the UK showed high initial rates

Margaret Lawson

1998-01-01

111

Infants' Perception of Auditory Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Infants who were in darkness were presented with objects that made sounds. Objects were within reach and out of reach. Infants reached into the target area more often when the object was in reach than when the object was beyond reach. Infants reached correctly in the dark for objects placed off midline. (BC)|

Clifton, Rachel; And Others

1991-01-01

112

Infant Feeding: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended for parents, health professionals and allied health workers, and others involved in caring for infants and young children, this annotated bibliography brings together in one selective listing a review of over 700 current publications related to infant feeding. Reflecting current knowledge in infant feeding, the bibliography has as its…

Crowhurst, Christine Marie, Comp.; Kumer, Bonnie Lee, Comp.

113

Longitudinal Observation of Infant Temperament  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Convergent validity, temporal stability, and age-related patterning of measures of infant temperament were examined in a longitudinal study of 46 infants at three, six, and nine months of age. Infant Behavior Questionnaire and home observations showed convergent validity. Composite measures of positive and negative reactivity and overall…

Rothbart, Mary Klevjord

1986-01-01

114

Cronobacter Illness and Infant Formula  

MedlinePLUS

... Infants Food Safety and Handwashing: WHO: Safe preparation, storage and handling of powdered infant formula guidelines [PDF - 361KB] Foodsafety.gov: Baby food and infant formula Handwashing: Clean hands Save Lives , hand- and water-related hygiene tips Put Your Hands Together [PODCAST - ...

115

Gastric emptying in preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultrasonic technique was used to compare gastric emptying after a feed of expressed breast milk and formula milk in a blind, cross over study of preterm infants. Fourteen infants (median gestational age 33 weeks) were studied on 46 occasions. Each infant received a nasogastric feed of either expressed breast milk or formula milk, and the alternative at the next

A K Ewer; G M Durbin; M E Morgan; I W Booth

1994-01-01

116

Factors influencing women's decisions regarding pertussis vaccine: A decision-making study in the Postpartum Pertussis Immunization Program of a teaching hospital in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted surveys to determine factors influencing women's decisions to accept or decline postpartum pertussis (Tdap) vaccination. Survey response rate among eligible individuals was 97%. Of respondents, 53% accepted and 47% declined postpartum Tdap. Women, who declined vaccination were more likely to rate maternal or infant risk of exposure to pertussis as low, report that they did not trust information

Po-Jen Cheng; Shang-Yu Huang; Sheng-Wen Shaw; Chuan-Chi Kao; Ho-Yen Chueh; Shuenn-Dhy Chang; Te-Yao Hsu; Fu-Tsai Kung; T'sang-T’ang Hsieh

2010-01-01

117

Infants at Social Risk: Relations Among Infant Maltreatment, Maternal Behavior, and Infant Attachment Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fifty-six 12-month-old infants, (10 maltreated infants; 18 nonmaltreated, high-risk infants; and 28 matched low-income controls) were videotaped at home with their mothers for 40 minutes and were observed two weeks later in the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Maltreating mothers could be discriminated by uninformed coders from nonmaltreating…

Lyons-Ruth, Karlen; And Others

1987-01-01

118

Infants Parse Dynamic Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two studies investigated whether 10- to 11-month-olds possess skills for parsing ongoing behavior along boundaries correlated with initiation and completion of intentions. Found that infants showed renewed interest in test videos in which motion paused in the midst of an actor's pursuit of intentions; suspended motion at intentional boundary…

Baldwin, Dare A.; Baird, Jodie A.; Saylor, Megan M.; Clark, M. Angela

2001-01-01

119

Influenza and Infant Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early neonatal mortality in England and Wales in the second quarter of 1970 after a major influenza epidemic was slightly but significantly higher than in the corresponding quarter of the previous year. An increase was also noted in the first quarter of 1970. Analysis of infant mortality and an index of influenza prevalence over the past quarter-century indicates that similar

G. Wynne Griffith; A. M. Adelstein; P. M. Lambert; J. A. C. Weatherall

1972-01-01

120

Lung transplantation in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lung transplantation is an accepted mode of therapy for patients with end-stage pulmonary vascular or parenchymal diseases. To date, application to the pediatric age population in general, and the infantile group in particular, has been limited both in terms of number of transplants and follow-up thereafter. We performed our first transplant in an infant in 1993 and have performed 30

Charles B. Huddleston; Eric N. Mendeloff

2001-01-01

121

Sleep apnoea in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infancy is characterized by an instability of the control of breathing. Apnoeas of short duration are common, mostly central and more frequent during rapid eye movement sleep. Obstructive apnoeas are rare in healthy infants. Triggering factors, such as respiratory syncytial virus infection, can increase the frequency and duration of apnoeas. Upper airway problems are responsible for obstructive apnoeas as well

C. Gaultier

2003-01-01

122

Infant Development: Recent Advances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that the last 30 years have seen enormous increases in the understanding of infancy, this book examines the current state of knowledge regarding infant development. The book's contents stem from meetings of the British Infancy Research Group. Although the book was intended for advanced undergraduates, it would also be useful for advanced…

Bremner, Gavin, Ed.; Slater, Alan, Ed.; Butterworth, George, Ed.

123

Infant Discrimination of Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants in four age groups--three, six, nine and twelve months--were exposed to an experimental procedure designed to assess the extent to which such subjects were capable of discriminating between different orientations of the same form, and the extent to which they were capable of recognizing the identity between different orientations of the…

McGurk, Harry

124

Influenza Vaccine in Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza has become a major cause of pediatric hospitalization during winter and, in Japan, several thousands to several tens of thousands of children are hospitalized annually due to influenza infections. Children who are at high risk should be aggressively immunized. The influenza vaccine is effective in low age groups, though its efficacy is diminished. Immunization of healthy infants against influenza

Norio SUGAYA

2001-01-01

125

The Unknown Human Infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is physiological? It is often difficult to answer this kind of question in the field of human reproduction. That is why we propose to take, as a reference, a population of one hundred infants whose lifestyle is, in many respects, different from the standard Western norm. They were born at home without any drugs, share the mother's bed, were

Michel Odent

1990-01-01

126

Infant feeding and vision  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

127

Infant Visual Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

2004-01-01

128

Infant feeding and allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of withholding cows' milk was examined in 487 infants at high risk of allergic disease. Before birth they were randomly allocated either to a control group, most of whom received cows' milk preparations, or to an intervention group, who were offered a soya based substitute. Eczema and wheezing occurred to a similar extent in the two groups during

F G Miskelly; M L Burr; E Vaughan-Williams; A M Fehily; B K Butland; T G Merrett

1988-01-01

129

Supporting Fathering Through Infant Massage  

PubMed Central

Fathers may feel dissatisfied with their ability to form a close attachment with their infants in the early postpartum period, which, in turn, may increase their parent-related stress. Our study sought to determine if an infant massage intervention assisted fathers with decreasing stress and increasing bonding with their infants during this time. To address the complex father–infant relationship, we conducted a pilot study using a mixed methodology approach. Twelve infant–father dyads participated in the intervention, and 12 infant–father dyads populated a wait-list control group. Paternal stress was measured using the Parenting Stress Index at baseline and at postintervention. We found infant massage instruction significantly decreased paternal stress. Our findings were also supported by the qualitative data and suggest fathers may benefit from applied postnatal education.

Cheng, Carolynn Darrell; Volk, Anthony A.; Marini, Zopito A.

2011-01-01

130

Infant neurobehavioral development.  

PubMed

The trend toward single-room neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) is increasing; however scientific evidence is, at this point, mostly anecdotal. This is a critical time to assess the impact of the single-room NICU on improving medical and neurobehavioral outcomes of the preterm infant. We have developed a theoretical model that may be useful in studying how the change from an open-bay NICU to a single-room NICU could affect infant medical and neurobehavioral outcome. The model identifies mediating factors that are likely to accompany the change to a single-room NICU. These mediating factors include family centered care, developmental care, parenting and family factors, staff behavior and attitudes, and medical practices. Medical outcomes that plan to be measured are sepsis, length of stay, gestational age at discharge, weight gain, illness severity, gestational age at enteral feeding, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Neurobehavioral outcomes include the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) scores, sleep state organization and sleep physiology, infant mother feeding interaction scores, and pain scores. Preliminary findings on the sample of 150 patients in the open-bay NICU showed a "baseline" of effects of family centered care, developmental care, parent satisfaction, maternal depression, and parenting stress on the neurobehavioral outcomes of the newborn. The single-room NICU has the potential to improve the neurobehavioral status of the infant at discharge. Neurobehavioral assessment can assist with early detection and therefore preventative intervention to maximize developmental outcome. We also present an epigenetic model of the potential effects of maternal care on improving infant neurobehavioral status. PMID:21255702

Lester, Barry M; Miller, Robin J; Hawes, Katheleen; Salisbury, Amy; Bigsby, Rosemarie; Sullivan, Mary C; Padbury, James F

2011-02-01

131

Dynamics of infant habituation: infants' discrimination of musical excerpts.  

PubMed

Schöner and Thelen (2006) summarized the results of many habituation studies as a set of generalizations about the emergence of novelty preferences in infancy. One is that novelty preferences emerge after fewer trials for older than for younger infants. Yet in habituation studies using an infant-controlled procedure, the standard criterion of habituation is a 50% decrement in looking regardless of he ages of the participants. If younger infants require more looking to habituate than do older infants, it might follow that novelty preferences will emerge for younger infants when a more stringent criterion is imposed, e.g., a 70% decrement in looking. Our earlier investigation of infants' discrimination of musical excerpts provides a basis and an opportunity for assessing this idea. Flom et al. (2008) found that 9-month-olds, but not younger infants, unambiguously discriminate "happy" and "sad" musical excerpts. The purpose of the current study was to examine younger infants' discrimination of happy and sad musical excerpts using a more stringent, 70% habituation criterion. In Experiment 1, 5- and 7-month olds were habituated to three musical excerpts rated as happy or sad. Following habituation infants were presented with two musical excerpts from the other affect group. Infants at both ages showed significant discrimination. In Experiment 2, 5- and 7-month-olds were presented with two new excerpts from the same affective group as the habituation excerpts. The infants did not discriminate these novel, yet affectively similar excerpts. In Experiment 3, 5- and 7-month-olds discriminated individual happy and sad excerpts. These results replicate those for the older, 9-month-olds in the previous investigation. The results are important as they demonstrate that whether infants show discrimination using an infant-controlled procedure is affected by the researchers' chosen criterion of habituation. PMID:22982268

Flom, Ross; Pick, Anne D

2012-09-14

132

Does Parental Marital Separation Affect Infants?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the development of 38 infants from separated or divorced families with that of 38 infants from married families in Britain to determine whether parental divorce or separation precipitates cognitive, social, or emotional difficulties in infants. Infants were 11 to 45 months old. Infant-mother attachment was measured using the…

Kier, Cheryl; Lewis, Charlie

133

The Development of Peripheral Vision in Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the extent of infant peripheral vision, specifically the extent of infants' constricted field, or tunnel vision. Thirteen infants, 2 to 5 months old, were tested using a psychophysical procedure to obtain contrast sensitivity thresholds at four retinal loci (-40, -15, +15, +40 deg.). Infants were placed in an infant bed in…

Guez, Jean R.

134

Panchromatic observations of dwarf starburst galaxies: Infant super star clusters and a low-luminosity AGN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globular star clusters and supermassive black holes are fundamental components of today's massive galaxies, with origins dating back to the very early universe. Both globular clusters and the seeds of supermassive black holes are believed to have formed in the progenitors of modern massive galaxies, although the details are poorly understood. Direct observations of these low-mass, distant, and hence faint systems are unobtainable with current capabilities. However, gas-rich dwarf starburst galaxies in the local universe, analogous in many ways to protogalaxies at high-redshift, can provide critical insight into the early stages of galaxy evolution including the formation of globular clusters and massive black holes. This thesis presents a panchromatic study of nearby dwarf starburst galaxies harboring nascent globular clusters still embedded in their birth material. Infant clusters are identified via their production of thermal radio emission at centimeter wavelengths, which comes from dense gas ionized by young massive stars. By combining radio observations with complementary data at ultraviolet, optical and infrared wavelengths, we obtain a comprehensive view of massive clusters emerging from their gaseous and dusty birth cocoons. This thesis also presents the first example of a nearby dwarf starburst galaxy hosting an actively accreting massive central black hole. The black hole in this dwarf galaxy is unusual in that it is not associated with a bulge, a nuclear star cluster, or any other well-defined nucleus, likely reflecting an early phase of black hole and galaxy evolution that has not been previously observed.

Reines, Amy Ellen

135

Infant Neurosensory Development: Considerations for Infant Child Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infant brain development is a dynamic process dependent upon endogenous and exogenous stimulation and a supportive environment.\\u000a A critical period of brain and neurosensory development occurs during the third trimester and into the “fourth” trimester\\u000a (first three months of life). Disruption, damage, or deprivation in the infant’s social and physical environment can create\\u000a permanent deficits in the developing neurosensory systems.

Jennifer Marshall

2011-01-01

136

Neurobiology of Infant Attachment  

PubMed Central

A strong attachment to the caregiver is critical for survival in altricial species, including humans. While some behavioral aspects of attachment have been characterized, its neurobiology has only recently received attention. Using a mammalian imprinting model, we are assessing the neural circuitry that enables infant rats to attach quickly to a caregiver, thus enhancing survival in the nest. Specifically, the hyper-functioning noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) enables pups to learn rapid, robust preference for the caregiver. Conversely, a hypo-functional amygdala appears to prevent the infant from learning aversions to the caregiver. Adult LC and amygdala functional emergence correlates with sensitive period termination. This study suggests the neonatal brain is not an immature version of the adult brain but is uniquely designed to optimize attachment to the caregiver. Although human attachment may not rely on identical circuitry, the work reviewed here suggests a new conceptual framework in which to explore human attachments, particularly attachments to abusive caregivers.

Moriceau, Stephanie

2007-01-01

137

Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this…

Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.

2011-01-01

138

Infant Self-Help  

Microsoft Academic Search

BRAVO, Infant. Miss Chick and others, through Austrian sufferings, have taught us that, ``crying for the light'' you make use of it to do your own D-ing. Now comes the welcome news1, that you are not to be outdone even by the rat: that ``mewling and pewking in [your] nurse's arms'', you can yet C-alone in fact, make your own

Henry E. Armstrong

1934-01-01

139

Unnatural sudden infant death  

PubMed Central

AIM—To identify features to help paediatricians differentiate between natural and unnatural infant deaths.?METHOD—Clinical features of 81 children judged by criminal and family courts to have been killed by their parents were studied. Health and social service records, court documents, and records from meetings with parents, relatives, and social workers were studied.?RESULTS—Initially, 42 children had been certified as dying from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and 29 were given another cause of natural death. In 24 families, more than one child died; 58died before the age of 6 months and most died in the afternoon or evening. Seventy per cent had experienced unexplained illnesses; over half were admitted to hospital within the previous month, and 15 had been discharged within 24 hours of death. The mother, father, or both were responsible for death in 43, five, and two families, respectively. Most homes were disadvantaged—no regular income, receiving income support—and mothers smoked. Half the perpetrators had a history of somatising or factitious disorder. Death was usually by smothering and 43% of children had bruises, petechiae, or blood on the face.?CONCLUSIONS—Although certain features are indicative of unnatural infant death, some are also associated with SIDS. Despite the recent reduction in numbers of infants dying suddenly, inadequacies in the assessment of their deaths exist. Until a thorough postmortem examination is combined with evaluation of the history and circumstances of death by an experienced paediatrician, most cases of covert fatal abuse will go undetected. The term SIDS requires revision or abandonment.??

Meadow, R.

1999-01-01

140

Infant Pulmonary Function Testing  

PubMed Central

Infant pulmonary function testing has evolved from a research technique into a diagnostic tool. As such, new current procedural terminology (CPT) codes have been created and are available for use as of January 1, 2010. The technology now available has a range of applications. Through a series of vignettes, this article illustrates the methodology of the tests, some of their applications, and how to code and bill for the procedures.

Davis, Stephanie D.

2011-01-01

141

SES affects infant cognitive flexibility.  

PubMed

Cognitive flexibility requires processing multiple sources of information and flexible adaptation of behavioral responses. Poverty negatively impacts cognitive control in young children, but its effects on infants are not well-understood. This study investigated longitudinally the development of cognitive flexibility in low-income infants. Thirty-two infants (15 low-SES, 17 high-SES) were tested at 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Cognitive flexibility was measured with a perseverative reaching task, where infants were taught to reach to one location and then asked to switch to a second location. High-SES infants replicated the typical developmental trajectory, reaching randomly at 6 months, perseverating at 9 months, and reaching correctly at 12 months. In contrast, the low-SES infants showed a delayed pattern, reaching correctly at 6 months, randomly at 9 months, and perseverating at 12 months. Links between cognitive flexibility and frontal cortex development are explored as a potential mechanism. PMID:22018718

Clearfield, Melissa W; Niman, Laura C

2011-10-21

142

Hats for the newborn infant.  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of a Gamgee-lined hat in reducing the rate of fall in rectal temperature of infants during the first 30 minutes of life was studied. The trial, which included 211 infants, was randomised, prospective, and controlled. One hundred and seven infants were exposed to overhead radiantheaters. Of these, only 30 had normal deliveries, so the analysis was confined to the infants who were not subjected to radiant heat, and in this group no conclusions were drawn about the efficacy of a hat or a radiant heater. In the 104 infants not subjected to radiant heat, body weight, initial rectal temperature, the application of hat, the environmental temperature, and the duration of exposure while naked were all found to influence measureably the rate of fall in rectal temperature during the first 30 minutes. Gamgee-lined hats should be routinely used to minimise heat loss, especially in small infants exposed at birth, during surgical operations, and during investigations necessitating prolonged exposure.

Chaput de Saintonge, D M; Cross, K W; Shathorn, M K; Lewis, S R; Stothers, J K

1979-01-01

143

Clinical update: vomiting in infants.  

PubMed

Vomiting is very common in infants and is mostly caused by non-serious conditions. However, community practitioners may come across infants with serious causes of vomiting, requiring prompt referral. Bilious vomiting should always raise suspicion of a surgical cause and needs urgent assessment by the paediatric/surgical team. The role of community practitioners in the assessment of vomiting infants for 'red flag' symptoms and early interventions are discussed. PMID:24133946

Whinney, Jennifer; Paul, Siba Prosad; Candy, David C A

2013-09-01

144

[Immunization of the preterm infant].  

PubMed

Premature infants have an increased risk of experiencing infectious diseases, some of which are vaccine preventable diseases. Maturation of immune responses begins with exposition to environmental antigens and in premature infants as fast as in term-infants. Premature infants must be vaccinated at 2 months of age, whatever the gestational age. Acellular Pertussis vaccine and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine must be given as early as possible, at two months of age. Immunization schedule in premature infants is the same as in full-term infants : three injections one month apart with a pentavalent vaccine : Diphteria, Tetanus, Poliomyelitis, Pertussis and Haemophilus type b. First injection of hepatitis B vaccine must not be taken in account when this vaccine is given at birth to infants under 2 kg birth weight. Premature infants 6 months of age or older and experiencing chronic lung disease have to be vaccinated against influenza. In all cases, surroundings have to be vaccinated. Apnea and/or bradycardia have been reported within the 48 hours following vaccination in premature infants before 32 weeks of gestational age and justify giving their first injection of vaccine under cardiorespiratory monitoring. These injections will be given before discharge as often as possible. PMID:17939954

Gaudelus, J; Lefèvre-Akriche, S; Roumegoux, C; Bolie, S; Belasco, C; Letamendia-Richard, E; Lachassinne, E

2007-09-01

145

Iron Therapy for Preterm Infants  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Preterm infants are at risk for both iron deficiency and iron overload. The role of iron in multiple organ functions suggests that iron supplementation is essential for the preterm infant. Conversely, the potential for iron overload and the poorly developed anti-oxidant measures in the preterm infant argues against indiscriminate iron supplementation in this population. The purpose of this article is to review the predisposing factors and consequences of iron deficiency and iron overload in the preterm infant, the current recommendation for iron supplementation and its appropriateness, and describe potential management strategies that strike a balance between iron deficiency and iron toxicity.

Rao, Raghavendra; Georgieff, Michael K.

2009-01-01

146

Mother-infant interactions of medically fragile infants and non-chronically ill premature infants.  

PubMed

At 6 months corrected for prematurity, 41 medically fragile prematures, 20 medically fragile full-terms, and 28 prematures without chronic illnesses were observed interacting with their mothers for 1 hr. Mothers of non-chronically ill prematures gestured to and touched their infants less, were uninvolved with them for a longer time, and spent less time interacting and looking at their infants than did mothers of medically fragile infants. Medically fragile full-terms slept more than the non-chronically ill prematures. The non-chronically ill premature group played with objects more and exhibited more locomotion. Thus, the non-chronically ill prematures had more mature behaviors but less frequent interactions than did the medically fragile infants. These disparities reflect differences both in the infants' functional maturity and in maternal compensation for infant vulnerability. PMID:12884418

Holditch-Davis, Diane; Cox, Mary Foster; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Belyea, Michael

2003-08-01

147

[Pertussis in fully vaccinated infants and children. Are new vaccination strategies required?  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the vaccination status of children diagnosed with pertussis and to compare the clinical manifestations of fully vaccinated with unvaccinated, or incompletely-vaccinated, children. METHODS: The clinical histories and vaccination cards of patients under 16years of age seen in the Emergency Room of the University Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona (Spain), for pertussis confirmed by a microbiological study were reviewed. The study period lasted from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2011. RESULTS: Two hundred and twelve cases were studied: 35 in 2009, 28 in 2010 and 149 in 2011. RT-PCR was positive in 210 patients, and 73 had a positive culture. Infants under 6months of age account for 36.8% of all cases. Forty-four patients (21.5%) were not vaccinated. Forty-four (21.5%) children were between 2 and 5months of age and had received 1-2vaccine doses. One hundred and seventeen (57%) children were fully vaccinated; 76.9% (90cases) had received the last dose less than 4years ago. When clinical manifestations of the fully vaccinated patients were compared with those of the non-vaccinated or incompletely-vaccinated children, only cyanosis was found with a higher frequency in the latter group (P<.001). The age-adjusted probability of hospitalisation was significantly associated with non-vaccination (P=.001). The case mortality rate among inpatients was 1.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The number of pertussis cases seen in our centre has risen significantly in the last year. More than half (57%) of the patients were fully vaccinated, and 76.9% had received the last dose in the previous 4years. Other vaccination strategies, such as vaccination of adolescents, adults, and pregnant women, as well as a cocoon strategy are required to protect infants under 6months of age. More effective vaccines need to be developed. PMID:23725786

Moraga-Llop, Fernando A; Mendoza-Palomar, Natàlia; Muntaner-Alonso, Antoni; Codina-Grau, Gemma; Fàbregas-Martori, Anna; Campins-Martí, Magda

2013-05-29

148

Investigating motionese: The effect of infant-directed action on infants' attention and object exploration.  

PubMed

Adults modify their communication when interacting with infants, and these modifications have been tied to infant attention. However, the effect infant-directed action on infant behavior is understudied. This study examined whether infant-directed action affects infants, specifically their attention to and exploratory behaviors with objects. Forty-eight 8- to 10-month-old infants and their caregivers participated in a laboratory session during which caregivers demonstrated objects to infants using infant-directed action. Results indicated that variation in amplitude and repetition were tied to differences in infant attention, and varying levels of repetition were tied to differences in object exploration. PMID:19674793

Koterba, Erin A; Iverson, Jana M

2009-08-12

149

Infant temperament contributes to early infant growth: A prospective cohort of African American infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prospective studies linking infant temperament, or behavioral style, to infant body composition are lacking. In this longitudinal study (3 to 18 months), we seek to examine the associations between two dimensions of infant temperament (distress to limitations and activity level) and two anthropometric indicators (weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) and skin fold (SF) measures) in a population at high risk of

Meghan M Slining; Linda Adair; Barbara Davis Goldman; Judith Borja; Margaret Bentley

2009-01-01

150

Infant Feeding Comparisons: A Hazard to Infant Health?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most investigators accept that infant feeding practices influence infant health in developing countries; however, it is widely believed that in developed countries, no difference in health is found between feeding groups when good hygiene is practiced. We question this conclusion, which may simply reflect poor research whose fundamental flaw is the lack of clear distinctions between feeding categories.Using forty-three research

Kathleen G. Auerbach; Mary J. Renfrew; Maureen Minchin

1991-01-01

151

Use of the bayley infant neurodevelopmental screener with premature infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the utility of the Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener (BINS) for the neurodevelopmental follow up of high-risk preterms. Methods: The study group consisted of 122 preterm infants of the gestational ages between 26 and 37 weeks. Medical factors such as; mean birth weight, gestational age, gender, birth place and type, number of multiple pregnancy, days of hospitalization and

K?v?lc?m Gücüyener; Ebru Ergenekon; A. ?ebnem Soysal; An?l Akta?; Ok?an Derinöz; E. Koç; Y. Atalay

2006-01-01

152

Infant color vision: Prediction of infants’ spontaneous color preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants show spontaneous looking preferences among isoluminant chromatic stimuli [Adams, R. J. (1987). An evaluation of color preferences in early infancy. Infant Behavior and Development, 10, 143–150; Bornstein, M. H. (1975). Qualities of color vision in infancy. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19 (3), 401–419.]. These differences in preference have often been called “hue” or “color” preferences, and attributed to

Iris Zemach; Susan Chang; Davida Y. Teller

2007-01-01

153

Infant Neurosensory Development: Considerations for Infant Child Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infant brain development is a dynamic process dependent upon endogenous and exogenous stimulation and a supportive environment. A critical period of brain and neurosensory development occurs during the third trimester and into the "fourth" trimester (first three months of life). Disruption, damage, or deprivation in the infant's social and…

Marshall, Jennifer

2011-01-01

154

Infant Neurosensory Development: Considerations for Infant Child Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Infant brain development is a dynamic process dependent upon endogenous and exogenous stimulation and a supportive environment. A critical period of brain and neurosensory development occurs during the third trimester and into the "fourth" trimester (first three months of life). Disruption, damage, or deprivation in the infant's social and…

Marshall, Jennifer

2011-01-01

155

Infants' Behavioral and Physiological Profile and Mother-Infant Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aims to (a) identify and profile groups of infants according to their behavioral and physiological characteristics, considering their neurobehavioral organization, social withdrawal behavior, and endocrine reactivity to stress, and to (b) analyze group differences in the quality of mother-infant interaction. Ninety-seven 8-week-old…

Costa, Raquel; Figueiredo, Barbara

2012-01-01

156

ACOG Committee Opinion No. 566: Update on immunization and pregnancy: tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccination.  

PubMed

In the face of dramatic and persistent increases in pertussis disease in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has updated its guidelines for the use of the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) for pregnant women. The new guidance was issued based on an imperative to minimize the significant burden of pertussis disease in vulnerable newborns, the reassuring safety data on the use of Tdap in adults, and the evolving immunogenicity data that demonstrate considerable waning of immunity after immunization. The revised Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices guidelines recommend that health care personnel administer a dose of Tdap during each pregnancy, irrespective of the patient's prior history of receiving Tdap. To maximize the maternal antibody response and passive antibody transfer and levels in the newborn, optimal timing for Tdap administration is between 27 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation, although Tdap may be given at any time during pregnancy. However, there may be compelling reasons to vaccinate earlier in pregnancy. There is no evidence of adverse fetal effects from vaccinating pregnant women with an inactivated virus or bacterial vaccines or toxoids, and a growing body of robust data demonstrates safety of such use. For women who previously have not received Tdap, if Tdap was not administered during pregnancy it should be administered immediately postpartum to the mother in order to reduce the risk of transmission to the newborn. Additionally, other family members and planned direct caregivers also should receive Tdap as previously recommended (sustained efforts at cocooning). Given the rapid evolution of data surrounding this topic, immunization guidelines are likely to change over time and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists will continue to issue updates accordingly. PMID:23812487

2013-06-01

157

Individual and Maturational Differences in Infant Expressivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports that, even though young infants can discriminate among different facial expressions, there are individual differences in infants' expressivity and ability to produce and discriminate facial expressions. (PCB)|

Field, Tiffany

1989-01-01

158

Effect of Infant's Perceived Gender on Adolescents' Ratings of the Infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The role of the perceived gender of an infant and the gender of adolescents on ratings of the infant will be explored. Thirty-six junior high students (18 boys and 18 girls) will view a photo of a 3-month-old infant. Students will be told the infant’s name is either “Larry,” “Laurie,” or they will not be told the infant’s name.

Douglas Degelman; Veronika Dvorak; Julie Ann Homutoff

159

What Is Infant Mental Health?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.|

Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

2012-01-01

160

NUTRITIONAL INFLUENCES ON INFANT DEVELOPMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The nutritional requirements of infants and children reflect this population's unique needs for growth and developmental changes in organ function and body composition as well as their maintenance needs. Moreover, since the metabolic rate of infants and children is greater and the turnover of nutri...

161

Infants' Intermodal Knowledge About Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to seek evidence of intermodal knowledge about gender in young infants that would provide direct evidence of the existence of gender categories during the 1st year. In Experiment 1, 9- and 12-month-olds were presented with pairs of male and female pictures with a female or male voice presented simultaneously. The infants spent significantly more

Diane Poulin-Dubois; Lisa A. Serbin; Brenda Kenyon; Alison Derbyshire

1994-01-01

162

Determinants of Infant Behaviour IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume consists of reports of individual studies and surveys of research work on mother-infant interactions. It is divided into two parts. The first section presents a wide range of studies on mother-infant relations as exhibited in the behavior of animals. The second part, concerning human behavior, includes studies on the natural history of…

Foss, B. M., Ed.

163

The Cause of Infant Categorization?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We asked whether infants are sensitive to causal relations between objects and outcomes and whether this sensitivity supports categorization. Fourteen- and 18-month-old infants were familiarized with objects from a novel category. For some, the objects caused an electronic toy to activate. For others, the objects were present during activation of…

Booth, Amy E.

2008-01-01

164

Iron-Fortified Infant Cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants are particularly susceptible to iron deficiency and related anemia due to their high growth rates and the low iron content of breast milk and most unfortified weaning foods. Cows' milk also is poor in iron, and certain forms of cows' milk cause blood and thus iron loss from the gastrointestinal tract. Iron-fortified cereal-based complementary foods – infant cereals –

Richard C. Theuer

2008-01-01

165

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) may be related to lethal cardiac arrhythmias or heart block due to structural abnormalities of the conduction system is attractive and still of particular interest. We analyze 69 autopsied cases of SIDS (46 males and 23 females, infants ranging in age from 3 to 365 days) and 24 age-matched cases of explained

Luigi Matturri; Giulia Ottaviani; Simone G Ramos; Lino Rossi

2000-01-01

166

The Cause of Infant Categorization?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We asked whether infants are sensitive to causal relations between objects and outcomes and whether this sensitivity supports categorization. Fourteen- and 18-month-old infants were familiarized with objects from a novel category. For some, the objects caused an electronic toy to activate. For others, the objects were present during activation of…

Booth, Amy E.

2008-01-01

167

Infant recognition of mother's voice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each of a group of one-month-old infants was reinforced, contingent upon nonnutritive sucking, with its mother's voice and the voice of a stranger. In this experiment, two conditions were applied. Under the first, the mother's speech was aimed at communicating with the infant, while, under the second, the mother's speech lacked prosodic and intonational aspects of normal speech. It was

Jacques Mehler; Josiane Bertoncini; Michèle Barrière; Dora Jassik-Gerschenfeld

1978-01-01

168

Determinants of Infant Behaviour IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume consists of reports of individual studies and surveys of research work on mother-infant interactions. It is divided into two parts. The first section presents a wide range of studies on mother-infant relations as exhibited in the behavior of animals. The second part, concerning human behavior, includes studies on the natural history…

Foss, B. M., Ed.

169

Number Sense in Human Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four experiments used a preferential looking method to investigate 6-month-old infants' capacity to represent numerosity in visual-spatial displays. Building on previous findings that such infants discriminate between arrays of eight versus 16 discs, but not eight versus 12 discs (Xu & Spelke, 2000), Experiments 1 and 2 investigated whether…

Xu, Fei; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Goddard, Sydney

2005-01-01

170

The Effectiveness of Infant Simulators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of using infant simulators with a structured, competency-based curriculum by examining the infant care behavior of adolescents and their attitudes toward parenting and sexual behavior. The sample of 236 students included 112 males and 124 females ranging in age from 14 to 18 years. This sample was randomly…

Roberts, Scott W.; McCowan, Richard J.

2004-01-01

171

Biphasic course of infant botulism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The syndrome of infant botulism, characterized by constipation, poor feeding, hypotonia, poor head control, and bulbar involvement, is typically a monophasic disease. We describe a 7-month-old infant with a recurrence of illness 13 days after resolution of the presenting signs. The source of infection was unknown and the only potential risk factors were exclusive breastfeeding and decreased bowel movements, which

Sarit Ravid; Joseph Maytal; Lydia Eviatar

2000-01-01

172

Evaluating Infant-Family Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Compiling articles from participants of the Leadership Development Initiative Class of 2001-2002, this issue focuses on evaluation of…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

2003-01-01

173

Understanding and Nurturing Infant Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains six papers presented at the 1975 Texas Conference on Infancy. The papers present discussions of (1) intervention studies and programs for infants and families, (2) the interaction between infants and their caregivers, (3) mutual adaptation of mother and child, (4) discontinuous mothering, and (5) the emergence of…

Cohen, Monroe D., Ed.

174

Evaluating Infant-Family Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Compiling articles from participants of the Leadership Development Initiative Class of 2001-2002, this issue focuses on evaluation of…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

2003-01-01

175

Income Distribution and Infant Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparing two countries in which the poor have equal real incomes, the one in which the rich are wealthier is likely to have a higher infant mortality rate. This anomalous result does not appear to spring from measurement error in estimating the income of the poor, and the association between high infant mortality and income inequality is still present after

Robert J Waldmann

1992-01-01

176

Prospects for higher infant survival.  

PubMed

Studies on trends in infant mortality and its constituent elements of early neonatal, late neonatal and postneonatal death, in developed and developing countries, point to ways of making further progress towards the target of infant mortality rates not exceeding 50/1000 live births in all countries by the year 2000. PMID:2206243

Stembera, Z

1990-01-01

177

Infant Stimulation Curriculum. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is the Infant Stimulation Curriculum (developed by the Developmentally Delayed Infant Outreach Project) for parents and teachers to use with children who are developmentally between birth and 36 months of age. Published in a card format at a sixth grade readability level, the curriculum includes introductory cards providing information…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Herschel W. Nisonger Center.

178

Infants at risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): Differential prediction for three siblings of SIDS infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outcome for three siblings of SIDS (SSIDS) infants was predicted, using as a risk model the sleep and respiratory characteristics of a SIDS victim studied extensively during the neonatal period. The SIDS infant had shown unstable state organization and deviant respiration patterns, including a deficit of brief apneic pauses. Like the SIDS infant, the SSIDS infants and a group

Evelyn B. Thoman; Diane Holditch Davis; Susan Graham; John P. Scholz; Jonelle C. Rowe

1988-01-01

179

Maternal Responsiveness to Infant Crying, Perceived Infant Temperament and Infant-Mother Attachment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study examined longitudinally the origin of a prior finding that mothers who perceived their infant's temperament as either "easy" or "difficult" exhibited a differential psychophysiological response pattern. Additionally examined were the pattern's behavioral correlates and relation to infant-mother attachment. Participants were 57…

Frodi, Ann

180

Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from powdered infant formula milk and infant rice cereal in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry infant foods are not sterile and could be contaminated with various bacteria including certain pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in infant foods and to characterize these strains. A total of 376 infant food samples, including 143 samples of powdered infant formula milk (PIF) and 224 samples of infant rice cereal

Xin Wang; Jianghong Meng; Jing Zhang; Ting Zhou; Yanming Zhang; Baowei Yang; Meili Xi; Xiaodong Xia

181

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome among Extremely Preterm Infants: United States 1997–1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Preterm infants have been reported to be at higher risk than term infants for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Reasons for this higher risk are not clear.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze medical and demographic characteristics among infants 24 to 32 weeks gestation to identify characteristics more prevalent among infants dying of SIDS in the postneonatal

Michael H Malloy

2004-01-01

182

Gender Differences in the Relationship Between Mother-Infant Interaction and the Infant's Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the relationship between mother-infant behavior and the infant's performance on perceptual-cognitive tasks as a function of the infant's sex. A total of 189 12-week-old infants and their mothers were observed in their homes during 2 hours of infant awake time. In addition, the Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley…

Gallas, Howard B.; Lewis, Michael

183

Infant-Directed Speech Facilitates Word Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are reasons to believe that infant-directed (ID) speech may make language ac- quisition easier for infants. However, the effects of ID speech on infants' learning re- main poorly understood. The experiments reported here assess whether ID speech fa- cilitates word segmentation from fluent speech. One group of infants heard a set of nonsense sentences spoken with intonation contours characteristic

Erik D. Thiessen; Emily A. Hill; Jenny R. Saffran

184

Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

2009-01-01

185

Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

2009-01-01

186

Tuned in parenting and infant sleep patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on infant sleep behaviour that is of concern to mothers of young infants, and disruptive to families. It reports on the incidence of sleep problems in dyads that self?referred to a specialist clinic, and the relationship between the mother's sensitive responsiveness and infant sleep patterns in a sample of 65 Australian infants. It briefly considers an intervention

Lynn E. Priddis

2009-01-01

187

Infant Development in Lower Class American Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was conducted to observe the effects of social class on the interaction of mothers and their 12-week-old infants. Data on the infants' cognitive and attentive behavior was also obtained. Each of 32 white and black infants from five different levels of social class was observed at home for two full hours of waking time. Observed infant

Lewis, Michael; Wilson, Cornelia D.

188

Joint attention social cues influence infant learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of differing social cues on object processing in 9- and 12-month-old infants. An adult experimenter spoke to the infants about a novel object in two conditions. In the Joint Attention condition, the experimenter spoke to the infant about the toy while alternating her gaze between the toy and the infant. The Object Only condition was identical,

Tricia Striano; Xin Chen; Allison Cleveland; Stephanie Bradshaw

2006-01-01

189

Observed Infant Reactions during Live Interparental Conflict  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Associations between interparental conflict and infant reactions were examined. Infants' history of exposure to interparental conflict and infant reactive temperament were examined as moderators. A community sample of 74 infants, aged 6-14 months, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' marital conflict and…

Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; White, Clare R.; Fleischhauer, Emily A.; Fitzgerald, Kelly A.

2011-01-01

190

Metabolic acidosis and infant feeding.  

PubMed Central

Most cows' milk based formulae for infant feeding present a greater acid load to the infant than breast milk. To determine the effect of this difference the acid base state of 180 healthy term infants was measured on the sixth day of life and related to the type of feed. Those infants fed on cows' milk formula (SMA) had a mean pH of 7-34 +/- 0-05 and a base deficit of 8-8 +/- 3-1, while those fed on breast milk had a mean pH of 7-38 +/- 0-05 and a base deficit of 5-6 +/- 3-1. The difference between the two groups of infants was significant for both these measurements. Metabolic acidosis was defined as a base deficit greater than 10 mmol/l. Seventy-four per cent of the 34 infants who were acidotic at six days were bottle-fed. There was a significant correlation between the pH of the feed and the degree of acidosis in the infant as measured by the base deficit. The findings suggest that when breast milk is not available a pH-adjusted milk formula would be desirable for preventing and treating neonatal metabolic acidosis.

Moore, A; Ansell, C; Barrie, H

1977-01-01

191

Injuries associated with infant walkers.  

PubMed

In 1999, an estimated 8800 children younger than 15 months were treated in hospital emergency departments in the United States for injuries associated with infant walkers. Thirty-four infant walker-related deaths were reported from 1973 through 1998. The vast majority of injuries occur from falls down stairs, and head injuries are common. Walkers do not help a child learn to walk; indeed, they can delay normal motor and mental development. The use of warning labels, public education, adult supervision during walker use, and stair gates have all been demonstrated to be insufficient strategies to prevent injuries associated with infant walkers. To comply with the revised voluntary standard (ASTM F977-96), walkers manufactured after June 30, 1997, must be wider than a 36-in doorway or must have a braking mechanism designed to stop the walker if 1 or more wheels drop off the riding surface, such as at the top of a stairway. Because data indicate a considerable risk of major and minor injury and even death from the use of infant walkers, and because there is no clear benefit from their use, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a ban on the manufacture and sale of mobile infant walkers. If a parent insists on using a mobile infant walker, it is vital that they choose a walker that meets the performance standards of ASTM F977-96 to prevent falls down stairs. Stationary activity centers should be promoted as a safer alternative to mobile infant walkers. PMID:11533353

2001-09-01

192

Nonaccidental head trauma in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Nonaccidental head trauma in infants is the leading cause of infant death from injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results and discussion  Clinical features that suggest inflicted head trauma include the triad of the so-called shaken baby syndrome, consisting of\\u000a retinal hemorrhage, subdural, and\\/or subarachnoid hemorrhage in an infant with little signs of external trauma. Studies have\\u000a shown that, in general, the average short fall in

Paula Gerber; Kathryn Coffman

2007-01-01

193

Influenza and infant mortality.  

PubMed

Early neonatal mortality in England and Wales in the second quarter of 1970 after a major influenza epidemic was slightly but significantly higher than in the corresponding quarter of the previous year. An increase was also noted in the first quarter of 1970. Analysis of infant mortality and an index of influenza prevalence over the past quarter-century indicates that similar increases occurred in relation to four of the other five major influenza epidemics during the period, the exception being the "Asian 'flu" epidemic of the autumn of 1957. It is suggested that the increased mortality in 1970 was the consequence of an increase in the prematurity rate, but we have no evidence to indicate whether the effect is specifically due to the virus or is nonspecific in nature. PMID:5069637

Griffith, G W; Adelstein, A M; Lambert, P M; Weatherall, J A

1972-09-01

194

Child abuse, sudden infant death syndrome, and unexpected infant death.  

PubMed

There is now evidence, from a variety of approaches, that indicate that between one tenth and one fifth of children currently diagnosed as cases of sudden infant death syndrome are not natural deaths. There is also equally strong evidence, where the possibility of filicide has been explored, that the majority of children diagnosed as cases of sudden infant death syndrome do die of natural causes. PMID:8213682

Emery, J L

1993-10-01

195

Sudden Unexpected Infant Death and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Reducing the Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... this page: About CDC.gov . Sudden Unexpected Infant Death and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome SUID and SIDS Parents and Caregivers About ... recommendations aim to reduce the risk of infant death from SIDS as well as death from known ...

196

Stillbirth, Miscarriage, and Infant Death  

MedlinePLUS

... Card Contact Us Donate Stillbirth, Miscarriage, and Infant Death A baby’s death, whenever or however it occurs, is a profound ... of isolation –A need to talk about the death and the details of what happened –Feelings of ...

197

Recent advances in infant botulism.  

PubMed

Since infant botulism was first identified three decades ago, our understanding of botulinum toxins and the organisms that produce them has grown. A newer classification system now recognizes Clostridium baratii and Clostridium butyricum along with Clostridium botulinum as causative agents. Recently, increasing therapeutic use of botulinum toxins has sparked substantial new research into their mechanisms of action. This research, and some case reports from infants sickened by unusual botulinum toxins suggest that disease caused by different toxin types may result in varying clinical presentations. Perhaps most significantly for pediatricians and child neurologists, a specific treatment for infant botulism has just been approved. This article reviews the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of infant botulism, including human botulism immune globulin, and discusses the various organisms and toxins that cause this disease. PMID:15730893

Fox, Christine K; Keet, Corinne A; Strober, Jonathan B

2005-03-01

198

Visual Placing by Human Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study of the visual placing response (an extension of the paws or arms on approach to a visual surface), infants extended their arms almost as much to a gray surface as to a patterned one. (Author/CS)

Walters, Clarence P.; Walk, Richard D.

1974-01-01

199

Predictors of Maternal Sensitivity to Infant Distress  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Objective The present study was designed to examine the extent to which mothers’ emotional (i.e., empathy, negative emotions) and cognitive (i.e., accurate detection of distress, goals about infant crying, and emotion efficacy) responses to infant distress are related to maternal sensitivity in tasks designed to elicit infant distress. Mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to distress were assessed both prenatally in response to unfamiliar infants and postnatally in response to own infant. The extent to which prenatal and postnatal measures correlated with one another and with sensitivity to distress was examined. Design One-hundred and one mothers were interviewed prenatally about their responses to videotapes of crying infants, then videotaped interacting with their own infants at 6-months postpartum in two emotionally arousing tasks during which maternal sensitivity and infant distress were rated, and participated in a video-recall interview about their thoughts and feelings during the emotionally arousing tasks. Results Mothers’ prenatal and postnatal goals in relation to infant distress and emotional reactions to infant distress were the most consistent predictors of sensitivity, but prenatal accurate detection of infant distress also predicted sensitivity. Furthermore, mothers’ goals, emotional reactions to crying, and accurate distress detection buffered maternal sensitivity from the negative effect of observed infant distress. That is, infant distress was less strongly negatively associated with sensitivity when mothers had more infant-oriented goals, reported fewer negative emotions in response to infant crying, or were skilled at detecting infant distress. Conclusions Assessing mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress provides insights into the origins of sensitivity to infant distress. Methodological issues relevant to assessing mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress are raised.

Leerkes, Esther M.

2010-01-01

200

Infant feeding in Mogadishu, Somalia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 384 mothers with a child under 12 months of age and living in Mogadishu, Somalia, were interviewed concerning infant feeding beliefs and practices. Forty?two nurses from Mother and Child Health Centres were also interviewed. Socio?demographic factors which might affect infant feeding were investigated, including the place of birth of the child and the education of parents.It was

Ali Osman Nur

1985-01-01

201

Sudden infant death while awake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic data suggest that SIDS is related to the sleep state, but exiguous literature has addressed infants who had\\u000a been awake at the time of sudden catastrophic deterioration and subsequent death. The aims of this study are to: (1) Report\\u000a five infants who were awake at the onset of the lethal event, and (2) Discuss potential lethal pathophysiological events that

Henry F. Krous; Amy E. Chadwick; Elisabeth Haas; Homeyra Masoumi; Christina Stanley

2008-01-01

202

Clinical Mimics of Infant Botulism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1992, Human Botulism Immune Globulin has been provided by the California Department of Health Services to infants with probable infant botulism, the intestinal toxemia form of human botulism. Human Botulism Immune Globulin became available in California in 1992-1997 within a randomized, controlled, double-blinded, pivotal clinical trial and subsequently became available nationwide in 1998 -2003 in an open-label study until

Marie O. Francisco; Stephen S. Arnon

2010-01-01

203

Visual Statistical Learning in Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Statistical probability theory posits that we learn ,about regularly-occurring events in the perceptual environment by determining the likelihood of each event’s occurrence (Aslin, Saffran, & Newport, 1998). The current study investigates infants’ ability to extract ,properties of repetitive visual ,events ,and ,represent ,predictable combinations,of visual ,elements. Using ,a novelty- preference paradigm, 2-, 5-, and 8-month-old infants were habituated to

Natasha Zoe Kirkham; Jonathan Andrew Slemmer; Scott P. Johnson

204

Development of infants' pitch perception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies demonstrate that by 7 months of age infants can hear the pitch of the missing fundamental for tonal complexes and that the same acoustic cues used by adults permit infants to perceive pitch. Infants and adults were tested in an operant conditioning procedure and learned to categorize tonal complexes with differing spectra according to the pitch of the missing fundamental. Responses to spectral manipulations that reduce the salience of pitch suggested that the strength of the pitch percept may be weaker and the use of temporal cues may be poorer for infants than for adults. Other work utilizing an iterated rippled noise stimulus (IRN) attempted to quantify these developmental differences. Applying progressively greater attenuation to the delayed noise in an IRN progressively decreases the strength of the pitch percept evoked by the stimulus. The maximum attenuation for which listeners detect changes in pitch estimates the strength of their pitch percept. Such thresholds revealed that the strength of the pitch percept evoked by IRN was significantly weaker for infants (6.7 dB) than for adults (19.1 dB). In combination, these findings suggest that temporal mechanisms for processing pitch may be particularly immature in infants.

Clarkson, Marsha G.

2003-04-01

205

Newborn infants learn during sleep  

PubMed Central

Newborn infants must rapidly adjust their physiology and behavior to the specific demands of the novel postnatal environment. This adaptation depends, at least in part, on the infant's ability to learn from experiences. We report here that infants exhibit learning even while asleep. Bioelectrical activity from face and scalp electrodes was recorded from neonates during an eye movement conditioning procedure in which a tone was followed by a puff of air to the eye. Sleeping newborns rapidly learned the predictive relationship between the tone and the puff. Additionally, in the latter part of training, these infants exhibited a frontally maximum positive EEG slow wave possibly reflecting memory updating. As newborns spend most of their time sleeping, the ability to learn about external stimuli in the postnatal environment during nonawake states may be crucial for rapid adaptation and infant survival. Furthermore, because eyelid conditioning reflects functional cerebellar circuitry, this method potentially offers a unique approach for early identification of infants at risk for a range of developmental disorders including autism and dyslexia.

Fifer, William P.; Byrd, Dana L.; Kaku, Michelle; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Isler, Joseph R.; Grose-Fifer, Jillian; Tarullo, Amanda R.; Balsam, Peter D.

2010-01-01

206

Experience with monocomponent acellular pertussis combination vaccines for infants, children, adolescents and adults-A review of safety, immunogenicity, efficacy and effectiveness studies and 15 years of field experience.  

PubMed

Combination vaccines containing a monocomponent acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine, manufactured at Statens Serum Institut (SSI), Denmark, have successfully controlled Bordetella pertussis infections in Denmark since 1997. The efficacy of this aP vaccine was 71% in a double-blind, randomised and controlled clinical trial. Its safety and immunogenicity have been demonstrated in infants, children, adolescents and adults. In approximately 500,000 children it was effective against pertussis requiring hospitalisation (VE: 93% after 3 doses) and against pertussis not requiring hospitalisation (VE: 78% after 3 doses). IgG antibodies against pertussis toxin (IgG anti-PT) response rates after booster vaccination of adults with tetanus, diphtheria and aP combination vaccine (TdaP) were considerably higher for this monocomponent aP vaccine containing 20?g pertussis toxoid, inactivated by hydrogen peroxide (92.0%), than for two multicomponent aP vaccines inactivated by formaldehyde and/or glutaraldehyde: 3-component aP with 8?g pertussis toxoid (77.2%) and 5-component aP with 2.5?g pertussis toxoid (47.1%), without compromising the safety profile. In Denmark where this monocomponent aP vaccine has been the only pertussis vaccine in use for 15 years, there has been no pertussis epidemic since 2002 (population incidence 36 per 100,000), in contrast to neighbouring countries, where epidemics have occurred. This monocomponent aP vaccine can be used in combination vaccines for primary and booster vaccination against pertussis in all age groups and is an important tool for successful pertussis control. PMID:23994021

Thierry-Carstensen, Birgit; Dalby, Tine; Stevner, Michael A; Robbins, John B; Schneerson, Rachel; Trollfors, Birger

2013-08-28

207

Sleep and Attachment in Preterm Infants.  

PubMed

Infants born preterm are at elevated risk for social emotional difficulties. However, factors contributing to this risk are largely understudied. Within the present study, we explored infant sleep as a biosocial factor that may play a role in infant social emotional development. Within a prospective longitudinal design, we examined parent-reported sleep patterns and observed parenting quality as predictors of infant-mother attachment in 171 infants born preterm. Using structural equation modeling, we examined main effect and moderator models linking infant sleep patterns and parenting with attachment security. Sleep patterns characterized by more daytime sleep and positive/responsive parenting predicted infant attachment security. Parent-reported nighttime sleep patterns were unrelated to attachment in this sample of infants born preterm. These results indicate that daytime sleep and parenting quality may be important for emerging attachment relationships in infants born preterm. PMID:23482430

Schwichtenberg, A J; Shah, Prachi E; Poehlmann, Julie

2013-01-01

208

Choking first aid - infant under 1 year - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... infant’s head downward, lower than the body. 3. Give up to 5 quick, forceful blows between the infant’s ... of his breastbone just below the nipples. 3. Give up to 5 quick thrusts down, compressing the chest ...

209

Clinical mimics of infant botulism.  

PubMed

Since 1992, Human Botulism Immune Globulin has been provided by the California Department of Health Services to infants with probable infant botulism, the intestinal toxemia form of human botulism. Human Botulism Immune Globulin became available in California in 1992-1997 within a randomized, controlled, double-blinded, pivotal clinical trial and subsequently became available nationwide in 1998-2003 in an open-label study until its licensure in October 2003 as BabyBIG. Thereafter, Human Botulism Immune Globulin remained available nationwide as an approved orphan-drug product. To achieve prompt neutralization of circulating botulinum toxin, the decision to treat with Human Botulism Immune Globulin has been based on clinical criteria that include a consistent history and physical findings of bulbar palsies, hypotonia, and weakness. After licensure, the charts of patients who did not have laboratory-confirmed infant botulism were reviewed to identify their actual diagnoses. The approximately 5% of 681 patients treated with Human Botulism Immune Globulin who did not have infant botulism fell into 5 categories: spinal muscular atrophy, metabolic disorders, other infectious diseases, miscellaneous, and probable infant botulism lacking laboratory confirmation. PMID:17403857

Francisco, Ann Marie O; Arnon, Stephen S

2007-04-01

210

Mothers' Beliefs about Infant Size: Associations with Attitudes and Infant Feeding Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Few studies have examined maternal attitudes toward infant body size, but extant work suggests there might be less negativity toward overweight sizes and less positivity toward thin sizes for infants than older children. Fifty mothers of 12 to 25 month-old infants completed questionnaires examining attitudes toward infants', children's and their…

Holub, Shayla C.; Dolan, Elaine A.

2012-01-01

211

Perinatal Risk, Mother-Infant Interaction, and Early Developmental Outcome of Preterm and Fullterm Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated: (1) the effects of early mother-infant interaction on the infant's cognitive and social development during the first year of life; (2) the impact of perinatal factors on that development; and (3) the differences, if any, in the impact of mother-infant interaction and perinatal factors on preterm and full term infants.…

Bakeman, Roger; Brown, Josephine V.

212

Serum zinc concentration in exclusively breast-fed infants and in infants fed an adapted formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum zinc concentrations have been determined in 28 healthy full-term Italian infants of both sexes at birth, as well as at 3 and at 5 months of age. Fourteen exclusively breast-fed infants who served as a control group were compared with 14 infants fed a cow's milk based adapted infant formula. No significant differences in serum zinc concentration between the

V. Vigi; R. Chierici; L. Osti; F. Fagioli; R. Reseazzi

1984-01-01

213

The Evaluation of Infant Intelligence: Infant Intelligence Scores--True or False?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infant intelligence from birth until the age of two was measured to determine the usefulness of infant intelligence tests. Twenty infants were tested regularly over the two-year period. Results showed neither simplex nor other long-term patterns of interrelationship among the infant intelligence scores obtained. The study concludes that the…

Lewis, Michael; McGurk, Harry

214

Marital and Infant Factors in the Emerging Parent-Infant Relationship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of infant responsiveness and marital satisfaction on parent-infant reciprocity in face-to-face interactions are examined in this study. Thirty-two middle to upper-middle class couples attending LaMaze classes were recruited for the study. There were equal numbers of male and female infants. When the infants were approximately three…

Cook, Nancy Illback

215

Infant and maternal factors associated with maternal perceptions of infant sleep problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: Infant sleep behaviours, particularly night wakings, have been identified as one of the most common concerns of parents. Despite this, few empirical studies have examined how mothers distinguish between normative and problematic infant sleep behaviours. Methods: In this study, we examined infant and maternal factors associated with maternal perceptions of infant sleep problems in an internet sample of Canadian

Lynn Loutzenhiser; Angela Ahlquist; John Hoffman

2012-01-01

216

Infant and maternal factors associated with maternal perceptions of infant sleep problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: Infant sleep behaviours, particularly night wakings, have been identified as one of the most common concerns of parents. Despite this, few empirical studies have examined how mothers distinguish between normative and problematic infant sleep behaviours. Methods: In this study, we examined infant and maternal factors associated with maternal perceptions of infant sleep problems in an internet sample of Canadian

Lynn Loutzenhiser; Angela Ahlquist; John Hoffman

2011-01-01

217

Maternal Representations of the Infant: Associations with Infant Response to the Still Face  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mothers' representations of their infants may influence early development of emotional self-regulation. This study examined the associations between characteristics of mothers' ( N ? 100) narratives about their 7-month- old infants, maternal depression, and their infants' affect regulation during the Still Face procedure. Findings showed that (1) mothers' representations were linked with individual differences in their infants' behavior across the

Katherine L. Rosenblum; Susan McDonough; Maria Muzik; Alison Miller; Arnold Sameroff

2002-01-01

218

Rapid Diagnosis of Pertussis in Young Infants: Comparison of Culture, PCR, and Infant's and Mother's Serology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of maternal pertussis serology comparing prepartum serum to serum collected during the infant's disease to the diagnosis of pertussis in infants was evaluated for 28 pairs of young infants with pertussis syndrome and their mothers and was compared to those of culture and PCR. Infants had a nasopharyngeal aspiration tested by PCR, and acute and convalescent sera were

EMMANUEL GRIMPREL; ELISABETH NJAMKEPO; PIERRE BEGUE; NICOLE GUISO

1997-01-01

219

Caregiver Characteristics Associated with Infant Cognitive Status in In-Utero Drug Exposed Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a study of 66 in-utero drug exposed (IUDE) infants, evaluated infant cognitive status, caregiver-infant interaction, and caregiver cognitive functioning (IQ) to determine which caregiver variables were associated with infant cognitive status. Analysis indicated that caregiver IQ was the only statistically significant coefficient in the model…

Butz, Arlene M.; Pulsifer, Margaret; O'Brien, Eileen; Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Lears, Mary Kathleen; Miller, Deborah; Kaufmann, Walter; Royall, Richard

2002-01-01

220

Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... urging consumers to carefully read the labels of liquid acetaminophen marketed for infants to avoid giving the ... less concentrated version for all children. Until now, liquid acetaminophen marketed for infants has only been available ...

221

Visual acuity screening of preterm infants.  

PubMed

Visual acuity was screened in 36 healthy infants born 4 or more weeks prior to term. Preterm infants tested at 8 and 12 weeks of postnatal age showed significantly poorer performances than those shown by 8- and 12-week-old full-term infants. However, no differences in performance were found when the scores of preterm infants tested at 4, 8, and 12 weeks of postterm age (i.e., 4, 8, and 12 weeks from due date) were compared with scores of 4-, 8-, and 12-week-old full-term infants. The results suggest that visual acuity is more closely correlated with age from conception than with age from birth and that visual acuity screening in preterm infants should be carried out with acuity gratings appropriate for the infant's postterm age rather than with acuity gratings appropriate for the infant's postnatal age. PMID:7440104

Dobson, V; Mayer, D L; Lee, C P

1980-12-01

222

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and Vaccines  

MedlinePLUS

... Center FDA: VAERS Research on SIDS Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and Vaccines From 2 to 4 ... is also the peak age for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The timing of these two events ...

223

21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than a dietary supplement of vitamins and/or minerals alone) purports to be or is represented for special dietary use for infants, the...

2013-04-01

224

Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children  

MedlinePLUS

... is your infant throwing up small amounts of formula after a feeding? Yes This is probably "SPITTING UP," a common occurrence for infants on formula. Less common is a LACTOSE INTOLERANCE or MILK ...

225

21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other...special dietary use for infants, the label shall bear, if such food is fabricated from two or...

2010-04-01

226

21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other...special dietary use for infants, the label shall bear, if such food is fabricated from two or...

2009-04-01

227

Questions & Answers for Consumers Concerning Infant ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Parents should ask their infant's health care provider if they have questions about selecting a formula for their infant. Source ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/peopleatrisk

228

Breastmilk contaminants and infant behavior  

SciTech Connect

Recent work has shown that certain heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (p,p{prime}-DDE) can affect newborn behavior via transplacental exposure. In this study, a number of fluids were collected from a sample of mothers and infants, with gas liquid chromatography used to determine the levels of environmental contaminants in breastmilk obtained in the first postpartum week. Analysis of the first 15 cases revealed normal concentrations of metals, no detectable traces of PCBs, and detectable levels of heptachlor epoxide and p,p{prime}-DDE in breastmilk. No significant associations were found between metals and infant development, but p,p{prime}-DDE was inversely related to perceptual performance and motor scores at 2-1/2 years. These results suggest that contaminants in human milk may affect infant behavior beyond the newborn period, although prediction from other sources must also be considered.

Worobey, J.; Thomas, D.A.; Lewis, M. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick (United States))

1990-02-26

229

Oxygen therapy in preterm infants.  

PubMed

Despite being the most widely used and vital therapy in neonatology, optimal strategies for the use of oxygen in preterm infants remain controversial. Achieving the balance between attaining adequate tissue oxygenation and avoiding oxygen toxicity is challenging. There remains a paucity of clear evidence based guidance for clinicians on safe oxygen saturation targets. What does seem apparent is that these targets vary over time in the life of a preterm infant. This article summarises the evidence behind current practice of oxygen monitoring and administration from the first few minutes after birth, through to the acute neonatal and later convalescent periods. Finally, we review the use of home oxygen for preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia including administration and weaning from domically home oxygen. PMID:23402990

Cherian, S; Morris, I; Evans, J; Kotecha, S

2013-02-01

230

Sensorimotor development in cocaine-exposed infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant sensorimotor development. One hundred and sixty-seven12-month-olds (74 cocaine-exposed and 93 unexposed) were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID). Ninety-seven had previously been evaluated on the Movement Assessment of Infants and the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants at age 4 months. On the BSID, the cocaine-exposed

Orphia Bass-Busdiecker; JoMarie Mascia; Jennifer Angelopoulos

1998-01-01

231

Helping parents cope with infant crying.  

PubMed

Infant crying can be a problem because parents often receive conflicting advice about crying from relatives, friends, childrearing "experts," and health professionals. Nurses are in a unique position to counsel parents about this aspect of childrearing. Infant crying as a signal is discussed, and research related to infant crying is reviewed. Recommendations are given for nurses counseling parents about coping with infant crying. PMID:6553109

Newton, L D

232

[Infant botulism in France, 1991-2009].  

PubMed

Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores of Clostridium botulinum and affects newborns and infants under 12 months of age. Ingested spores multiply and produce botulinum toxin in the digestive tract, which then induces clinical symptoms. A single French case was described in the literature prior to 1991. We describe the cases of infant botulism identified in France between 1991 and 2009. All clinical suspicions of botulism must be declared in France. Biological confirmation of the disease is provided by the National reference laboratory for anaerobic bacteria and botulism at the Pasteur Institute. During this period, 7 cases of infant botulism were identified, 1 per year from 2004 to 2008 and 2 in 2009. The median age of affected infants was 119 days and all were female. All infants presented with constipation and oculomotor symptoms. All were hospitalized and required mechanical ventilation. The infants recovered from their botulism. The diagnosis of infant botulism was biologically confirmed for all patients. One 4-month-old infant was treated with a single dose of the human-derived botulism antitoxin specific for infant botulism types A and B (BabyBIG®). The infants all had different feeding habits ranging from exclusive breast feeding to a mix of formula feeding and solid food consumption. The consumption of honey, the only documented risk food for this disease, was reported for 3 of the infants. The honey had been placed on the pacifier of 2 infants and directly in the mouth of the 3rd by the mother. Infant botulism, a form of botulism that was previously rarely recognized in France, has been reported more frequently during the last 6 years. This disease remains rare but nonetheless severe. In light of recent epidemiological data, efforts to raise awareness among parents of infants and health professionals on the danger of infant botulism and particularly, its association with honey consumption seems necessary. PMID:20724121

King, L-A; Popoff, M-R; Mazuet, C; Espié, E; Vaillant, V; de Valk, H

2010-08-17

233

Automotive restraint systems for premature infants.  

PubMed

Automotive restraint systems suitable for use with low birth weight infants were crash tested using a small infant dummy developed for the study. Conventional semiupright rear-facing child restraints were tested, as well as a new car bed restraint that may be advantageous for infants who are medically fragile and who must remain in a prone or supine position. This car bed can be adapted to accommodate a very small infant effectively. PMID:3346776

Bull, M J; Weber, K; Stroup, K B

1988-03-01

234

Learning in the Development of Infant Locomotion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined how infants acquire adaptive locomotion in the novel task of going up and down slopes. Found that infants' judgments became increasingly accurate and exploration became increasingly efficient, with no transfer over the transition from crawling to walking. Infants learned to gauge their abilities on-line as they encountered each hill at…

Adolph, Karen E.

1997-01-01

235

Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that…

Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

2012-01-01

236

Infant feeding: which is the best practice?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the various ways of feeding infants from birth to one year since what an infant eats at this stage in life is crucial to his\\/her future health. Critically discusses the various practices of feeding infants, which are breast-feeding, artificial feeding, mixed feeding, and weaning. Reports on the investigations done in various countries of Europe, North America, some countries in

M. N. Anokwulu

2002-01-01

237

Neurodevelopmental outcomes of infant intestinal transplant recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the impact of intestinal transplantation on development of the infant brain. In this study we report four neurodevelopmental studies on children receiving either liver or intestinal\\/multivisceral transplants. Our preliminary investigation examined the pretransplant status of 27 infants, who were either liver or intestinal\\/multivisceral candidates, using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. A second study examined 23

D. M Thevenin; N Mittal; T Kato; A Tzakis

2004-01-01

238

Infant feeding style in Urban Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of infant feeding style is developed as a self?consistent way of making choices about infant feeding and applied to a study of infant feeding practices of low income women in Nairobi, Kenya. Personal and shared styles, interaction style and eating style are examined using both cross sectional survey data and results of ethnographic fieldwork. The dynamics of status

Penny van Esterik; Terry Elliott

1986-01-01

239

Motor development of infants with positional plagiocephaly.  

PubMed

Concurrent with recommendations to place infants to sleep in supine, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of infants with positional plagiocephaly (PP). Recent evidence suggests that infants who have decreased exposure to prone position may have a higher incidence of PP and may be at risk for a delay in the acquisition of certain motor skills. The purpose of this study was to compare motor development between infants with PP and matched peers without PP. We also examined differences in infant positioning practices when asleep and awake between the two groups. Twenty-seven infants with PP, 3 to 8 months of age, were matched by age, gender, and race to infants without PP. Motor performance was evaluated using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS). Parents completed a diary that recorded infant positioning over a 3-day period. Mean AIMS percentile score for infants with PP was 31.1 +/- 21.6 as compared with 42.7 +/- 20.2 in infants without PP (p = .06). Better performance on the AIMS was positively correlated with the amount of time in prone position when awake, for both groups of children (PP r = .52, no PP r = .44, p < .05). Therapists should be aware of a risk of a motor delay when evaluating infants with PP. It is also important for parents to be informed about the importance of supervised prone playtime to enhance the development of early motor skills. PMID:19842852

Kennedy, Eileen; Majnemer, Annette; Farmer, Jean-Pierre; Barr, Ronald G; Platt, Robert W

2009-01-01

240

Social Information Guides Infants' Selection of Foods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two experiments investigated the influence of socially conveyed emotions and speech on infants' choices among food. After watching films in which two unfamiliar actresses each spoke while eating a different kind of food, 12-month-old infants were allowed to choose between the two foods. In Experiment 1, infants selected a food endorsed by a…

Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; McKee, Caitlin B.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

2009-01-01

241

Infants at Risk: Perinatal and Neonatal Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have been reviewed to indicate that (a) prematurity and other perinatal hazards impose congenital constraints upon the behavior of the young infant, (b) experimental deficits within the earliest days and weeks of life can compound the risk, (c) infants who succumb to crib death (sudden infant death syndrome) have demonstrably more risk factors present in their prenatal and neonatal

Lewis P. Lipsitt

1979-01-01

242

Pattern Induction by Infant Language Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do infants learn the sound patterns of their native language? By the end of the 1st year, infants have acquired detailed aspects of the phonology and phonotactics of their input language. However, the structure of the learning mechanisms underlying this process is largely unknown. In this study, 9-month-old infants were given the opportunity to induce specific phonological patterns in

Jenny R. Saffran; Erik D. Thiessen

2003-01-01

243

Infants born to narcotic-addicted mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the literature on the infants of narcotic-addicted mothers in regard to psychological outcome and the medical consequences that contribute to that outcome. Consistent with the notion that these infants are at high risk, there is evidence for adverse outcome in that these infants demonstrate significant perinatal medical problems, impaired interactive and state control behavior and attachment behavior during early

Joanne Householder; Roger P. Hatcher; William J. Burns; I. Chasnoff

1982-01-01

244

Emotional Determinants of Infant-Mother Attachment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mothers' emotion and personality characteristics were assessed by behavior ratings and self-reports; infants' characteristics by maternal reports and objective coding. Security of infant-mother attachment in the Ainsworth Strange Situation was predicted by mothers' emotional experience, expressive behavior, and personality traits, and by infants'…

Izard, Carroll E.; And Others

1991-01-01

245

Sudden infant deaths: stress, arousal and SIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has dropped in most countries following the development of education campaigns on the avoidance of preventable risk factors for SIDS. These include factors in the infant’s microenvironment, such as prenatal passive smoking, administration of sedative drugs, prone sleep, high ambient temperature or sleeping with the face covered. Sleep laboratory studies have

Andre Kahn; Jose Groswasser; Patricia Franco; Sonia Scaillet; Toshiko Sawaguchi; Igor Kelmanson; Bernard Dan

2004-01-01

246

Confidential Inquiry into 226 Consecutive Infant Deaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among 226 consecutive infant deaths (occurring after the first week), the leading causes were: congenital malformation (62 deaths), sudden infant death syndrome (47), pneumonia (36), gastroenteritis (26), and aspiration of gastric contents (16). In only one-third of the deaths was there a known predisposing organic disease. The study confirms the well-known relation between infant mortality and low birthweight, illegitimacy, poor

I. D. Gerald Richards; Helen T. McIntosh

1972-01-01

247

The Youngest Vegetarians: Vegetarian Infants and Toddlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the popularity of vegetarian diets increases, practitioners are likely to encounter vegetarian infants and toddlers. Vegetarian and vegan diets can be developed to meet nutrient needs and support growth of infants and toddlers. Key nutrients whose adequacy should be monitored in vegetarian\\/vegan diets include vitamin B12, calcium, vitamin D, iron, omega-3 fatty acids, and zinc. As for all infants,

Reed Mangels; Julia Driggers

2012-01-01

248

Instability of Infant–Parent Attachment Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 2 separate projects were examined to address the stability of infant–parent attachment security. Both included infant–mother attachment classifications at 12 and 18 months of age (n = 125, n = 90), and 1 included infant–father classifications at 13 and 20 months (n = 120). Significant stability was not discerned in attachment security, either at the level of ABC

Jay Belsky; Susan B. Campbell; Jeffrey F. Cohn; Ginger Moore

1996-01-01

249

Do Infants Show Generalized Imitation of Gestures?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to investigate generalized imitation of manual gestures in 1- to 2-year- old infants. In Experiment 1, 6 infants were first trained four baseline matching relations (e.g., when instructed ''Do this,'' to raise their arms after they saw the experimenter do so). Next, four novel gestures that the infants did not match in probe trials were selected

PAULINE J. HORNE; Mihela Erjavec

2007-01-01

250

Infants' Developing Understanding of Social Gaze  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young infants are sensitive to self-directed social actions, but do they appreciate the intentional, target-directed nature of such behaviors? The authors addressed this question by investigating infants' understanding of social gaze in third-party interactions (N = 104). Ten-month-old infants discriminated between 2 people in mutual versus…

Beier, Jonathan S.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

2012-01-01

251

Congenital Anomalies in Infant with Congenital Hypothyroidism  

PubMed Central

Objective Congenital hypothyroidism is characterized by inadequate thyroid hormone production in newborn infants. Many infants with CH have co-occurring congenital malformations. This is an investigation on the frequency and types of congenital anomalies in infants with congenital hypothyroidism born from May 2006-2010 in Hamadan, west province of Iran. Methods The Iranian neonatal screening program for congenital hypothyroidism was initiated in May 2005. This prospective descriptive study was conducted in infants diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism being followed up in Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic of Besat Hospital, a tertiary care centre in Hamadan. Cases included all infants with congenital hypothyroidism diagnosed through newborn screening program or detected clinically. Anomalies were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, and X-ray of the hip during the infant’s first year of life. Results A total of 150 infants with biochemically confirmed primary congenital hypothyroidism (72 females and 78 males) were recruited during the period between May 2006-2010. Overall, 30 (20%) infants had associated congenital anomalies. The most common type of anomaly was Down syndrome. Seven infants (3.1%) had congenital cardiac anomalies such as: ASD (n=3), VSD (n=2), PS (n =1), PDA (n=1). Three children (2.6%) had developmental dysplasia of the hip (n=3). Conclusion The overall frequency of Down syndrome, cardiac malformation and other birth defect was high in infants with CH. This reinforces the need to examine all infants with congenital hypothyroidism for the presence of associated congenital anomalies.

Razavi, Zahra; Yavarikia, Alireza; Torabian, Saadat

2012-01-01

252

Infants' Physical Knowledge Affects Their Change Detection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prior research suggests that infants attend to a variable in an event category when they have identified it as relevant for predicting outcomes in the category, and that the age at which infants identify a variable depends largely on the age at which they are exposed to appropriate observations. Thus, depending on age of exposure, infants may…

Wang, Su-hua; Baillargeon, Renee

2006-01-01

253

Prevention of intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prematurely born infants with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) suffer significant morbidity and mortality, particularly those infants with high grade hemorrhage. The more premature infants have a higher incidence, experiencing more severe IVH. Early onset IVH is also likely to be severe and to progress to a higher grade. The etiology of intraventricular hemorrhages is clearly multifactorial, with differing sets of risk

John T. Wells; Laura R. Ment

1995-01-01

254

Infant Social Development in Two American Subcultures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of style of infant care on the social and emotional behavior of infants by the age of two years was studied. Two styles of infant care were contrasted: The style of La Leche League and of other middle class families who lived in the same towns....

M. F. Elias I. DeVore

1985-01-01

255

Physiology of acute pain in preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Understanding the pain physiology of the preterm infant is essential to the provision of effective pain prevention and pain management. Peripheral and ascending pain pathways are mature by 20 weeks of gestation so infants are completely capable of feeling pain. The expression of pain in preterm infants is well documented. However, the immature descending pain pathway and lack of

Jane Cooper Evans

2001-01-01

256

Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that…

Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

2012-01-01

257

Early Aggressive Nutrition in Very Preterm Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite numerous advances in the nutrition of preterm infants, the increasing survival at lower birth weights is resulting in a new frontier of extrauterine nutritional support of these vulnerable infants. The extremely low birth weight infant has endogenous energy to maintain energy balance for only 3-4 days without an exogenous energy supply. Nevertheless, many clinicians are still hesitant to introduce

P. Thureen

2007-01-01

258

The feeding of infants and children  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The establishment of feeding practices that are comfortable and satisfying for both the parents and the infant is crucial not only for the emotional well-being of both but also for ensuring adequate nutrient intakes for the infant. Maternal feelings are readily transmitted to the infant and are a ma...

259

[Drug Exposed Infants and Their Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This bulletin issue addresses the theme of drug-exposed infants and the services required by these infants and their families. "Cocaine-Exposed Infants: Myths and Misunderstandings" (Barbara J. Myers and others) comments on the negative accounts of drug-exposed babies presented by mass media and reviews the mix of positive and negative findings…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

1992-01-01

260

Infant mortality among ethnic immigrant groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The numerically large and growing Indochinese refugee population has been little studied with respect to infant health. It is a population that is young, is experiencing high fertility, late onset of prenatal care, and is characterized by low socioeconomic status. Thus, it presents a high risk profile with respect to infant mortality. Using linked birth and infant death records for

Rubén G. Rumbaut

1991-01-01

261

Elicitation and Effects of Infant Gaze Aversion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Changes in maternal behavior were studied to determine if these changes could elicit infant gaze aversion. Forty mothers increase their rate of visual regard of their infants, verbalizations to their infants or both. A control group did not change their b...

P. A. Self

1985-01-01

262

Social Information Guides Infants' Selection of Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments investigated the influence of socially conveyed emotions and speech on infants' choices among food. After watching films in which two unfamiliar actresses each spoke while eating a different kind of food, 12-month-old infants were allowed to choose between the two foods. In Experiment 1, infants selected a food endorsed by a speaker of their native language who displayed

Kristin Shutts; Katherine D. Kinzler; Caitlin B. McKee; Elizabeth S. Spelke

2009-01-01

263

Infant Stimulation Curriculum: Development and Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are a description and evaluation report of the Infant Stimulation Curriculum developed by the Developmentally Delayed Infant Education Outreach Project. The curriculum, for infants developmentally between birth and 36 months of age, is described in terms of characteristics (such as basis in the normal developmental pattern), rationale,…

Storm, Pat Purdy; And Others

264

Tuned in Parenting and Infant Sleep Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper focuses on infant sleep behaviour that is of concern to mothers of young infants, and disruptive to families. It reports on the incidence of sleep problems in dyads that self-referred to a specialist clinic, and the relationship between the mother's sensitive responsiveness and infant sleep patterns in a sample of 65 Australian…

Priddis, Lynn E.

2009-01-01

265

Prediction of Neurodevelopmental Sequelae in VLBW Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study examined pre-, peri-, and neonatal factors in 271 British infants (weighing less than 1500 grams at birth), 188 of whom survived to 2 years. The study represented an attempt to define those factors which predict normal neurodevelopmental outcome in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Surviving infants were seen at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24…

Wolke, Dieter; And Others

266

NATIONAL MATERNAL AND INFANT HEALTH SURVEY (NMIHS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMIHS) provides data on maternal and infant health, including prenatal care, birth weight, fetal loss, and infant mortality. The objective of the NMIHS is to collect data needed by Federal, State, and private researchers to study fa...

267

Maternal and Infant Characteristics Associated With Accidental Suffocation and Strangulation in Bed in US Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify maternal and infant characteristics associated with accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed (ASSB) in\\u000a US infants. Using 2000–2002 US linked infant birth and death certificate cohort files, we compared ASSB deaths to survivors.\\u000a Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) from logistic regression were used to analyze associations between selected maternal and infant\\u000a characteristics and ASSB mortality. During 2000–2002, 1,064 infants

Michelle M. Carlberg; Carrie K. Shapiro-Mendoza; Michael Goodman

268

Understanding infants: characteristics of early childhood practitioners' interpretations of infants and their behaviours  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explored the nature of early childhood practitioners' interpretations of infants in their programs on the basis that such interpretations guide practitioner–infant interactions and curriculum decision?making processes. Twenty?four infant practitioners were asked to describe a nominated infant in their program and to interpret video extracts of that infant's behaviour in the contexts of toy play and a nappy?change routine.

Sheila Degotardi; Belinda Davis

2008-01-01

269

Cortisol patterns of depressed mothers and their infants are related to maternal–infant interactive behaviours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) reduces maternal–infant interaction quality, stresses infants and mothers, and is linked to adverse child social–emotional and cognitive developmental outcomes. Objectives: A hypothesised mechanism for these observed relationships is the stress-related over-activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and resultant altered cortisol patterns. While cortisol levels of mothers and infants are strongly correlated, environmental, maternal, infant and maternal–infant

N. Letourneau; B. Watson; L. Duffett-Leger; K. Hegadoren; P. Tryphonopoulos

2012-01-01

270

Cortisol patterns of depressed mothers and their infants are related to maternal–infant interactive behaviours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) reduces maternal–infant interaction quality, stresses infants and mothers, and is linked to adverse child social–emotional and cognitive developmental outcomes. Objectives: A hypothesised mechanism for these observed relationships is the stress-related over-activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and resultant altered cortisol patterns. While cortisol levels of mothers and infants are strongly correlated, environmental, maternal, infant and maternal–infant

N. Letourneau; B. Watson; L. Duffett-Leger; K. Hegadoren; P. Tryphonopoulos

2011-01-01

271

Developmental aspects of infant’s cry melody and formants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the analysis of cry melodies (time variations of the fundamental frequency) as well as vocal tract resonance frequencies (formants) from infant cry signals. The increase of complexity of cry melodies is a good indicator for neuro-muscular maturation as well as for the evaluation of pre-speech development. The variation of formant frequencies allows an estimation of articulatory

K. Wermke; W. Mende; C. Manfredi; P. Bruscaglioni

2002-01-01

272

Parental concern and distress about infant pain  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe parent views on infant pain care and to explore relations between parents' experience of their infant's pain care and parental stress. Design: Descriptive, cross sectional survey. Setting: Nine neonatal units (196 parents) in the United Kingdom and two neonatal units in the United States (61 parents). Participants: Parents of preterm and full term infants admitted to hospital. Interventions: Parents completed a three part questionnaire after the second day of the infant's admission and after they had made at least one previous visit to see their infant in the neonatal unit. Main outcome measures: Parent concerns about infant pain; parental stress; parent state and trait anxiety. Results: Parents reported that their infants had experienced moderate to severe pain that was greater than they had expected (p < 0.001). Few parents (4%) received written information, although 58% reported that they received verbal information about infant pain or pain management. Only 18% of parents reported that they were shown signs of infant pain, but 55% were shown how to comfort their infant. Parents had numerous worries about pain and pain treatments. Parental stress was independently predicted by parents' estimation of their infant's worst pain, worries about pain and its treatment, and dissatisfaction with pain information received, after controlling for state anxiety and satisfaction with overall care (F = 29.56, df 6, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.44). The findings were similar across sites, despite differences in infant characteristics. Conclusions: Parents have unmet information needs about infant pain and wish greater involvement in their infant's pain care. Parent concerns about infant pain may contribute to parental stress.

Franck, L; Cox, S; Allen, A; Winter, I

2004-01-01

273

Measurement and the Newborn Infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of newborn babies is widely regarded as being too inaccurate to justify its regular practice. It is common for infants to be weighed at birth and for no other measurements to be made. Although such assumptions are superficially correct, it is possible to train people to perform accurate measurements and for improved performance to be sustained. Accurate sequential measurements

Alan T. Gibson; Sally Carney; Neil P. Wright; Jeremy K. H. Wales

2003-01-01

274

Resurgence of Infant Caregiving Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to identify the conditions likely to produce resurgence among adult human participants. The preparation was a simulated caregiving context, wherein a recorded infant cry sounded and was terminated contingent upon targeted caregiving responses. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated resurgence with human participants in this negative reinforcement preparation. Results of Experiment 2 showed that responses with a

JENNIFER L. BRUZEK; R ACHEL H. THOMPSON; LINDSAY C. PETERS

2009-01-01

275

Infant care: cache or carry.  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis that a characteristic infant-care pattern existed during most of human history, contemporary hunter-gatherers in a representative sample of world cultures were examined. Numerically coded measures of infant care revealed a uniform pattern. Mothers are the principal caregivers, providing extensive body contact day and night and prolonged breast-feeding. When not carried, the baby of hunter-gatherers has complete freedom of movement. Care is consistently affectionate, with immediate nurturant response to crying. Nonetheless, in most groups, children achieve early independence and by 2 to 4 years spend more than half the time away from the mother. In the United States this pattern of carrying that endured for one to three million years has been replaced by one resembling nesting or caching. Infants spend little time in body contact with caregivers and their movements are restricted by playpens, high chairs, or cribs. Of the minority who are breast-fed, half are weaned within a few weeks. Separate sleeping arrangements and delayed response to crying are regularly recommended. These remarkable transformations may profoundly alter infant development and maternal involvement. PMID:381622

Lozoff, B; Brittenham, G

1979-09-01

276

Infant predictors of behavioural inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural inhibition in the second year of life is a hypothesized predictor for shyness, social anxiety and depression in later childhood, adolescence and even adulthood. To search for the earliest indicators of this fundamental temperamental trait, this study examined whether behavioural characteristics in early infancy can predict behavioural inhibition, as previously postulated. The results show that infant crying to unfamiliar

Eva Moehler; Jerome Kagan; Rieke Oelkers-Ax; Romuald Brunner; Luise Poustka; Johann Haffner; Franz Resch

2008-01-01

277

Infant Mortality: 1989 Research Accomplishments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collected in this document are reports of the National Institutes of Health's 1989 accomplishments in research on the problem of infant mortality. Reports are provided by the: (1) National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; (2) National Cancer Institute; (3) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; (4) National Institute of…

National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

278

Hypocalcemic rachitic cardiomyopathy in infants  

PubMed Central

Hypocalcemic cardiomyopathy in infants is characterized by heart failure in a previously normal infant with hypocalcemia without organic cardiac lesion. Vitamin D deficiency rickets is increasing in Middle East. In a six month study 136 cases of rickets were diagnosed in the main Children’s Hospital in Almadinah but none of them showed evidence of cardiomyopathy. Concerned of missing this serious complication of rickets we searched pub med and present this review article. Results 61 cases of hypocalcemic cardiomyopathy were reported as case reports with two series of 16 and 15 cases from London and Delhi, respectively. The major features of these cases: the age ranged from one month to 15 months with a mean age of 5 months. All presented with heart failure and hypocalcemia. There was a minor feature of rickets in a few of the cases. All had high alkaline phosphatase. Echocardiology evidence of cardiomyopathy was found in all. Most of them responded to calcium, vitamin D and cardiotonic and diuretics. Discussion We concentrated on pathogenesis of this hypocalcemic cardiomyopathy and reviewed the literature. The evidence available supports that the most likely cause of cardiomyopathy is hypocalcemia. Hypovitamin D also contributes but hyperparathyroidism might have a protective role as we did not detect any evidence of cardiomyopathy with hyperparathyroidism and florid features of rickets. Conclusion We need to look out for cardiomyopathy among infants with hypocalcemia. For prevention maternal supplementation during pregnancy and lactation with up to 2000 units of vitamin D and 400 units for their infants.

Elidrissy, Abdelwahab T.H.; Munawarah, Medinah; Alharbi, Khalid M.

2012-01-01

279

Competing agendas in infant feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many food choices are not centrally concerned with food and, even where they are, they do not necessarily relate to the nutritional functions of food. In this paper we report on the findings of a longitudinal interview study of infant feeding practices among first-time mothers. In feeding their babies, mothers are engaged in a number of different projects, some of

Elizabeth Murphy; Susan Parker; Christine Phipps

1998-01-01

280

Sleep Homeostasis in Infant Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homeostatic regulation is a defining characteristic of sleep but has rarely been examined in infants. This study presents an automated method of sleep deprivation in which 5-day-old rats were shocked whenever the nuchal muscle became atonic. The intensity of shock was always set at the minimal level required to maintain arousal. Deprived pups exhibited rapid increases in sleep pressure, as

Mark S. Blumberg; Jessica E. Middlemis-Brown; Eric D. Johnson

2004-01-01

281

Infant feeding in risk society  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large percentage of British women, in common with women in other Western countries, feed their young babies formula milk. The paper reports some findings of a study of infant feeding that focussed on women's experiences of feeding their babies this way. Data about this issue were collected through detailed, qualitative face to face interviews with 33 mothers and through

Ellie J. Lee

2007-01-01

282

Mothers of Very Preterm Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was part of a larger study in which an individual, peer-support intervention for mothers of very preterm infants was evaluated. In the present study, ratings by mothers who received the culturally sensitive intervention were compared with ratings from a control group on their experience of the preterm birth, and the quality of their social support. Additionally, mothers who

MichÈLe Preyde

2007-01-01

283

Trigeminus Reflex in Young Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A WEAK: electrical stimulus on the receptive field of N. trigeminus (parts II and III) in infants between a few weeks and 12 months old is followed by a discharge in the nerves of the muscles, biceps and triceps brachii, and biceps and quadriceps femori, without any visible movement. The activity of these muscles is synchronized. No reciprocal pattern could

H. C. Hopf; H.-J. Hufschmidt; J. Ströder

1964-01-01

284

Nighttime Wakefulness Associated with Infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parent-infant cosleeping occurs in human and nonhuman primates, yet stud- ies on the impact of cosleeping on parental sleep patterns have been limited to human mothers. We examined the effects of cosleeping on the nighttime wake- fulness of a biparental New World primate, Wied's black tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix kuhlii). We compared the sleep patterns of marmoset parents caring for young

Jeffrey E. Fite; Jeffrey A. French; Kimberly J. Patera; Elizabeth C. Hopkins; Michael Rukstalis; Heather A. Jensen; Corinna N. Ross

285

Infants Can Study Air Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)|

Ward, Alan

1983-01-01

286

Infant Mortality: The Shared Concern.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the causes for and implications of infant mortality. Besides the more immediate causes such as disease, nutrition, and lifestyle, there are the additional hurdles of government bureaucracy, lack of funds, and institutional attitudes that block access to prenatal care. Suggests structural solutions, including a consistent, individual,…

Heagarty, Margaret C.

1990-01-01

287

Infant Mortality: 1989 Research Accomplishments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Collected in this document are reports of the National Institutes of Health's 1989 accomplishments in research on the problem of infant mortality. Reports are provided by the: (1) National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; (2) National Cancer Institute; (3) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; (4) National Institute of…

National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

288

Atypical Infant Development. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 13 chapters of this text focus on the complex development issues and interdisciplinary service needs of infants and young children at risk and their families. The text is organized into four sections on: developmental and intervention principles, identification and assessment, developmental issues, and early intervention. Chapter titles and…

Hanson, Marci J., Ed.

289

Some Thoughts about Infant Daycare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Public concern about day care now focuses on infants and toddlers who began receiving out-of-home care before they had established attachments to their parents. In 1987, public conscience was inflamed by a series of reports in the popular media and the professional literature that underscored potential risks inherent in out-of-home care intiated…

Lamb, Michael E.; Sternberg, Kathleen J.

290

Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking  

PubMed Central

In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants’ poor balance and wide stance. We show that walking is adversely affected by old-fashioned cloth diapers, and that even modern disposable diapers—habitually worn by most infants in the sample—incur a cost relative to walking naked. Infants displayed less mature gait patterns and more missteps and falls while wearing diapers. Thus, infants’ own diapers constitute an on-going biomechanical perturbation while learning to walk. Furthermore, shifts in diapering practices may have contributed to historical and cross-cultural differences in infant walking.

Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

2013-01-01

291

Go naked: diapers affect infant walking.  

PubMed

In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that walking is adversely affected by old-fashioned cloth diapers, and that even modern disposable diapers - habitually worn by most infants in the sample - incur a cost relative to walking naked. Infants displayed less mature gait patterns and more missteps and falls while wearing diapers. Thus, infants' own diapers constitute an ongoing biomechanical perturbation while learning to walk. Furthermore, shifts in diapering practices may have contributed to historical and cross-cultural differences in infant walking. PMID:23106732

Cole, Whitney G; Lingeman, Jesse M; Adolph, Karen E

2012-09-07

292

Care of the infant with sclerema neonatorum.  

PubMed

High-risk infants are particularly prone to sepsis which can be accompanied by sclerema neonatorum. This condition is manifested by skin hardening. Causation of hardening of a sick infant's skin must be identified for appropriate treatment to be implemented. Nursing care of the infant with sclerema is very complex. Throughout the course of the disease, the infant frequently requires antimicrobial therapy, ventilatory support, exchange transfusions, precise intake and output measurements, and temperature control. Psychosocial support for the family and infant is also an important part of the nurse's role. In spite of standard therapy, the mortality rate for infants with sclerema remains high. New advances, such as exchange transfusions, give some hope for the survival of these very ill infants. PMID:6558245

Ferguson, C K

293

Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed, and children's saliva was sampled before, during, and after standardized procedures designed to elicit emotional arousal. Results revealed cocaine-exposed infants had a high amplitude trajectory of cortisol reactivity compared to non-cocaine-exposed infants. Infant gender and caregiving instability moderated this association. The findings support a dual hazard vulnerability model and have implications for evolutionary-developmental theories of individual differences in biological sensitivity to context.

Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

2009-01-01

294

Infants' Learning of Phonological Status  

PubMed Central

There is a substantial literature describing how infants become more sensitive to differences between native phonemes (sounds that are both present and meaningful in the input) and less sensitive to differences between non-native phonemes (sounds that are neither present nor meaningful in the input) over the course of development. Here, we review an emergent strand of literature that gives a more nuanced notion of the problem of sound category learning. This research documents infants’ discovery of phonological status, signaled by a decrease in sensitivity to sounds that map onto the same phonemic category vs. different phonemic categories. The former phones are present in the input, but their difference does not cue meaning distinctions because they are tied to one and the same phoneme. For example, the diphthong I in I’m should map to the same underlying category as the diphthong in I’d, despite the fact that the first vowel is nasal and the second oral. Because such pairs of sounds are processed differently than those than map onto different phonemes by adult speakers, the learner has to come to treat them differently as well. Interestingly, there is some evidence that infants’ sensitivity to dimensions that are allophonic in the ambient language declines as early as 11?months. We lay out behavioral research, corpora analyses, and computational work which sheds light on how infants achieve this feat at such a young age. Collectively, this work suggests that the computation of complementary distribution and the calculation of phonetic similarity operate in concert to guide infants toward a functional interpretation of sounds that are present in the input, yet not lexically contrastive. In addition to reviewing this literature, we discuss broader implications for other fundamental theoretical and empirical questions.

Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina

2012-01-01

295

Analysis of Mother-Infant Interaction in Infants with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Delays in development of early social behaviors in babies with Down syndrome are likely to affect patterns of interaction with their caregivers. We videotaped 23 babies in face-to-face interaction with their mothers at 8 and 20 weeks of age and compared them to 23 typically developing infants and their mothers. Social behaviors, mothers'…

Slonims, Vicky; McConachie, Helen

2006-01-01

296

Explaining the 2001-02 Infant Mortality Increase: Data From the Linked Birth\\/Infant Death Data Set  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. infant mortality rate increased from 6.8 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2001 to 7.0 in 2002, the first increase in more than 40 years. From 2001 to 2002 infant mortality rates increased for very low birthweight infants as well as for preterm and very preterm infants. Although infant mortality rates for very low birthweight infants increased,

Marian F. MacDorman; Joyce A. Martin; T. J. Mathews; Donna L. Hoyert

2005-01-01

297

Perinatal assessment of infant, parents, and parent-infant relationship: prematurity as an example.  

PubMed

This article reviews the stresses for parents, infants, and other caregivers during the period surrounding the birth of the premature infant. Principles of assessment of infant discomfort, parental stress, the parent-infant relationship, and the match of the medical caregiving environment to the individual infant's needs are discussed. Relevant tools to aide in these aspects of assessment are reviewed. The role of early assessment as preventive intervention and the indication for subsequent intervention in complicated cases of premature infants and their parents are further discussed. The article offers detailed clinical examples to illustrate these and other points throughout. PMID:19486837

Muller-Nix, Carole; Forcada-Guex, Margarita

2009-07-01

298

Toward understanding the connections between infant jaundice and infant feeding.  

PubMed

Parents face a paradox when they are told: Breast is best; bottle-feeding is hazardous to health. But breast-fed babies are more likely to become severely jaundiced than bottle-fed babies, and severe jaundice can lead to brain damage. This article will explore the natural physiology of jaundice with a focus on breast-feeding-associated jaundice, primary prevention of hyperbilirubinemia, and current evidence-based recommendations about feeding jaundice breast-fed infants. PMID:19026911

Alex, Marion; Gallant, Donna Pierrynowski

2008-05-19

299

Infant Mortality Trends and Differences Between American Indian/Alaska Native Infants and White Infants in the United States, 1989-1991 and 1998-2000  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To describe changes in infant mortality rates, including birthweight-specific rates and rates by age at death and cause. Methods. We analyzed US linked birth/infant-death data for 1989–1991 and 1998–2000 for American Indians/Alaska Native (AIAN) and White singleton infants at ?20 weeks’ gestation born to US residents. We calculated birthweight-specific infant mortality rates (deaths in each birthweight category per 1000 live births in that category), and overall and cause-specific infant mortality rates (deaths per 100000 live births) in infancy (0–364 days) and in the neonatal (0–27 days) and postneonatal (28–364 days) periods. Results. Birthweight-specific infant mortality rates declined among AIAN and White infants across all birthweight categories, but AIAN infants generally had higher birthweight-specific infant mortality rates. Infant mortality rates declined for both groups, yet in 1998–2000, AIAN infants were still 1.7 times more likely to die than White infants. Most of the disparity was because of elevated post-neonatal mortality, especially from sudden infant death syndrome, accidents, and pneumonia and influenza. Conclusions. Although birthweight-specific infant mortality rates and infant mortality rates declined among both AIAN and White infants, disparities in infant mortality persist. Preventable causes of infant mortality identified in this analysis should be targeted to reduce excess deaths among AIAN communities.

Tomashek, Kay M.; Qin, Cheng; Hsia, Jason; Iyasu, Solomon; Barfield, Wanda D.; Flowers, Lisa M.

2006-01-01

300

Infant autonomic functioning and neonatal abstinence syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) expression is widely variable among affected infants and the reasons for this variability are largely unknown; mechanisms that predispose infants to NAS expression are not understood. It has been postulated that the regulatory problems of prenatally drug exposed infants are manifested in dysfunctional vagal regulation of autonomic processes. The current study examines whether cardiac vagal tone, an indicator of parasympathetic neuroregulation, provides a marker for autonomic dysregulation subsequently expressed as NAS in prenatally opioid-exposed newborns. Methods Heart period (HP) and cardiac vagal tone (V) were derived from electrocardiogram data collected from 64 methadone-exposed infants on postnatal days 1 and 3. The postpartum NAS course was assessed serially. Results Infants with lower V on day 1 had significantly higher NAS symptomatology on day 3. Boys had more severe NAS symptoms than girls through the first 4 days of life and, among infants receiving pharmacologic treatment for NAS, boys required longer treatment course and hospitalizations. Greater poly-drug exposure, detected through toxicology screening throughout pregnancy, and cocaine use in particular, were associated with lower V and shorter HP (faster heart rate) in newborns. Multiple regression models accounted for 25 to 35% of the variance in NAS symptoms and duration of hospitalization in methadone-exposed infants. Significant predictors included infant sex, SSRI/SNRI use, and cigarette smoking. Conclusions Results support the hypothesis of a biologic vulnerability of autonomic regulatory functioning in methadone-exposed infants and greater male infant vulnerability to maternal methadone use.

Jansson, Lauren M.; DiPietro, Janet A.; Elko, Andrea; Velez, Martha

2010-01-01

301

Renal function in premature infants during aminoglycoside therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of three different aminoglycosides on renal function was evaluated in 30 premature infants of similar gestational age who were treated within 24 h of birth with either amikacin (10 infants, group A), gentamicin (10 infants, group B) or netilmicin (10 infants, group C), for a period of 7 days. Ten infection-free premature infants of similar post-conceptional age were

Vasilios I. Giapros; Styliani Andronikou; Vasilios I. Cholevas; Zoe L. Papadopoulou

1995-01-01

302

Infant Sleep and Parental Sleep-Related Cognitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infant sleep is a major source of distress in many families. The purpose of this study was to assess infant sleep and parental sleep-related cognitions about infant sleep in clinical and control samples. The clinical sample consisted of 48 infants referred to a sleep clinic because of night-wakings problems. The control sample included 48 infants with no parental complaints about

Avi Sadeh; Eti Flint-Ofir; Tamar Tirosh; Liat Tikotzky

2007-01-01

303

Mothers And Infants Sleeping Apart And Together: Implications For Sids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current clinical perspectives on infant sleep are based exclusively on studies of solitary sleeping infants rather than on infants sleeping in a social context. Our data show that cosleeping mothers and infants exhibit greater homogeneity in sleep-wake patterns and synchronous arousals which, because of the suspected relationship between arousal and breathing stability in infants, have important implications for how we

J. McKenna; S. Mosko

1991-01-01

304

Reactive angioendotheliomatosis in an infant.  

PubMed

Reactive cutaneous angioendotheliomatosis (RCA) is an uncommon benign disease characterized by intravascular proliferation of endothelial cells. The observation of RCA in infants is exceedingly rare. We describe a case of RCA in a 3-month-old infant. The lesions were characterized by six small purpuric papules (1-2 mm in diameter), distributed on the thighs and neck. The general condition of the patient was good, with no lymphadenopathy, systemic involvement, or fever. The histopathologic features of a papule were characterized by the presence of cohesive aggregates of large mononucleated cells protruding into the lumina of dilated vessels and filling some of them completely. Neither an inflammatory infiltrate nor a proliferation of pericytes were present around blood vessels. Intravascular proliferating cells demonstrated positive staining for Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (UEA-1) and for Factor VIII-RA and CD34 antigens. The course of the disease was unremarkable with persistence of the lesions for 8 months; no treatment was started. PMID:10027526

Brazzelli, V; Baldini, F; Vassallo, C; Borghini, F; Chiesa, M G; Rosso, R; Borroni, G

1999-02-01

305

A history of infant feeding.  

PubMed

The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

2009-01-01

306

Congenital brucellosis in an infant.  

PubMed

Brucellosis has been reported mainly among pregnant women, and it may lead to spontaneous abortion, intrauterine fetal death, or delivery of an infected neonate. Transmission through breast milk has also been described, but congenital cases are not commonly reported. We present the clinical findings, laboratory studies, treatment, and final outcome of a late prenatal transmission from a mother to her term infant of Brucella melitensis biovar 1. Because the maternal disease was undetected due to lack of clinical suspicion, diagnosis was made possible only by the results of infant blood cultures. Differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin (FUO) misdiagnosed could result, as in our case, in the administration of inappropriate antimicrobial therapy. Primary health care physicians should be alerted to the clinical and laboratory findings of this infection, and pregnant women should routinely be tested serologically in areas where brucellosis is still a problem. PMID:23590322

Cacace, María L; Claros, Erica A; Erazu, Karina A; Escobar, Gabriela I; Lucero, Nidia E

2013-04-16

307

Simultaneous sudden infant death syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simultaneous sudden deaths of twins rarely occur and therefore it has received limited attention in the medical literature. When the deaths of the twins meet the defined criteria for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) independently and take place within the same 24h range it can be called as simultaneous SIDS (SSIDS).The case(s): Twin girls (3.5-month-old) were found dead by

Yasemin Balci; Mehmet Tok; B. Kenan Kocaturk; Çinar Yenilmez; Co?kun Yorulmaz

2007-01-01

308

DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER IN INFANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A report of 19 cases of serologically-proven dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in infants aged 3-12 months who were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Chon Buri Regional Hospital, Thailand, during 1995 to 1998. Subjects were 8 males and 11 females, with the peak age of 8 months. Four cases (21%) had DHF and other common co-infections ie pneumonia (2 cases),

Suchat Hongsiriwon

2002-01-01

309

Effects of Maternal Depression on Mother-Infant Interaction During Feeding Episodes and Infant Attachment Classification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This secondary investigation analyzed previously videotaped feeding episodes of mothers and their 8 and 13 month old infants. The purpose of this study was to compare the interactive styles of depressed and non depressed mothers and their infants. Women w...

L. A. Foss

1995-01-01

310

Simultaneous sudden infant death syndrome.  

PubMed

The simultaneous sudden deaths of twins rarely occur and therefore it has received limited attention in the medical literature. When the deaths of the twins meet the defined criteria for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) independently and take place within the same 24 h range it can be called as simultaneous SIDS (SSIDS). The case(s): Twin girls (3.5-month-old) were found dead by their mother in their crib, both in supine position. The infants were identical twins and delivered at a hospital by cesarean section. Both infants were healthy and did not have any serious medical history. Two days prior to the incident, the twins had received the second dose of oral polio, DPT and the first dose of hepatitis B vaccines and they had fever on the first day of the vaccination and been given teaspoonful of acetaminophen. Death scene investigation, judicial investigation, parental assessment, macroscopic and microscopic autopsy findings and the toxicological analysis did not yield any specific cause of death. The case(s) were referred to a supreme board composed of multidisciplinary medical professionals at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Ministry of Justice, in Istanbul. The Board decided that the available data was consistent with SIDS. These SIDS case(s) are presented because twin SIDS are rare and this is the first time that a simultaneous twin SIDS have been reported in Turkey. Simultaneous SIDS cases have many implications regarding definition, diagnosis and medico-legal approach. PMID:17654772

Balci, Yasemin; Tok, Mehmet; Kocaturk, B Kenan; Yenilmez, Cinar; Yirulmaz, Co?kun

2007-02-01

311

Anatomy of the infant head  

SciTech Connect

This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ.

Bosma, J.F.

1986-01-01

312

Do infants detect indirect reciprocity?  

PubMed

In social interactions involving indirect reciprocity, agent A acts prosocially towards B and this prompts C to act prosocially towards A. This happens because A's actions enhanced its reputation in the eyes of third parties. Indirect reciprocity may have been of central importance in the evolution of morality as one of the major mechanisms leading to the selection of helping and fair attitudes. Here we show that 10-month-old infants expect third parties to act positively towards fair donors who have distributed attractive resources equally between two recipients, rather than toward unfair donors who made unequal distributions. Infants' responses were dependent on the reciprocator's perceptual exposure to previous relevant events: they expected the reciprocator to reward the fair donor only when it had seen the distributive actions performed by the donors. We propose that infants were able to generate evaluations of agents that were based on the fairness of their distributive actions and to generate expectations about the social preferences of informed third parties. PMID:23887149

Meristo, Marek; Surian, Luca

2013-07-22

313

A Comparison of Language Abilities between Groups of Premature Hispanic Infants and One Group of Full-Term Hispanic Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compared the language skills of low-birth-weight premature infants (N=11), higher birth-weight premature infants (N=14), and full-term infants (N=12) at 22 months corrected chronological age. Results suggest that low-birth-weight premature infants are at greater risk than higher birth-weight premature infants for speech and language…

Gonzales, Maria Diana; Montgomery, Gary; Fucci, Donald; Randolph, Elizabeth; Mata-Pistokache, Teri

1997-01-01

314

Separation and depression in infant gorillas.  

PubMed

Three 27-month-old infant gorillas living with their mothers and a silverbacked male were separated to a cage for 24 weeks. The infants initially showed threat responses and increased locomotion, characteristic of the protest stage of anaclitic depression in children. Within several days, these were replaced by dorso-ventral contact among the infants as well as self-holding and fetal positioning. Additionally, social and solitary play and object examination occurred at lower levels through separation than in the pre-separation condition. These changes were characteristic of the despair stage of separation. There was a substantial recovery of many infant nonsocial and social behaviors in the later months of the separation. Upon reunion, the infants did not immediately engage in attachment behaviors with their mothers, and spent more time in contact with each other than with their mothers for the first several days, indicating detachment. Following this, there was an increase in mother-infant attachment behaviors. PMID:7843498

Hoff, M P; Nadler, R D; Hoff, K T; Maple, T L

1994-11-01

315

The overnight thermal environment of infants.  

PubMed

Thirty healthy infants between nine and 19 weeks each had skin and room temperature monitored continuously for a single night. A simultaneous assessment of the insulating quality of the infants bedding was made. The maximum infant skin temperature noted was 37.4 degrees C, the room temperatures ranged from 10.9 degrees C to 26.2 degrees C over all study infants. The insulation score ranged from 17 to 68, with the mean 33 (SD, 13). There was a highly significant correlation between insulation score and maximum infant temperature. A significant inverse correlation between insulation score and outside temperature was noted, but not between insulation score and room temperature. These findings indicate that some infants are inappropriately overdressed for their environmental temperature. PMID:2304686

Tuohy, P G; Tuohy, R J

1990-02-14

316

Racial and ethnic disparities in infant mortality.  

PubMed

Racial and ethnic disparities in infant mortality in the United States seem to defy all attempts at elimination. Despite national priorities to eliminate these disparities, black infants are 2.5 times more likely to die in infancy compared with non-Hispanic white infants. This disparity is largely related to the greater incidence among black infants of prematurity and low birth weight, congenital malformations, sudden infant death syndrome, and unintentional injuries. This greater incidence, in turn, is related to a complex interaction of behavioral, social, political, genetic, medical, and health care access factors. Thus, to influence the persistent racial disparity in infant mortality, a highly integrated approach is needed, with interventions adapted along a continuum from childhood through the periods of young adulthood, pregnancy, postpartum and beyond. The content and methodologies of these interventions need to be adapted to the underlying behaviors, social influences, and technology and access issues they are meant to address. PMID:21798401

Hauck, Fern R; Tanabe, Kawai O; Moon, Rachel Y

2011-08-01

317

Grooming and Infant Handling Interchange in Macaca fascicularis : The Relationship Between Infant Supply and Grooming Payment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female long-tailed macaques are attracted to infants and frequently groom mothers bearing them. Such grooming often involves\\u000a the groomer contacting the infant and may be a trade of grooming for infant handling. To identify if grooming and infant handling\\u000a are directly traded, I collected samples on times after female-to-mother grooming and on interactions in which a female groomed\\u000a a mother

Michael D. Gumert

2007-01-01

318

Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2001 Period Linked Birth\\/Infant Death Data Set  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives—This report presents 2001 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth\\/infant death data set (linked file) by a variety of maternal and infant characteristics. Methods—Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. Results—Infant mortality rates ranged from 3.2 per 1,000 live births for Chinese mothers to 13.3 for black mothers. Among Hispanics, rates ranged from 4.2 for Cuban mothers

T. J. Mathews; Fay Menacker; Marian F. MacDorman

2003-01-01

319

Infant mortality trends in rural East Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infant mortality trends in a rural area of East Pakistan are analyzed utilizing the Bogue pregnancy history technique. The\\u000a findings indicate that infant mortality has declined slightly over 20 percent between 1958 and 1967. The existence of development\\u000a programs in women’s education and family planning since 1961 are proposed as possible reasons for this finding. A convergence\\u000a in infant mortality

John Stoeckel

1970-01-01

320

Maternal diabetes mellitus and infant malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of pregestational, as opposed to gestational, diabetes on infant malformations.METHODS:All women delivering infants at Parkland Hospital between January 1, 1991, and December 31, 2000, were ascertained. Screening for gestational diabetes was methodically employed throughout the study period using National Diabetes Data Group criteria for diagnosis of pregestational and gestational diabetes. Standardized definitions of major infant malformations

Jeanne S Sheffield; Erin L Butler-Koster; Brian M Casey; Donald D McIntire; Kenneth J Leveno

2002-01-01

321

Developing classification in action: I. Human infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human infants’ developing manipulatory transformations involved in classifying objects from ages 6 to 24 months were investigated.\\u000a Infants’ manipulations develop from predominantly serial one-at-a-time acts with one object to predominantly parallel two-at-a-time\\u000a acts with two objects. This shift is marked by increasingly overt transformational consequences for the objects manipulated.\\u000a When infants construct parallel transformations they are initially different. With age

J. Langer; M. Schlesinger; G. Spinozzi; F. Natale

1998-01-01

322

The McGurk effect in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the McGurk effect, perceptual identification of auditory speech syllables is influenced by simultaneous presentation of discrepant visible speech syllables. While this effect has been shown in subjects of different ages and various native language backgrounds, no McGurk tests have been conducted with pre-linguistic infants. A series of experiments tested for the McGurk effect in 5- month-old English-exposed infants. Infants

Lawrence D. Rosenblum; Mark A. Schmuckler; Jennifer A. Johnson

1995-01-01

323

Considerations in planning vegan diets: Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Appropriately planned,vegan,diets can satisfy nutrient needs,of infants. The American,Dietetic Association and The American,Academy,of Pediatrics state that vegan,diets can promote,normal,infant growth. It is important,for parents,to provide appropriate foods for vegan infants, using guidelines like those in this article. Key considerations,when working with vegan families include composition,of breast milk from vegan women, appropriate breast milk substitutes, supple- ments, type and amount

Ann Reed Mangels; Fada Virginia Messina

324

Addressing parents''concerns: do multiple vaccines overwhelm or weaken the infant''s immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Recent surveys found that an increasing number of parents are concerned that infants receive too many vaccines. Implicit in this concern is that the infant’s immune system is inadequately developed to handle vac- cines safely or that multiple vaccines may overwhelm the immune system. In this review, we will examine the following: 1) the ontogeny of the active immune

Pa Offit; J Quarles; Ma Gerber

2002-01-01

325

Infants' and Mothers' Offers and Requests: The Effects of Physical Context and Infant Walking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how change occurs in infant gestural communication. Five infants were videotaped once a week from 10 to 12 months and twice a week from 12 to 15 months during play sessions with their mothers in a laboratory playroom. These sessions consisted of 10 minutes of a structured play context in which infants were seated at a table at…

Messinger, Daniel; Fogel, Alan

326

Impact of Changes in Infant Death Classification on the Diagnosis of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the hypothesis that a decline in sudden infant death syndrome in Minnesota is associated with increases in other categories of sudden unexpected infant death. Matched birth and death certificates, autopsy reports, and home visit questionnaires were reviewed for 722 sudden unexpected infant deaths that occurred from January 1, 1996 through December 31, 2002. Descriptive data and cause

Brooke M. Moore; Kathleen L. Fernbach; Marsha J. Finkelstein; Patrick L. Carolan

2008-01-01

327

Infant Abuse, Neglect, and Failure-to-Thrive: Mother-Infant Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was designed to investigate whether or not degree of child maltreatment is related in some meaningful way to the interactional characteristics of the mother/infant dyad and to the infant's developmental status. A group of 53 mother/infant dyads was divided into five diagnostic groups: nonaccidental trauma combined with…

Dietrich, Kim N.; And Others

328

Touch and massage for medically fragile infants.  

PubMed

Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver-infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants. PMID:18955228

Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J; Gallardo, Constance C; Joseph, Michael H; Gold, Jeffrey I

2007-08-06

329

Hepatitis B vaccination in preterm infants  

PubMed Central

AIM—To investigate the immunogenicity and safety of existing recommendations for hepatitis B vaccination in preterm infants.?METHODS—Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (H-B-VAX II, 5 µg per dose) was given to 85 preterm infants divided into two groups, using two different schedules. Forty four group A infants with birthweights of < 2000 g received three doses at 1, 2, and 7 months of age. Forty one group B infants with birthweights of ?2000 g received three doses at 0, 1, and 6 months of age.?RESULTS—After vaccination, 42 infants from group A (95%) and 37 infants from group B (90%) developed protective levels of antibody. The final seropositive rate and the geometric mean concentration of hepatitis B surface antibody between the two groups were not significantly different. The immune response of preterm infants to hepatitis B vaccines was similar to that of term infants in a previous study.?CONCLUSIONS—Preterm infants can be given hepatitis B vaccines using one of the above two different schedules, at a cutoff birthweight of 2000 g.?? Keywords: hepatitis B vaccine, prematurity, antibodies

Huang, F.; Lee, P.; Lee, C.; Huang, L.; Chang, L.; Liu, S.

1997-01-01

330

An Ecological Model for Premature Infant Feeding  

PubMed Central

Premature infants are at increased risk for poor health, feeding difficulties, and impaired mother-infant interaction leading to developmental delay. Social-environmental risks, such as poverty or minority status, compound these biologic risks, placing premature infants in double jeopardy. Guided by an ecological model, the Hospital-Home Transition: Optimizing Prematures’ Environment (H-HOPE) intervention combines the Auditory, Tactile, Visual, and Vestibular intervention with participatory guidance provided by a nurse and community advocate to address the impact of multiple risk factors on premature infants’ development.

White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen

2013-01-01

331

Neonatal respiratory instability and infant development.  

PubMed

This study examines the relationships between neonatal sleep respiratory instability and infant development. A group of 122 full-term healthy infants was observed during a nap within the first and fourth weeks of life. During each nap, a continuous polygraphic recording was obtained of respiratory activity and extraocular movements. The relative frequency and average duration of apneic pauses (greater than or equal to 2 sec) in each testing session for an infant were employed to calculate a measure of respiratory instability (PSA4) previously found to be related to the occurrence of prolonged sleep apnea. 28 of the infants in this study were maintained at home on apnea monitors. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development were administered to each infant at approximately 9 months of age. Comparisons of infants with high versus low PSA4 values and of monitored versus unmonitored infants were not strongly distorted by imbalances in birth weight, sex, race, birth order, method of feeding, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) sibship, parental education, age at developmental assessment, and developmental tester. Those with increased respiratory instability (PSA4 greater than or equal to -0.04) within the first week of life averaged significantly lower in mental and psychomotor development. Utilization of home apnea monitors was not significantly associated with developmental scores. PMID:487889

Black, L; Steinschneider, A; Sheehe, P R

1979-06-01

332

Effect of Healthy Start on Infant Mortality and Birth Outcomes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Healthy Start program is a major initiative to reduce infant mortality and improve maternal and infant health status in communities with high infant death rates. In fall 1991, the Health Resources and Services Administration selected 13 urban areas an...

L. Moreno B. Devaney D. Chu M. Seeley

2000-01-01

333

Preventing Infant Mortality: An Investment in the Nation's Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the National Commission to Prevent Infant Mortality's research concerning infant mortality and low birth weight. Also discusses the Commission's public policy efforts regarding the health of children, infants, and pregnant women. (RJC)|

Rowe, Patricia

1989-01-01

334

21 CFR 880.5130 - Infant radiant warmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...infant to maintain the infant's body temperature by means of radiant heat. The device may also contain a temperature monitoring sensor, a heat output...mechanism, and an alarm system (infant temperature, manual mode if present, and...

2013-04-01

335

Denmark: botulism in an infant or infant botulism?  

PubMed

A 4.5 months old, previously healthy Danish girl was admitted to a paediatric department after six days of passive behaviour and weak suck. Over the next days she became increasingly weak, developed bilateral ptosis, the muscle stretch reflexes were lost, and mydriasis with slow pupillary responses was noted. Botulism was suspected and confirmed by testing of patient serum in a bioassay. The condition of the patient improved following administration of botulism antiserum. The clinical picture was suggestive of intestinal (infant) botulism. However, botulism acquired from consumption of food with preformed neurotoxin could not be excluded. PMID:19094919

Paerregaard, A; Angen, O; Lisby, M; Mølbak, K; Clausen, M E; Christensen, J J

2008-12-18

336

Do Infants Show Generalized Imitation of Gestures?  

PubMed Central

Two experiments were conducted to investigate generalized imitation of manual gestures in 1- to 2-year-old infants. In Experiment 1, 6 infants were first trained four baseline matching relations (e.g., when instructed “Do this,” to raise their arms after they saw the experimenter do so). Next, four novel gestures that the infants did not match in probe trials were selected as target behaviors during generalized imitation Test 1; models of these gestures were presented on unreinforced matching trials interspersed with intermittently reinforced baseline matching trials. None of the infants matched the target behaviors. To ensure that these behaviors were in the infants' motor skills repertoires, the infants were next trained to produce them, at least once, under stimulus control that did not include an antecedent model of the target behavior. In repeat generalized imitation trials (Test 2), the infants again failed to match the target behaviors. Five infants (3 from Experiment 1) participated in Experiment 2, which was identical to Experiment 1 except that, following generalized imitation Test 1, the motor-skills training was implemented to a higher criterion (21 responses per target behavior), and in a multiple-baseline, across-target-behaviors procedure. In the final generalized imitation test, 1 infant matched one, and another infant matched two target behaviors; the remaining 17 target behaviors still were not matched. The results did not provide convincing evidence of generalized imitation, even though baseline matching was well maintained and the target behaviors were in the infants' motor skills repertoires, raising the question of what are the conditions that reliably give rise to generalized imitation.

Horne, Pauline J; Erjavec, Mihela

2007-01-01

337

Concurrent validity of the Harris Infant Neuromotor Test and the Alberta Infant Motor Scale.  

PubMed

We examined concurrent validity of scores for two infant motor screening tools, the Harris Infant Neuromotor Test (HINT) and the Alberta Infant Motor Scale, in 121 Canadian infants. Relationships between the two tests for the overall sample were as follows: r = -.83 at 4 to 6.5 months (n = 121; p < .01) and r = -.85 at 10 to 12.5 months (n = 109; p < .01), suggesting that the HINT, the newer of the two measures, is valid in determining motor delays. Each test has advantages and disadvantages, and practitioners should determine which one best meets their infant assessment needs. PMID:18207045

Tse, Lillian; Mayson, Tanja A; Leo, Sara; Lee, Leanna L S; Harris, Susan R; Hayes, Virginia E; Backman, Catherine L; Cameron, Dianne; Tardif, Megan

2008-02-01

338

The Black and White of Infant Back Sleeping and Infant Bed Sharing in Florida, 2004–2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not using the infant back sleep position is an established risk factor for sudden unexpected infant death (SUID). Infant bed\\u000a sharing may also increase SUID risk, particularly under certain circumstances. Both of these infant sleeping behaviors are\\u000a disproportionately higher among Black mothers. We explored the relationship between not using the infant back sleeping and\\u000a infant bed sharing, developed separate risk

Danielle L. BroussardWilliam; William M. Sappenfield; David A. Goodman

339

Characteristics of infants receiving prompt first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis immunisation in an infant cohort.  

PubMed

The Centers for Disease Control in the United States have stated that studies to determine factors associated with failure to receive the first recommended dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis are required. We examined an infant cohort to identify family and infant characteristics predictive of prompt first immunisation, to document changes in prompt first immunisation rates over time and to identify reasons for immunisation delay. The study sample consisted of one-fifth of live births in Tasmania at risk of sudden infant death syndrome. From 1 January 1988 to 31 December 1994, families of 8011 infants (83 per cent of eligible infants) participated in a telephone interview when the infants were a median postnatal age of 11 weeks and 3 days. Prompt immunisation was defined as the report by parents of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination before a postnatal age of 10 weeks. The proportion of cohort infants promptly immunised increased (P < 0.0001) over time from 1988 to 1994. Prompt immunisation was associated with various characteristics of the infant and family. The proportion of infants promptly immunised decreased as birth order increased and as the interpregnancy interval between the index child and his or her immediately elder sibling decreased. After exclusion of infants not promptly immunised because of illness, birth order and interbirth interval remained significant predictors of prompt immunisation, suggesting that these factors are acting to increase immunisation delay through pathways unrelated to their potential effect on infant illness rates. PMID:9343893

Ponsonby, A L; Couper, D; Dwyer, T; Baird, J

1997-08-01

340

Teenage mothers and their infants.  

PubMed

The outcomes of the IS/MT pilot project and the expanded services program as well as program replications in other geographic areas suggest that efforts to support the teenage mother in the care of her firstborn infant can have a demonstrable effect. Completing school, securing employment, going off welfare, and acting on a decision to prevent subsequent unwanted pregnancies were all secondary effects of a 20-week postnatal mother-infant class program designed to positively influence infant development. Similar treatment effects have been reported by IS/MT replications in St. Louis and Genesee County, Michigan. Other program innovations, however, lacking the funds and/or the expertise to conduct adequate evaluations, are nonetheless significant because they provide a groundswell capable of establishing a climate for social change. At the community level, this is expressed in the creation of new service paradigms, as in Norfolk and Memphis, where individuals and agencies are transformed and experiment with new solutions to thorny problems. At the national level, it is expressed in coalitions and political alliances around a single issue, as with the Children's Defense Fund and adolescent and single-parent families. As one who has spent almost 20 years addressing the consequences of teenage parenthood, it is heartening to know that the time is near to address the prevention of the problem. Let us hope that the Children's Defense Fund agenda accurately reflects the beliefs and feelings of the majority of our citizenry and that our national priorities will change to include the reduction of teen pregnancy and teen parenthood. PMID:2410176

Badger, E

1985-06-01

341

Infant mortality: some international comparisons.  

PubMed

Comparison of infant mortality rates (IMRs) among the world's countries requires assessment of completeness and accuracy of data. The United Nations Statistical Office classifies as "C", complete, meaning at least 90% of events are actually recorded, 1994 data supplied by 80 governments, comprising one fourth of the world's population, ie, 1,450,000,000 people, and as incomplete the other three fourths, 4,180,000,000. All the "C" countries officially accept the World Health Organization definition of a live birth (any product of gestation showing any sign of life), but it has been argued that some countries routinely report as stillbirths infants counted as live births in the United States (US), thus understating their IMRs. In 1994, 22 countries had IMRs varying from 4.2 for Japan to 8.0 for the US, a remarkable achievement in the light of IMRs of 124.0 and 60.0 for these two countries in 1930. Compensating for possible underreporting of live births by excluding all deaths in the first hour of life would reduce the US IMR to about 7, still higher than 17 other countries. Between 1930 and 1994 the IMR in the US declined more slowly than several other countries, particularly during the time period 1951 through 1965, when the US rate declined by 16% and the Japanese rate, for instance, declined by 68%. Between 1983 and 1994, decline in Puerto Rico was slower than in Chile, Cuba, and the US. IMRs in all the "C" countries are lower than the US rate was in 1930. IMRs in most of the world, estimated from surveys and special studies, vary from 27 to 190. Correlation studies suggest that a high rate of teenage pregnancies has relatively little effect on IMRs but that high total fertility rates are accompanied by high infant mortality. PMID:8951249

Wegman, M E

1996-12-01

342

Studies of the free faecal amines of infants with gastroenteritis and of healthy infants.  

PubMed Central

The free primary amines present in the faeces of 44 infants (1-18 months) with gastroenteritis have been examined by field desorption mass spectrometry of the lactone form of their fluorescamine derivatives without their prior separation. p-Tyramine, 2-phenylethylamine, the diamines, putrescine and cadaverine and several of their acyl derivatives were common constituents, but a number of other amines were also characterised. Using thin layer chromatography and field desorption mass spectrometry of the amine dansyl derivatives a comparative study was made of the faecal amines of 13 selected infants with gastroenteritis (diarrhoea) and of 13 healthy infants. p-Tyramine, the most abundant amine, was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in the sick infants. The overall presence of p-tyramine was more significantly related to the diet of the infants. Faecal tyramine was low in breast fed infants but significantly higher (p = 0.01) in infants fed cow's milk. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2

Murray, K E; Adams, R F; Earl, J W; Shaw, K J

1986-01-01

343

Infant gaze following during parent-infant coviewing of baby videos.  

PubMed

A total of 122 parent-infant dyads were observed as they watched a familiar or novel infant-directed video in a laboratory setting. Infants were between 12-15 and 18-21 months old. Infants were more likely to look toward the TV immediately following their parents' look toward the TV. This apparent social influence on infant looking at television was not solely due to the common influence of the television program on looking behavior. Moreover, infant looks that were preceded by parent looks tended to be longer in length than those that were not preceded by parent looks, suggesting that infants assign greater value to media content attended to by their parents. Thus, parental patterns of attention to television may influence early viewing behavior. PMID:23072612

Demers, Lindsay B; Hanson, Katherine G; Kirkorian, Heather L; Pempek, Tiffany A; Anderson, Daniel R

2012-10-16

344

CPV Cell Infant Mortality Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six hundred and fifty CPV cells were characterized before packaging and then after a four-hour concentrated on-sun exposure. An observed infant mortality failure rate was reproduced and attributed to epoxy die-attach voiding at the corners of the cells. These voids increase the local thermal resistance allowing thermal runaway to occur under normal operating conditions in otherwise defect-free cells. FEM simulations and experiments support this hypothesis. X-ray transmission imaging of the affected assemblies was found incapable of detecting all suspect voids and therefore cannot be considered a reliable screening technique in the case of epoxy die-attach.

Bosco, Nick; Sweet, Cassi; Silverman, Timothy J.; Kurtz, Sarah

2011-12-01

345

Human Infants' Accommodation Responses to Dynamic Stimuli  

PubMed Central

Purpose A young infant’s environment routinely consists of moving objects. The dynamics of the infant accommodative system are almost unknown and yet have a large impact on habitual retinal image quality and visual experience. The goal of this study was to record infants’ dynamic accommodative responses to stimuli moving at a range of velocities. Methods Binocular accommodative responses were recorded at 25 Hz. Data from infants 8 to 20 weeks of age and pre-presbyopic adults were analyzed. A high-contrast image of a clown was moved between 20- and 50-cm viewing distances at four velocities (a step, 50 cm/s, 20 cm/s, and 5 cm/s). Results Most infants who had clear responses were able to initiate their response within a second of stimulus onset. The infants were able to discriminate the different stimulus velocities and to adjust their response velocities and durations in an appropriate fashion. Conclusions The data indicate that by the third postnatal month infants are able to respond with latencies within a factor of two of adults’ and that there is little immaturity in the motor capabilities of the accommodative system compared with the sensory visual system at the same age.

Tondel, Grazyna M.; Candy, T. Rowan

2009-01-01

346

Cooing, Crying, Cuddling: Infant Brain Development. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting recent neuroscience research findings suggesting that caregivers play a vital role in brain development, this videotape explores the process of brain development during the first 15 months of life and presents implications for infant care. Part 1 of the 28-minute video discusses basic infant development and brain research, focusing on how…

National Association for the Education of Young Children, Washington, DC.

347

Optimizing Infant Development: Strategies for Day Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide for infant day care providers examines the importance of early experience for brain development and strategies for providing optimal infant care. The introduction discusses the current devaluation of day care and idealization of maternal care and identifies benefits of quality day care experience for intellectual development, sleep…

Chambliss, Catherine

348

A Computational Model of Infant Speech Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all theories of child speech development assume that an infant learns speech sounds by direct imitation, performing an acoustic matching of adult output to his own speech. Some theories also postulate an innate link between perception and production. We present a computer model which has no requirement for acoustic matching on the part of the infant and which treats

Ian Spencer Howard; Piers Messum

2007-01-01

349

Mental health of parents caring for infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary ¶The postpartum period is a sensitive time due to the presence and demands of the developing infant. The care provided by a mother to her infant during this period may be compromised if she is suffering from postnatal depression or postpartum psychosis. Evidence has been emerging which suggests that postnatal depression and postpartum psychoses have adverse effects on the

L. Murray; P. Cooper; A. Hipwell

2003-01-01

350

Infants' Ability to Parse Continuous Actions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a series of 3 experiments, the authors examined 6- and 8-month-old infants' capacities to detect target actions in a continuous action sequence. In Experiment 1, infants were habituated to 2 different target actions and subsequently were presented with 2 continuous action sequences that either included or did not include the familiar target…

Hespos, Susan J.; Saylor, Megan M.; Grossman, Stacy R.

2009-01-01

351

Who's Vulnerable in Infant Child Care Centers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Maintains that infants and toddlers, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to a variety of infectious diseases from infant-toddler child care centers. These diseases include infectious diarrhea; rubella; cytomeglovirus; hepatitis A, and haemophilus influenza type B. Suggests ways to prevent the spread of such diseases. (BB)|

Kendall, Earline D.; Moukaddem, Virginia E.

1992-01-01

352

The Importance of Infant/Toddler Interactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Notes that the majority of brain development occurs in the first three years of life. States that infant and toddler interactions are beneficial to both ages, provided contact occurs in a safe environment. Discusses how infants and toddlers learn from each other through play, even if they are nonverbal, and further benefit from insights and…

Pratt, Martha W.

1999-01-01

353

Infant Carrying by Male Chacma Baboons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male chacma baboons, Papio ursinus, carry their offspring during confrontations with higher ranking immigrant males, who are a threat to the infants' lives. The infants sometimes initiate these confrontations by approaching and provoking immigrant males when protective males are close by. Mothers rarely interfere during these interactions.

Curt Busse; William J. Hamilton

1981-01-01

354

Lung transplantation in very young infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Established successes with adult lung transplantation have laid the foundation for extension of this therapeutic modality to infants and children dying of end-stage pulmonary disease. The purpose of this report is to convey our experience with 19 infants undergoing lung transplantation before the age of 6 months. Methods: Six patients with predominantly pulmonary vascular disease and 13 patients with

Charles B. Huddleston; Stuart C. Sweet; George B. Mallory; Aaron Hamvas; Eric N. Mendeloff

1999-01-01

355

DIET OF INFANTS AND CHILDREN IN DISASTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plans are proposed for feeding infants and children in case of ; thermonuclear attack. Plans can be made on every level from the national down ; through the individual family, the family being a most important link in the ; chain. The goal would be to have the nutritional needs of the infant ; uninterrupted. It is mandatory that each

Bruton

1962-01-01

356

Ultrasound diagnosis of nephrocalcinosis in preterm infants.  

PubMed Central

The incidence of nephrocalcinosis in very low birthweight (less than 1500 g) premature infants was assessed by ultrasound scan and analysis of urine. Three of 36 infants had nephrocalcinosis. All had been receiving long term frusemide for bronchopulmonary dysplasia with simultaneous fluid restriction. Urinary investigations showed no consistent findings in babies with nephrocalcinosis. Images Fig 1 Fig 2

Woolfield, N; Haslam, R; Le Quesne, G; Chambers, H M; Hogg, R; Jureidini, K

1988-01-01

357

Infant Toys for You to Make.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides instructions for making 14 different toys for infants from birth to 9 months. The toys are safe and stimulating, support specific aspects of infant development, and cost no more that $2 each to make. The instructions include toys made from fabric, toys made from plastic, and toys made with plastic, cardboard, and paper combined. (TJQ)|

Texas Child Care, 1995

1995-01-01

358

Plasma colloid osmotic pressure in healthy infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) plays a major role in transcapillary fluid balance. There is no information on plasma COP of healthy infants beyond the first post-natal week. The normal COP in healthy adult subjects (25 mmHg) is currently also applied as a reference value for healthy infants. This study was designed to test whether plasma COP values

Jeffrey B Sussmane; de Maria Soto; Dan Torbati

2001-01-01

359

Phonation in the newborn, infant cry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sound spectrographic studies have shown that the crying of newborn infants has a fundamental frequency of about 400–600 cycles per second, and mostly a slightly rising–falling melody contour. In sick infants, and especially those with diseases affecting the central nervous system, abnormal cry characteristics occur. The fundamental frequency has been increased, and the melody contour is unstable. Various cry characteristics,

Katarina Michelsson; Oliver Michelsson

1999-01-01

360

Blood transfusion reactions in Malaysian newborn infants.  

PubMed

A prospective observational study was carried out over a seven month period in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a large Malaysian maternity hospital to determine the rate of blood transfusion and the incidence of transfusion reactions in newborn infants. During the study period, the rates of blood transfusion was 6.1% (n = 117) of NICU admission or 8.2 per 1,000 live births. The median birth weight of the infants who had received blood transfusion was 1,740 grams (range: 725-4,350), and their mean gestational age was 33.6 weeks (sd = 5.1, range = 24-41 weeks). The median age of infants when they first received blood transfusion was 4.0 days (range: 1-27 days). When compared with infants of birth weight between 3,000 and 3,499 grams, infants of birth weight less than 1,500 grams received significantly higher median number of transfusions per infant, (p < 0.001). The incidence of transfusion reaction was 2.7% (3/110) of all transfused infants or 1.3% (3/223) of all blood transfusions. Febrile nonhemolytic reaction was the only type of transfusion reaction detected during the study period. This study showed that transfusion reactions in newborn infants were not common. PMID:10971978

Boo, N Y; Chan, B H

1998-12-01

361

Glucose kinetics in infants of diabetic mothers  

SciTech Connect

Glucose kinetic studies were performed to define the glucose turnover rate with 78% enriched D-(U-13C) glucose by the prime constant infusion technique at less than or equal to 6 hours of age in nine infants of diabetic mothers (four insulin-dependent and five chemical diabetic patients) at term. Five normal infants were studied as control subjects. All infants received 0.9% saline intravenously during the study with the tracer. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and glucose13/12C ratios were measured during the steady state, and the glucose turnover rate was derived. The average plasma glucose concentration was similar during the steady state in the infants of the diabetic mothers and in the control infants, and the glucose turnover rate was not significantly different among the groups: 2.3 +/- 0.6 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of insulin-dependent diabetic patients; 2.4 +/- 0.4 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of chemical diabetic patients; and 3.2 +/- 0.3 mg . kg-1 min-1 in the control subjects. Good control of maternal diabetes evidenced by the normal maternal hemoglobin A1c and plasma glucose concentration at delivery and cord plasma glucose concentration resulted in glucose kinetic values in the infants of diabetic mothers that were indistinguishable from those of control subjects. The data further support the importance of good control of the diabetic state in the pregnant woman to minimize or prevent neonatal hypoglycemia.

Cowett, R.M.; Susa, J.B.; Giletti, B.; Oh, W.; Schwartz, R.

1983-08-01

362

Sudden infant deaths: stress, arousal and SIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) has dropped in most countries following the development of education campaigns on the avoidance of preventable risk factors for SIDS. These include factors in the infant's micro environment, such as prenatal passive smoking, administration of sedative drugs, prone sleep, high ambient temperature or sleeping with the face covered. Sleep laboratory studies

A Kahn; J Groswasser; P Franco; S Scaillet; T Sawaguchi; I Kelmanson; B Dan

2003-01-01

363

Extrauterine neuromaturation of low risk preterm infants.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to follow neuromaturation in preterm infants. From serial exams in 90 low risk very low birthweight infants, each infant's Maturity Scores (the sum of tone, reflex, and response items) were plotted against postmenstrual age (PMA) when examined. Each infant's estimated line of best fit provides two descriptors of that infant's neuromaturation: slope (Individual Maturity Slope) and y-value (Predicted Maturity Score at 32-wk PMA). We found that Maturity Scores increased with PMA; 96% had correlation coefficients >0.8. Mean Actual and Predicted Maturity Scores at 32-wk PMA were 60 and 58, respectively, in 65 infants. When stratified by gestational age, Mean Actual Maturity Score at 30-wk PMA were 50 whether infants were 1 or several weeks old when examined. Therefore, low risk preterm infants demonstrated individual variability in rate of neuromaturation. Tone, reflexes, and responses nonetheless emerged in a predictable pattern, whether neuromaturation was intrauterine or extrauterine. This unique tool that measures preterm neuromaturation requires expertise but no technology. It has an exciting potential for providing insight into how emerging central nervous system function and structure influence each other, as well as how the central nervous system recovers from injury. PMID:19127205

Allen, Marilee C; Aucott, Susan; Cristofalo, Elizabeth A; Alexander, Greg R; Donohue, Pamela K

2009-05-01

364

Breastfeeding, Bed-Sharing, and Infant Sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Expectations for infant sleep development and for the appropriate degree of parental proximity for infant sleep are culturally weighted and his- torically shifting aspects of parenting behavior, and are known to affect breastfeeding pre- valence and duration. This paper examined how new parents managed night-time feeding in the first 4 months, with a particular focus on the relationship between

Helen L. Ball

2003-01-01

365

ARTIFICIAL INFANT FEEDING: WOMEN'S LOSS, MEN'S GAIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis - Artificial infant feeding, the first reproductive technology, has eliminated the need for women's breasts and lactation function in successful reproduction. This paper argues that men have been the primary beneficiaries of this technology. Artificial infant feeding provides wealth, power, and status to the men who produce and control it. Women in nonindustrialized nations are especially vulnerable to the

MARJORIE ALTERGOTT

1991-01-01

366

Infant feeding practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and breastfeeding practices

Nevin Sanlier; Nurhan Unusan

2009-01-01

367

Acute Mastoiditis in Infants and Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a 25-year period, 57 cases of acute mastoiditis occurred in infants and young children who ranged in age from 2 months to 12 years of age. All patients had abnormalities of the tympanic membrane and most had fever and localized edema and redness of the overlying skin. Fifty per cent of the infants who were less than one year

Charles M. Ginsburg; Raul Rudoy; John D. Nelson

1980-01-01

368

Object Permanence in Young Infants: Further Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Observed the reactions of 3.5-month-old infants looking at a carrot that should have but did not appear in a window after passing behind a screen. The results of this and several similar experiments indicated that 3.5-month-old infants are able to represent and reason about hidden objects. (BC)

Baillargeon, Renee; DeVos, Julie

1991-01-01

369

Treatment of an infant with Candida cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sirs, There is very little information in the literature about the treatment of yeast infections of the lower urinary tract in children. We have recently successfully treated a 2-monthold Hispanic infant boy with Candida cystitis by irrigation of the bladder with amphotericin B. The infant was first noted to have bilateral hydronephrosis on prenatal ultrasound examination. Delivery was by elective

Susan B. Conley; Miguel O'Ryan; E. Stephen Buescher; Ronald J. Portman; Jacques M. Lemire; Joseph N. Corriere

1991-01-01

370

Brain Weight and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased brain weights have been reported in the literature to occur among infants who have died from sudden infant death syndrome, suggesting that cerebral edema might play a role in the cause of death among these children. We have compared brain weights from children between the ages of 1 week and 1 year, autopsied between 1980 and 1992. One group

Geir Falck; Jovan Rajs

1995-01-01

371

Vowel Categorization by Very Young Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Infants were trained to respond to vowel alterations. A total of 80 percent of the 2-, 3-, and 6-month-old infants in the sample did not respond when there was a change of pitch or speaker but no vowel change. The study established the feasibility of the observer-based psychoacoustic procedure. (BC)|

Marean, G. Cameron; And Others

1992-01-01

372

Jaundice in Newborn Infants (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... very safe, but it can have temporary side effects, including a skin rash and loose bowel movements. Overheating and dehydration can occur if the infant does not get enough breast milk or formula. Therefore, the infant's skin color, body temperature, and number of wet diapers are ...

373

Indexing Individual Objects in Infant Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there are disputes in the infancy literature concerning when infants are first able to individuate physical objects by their features or properties. This issue has taken on new significance following claims that individuation by feature is linked to the emergence of object kind concepts toward the end of the first year. Needham (2001, this issue) presents evidence that infants

Alan M. Leslie; Zsuzsa Kaldy

2001-01-01

374

Phonotactic Constraints on Infant Word Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How do infants use their knowledge of native language sound patterns when learning words? There is ample evidence of infants' precocious acquisition of native language sound structure during the first year of life, but much less evidence concerning how they apply this knowledge to the task of associating sounds with meanings in word learning. To…

Estes, Katharine Graf; Edwards, Jan; Saffran, Jenny R.

2011-01-01

375

Intraventricular hemorrhage in the preterm infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common neonatal morbidity among premature infants which is diagnosed by cranial ultrasound in the newborn special care unit. Although very premature infants are more likely to experience the highest grades of hemorrhage, a number of perinatal and postnatal events have been shown to be associated with it's occurence. Factors such as vaginal delivery, labor, and

B. Vohr; L. R. Ment

1996-01-01

376

Infants' Individuation of Agents and Inert Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the violation-of-expectancy method, we investigated 10-month-old infants' ability to rely on dynamic features in object individuation processes. Infants were first familiarized to events in which two different objects repeatedly appeared and disappeared, one at a time from behind a screen; at test, the screen was removed, revealing either…

Surian, Luca; Caldi, Stefania

2010-01-01

377

Infant Mother Vocalization Patterns in Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Video-analysis was used to investigate the transition from coacting to alternating patterns of infant-mother vocalizations in this longitudinal study of one infant. In addition to investigating the transition and its developmental implications, the relationship between the temporal patterning of kinesic and vocal behaviors was studied. The study…

Kilbourne, Brock K.; Ginsburg, Gerald P.

378

Paraprofessionals in Infant/Family Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Zero to Three is a single focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that sometimes practice needs to be "translated" into research, as with understanding the phenomenon of paraprofessional workers in…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

2002-01-01

379

Final Syllable Lengthening (FSL) in Infant Vocalizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Final Syllable Lengthening (FSL) has been extensively examined in infant vocalizations in order to determine whether its basis is biological or learned. Findings suggest there may be a U-shaped developmental trajectory for FSL. The present study sought to verify this pattern and to determine whether vocal maturity and deafness influence FSL. Eight normally hearing infants, aged 0 ; 3 to

Suneeti Nathani; D. Kimbrough Oller; ALAN B. COBO-LEWIS

2003-01-01

380

Enhancing Early Communication through Infant Sign Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing research suggests that there may be benefits to teaching signing to hearing infants who have not yet developed vocal communication. In the current study, each of 4 infants ranging in age from 6 to 10 months was taught a simple sign using delayed prompting and reinforcement. In addition, Experiment 1 showed that 2 children independently signed in a variety

RACHEL H. THOMPSON; Nicole M Cotnoir-Bichelman; PAIGE M. MCKERCHAR; Trista L Tate; KELLY A. DANCHO

2007-01-01

381

Infant Botulism in Argentina, 1982––1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first cases of infant botulism in Argentina were described in 1982. From 1982 to 1997, 146 cases of infant botulism were diagnosed by the identification of botulinal toxin and Clostridium botulinum in feces. The cases were between 2 and 48 weeks of age: 90% were between 5 and 24 weeks old, and 49% were between 5 and 12 weeks

R. A. Fernández; A. S. Ciccarelli; O. N. P. de Centorbi; H. Centorbi; F. A. Rosetti; L. I. T. de Jong; N. Demo

1999-01-01

382

Infant Botulism and Raised Intraocular Pressure.  

PubMed

Infant botulism is an exceedingly rare disease. Because confirmatory laboratory testing is not available for several days after time of presentation, infant botulism remains a clinical diagnosis. The authors demonstrate how raised intraocular pressure may provide an additional clinical clue to making the diagnosis. PMID:19873952

Eberly, Matthew D; Uber, Ian; Kieling, Christopher R; Birdsong, Richard H

2009-11-02

383

A Developmental Model of Infant Visual Accommodation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports the major findings and interprets the results of longitudinal and cross-sectional exPeriments concerning the development of visual accommodation in infants 1 to 3 months of age. The stimulus was a high-contrast, random checkerboard which was presented at three different distances from the infants (25, 50 or 100 cm). The…

Banks, Martin S.; Leitner, Edward F.

384

Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…

Cohen, Libby

385

Bibliography of Infant Research and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a bibliography of child development ordered under the following topics: (1) attention, (2) auditory stimulation, (3) care, (4) caregiver, (5) conference papers, (6) cross cultural and class, (7) cry, (8) curriculum/activities, (9) day care models/institutions, (10) environment, (11) exceptional infants, (12) father-mother-infant

Sterman, Cheryl, Comp.; Riley, Carolyn, Comp.

386

Nutrient requirements of term and preterm infants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Growth of the healthy breast-fed term infant is the most widely accepted standard for growth from birth through 4-6 months of age. Thus, it is logical to assume that the amounts of each nutrient ingested by the breast-fed term infant during this period are adequate and the most recent dietary refer...

387

Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an…

Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

2010-01-01

388

REPORT The dynamics of infant visual foraging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human infants actively forage for visual information from the moment of birth onward. Although we know a great deal about how stimulus characteristics influence looking behavior in the first few postnatal weeks, we know much less about the intrinsic dynamics of the behavior. Here we show that a simple stochastic dynamical system acts quantitatively like 4-week-old infants on a range

Steven S. Robertson; John Guckenheimer; Amy M. Masnick; Leigh F. Bacher

389

Preference patterns in infant vowel perception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infants show directional asymmetries in vowel discrimination tasks that reveal an underlying perceptual bias favoring more peripheral vowels. Polka and Bohn (2003) propose that this bias is language independent and plays an important role in the development of vowel perception. In the present study we measured infant listening preferences for vowels to assess whether a perceptual bias favoring peripheral vowels can be measured more directly. Monolingual (French and English) and bilingual infants completed a listening preference task using multiple natural tokens of German /dut/ and /dyt/ produced by a male talker. In previous work, discrimination of this vowel pair by German-learning and by English-learning infants revealed a robust directional asymmetry in which /u/ acts as a perceptual anchor; specifically, infants had difficulty detecting a change from /u/ to /y/, whereas a change from /y/ to /u/ was readily detected. Preliminary results from preference tests with these stimuli show that most infants between 3 and 5 months of age also listen longer to /u/ than to /y/. Preference data obtained from older infants and with other vowel pairs will also be reported to further test the claim that peripheral vowels have a privileged perceptual status in infant perception.

Molnar, Monika T.; Polka, Linda

2001-05-01

390

Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between…

Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

2009-01-01

391

Precision of Auditory Localization in Human Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Study measures the precision of auditory localization in 26- to 30-week-old infants using the adult minimum audible angle test. Results show that infants discriminate sound displacements of about 19 degrees, considerably less accurate than adult values of one to two degrees. (Author/RWB)|

Ashmead, Daniel H.; And Others

1987-01-01

392

Cebocephaly in an infant with trisomy 18  

Microsoft Academic Search

An infant who died in the perinatal period with the unusual association of trisomy 18 and cebocephaly is described. It is suggested that this association may be more common than is generally recognised because the majority of such infants are stillborn or live only briefly and often do not have chromosome studies performed.

A G Hunter; M Ray; C Langston

1977-01-01

393

Parent Infant Program: Program Manager's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document consists of a program manager's manual for the Parent Infant Program (PIP), an early intervention program designed to foster effective parenting of infants with developmental disabilities and delays. Section 1 provides a program overview. Three program goals are: to build parental confidence as primary teachers/facilitators of their…

Wnek, Linda; And Others

394

Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with…

Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

2010-01-01

395

Pupil Dilation and Object Permanence in Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the relative merits of looking time and pupil diameter measures in the study of early cognitive abilities of infants. Ten-month-old infants took part in a modified version of the classic drawbridge experiment used to study object permanence (Baillargeon, Spelke, & Wasserman, 1985). The study involved a factorial design where…

Sirois, Sylvain; Jackson, Iain R.

2012-01-01

396

Personalizing Care with Infants, Toddlers and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication deals with the present crisis in infant/toddler care. It presents information on infant/toddler development and optimal caregiving paractices, citing recent research on appropriate practices and the impact of poor versus quality care. The book is divided into two sections. In the first section, "Development and Program…

Surbeck, Elaine, Ed.; Kelley, Michael F., Ed.

397

Lateral Asymmetries in Infant Melody Perception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two experiments investigated lateral asymmetries in eight-month-olds' perception of contour-altered and contour-preserved melody changes. Found that infants who heard a contour-altered change showed a left-ear advantage, whereas infants who heard a contour-preserved change showed a right-ear advantage. The pattern of lateralization for melody…

Balaban, Marie T.; Anderson, Linda M.; Wisniewski, Amy B.

1998-01-01

398

Prediction of Feeding Performance in Preterm Infants  

PubMed Central

A nonexperimental study with a sample of 95 preterm infants was used to develop a model of feeding performance outcomes (proficiency, percent of prescribed volume consumed, and efficiency) using feeding readiness indicators (morbidity, maturity, behavior state at feeding start, and feeding experience). All readiness indicators were related to each other. In particular, there was a strong relationship between maturity and feeding experience. Morbidity only had an effect on efficiency; the most ill infants were less efficient feeders. Behavior state affects all feeding outcomes in a linear fashion; more awake and alert infants had better feeding performance outcomes. The effect of experience and maturity on the outcomes is more complex because of the relationship between the two. Experience has a greater effect as the infant matures, and as the infant matures, the amount of experience increases. Successful feeding requires maturity as well as experience.

Best, Al M.; Reyna, Barbara A.; Wetzel, Paul A.; Gutcher, Gary R.

2005-01-01

399

Feeding extremely low birth weight infants.  

PubMed

CME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES: 1.List the indications for parenteral nutrition in the preterm infant.2.Estimate protein and calories required by a preterm infant to support appropriate fetal weight gain.3.Discuss the calcium and phosphorus needs of preterm infants. The patient presented as a 5-week-old 26 week preterm infant, with a birth weight of 686 g. Her mother was 25 years old. The child's Apgar scores were 6 and 7 at 1 and 5 minutes. The infant was intubated after birth and placed on the high-frequency oscillator on day of life (DOL) 3 because of worsening respiratory failure. She was placed back on conventional mechanical ventilation on DOL 7, extubated on DOL 15, and placed on 40% oxygen via nasal cannula. She was discharged home on DOL 84 without mechanical ventilation. PMID:23641882

Alasmi, Mahmood

2013-05-01

400

Fatal dog maulings associated with infant swings.  

PubMed

We present three cases of fatal dog maulings of infants placed in mobile infant swings, a phenomenon not previously described in the literature. In each case, the victim was left in a mobile swing, unsupervised by an adult, and the attacking dog was a family pet. Case 1 involved an 18-day-old male infant attacked by a pit bull; Case 2 involved a 3-month-old male infant attacked by a Chow Chow and/or a Dachshund, and Case 3 involved an 18-day-old female infant attacked by a Labrador-pit bull mix. These cases not only underscore the importance of not leaving young children unattended in the presence of pet dogs, but also raise the possibility that mobile swings may trigger a predatory response in dogs and thus may represent an additional risk factor for dog attack. PMID:16566780

Chu, Albert Y; Ripple, Mary G; Allan, Carol H; Thogmartin, Jon R; Fowler, David R

2006-03-01

401

Infants make quantity discriminations for substances.  

PubMed

Infants can track small groups of solid objects, and infants can respond when these quantities change. But earlier work is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 (N = 88) used a habituation paradigm to show infants can register changes in the size of piles of sand that they see poured from a container when there is a 1-to-4 ratio. Experiment 2 (N = 82) tested whether infants could discriminate a 1-to-2 ratio. The results demonstrate that females could discriminate the difference but males could not. These findings constitute the youngest evidence of successful quantity discriminations for a noncohesive substance and begin to characterize the nature of the representation for noncohesive entities. PMID:22181851

Hespos, Susan J; Dora, Begum; Rips, Lance J; Christie, Stella

2011-12-19

402

Infants' pitch perception: inharmonic tonal complexes.  

PubMed

Two experiments assessed the effects of inharmonicity on 7- to 8-month-old infants' perception of the pitch of tonal complexes. A number of harmonic and inharmonic complexes were presented in a visually reinforced operant head turn procedure. In both experiments, infants demonstrated the ability to discriminate two harmonic complexes based on missing fundamental frequencies of 160 and 200 Hz. After learning this basic task, infants learned to discriminate inharmonic complexes, which were created by shifting the partials of the harmonic complexes upward by 30 Hz (experiment 1) or 20 Hz (experiment 2). Finally, three spectrally different inharmonic complexes represented each pitch, and infants attempted to categorize those complexes according to their pitches. In both experiments, infants successfully discriminated the pitches of the spectrally varying tonal complexes, but their performance deteriorated for the more strongly inharmonic complexes of experiment 1. These results suggest that, as for adults, the salience of pitch for inharmonic sounds decreases with increasing inharmonicity. PMID:7560507

Clarkson, M G; Clifton, R K

1995-09-01

403

Proton pump inhibitors for irritable infants  

PubMed Central

Question Crying is common in infants; however, caring for infants with inconsolable crying, previously also known as colic or reflux, is often extremely distressing for parents. Is there a benefit to using gastric acid suppression (eg, proton pump inhibitors [PPIs]) in these infants? Answer The use of PPIs in infants and children has increased in recent years. The efficacy of proton pump inhibitors has not been demonstrated in the treatment of irritability and excessive crying in otherwise healthy infants younger than 3 months of age. Conversely, while PPIs are generally well tolerated, there is some evidence to link the use of PPIs with increased susceptibility to acute gastroenteritis, community-acquired pneumonia, and disorders of nutrient absorption and utilization. Irrespective of treatment, crying and irritability in infancy generally improve with time. Proton pump inhibitors do not improve symptoms in the interim.

Smith, Christine H.; Israel, David M.; Schreiber, Richard; Goldman, Ran D.

2013-01-01

404

The low-birth-weight infant  

PubMed Central

Low-birth-weight (LBW) infants have special nutritional requirements arising from their rapid growth rate and developmental immaturity. LBW infants are of many kinds; for example, the nutritional needs and functional capabilities of a small-for-gestational-age full-term infant are not the same as those of a very LBW premature infant. Ideal criteria for evaluating the nutritional management of these infants have not been established, and thus the recommended intakes given here do not represent proven physiological requirements. They nevertheless provide a basis from which more refined recommendations may be made. Although this chapter is not intended as such to be a discussion of applicable feeding techniques, it would be difficult and artificial to divorce two such closely intertwined aspects of the distinctive needs of this highly vulnerable group. Feeding techniques have to be carefully assessed in the light of specific environments and the expertise available, and none is entirely risk-free in any setting. Thus, it is essential to compensate for the immaturity of the infants and to avoid compromising the airway or risking aspiration of gastric contents. The choice between using breast milk or proprietary formulas in feeding LBW infants is complex on both nutritional and immunological grounds as well as for practical reasons. Given that the preponderance (>90%) of LBW infants are born in developing countries, the use of an infant's own mother's fresh milk may be the only realistic option. However, irrespective of the health care facilities, level of technology or alternative formulas that might be available, studies show that there is much to recommend feeding LBW infants their own mothers' milk in any environment.

1989-01-01

405

Recurrence of unexpected infant death.  

PubMed

Families which had experienced two or more unexpected infant deaths were the subject of detailed confidential enquiries, including necropsy examination. Cases were derived from two main sources: first, deaths occurring during a nationwide programme of support for families with a subsequent baby (8 families) plus 2 families from a series of confidential enquiries in Sheffield, and second, direct referrals from paediatricians (17 families). Fifty-seven deaths were studied. Twenty-four families had experienced 2 and three had experienced 3 deaths; 11 deaths (19%) were found to be adequately explained by history or post-mortem findings; 7 (12%) were probably accidental; 31 (55%) were most probably due to an action by one of the parents (filicide); only 5 (9%) were considered to be true or idiopathic sudden infant death syndrome; in 3 (5%) cases there was insufficient information to draw a conclusion. Five (18%) of the families lived in circumstances of serious social deprivation. A history of psychiatric illness was present in one or both parents in 18 (67%) of the families. PMID:8241650

Wolkind, S; Taylor, E M; Waite, A J; Dalton, M; Emery, J L

1993-10-01

406

Mother-infant and father-infant attachment among alcoholic families  

PubMed Central

This study examined the association between fathers’ alcoholism and other risk factors such as parental depression, family conflict, infant temperament, and parent–infant attachment. The quality of parent–infant interactions was hypothesized to be a proximal mediator of the associations among alcoholism and other risk factors and attachment. The participants were 223 families (104 nonalcoholic families and 119 alcoholic families) with 12-month-old infants recruited through birth records. Infants in families with two parents with alcohol problem had significantly higher rates of insecure attachment with both parents. Structural Equations Modeling indicated that the fathers’ alcohol problem was associated with lower paternal sensitivity (higher negative affect, lower positive engagement, and lower sensitive responding) during father–infant play interactions, and this in turn was associated with higher risk for infant attachment insecurity with fathers. The association between the fathers’ alcohol problem and infant attachment security with the mother was mediated by maternal depression, and maternal alcohol problems and family conflict were associated with maternal sensitivity during play interactions. These results indicate that the fathers’ alcoholism is associated with higher family risk including the quality of the parent–infant relationship; infant attachment develops in a family context; and this context has a significant association with attachment security.

EIDEN, RINA DAS; EDWARDS, ELLEN PETERSON; LEONARD, KENNETH E.

2009-01-01

407

Birth timing and the mother-infant relationship predict variation in infant behavior and physiology.  

PubMed

The current study explored whether birth timing, known to influence the mother-infant relationship, also affected infant physiology up to 9 months later and infant behavior at weaning. Infant blood samples were collected at 5.75 and 8.75 months of age to assess functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as well as the antibody response to a Cholera vaccination. Path analysis indicated infants born late in the birth season had less Relaxed relationships with their mothers. A less-Relaxed relationship was associated with greater infant Positive Engagement and Distress, which were negatively correlated, suggesting infants may have different strategies of coping with this type of relationship. Low Relaxed scores were also associated with higher infant cortisol concentrations at 5.75 months, which was associated with a reduced immune response to a vaccination 3 months later. Together these results indicate that the influence of birth timing on the mother-infant relationship may have consequences for infant development. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 55: 829-837, 2013. PMID:22886319

Vandeleest, Jessica J; Mendoza, Sally P; Capitanio, John P

2012-08-06

408

Nutritional recommendations for the late-preterm infant and the preterm infant after hospital discharge.  

PubMed

Early nutritional support of preterm infants is critical to life-long health and well being. Numerous studies have demonstrated that preterm infants are at increased risk of mortality and morbidity, including disturbances in brain development. To date, much attention has focused on enhancing the nutritional support of very low and extremely low birth weight infants to improve survival and quality of life. In most countries, preterm infants are sent home before their expected date of term birth for economic or other reasons. It is debatable whether these newborns require special nutritional regimens or discharge formulas. Furthermore, guidelines that specify how to feed very preterm infants after hospital discharge are scarce and conflicting. On the other hand, the late-preterm infant presents a challenge to health care providers immediately after birth when decisions must be made about how and where to care for these newborns. Considering these infants as well babies may place them at a disadvantage. Late-preterm infants have unique and often-unrecognized medical vulnerabilities and nutritional needs that predispose them to greater rates of morbidity and hospital readmissions. Poor or inadequate feeding during hospitalization may be one of the main reasons why late-preterm infants have difficulty gaining weight right after birth. Providing optimal nutritional support to late premature infants may improve survival and quality of life as it does for very preterm infants. In this work, we present a review of the literature and provide separate recommendations for the care and feeding of late-preterm infants and very preterm infants after discharge. We identify gaps in current knowledge as well as priorities for future research. PMID:23445854

Lapillonne, Alexandre; O'Connor, Deborah L; Wang, Danhua; Rigo, Jacques

2013-03-01

409

Single-dose pharmacokinetics of famciclovir in infants and population pharmacokinetic analysis in infants and children.  

PubMed

A multicenter, open-label study evaluated the single-dose pharmacokinetics and safety of a pediatric oral famciclovir (prodrug of penciclovir) formulation in infants aged 1 to 12 months with suspicion or evidence of herpes simplex virus infection. Individualized single doses of famciclovir based on the infant's body weight ranged from 25 to 175 mg. Eighteen infants were enrolled (1 to <3 months old [n = 8], 3 to <6 months old [n = 5], and 6 to 12 months old [n = 5]). Seventeen infants were included in the pharmacokinetic analysis; one infant experienced immediate emesis and was excluded. Mean C(max) and AUC(0-6) values of penciclovir in infants <6 months of age were approximately 3- to 4-fold lower than those in the 6- to 12-month age group. Specifically, mean AUC(0-6) was 2.2 microg h/ml in infants aged 1 to <3 months, 3.2 microg h/ml in infants aged 3 to <6 months, and 8.8 microg h/ml in infants aged 6 to 12 months. These data suggested that the dose administered to infants <6 months was less than optimal. Eight (44.4%) infants experienced at least one adverse event with gastrointestinal events reported most commonly. An updated pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted, which incorporated the data in infants from the present study and previously published data on children 1 to 12 years of age. An eight-step dosing regimen was derived that targeted exposure in infants and children 6 months to 12 years of age to match the penciclovir AUC seen in adults after a 500-mg dose of famciclovir. PMID:20160046

Blumer, Jeffrey; Rodriguez, Adib; Sánchez, Pablo J; Sallas, William; Kaiser, Guenther; Hamed, Kamal

2010-02-16

410

The lowest birth-weight infants and the US infant mortality rate: NCHS 1983 linked birth/infant death data.  

PubMed Central

The National Center for Health Statistics Linked Birth and Infant Death Data Set, 1983 birth cohort, shows that infants weighing less than 750 g, comprising only 0.3% of all births, account for 25% of deaths in the first year of life and for 41% of deaths in the first week. If interventions had prevented the death of these very small babies, the infant mortality rate would have been 8.3 per 1000 live births instead of 10.9, and the Black/White mortality differential would have been reduced by 25%.

Overpeck, M D; Hoffman, H J; Prager, K

1992-01-01

411

Object permanence in five-month-old infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method was devised to test object permanence in young infants. Five- month-old infants were habituated to a screen that moved back and forth through a 180-degree arc, in the manner of a drawbridge. After infants reached habituation, a box was centered behind the screen. Infants were shown two test events: a possible event and an impossible event. In

RENCE BAILLARGEON; ELIZABETH S. SPELKE; STANLEY WASSERMAN

1985-01-01

412

Maternal encouragement of infant locomotion in pigtail macaques, Macaca nemestrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether pigtail macaque mothers encourage their infants' independent locomotion by increasing distance from them and displaying a retrieval signal, the pucker face. Fifteen mother–infant pairs living in a large captive social group were focally observed during the first 12 weeks of infant life. Mothers puckered to their infants only when out of contact with them, and the

DARIO MAESTRIPIERI

1996-01-01

413

Vestibular Stimulation and Development of the Small Premature Infant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to explore the effects of vestibular stimulation on the developmental behavior, respiratory functioning, weight and length gains, and morbidity and mortality rates of premature infants. A total of 20 infants participated in this study in 4 groups of 5 infants each. Group A infants were placed in a motorized hammock within…

Neal, Mary V.

414

Penetrating Brain Injuries from a Dog Bite in an Infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain lesions due to dog bites are not frequent and mainly concern infants in the first years of their life because they are short in height, the size of the infant’s head is relatively large compared to the body and the skull bones are thin. We report the case of an infant with bilateral skin, skull and brain injuries secondary

A. Iannelli; G. Lupi

2005-01-01

415

Mothers' experiences of interacting with their premature infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive mother–infant interactions are important for child development, particularly for premature infants who are at greater risk of developmental delay. Research suggests that maternal interactions with premature infants may be compromised, but there has been little research into mothers' perceptions of interacting with infants following discharge from neonatal care. This qualitative study examined the experiences of mothers of interacting with

Marina Nicolaou; Rebecca Rosewell; Neil Marlow; Cris Glazebrook

2009-01-01

416

Liver iron concentrations in sudden infant death syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the biological significance of high concentrations of non-haem iron in the livers of infants dying from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), liver samples were obtained at necropsy from 66 infants who died from SIDS and 28 control infants who died before 2.5 years of age. All were full term deliveries. Liver iron concentrations decreased rapidly with age in

C A Moore; R Raha-Chowdhury; D G Fagan; M Worwood

1994-01-01

417

Marital Aggression Predicts Infant Orienting toward Mother at Six Months  

PubMed Central

Links between marital aggression and infant orienting toward mother in fearful and frustrating contexts were examined in 92 mother-infant dyads when infants were 6 months. Results demonstrated that marital aggression was linked with less orienting toward mothers in frustrating situations, in fearful situations marital aggression was linked with less orienting among infants who were high on fear reactivity only.

Parade, Stephanie H.; Leerkes, Esther M.

2011-01-01

418

Crying significantly reduces absorption of aerosolised drug in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTherapeutic aerosols are routinely used in the management of infant obstructive airways disease. Infants often become distressed during administration. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of distress and disease severity on the absorption of aerosolised drug in this age group.METHODSFifteen infants, eight with resolving chronic lung disease of prematurity (mean age, 13 months), and seven infants

R Iles; P Lister; A T Edmunds

1999-01-01

419

Infant-Mother Attachment among the Dogon of Mali.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined infant-mother attachment in Mali's Dogon ethnic group. Found that distribution of Strange Situation classifications was 67 percent secure, 0 percent avoidant, 8 percent resistant, and 25 percent disorganized. Infant attachment security related to quality of mother-infant communication. Mothers of disorganized infants had significantly…

True, Mary McMahan; Pisani, Lelia; Oumar, Fadimata

2001-01-01

420

Breastfeeding and the Mother-Infant Relationship--A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A positive effect of breastfeeding on the mother-infant relationship is often assumed in the scientific literature, but this has not been systematically reviewed. This review aims to clarify the role of breastfeeding in the mother-infant relationship, which is conceptualized as the maternal bond toward the infant and infant attachment toward the…

Jansen, Jarno; de Weerth, Carolina; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne

2008-01-01

421

Dress and care of infants in health and illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mothers of 199 infants (mean age 36.7 days) were interviewed to determine how the infant was dressed and wrapped, and how the mother would deal with illness. These data were related to measures of the infant's toe and underarm temperatures and demographic information about the family. The data did not support the hypothesis that infants with particular types of

C Eiser; C Town; J Tripp

1985-01-01

422

Assessment of Growth in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autopsy reports from 208 cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) were reviewed and divided into three groups: group 1, term infants without infection; group 2, term infants with mild infection, and group 3, premature infants. The brain weights of these children were matched by age and body length, separately for males and females, with reference values and a group

F. J. Aranda; F. Teixeira; L. E. Becker

1990-01-01

423

Sympatho-adrenal response to hypoglycaemia in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of the sympathoadrenal system to hypoglycaemia of different etiology was studied in seven infants, aged 10–189 days. Five infants had hyperinsulinism secondary to nesidioblastosis or to a ß-cell adenoma of the pancreas, one infant had neonatal sepsis due to staphylococcal infection and one infant congenital growth hormone (HGH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency. In babies with hyperinsulinism, plasma

B. Stanek; A. Lischka; H. Hörtnagl; A. Pollak

1988-01-01

424

Vocalization Latencies in the Infant-Mother Pair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research has demonstrated the occurrence of two structurally distinct modes of vocalization in the infant/mother pair--coaction and alternation--that change developmentally over the first year of the infant's life. The present study investigated the vocalization latencies of three infant/mother pairs at three stages of infant development: at 10…

Kilbourne, Brock K.; Ginsburg, Gerald P.

425

Infant's psychophysiological profile and temperament at 3 and 12 months.  

PubMed

This study is intended to analyze (1) differences in infant temperament at 3 and 12 months according to infants' psychophysiological profiles: "withdrawn" "extroverted", and "underaroused" and (2) changes in infant temperament from 3 to 12 months, namely according to the infant psychophysiological profile and the quality of mother-infant interaction. Ninety-four 8-week-old infants were assessed using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS, Brazelton & Nugent, 1995) and the Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB, Guedeney & Fermanian, 2001). Saliva samples were collected at 8-12 weeks old, both before and after a routine inoculation for cortisol reactivity measurement. Mother-infant interaction was evaluated at 12-16 weeks, using the Global Rating Scales (GRS, Murray, Fiori-Cowley, Hooper, & Cooper, 1996). Mothers' reports on infant temperament at 3 and 12 months were collected using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ, Rothbart, 1981). Significant differences in mothers' perception of infant temperament were found at both 3 and 12 months in infants with distinct psychophysiological profiles. Stability was observed in most of the temperament's dimensions from 3 to 12 months old; still, there were changes in mothers' perception of infant temperament in terms of level of distress, cuddliness, sadness and approach. Infant psychophysiological profile and mother-infant interaction both influence with the pattern of those changes. The results corroborate that infant's characteristics early in life as well as contextual factors influence with mothers' perception of infant temperament and with changes across the 1st year of life. PMID:21315455

Costa, Raquel; Figueiredo, Bárbara

2011-02-18

426

Current Trends in Infant Care: An Indian Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses two studies of infant care in India. The first focused on fathers' infant caregiving practices, whereas the second focused on infant care practices in Punjabi families in which the grandmother lived with young parents. Discusses positive trends in infant care in India that were revealed by the studies. (BG)|

Sharma, Neerja

1990-01-01

427

Depressive Symptoms among Rural Bangladeshi Mothers: Implications for Infant Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To examine how maternal depressive symptoms are related to infant development among low-income infants in rural Bangladesh and to examine how the relationship is affected by maternal perceptions of infant irritability and observations of caregiving practices. Methods: Development was measured among 221 infants at 6 and 12 months with…

Black, Maureen M.; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Zaman, K.; McNary, Scot W.; Le, Katherine; El Arifeen, Shams; Hamadani, Jena D.; Parveen, Monowara; Yunus, Md.; Black, Robert E.

2007-01-01

428

Frontal Brain Asymmetry Predicts Infants' Response to Maternal Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined whether certain features of infant temperament might be related to individual differences in the asymmetry of resting frontal activation. EEG was recorded from the left and right frontal and parietal scalp regions of 13 normal 10-month-old infants. Infant behavior was then observed during a brief period of maternal separation. Those infants who cried in response to maternal separation showed

Richard J. Davidson; Nathan A. Fox

1989-01-01

429

International Child Care Practices Study: infant sleeping environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The International Child Care Practices Study (ICCPS) has collected descriptive data from 21 centres in 17 countries. In this report, data are presented on the infant sleeping environment with the main focus being sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) risk factors (bedsharing and infant using a pillow) and protective factors (infant sharing a room with adult) that are not yet

Alejandre Jenik; John Vance; Karen Walmsley; Katie Pollard; Michelle Freemantle; Dot Ewing; Christa Einspieler; Heidemarie Engele; Petra Ritter; G. Elske Hildes-Ripstein; Monica Arancibia; Xiaocheng Ji; Haiqi Li; E. A. S Nelson; Crystal Bedard; Karin Helweg-Larsen; Katrine Sidenius; Susan Karlqvist; Christian Poets; Eva Barko; Bernadette Kiberd; Mary McDonnell; Gianpaolo Donzelli; Raffaele Piumelli; Luca Landini; Arturo Giustardi; Hiroshi Nishida; Stephanie Fukui; Toshiko Sawaguchi; Masataka Ino; Takeshi Horiuchi; Koki Oguchi; Barry J Taylor; Sheila Williams; Yildiz Perk; David Tappin; Joseph Milerad; Maria Wennborg; N Aryayev; V Nepomyashchaya

2001-01-01

430

The Meaning of Infants' Looks: Information Seeking and Comfort Seeking?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In two studies, the reason that infants in a novel situation look to adults was assessed. In Study 1, 10- and 13-month-old infants encountered a visual cliff that was deep (56 cm) or ambiguous (20 cm). Infants crossed the ambiguous cliff reliably faster than the deep cliff, and the first looks to mother of infants in the deep cliff condition were…

Striano, Tricia; Vaish, Amrisha; Benigno, Joann P.

2006-01-01

431

[Life expectancy of extremely preterm infants].  

PubMed

Extremely preterm infants [gestational age (GA) between 24-28 weeks] should be delivered optimally in an institute where neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is available and their short- and long-term care is ensured. At the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, University of Pécs, 7499 infants were born between 1st of January, 2000 and 31st of December, 2004. During this period the rate of preterm deliveries was 20% (1499/7499). Among preterm infants the incidence of extremely preterm babies (GA 28 weeks or less) was 18% (272/1499), the rate of profoundly preterm infants (GA less than 25 weeks) was 3.2% (48/1499). Advancing with gestational age the survival rate is increasing. At the department, the rate of handicapped infants among extremely premature babies was 15.3%. The majority of the handicapped infants were profoundly preterm, meanwhile, more than 50% of infants born at the 26 gestational weeks were free of symptoms influencing social activities. It is important to stress the prognostic value of the screening for hearing loss (otoacoustic emission), visual problems, and intracranial bleeding for the early detection and cure of the possible complications of prematurity. PMID:18039619

Vida, Gabriella; Sárkány, Ilona; Funke, Simone; Gyarmati, Judit; Storcz, Judit; Gaál, Valéria; Vincze, Olga; Ertl, Tibor

2007-12-01

432

Mechanical analysis of infant carrying in hominoids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In all higher nonhuman primates, species survival depends upon safe carrying of infants clinging to body hair of adults. In this work, measurements of mechanical properties of ape hair (gibbon, orangutan, and gorilla) are presented, focusing on constraints for safe infant carrying. Results of hair tensile properties are shown to be species-dependent. Analysis of the mechanics of the mounting position, typical of heavier infant carrying among African apes, shows that both clinging and friction are necessary to carry heavy infants. As a consequence, a required relationship between infant weight, hair-hair friction coefficient, and body angle exists. The hair-hair friction coefficient is measured using natural ape skin samples, and dependence on load and humidity is analyzed. Numerical evaluation of the equilibrium constraint is in agreement with the knuckle-walking quadruped position of African apes. Bipedality is clearly incompatible with the usual clinging and mounting pattern of infant carrying, requiring a revision of models of hominization in relation to the divergence between apes and hominins. These results suggest that safe carrying of heavy infants justify the emergence of biped form of locomotion. Ways to test this possibility are foreseen here.

Amaral, Lia Q.

2008-04-01

433

Mechanical analysis of infant carrying in hominoids  

PubMed Central

In all higher nonhuman primates, species survival depends upon safe carrying of infants clinging to body hair of adults. In this work, measurements of mechanical properties of ape hair (gibbon, orangutan, and gorilla) are presented, focusing on constraints for safe infant carrying. Results of hair tensile properties are shown to be species-dependent. Analysis of the mechanics of the mounting position, typical of heavier infant carrying among African apes, shows that both clinging and friction are necessary to carry heavy infants. As a consequence, a required relationship between infant weight, hair–hair friction coefficient, and body angle exists. The hair–hair friction coefficient is measured using natural ape skin samples, and dependence on load and humidity is analyzed. Numerical evaluation of the equilibrium constraint is in agreement with the knuckle-walking quadruped position of African apes. Bipedality is clearly incompatible with the usual clinging and mounting pattern of infant carrying, requiring a revision of models of hominization in relation to the divergence between apes and hominins. These results suggest that safe carrying of heavy infants justify the emergence of biped form of locomotion. Ways to test this possibility are foreseen here.

2007-01-01

434

Speech vs. singing: infants choose happier sounds.  

PubMed

Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants' attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech and singing. In Experiment 1, infants 4-13 months of age were exposed to happy-sounding infant-directed speech vs. hummed lullabies by the same woman. They listened significantly longer to the speech, which had considerably greater acoustic variability and expressiveness, than to the lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants of comparable age who heard the lyrics of a Turkish children's song spoken vs. sung in a joyful/happy manner did not exhibit differential listening. Infants in Experiment 3 heard the happily sung lyrics of the Turkish children's song vs. a version that was spoken in an adult-directed or affectively neutral manner. They listened significantly longer to the sung version. Overall, happy voice quality rather than vocal mode (speech or singing) was the principal contributor to infant attention, regardless of age. PMID:23805119

Corbeil, Marieve; Trehub, Sandra E; Peretz, Isabelle

2013-06-26

435

Fostering behavioral development of high-risk infants.  

PubMed

Concerns exist regarding the impact of the early neonatal intensive care unit environment on preterm and other high-risk infants and the lack of stimulus geared to the infant's individual needs and status. The nurse, as the primary caregiver in the neonatal intensive care unit, plays a major role in determining the infant's environment and in modulating interactions between the infant and the environment. Considerations for planning and providing infant stimulation, and nursing actions to enhance and support the infant's developmental capabilities and to foster parent-infant interaction are discussed. PMID:6345883

Blackburn, S

436

Perchlorate exposure and dose estimates in infants  

PubMed Central

Perchlorate is a naturally occurring inorganic anion used as a component of solid rocket fuel, explosives, and pyrotechnics. Sufficiently high perchlorate intakes can modify thyroid function by competitively inhibiting iodide uptake in adults; however little is known about perchlorate exposure and health effects in infants. Food intake models predict that infants have higher perchlorate exposure doses than adults. For this reason, we measured perchlorate and related anions (nitrate, thiocyanate, and iodide) in 206 urine samples from 92 infants ages 1–377 days and calculated perchlorate intake dose for this population of infants. The median estimated exposure dose for this population of infants was 0.160 ?g/kg/day. Of the 205 individual dose estimates, 9% exceeded the reference dose of 0.7 ?g/kg/day; 6% of infants providing multiple samples had multiple perchlorate dose estimates above the reference dose. Estimated exposure dose differed by feeding method: breast-fed infants had a higher perchlorate exposure dose (geometric mean 0.220 ?g/kg/day) than infants consuming cow milk-based formula (geometric mean 0.103 ?g/kg/day, p<0.0001) or soy-based formula (geometric mean 0.027 ?g/kg/day, p<0.0001), consistent with dose estimates based on dietary intake data. The ability of perchlorate to block adequate iodide uptake by the thyroid may have been reduced by the iodine-sufficient status of the infants studied (median urinary iodide 125 ?g/L). Further research is needed to see whether these perchlorate intake doses lead to any health effects.

Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Blount, Benjamin C.; Otero-Santos, Samaret; Cao, Yang; Bernbaum, Judy C.; Rogan, Walter J.

2011-01-01

437

The medically complex premature infant in primary care.  

PubMed

The survival rate of the smallest and youngest of premature infants has continued to improve as medical technology has progressed. The current edge of viability is represented by infants born at 23 to 25 weeks' gestation. Neonatal survival of infants at 23 weeks' gestation ranges from 11% to 30%. Survival to hospital discharge for infants ranging from 23 to 26 weeks' gestation is about 70%; 30% to 50% of these infants have moderate to severe disability. Nurse practitioners and physicians will be meeting these young infants in primary care offices after they have been discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit. This article is Part III in a series addressing issues related to the premature infant. This installment focuses on medically complex premature infants and their health issues after discharge. Part I addressed issues common to all premature infants. Part II looked at the healthy premature infant and their management in primary care. PMID:17071367

Kelly, Michelle M

438

The influence of infant food advertising on infant feeding practices in St. Vincent.  

PubMed

A survey designed to examine the extent to which infant food advertising could be shown measurably to influence infant feeding practices was carried out in St. Vincent in the eastern Caribbean. A questionnaire was administered to mothers of about 200 children one to two years old, nearly a complete sample in each of two towns. Infant food advertising was found to be uncommon. The typical infant feeding pattern, largely a combination of both breast feeding and bottle feeding, had existed for decades. Despite the fact that this was not a very appropriate setting for such a study and that there were a number of methodological constraints, the results of two multiple regression analyses suggested that the more a mother was influenced by infant food advertising, the sooner she began to bottle feed and the sooner she stopped breastfeeding. The cessation of all promotion of commercial infant foods, to the public as well as to health professionals, is called for. PMID:7076379

Greiner, T; Latham, M C

1982-01-01

439

Lead content of milk and infant formula  

SciTech Connect

Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's milk, and human milk were 0.135 g/ml, 0.03 g/ml, 0.01 g/ml, 0.53 g/ml, and 0.02 g/ml respectively. (2 references, 2 tables)

Walker, B.

1980-03-01

440

Parents' Emotional Availability and Infant Emotional Competence: Predictors of Parent-Infant Attachment and Emerging Self-Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-year-old infants (N = 62) and their mothers and fathers were observed in free play and teaching sessions in order to examine parents' emotional availability and the infant's emotional competence. Mothers were more emotionally available than fathers, and infants exhibited more effortful attention with mothers than with fathers. Similar relations between parental emotional availability and infant emotional competence were found

Brenda L. Volling; Nancy L. McElwain; Paul C. Notaro; Carla Herrera

2002-01-01

441

Serum Total Calcium and Inorganic Phosphate are Higher in Exclusively Breast Fed Infants than Infants on Mixed Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complementary feeding is gradually replacing traditional exclusive breast-feeding of infants in most parts of Nigeria. This study assessed comparatively, the serum total calcium and inorganic phosphate concentrations in exclusively breast fed infants and those on mixed diet. Blood sample were collected from 200 infants aged between 3 and 6 months, made up of 100 exclusively breast fed infants (EBFI) and

442

Temperament of Low Birth Weight Infants and Child-Rearing Stress: Comparison with Full-Term Healthy Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied infant temperament in low birth weight (LBW) and full-term (FT) healthy infants in relation to infant temperament and child-rearing stress. Found that although differences between child-rearing stress scores were not significant between mothers of LBW and FT infants, a higher proportion of child-rearing stress could be explained by the…

Honjo, Shuji; Mizuno, Rie; Jechiyama, Haya; Sasaki, Yasuko; Kaneko, Hitoshi; Nishide, Takonori; Nagata, Masako; Sobajima, Hisanori; Nagai, Yukiyo; Ando, Tsunesaburo; Nishide, Yumie

2002-01-01

443

Mother-infant relationship in the monkey Macaca nemestrina: Development of specificity of maternal response to own infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the day of parturition 3 female monkeys paced about when isolated from their infants; mothers became less active when infants were in an adjoining cage, separated from them by Plexiglas, but continued pacing when an older infant was in the adjoining cage. 1 of these mothers and a 4th reacted equally to their own and peer infants in the

Gordon D. Jensen

1965-01-01

444

Infrared thermometry of newborn infants.  

PubMed

An infrared thermometer, the FirstTemp, was tested among newborn infants by comparing tympanic membrane temperature measurements in three operating modes, "Cal-tympanic," "Cal-surface," and "Cor-tympanic," with nearly simultaneous tympanic membrane, rectal, and axillary temperature measurements using other standard methods. The FirstTemp underestimated other measurements of body temperature in the "Cal-tympanic" mode and overestimated them in the "Cor-tympanic" mode. In the "Cal-surface" mode, the First-Temp readings were significantly lower than tympanic membrane temperatures measured with a thermistor probe and electronic thermometer (mean difference 0.2 degrees C) but not significantly different from rectal or axillary temperatures. According to these results, the FirstTemp can be used reliably in the "Cal-surface" mode but not in the "Cal-tympanic" or "Cor-tympanic" mode. Its speed and ease of operation offer significant advantages over traditional clinical methods of temperature measurement. PMID:1984615

Johnson, K J; Bhatia, P; Bell, E F

1991-01-01

445

Nanoparticle delivery in infant lungs  

PubMed Central

The lung surface is an ideal pathway to the bloodstream for nanoparticle-based drug delivery. Thus far, research has focused on the lungs of adults, and little is known about nanoparticle behavior in the immature lungs of infants. Here, using nonlinear dynamical systems analysis and in vivo experimentation in developing animals, we show that nanoparticle deposition in postnatally developing lungs peaks at the end of bulk alveolation. This finding suggests a unique paradigm, consistent with the emerging theory that as alveoli form through secondary septation, alveolar flow becomes chaotic and chaotic mixing kicks in, significantly enhancing particle deposition. This finding has significant implications for the application of nanoparticle-based inhalation therapeutics in young children with immature lungs from birth to ˜2 y of age.

Semmler-Behnke, Manuela; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Schulz, Holger; Takenaka, Shinji; Butler, James P.; Henry, Frank S.; Tsuda, Akira

2012-01-01

446

The Use of COCOON in Teaching Silviculture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the Institute of Silviculture at the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, students learn to cross-link ecological, socio-economic and technical knowledge of maintaining, regenerating, tending and utilizing forests in a sustainable way. They learn complex concepts and processes most successfully when they are…

Vacik, Harald; Wolfslehner, Bernhard; Spork, Josef; Kortschak, Ernst

2006-01-01

447

Is There Mother–Infant Bonding in Primates?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of mother–infant bonding was stimulated by concepts and data imported from animal research. However, the occurrence of mother–infant bonding in nonhuman primates has not been systematically investigated. Information obtained from naturalistic observations of infant adoption, experimental studies of infant cross-fostering, and studies of mother–infant recognition in primates suggest that the first few days of the postpartum period are

Dario Maestripieri

2001-01-01

448

Gastrointestinal tolerance of a new infant milk formula in healthy infants: multicenter study conducted in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to test whether the gastrointestinal tolerance of a new infant formula equalled or exceeded the tolerance of other milk-based infant formulas, and to compare the tolerance of the new formula to that of human milk. This prospective, observational, multicenter, open-label study was conducted in Taiwan. Healthy, full-term infants aged 28-98 days were enrolled on

Nancy Chen; Pedro A Alarcon; Gail M Comer; Randall L Tressler

2002-01-01

449

Discrepancy between parental reports of infants' receptive vocabulary and infants' behaviour in a preferential looking task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments are described which explore the relationship between parental reports of infants' receptive vocabularies at 1 ;6 (Experiment 1a) or 1;3, 1;6 and 1; 9 (Experiment 1b) and the comprehension infants demonstrated in a preferential looking task. The instrument used was the Oxford CDI, a British English adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates CDI (Words & Gestures). Infants were shown pairs

CARMEL HOUSTON-PRICE; EMILY MATHER; ELENA SAKKALOU

2007-01-01

450

Sudden infant death syndrome in infants born to HIV-infected and opiate-using mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:This study was undertaken to determine the role of opiate use during pregnancy as a predisposing factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in infants born to HIV-infected mothers.Methods:In order to identify all infant deaths and their cause and association with maternal opiate use, the data of a nationwide prospective cohort study of HIV-infected mothers and their children were extracted

Christian Kahlert; Christoph Rudin; Christian Kind

2007-01-01

451

Parent?Infant Bed Sharing and Behavioural Features in 2?4?Month?Old Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to evaluate possible association between parent?infant bed sharing and behavioural features of 2?4?month?old infants using Early Infancy Temperament Questionnaire (EITQ) as a tool. It covered the period from 1997 to 1996 and comprised 204 randomly selected clinically healthy infants aged 2?4 months who were singletons and born in St. Petersburg within the period in consideration. The mothers

Igor A. Kelmanson

1999-01-01

452

Impact of early infant feeding practices on mortality in low birth weight infants from rural Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To assess the impact of early infant feeding practices on low birth weight- (LBW) specific neonatal mortality in rural Ghana.Study Design:A total of 11 787-breastfed babies were born between July 2003 and June 2004 and survived to day 2. Overall, 3411 (30.3%) infants had weight recorded within 48 h. Two hundred and ninety-six (8.7%) infants were <2.5 kg and 15

K M Edmond; B R Kirkwood; C A Tawiah; S O Agyei

2008-01-01

453

Playback experiment to test maternal responses of Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata) to their own infant's call when the infants were four to six months old  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calls emitted by infants when the infant loses sight of its parents are useful to estimate the infant's requirement for parental care. When an Old World monkey infant loses sight of its mother it emits whistles. Therefore, it would be interesting to determine whether mothers could distinguish their own infant's whistles from the whistles of other infants. The response of

Y. Shizawa; M. Nakamichi; T. Hinobayashi; T. Minami

2005-01-01

454

Developmental outcomes of infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: comparison with other medically fragile infants.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the developmental outcomes and mother-infant interactions of infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and those of other medically fragile infants. One-hour behavioral observations were made of the interactions of mothers with two groups of infants (23 with BPD, 39 medically fragile without BPD or neurological problems) at enrollment, every 2 months during hospitalization, 1 month after discharge, and at 6 months' and 12 months' corrected age. Assessment of the home environment also was done at 6 and 12 months. Multiple regressions were calculated separately for child mental, adaptive, language, and motor outcomes. Predictors were: home environment assessment, measures of maternal interactive behaviors (positive attention, expression of negative affect, medicalized caregiving), infant group membership, and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in the infant. There were no significant differences between the two groups in any of the developmental outcomes or interactive variables, and the presence of IVH had no effect on these variables. Maternal positive attention and the home environment were correlated with mental development, and mother negative affect was related to adaptive behavior for both groups. Differences in developmental and interactive behaviors between infants with BPD and other prematurely born infants found in other studies appear to be a result of chronic health problems and, thus, are not unique to infants with BPD. PMID:11526617

Holditch-Davis, D; Docherty, S; Miles, M S; Burchinal, M

2001-06-01

455

75 FR 23777 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula Requirements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...collection regarding the manufacture of infant formula, including infant formula labeling, quality control procedures,...

2010-05-04

456

Observed and reported supportive coparenting as predictors of infant–mother and infant–father attachment security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined associations between supportive coparenting and infant–mother and infant–father attachment security. Observed and parent?reported coparenting, and observed maternal and paternal sensitivity were assessed in a sample of 68 families with 3.5?month?old infants. Infant–mother and infant–father attachment security were assessed in the Strange Situation Procedure at 12 and 13 months of age, respectively. Observed and reported supportive coparenting were

Geoffrey L. Brown; Sarah C. Mangelsdorf; Cynthia Neff

2010-01-01

457

Craniosynostosis: caring for infants and their families.  

PubMed

Craniosynostosis is a developmental anomaly with premature closure of the cranial sutures causing an abnormally shaped skull in an infant. Recommended surgical treatment involves cranial vault reconstruction to open the closed suture, increase intracranial volume, and allow the brain to grow normally. Parents work with a multidisciplinary team during the evaluation process and face various preoperative and postoperative stressors. Critical care nurses can improve the care of the infants and their families by being knowledgeable about the anatomy, assessment, and surgical and nursing management of infants with this anomaly and its impact on the patients' families. This article discusses the definitions, diagnosis, and treatment of craniosynostosis and support for parents of infants with this malformation. PMID:23908168

Burokas, Laura

2013-08-01

458

Infant Sleep Positioners Pose Suffocation Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... other caregivers not to put babies in sleep positioning products as two recent deaths underscore concerns about ... loose bedding. Advice for Consumers STOP using infant positioning products. Using this type of product to hold ...

459

Chronic boric acid poisoning in infants.  

PubMed Central

We report 7 infants suffering from seizures induced by chronic boric acid ingestion. The boric acid was given by dipping a soother in a proprietary borax and honey mixture. The babies have remained well since the mixture was withheld.

O'Sullivan, K; Taylor, M

1983-01-01

460

Progesterone receptors mediate male aggression toward infants  

PubMed Central

Neuroendocrine mechanisms that mediate male aggression toward infants are poorly understood. Although testosterone is known to enhance aggression in other social contexts, evidence that it modulates aggression toward infants is equivocal. We have found that male progesterone receptor knockout (PRKO) mice exhibit no infanticidal behavior and little aggression toward young. Male PRKO mice also display significantly enhanced parental behaviors. In wild-type mice, blockade of PR induces a behavioral phenotype similar to that of the PRKO males, whereas progesterone exacerbates aggressive tendencies toward infants. Aggressive behaviors directed toward adult males, by contrast, are unaffected by progesterone, PR antagonism, or PR gene deletion. Previously thought to be of diminished importance in male animals, PRs play a critical and specific role in modulating infant-directed behaviors in male mice.

Schneider, Johanna S.; Stone, Marielle K.; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E.; Horton, Teresa H.; Lydon, John; O'Malley, Bert; Levine, Jon E.

2003-01-01

461

Health issues of the late preterm infant.  

PubMed

"Late preterm" birth is not such an unusual occurrence; in fact these infants were the first group of premature infants who pediatricians learned to treat, and did so with such remarkable success that physicians no longer consider them to be of high risk. So, why the sudden interest in this group? There is now enough evidence that this population is not as benign as previously thought. They have increased mortality when compared to term infants and are at increased risk for complications including transient tachypnea of newborn (TTN), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN), respiratory failure, temperature instability, jaundice, feeding difficulties and prolonged neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay. Evidence is currently emerging that late preterm infants make up a majority of preterm births, take up significant resources, have increased mortality/morbidity, and may even have long-term neurodevelopmental consequences secondary to their late prematurity. PMID:19501692

Ramachandrappa, Ashwin; Jain, Lucky

2009-06-01

462

Feeding Problems in Infants and Children  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Feeding Problems in Infants and Children See complete list of charts. Feeding problems are often frustrating, especially if the baby wakes often or cries during the night. ...

463

Infants at Risk for Developmental Dysfunction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conference brought together behavioral science investigators and biomedical scientists who have worked extensively on the biologic and behavioral aspects of infant development, along with scientists (both biomedical and behavioral) who have not worked...

D. L. Parron L. Eisenberg

1982-01-01

464

Antibody Response of Infants to Pneumococcal Polysaccharides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Normal infants, immunized with varying doses of octavalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine are followed longitudinally for well and sick baby care. Booster effect of the vaccine is determined by immunization of some of subjects at 6 and 12 and others ...

S. H. Sell

1977-01-01

465

Rhythmicity in infants' experiences and their development.  

PubMed

This article deals with the importance of rhythm in infants' experiences, underscoring its function in relation to sense of being and the continuity of that sense. Although some discontinuity is inevitable, and indeed necessary for development, it can expose infants to chaotic experiences if there is no underlying rhythmicity. Observations of infants have highlighted their ability to manage their experiences of discontinuity (providing these are not too disorganizing) by finding supports and manufacturing a rhythmicity that enables them to remain open to self and to the world. Rhythmicity of experience is important not just in infant development, but also - and more generally - in learning contexts and psychological care settings. In every situation, external rhythms must be attuned to the individual's inner one. PMID:23542550

Ciccone, Albert

2013-03-29

466

Infant and Perinatal Mortality in Scotland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is an analysis of infant mortality trends in Scotland by age at death, sex of child, cause of death, social class, and geographic region. It also includes maternal mortality trends; stillbirth and perinatal mortality trends; effects of illegiti...

C. A. Douglas

1966-01-01

467

[Infant botulism: case report and review].  

PubMed

Botulism is a rare disease in Chile and of the known clinical presentation, infant botulism is the most common. We report the case of a previously healthy seven month old male infant with a two weeks history of rinorrea, cough, fatigue, constipation and progressive weakness after the consumption of honey. Stool cultures were positive for Clostridium botulinum group 1 type A and electromyography was compatible with the diagnosis. The patient evolved with arterial hypertension, interpreted as secondary to autonomic dysfunction, which responded to calcium channel blockers. Muscle tone improved progressively during the following four weeks. Infant botulism is a potentially fatal disease; diagnosis can be difficult given the broad clinical manifestations. Prevention should focus on education of parents of infants as well as medical personnel. PMID:19621149

Arriagada S, Daniela; Wilhelm B, Jan; Donoso F, Alejandro

2009-06-16

468

Prenatal cocaine exposure and infant cognition  

PubMed Central

The present study examined the relationship of prenatal cocaine exposure to infant information processing in the first year of life. In a prospective, longitudinal study of 177 cocaine-exposed and 175 non-exposed infants, the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII) was used to measure attention, visual recognition memory and information processing speed at 6.5 and 12 months of age. Groups were compared over time using mixed linear model analyses. Prenatal cocaine exposure predicted poorer visual recognition memory at 12 months, with exposed infants obtaining lower mean scores and a higher percentage of scores in the risk range. Across exposure groups, information processing speed increased with age, demonstrating a developmental effect. Tobacco and marijuana exposures were related to faster looking times, which did not relate to visual recognition memory. Cognitive deficits and attentional problems noted in prior studies of cocaine-exposed children at later ages may be detectable in infancy.

Singer, Lynn T.; Eisengart, Laurie J.; Minnes, Sonia; Noland, Julia; Jey, Arthur; Lane, Courtney; Min, Meeyoung O.

2008-01-01

469

Management of medically fragile infants and children.  

PubMed

Medically fragile infants and children present a host of challenges. The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is initially the mainstay of care for these infants, but it does not meet the critical developmental interactive needs of the child and parents to ensure positive psychosocial bonding. The care of these infants is further complicated by high daily costs (ranging from $1,000 to $2,500 per neonatal intensive care bed day) and lengthy, expensive inpatient stays (typically ranging from one week to five months or more). FHP Utah, a managed care organization, met these challenges through an innovative case management-oriented home care program called "Welcome Home." The program has produced a major impact on the quality and the cost of care for medically fragile infants. This article summarizes the first year's experience in implementing and operating the program. PMID:10139082

Scholtes, P F; Sherman, J; Griffin, M; Petersen, C; Ryan, J; Crosthwait, N

1994-09-01

470

Proton Pump Inhibitor Utilization Patterns in Infants  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... a multicenter study of efficacy, safety, tolerability and dose requirements. ... PROTON PUMP INHIBITOR UTILIZATION PATTERNS IN INFANTS 427 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

471

Functional atrioventricular block in a preterm infant  

PubMed Central

A case of functional second degree atrioventricular block is reported in a preterm infant secondary to early onset hypocalcaemia. An infusion of 10% calcium gluconate rapidly corrected the arrhythmia.??

Al-Wahab, S; Munyard, P

2001-01-01

472

Birth Outcome Measures and Infant Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have proposed alternative birth outcome measures as means of assessing infant mortality risk; nevertheless,\\u000a there hasn’t yet been an integrated analysis of these approaches. We review 14 strategies, including various combinations\\u000a of birth weight, gestational age, fetal growth rate, and Apgar scores—as predictors of early neonatal, late neonatal, and\\u000a postneonatal mortality, and infant mortality. Using the NCHS linked

Sai MaBrian; Brian Karl Finch

2010-01-01

473

Infant mortality and economic instability in Yugoslavia.  

PubMed

Efforts to manage Yugoslavia's debt crisis beginning in 1979 led to economic policies which resulted in declining real income in subsequent years. This has been associated with a slowing of the rate at which infant mortality has declined. There is no evidence, however, that populations in poor parts of the country experienced a more dramatic impact on infant mortality than did populations in more favored regions. The lack of difference is attributed to redistributive social policies among and within republics. PMID:3616688

Kunitz, S J; Simi?, S; Odoroff, C L

1987-01-01

474

Nutrition, The Infant and the Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The human newborn possesses a functional but immature immune system in order to provide defense against a world teeming with\\u000a microorganisms. Breast milk contains a number of biological active compounds which support the infant’s immune system. These\\u000a include secretory IgAs, which confer specific protection against enteric pathogens, as well as many other immunological active\\u000a ingredients. A number of these ingredients

Ger T. Rijkers; Laetitia Niers; Marianne Stasse-Wolthuis; Frans M. Rombouts

475

Infant feeding practices of the Igbo, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern of infant feeding and attitudes of the mothers towards breast feeding, morbidity and mortality of a sample of the Nigerian Igbo tribe was studied. The result showed that: -Ninety?four percent of all mothers breast fed their infants for at least six months. The duration was longer among the non?educated than the educated mothers.-The size of the family decreased

L. J. Kazimi; H. R. Kazimi

1979-01-01

476

Infants’ recognition of objects using canonical color  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored infants’ ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object placed side by side: a

Atsushi Kimura; Yuji Wada; Jiale Yang; Yumiko Otsuka; Ippeita Dan; Tomohiro Masuda; So Kanazawa; Masami K. Yamaguchi

2010-01-01

477

Petechial bleedings in sudden infant death  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autopsy reports of 484 cases of deceased infants (201 females, 283 males) were analysed retrospectively for the existence\\u000a of external and internal petechial bleedings (PET). The cases were divided into five groups on the basis of the cause of death\\u000a (sudden infant death syndrome, sepsis, airway infections, asphyxia and trauma). Internal PET (pleural, pericardial, epicardial,\\u000a thymic and peritoneal) were

Tony Fracasso; Mechtild Vennemann; Mirjam Klöcker; Thomas Bajanowski; Bernd Brinkmann; Heidi Pfeiffer

2011-01-01

478

The McGurk effect in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the McGurk effect, perceptual identification of auditory speech syllables is influenced by simultaneous presentation of\\u000a discrepant visible speech syllables. This effect has been found in subjects of different ages and with various native language\\u000a backgrounds. But no McGurk tests have been conducted with prelinguistic infants. In the present series of experiments, 5-month-old\\u000a English-exposed infants were tested for the McGurk

Lawrence D. Rosenblum; Mark A. Schmuckler; Jennifer A. Johnson

1997-01-01

479

Deprivation and Dysphagia in Premature Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developmental trajectory of feeding features increasingly rhythmic ingestive behavior patterns. Sucking and swallowing by the fetus and infant, including fetal consumption of amniotic fluid, depend upon brainstem central pattern generators whose activity is increasingly influenced by chemosensory and oral-tactile input. This neurobiological fact underlies the clinical discovery that oral-tactile stimulation via pacifier stimulates ingestive behavior in tube-fed, premature infants

Peter M. Bingham

2009-01-01

480

Trisomy 13 in Two Infants with Cyclops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two infants with cyclops malformation were born at the University of Southern California Medical Center during the past three years. The karyotypes of both infants demonstrated an extra chromosome No. 13: one with 47,XX,+13 and one with 46,XX,-14,+t(13q14q). The physical findings, karyotypes with trypsin-Giemsa banding, and association of trisomy 13 syndrome with cyclops malformation are presented.

Atsuko Fujimoto; Allan J. Ebbin; Joseph W. Towner; Miriam G. Wilson

1973-01-01

481

Segregation, Race, and Infant Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residential segregation is a pervasive feature of the urban landscape in the United States, yet few studies have considered\\u000a how segregation (including all of its conceptual dimensions) influences infant well-being. Here, a comprehensive picture of\\u000a segregation (including all five dimensions and a composite measure) and infant well-being for whites, blacks, and Hispanics\\u000a is presented. This study utilizes data from U.S.

Michael McFarlandCheryl; Cheryl A. Smith

2011-01-01

482

Fatal outcome of methemoglobinemia in an infant  

SciTech Connect

Cases of methemoglobinemia in infants and older members of farm families are probably more common than they realize. In a 1982 survey of 353 physicians in the ten-county Big Sioux region in eastern South Dakota, 29 physicians reported having treated about 80 cases of methemoglobinemia, of which 64 had occurred more than ten years earlier. This preventable, treatable intoxication continues to contribute to infant mortality today. A case history is presented.

Johnson, C.J.; Bonrud, P.A.; Dosch, T.L.; Kilness, A.W.; Senger, K.A.; Busch, D.C.; Meyer, M.R.

1987-05-01

483

Infants can rapidly form new categorical representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young infants learn common categorical distinctions, such asanimals versusvehicles. But can they, like adults, rapidly form new categories, such asblack-and-white animals? To answer this question, 6-, 10-, and 13-month-old infants were familiarized with four land animals that were black and white\\u000a in coloring (e.g., a zebra and a black-and-white tiger) and then were tested with novel animals and a truck.

Rebecca J. Ribar; Lisa M. Oakes; Thomas L. Spalding

2004-01-01

484

Lipid needs of preterm infants: updated recommendations.  

PubMed

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) are of nutritional interest because they are crucial for normal development of the central nervous system and have potential long-lasting effects that extend beyond the period of dietary insufficiency. Here we review the recent literature and current recommendations regarding LCPUFAs as they pertain to preterm infant nutrition. In particular, findings that relate to fetal accretion, LCPUFA absorption and metabolism, effects on development, and current practices and recommendations have been used to update recommendations for health care providers. The amounts of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) used in early studies were chosen to produce the same concentrations as in term breast milk. This might not be a wise approach for preterm infants, however, particularly for very and extremely preterm infants, whose requirements for LCPUFAs and other nutrients exceed what is normally provided in the small volumes that they are able to tolerate. Recent studies have reported outcome data in preterm infants fed milk with a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content 2-3 times higher than the current concentration in infant formulas. Overall, these studies show that providing larger amounts of DHA supplements, especially to the smallest infants, is associated with better neurologic outcomes in early life. We emphasize that current nutritional management might not provide sufficient amounts of preformed DHA during the parenteral and enteral nutrition periods and in very preterm/very low birth weight infants until their due date, and that greater amounts than used routinely likely will be needed to compensate for intestinal malabsorption, DHA oxidation, and early deficit. Research should continue to address the gaps in knowledge and further refine adequate intake for each group of preterm infants. PMID:23445847

Lapillonne, Alexandre; Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Gonzalez, Carlos H Lozano; Uauy, Ricardo

2013-03-01

485

Infants' individuation of agents and inert objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the violation-of-expectancy method, we investigated 10-month-old infants' ability to rely on dynamic features in object individuation processes. Infants were first familiarized to events in which two different objects repeatedly appeared and disappeared, one at a time from behind a screen; at test, the screen was removed, revealing either one or two objects. In Experiment 1, one self-moving non-rigid agent

Luca Surian; Stefania Caldi

2009-01-01

486

Nutritional factors influencing infections in preterm infants.  

PubMed

In contrast with clinical studies in term infants or older children, it is very difficult to investigate possible immunoregulatory effects of a novel infant formula composition in preterm infants. This is mainly because of the multicausal origin of infections in this high-risk population that is usually admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Possible effects of nutrition composition on onset and incidence of nosocomial infections in these very small infants have to be compared with infections that may have originated in utero. The development of the gastrointestinal tract may be inhibited after severe intrauterine growth retardation, leading to functional impairment of the gut shortly after birth. This may be related to the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis of the newborn. However, this disease in very small preterm infants is possibly also related to the initiation of oral feeding and/or the amount of feeding. Specific infection risks of neonatal intensive care as a result of invasive techniques such as artificial ventilation or total parenteral nutrition using indwelling umbilical and/or Silastic lines and so-called "all-in-one" mixtures may influence the incidence of infections. Widespread use of intravenous antibiotics in the neonatal intensive care unit may create an even larger infection risk. Investigation of possible immunomodulatory effects of factors such as prebiotics and probiotics added to the nutrition of preterm infants should always be considered along with other nutritional factors known to influence the immature immune system. PMID:18716192

Lafeber, Harrie N; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A M; van den Berg, Anemone; Fetter, Willem P F; van Elburg, Ruurd M

2008-09-01

487

Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation  

PubMed Central

Objective Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress. Methods The study sample comprised 116 women and their full term infants. Maternal plasma cortisol and report of stress, anxiety and depression were assessed at 15, 19, 25, 31 and 36+ weeks’ gestational age. Infant cortisol and behavioral responses to the painful stress of a heel-stick blood draw were evaluated at 24 hours after birth. The association between prenatal maternal measures and infant cortisol and behavioral stress responses was examined using hierarchical linear growth curve modeling. Results A larger infant cortisol response to the heel-stick procedure was associated with exposure to elevated concentrations of maternal cortisol during the late second and third trimesters. Additionally, a slower rate of behavioral recovery from the painful stress of a heel-stick blood draw was predicted by elevated levels of maternal cortisol early in pregnancy as well as prenatal maternal psychosocial stress throughout gestation. These associations could not be explained by mode of delivery, prenatal medical history, socioeconomic status or child race, sex or birth order. Conclusions These data suggest that exposure to maternal cortisol and psychosocial stress exert programming influences on the developing fetus with consequences for infant stress regulation.

Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

2010-01-01

488

Lung function in infants with cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

Lung function was measured in 28 infants with cystic fibrosis and repeated in 17 of the infants during the first year of life. Thoracic gas volume (TGV) and specific airway conductance (sGaw) were measured plethysmographically and maximum forced expiratory flow at functional residual capacity (VmaxFRC) was derived from the partial expiratory flow-volume curve. At the time of the initial evaluation respiratory function was correlated with the clinical condition of the infants but not with age. There was a good correlation between sGaw and VmaxFRC when both were expressed as percentages of the predicted normal values. On the basis of the normal range for sGaw the infants were divided into two groups. Group A (n = 9), who had normal sGaw, were younger and had a lower clinical score and normal VmaxFRC and TGV values. Group B (n = 19), who had low sGaw, had increased TGV and decreased VmaxFRC. There was no correlation with age for any measure of lung function for the population as a whole. Repeat testing was undertaken at intervals in 17 representative infants. In most of these infants the relation between sGaw and VmaxFRC was maintained; there was no evidence that VmaxFRC was affected before sGaw. There was no functional evidence that the earliest changes in cystic fibrosis occur in small airways, as reflected by changes in VmaxFRC in infancy. PMID:3212751

Beardsmore, C S; Bar-Yishay, E; Maayan, C; Yahav, Y; Katznelson, D; Godfrey, S

1988-07-01

489

Learning to walk changes infants' social interactions.  

PubMed

The onset of crawling marks a motor, cognitive and social milestone. The present study investigated whether independent walking marks a second milestone for social behaviors. In Experiment 1, the social and exploratory behaviors of crawling infants were observed while crawling and in a baby-walker, resulting in no differences based on posture. In Experiment 2, the social behaviors of independently walking infants were compared to age-matched crawling infants in a baby-walker. Independently walking infants spent significantly more time interacting with the toys and with their mothers, and also made more vocalizations and more directed gestures compared to infants in the walker. Experiment 3 tracked infants' social behaviors longitudinally across the transition from crawling and walking. Even when controlled for age, the transition to independent walking marked increased interaction time with mothers, as well as more sophisticated interactions, including directing mothers' attention to particular objects. The results suggest a developmental progression linking social interactions with milestones in locomotor development. PMID:20478619

Clearfield, Melissa W

2010-05-15

490

Infant perception of the rotating Kanizsa square.  

PubMed

This study examined the perception of the rotating Kanizsa square by using a fixed-trial familiarization method. If the Kanizsa square is rotated across the pacmen, adult observers perceive not only a rotating illusory square, but also an illusory expansion/contraction motion of this square. The phenomenon is called a "rotational dynamic illusion". In experiments 1 and 2, we investigated whether infants perceived the rotational dynamic illusion, finding that 3-8-month-old infants perceived the rotational dynamic illusion as a simple rotation of the Kanizsa square. In experiment 3, we investigated whether infants perceived the rotational dynamic illusion as a rotation of the Kanizsa square or as a deformation of shape, finding that 3-4-month-old infants did perceive the rotational dynamic illusion as a rotation of the Kanizsa square. Our results show that while 3-8-month-old infants perceive the rotating Kanizsa square, however, it is difficult for the infants to extract expansion/contraction motion from the rotational dynamic illusion. PMID:20097430

Yoshino, Daisuke; Idesawa, Masanori; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

2010-01-25

491

Invasive Enterobacter sakazakii Disease in Infants  

PubMed Central

Enterobacter sakazakii kills 40%–80% of infected infants and has been associated with powdered formula. We analyzed 46 cases of invasive infant E. sakazakii infection to define risk factors and guide prevention and treatment. Twelve infants had bacteremia, 33 had meningitis, and 1 had a urinary tract infection. Compared with infants with isolated bacteremia, infants with meningitis had greater birthweight (2,454 g vs. 850 g, p = 0.002) and gestational age (37 weeks vs. 27.8 weeks, p = 0.02), and infection developed at a younger age (6 days vs. 35 days, p<0.001). Among meningitis patients, 11 (33%) had seizures, 7 (21%) had brain abscess, and 14 (42%) died. Twenty-four (92%) of 26 infants with feeding patterns specified were fed powdered formula. Formula samples associated with 15 (68%) of 22 cases yielded E. sakazakii; in 13 cases, clinical and formula strains were indistinguishable. Further clarification of clinical risk factors and improved powdered formula safety is needed.

Braden, Christopher R.

2006-01-01

492

Prognosis of medulloblastoma in infants.  

PubMed

The prognosis of medulloblastoma in children less than 3 years old is usually considered to be rather poor. However, recent experiences with this type of tumour seem to indicate that survival in this specific subgroup of patients can be longer than expected. Nineteen infants with posterior fossa tumours treated by the authors in the period 1983-1994, all of them with symptoms presenting during the 1st year of life and all operated on before the end of the 2nd year of life, have been retrospectively analysed. Total tumour removal was achieved in 14 cases, subtotal in 1 and partial in 3. One subject underwent only a biopsy of the tumour. In 14 patients a CSF shunt was inserted. Chemotherapy was administered to 18 out of the 19 patients in the series. At the time of the study, 11 children had died (57.9%) and 8 were alive (42.1%; mean survival 86.5 months). One patient died of complications secondary to the surgical treatment. Three patients died because of local recurrence of the tumour after apparent total excision, death supervening 5, 12 and 18 months after the surgical treatment. A further 2 patients in whom total tumour removal had been performed died 3 and 17 months after surgery of local recurrence of the disease associated with regional metastases. Progression of the residual tumour, accompanied by metastatic dissemination in 3 cases, accounted for death in the other 5 patients who did not survive. Brain stem infiltration appeared to be the most significant adverse prognostic factor. All 8 long-term survivors had their tumour totally excised. Five of them underwent radiotherapy when at least 2 years old. On the basis of the results, the authors conclude that the current prognosis of infants with medullo-blastoma is not necessarily any worse than that of older children with the same disease and that chemotherapy can be particularly useful in this subgroup of patients, as shown by 3 long-term survivals obtained in children treated with this type of therapy only. PMID:9298275

Di Rocco, C; Iannelli, A; Papacci, F; Tamburrini, G

1997-07-01

493

Mother–infant cosleeping, breastfeeding and sudden infant death syndrome: What biological anthropology has discovered about normal infant sleep and pediatric sleep medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty years ago a new area of inquiry was launched when anthropologists proposed that an ev- olutionary perspective on infancy could contribute to our understanding of unexplained infant deaths. Here we review two decades of research examining parent-infant sleep practices and the variability of maternal and infant sleep physiology and behavior in social and solitary sleeping environments. The results challenge

James J. McKenna; Helen L. Ball; Lee T. Gettler

2007-01-01

494

Infants in Multirisk Families. Case Studies in Preventive Intervention. Clinical Infants Reports Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Work conducted by the Clinical Infant Development Program (CIDP) of the National Institute of Mental Health, involving 47 multirisk families and their infants over a period of several years, is described. Part I contains four detailed case studies by Delise Williams, Euthymia Hibbs, Serena Wieder and others, providing data for comprehensive…

Greenspan, Stanley I., Ed.; And Others

495

Sequence Learning in 4-Month-Old Infants: Do Infants Represent Ordinal Information?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated how 4-month-old infants represent sequences: Do they track the statistical relations among specific sequence elements (e.g., AB, BC) or do they encode abstract ordinal positions (i.e., B is second)? Infants were habituated to sequences of 4 moving and sounding elements--3 of the elements varied in their ordinal position…

Lewkowicz, David J.; Berent, Iris

2009-01-01

496

Infant and Toddlers, A Publication for Montessori Infant and Toddler Programs, 1997-1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is comprised of the first four issues of a journal published quarterly for parents of children in Montessori infant and toddler programs. Regular features include "Ask Ginny," an advice column; information on recent research; and reports on conferences. The Spring 1997 issue contains articles on the history of infant/toddler…

Kroenke, Lillian DeVault, Ed.

1998-01-01

497

Concentrations of antimony in infants dying from SIDS and infants dying from other causes  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESRaised concentrations of antimony have been found in infants dying of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The presumed source of this antimony is toxic gases generated from fire retardants that are present in cot mattresses. The aim of this study was to determine the role of antimony in SIDS.DESIGNSamples of liver, brain, serum, and urine were collected from all patients

A Cullen; B Kiberd; D Devaney; J Gillan; P Kelehan; T G Matthews; P Mayne; N Murphy; M ORegan; W Shannon; L Thornton

2000-01-01

498

Parent-Infant Interaction in Infant Siblings at Risk of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent models of the early emergence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) propose an interaction between risk susceptibility and the infant's social environment, resulting in a progressively atypical developmental trajectory. The infant's early social environmental experience consists mostly of interaction with caregivers, yet there has been little…

Wan, Ming Wai; Green, Jonathan; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark; Charman, Tony; Plummer, Faye

2012-01-01

499

Infant Feeding Practices and Early Flavor Experiences in Mexican Infants: An Intra-Cultural Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe study explored the maternal beliefs and practices related to pregnancy, breastfeeding, and infant feeding among women living in several regions in Mexico. We hypothesized that, despite the culinary diversity within Mexico, there would be similar patterns in the types of flavors and foods eaten by mothers and fed to infants.

Julie A. Mennella; Bernardo Turnbull; Paula J. Ziegler; Homero Martinez

2005-01-01

500

Sudden infant death syndrome in infants born to HIV-infected and opiate-using mothers  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was undertaken to determine the role of opiate use during pregnancy as a predisposing factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in infants born to HIV?infected mothers. Methods In order to identify all infant deaths and their cause and association with maternal opiate use, the data of a nationwide prospective cohort study of HIV?infected mothers and their children were extracted and analysed for a 13?year period. Results 24 (5.1%) infant deaths were observed out of 466 infants followed up until death or at least 12?months of life. 3 (0.6%) of them were due to non?accidental trauma and were not associated with maternal opiate use. 7 (1.5%) died due to SIDS, which was confirmed by autopsy. All SIDS cases occurred in infants born to mothers reporting use of opiates during pregnancy (n?=?124). The relative risk of SIDS compared to the general population was 18 (95% CI 9 to 38) for all infants of HIV?infected mothers, and 69 (95% CI 33 to 141) for those with intrauterine opiate exposure (p<0.001). Conclusions Compared to the Swiss general population, the risk for SIDS in this cohort of infants born to HIV?infected mothers was greatly increased, but only for mothers reporting opiate use during pregnancy. This effect appeared not to be mediated by prematurity, low birth weight, perinatal HIV infection or antiretroviral drug exposure.

Kahlert, Christian; Rudin, Christoph; Kind, Christian; (SHCS), and the Swiss HIV Cohort Study

2007-01-01