Science.gov

Sample records for cocooning infants tdap

  1. Protecting Newborns by Immunizing Family Members in a Hospital-Based Vaccine Clinic: A Successful Tdap Cocooning Program During the 2010 California Pertussis Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    McBane, Sarah; Wang, Wendy; Sawyer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective Infants are at greatest risk for mortality from pertussis infection. Since 2005, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended a cocooning strategy of vaccinating all close contacts of infants with tetanus, diptheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine to reduce the risk of transmitting pertussis. Difficulties in establishing a complete cocoon have been reported in the literature. We determined whether families of newborns could be fully immunized against pertussis, thereby providing a complete cocoon of protection. Methods Tdap vaccine was offered during visiting hours to contacts aged 7 years and older and to postpartum patients who had not received Tdap vaccine during pregnancy. We then conducted retrospective phone interviews with randomly selected mothers (or other family members) to assess vaccination rates. We compared household vaccination rates during intervention and control periods and the demographic factors associated with Tdap vaccination of all members within the households. Results During the intervention period, 243 postpartum patients and 1,287 other family members of newborns were immunized, with 84.8% of all family members receiving Tdap vaccination. Seventy-six percent of households reported a complete cocoon. In the control group, 52.2% of all family members received Tdap vaccination, and 29.3% of households had a complete cocoon. In the control group, fewer family members completed Tdap vaccination in the larger households than in the smaller households (p=0.008). Conclusion A cocooning strategy can be successfully implemented, such that the majority of newborns leave the hospital with their families fully immunized against pertussis. PMID:24791022

  2. Tdap vaccine attitudes and utilization among pregnant women from a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Amanda F; Brewer, Sarah E; Sevick, Carter; Pyrzanowski, Jennifer; Mazzoni, Sara; O'Leary, Sean T

    2016-04-01

    Infants infected with Bordatella pertussis experience high morbidity and significant mortality. Vaccinating pregnant mothers with the tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine is a recommended strategy for preventing infant pertussis. This is especially important for mothers living in poverty and from racial and ethnic minority populations as these groups are at increased risk of having a pertussis-affected infant. Using the Health Belief Model as a framework, we surveyed a convenience sample of pregnant mothers representing these high-risk populations to understand factors associated with Tdap vaccine uptake during their pregnancy. Among the 316 mothers surveyed, 82% had gotten or planned to get Tdap that same day even though 63% of the sample had concerns about the safety of the vaccine during pregnancy. Perceived benefits and norms were the Health Belief Model constructs most consistently associated with Tdap vaccination. Although 32% of women reported prior Tdap vaccine receipt, this factor was not associated with Tdap vaccination during the current pregnancy, contrasting studies of vaccination done in non-pregnant populations. Important variations in attitudes were apparent, with Spanish-speaking women significantly more likely to have concerns about the vaccine's safety and efficacy than English-speaking women. This study indicates that among this high-risk population acceptance of Tdap vaccine during pregnancy is high. However, our results suggest that it may be important to modify information conveyed about the safety and importance of Tdap during pregnancy based on individual level factors such as language or acculturation. PMID:26430729

  3. Recommendation for the use of newly introduced Tdap vaccine in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Hyo; Kim, Yae-Jean; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Park, Su Eun; Lee, Hoan Jong; Eun, Byung Wook; Jo, Dae Sun; Choi, Eun Hwa; Hong, Young Jin

    2011-01-01

    Pertussis is an acute respiratory infection characterized by paroxysmal cough and inspiratory whoop for over 2 weeks. The incidence of pertussis has decreased markedly after the introduction of DTwP/DTaP vaccine, but the incidence of pertussis has increased steadily among young infant and among adolescents and adults in many countries. Td vaccine was used in this age group but the increase in pertussis has lead to the development of a Tdap vaccine. The Tdap vaccine is a Td vaccine with a pertussis vaccine added and is thought to decrease the incidence and transmission of pertussis in the respective age group. In Korea, two products are approved by the KOREA FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION, which are ADACEL™ (Sanofi-Pasteur, Totonto, Ontario, Canada) and BOOSTRIX® (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium) for those aged between 11-64. This report summarizes the recommendations approved by the Committee on Infectious Diseases, the Korean Pediatric Society. PMID:21738546

  4. Photoprotection by silk cocoons.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasjeet; Rajkhowa, Rangam; Tsuzuki, Takuya; Millington, Keith; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Xungai

    2013-10-14

    A silk cocoon protects a silkworm during its pupal stage from various threats. We systematically investigated the role of fiber, sericin, and embedded crystals in the UV protection of a silk cocoon. Diffuse reflectance and UV absorbance were measured and free radicals generated during exposure to UV radiation were quantified using photoinduced chemiluminescence (PICL). We identified the response to both UV-A and UV-B radiations by silk materials and found that sericin was primarily responsible for UV-A absorption. When sericin was removed, the photoinduced chemiluminescence intensity increased significantly, indicating higher UV-A-induced reactions of cocoons in the absence of sericin. There is progressively higher sericin content toward the outer part of the cocoon shell that allows an effective shield to pupae from UV radiation and resists photodegradation of silk fibers. The study will inspire development of advanced organic photoprotective materials and designing silk-based, free-radical-scavenging antioxidants. PMID:24000973

  5. Tdap (Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis) Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tdap Vaccine What You Need to Know (Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis) Many Vaccine Information Statements are available ... immunize. org/ vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis are very serious diseases. Tdap vaccine ...

  6. CDC update on pertussis surveillance and Tdap vaccine recommendations.

    PubMed

    Clark, Thomas A; Bobo, Nichole

    2012-11-01

    Pertussis is the most poorly controlled bacterial vaccine-preventable disease. Since the early 1980s there has been an increase in reported cases of pertussis. Multiple factors have likely contributed to the increase, including waning immunity, increased recognition, and changes in diagnostic testing and reporting. Of the four combination vaccines used to prevent diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, one dose of Tdap should be used to vaccinate preteens as well as teens and adults who have not yet received this booster dose. It is the position of NASN that immunizations, including the Tdap vaccine, are key to primary prevention of diseasefrom infancy through adulthood. The school nurse is in a critical position to create awareness and influence action-related national and state recommendations for the Tdap vaccine. PMID:23193719

  7. How Do Caterpillars Make Cocoons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kay

    1994-01-01

    Describes a Lexington, Kentucky, kindergarten science project that employed the Reggio Emilia approach of long-term open-ended projects steered by children's interests and group discussions. The children's investigation of how caterpillars make cocoons included direct observation of the metamorphosis process, construction of child-sized cocoons,…

  8. Factors Associated with Intention to Receive Influenza and Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccines during Pregnancy: A Focus on Vaccine Hesitancy and Perceptions of Disease Severity and Vaccine Safety

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Allison T.; Seib, Katherine; Ault, Kevin A.; Orenstein, Walter A.; Frew, Paula M.; Malik, Fauzia; Cortés, Marielysse; Cota, Pat; Whitney, Ellen A. S.; Flowers, Lisa C.; Berkelman, Ruth L.; Omer, Saad B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Improving influenza and tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine coverage among pregnant women is needed. PURPOSE: To assess factors associated with intention to receive influenza and/or Tdap vaccinations during pregnancy with a focus on perceptions of influenza and pertussis disease severity and influenza vaccine safety. METHODS: Participants were 325 pregnant women in Georgia recruited from December 2012 – April 2013 who had not yet received a 2012/2013 influenza vaccine or a Tdap vaccine while pregnant. Women completed a survey assessing influenza vaccination history, likelihood of receiving antenatal influenza and/or Tdap vaccines, and knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about influenza, pertussis, and their associated vaccines. RESULTS: Seventy-three percent and 81% of women believed influenza and pertussis, respectively, would be serious during pregnancy while 87% and 92% believed influenza and pertussis, respectively, would be serious to their infants. Perception of pertussis severity for their infant was strongly associated with an intention to receive a Tdap vaccine before delivery (p=0.004). Despite perceptions of disease severity for themselves and their infants, only 34% and 44% intended to receive antenatal influenza and Tdap vaccines, respectively. Forty-six percent had low perceptions of safety regarding the influenza vaccine during pregnancy, and compared to women who perceived the influenza vaccine as safe, women who perceived the vaccine as unsafe were less likely to intend to receive antenatal influenza (48% vs. 20%; p < 0.001) or Tdap (53% vs. 33%; p < 0.001) vaccinations. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this baseline survey suggest that while pregnant women who remain unvaccinated against influenza within the first three months of the putative influenza season may be aware of the risks influenza and pertussis pose to themselves and their infants, many remain reluctant to receive influenza and Tdap vaccines antenatally. To

  9. A cocooning project to protect newborns from pertussis.

    PubMed

    Rust, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The Pertussis Cocooning Project was created through a collaborative effort by a health care organization and a State Department for Public Health to decrease community pertussis rates and protect infants from the deadly effects of pertussis. Free pertussis immunizations are provided to all mothers who give birth at the health care organization and to all infants' family members and caregivers older than 18 years. PMID:24939197

  10. Oxygen cocoon for patients under intensive care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maas, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Cocoon is made from Teflon film. It includes full-length, pressure zipper on top side and bottom part is rigid pad constructed of burn-resistant material. Cocoon includes oxygen supply port with exhaust port at opposite end.

  11. Cocoon drying through solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kulunk, M.

    1983-12-01

    In this paper, silk cocoon drying operations through solar energy have been presented. Nearly no comprehensive work has been appeared in literature on this unusual application. General mechanism of solar drying methods are presented by some authors for instance, Roman and Jindal. This application seems vitally significant for silk cocoon producer countries like Turkey. The rate of production accelerates year by year and it is about 3000 tons per year presently in Turkey. In Turkey, by now and currently, a water vapour chamber is utilized in the killing process of silkworm. Vapour produced by burning of conventional fuels posses many drawbacks beside being very expensive and also non-renewable. Vapour effects the quality and quantity of silk thread negatively. For instance, the colour of silk cocoon tends to turn to pale instead of being gleamy. This is not tolerable. The length and mass of silk thread obtained per a typical cocoon sample is increased about 10.1 and 16.5 per cent respectively in the average by using solar energy.

  12. Safety of Tdap vaccine in pregnant women: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Petousis-Harris, Helen; Walls, Tony; Watson, Donna; Paynter, Janine; Graham, Patricia; Turner, Nikki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Actively recruit and intensively follow pregnant women receiving a dose of acellular pertussis vaccine for 4 weeks after vaccination. Design and settings A prospective observational study conducted in 2 New Zealand regions. Participants Women in their 28th–38th week of pregnancy, recruited from primary care and antenatal clinics at the time of Tdap administration. Telephone interviews were conducted at 48 h and 4 weeks postvaccination. Main outcomes measures Outcomes were injection site reactions, systemic symptoms and serious adverse events (SAEs). Where available, data have been classified and reported according to Brighton Collaboration definitions. Results 793 women participated with 27.9% receiving trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine concomitantly. 79% of participants reported mild or moderate pain and 2.6% severe pain. Any swelling was reported by 7.6%, induration by 12.0% (collected from 1 site only, n=326), and erythema by 5.8% of participants. Fever was reported by 17 (2.1%) participants, 14 of these occurred within 24 h. Headache, dizziness, nausea, myalgia or arthralgia was reported by <4% of participants, respectively, and fatigue by 8.4%. During the study period, there were 115 adverse events in 113 participants, most of which were minor. At the end of the reporting period, 31 events were classified as serious (eg, obstetric bleeding, hypertension, infection, tachycardia, preterm labour, exacerbation of pre-existing condition and pre-eclampsia). All had variable onset time from vaccination. There were two perinatal deaths. Clinician assessment of all SAEs found none likely to be vaccine related. Conclusions Vaccination with Tdap in pregnant women was well tolerated with no SAE likely to be caused by the vaccine. Trial registration number ACTRN12613001045707. PMID:27091823

  13. Gastro retention using polymer cocoons.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Julien; Hunkeler, David

    2015-02-01

    A gastro-retentive capsule has been prepared which is retained in the stomach for a period of 24h, providing a vehicle for the controlled delivery to the upper intestines. These "gastro cocoons" can resist passage through the sphincter of the stomach, and can retain a high drug payload (30%). They are made from oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and can swell to twice their initial volume. They are strong and also can resist 550 N of compressive force. They are based on filled pharmaceutical capsules which are visible to X-rays. Using ambroxol hydrochloride as a model drug linear, zero-order, release curves were obtained. PMID:25078789

  14. Structure and physical properties of silkworm cocoons

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    Silkworm cocoons have evolved a wide range of different structures and combinations of physical and chemical properties in order to cope with different threats and environmental conditions. We present our observations and measurements on 25 diverse types of cocoons in a first attempt to correlate physical properties with the structure and morphology of the cocoons. These two architectural parameters appear to be far more important than the material properties of the silk fibres themselves. We consider tensile and compressive mechanical properties and gas permeation of the cocoon walls, and in each case identify mechanisms or models that relate these properties to cocoon structure, usually based upon non-woven fibre composites. These properties are of relevance also for synthetic non-woven composite materials and our studies will help formulate bio-inspired design principles for new materials. PMID:22552916

  15. Intention to Accept Pertussis Vaccination for Cocooning: A Qualitative Study of the Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Hautvast, Jeannine L. A.; van der Velden, Koos; Hulscher, Marlies E. J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Context Several countries have reported a resurgence of pertussis in the last decades. This puts infants (especially <6 months) at risk of severe complications, because they are too young to be fully protected by vaccination. The global pertussis initiative has proposed pertussis vaccination of young infants’ close contacts, in order to reduce pertussis transmission and the burden of the disease on infants. Our aim is to explore the perceived determinants (barriers and facilitators) of intention to accept vaccination among the possible target groups of pertussis vaccination for cocooning. Consideration of these determinants is necessary to optimise the uptake of the vaccination. Methods We conducted 13 focus groups and six individual semi-structured interviews with members of possible target groups for pertussis cocooning (i.e. parents, maternity assistants, midwives, and paediatric nurses) in the Netherlands. Here, both maternal pertussis vaccination as well as pertussis cocooning has not been implemented. The topic list was based on a literature review and a barrier framework. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and two researchers performed thematic content analysis. Findings The participants’ risk perception, outcome expectations, general vaccination beliefs, moral norms, opinion of others, perceived autonomy, anticipated regret, decisional uncertainty, and perceived organisational barriers were all factors that influenced the intention to accept pertussis vaccination for cocooning. Discussion This study has identified nine perceived determinants that influence the intention to accept pertussis cocooning vaccination. We add the following determinants to the literature: perceived cost-effectiveness (as a concept of outcome expectations), justice (as a concept of moral norms), anticipated regret, and decisional uncertainty. We recommend considering these determinants in vaccination programmes for pertussis cocooning vaccination. Experience, information

  16. Universal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of adults: What Canadian health care providers know and need to know

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, D; Halperin, BA; MacKinnon-Cameron, D; Li, L; McNeil, SA; Langley, JM; Halperin, SA

    2015-01-01

    The tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) is recommended for all adults in both Canada and the United States. There are few data on the proportion of Canadian adults vaccinated with Tdap; however, anecdotal reports indicate that uptake is low. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of Canadian health care providers (HCPs) in an attempt to identify potential barriers and facilitators to Tdap uptake. HCPs were surveyed and a geographic and practice representative sample was obtained (N =1,167). In addition, 8 focus groups and 4 interviews were conducted nationwide. Results from the survey indicate that less than half (47.5%) of all respondents reported being immunized with Tdap themselves, while 58.5% routinely offer Tdap to their adult patients. Knowledge scores were relatively low (63.2% correct answers). The best predictor of following the adult Tdap immunization guidelines was awareness of and agreement with those recommendations. Respondents who were aware of the recommendations were more likely to think that Tdap is safe and effective, that their patients are at significant risk of getting pertussis, and to feel that they have sufficient information (p < 0.0001 for each statement). Focus group data supported the survey results and indicated that there are substantial gaps in knowledge of pertussis and Tdap among Canadian HCPs. Lack of public knowledge about adult immunization, lack of immunization registries, a costing differential between Td and Tdap, workload required to deliver the vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy were identified as barriers to compliance with the national recommendations for universal adult immunization, and suggestions were provided to better translate recommendations to front-line practitioners. PMID:26090861

  17. Universal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of adults: What Canadian health care providers know and need to know.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, D; Halperin, B A; MacKinnon-Cameron, D; Li, L; McNeil, S A; Langley, J M; Halperin, S A

    2015-01-01

    The tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) is recommended for all adults in both Canada and the United States. There are few data on the proportion of Canadian adults vaccinated with Tdap; however, anecdotal reports indicate that uptake is low. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of Canadian health care providers (HCPs) in an attempt to identify potential barriers and facilitators to Tdap uptake. HCPs were surveyed and a geographic and practice representative sample was obtained (N =1,167). In addition, 8 focus groups and 4 interviews were conducted nationwide. Results from the survey indicate that less than half (47.5%) of all respondents reported being immunized with Tdap themselves, while 58.5% routinely offer Tdap to their adult patients. Knowledge scores were relatively low (63.2% correct answers). The best predictor of following the adult Tdap immunization guidelines was awareness of and agreement with those recommendations. Respondents who were aware of the recommendations were more likely to think that Tdap is safe and effective, that their patients are at significant risk of getting pertussis, and to feel that they have sufficient information (p < 0.0001 for each statement). Focus group data supported the survey results and indicated that there are substantial gaps in knowledge of pertussis and Tdap among Canadian HCPs. Lack of public knowledge about adult immunization, lack of immunization registries, a costing differential between Td and Tdap, workload required to deliver the vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy were identified as barriers to compliance with the national recommendations for universal adult immunization, and suggestions were provided to better translate recommendations to front-line practitioners. PMID:26090861

  18. Flavonoids from the cocoon of Rondotia menciana.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Chikara; Ono, Hiroshi; Meng, Yan; Shimada, Toru; Daimon, Takaaki

    2013-10-01

    Two flavonol glycosides along with four known flavonoids were isolated from the cocoon of the mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae: Bombycinae), a closely related species of the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori, both of which feed on leaves of mulberry (Morus alba). The two glycosides were characterized as quercetin 3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-d-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-d-galactopyranoside, based on spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. The flavonol galactosides found in the cocoon were not present in the host plant, nor in the cocoon of the silkworm, B. mori. Notably, flavonol glucosides, which are the main constituents of cocoon flavonoids in B. mori mori, were not found in the R. menciana cocoon. The present result strongly suggests that R. menciana is quite unique in that they predominantly use an UDP-galactosyltransferase for conjugation of dietary flavonoids, whereas UDP-glucosyltransferases are generally used for conjugation of plant phenolics and xenobiotics in other insects. PMID:23830693

  19. Fish mucous cocoons: the 'mosquito nets' of the sea.

    PubMed

    Grutter, Alexandra S; Rumney, Jennifer G; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Waldie, Peter; Franklin, Craig E

    2011-04-23

    Mucus performs numerous protective functions in vertebrates, and in fishes may defend them against harmful organisms, although often the evidence is contradictory. The function of the mucous cocoons that many parrotfishes and wrasses sleep in, while long used as a classical example of antipredator behaviour, remains unresolved. Ectoparasitic gnathiid isopods (Gnathiidae), which feed on the blood of fish, are removed by cleaner fish during the day; however, it is unclear how parrotfish and wrasse avoid gnathiid attacks at night. To test the novel hypothesis that mucous cocoons protect against gnathiids, we exposed the coral reef parrotfish Chlorurus sordidus (Scaridae) with and without cocoons to gnathiids overnight and measured the energetic content of cocoons. Fish without mucous cocoons were attacked more by gnathiids than fish with cocoons. The energetic content of mucous cocoons was estimated as 2.5 per cent of the fish's daily energy budget fish. Therefore, mucous cocoons protected against attacks by gnathiids, acting like mosquito nets in humans, a function of cocoons and an efficient physiological adaptation for preventing parasite infestation that is not used by any other animal. PMID:21084337

  20. Electricity from the Silk Cocoon Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulachan, Brindan; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Mallick, Chandrakant; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Teotia, Arun Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Bhattacharya, Shantanu; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

    2014-06-01

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM) is an insect engineered structure. We studied the electrical properties of mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Tussar, Antheraea mylitta) SCM. When dry, SCM behaves like an insulator. On absorbing moisture, it generates electrical current, which is modulated by temperature. The current flowing across the SCM is possibly ionic and protonic in nature. We exploited the electrical properties of SCM to develop simple energy harvesting devices, which could operate low power electronic systems. Based on our findings, we propose that the temperature and humidity dependent electrical properties of the SCM could find applications in battery technology, bio-sensor, humidity sensor, steam engines and waste heat management.

  1. Directional moisture transfer through a wild silkworm cocoon wall.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xing; Zhang, Jin; Gao, Weimin; Du, Shan; Li, Jingliang; Wang, Xungai

    2016-01-01

    A silkworm cocoon is a porous biological structure with multiple protective functions. In the current work, the authors have used both experimental and numerical methods to reveal the unique moisture transfer characteristics through a wild Antheraea pernyi silkworm cocoon wall, in comparison with the long-domesticated Bombyx mori silkworm cocoon walls. The water vapor transmission and water vapor permeability (WVP) properties show that the A. pernyi cocoons exhibit directional moisture transfer behavior, with easier moisture transfer from inside out than outside in [e.g., the average WVP is 0.057 g/(h m bar) from inside out and is 0.034 g/(h m bar) from outside in]. Numerical analysis shows that the cubic mineral crystals in the outer section of the A. pernyi cocoon wall create a rough surface that facilitates air turbulence and promotes disturbance amplitude of the flow field, leading to lengthened water vapor transfer path and increased tortuosity of the moist air. It also indicates the vortex of water vapor can be generated in the outer section of cocoon wall, which increases the diffusion distance of water vapor and enhances the turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence eddy dissipation, signifying higher moisture resistance in the outer section. The difference in moisture resistance of the multiple A. pernyi cocoon layers is largely responsible for the unique directional moisture transfer behavior of this wild silkworm cocoon. These findings may inspire a biomimicry approach to develop novel lightweight moisture management materials and structures. PMID:27226205

  2. Soft magnetic memory of silk cocoon membrane.

    PubMed

    Roy, Manas; Dubey, Amarish; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Philip, Deepu; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Bajpai, Alok; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM), a solid matrix of protein fiber, responds to light, heat and moisture and converts these energies to electrical signals. Essentially it exhibits photo-electric and thermo-electric properties; making it a natural electro-magnetic sensor, which may influence the pupal development. This raises the question: 'is it only electricity?', or 'it also posses some kind of magnetic memory?' This work attempted to explore the magnetic memory of SCM and confirm its soft magnetism. Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, Gd were found in SCM, in traces, through energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Presence of iron was ascertained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). In addition, EPR-spectra showed the presence of a stable pool of carbon-centric free radical in the cocoon structure. Carbon-centric free radicals behaves as a soft magnet inherently. Magnetic-Hysteresis (M-H) of SCM confirmed its soft magnetism. It can be concluded that the soft bio-magnetic feature of SCM is due to the entrapment of ferromagnetic elements in a stable pool of carbon centric radicals occurring on the super-coiled protein structure. Natural soft magnets like SCM provide us with models for developing eco-friendly, protein-based biological soft magnets. PMID:27374752

  3. Soft magnetic memory of silk cocoon membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Manas; Dubey, Amarish; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Philip, Deepu; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Bajpai, Alok; Das, Mainak

    2016-07-01

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM), a solid matrix of protein fiber, responds to light, heat and moisture and converts these energies to electrical signals. Essentially it exhibits photo-electric and thermo-electric properties; making it a natural electro-magnetic sensor, which may influence the pupal development. This raises the question: ‘is it only electricity?’, or ‘it also posses some kind of magnetic memory?’ This work attempted to explore the magnetic memory of SCM and confirm its soft magnetism. Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, Gd were found in SCM, in traces, through energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Presence of iron was ascertained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). In addition, EPR-spectra showed the presence of a stable pool of carbon-centric free radical in the cocoon structure. Carbon-centric free radicals behaves as a soft magnet inherently. Magnetic-Hysteresis (M-H) of SCM confirmed its soft magnetism. It can be concluded that the soft bio-magnetic feature of SCM is due to the entrapment of ferromagnetic elements in a stable pool of carbon centric radicals occurring on the super-coiled protein structure. Natural soft magnets like SCM provide us with models for developing eco-friendly, protein-based biological soft magnets.

  4. Soft magnetic memory of silk cocoon membrane

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Manas; Dubey, Amarish; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Philip, Deepu; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Bajpai, Alok; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM), a solid matrix of protein fiber, responds to light, heat and moisture and converts these energies to electrical signals. Essentially it exhibits photo-electric and thermo-electric properties; making it a natural electro-magnetic sensor, which may influence the pupal development. This raises the question: ‘is it only electricity?’, or ‘it also posses some kind of magnetic memory?’ This work attempted to explore the magnetic memory of SCM and confirm its soft magnetism. Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, Gd were found in SCM, in traces, through energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Presence of iron was ascertained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). In addition, EPR-spectra showed the presence of a stable pool of carbon-centric free radical in the cocoon structure. Carbon-centric free radicals behaves as a soft magnet inherently. Magnetic-Hysteresis (M-H) of SCM confirmed its soft magnetism. It can be concluded that the soft bio-magnetic feature of SCM is due to the entrapment of ferromagnetic elements in a stable pool of carbon centric radicals occurring on the super-coiled protein structure. Natural soft magnets like SCM provide us with models for developing eco-friendly, protein-based biological soft magnets. PMID:27374752

  5. Immunogenicity and safety results from a randomized multicenter trial comparing a Tdap-IPV vaccine (REPEVAX®) and a tetanus monovalent vaccine in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Laurichesse, Henri; Zimmermann, Ulrich; Galtier, Florence; Launay, Odile; Duval, Xavier; Richard, Patrick; Sadorge, Christine; Soubeyrand, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    In adults with a tetanus-prone injury, combined vaccines such as Tdap-IPV (REPEVAX®) can boost immunity against several diseases simultaneously. This Phase IIIb, parallel-group, open-label trial compared antibody responses to Tdap-IPV and tetanus monovalent vaccine (TMV; Vaccin Tétanique Pasteur® or Tetavax®) against tetanus toxoid 10 and 28 d post-vaccination. Between July and December 2009, four centers in France and five in Germany recruited healthy adults who had received a tetanus-containing vaccine 5−10 y previously. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive at the first visit a single dose (0.5 mL) of Tdap-IPV or TMV, with follow-up visits at Day 10 and Day 28. Outcomes: per protocol (PP) population immunogenicity at Day 10 (primary) and at Day 28 (secondary); safety throughout the study. Of 456 adults randomized, 223 received Tdap-IPV and 233 received TMV (PP population: 183 and 199 participants, respectively). All participants receiving Tdap-IPV and 99.0% receiving TMV had an anti-tetanus antibody concentration ≥ 0.1 IU/mL, confirming non-inferiority of Tdap-IPV to TMV (95% confidence interval of the difference: –1.2, 3.6). Number of adverse events reported was comparable in each group. Injection-site reactions were reported by 76.6% participants receiving Tdap-IPV and 74.6% receiving TMV. Systemic events (e.g., malaise, myalgia and headache) were reported in 47.7% and 39.7% of the Tdap-IPV and the TMV groups, respectively. Tdap-IPV is effective and well-tolerated for use in the management of tetanus-prone injuries in emergency settings in persons for whom a booster against diphtheria, pertussis and poliomyelitis is also needed. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00928785. Research sponsored by Sanofi Pasteur MSD. PMID:23032160

  6. Presence of Culturable Bacteria in Cocoons of the Earthworm Eisenia fetida†

    PubMed Central

    Zachmann, Joseph E.; Molina, J. A. E.

    1993-01-01

    Viable bacteria were found to coexist with developing embryos in egg capsules (cocoons) of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Earthworms were reared under standardized conditions, and bacterial densities were measured in distinct batches of cocoons collected weekly for 10 weeks. Cocoons weighing 12 mg contained a mean viable bacterial population of approximately 108 CFU/g of cocoons. No difference was found in viable counts obtained from cocoons incubated at 15°C and cocoons incubated at 24°C. Viable bacterial numbers increased with cocoon age, while acridine orange direct counts of microbial cells were stable at approximately 109 cells per g of cocoons. Bacteria isolated from cocoons were used to develop antisera in rabbits for the production of strain-specific fluorescent antibodies. Fluorescent antibody and selective plating techniques were used to monitor populations of these bacteria in earthworm bedding and to determine whether cocoons acquire bacteria from the environment in which they are formed. Cocoon isolates were readily recovered from cocoons formed in inoculated bedding at densities of 108 CFU/g of cocoons. Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 and UMR 161 added to bedding were also recovered from cocoons, but at lower densities than cocoon isolates. Escherichia coli K-12(pJP4) inoculum was recovered from bedding but not from cocoons. The bacterial complement of Eisenia fetida cocoons is affected by inoculation of selected bacterial isolates in the worm growth environment. PMID:16348968

  7. Electricity from the Silk Cocoon Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Tulachan, Brindan; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Mallick, Chandrakant; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Teotia, Arun Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Bhattacharya, Shantanu; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

    2014-01-01

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM) is an insect engineered structure. We studied the electrical properties of mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Tussar, Antheraea mylitta) SCM. When dry, SCM behaves like an insulator. On absorbing moisture, it generates electrical current, which is modulated by temperature. The current flowing across the SCM is possibly ionic and protonic in nature. We exploited the electrical properties of SCM to develop simple energy harvesting devices, which could operate low power electronic systems. Based on our findings, we propose that the temperature and humidity dependent electrical properties of the SCM could find applications in battery technology, bio-sensor, humidity sensor, steam engines and waste heat management. PMID:24961354

  8. Electricity from the silk cocoon membrane.

    PubMed

    Tulachan, Brindan; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Mallick, Chandrakant; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Teotia, Arun Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Bhattacharya, Shantanu; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

    2014-01-01

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM) is an insect engineered structure. We studied the electrical properties of mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Tussar, Antheraea mylitta) SCM. When dry, SCM behaves like an insulator. On absorbing moisture, it generates electrical current, which is modulated by temperature. The current flowing across the SCM is possibly ionic and protonic in nature. We exploited the electrical properties of SCM to develop simple energy harvesting devices, which could operate low power electronic systems. Based on our findings, we propose that the temperature and humidity dependent electrical properties of the SCM could find applications in battery technology, bio-sensor, humidity sensor, steam engines and waste heat management. PMID:24961354

  9. Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2010-10-15

    The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

  10. Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2010-10-01

    The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

  11. The Next Decade in Career Counseling: Cocoon Maintenance or Metamorphosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmer, Twinet; Rush, Lee Covington

    2003-01-01

    Articulates the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, and future vision for career counseling using a cocoon maintenance or metamorphosis metaphor. Concludes with a vision for the future for the discipline and profession of career counseling. (Contains 40 references.) (GCP)

  12. Mechanics of cocoon secretion in a segmented worm (Annelida: Hirudinidae).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Anthony M; Saidel, William M; Gravante, Christopher J; Sayers, Charlene W; Shain, Daniel H

    2016-07-01

    Clitellate annelids (e.g., segmented earthworms, leeches) secrete proteinaceous cocoons into which eggs are deposited. The process of cocoon production is characterized by the coordinated release of micro-granules from secretory cells positioned asymmetrically within the clitellum. Collectively, these assemble into a tubular cocoon sheath that is sealed at either end by globular opercula. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we show here that granules destined to the cocoon operculum in the leech, Erpodbdella obscura, display a series of concentric rings surrounding a structureless core with dimensions approximating a single nanoglobule found in the operculum. Upon their channeling to the surface through narrow tubules, granules are secreted into the cocoon lumen where they appear to fragment upon contact with the operculum matrix. The distribution of partial concentric ring structures throughout the operculum suggests that granular fusion causes dynamic fragmentation of outer surface material, which thereafter integrates into operculum nanoglobules and cavities. Other granules within the same secretory cell display a punctate pattern and likely fuse with the cocoon sheath prior to crystallization. PMID:27129037

  13. Evolution of clouds in radio galaxy cocoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellema, G.; Kurk, J. D.; Röttgering, H. J. A.

    2002-11-01

    This letter presents a numerical study of the evolution of an emission line cloud of initial density 10 cm-3, temperature 104 K, and size 200 pc, being overtaken by a strong shock wave. Whereas previous simple models proposed that such a cloud would either be completely destroyed, or simply shrink in size, our results show a different and more complex behaviour: due to rapid cooling, the cloud breaks up into many small and dense fragments, which can survive for a long time. We show that such rapid cooling behaviour is expected for a wide range of cloud and shock properties. This process applies to the evolution of emission line clouds being overtaken by the cocoon of a radio jet. The resulting small clouds would be Jeans unstable, and form stars. Our results thus give theoretical credibility to the process of jet induced star formation, one of the explanations for the alignment of the optical/UV and radio axis observed in high redshift radio galaxies.

  14. Transgenic silkworms produce recombinant human type III procollagen in cocoons.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Masahiro; Munetsuna, Hiroto; Sato, Tsutomu; Adachi, Takahiro; Hino, Rika; Hayashi, Masahiro; Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Nakamura, Namiko; Tamura, Toshiki; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi

    2003-01-01

    We describe the generation of transgenic silkworms that produce cocoons containing recombinant human collagen. A fusion cDNA was constructed encoding a protein that incorporated a human type III procollagen mini-chain with C-propeptide deleted, a fibroin light chain (L-chain), and an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). This cDNA was ligated downstream of the fibroin L-chain promoter and inserted into a piggyBac vector. Silkworm eggs were injected with the vectors, producing worms displaying EGFP fluorescence in their silk glands. The cocoons emitted EGFP fluorescence, indicating that the promoter and fibroin L-chain cDNAs directed the synthesized products to be secreted into cocoons. The presence of fusion proteins in cocoons was demonstrated by immunoblotting, collagenase-sensitivity tests, and amino acid sequencing. The fusion proteins from cocoons were purified to a single electrophoretic band. This study demonstrates the viability of transgenic silkworms as a tool for producing useful proteins in bulk. PMID:12483223

  15. An Unlikely Silk: The Composite Material of Green Lacewing Cocoons

    SciTech Connect

    Weisman, Sarah; Trueman, Holly E.; Mudie, Stephen T.; Church, Jeffrey S.; Sutherland, Tara D.; Haritos, Victoria S.

    2009-01-15

    Spiders routinely produce multiple types of silk; however, common wisdom has held that insect species produce one type of silk each. This work reports that the green lacewing (Mallada signata, Neuroptera) produces two distinct classes of silk. We identified and sequenced the gene that encodes the major protein component of the larval lacewing cocoon silk and demonstrated that it is unrelated to the adult lacewing egg-stalk silk. The cocoon silk protein is 49 kDa in size and is alanine rich (>40%), and it contains an {alpha}-helical secondary structure. The final instar lacewing larvae spin protein fibers of {approx}2 {mu}m diameter to construct a loosely woven cocoon. In a second stage of cocoon construction, the insects lay down an inner wall of lipids that uses the fibers as a scaffold. We propose that the silk protein fibers provide the mechanical strength of the composite lacewing cocoon whereas the lipid layer provides a barrier to water loss during pupation.

  16. Pertussis vaccination during pregnancy: Antibody persistence in infants.

    PubMed

    Vilajeliu, Alba; Ferrer, Laia; Munrós, Jordina; Goncé, Anna; López, Marta; Costa, Josep; Bayas, José M

    2016-07-19

    Maternal pertussis vaccination is associated with higher levels of pertussis antibodies at birth. We assessed the persistence of pertussis antibodies until primary vaccination in infants whose mothers received Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis) vaccine during pregnancy. Infants were born at the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona (Spain) in November 2014. Anti-PT IgG was determined by ELISA at delivery, between the first and second month of life, and estimated at 2months of age. The study included 37 infants whose mothers received Tdap between 21 and 38weeks of gestation. Infants presented a decline in GMC of anti-PT IgG between peripartum and follow-up levels, 52.7 (95% CI 34.7-80.2) versus 7.5 (95% CI 4.2-13.3) at 2months of age (p<0.001). The median half-life of maternal antibodies was 47days. More than half (51.4%) the infants presented detectable anti-PT IgG before the start of primary infant vaccination. PMID:27265448

  17. Vaccine safety implications of Ontario, Canada's switch from DTaP-IPV to Tdap-IPV for the pre-school booster.

    PubMed

    Klar, Salman; Harris, Tara; Wong, Kenny; Fediurek, Jill; Deeks, Shelley L

    2014-11-12

    Ontario, Canada, replaced the 4-6 year old diphtheria (D, d), tetanus (T), acellular pertussis (aP, ap) and polio (IPV) booster from DTaP-IPV to Tdap-IPV in May 2012. We assessed the impact of this replacement on the rate and types of reported adverse events following immunization (AEFIs). We used AEFIs reported among 4-6 years olds, through the provincial surveillance system, following administration of DTaP-IPV or Tdap-IPV from 2009 to 2013. Reporting rates per 100,000 doses distributed were calculated using publicly funded doses distributed as the denominator. A total of 204 AEFIs were reported (DTaP-IPV, n=182; Tdap-IPV, n=22). AEFI reporting rates were 33.1 and 6.3 per 100,000 doses distributed for DTaP-IPV and Tdap-IPV, respectively. Injection site reaction rate was lower for Tdap-IPV compared with DTaP-IPV (1.7 vs 20.6 per 100,000 doses). The replacement resulted in a decline in the number of reports and AEFI reporting rates, most notably a substantial decrease in injection site reactions. PMID:25252195

  18. Abdominal Cocoon in Association with Adenomyosis and Leiomyomata of the Uterus and Endometriotic Cyst : Unusual Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Mohd. Noor, Nor Haznita; Zaki, Nik Mohamed; Kaur, Gurjeet; Naik, Venkatesh R.; Zakaria, Ahmad Zahari

    2004-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a rare condition. A 46 year old Malay woman with adenomyosis and leiomyomata of the uterus and ovarian endometriotic cyst in association with abdominal cocoon is reported. PMID:22977364

  19. Water balance of field-excavated aestivating Australian desert frogs, the cocoon-forming Neobatrachus aquilonius and the non-cocooning Notaden nichollsi (Amphibia: Myobatrachidae).

    PubMed

    Cartledge, Victoria A; Withers, Philip C; McMaster, Kellie A; Thompson, Graham G; Bradshaw, S Don

    2006-09-01

    Burrowed aestivating frogs of the cocoon-forming species Neobatrachus aquilonius and the non-cocooning species Notaden nichollsi were excavated in the Gibson Desert of central Australia. Their hydration state (osmotic pressure of the plasma and urine) was compared to the moisture content and water potential of the surrounding soil. The non-cocooning N. nichollsi was consistently found in sand dunes. While this sand had favourable water potential properties for buried frogs, the considerable spatial and temporal variation in sand moisture meant that frogs were not always in positive water balance with respect to the surrounding soil. The cocoon-forming N. aquilonius was excavated from two distinct habitat types, a claypan in which frogs had a well-formed cocoon and a dune swale where frogs did not have a cocoon. Cocoons of excavated frogs ranged in thickness from 19.4 microm to 55.61 microm and consisted of 81-229 layers. Cocooned claypan N. aquilonius were nearing exhaustion of their bladder water reserves and had a urine osmolality approaching that of the plasma. By contrast, non-cocooned N. aquilonius from the dune swale were fully hydrated, although soil moisture levels were not as high as calculated to be necessary to maintain water balance. Both species had similar plasma arginine vasotocin (AVT) concentrations ranging from 9.4 to 164 pg ml(-1), except for one cocooned N. aquilonius with a higher concentration of 394 pg ml(-1). For both species, AVT showed no relationship with plasma osmolality over the lower range of plasma osmolalities but was appreciably increased at the highest osmolality recorded. This study provides the first evidence that cocoon formation following burrowing is not obligatory in species that are capable of doing so, but that cocoon formation occurs when soil water conditions are more desiccating than for non-cocooned frogs. PMID:16916967

  20. Microarray analysis of New Green Cocoon associated genes in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ya-Ru; He, Song-Zhen; Tong, Xiao-Ling; Han, Min-Jin; Li, Chun-Lin; Li, Zhi-Quan; Dai, Fang-Yin

    2016-06-01

    Green cocoons in silkworm, Bombyx mori, are caused by flavonoids accumulation in the silk proteins, fibroin and sericin. Despite the economic value of natural green cocoon and medical value of flavonoids, there is limited understanding of the molecular mechanism regulating flavonoids uptake in silkworm, which is tightly associated with the trait of green cocoon. The purpose of this study is to perform a comprehensive analysis to understand the molecular mechanisms of flavonoids uptake in silkworm based on microarray analyses. The study subject was the New Green Cocoon from the silkworm strains, G200 and N100, a new spontaneous dominant green cocoon trait identified in the 2000s. The genes regulating this trait are independent of other green cocoon genes previously reported. Genome-wide gene expression was compared between the New Green Cocoon producing silkworm strains, G200 and N100, and the control sample, which is the white cocoon producing strain 872B. Among these strains, N100 and 872B are near-isogenic lines. The results showed that 130 genes have consistently changing expression patterns in the green cocoon strains when compared with the white cocoon strain. Among these, we focused on the genes related to flavonoids metabolism and absorption, such as sugar transporter genes and UDP-glucosyltransferase genes. Based on our findings, we propose the potential mechanisms for flavonoids absorption and metabolism in silkworm. Our results imply that silkworm might be used as an underlying model for flavonoids in pharmaceutical research. PMID:26936509

  1. Probing the Nature of the Vela X Cocoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Slane, Patrick O.; de Jager, Okkie C.

    2008-12-01

    Vela X is a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) associated with the active pulsar B0833-45 and contained within the Vela supernova remnant (SNR). A collimated X-ray filament ("cocoon") extends south-southwest from the pulsar to the center of Vela X. VLA observations uncovered radio emission coincident with the eastern edge of the cocoon, and H.E.S.S. has detected TeV γ-ray emission from this region as well. Using XMM-Newton archival data, covering the southern portion of this feature, we analyze the X-ray properties of the cocoon. The X-ray data are best fit by an absorbed nonequilibrium plasma model with a power-law component. Our analysis of the thermal emission shows enhanced abundances of O, Ne, and Mg within the cocoon, indicating the presence of ejecta-rich material from the propagation of the SNR reverse shock, consistent with Vela X being a disrupted PWN. We investigate the physical processes that excite the electrons in the PWN to emit in the radio, X-ray, and γ-ray bands. The radio and nonthermal X-ray emission can be explained by synchrotron emission. We model the γ-ray emission by inverse Compton scattering of electrons off of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons. We use a three-component broken power law to model the synchrotron emission, finding an intrinsic break in the electron spectrum at ~5 × 106 keV and a cooling break at ~5.5 × 1010 keV. This cooling break along with a magnetic field strength of 5 × 10-6 G indicate that the synchrotron break occurs at ~1 keV.

  2. Two consecutive randomized controlled pertussis booster trials in children initially vaccinated in infancy with an acellular vaccine: The first with a five-component Tdap vaccine to 5-year olds and the second with five- or monocomponent Tdap vaccines at age 14-15 years.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, R M; Gustafsson, L; Hallander, H O; Ljungman, M; Olin, P; Gothefors, L; Nilsson, L; Netterlid, E

    2015-07-17

    Prior study children from a DTaP efficacy trial were recruited at ages 5 and 15 years to randomized booster trials addressing immunogenicity and reactogenicity; 475 preschool children received mixed or separate injections of a reduced antigen vaccine (Tdap5, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and an inactivated polio vaccine, and 230 adolescents received the same or another booster vaccine (Tdap1, SSI, Denmark). Pre-vaccination antibody concentrations against pertussis antigens were significantly higher at 15 than 5 years of age, probably due to natural boosting between the studies. Tdap5 induced comparable anti-PT concentrations at both ages, but antibody responses were significantly higher to filamentous haemagglutinin, pertactin and fimbriae 2/3 in adolescents. As expected, a higher amount of PT (Tdap1, 20μg) induced a stronger anti-PT response than a lower amount (Tdap5, 2.5μg). The frequency of adverse events was low and there were no serious adverse reactions. All local reactions had an early onset and a short duration. A large swelling or redness of more than half of the upper arm circumference was reported in 8/475 5-year-olds and in 6/230 15-year-olds. Children vaccinated with Tdap5 reported more moderate pain in adolescence than at preschool age, whereas itching was only reported in preschool children. Sweden introduced DTaP vaccines in 1996 after a 17-year hiatus with no general pertussis vaccination and pertussis was still endemic at the time of the studies. The frequency of adverse events was nevertheless low in both preschool children and adolescents and antibody responses were adequate. These studies document immunogenicity and reactogenicity in a trial cohort consecutively vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccines from infancy to adolescence. The adolescent study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on 26 March 2009 (NCT00870350). PMID:26057135

  3. Action of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on cocoon spinning in Ceraeochrysa claveri (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; Garcia, Ana Silvia Gimenes; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Santos, Daniela Carvalho

    2013-11-01

    Neem oil is a biopesticide that disturbs the endocrine and neuroendocrine systems of pests and may interfere with molting, metamorphosis and cocoon spinning. The cocoon serves protective functions for the pupa during metamorphosis, and these functions are dependent on cocoon structure. To assess the changes in cocoon spinning caused by neem oil ingestion, Ceraeochrysa claveri larvae, a common polyphagous predator, were fed with neem oil throughout the larval period. When treated with neem oil, changes were observed on the outer and inner surfaces of the C. claveri cocoon, such as decreased wall thickness and impaired ability to attach to a substrate. These negative effects may reduce the effectiveness of the mechanical and protective functions of cocoons during pupation, which makes the specimen more vulnerable to natural enemies and environmental factors. PMID:23993219

  4. Strain Rate and Anisotropic Microstructure Dependent Mechanical Behaviors of Silkworm Cocoon Shells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Wen; Gao, Xiang; Meng, Wanlin; Guan, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Silkworm cocoons are multi-layered composite structures comprised of high strength silk fiber and sericin, and their mechanical properties have been naturally selected to protect pupas during metamorphosis from various types of external attacks. The present study attempts to gain a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical properties of cocoon shell materials from wild silkworm species Antheraea pernyi under dynamic loading rates. Five dynamic strain rates from 0.00625 s-1 to 12.5 s-1 are tested to show the strain rate sensitivity of the cocoon shell material. In the meantime, the anisotropy of the cocoon shell is considered and the cocoon shell specimens are cut along 0°, 45° and 90° orientation to the short axis of cocoons. Typical mechanical properties including Young’s modulus, yield strength, ultimate strength and ultimate strain are extracted and analyzed from the stress-strain curves. Furthermore, the fracture morphologies of the cocoon shell specimens are observed under scanning electron microscopy to help understand the relationship between the mechanical properties and the microstructures of the cocoon material. A discussion on the dynamic strain rate effect on the mechanical properties of cocoon shell material is followed by fitting our experimental results to two previous models, and the effect could be well explained. We also compare natural and dried cocoon materials for the dynamic strain rate effect and interestingly the dried cocoon shells show better overall mechanical properties. This study provides a different perspective on the mechanical properties of cocoon material as a composite material, and provides some insight for bio-inspired engineering materials. PMID:26939063

  5. Strain Rate and Anisotropic Microstructure Dependent Mechanical Behaviors of Silkworm Cocoon Shells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Wen; Gao, Xiang; Meng, Wanlin; Guan, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Silkworm cocoons are multi-layered composite structures comprised of high strength silk fiber and sericin, and their mechanical properties have been naturally selected to protect pupas during metamorphosis from various types of external attacks. The present study attempts to gain a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical properties of cocoon shell materials from wild silkworm species Antheraea pernyi under dynamic loading rates. Five dynamic strain rates from 0.00625 s-1 to 12.5 s-1 are tested to show the strain rate sensitivity of the cocoon shell material. In the meantime, the anisotropy of the cocoon shell is considered and the cocoon shell specimens are cut along 0°, 45° and 90° orientation to the short axis of cocoons. Typical mechanical properties including Young's modulus, yield strength, ultimate strength and ultimate strain are extracted and analyzed from the stress-strain curves. Furthermore, the fracture morphologies of the cocoon shell specimens are observed under scanning electron microscopy to help understand the relationship between the mechanical properties and the microstructures of the cocoon material. A discussion on the dynamic strain rate effect on the mechanical properties of cocoon shell material is followed by fitting our experimental results to two previous models, and the effect could be well explained. We also compare natural and dried cocoon materials for the dynamic strain rate effect and interestingly the dried cocoon shells show better overall mechanical properties. This study provides a different perspective on the mechanical properties of cocoon material as a composite material, and provides some insight for bio-inspired engineering materials. PMID:26939063

  6. Fish mucous cocoons: the ‘mosquito nets’ of the sea

    PubMed Central

    Grutter, Alexandra S.; Rumney, Jennifer G.; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Waldie, Peter; Franklin, Craig E.

    2011-01-01

    Mucus performs numerous protective functions in vertebrates, and in fishes may defend them against harmful organisms, although often the evidence is contradictory. The function of the mucous cocoons that many parrotfishes and wrasses sleep in, while long used as a classical example of antipredator behaviour, remains unresolved. Ectoparasitic gnathiid isopods (Gnathiidae), which feed on the blood of fish, are removed by cleaner fish during the day; however, it is unclear how parrotfish and wrasse avoid gnathiid attacks at night. To test the novel hypothesis that mucous cocoons protect against gnathiids, we exposed the coral reef parrotfish Chlorurus sordidus (Scaridae) with and without cocoons to gnathiids overnight and measured the energetic content of cocoons. Fish without mucous cocoons were attacked more by gnathiids than fish with cocoons. The energetic content of mucous cocoons was estimated as 2.5 per cent of the fish's daily energy budget fish. Therefore, mucous cocoons protected against attacks by gnathiids, acting like mosquito nets in humans, a function of cocoons and an efficient physiological adaptation for preventing parasite infestation that is not used by any other animal. PMID:21084337

  7. Proteins in the Cocoon of Silkworm Inhibit the Growth of Beauveria bassiana

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Youshan; Liu, Huawei; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Silk cocoons are composed of fiber proteins (fibroins) and adhesive glue proteins (sericins), which provide a physical barrier to protect the inside pupa. Moreover, other proteins were identified in the cocoon silk, many of which are immune related proteins. In this study, we extracted proteins from the silkworm cocoon by Tris-HCl buffer (pH7.5), and found that they had a strong inhibitory activity against fungal proteases and they had higher abundance in the outer cocoon layers than in the inner cocoon layers. Moreover, we found that extracted cocoon proteins can inhibit the germination of Beauveria bassiana spores. Consistent with the distribution of protease inhibitors, we found that proteins from the outer cocoon layers showed better inhibitory effects against B. bassiana spores than proteins from the inner layers. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to reveal the extracted components in the scaffold silk, the outermost cocoon layer. A total of 129 proteins were identified, 30 of which were annotated as protease inhibitors. Protease inhibitors accounted for 89.1% in abundance among extracted proteins. These protease inhibitors have many intramolecular disulfide bonds to maintain their stable structure, and remained active after being boiled. This study added a new understanding to the antimicrobial function of the cocoon. PMID:27032085

  8. Comparative proteome analysis of multi-layer cocoon of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Ping; Dong, Zhaoming; Wang, Dandan; Guo, Pengchao; Guo, Xiaomeng; Song, Qianru; Zhang, Weiwei; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    Bombyx mori cocoon has a multi-layer structure that provides optimal protection for silkworm pupa. Research on the mechanical properties of the multi-layer structure revealed structure-property relationships of the cocoon. Here, we investigated the protein components of the B. mori cocoon in terms of its multi-layer structure. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified 286 proteins from the multiple cocoon layers. In addition to fibroins and sericins, we identified abundant protease inhibitors, seroins and proteins of unknown function. By comparing protein abundance across layers, we found that the outermost layer contained more sericin1 and protease inhibitors and the innermost layer had more seroin1. As many as 36 protease inhibitors were identified in cocoons, showing efficient inhibitory activities against a fungal protease. Thus, we propose that more abundant protease inhibitors in the outer cocoon layers may provide better protection for the cocoon. This study increases our understanding of the multi-layer mechanism of cocoons, and helps clarify the biological characteristics of cocoons. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001469. PMID:25860555

  9. Proteins in the Cocoon of Silkworm Inhibit the Growth of Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaomeng; Dong, Zhaoming; Zhang, Yan; Li, Youshan; Liu, Huawei; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Silk cocoons are composed of fiber proteins (fibroins) and adhesive glue proteins (sericins), which provide a physical barrier to protect the inside pupa. Moreover, other proteins were identified in the cocoon silk, many of which are immune related proteins. In this study, we extracted proteins from the silkworm cocoon by Tris-HCl buffer (pH7.5), and found that they had a strong inhibitory activity against fungal proteases and they had higher abundance in the outer cocoon layers than in the inner cocoon layers. Moreover, we found that extracted cocoon proteins can inhibit the germination of Beauveria bassiana spores. Consistent with the distribution of protease inhibitors, we found that proteins from the outer cocoon layers showed better inhibitory effects against B. bassiana spores than proteins from the inner layers. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to reveal the extracted components in the scaffold silk, the outermost cocoon layer. A total of 129 proteins were identified, 30 of which were annotated as protease inhibitors. Protease inhibitors accounted for 89.1% in abundance among extracted proteins. These protease inhibitors have many intramolecular disulfide bonds to maintain their stable structure, and remained active after being boiled. This study added a new understanding to the antimicrobial function of the cocoon. PMID:27032085

  10. Strategies to decrease pertussis transmission to infants.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Kevin; Plotkin, Stanley; Tan, Tina; Wirsing von König, Carl Heinz

    2015-06-01

    The Global Pertussis Initiative (GPI) is an expert scientific forum addressing the worldwide burden of pertussis, which remains a serious health issue, especially in infants. This age cohort is at risk for developing pertussis by transmission from those in close proximity. Risk is increased in infants aged 0 to 6 weeks, as they are too young to be vaccinated. Older infants are at risk when their vaccination schedules are incomplete. Infants also bear the greatest disease burden owing to their high risk for pertussis-related complications and death; therefore, protecting them is a high priority. Two vaccine strategies have been proposed to protect infants. The first involves vaccinating pregnant women, which directly protects through the passive transfer of pertussis antibodies. The second strategy, cocooning, involves vaccinating parents, caregivers, and other close contacts, which indirectly protects infants from transmission by preventing disease in those in close proximity. The goal of this review was to present and discuss evidence on these 2 strategies. Based on available data, the GPI recommends vaccination during pregnancy as the primary strategy, given its efficacy, safety, and logistic advantages over a cocoon approach. If vaccination during pregnancy is not feasible, then all individuals having close contact with infants <6 months old should be immunized consistent with local health authority guidelines. These efforts are anticipated to minimize pertussis transmission to vulnerable infants, although real-world effectiveness data are limited. Countries should educate lay and medical communities on pertussis and introduce robust surveillance practices while implementing these protective strategies. PMID:25963002

  11. Mechanical properties of cocoons constructed consecutively by a single silkworm caterpillar, Bombyx mori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S. Q.; Zhao, H. P.; Feng, X. Q.; Cui, W.; Lin, Z.; Xu, M. Q.

    2008-04-01

    Most animals have the ability to adapt, to some extends and in different ways, the variation or disturbance of environment. In our experiments, we forced a silkworm caterpillar to spin two, three or four thin cocoons by taking it out from the cocoon being constructed. The mechanical properties of these cocoons were studied by static tensile tests and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. Though external disturbances may cause the decrease in the total weight of silk spun by the silkworm, a gradual enhancement was interestingly found in the mechanical properties of these thin cocoons. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the fractured specimens of the cocoons showed that there exist several different energy dissipation mechanisms occurred simultaneously at macro-, meso-, and micro-scales, yielding a superior capacity of cocoons to adsorb the energy of possible attacks from the outside and to protect efficiently its pupa against damage. Through evolution of millions of years, therefore, the silkworm Bombyx mori seems to have gained the ability to adapt external disturbances and to redesign a new cocoon with optimized protective function when its first cocoon has been damaged for some reasons.

  12. Research on non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoons based on image processing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yong; Kong, Qing-hua; Wei, Li-fu

    2008-03-01

    The major studied in this dissertation is the non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoon's quality, based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. Through the images collection and the data analysis, procession and calculation of the tested silkworm cocoons with the non-destructive testing technology, internet applications automatically reckon all items of the classification indexes. Finally we can conclude the classification result and the purchase price of the silkworm cocoons. According to the domestic classification standard of the silkworm cocoons, the author investigates various testing methods of silkworm cocoons which are used or have been explored at present, and devices a non-destructive testing scheme of the silkworm cocoons based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. They are dissertated about the project design of the experiment. The precisions of all the implements are demonstrated. I establish Manifold mathematic models, compare them with each other and analyze the precision with technology of databank to get the best mathematic model to figure out the weight of the dried silkworm cocoon shells. The classification methods of all the complementary items are designed well and truly. The testing method has less error and reaches an advanced level of the present domestic non-destructive testing technology of the silkworm cocoons.

  13. Triassic leech cocoon from Antarctica contains fossil bell animal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.; Moestrup, Øjvind; Taylor, Edith L.

    2012-12-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth is limited by the imperfection of the fossil record. One reason for this imperfect record is that organisms without hard parts, such as bones, shells, and wood, have a very low potential to enter the fossil record. Occasionally, however, exceptional fossil deposits that preserve soft-bodied organisms provide a rare glimpse of the true biodiversity during past periods of Earth history. We here present an extraordinary find of a fossil ciliate that is encased inside the wall layer of a more than 200 Ma leech cocoon from Antarctica. The microfossil consists of a helically contractile stalk that attaches to a main body with a peristomial feeding apparatus and a large C-shaped macronucleus. It agrees in every aspect with the living bell animals, such as Vorticella. Vorticellids and similar peritrichs are vital constituents of aquatic ecosystems worldwide, but so far have lacked any fossil record. This discovery offers a glimpse of ancient soft-bodied protozoan biotas, and also highlights the potential of clitellate cocoons as microscopic "conservation traps" comparable to amber.

  14. Defense role of the cocoon in the silk worm Bombyx mori L.

    PubMed

    Pandiarajan, Jeyaraj; Cathrin, Britto P; Pratheep, Thangaraj; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2011-11-15

    Silk from the domesticated silk worm Bombyx mori procures foreign body response naturally, so it has been utilized as a biomaterial for decades. In India the prime focus of the sericulture industry is to improve silk production with high quality silk. Naturally, the silk worm builds its cocoon not only with silk proteins, but also with antimicrobial proteins to avoid infection since the cocoon is non-motile and non-feeding. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the antimicrobial proteins that persist in the cocoon of the silk worm Bombyx mori. At the pupal stage, the silk worm cocoon shell extract was prepared from the day of pupation (P0) to the day of natural rupture of the cocoon for the eclosion of moth (NR). Using the cocoon shell extract a microbial susceptibility test was performed by the disc diffusion method against the microbes Escherchia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The development of a zone of inhibition against the microbes confirmed the presence of antimicrobial/immunogenic activity of the cocoon shell extract. For further analysis, the cocoon shell extract was subjected to 7-15% sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The protein profile of the cocoon extract revealed the coomassie blue stained bands resolved from the 150-15 kDa molecular range. Interestingly, a polypeptide localized at around 29 kDa showed remarkable expressional changes during the development of pupa. To characterize the 29 kDa protein, it was eluted from the gel, digested with trypsin and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The trypsin-digested peptide peaks were analyzed through MASCOT and peptides were matched with the NCBI nr database. The peptides were very well matched with the 18 wheeler protein, which is reported to be responsible for innate immunity, belonging to the Toll family in insects and responsible for cellular

  15. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of pregnant women approached to participate in a Tdap maternal immunization randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, Donna M.; Halperin, Beth A.; Langley, Joanne M.; McNeil, Shelly A.; MacKinnon-Cameron, Donna; Li, Li; Halperin, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Immunization with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy is recommended in a number of countries to prevent newborn deaths from whooping cough. In some jurisdictions, vaccine uptake during pregnancy is low. We undertook a survey of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of pregnant women who had been approached to participate in a randomized, controlled trial of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy. A total of 346 women completed the survey. Knowledge about pertussis and pertussis vaccine was generally low; the mean number of correct answers was 10.65 out of 19 questions. Attitudes toward maternal immunization were generally favorable; 51.7%–94.7% of women had positive responses to 10 attitudinal statements. Substantial uncertainty was shown in responses to a number of the attitudinal statements related to vaccination during pregnancy; 22.3%–45.7% neither agreed nor disagreed with the statements. Importantly, 89% of women reported that they would get immunized with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy if their physician recommended it. We conclude that a national recommendation to be immunized with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy supported by their physicians' recommendation would be well received by Canadian women. PMID:27176822

  16. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of pregnant women approached to participate in a Tdap maternal immunization randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, Donna M; Halperin, Beth A; Langley, Joanne M; McNeil, Shelly A; MacKinnon-Cameron, Donna; Li, Li; Halperin, Scott A

    2016-04-01

    Immunization with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy is recommended in a number of countries to prevent newborn deaths from whooping cough. In some jurisdictions, vaccine uptake during pregnancy is low. We undertook a survey of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of pregnant women who had been approached to participate in a randomized, controlled trial of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy. A total of 346 women completed the survey. Knowledge about pertussis and pertussis vaccine was generally low; the mean number of correct answers was 10.65 out of 19 questions. Attitudes toward maternal immunization were generally favorable; 51.7%-94.7% of women had positive responses to 10 attitudinal statements. Substantial uncertainty was shown in responses to a number of the attitudinal statements related to vaccination during pregnancy; 22.3%-45.7% neither agreed nor disagreed with the statements. Importantly, 89% of women reported that they would get immunized with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy if their physician recommended it. We conclude that a national recommendation to be immunized with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy supported by their physicians' recommendation would be well received by Canadian women. PMID:27176822

  17. Study on the microstructure of African wild silk cocoon shells and fibers.

    PubMed

    Teshome, Addis; Vollrath, Fritz; Raina, Suresh K; Kabaru, J M; Onyari, J

    2012-01-01

    Silk fibers and cocoon shells from four African wild silkmoths Gonometa postica, Anaphe panda, Argema mimosae and Epiphora bauhiniae-were studied to gain insight into the structure-property-function relations and potential commercial application. The surface and cross-section of cocoon shells and fibers revealed the presence of prominent structural variations. Cocoon shells were multilayered and porous structures constructed from highly cross-linked fibers that are densely packed within the sericin/gum. Fibers had fibrillar sub-structures running along the fiber axis and with greater number and size of voids. The ecological significance and implication of these structures for further application are discussed. PMID:21986544

  18. Mastrus ridibundus parasitoids eavesdrop on cocoon-spinning codling moth, Cydia pomonella, larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumean, Zaid; Unruh, Tom; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Cocoon-spinning larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) employ a pheromone that attracts or arrests conspecifics seeking pupation sites. Such intraspecific communication signals are important cues for illicit receivers such as parasitoids to exploit. We tested the hypothesis that the prepupal C. pomonella parasitoid Mastrus ridibundus Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) exploits the larval aggregation pheromone to locate host prepupae. In laboratory olfactometer experiments, female M. ridibundus were attracted to 3-day-old cocoons containing C. pomonella larvae or prepupae. Older cocoons containing C. pomonella pupae, or larvae and prepupae excised from cocoons, were not attractive. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of bioactive Porapak Q extract of cocoon-derived airborne semiochemicals, ten compounds elicited responses from female M. ridibundus antennae. Comparative GC-mass spectrometry of authentic standards and cocoon-volatiles determined that these compounds were 3-carene, myrcene, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, sulcatone, and geranylacetone. A synthetic 11-component blend consisting of these ten EAD-active compounds plus EAD-inactive (+)-limonene (the most abundant cocoon-derived volatile) was as effective as Porapak Q cocoon extract in attracting both female M. ridibundus and C. pomonella larvae seeking pupation sites. Only three components could be deleted from the 11-component blend without diminishing its attractiveness to M. ridibundus, which underlines the complexity of information received and processed during foraging for hosts. Mastrus ridibundus obviously “eavesdrop” on the pheromonal communication signals of C. pomonella larvae that reliably indicate host presence.

  19. Pupal cocoons affect sanitary brood care and limit fungal infections in ant colonies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The brood of ants and other social insects is highly susceptible to pathogens, particularly those that penetrate the soft larval and pupal cuticle. We here test whether the presence of a pupal cocoon, which occurs in some ant species but not in others, affects the sanitary brood care and fungal infection patterns after exposure to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum. We use a) a comparative approach analysing four species with either naked or cocooned pupae and b) a within-species analysis of a single ant species, in which both pupal types co-exist in the same colony. Results We found that the presence of a cocoon did not compromise fungal pathogen detection by the ants and that species with cocooned pupae increased brood grooming after pathogen exposure. All tested ant species further removed brood from their nests, which was predominantly expressed towards larvae and naked pupae treated with the live fungal pathogen. In contrast, cocooned pupae exposed to live fungus were not removed at higher rates than cocooned pupae exposed to dead fungus or a sham control. Consistent with this, exposure to the live fungus caused high numbers of infections and fungal outgrowth in larvae and naked pupae, but not in cocooned pupae. Moreover, the ants consistently removed the brood prior to fungal outgrowth, ensuring a clean brood chamber. Conclusion Our study suggests that the pupal cocoon has a protective effect against fungal infection, causing an adaptive change in sanitary behaviours by the ants. It further demonstrates that brood removal–originally described for honeybees as “hygienic behaviour”–is a widespread sanitary behaviour in ants, which likely has important implications on disease dynamics in social insect colonies. PMID:24125481

  20. An unusual case of cocoon abdomen in a patient on hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Jaryal, A.; Rathi, M.; Bal, A.; Goyal, A.; Ramachandran, R.; Kumar, V.; Kohli, H. S.; Gupta, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Cocoon abdomen” or sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction. It has been described in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. The exact etiology is unknown, but pathogenesis rests on chronic peritoneal inflammation. No case has been reported so far in patients on hemodialysis. We hereby report a case of cocoon abdomen presenting as refractory ascites with intestinal obstruction in a patient on maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:26937080

  1. The role of frass and cocoon volatiles in host location by Monodontomerus aeneus, a parasitoid of Megachilid solitary bees.

    PubMed

    Filella, Iolanda; Bosch, Jordi; Llusià, Joan; Seco, Roger; Peñuelas, Josep

    2011-02-01

    Monodontomerus aeneus (Fonscolombe) is a parasitic wasp that oviposits on the prepupae and pupae of Osmia cornuta (Latreille) and other solitary bee species. A two-armed olfactometer was used to test the olfactory attractiveness of O. cornuta prepupae, cocoon, and larval frass to female M. aeneus. Both cocoon and frass attracted the female parasitoids, but frass alone was more attractive than the cocoon and the cocoon with frass was more attractive than frass alone. Female parasitoids were not attracted by the host prepupa. M33 (methanol) was the organic volatile most emitted by cocoons and m61 (acetic acid) was the compound most emitted by frass. However, cocoons showed higher emission for almost all compounds, including m61 (acetic acid). Although acetic acid alone attracted M. aeneus, a complex volatile signal is probably involved in the attraction process because the ratio of acetic acid and acetaldehyde characteristic of the frass was more attractive than other ratios. PMID:22182621

  2. The potential of adjuvants to improve immune responses against TdaP vaccines: A preclinical evaluation of MF59 and monophosphoryl lipid A.

    PubMed

    Agnolon, Valentina; Bruno, Cristina; Leuzzi, Rosanna; Galletti, Bruno; D'Oro, Ugo; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Seubert, Anja; O'Hagan, Derek T; Baudner, Barbara C

    2015-08-15

    The successful approach of combining diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis antigens into a single vaccine has become a cornerstone of immunization programs. Yet, even if vaccination coverage is high, a resurgence of pertussis has been reported in many countries suggesting current vaccines may not provide adequate protection. To induce better tailored and more durable immune responses against pertussis vaccines different approaches have been proposed, including the use of novel adjuvants. Licensed aP vaccines contain aluminum salts, which mainly stimulate humoral immune responses and might not be ideal for protecting against Bordetella pertussis infection. Adjuvants inducing more balanced T-helper profiles or even Th1-prone responses might be more adequate. In this study, two adjuvants already approved for human use have been tested: MF59 emulsion and the combination of aluminum hydroxide with the Toll-Like Receptor 4 agonist MPLA. Adjuvanticity was evaluated in a mouse model using a TdaP vaccine containing three B. pertussis antigens: genetically detoxified pertussis toxin (PT-9K/129G), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (PRN) The physico-chemical compatibility of TdaP antigens with the proposed adjuvants, together with a quicker onset and changed quality of the antibody responses, fully supports the replacement of aluminum salts with a new adjuvant to enhance aP vaccines immunogenicity. PMID:26149936

  3. A Cocoon Found Inside the Black Widow's Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-02-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory image of the mysterious "Black Widow" pulsar reveals the first direct evidence of an elongated cocoon of high-energy particles. This discovery shows that this billion-year-old rejuvenated pulsar is an extremely efficient generator of a high-speed flow of matter and antimatter particles. Known officially as pulsar B1957+20, the Black Widow received its nickname because it is emitting intense high-energy radiation that is destroying its companion through evaporation. B1957+20, which completes one rotation every 1.6-thousandths of a second, belongs to a class of extremely rapidly rotating neutron stars called millisecond pulsars. The motion of B1957+20 through the galaxy -- at a high speed of almost a million kilometers per hour -- creates a bow shock wave visible to optical telescopes. The Chandra observation shows what cannot be seen in visible light: a second shock wave. This secondary shock wave is created from pressure that sweeps the wind back from the pulsar to form the cocoon of high-energy particles, visible for the first time in the Chandra data. "This is the first detection of a double-shock structure around a pulsar," said Benjamin Stappers, of the Dutch Organization for Research in Astronomy (ASTRON), lead author on a paper describing the research that will appear in the Feb. 28, 2003, issue of Science magazine. "It should enable astronomers to test theories of the dynamics of pulsar winds and their interaction with their environment." B1957+20 X-ray-only image of B1957+20 Scientists believe millisecond pulsars are very old neutron stars that have been spun up by accreting material from their companions. The steady push of the infalling matter on the neutron star spins it up in much the same way as pushing on a merry-go-round makes it rotate faster. The result is an object about 1.5 times as massive as the Sun and ten miles in diameter that rotates hundreds of times per second. The advanced age, very rapid rotation rate

  4. Comparing the properties of Bombyx mori silk cocoons against sericin-fibroin regummed biocomposite sheets.

    PubMed

    Morin, Alexander; Alam, Parvez

    2016-08-01

    This paper considers the utility of sericin, a degumming waste product, in the regumming of Bombyx mori silk fibroin fibres to form sericin-fibroin biocomposites. Regummed biocomposites have a chemical character that is somewhat closer to fibroin than sericin, though sericin presence is confirmed through FT-IR spectroscopy. Using direct measurements we further find the weight fractions of sericin in the regummed biocomposites and the native cocoons differ by only 5%. Mechanically, B. mori cocoons exhibit brittle stress-strain characteristics, failing at strengths of X̅= 16.6MPa and at strains of X̅= 13%. Contrarily, aligning fibroin fibres to a unidirectional axis in the regummed biocomposites causes them to exhibit characteristics of strain hardening, which is itself a typical characteristic of silk fibre pulled in tension. Though they are half as strong (X̅= 7.2MPa), regummed biocomposites are able to absorb five times more mechanical energy (X̅= 5.6MJm(-3)) than the B. mori cocoons (X̅= 1.1MJm(-3)) and are furthermore able to elongate to more than ten times (X̅= 180%) that of the native cocoons prior to failure. Our research shows that degummed B. mori cocoons can be regummed into sheets that have potential for use as load bearing engineering biocomposites. PMID:27157746

  5. Unusual Occurrence of Cocoons in Population of Haplodiplosis marginata (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Censier, F.; Chavalle, S.; Knor, S.; De Proft, M.; Bodson, B.; Skuhravá, M.

    2014-01-01

    The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a phytophagous species that develops in saddle-shaped galls on stems of wheat Triticum vulgare, barley Hordeum sativum, rye Secale cereale, and some other species of Poaceae. Only one generation develops per year. Full-grown larvae leave galls and drop onto the soil where they remain up to the springtime of the following year. Larvae do not usually spin cocoons. However, formation of cocoons by larvae was observed in populations developing in western Europe: in England in 1954, in the Netherlands in the 1960s, and in Belgium in 2011. On the basis of our analysis, a part of the larval population forms cocoons as protection against unfavorable weather conditions, especially drought. PMID:25525104

  6. Fluorescent silk cocoon creating fluorescent diatom using a “Water glass-fluorophore ferry”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusurkar, Tejas S.; Tandon, Ishita; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

    2013-11-01

    Fluorophores are ubiquitous in nature. Naturally occurring fluorophores are exceptionally stable and have high quantum yield. Several natural systems have acquired fluorescent signature due to the presence of these fluorophores. Systematic attempt to harvest these fluorophores from natural systems could reap rich commercial benefit to bio-imaging industry. Silk cocoon biomaterial is one such example of natural system, which has acquired a fluorescent signature. The objective of this study is to develop simple, rapid, commercially viable technique to isolate silk cocoon membrane fluorophores and exploring the possibility of using them as fluorescent dye in bio-imaging. Here, we report an innovative water glass (Na2SiO3) based strategy to isolate the silk cocoon fluorophores. Isolated fluorophore is majorly quercetin derivatives and exhibited remarkable photo- and heat stability. Fluorescence and mass spectrometric analysis confirmed presence of a quercetin derivative. We further used this fluorophore to successfully label the silicate shell of diatom species Nitzschia palea.

  7. Fluorescent silk cocoon creating fluorescent diatom using a “Water glass-fluorophore ferry”

    PubMed Central

    Kusurkar, Tejas S.; Tandon, Ishita; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

    2013-01-01

    Fluorophores are ubiquitous in nature. Naturally occurring fluorophores are exceptionally stable and have high quantum yield. Several natural systems have acquired fluorescent signature due to the presence of these fluorophores. Systematic attempt to harvest these fluorophores from natural systems could reap rich commercial benefit to bio-imaging industry. Silk cocoon biomaterial is one such example of natural system, which has acquired a fluorescent signature. The objective of this study is to develop simple, rapid, commercially viable technique to isolate silk cocoon membrane fluorophores and exploring the possibility of using them as fluorescent dye in bio-imaging. Here, we report an innovative water glass (Na2SiO3) based strategy to isolate the silk cocoon fluorophores. Isolated fluorophore is majorly quercetin derivatives and exhibited remarkable photo- and heat stability. Fluorescence and mass spectrometric analysis confirmed presence of a quercetin derivative. We further used this fluorophore to successfully label the silicate shell of diatom species Nitzschia palea. PMID:24256845

  8. Fossilized spermatozoa preserved in a 50-Myr-old annelid cocoon from Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Mörs, Thomas; Ferraguti, Marco; Reguero, Marcelo A.; McLoughlin, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The origin and evolution of clitellate annelids—earthworms, leeches and their relatives—is poorly understood, partly because body fossils of these delicate organisms are exceedingly rare. The distinctive egg cases (cocoons) of Clitellata, however, are relatively common in the fossil record, although their potential for phylogenetic studies has remained largely unexplored. Here, we report the remarkable discovery of fossilized spermatozoa preserved within the secreted wall layers of a 50-Myr-old clitellate cocoon from Antarctica, representing the oldest fossil animal sperm yet known. Sperm characters are highly informative for the classification of extant Annelida. The Antarctic fossil spermatozoa have several features that point to affinities with the peculiar, leech-like ‘crayfish worms' (Branchiobdellida). We anticipate that systematic surveys of cocoon fossils coupled with advances in non-destructive analytical methods may open a new window into the evolution of minute, soft-bodied life forms that are otherwise only rarely observed in the fossil record. PMID:26179804

  9. CPR - infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... CPR is best done by someone trained in an accredited CPR course. The newest techniques emphasize compression ...

  10. Neonatal obstructed Treitz’s hernia with abdominal cocoon simulating volvulus neonatorum

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ramnik V; Lawther, Suzanne; Starzyk, Bozena; de la Hunt, Michael N

    2013-01-01

    A case of congenital obstructed Treitz's hernia presenting with bilious vomiting in a newborn baby girl has been presented. Internal herniation of contents within a peritoneal sac of the right paramesocolic hernia formed abdominal cocoon which simulated volvulus neonatorum. Plain radiographs and contrast studies were helpful in defining the nature and extent of the lesion. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy, reduction of small bowel contents from the hernial sac forming an abdominal cocoon, Ladd's procedure to correct associated midgut malrotation with incidental appendicectomy uneventfully and recovered well. PMID:23832996

  11. Infant Mortality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Mortality Infant Mortality: What is CDC Doing? Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Teen Pregnancy Contraception CDC Contraceptive Guidance for ... and low birth weight Maternal complications of pregnancy Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Injuries (e.g., suffocation). The top ...

  12. Potential mode of protection of silkworm pupae from environmental stress by harboring the bacterial biofilm on the surfaces of silk cocoons.

    PubMed

    Halder, Pranab K; Naskar, Deboki; Kumar, Akash; Yao, Juming; Kundu, Subhas C; Ghosh, Anindya S

    2015-02-01

    The silkworm forms cocoon to protect its pupa that survives for months inside the cocoon without being affected by various environmental stresses. To understand the possible mode of pupal survival within the cocoon encasement, we investigate the cause that protects the cocoon. During the end of the spinning process, we have isolated different bacterial species from the cocoon surface. These are identified using molecular techniques and checked for their abilities to form biofilm in vitro. The bacteria are able to form biofilm either individually or in consortia. Of which, Bacillus and Erwinia species are prominent biofilm formers. Interestingly, these bacteria have the ability to form biofilm on the cocoon mimetic surface of the silk protein Sericin Hope that contains only sericin. The origin and the behavior of the bacteria lead us to hypothesize the possible role of biofilm layer on the cocoon surface, which provides protection from adverse environmental conditions. PMID:25292249

  13. Forecasting outbreaks of the douglas-fir tussock moth from lower crown cocoon samples. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.R.; Scott, D.W.; Paul, H.G.

    1993-03-01

    A predictive technique using a simple linear regression was developed to forecast the midcrown density of small tussock moth larvae from estimates of cocoon density in the previous generation. The regression estimator was derived from field samples of cocoons and larvae taken from a wide range of nonoutbreak tussock moth populations. The accuracy of the predictions was demonstrated on an operational basis in an independent tussock moth outbreak.

  14. Premature infant

    MedlinePlus

    Preterm infant; Preemie; Premie ... The infant may have trouble breathing and keeping a constant body temperature. ... A premature infant may have signs of the following problems: Anemia Bleeding into the brain or damage to the brain's white ...

  15. Multiple Abdominal Cocoons: An Unusual Presentation of Intestinal Obstruction and a Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Sohail, Mohammad Zain; Dala-Ali, Benan; Ali, Shahanoor; Hashmi, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) or abdominal cocoon is a rare acquired condition with an unknown aetiology. It is characterized by encapsulation of the small bowel by a fibrous membrane and can lead to intestinal obstruction. We present the case of a 42-year-old gentleman with a history of hepatitis C, tuberculosis, and previous abdominal surgery, who presented with subacute intestinal obstruction. Surgical exploration of the abdomen revealed that the entire contents were enclosed into three distinct sacs by a dense fibrous membrane. Excision of the sacs was performed followed by adhesiolysis. This is believed to be the first reported case of multiple cocoons within the abdominal cavity. The case is discussed with reference to the literature. PMID:25893128

  16. Sample selection, preparation methods, and the apparent tensile properties of silkworm (B. mori) cocoon silk.

    PubMed

    Reed, Emily J; Bianchini, Lindsay L; Viney, Christopher

    2012-06-01

    Reported literature values of the tensile properties of natural silk cover a wide range. While much of this inconsistency is the result of variability that is intrinsic to silk, some is also a consequence of differences in the way that silk is prepared for tensile tests. Here we explore how measured mechanical properties of Bombyx mori cocoon silk are affected by two intrinsic factors (the location from which the silk is collected within the cocoon, and the color of the silk), and two extrinsic factors (the storage conditions prior to testing, and different styles of reeling the fiber). We find that extrinsic and therefore controllable factors can affect the properties more than the intrinsic ones studied. Our results suggest that enhanced inter-laboratory collaborations, that lead to standardized sample collection, handling, and storage protocols prior to mechanical testing, would help to decrease unnecessary (and complicating) variation in reported tensile properties. PMID:22057343

  17. Predicting future trends in the burden of pertussis in the 21st century: implications for infant pertussis and the success of maternal immunization.

    PubMed

    van den Biggelaar, Anita H J; Poolman, Jan T

    2016-01-01

    Support is growing for maternal immunization using acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines to prevent severe pertussis disease and deaths among very young, unvaccinated infants. Vaccine effectiveness of maternal immunization is 91% in preventing laboratory-confirmed pertussis in infants aged <3 months. To date, most mothers were primed in childhood with whole-cell pertussis vaccines. Soon, the generation of aP-primed individuals will become the new mothers-to-be. The shorter duration of protection afforded by aP vaccines, which is more pronounced with repeated aP boosters, may lead to increased pertussis circulation among aP-primed parents. Maternal Tdap immunization in aP-primed mothers-to-be may become less effective. Additional measures to protect young infants may eventually be needed, along with new vaccines that induce higher quality and more durable responses. PMID:26559122

  18. Changes in body fluids of the cocooning fossorial frog Cyclorana australis in a seasonally dry environment.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Stephen J; Christian, Keith A; Tracy, Christopher R; Hutley, Lindsay B

    2011-11-01

    We investigated changes in the lymph (equivalent to plasma) and urine of the cocooning frog Cyclorana australis during the dry season in monsoonal northern Australia. Frogs in moist soil for two days were fully hydrated (lymph 220 mOsm kg(-1), urine 49 mOsm kg(-1)). From five weeks onwards the soil was dry (matric potential <-8000 kPa). Aestivating frogs at three and five months formed cocoons in shallow (<20 cm) burrows and retained bladder fluid (25-80% of standard mass). After three months, urine but not lymph osmolality was elevated. After five months, lymph (314 mOsm kg(-1)) and urine (294 mOsm kg(-1)) osmolality and urea concentrations were elevated. Urea was a major contributing osmolyte in urine and accumulated in lymph after five months. Lymph sodium concentration did not change with time, whereas potassium increased in urine after five months. Active animals had moderate lymph osmolality (252 mOsm kg(-1)), but urea concentrations remained low. Urine was highly variable in active frogs, suggesting that they tolerate variation in hydration state. Despite prolonged periods in dry soil, osmolality increase in C. australis was not severe. Aestivation in a cocoon facilitates survival in shallow burrows, but such a strategy may only be effective in environments with seasonally reliable rainfall. PMID:21777688

  19. Water balance and arginine vasotocin in the cocooning frog Cyclorana platycephala (hylidae).

    PubMed

    Cartledge, Victoria A; Withers, Philip C; Bradshaw, S Don

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that forming a cocoon, for frog species capable of doing so, markedly reduces evaporative water loss; however, the capacity of cocooned frogs to maintain hydration during extended estivation is not well understood. The combined effects of long-term estivation and water loss were examined in the cocoon-forming species Cyclorana platycephala by assessing the hydration state of the frogs throughout a 15-mo estivation period. Frogs lost mass throughout the 15-mo period to a maximum of 36%+/-6.5% of their initial standard mass. Plasma osmolality reached maximal levels by the ninth month of estivation at 487 mOsm kg(-1) and then remained stable to the fifteenth month of estivation. Urine osmolality continued to increase to the fifteenth month of estivation, at which point plasma and urine concentrations were isosmotic. The use of bladder water to counter losses from circulation was indicated by the relatively slow rate of increase in plasma osmolality with mass loss and the progressive increase in urine osmolality. For estivating frogs, evidence was found for a possible threshold relationship between plasma osmolality and plasma arginine vasotocin (AVT) concentration. After estivation, plasma AVT concentrations decreased markedly after 15-mo estivators were placed in water for 2 h, suggesting that high levels of AVT may not be integral to rapid rehydration in this species. PMID:18040971

  20. Developing a Web 2.0 telemedical education system: the AJAX-Cocoon portal.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, S; Orabi, A; Fiaidhi, J; Orabi, M

    2008-01-01

    Web 2.0 technologies such as wikis, podcasts/vodcasting, blogs and semantic portals could be quite effective tools in e-learning for health professionals. If effectively deployed, such tools can offer a way to enhance students', clinicians' and patients' learning experiences, and deepens levels of learners' engagement and collaboration within medical learning environments. However, Web 2.0 requires simplicity of use as well as integration with modern web technologies. This article presents a Web 2.0 telemedical portal, which provides a social community-learning paradigm from the desk of the physician, the student, the hospital administrator, or the insurer. The presented portal utilises RESTful web services and techniques like content syndication, mushups and Asynchronous JavaScript API and XML (AJAX). The designed portal is based on the Apache Cocoon RESTful framework for sharing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) medical case studies. Central to this article is the integration between Cocoon and AJAX. The proposed AJAX-Cocoon portal utilises a JSP portlet architecture, which manages the interaction dynamics and overcomes the shortcomings of the JSR 168 and WSRP 1.0 standards. PMID:18583294

  1. The Cocoon nebula and its ionizing star: do stellar and nebular abundances agree?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Rojas, J.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Esteban, C.

    2014-11-01

    Context. Main-sequence massive stars embedded in an H ii region should have the same chemical abundances as the surrounding nebular gas+dust. The Cocoon nebula (IC 5146), a close-by Galactic H ii region ionized by a narrow line B0.5 V single star (BD+46 3474), is an ideal target to compare nebular and stellar abundances in detail in the same Galactic region. Aims: We investigate the chemical content of oxygen and other elements in the Cocoon nebula from two different points of view: an empirical analysis of the nebular spectrum, and a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the associated early B-type star using state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere modeling. By comparing the stellar and nebular abundances, we aim to indirectly address the long-standing problem of the discrepancy found between abundances obtained from collisionally excited lines and optical recombination lines in photoionized nebulae. Methods: We collected long-slit spatially resolved spectroscopy of the Cocoon nebula and a high-resolution optical spectrum of the ionizing star. Standard nebular techniques along with updated atomic data were used to compute the physical conditions and gaseous abundances of O, N, and S in eight apertures extracted across a semidiameter of the nebula. We performed a self-consistent spectroscopic abundance analysis of BD+46 3474 based on the atmosphere code FASTWIND to determine the stellar parameters and Si, O, and N abundances. Results: The Cocoon nebula and its ionizing star, located at a distance of 800±80 pc, have a chemical composition very similar to the Orion nebula and other B-type stars in the solar vicinity. This result agrees with the high degree of homogeneity of the present-day composition of the solar neighborhood (up to 1.5 Kpc from the Sun) as derived from the study of the local cold-gas interstellar medium. The comparison of stellar and nebular collisionally excited line abundances in the Cocoon nebula indicates that O and N gas+dust nebular values agree

  2. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    MedlinePlus

    IV fluids - infants; TPN - infants; Intravenous fluids - infants; Hyperalimentation - infants ... vitamins, minerals, and often lipids (fats) into an infant's vein. TPN can be lifesaving for very small ...

  3. Infant botulism.

    PubMed

    Fenicia, Lucia; Anniballi, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Infant botulism is a rare disease that affects infant less than 12 months of age. The illness results from absorption of botulinum toxin produced in situ by neurotoxigenic clostridia that can temporarily colonize the intestinal tract of infants. To date, all inhabited continents except Africa have reported cases of infant botulism. Recognition of cases seem directly related to physician awareness and clinical suspicion. This review summarizes microbiological, clinical and epidemiological features of infant botulism. PMID:19636165

  4. Maternal Immunization Earlier in Pregnancy Maximizes Antibody Transfer and Expected Infant Seropositivity Against Pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Eberhardt, Christiane S.; Blanchard-Rohner, Geraldine; Lemaître, Barbara; Boukrid, Meriem; Combescure, Christophe; Othenin-Girard, Véronique; Chilin, Antonina; Petre, Jean; de Tejada, Begoña Martinez; Siegrist, Claire-Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background. Maternal immunization against pertussis is currently recommended after the 26th gestational week (GW). Data on the optimal timing of maternal immunization are inconsistent. Methods. We conducted a prospective observational noninferiority study comparing the influence of second-trimester (GW 13–25) vs third-trimester (≥GW 26) tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) immunization in pregnant women who delivered at term. Geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of cord blood antibodies to recombinant pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The primary endpoint were GMCs and expected infant seropositivity rates, defined by birth anti-PT >30 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units (EU)/mL to confer seropositivity until 3 months of age. Results. We included 335 women (mean age, 31.0 ± 5.1 years; mean gestational age, 39.3 ± 1.3 GW) previously immunized with Tdap in the second (n = 122) or third (n = 213) trimester. Anti-PT and anti-FHA GMCs were higher following second- vs third-trimester immunization (PT: 57.1 EU/mL [95% confidence interval {CI}, 47.8–68.2] vs 31.1 EU/mL [95% CI, 25.7–37.7], P < .001; FHA: 284.4 EU/mL [95% CI, 241.3–335.2] vs 140.2 EU/mL [95% CI, 115.3–170.3], P < .001). The adjusted GMC ratios after second- vs third-trimester immunization differed significantly (PT: 1.9 [95% CI, 1.4–2.5]; FHA: 2.2 [95% CI, 1.7–3.0], P < .001). Expected infant seropositivity rates reached 80% vs 55% following second- vs third-trimester immunization (adjusted odds ratio, 3.7 [95% CI, 2.1–6.5], P < .001). Conclusions. Early second-trimester maternal Tdap immunization significantly increased neonatal antibodies. Recommending immunization from the second trimester onward would widen the immunization opportunity window and could improve seroprotection. PMID:26797213

  5. Infant Colic.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Amy A

    2016-02-01

    This article reviews the evidence for an association between infant colic and migraine. Infant colic, or excessive crying in an otherwise healthy and well-fed infant, affects approximately 5%-19% of infants. Multiple case-control studies, a cross-sectional study, and a prospective cohort study have all found an association between infant colic and migraine. Although infant colic is often assumed to have a gastrointestinal cause, several treatment trials aimed at gastrointestinal etiologies have been negative. Teaching parents how to respond best to inconsolable crying may be helpful and important for preventing shaken baby syndrome. Given accumulating evidence for a connection between infant colic and pediatric migraine, future studies should examine migraine-oriented treatments for infant colic. Infant colic should be moved into the main body of International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III beta) as one of the "Episodic syndromes that may be associated with migraine." PMID:27017027

  6. Dynamics of conservative Bykov cycles: Tangencies, generalized Cocoon bifurcations and elliptic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessa, Mário; Rodrigues, Alexandre A. P.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a mechanism for the coexistence of hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic dynamics arising in a neighbourhood of a conservative Bykov cycle where trajectories turn in opposite directions near the two saddle-foci. We show that within the class of divergence-free vector fields that preserve the cycle, tangencies of the invariant manifolds of two hyperbolic saddle-foci densely occur. The global dynamics is persistently dominated by heteroclinic tangencies and by the existence of infinitely many elliptic points coexisting with non-uniformly hyperbolic suspended horseshoes. A generalized version of the Cocoon bifurcations for conservative systems is obtained.

  7. Premature infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... infant. Common signs of prematurity include: Abnormal breathing patterns (shallow, irregular pauses in breathing called apnea) Body hair (lanugo) Enlarged clitoris (in female infants) Less body fat Lower muscle tone and ...

  8. Infant botulism

    MedlinePlus

    ... certain foods (such as honey and some corn syrups). Infant botulism occurs mostly in young infants between ... Clostridium spores are found in honey and corn syrup. These foods should not should not be fed ...

  9. Combined effects of copper, desiccation, and frost on the viability of earthworm cocoons

    SciTech Connect

    Holmstrup, M.; Petersen, B.F. |; Larsen, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of heavy metal pollution on earthworms have been extensively studied, but no studies have examined how earthworms react if they are simultaneously exposed to metal pollution and climatic stress. This question has been addressed in a laboratory study where cocoons of Aporrectodea caliginosa and Dendrobaena octaedra were initially exposed to copper in aqueous solutions of copper chloride and thereafter exposed to realistic degrees of either desiccation or frost. Earthworm embryos absorbed copper in amounts comparable to concentrations found in various tissues of earthworms from metal-polluted soils. Desiccation and copper exposure in combination had synergistic effects on survival rates for both species. For example, at full saturation, the NOEC (the highest tested concentration with no statistically significant effect) for copper of A. caliginosa was 12 mg/L, whereas at 97% relative humidity it was only 6 mg/L. Frost and copper exposure in combination also showed synergistic effects in some experiments. No cocoons of A. caliginosa exposed to 20 mg copper/L were viable after exposure to {minus}3 C but at 0 C viability was as high as 95%. The same tendency was seen in D. octaedra but not as clearly as in A/. caliginosa. A change of the environmental conditions (moisture, temperature) to increasing severity caused a shift in the statistically derived NOEC toward lower critical values of copper. The involvement of combination effects in ecotoxicological tests could therefore improve risk assessment of soil-polluting compounds.

  10. Large-scale production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor in transgenic silkworm cocoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Riyuan; Wang, Yuancheng; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-11-01

    With an increasing clinical demand for functional therapeutic proteins every year, there is an increasing requirement for the massive production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (r-haFGF). In this present study, we delicately explore a strategy for the mass production of r-haFGF protein with biological activity in the transgenic silkworm cocoons. The sequence-optimized haFGF was inserted into an enhanced sericin-1 expression system to generate the original transgenic silkworm strain, which was then further crossed with a PIG jumpstarter strain to achieve the remobilization of the expression cassette to a “safe harbor” locus in the genome for the efficient expression of r-haFGF. In consequence, the expression of r-haFGF protein in the mutant line achieved a 5.6-fold increase compared to the original strain. The high content of r-haFGF facilitated its purification and large-scald yields. Furthermore, the r-haFGF protein bioactively promoted the growth, proliferation and migration of NIH/3T3 cells, suggesting the r-haFGF protein possessed native mitogenic activity and the potential for wound healing. These results show that the silk gland of silkworm could be an efficient bioreactor strategy for recombinant production of bioactive haFGF in silkworm cocoons.

  11. Large-scale production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor in transgenic silkworm cocoons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Riyuan; Wang, Yuancheng; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    With an increasing clinical demand for functional therapeutic proteins every year, there is an increasing requirement for the massive production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (r-haFGF). In this present study, we delicately explore a strategy for the mass production of r-haFGF protein with biological activity in the transgenic silkworm cocoons. The sequence-optimized haFGF was inserted into an enhanced sericin-1 expression system to generate the original transgenic silkworm strain, which was then further crossed with a PIG jumpstarter strain to achieve the remobilization of the expression cassette to a “safe harbor” locus in the genome for the efficient expression of r-haFGF. In consequence, the expression of r-haFGF protein in the mutant line achieved a 5.6-fold increase compared to the original strain. The high content of r-haFGF facilitated its purification and large-scald yields. Furthermore, the r-haFGF protein bioactively promoted the growth, proliferation and migration of NIH/3T3 cells, suggesting the r-haFGF protein possessed native mitogenic activity and the potential for wound healing. These results show that the silk gland of silkworm could be an efficient bioreactor strategy for recombinant production of bioactive haFGF in silkworm cocoons. PMID:26567460

  12. Proton spin-lattice relaxation in silkworm cocoons: physisorbed water and serine side-chain motions.

    PubMed

    Geppi, Marco; Mollica, Giulia; Borsacchi, Silvia; Cappellozza, Silvia

    2010-03-01

    The molecular dynamic behavior of silkworm cocoons produced by a single Bombyx mori strain was investigated by means of high- and low-resolution solid-state NMR experiments. Cocoons with different moisture content were prepared to study the effects of physisorbed water on their molecular dynamics in the MHz regime, which was probed through the measurement of (1)H T(1) relaxation times at 25 MHz in the 25-95 degrees C temperature range. The water content of the different samples was determined from the analysis of (1)H free-induction decays. In addition to the rotation of methyl groups, mostly from alanine, and to the reorientation of physisorbed water molecules, already identified in previous works as relaxation sinks, the reorientation of serine side-chains was here found to contribute to (1)H T(1) above room temperature. The analysis of the trends of (1)H T(1) versus temperature was carried out in terms of semiempirical models describing the three main motional processes, and indicated that methyl rotation, water reorientation and serine side-chain motions are the most efficient relaxation mechanisms below 0 degrees C, between 0 and 60 degrees C, and above 60 degrees C, respectively. The activation energies were found to decrease passing from serine to water to methyl motions. PMID:20136080

  13. Large-scale production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor in transgenic silkworm cocoons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Riyuan; Wang, Yuancheng; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    With an increasing clinical demand for functional therapeutic proteins every year, there is an increasing requirement for the massive production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (r-haFGF). In this present study, we delicately explore a strategy for the mass production of r-haFGF protein with biological activity in the transgenic silkworm cocoons. The sequence-optimized haFGF was inserted into an enhanced sericin-1 expression system to generate the original transgenic silkworm strain, which was then further crossed with a PIG jumpstarter strain to achieve the remobilization of the expression cassette to a "safe harbor" locus in the genome for the efficient expression of r-haFGF. In consequence, the expression of r-haFGF protein in the mutant line achieved a 5.6-fold increase compared to the original strain. The high content of r-haFGF facilitated its purification and large-scald yields. Furthermore, the r-haFGF protein bioactively promoted the growth, proliferation and migration of NIH/3T3 cells, suggesting the r-haFGF protein possessed native mitogenic activity and the potential for wound healing. These results show that the silk gland of silkworm could be an efficient bioreactor strategy for recombinant production of bioactive haFGF in silkworm cocoons. PMID:26567460

  14. A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by Fermi in the Cygnus superbubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Isabelle A.; Tibaldo, Luigi; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2013-02-01

    Conspicuous stellar clusters, with high densities of massive stars, powerful stellar winds, and intense UV flux, have formed over the past few million years in the large molecular clouds of the Cygnus X region, 1.4 kpc away from the Sun. By capturing the gamma-ray signal of young cosmic rays spreading in the interstellar medium surrounding the clusters, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has confirmed the long-standing hypothesis that massive-star forming regions host cosmic-ray factories. The 50-pc wide cocoon of energetic particles appears to fill the interstellar cavities carved by the stellar activity. The cocoon provides a first test case to study the impact of wind-powered turbulence on the early phases of cosmic-ray diffusion (between the sources and the Galaxy at large) and to study the acceleration potential of this type of superbubble environment for in-situ cosmic-ray production or to energize Galactic cosmic rays passing by.

  15. 78 FR 61383 - Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components... United States after importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant... certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers, and components thereof...

  16. Solvothermal synthesis and photoluminescence properties of BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons and nanorods with different phases

    SciTech Connect

    Xue Fei; Li Haibo; Zhu Yongchun; Xiong Shenglin; Zhang Xianwen; Wang Tingting; Liang Xin; Qian Yitai

    2009-06-15

    Hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons and monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} nanorods have been synthesized in the mixed solvents of glycerol and distilled water with the volume ratio of 2:1 at 200 deg. C. The solvothermal evolution process from hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons to monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} nanorods was observed by varying the reaction time from 1 to 3 h. In the hydrothermal condition at 160 deg. C, the similar phase transformation from hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} to monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} was also observed, accompanying with a morphology transformation from nanorods to octahedron-like microcrystals. It was found that the volume ratio of glycerol to water in the solvothermal condition had a great impact on the shapes of products, while it had no influence on the formation of different phases. The fluorescence spectra of hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons and monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} nanorods were also studied. - Graphical abstract: Hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons were fabricated by solvothermal method at 200 deg. C for 1 h. When the reaction time was increased to 3 h, monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} nanorods were formed.

  17. Host manipulation by an ichneumonid spider ectoparasitoid that takes advantage of preprogrammed web-building behaviour for its cocoon protection.

    PubMed

    Takasuka, Keizo; Yasui, Tomoki; Ishigami, Toru; Nakata, Kensuke; Matsumoto, Rikio; Ikeda, Kenichi; Maeto, Kaoru

    2015-08-01

    Host manipulation by parasites and parasitoids is a fascinating phenomenon within evolutionary ecology, representing an example of extended phenotypes. To elucidate the mechanism of host manipulation, revealing the origin and function of the invoked actions is essential. Our study focused on the ichneumonid spider ectoparasitoid Reclinervellus nielseni, which turns its host spider (Cyclosa argenteoalba) into a drugged navvy, to modify the web structure into a more persistent cocoon web so that the wasp can pupate safely on this web after the spider's death. We focused on whether the cocoon web originated from the resting web that an unparasitized spider builds before moulting, by comparing web structures, building behaviour and silk spectral/tensile properties. We found that both resting and cocoon webs have reduced numbers of radii decorated by numerous fibrous threads and specific decorating behaviour was identical, suggesting that the cocoon web in this system has roots in the innate resting web and ecdysteroid-related components may be responsible for the manipulation. We also show that these decorations reflect UV light, possibly to prevent damage by flying web-destroyers such as birds or large insects. Furthermore, the tensile test revealed that the spider is induced to repeat certain behavioural steps in addition to resting web construction so that many more threads are laid down for web reinforcement. PMID:26246608

  18. Recent progress in molecular genetic studies on the carotenoid transport system using cocoon-color mutants of the silkworm.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Kozo; Sakudoh, Takashi

    2015-04-15

    The existence of tissue-specific delivery for certain carotenoids is supported by genetic evidence from the silkworm Bombyx mori and the identification of cocoon color mutant genes, such as Yellow blood (Y), Yellow cocoon (C), and Flesh cocoon (F). Mutants with white cocoons are defective in one of the steps involved in transporting carotenoids from the midgut lumen to the middle silk gland via the hemolymph lipoprotein, lipophorin, and the different colored cocoons are caused by the accumulation of specific carotenoids into the middle silk gland. The Y gene encodes carotenoid-binding protein (CBP), which is expected to function as the cytosolic transporter of carotenoids across the enterocyte and epithelium of the middle silk gland. The C and F genes encode the C locus-associated membrane protein, which is homologous to a mammalian high-density lipoprotein receptor-2 (Cameo2) and scavenger receptor class B member 15 (SCRB15), respectively; these membrane proteins are expected to function as non-internalizing lipophorin receptors in the middle silk gland. Cameo2 and SCRB15 belong to the cluster determinant 36 (CD36) family, with Cameo2 exhibiting specificity not only for lutein, but also for zeaxanthin and astaxanthin, while SCRB15 seems to have specificity toward carotene substrates such as α-carotene and β-carotene. These findings suggest that Cameo2 and SCRB15 can discriminate the chemical structure of lutein and β-carotene from circulating lipophorin during uptake. These data provide the first evidence that CD36 family proteins can discriminate individual carotenoid molecules in lipophorin. PMID:25579881

  19. Hierarchical, multilayered cell walls reinforced by recycled silk cocoons enhance the structural integrity of honeybee combs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Duan, Huiling; Karihaloo, Bhushan L.; Wang, Jianxiang

    2010-01-01

    We reveal the sophisticated and hierarchical structure of honeybee combs and measure the elastic properties of fresh and old natural honeycombs at different scales by optical microscope, environmental scanning electron microscope, nano/microindentation, and by tension and shear tests. We demonstrate that the comb walls are continuously strengthened and stiffened without becoming fragile by the addition of thin wax layers reinforced by recycled silk cocoons reminiscent of modern fiber-reinforced composite laminates. This is done to increase its margin of safety against collapse due to a temperature increase. Artificial engineering honeycombs mimic only the macroscopic geometry of natural honeycombs, but have yet to achieve the microstructural sophistication of their natural counterparts. The natural honeycombs serve as a prototype of truly biomimetic cellular materials with hitherto unattainable improvement in stiffness, strength, toughness, and thermal stability. PMID:20439765

  20. A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by Fermi in the Cygnus superbubble.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Belfiore, A; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bottacini, E; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; do Couto E Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dumora, D; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hayashi, K; Hays, E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lee, S-H; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Martin, P; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Naumann-Godo, M; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pesce-Rollins, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Pohl, M; Prokhorov, D; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Parkinson, P M Saz; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, P D; Spinelli, P; Strong, A W; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S; Bontemps, S

    2011-11-25

    The origin of Galactic cosmic rays is a century-long puzzle. Indirect evidence points to their acceleration by supernova shockwaves, but we know little of their escape from the shock and their evolution through the turbulent medium surrounding massive stars. Gamma rays can probe their spreading through the ambient gas and radiation fields. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed the star-forming region of Cygnus X. The 1- to 100-gigaelectronvolt images reveal a 50-parsec-wide cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays that flood the cavities carved by the stellar winds and ionization fronts from young stellar clusters. It provides an example to study the youth of cosmic rays in a superbubble environment before they merge into the older Galactic population. PMID:22116880

  1. The libidinal cocoon: a nurturing retreat for the families of plane crash victims.

    PubMed

    Black, J W

    1987-12-01

    In 1985 the families of 137 passengers killed when a Delta Airlines jet crashed at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport stayed in a secluded hotel while waiting for the victims' bodies to be retrieved and identified. In this protected environment, which the author calls the "libidinal cocoon," the families received intensive nurturing from the author, a Dallas psychiatrist; a team of Red Cross nurses; hotel staff; airline representatives; clergy; and each other. The supportive environment allowed the families to regress safely and to satisfy the basic yearning, intensified in times of personal loss, for an idealized caretaker who will meet all one's needs. The author believes this kind of intervention may be useful in future disasters with massive casualties. PMID:3692459

  2. Infant Care and Infant Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meetings, Conferences & Events Partnering & Donating to the NICHD Staff ... Overview Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Since the NICHD's founding in 1962, infant death ...

  3. Infant Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on infant stimulation. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, educators and primary care personnel, academics and professionals, and for health administrators and family-planning organizations. The contents cover infant needs; infant…

  4. Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Adacel® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Boostrix® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine)

  5. Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... which can cause difficulty breathing, vomiting and disturbed sleep. It can also lead to weight loss, incontinence, and rib fractures. Up to 2 in 100 adolescents and 5 in 100 adults with pertussis are ...

  6. Identification and analysis of the pigment composition and sources in the colored cocoon of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, by HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    This study used the larval tissues and colored cocoons of silkworms, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), that were fed leaves of cultivated mulberry, Husang 32, as experimental material. The pigment composition and content in colored cocoons and tissues of the 5th instar larvae and the mulberry leaves were rapidly detected using organic solvent extraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. It was found that the mulberry leaf mainly contained four types of pigment: lutein (30.86%), β-carotene (26.3%), chlorophyll a (24.62%), and chlorophyll b (18.21%). The silk glands, blood, and cocoon shells of six yellow-red cocoons were used as the experimental materials. The results showed that there were generally two kinds of carotenoids (lutein and β-carotene) in the silk gland and cocoon shell, a little violaxanthin was detected in silk gland, and the pigment found in the blood was mainly lutein in all varieties of silkworm tested. Chlorophyll a and b had not been digested and utilized in the yellow-red series of silkworm. The method used to detect visible pigments reported here could be used to breed new colors of cocoons and to develop and utilize the pigments found in mulberry. PMID:25373178

  7. Identification and Analysis of the Pigment Composition and Sources in the Colored Cocoon of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, by HPLC-DAD

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    This study used the larval tissues and colored cocoons of silkworms, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), that were fed leaves of cultivated mulberry, Husang 32, as experimental material. The pigment composition and content in colored cocoons and tissues of the 5th instar larvae and the mulberry leaves were rapidly detected using organic solvent extraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. It was found that the mulberry leaf mainly contained four types of pigment: lutein (30.86%), β-carotene (26.3%), chlorophyll a (24.62%), and chlorophyll b (18.21%). The silk glands, blood, and cocoon shells of six yellow-red cocoons were used as the experimental materials. The results showed that there were generally two kinds of carotenoids (lutein and β-carotene) in the silk gland and cocoon shell, a little violaxanthin was detected in silk gland, and the pigment found in the blood was mainly lutein in all varieties of silkworm tested. Chlorophyll a and b had not been digested and utilized in the yellow-red series of silkworm. The method used to detect visible pigments reported here could be used to breed new colors of cocoons and to develop and utilize the pigments found in mulberry. PMID:25373178

  8. CPR - infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... small or loose parts, sharp edges, points, loose batteries, and other hazards. Create a safe environment. Watch ... infants and small children cannot reach buttons, watch batteries, popcorn, coins, grapes, or nuts. Sit with an ...

  9. Neutropenia - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007230.htm Neutropenia - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neutropenia is an abnormally low number of white blood ...

  10. Infant reflexes

    MedlinePlus

    ... or her hips toward the touch in a dancing movement. Grasp reflex . This reflex occurs if you ... reflex occurs in slightly older infants when the child is held upright and the baby’s body is ...

  11. Infant reflexes

    MedlinePlus

    ... neck reflex; Galant reflex; Truncal incurvation; Rooting reflex; Parachute reflex; Grasp reflex ... was stroked and begin to make sucking motions. PARACHUTE REFLEX This reflex occurs in slightly older infants ...

  12. Identification of the TeV gamma-ray source ARGO J2031+4157 with the Cygnus Cocoon

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Bernardini, P.; D'Amone, A.; De Mitri, I.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Di Sciascio, G.; Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2014-08-01

    The extended TeV gamma-ray source ARGO J2031+4157 (or MGRO J2031+41) is positionally consistent with the Cygnus Cocoon discovered by Fermi-LAT at GeV energies in the Cygnus superbubble. Reanalyzing the ARGO-YBJ data collected from 2007 November to 2013 January, the angular extension and energy spectrum of ARGO J2031+4157 are evaluated. After subtracting the contribution of the overlapping TeV sources, the ARGO-YBJ excess map is fitted with a two-dimensional Gaussian function in a square region of 10° × 10°, finding a source extension σ{sub ext}= 1.°8 ± 0.°5. The observed differential energy spectrum is dN/dE = (2.5 ± 0.4) × 10{sup –11}(E/1 TeV){sup –2.6±0.3} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} TeV{sup –1}, in the energy range 0.2-10 TeV. The angular extension is consistent with that of the Cygnus Cocoon as measured by Fermi-LAT and the spectrum also shows a good connection with the one measured in the 1-100 GeV energy range. These features suggest to identify ARGO J2031+4157 as the counterpart of the Cygnus Cocoon at TeV energies. The Cygnus Cocoon, located in the star-forming region of Cygnus X, is interpreted as a cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays related to the Cygnus superbubble. The spectral similarity with supernova remnants (SNRs) indicates that the particle acceleration inside a superbubble is similar to that in an SNR. The spectral measurements from 1 GeV to 10 TeV allows for the first time to determine the possible spectrum slope of the underlying particle distribution. A hadronic model is adopted to explain the spectral energy distribution.

  13. 78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components Thereof, DN 2976; the Commission is soliciting...

  14. CPR: Infant

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  15. Antibothrus morimotoi Sasaji, an Old World cocoon-forming beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinelloidea: Bothrideridae) newly established in North America.

    PubMed

    Mcelrath, Thomas C; Androw, Robert A; Mchugh, Joseph V

    2016-01-01

    Antibothrus morimotoi Sasaji, a cocoon-forming beetle (Coccinelloidea: Bothrideridae) native to the Palearctic region, is newly reported from North America. In 2013 and 2015, several series of specimens were collected during an ongoing USDA/APHIS/PPQ exotic bark beetle survey in Franklin County, Ohio, U.S.A. This is the first confirmed record of the species and genus in the New World. The capture of these specimens suggests that the beetle is established in the greater Columbus, Ohio, metropolitan  area. PMID:27615843

  16. Intrinsic tensile properties of cocoon silk fibres can be estimated by removing flaws through repeated tensile tests.

    PubMed

    Rajkhowa, Rangam; Kaur, Jasjeet; Wang, Xungai; Batchelor, Warren

    2015-06-01

    Silk fibres from silkworm cocoons have lower strength than spider silk and have received less attention as a source of high-performance fibres. In this work, we have used an innovative procedure to eliminate the flaws gradually of a single fibre specimen by retesting the unbroken portion of the fibre, after each fracture test. This was done multiple times so that the final test may provide the intrinsic fibre strength. During each retest, the fibre specimen began to yield once the failure load of the preceding test was exceeded. For each fibre specimen, a composite curve was constructed from multiple tests. The composite curves and analysis show that strengths of mass-produced Muga and Eri cocoon silk fibres increased from 446 to 618 MPa and from 337 to 452 MPa, respectively. Similarly, their toughness increased from 84 to 136 MJ m(-3) and from 61 to 104 MJ m(-3), respectively. Composite plots produced significantly less inter-specimen variations compared to values from single tests. The fibres with reduced flaws as a result of retests in the tested section have a tensile strength and toughness comparable to naturally spun dragline spider silk with a reported strength of 574 MPa and toughness of 91-158 MJ m(-3), which is used as a benchmark for developing high-performance fibres. This retesting approach is likely to provide useful insights into discrete flaw distributions and intrinsic mechanical properties of other fatigue-resistant materials. PMID:25948613

  17. The role of photo-electric properties of silk cocoon membrane in pupal metamorphosis: A natural solar cell.

    PubMed

    Tulachan, Brindan; Srivastava, Shivansh; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Philip, Deepu; Bajpai, Alok; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Silkworm metamorphosis is governed by the intrinsic and extrinsic factors. One key intrinsic factor is the temporal electrical firing of the neuro-secretory cells of the dormant pupae residing inside the silk cocoon membrane (SCM). Extrinsic factors are environmental like temperature, humidity and light. The firing pattern of the cells is a function of the environmental factors that eventually controls the pupal development. How does the nervous organization of the dormant pupae sense the environment even while enclosed inside the cocoon shell? We propose that the SCM does this by capturing the incident light and converting it to electricity in addition to translating the variation in temperature and humidity as an electrical signal. The light to electricity conversion is more pronounced with ultraviolet (UV) frequency. We discovered that a UV sensitive fluorescent quercetin derivative that is present on the SCM and pupal body surface is responsible for generating the observed photo current. Based on these results, we propose an equivalent circuit model of the SCM where an overall electrical output transfers the weather information to pupae, directing its growth. We further discuss the implication of this electrical energy conversion and its utility for consumable electricity. PMID:26907586

  18. Intrinsic tensile properties of cocoon silk fibres can be estimated by removing flaws through repeated tensile tests

    PubMed Central

    Rajkhowa, Rangam; Kaur, Jasjeet; Wang, Xungai; Batchelor, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Silk fibres from silkworm cocoons have lower strength than spider silk and have received less attention as a source of high-performance fibres. In this work, we have used an innovative procedure to eliminate the flaws gradually of a single fibre specimen by retesting the unbroken portion of the fibre, after each fracture test. This was done multiple times so that the final test may provide the intrinsic fibre strength. During each retest, the fibre specimen began to yield once the failure load of the preceding test was exceeded. For each fibre specimen, a composite curve was constructed from multiple tests. The composite curves and analysis show that strengths of mass-produced Muga and Eri cocoon silk fibres increased from 446 to 618 MPa and from 337 to 452 MPa, respectively. Similarly, their toughness increased from 84 to 136 MJ m−3 and from 61 to 104 MJ m−3, respectively. Composite plots produced significantly less inter-specimen variations compared to values from single tests. The fibres with reduced flaws as a result of retests in the tested section have a tensile strength and toughness comparable to naturally spun dragline spider silk with a reported strength of 574 MPa and toughness of 91–158 MJ m−3, which is used as a benchmark for developing high-performance fibres. This retesting approach is likely to provide useful insights into discrete flaw distributions and intrinsic mechanical properties of other fatigue-resistant materials. PMID:25948613

  19. The role of photo-electric properties of silk cocoon membrane in pupal metamorphosis: A natural solar cell

    PubMed Central

    Tulachan, Brindan; Srivastava, Shivansh; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Philip, Deepu; Bajpai, Alok; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Silkworm metamorphosis is governed by the intrinsic and extrinsic factors. One key intrinsic factor is the temporal electrical firing of the neuro-secretory cells of the dormant pupae residing inside the silk cocoon membrane (SCM). Extrinsic factors are environmental like temperature, humidity and light. The firing pattern of the cells is a function of the environmental factors that eventually controls the pupal development. How does the nervous organization of the dormant pupae sense the environment even while enclosed inside the cocoon shell? We propose that the SCM does this by capturing the incident light and converting it to electricity in addition to translating the variation in temperature and humidity as an electrical signal. The light to electricity conversion is more pronounced with ultraviolet (UV) frequency. We discovered that a UV sensitive fluorescent quercetin derivative that is present on the SCM and pupal body surface is responsible for generating the observed photo current. Based on these results, we propose an equivalent circuit model of the SCM where an overall electrical output transfers the weather information to pupae, directing its growth. We further discuss the implication of this electrical energy conversion and its utility for consumable electricity. PMID:26907586

  20. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (abdominal cocoon) associated with liver cirrhosis and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: autopsy case.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Sohsuke; Tanimoto, Akihide; Matsuki, Yasumasa; Hisada, Yuji; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki

    2009-09-01

    A case of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) associated with liver cirrhosis (LC) and complicated by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is reported herein. A 49-year-old Japanese man had undergone peritoneo-venous shunt against refractory ascites due to hepatitis C virus-positive uncompensated LC for 2 years. After he received a diagnosis of DLBCL of the left neck lymph node 3 months before his death, palliative care was given because of his poor general condition. He developed severe abdominal distention and pain over 1 week and was found to have marked ascites and whole bowel lumped together on abdominal CT. At autopsy, the peritoneum was covered with a thick white membrane and the bowel could not be distinguished, which was macroscopically characterized by a cocoon-like appearance. Histology indicated a proliferation of diffusely thickened or hyalinized fibrocollagenous tissue in the entire peritoneum with a slight chronic inflammatory infiltrate and without remarkable change of mucosa. A diagnosis of SEP, also known as abdominal cocoon, was established based on these features. Additionally, in the abdominal cavity, a large amount of serous ascites and multiple peritoneal nodules or masses involved by DLBCL were recognized. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case report of SEP associated with LC and complicated by the invasion of DLBCL in the abdominal cavity. PMID:19712139

  1. The role of photo-electric properties of silk cocoon membrane in pupal metamorphosis: A natural solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulachan, Brindan; Srivastava, Shivansh; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Philip, Deepu; Bajpai, Alok; Das, Mainak

    2016-02-01

    Silkworm metamorphosis is governed by the intrinsic and extrinsic factors. One key intrinsic factor is the temporal electrical firing of the neuro-secretory cells of the dormant pupae residing inside the silk cocoon membrane (SCM). Extrinsic factors are environmental like temperature, humidity and light. The firing pattern of the cells is a function of the environmental factors that eventually controls the pupal development. How does the nervous organization of the dormant pupae sense the environment even while enclosed inside the cocoon shell? We propose that the SCM does this by capturing the incident light and converting it to electricity in addition to translating the variation in temperature and humidity as an electrical signal. The light to electricity conversion is more pronounced with ultraviolet (UV) frequency. We discovered that a UV sensitive fluorescent quercetin derivative that is present on the SCM and pupal body surface is responsible for generating the observed photo current. Based on these results, we propose an equivalent circuit model of the SCM where an overall electrical output transfers the weather information to pupae, directing its growth. We further discuss the implication of this electrical energy conversion and its utility for consumable electricity.

  2. Production of an active feline interferon in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms using the fibroin H-chain expression system

    SciTech Connect

    Kurihara, H. . E-mail: Hiroyuki_Kurihara@nts.toray.co.jp; Sezutsu, H.; Tamura, T.; Yamada, K.

    2007-04-20

    We constructed the fibroin H-chain expression system to produce recombinant proteins in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms. Feline interferon (FeIFN) was used for production and to assess the quality of the product. Two types of FeIFN fusion protein, each with N- and C-terminal sequences of the fibroin H-chain, were designed to be secreted into the lumen of the posterior silk glands. The expression of the FeIFN/H-chain fusion gene was regulated by the fibroin H-chain promoter domain. The transgenic silkworms introduced these constructs with the piggyBac transposon-derived vector, which produced the normal sized cocoons containing each FeIFN/H-chain fusion protein. Although the native-protein produced by transgenic silkworms have almost no antiviral activity, the proteins after the treatment with PreScission protease to eliminate fibroin H-chain derived N- and C-terminal sequences from the products, had very high antiviral activity. This H-chain expression system, using transgenic silkworms, could be an alternative method to produce an active recombinant protein and silk-based biomaterials.

  3. Concentrations of heavy metals in the food, faeces, adults, and empty cocoons of Neodiprion sertifer (Hymenoptera, diprionidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Helioevaara, K.; Vaeisaenen, R. Water and Environment Research Institute, Helsinki )

    1990-07-01

    Heavy metals have an adverse effect in polluted forest ecosystems situated in the vicinity of industrial plants and smelters, but little is known about their accumulation along food chains. In some studies, distinct accumulation has been observed from one trophic level to another, while in others no accumulation has been recorded. Insects can excrete heavy metals directly in the faeces, or avoid food containing high concentrations. They may also excrete these elements during metamorphosis in the larval skins including the gut epithelium, pupal remnants, cocoons, gall-walls, or in the droplet excreted by the imago just after hatching. Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy), the European pine sawfly, has mass-outbreaks at approximately ten-year intervals. It is a severe defoliator of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestries L.), usually exploiting only the previous years' needles. Eggs are laid in autumn, and the species overwinters at the egg stage in the needles. The aim of the present study was to analyze the proportion of copper, iron, nickel and cadmium in newly hatched adult insects, in their larval nutrition, faeces and empty cocoons. Larvae of N. sertifer were reared for this purpose on needles of varying heavy metal levels.

  4. Osteopenia - premature infants

    MedlinePlus

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... baby. This helps the baby grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of calcium ...

  5. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant younger than one year old. Some people call ... boys, African Americans, and American Indian/Alaska Native infants have a higher risk of SIDS. Although health ...

  6. A new estimation of the total flavonoids in silkworm cocoon sericin layer through aglycone determination by hydrolysis-assisted extraction and HPLC-DAD analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jin-Ge; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background Silk sericin and a few non-protein components isolated from the cocoon layer including two silk proteins in silkworm Bombyx mori has many bioactivities. The dietary sericin possess antinatural oxidation, anticancer, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activities. The non-protein components surrounding the sericin layer involve in wax, pigments mainly meaning flavonoids, sugars, and other impurities. However, very few investigations have reported the estimation of the total flavonoids derived from the cocoon layer. The flavonoids are commonly present in their glycosylated forms and mostly exist as quercetin glycosides in the sericin layers of silkworm cocoons. Objective The aim of this study was to find a more accurate method to estimate the level of the total flavonoids in silkworm cocoons. Design An efficient procedure of hydrolysis-assisted extraction (HAE) was first established to estimate the level of the total flavonoids through the determination of their aglycones, quercetin, and kaempferol. Then, a comparison was made between traditional colorimetric method and our method. In addition, the antioxidant activities of hydrolysis-assisted extract sample were determined. Results The average contents of quercetin and kaempferol were 1.98 and 0.42 mg/g in Daizo cocoon. Their recoveries were 99.56 and 99.17%. The total sum of quercetin and kaempferol was detected to be 2.40±0.07 mg/g by HAE-HPLC, while the total flavonoids (2.59±0.48 mg/g) estimated by the traditional colorimetric method were only equivalent to 1.28±0.04 mg/g of quercetin. The HAE sample also exhibits that IC50 values of scavenging ability of diphenyl picryl hydrazinyl (DPPH) radical and hydroxyl radical (HO·) are 243.63 µg/mL and 4.89 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions These results show that the HAE-HPLC method is specificity of cocoon and far superior to the colorimetric method. Therefore, this study has profound significance for the comprehensive utilization of silkworm cocoon and

  7. The silkworm Green b locus encodes a quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase that produces green cocoons with UV-shielding properties.

    PubMed

    Daimon, Takaaki; Hirayama, Chikara; Kanai, Masatoshi; Ruike, Yoshinao; Meng, Yan; Kosegawa, Eiichi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

    2010-06-22

    In the silkworm Bombyx mori, dietary flavonoids are metabolized and accumulate in cocoons, thereby causing green coloration. Classical genetic studies suggest that more than seven independent loci are associated with this trait; however, because of the complex inheritance pattern, none of these loci have been characterized molecularly, and a plausible and comprehensive model for their action has not been proposed. Here, we report the identification of the gene responsible for the Green b (Gb) locus involving the green cocoon trait. In +(Gb) animals, glucosylation at the 5-O position of dietary quercetin did not occur, and the total amount of flavonoids in tissues and cocoons was dramatically reduced. We performed positional cloning of Gb and found a 38-kb deletion in a UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) gene cluster associated with the +(Gb) allele. RT-PCR and biochemical studies suggested that deletion of Bm-UGT10286 (UGT) is responsible for Gb and Bm-UGT10286 is virtually the sole source of UGT activity toward the 5-O position of quercetin. Our data show that the regiospecific glucosylation of flavonoids by the quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase can greatly affect the overall bioavailability of flavonoids in animals. Furthermore, we provide evidence that flavonoids increase the UV-shielding activity of cocoons and thus could confer an increased survival advantage to insects contained in these cocoons. This study will lead to greater understanding of mechanisms for metabolism, uptake, and transport of dietary flavonoids, which have a variety of biological activities in animals and beneficial effects on human health. PMID:20534444

  8. A CD36-related Transmembrane Protein Is Coordinated with an Intracellular Lipid-binding Protein in Selective Carotenoid Transport for Cocoon Coloration*

    PubMed Central

    Sakudoh, Takashi; Iizuka, Tetsuya; Narukawa, Junko; Sezutsu, Hideki; Kobayashi, Isao; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Banno, Yutaka; Kitamura, Akitoshi; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Takada, Naoko; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Mita, Kazuei; Tamura, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Tsuchida, Kozo

    2010-01-01

    The transport pathway of specific dietary carotenoids from the midgut lumen to the silk gland in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a model system for selective carotenoid transport because several genetic mutants with defects in parts of this pathway have been identified that manifest altered cocoon pigmentation. In the wild-type silkworm, which has both genes, Yellow blood (Y) and Yellow cocoon (C), lutein is transferred selectively from the hemolymph lipoprotein to the silk gland cells where it is accumulated into the cocoon. The Y gene encodes an intracellular carotenoid-binding protein (CBP) containing a lipid-binding domain known as the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid transfer domain. Positional cloning and transgenic rescue experiments revealed that the C gene encodes Cameo2, a transmembrane protein gene belonging to the CD36 family genes, some of which, such as the mammalian SR-BI and the fruit fly ninaD, are reported as lipoprotein receptors or implicated in carotenoid transport for visual system. In C mutant larvae, Cameo2 expression was strongly repressed in the silk gland in a specific manner, resulting in colorless silk glands and white cocoons. The developmental profile of Cameo2 expression, CBP expression, and lutein pigmentation in the silk gland of the yellow cocoon strain were correlated. We hypothesize that selective delivery of lutein to specific tissue requires the combination of two components: 1) CBP as a carotenoid transporter in cytosol and 2) Cameo2 as a transmembrane receptor on the surface of the cells. PMID:20053988

  9. The silkworm Green b locus encodes a quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase that produces green cocoons with UV-shielding properties

    PubMed Central

    Daimon, Takaaki; Hirayama, Chikara; Kanai, Masatoshi; Ruike, Yoshinao; Kosegawa, Eiichi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

    2010-01-01

    In the silkworm Bombyx mori, dietary flavonoids are metabolized and accumulate in cocoons, thereby causing green coloration. Classical genetic studies suggest that more than seven independent loci are associated with this trait; however, because of the complex inheritance pattern, none of these loci have been characterized molecularly, and a plausible and comprehensive model for their action has not been proposed. Here, we report the identification of the gene responsible for the Green b (Gb) locus involving the green cocoon trait. In +Gb animals, glucosylation at the 5-O position of dietary quercetin did not occur, and the total amount of flavonoids in tissues and cocoons was dramatically reduced. We performed positional cloning of Gb and found a 38-kb deletion in a UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) gene cluster associated with the +Gb allele. RT-PCR and biochemical studies suggested that deletion of Bm-UGT10286 (UGT) is responsible for Gb and Bm-UGT10286 is virtually the sole source of UGT activity toward the 5-O position of quercetin. Our data show that the regiospecific glucosylation of flavonoids by the quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase can greatly affect the overall bioavailability of flavonoids in animals. Furthermore, we provide evidence that flavonoids increase the UV-shielding activity of cocoons and thus could confer an increased survival advantage to insects contained in these cocoons. This study will lead to greater understanding of mechanisms for metabolism, uptake, and transport of dietary flavonoids, which have a variety of biological activities in animals and beneficial effects on human health. PMID:20534444

  10. Idiopathic abdominal cocoon syndrome with unilateral abdominal cryptorchidism and greater omentum hypoplasia in a young case of small bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Xiang; Yang, Hai-Rui; Yu, Peng-Fei; Sheng, Hai-Bo; Gu, Guo-Li

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon syndrome (ACS) is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to total or partial encapsulation of the small intestine by a fibrocollagenous membrane. Idiopathic ACS with abdominal cryptorchidism and greater omentum hypoplasia is even rarer clinically. We successfully treated a 26-year-old male case of small bowel obstruction with acute peritonitis. He was finally diagnosed with idiopathic ACS with unilateral abdominal cryptorchidism and greater omentum hypoplasia during exploratory laparotomy. He then underwent enterolysis, cryptorchidectomy, and appendectomy. He recovered gradually from the operations and early postoperative inflammatory ileus. There has been no recurrence of intestinal obstruction since the operation, and he is still in follow-up. We analyzed his clinical data and retrospectively reviewed the literature, and our findings may be helpful for the clinical diagnosis and treatment on ACS. PMID:27239122

  11. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanospheres derived from cocoon silk as metal-free electrocatalyst for glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Li, Tongtong; Li, Yahang; Wang, Chunyu; Gao, Zhi-Da; Song, Yan-Yan

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon materials have attracted tremendous attention because of their high activity in electrocatalysis. In the present work, cocoon silk -- a biomass material is used to prepare porous carbon fibers due to its abundant nitrogen content. The as-prepared carbon microfibers have been activated and disintegrated into carbon nanospheres (CNS) with a diameter of 20--60 nm by a simple nitric acid refluxing process. Considering their excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of oxygen, the CNS modified electrodes are further applied in the construction of glucose amperometric biosensor using glucose oxidase as a model. The proposed biosensor exhibits fast response, high sensitivity, good stability and selectivity for glucose detection with a wide linear range from 79.7 to 2038.9 μM, and a detection limit of 39.1 μM. The performance is comparable to leading literature results indicating a great potential for electrochemical sensing application. PMID:26452954

  12. Idiopathic abdominal cocoon syndrome with unilateral abdominal cryptorchidism and greater omentum hypoplasia in a young case of small bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Fei, Xiang; Yang, Hai-Rui; Yu, Peng-Fei; Sheng, Hai-Bo; Gu, Guo-Li

    2016-05-28

    Abdominal cocoon syndrome (ACS) is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to total or partial encapsulation of the small intestine by a fibrocollagenous membrane. Idiopathic ACS with abdominal cryptorchidism and greater omentum hypoplasia is even rarer clinically. We successfully treated a 26-year-old male case of small bowel obstruction with acute peritonitis. He was finally diagnosed with idiopathic ACS with unilateral abdominal cryptorchidism and greater omentum hypoplasia during exploratory laparotomy. He then underwent enterolysis, cryptorchidectomy, and appendectomy. He recovered gradually from the operations and early postoperative inflammatory ileus. There has been no recurrence of intestinal obstruction since the operation, and he is still in follow-up. We analyzed his clinical data and retrospectively reviewed the literature, and our findings may be helpful for the clinical diagnosis and treatment on ACS. PMID:27239122

  13. Infant distress.

    PubMed

    Keating, Brad

    2014-05-01

    This case was one that would put many EMS personnel out of their comfort zones. The presentation of an unstable child is enough to have some providers put on their blinders and focus solely on the respiratory causes and overlook the cardiac. This child had been unstable most of the evening and by the time EMS was summoned was in severe need of treatment. The diagnosis of WPW in the field is almost impossible, especially when there is no history with the patient. Quick recognition of the infant's symptoms and analysis of the ECG allowed the paramedics to deliver the correct treatment for the arrhythmia while ensuring the respiratory issues weren't overlooked. The rapid treatment and transport were a significant part PMID:24984434

  14. Percutaneously inserted central catheter - infants

    MedlinePlus

    PICC - infants; PQC - infants; Pic line - infants; Per-Q cath - infants ... A percutaneously inserted central catheter (PICC) is a long, very thin, soft plastic tube that is put into a small blood vessel. This article addresses PICCs in ...

  15. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... your baby only breast milk or iron-fortified formula during the first 12 months of life, not ... baby's diet. If breastfeeding is not possible, infant formulas provide a healthy diet for your infant. Whether ...

  16. Infant formulas - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 months of life, infants need only breast milk or formula to meet all their nutritional needs. ... 12 months old who are not drinking breast milk . While there are some differences, infant formulas sold ...

  17. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and ...

  18. Infant formulas - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... meet all their nutritional needs. Infant formulas include powders, concentrated liquids, and ready-to-use forms. ... it. Reflux formulas are pre-thickened with rice starch. They are usually needed only for infants with ...

  19. High blood pressure - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... Bronchopulmonary dysplasia Renal artery stenosis In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

  20. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant younger than one year old. Some people call SIDS "crib death" because many babies who die of SIDS are found in their ...

  1. Peripheral arterial line - infants

    MedlinePlus

    PAL - infants; Art line - infants ... an "art line." This article addresses PALs in babies. Why is a PAL used? Doctors and nurses use a PAL to watch your baby's blood pressure. A PAL can also be use ...

  2. Parenting Your Infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... easily. This can lead to choking! Infants Have Personalities Even very tiny infants act in very individual ... a parent, you already know your baby’s unique personality. Think about this personality when you are caring ...

  3. Osteopenia - premature infants

    MedlinePlus

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... the amount of calcium and phosphorus in the bone. This can cause bones to be weak and ...

  4. Infant Temperament and Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Infants have definite personality characteristics from birth onward. Despite wide variation in infant temperament styles, ranging from easy to difficult, responsive parents and non-parental caregivers can ensure positive emotional-social development. This paper, which reviews various theories and research on personality development in infants and…

  5. Deposition of cocoon-like ZnO on graphene sheets for improving gas-sensing properties to ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shiming; Zhu, Junwu; Ding, Jing; Bi, Huiping; Yao, Pengcheng; Han, Qiaofeng; Wang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    Developing an efficient gas sensor device with high sensitivity and selectivity still remains a challenge for its practical application. Herein, we demonstrated a facile one-step hydrothermal method to deposit cocoon-like ZnO nanoparticles onto surfaces of graphene sheets, leading to the formation of ZnO/graphene composite. The structural characterization confirmed the successful deposition of ZnO nanocrystals with hexagonal wurtzite on graphene sheets, which further facilitated the exfoliation of graphene sheets. The gas sensing performances of as-prepared ZnO/graphene composites were investigated towards a series of typical organic vapors. The results showed that the ZnO/graphene composite exhibited significantly higher performance than that of pure ZnO nanoparticles. Especially, the ZnO/graphene could offer a high gas response value of 513 towards 1000 ppm of ethanol, which is nearly 5.0 times higher than that of pure ZnO, indicating the potential application as a sensor material towards enhanced gas detection.

  6. Parenting and infant sleep.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Avi; Tikotzky, Liat; Scher, Anat

    2010-04-01

    Infant sleep undergoes dramatic evolution during the first year of life. This process is driven by underlying biological forces but is highly dependent on environmental cues including parental influences. In this review the links between infant sleep and parental behaviors, cognitions, emotions and relationships as well as psychopathology are examined within the context of a transactional model. Parental behaviors, particularly those related to bedtime interactions and soothing routines, are closely related to infant sleep. Increased parental involvement is associated with more fragmented sleep. Intervention based on modifying parental behaviors and cognitions have direct effect on infant sleep. It appears that parental personality, psychopathology and related cognitions and emotions contribute to parental sleep-related behaviors and ultimately influence infant sleep. However, the links are bidirectional and dynamic so that poor infant sleep may influence parental behaviors and poor infant sleep appears to be a family stressor and a risk factor for maternal depression. PMID:19631566

  7. Infant-Infant Interaction in a Daycare Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durfee, Joan T.; Lee, Lee C.

    The Infant-Infant Contact Code, developed to observe the social behavior in infants, is described. Results from using this scale with nine infants under nine months indicated that contacts between infants are complex in nature, that there are developmental changes in models of encounter, and that babies take different roles in relation to the…

  8. When infants talk, infants listen: pre-babbling infants prefer listening to speech with infant vocal properties.

    PubMed

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-03-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to vowel sounds with infant vocal properties over vowel sounds with adult vocal properties. A listening preference favoring infant vowels may derive from their higher voice pitch, which has been shown to attract infant attention in infant-directed speech (IDS). In addition, infants' nascent articulatory abilities may induce a bias favoring infant speech given that 4- to 6-month-olds are beginning to produce vowel sounds. We created infant and adult /i/ ('ee') vowels using a production-based synthesizer that simulates the act of speaking in talkers at different ages and then tested infants across four experiments using a sequential preferential listening task. The findings provide the first evidence that infants preferentially attend to vowel sounds with infant voice pitch and/or formants over vowel sounds with no infant-like vocal properties, supporting the view that infants' production abilities influence how they process infant speech. The findings with respect to voice pitch also reveal parallels between IDS and infant speech, raising new questions about the role of this speech register in infant development. Research exploring the underpinnings and impact of this perceptual bias can expand our understanding of infant language development. PMID:25754812

  9. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, Ed.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    This second edition contains articles on (1) infant day care, (2) day care as a way to extend parental support systems, (3) meeting developmental needs of infants, (4) ecology of day care, (5) ecology of infant day care, (6) quality care for infants, (7) the daily schedule, (8) precautions in establishing infant day care, (9) teaching--learning…

  10. Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis) Vaccine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Canada, and many other countries. Pertussis (also called whooping cough) is a bacterial illness that usually begins with symptoms like those of the common cold. Severe coughing can develop over several weeks. Fast, heavy ... sound when breathing in. Pertussis is most serious ...

  11. Tdap Booster Requirements for Secondary Schools

    MedlinePlus

    ... VISs Spanish-language VISs What's New: VISs Diseases & Vaccines Anthrax Pertussis Chickenpox (varicella) PCV Diphtheria PPSV H. influenzae (Hib) Polio Hepatitis A Rabies Hepatitis B Rotavirus HPV Rubella ... Adjuvants Religious Concerns Alternative Medicine Responding to Parents ...

  12. Infants in cocktail parties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Rochelle S.

    2003-04-01

    Most work on listeners' ability to separate streams of speech has focused on adults. Yet infants also find themselves in noisy environments. In order to learn from their caregivers' speech in these settings, they must first separate it from background noise such as that from television shows and siblings. Previous work has found that 7.5-month-old infants can separate streams of speech when the target voice is more intense than the distractor voice (Newman and Jusczyk, 1996), when the target voice is known to the infant (Barker and Newman, 2000) or when infants are presented with an audiovisual (rather than auditory-only) signal (Hollich, Jusczyk, and Newman, 2001). Unfortunately, the paradigm in these studies can only be used on infants at least 7.5 months of age, limiting the ability to investigate how stream segregation develops over time. The present work uses a new paradigm to explore younger infants' ability to separate streams of speech. Infants aged 4.5 months heard a female talker repeat either their own name or another infants' name, while several other voices spoke fluently in the background. We present data on infants' ability to recognize their own name in this cocktail party situation. [Work supported by NSF and NICHD.

  13. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of infant mortality. Asian/Pacific Islanders women generally have lower infant mortality rates ...

  14. [Infant mortality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Ramos Padilla, M A

    1987-01-01

    Bolivia, Haiti, and Peru have infant mortality levels as high as those of the developed countries a century ago. The decline of general and especially infant mortality experienced in Latin America beginning in the 1940s was uneven throughout the continent. Cuba's infant mortality rate declined by 86% between 1940-80, but Peru's declined by only 48% despite its higher initial level. In 1984, 34% of all deaths in Peru were to children under 1 year and about 21% were to children 1-5 years old. Socioeconomic factors are the major explanation of Peru's poor infant mortality levels. Regional and social disparities in access to housing, food, urban infrastructure, and other vital goods and services are reflected in infant mortality statistics. Infant mortality has declined in both rural and urban areas, but the magnitude of the decline was much greater in urban areas. Between 1960-75, the infant mortality rate declined from 133 to 80/1000 live births in urban areas, but only from 180 to 150/1000 in rural areas. Investment in the infrastructure and services of the cities during the 1950s and 60s was not matched by any significant investment in rural infrastructure. Rural-urban mortality differentials are not as profound in countries which distribute public investment more evenly between rural and urban areas. Cuba's rural infant mortality rate is only 16% greater than its urban rate, while Peru's rural rate is 47% higher. The rural-urban differential in Peru hides a steep gap between the metropolitan zone of Lima-Callao, which has an infant mortality rate of 55/1000, and that of all cities, which have a rate 45% higher. Metropolitan Lima has the highest levels of living in Peru, including the highest incomes and best housing and service infrastructure. A majority of Peru's economic and industrial development has been concentrated in Lima. Peru's infant mortality differentials are also striking at the departmental level. The 5 departments with the highest infant mortality

  15. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that…

  16. Milk Allergy in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy Almost all infants are fussy at times. ...

  17. Infants' Concept of Animacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the concept of animacy of 9- and 12-month-old infants by exposing them to autonomous motion with animate and inanimate objects in a series of three experiments. Three experiments were carried out. Results indicated that infants discriminate animate from inanimate objects on the basis of motion cues by the age of nine months. (MOK)

  18. Infant neurologic assessment.

    PubMed

    Hobdell, E

    2001-08-01

    Infant neurologic assessment reflects the ongoing maturation of the central nervous system. Traditional approaches to assessment cannot be used. Key factors are accurate observation and flexibility in obtaining the data. A case example using a 4-month-old infant illustrates specific approaches to assessment. PMID:11497071

  19. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... energy and nutrients that babies need to be healthy. For a baby, breast milk is best. It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and 6 months of ...

  20. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

    There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

  1. Crying in infants

    PubMed Central

    de Weerth, Carolina; Fuentes, Susana; de Vos, Willem M

    2013-01-01

    Up to around a quarter of all infants cry excessively and unsoothably during their first months of life. This phenomenon has been termed “infant colic.” In most cases, physicians are unable to determine the cause of the colicky behavior. In a recent study, and by means of comprehensive and deep analyses of more than 1000 intestinal phylotypes, we found that infants with colic showed lower microbiota diversity and stability than control infants in the first weeks of life. Colic-control differences in the abundance of certain bacteria were also found at 2 weeks. These microbial signatures possibly explain the colic phenotype. In this addendum we discuss other recent publications on the subject and present previously unpublished analyses of our own. We address possible mechanisms behind the links between microbiota and crying, and present future directions that could further help elucidate the hypothesized relations between intestinal microbiota and infant colic. PMID:23941920

  2. [Resuscitation of newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, Kilian; Leonhardt, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    Successful resuscitation of newborn infants depends on adequate preparation, exact evaluation and prompt initiation of support according to the recently updated recommendations by trained personnel. The key step in postnatal adaptation is the initiation of breathing with a subsequent increase in pulmonary blood flow and pulmonary gas exchange. Therefore, in compromised newborn infants, adequate ventilation is the most important step in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Ventilation should be initiated with room air in term infants and with low concentrations of supplemental oxygen in preterm infants. Subsequently, oxygen supplementation should always be guided by pulse oximetry. Chest compressions are only effective if adequate ventilation has been ensured. The compression ventilation ratio remains 3:1. The prevention of heat loss and maintaining a normal body temperature by adequate measures is an essential part of the care for healthy as well as asphyxiated infants. Therapeutic hypothermia should only be initiated after successful resuscitation and consultation with the regional neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:21815119

  3. A HOT COCOON IN THE ULTRALONG GRB 130925A: HINTS OF A POPIII-LIKE PROGENITOR IN A LOW-DENSITY WIND ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, Luigi; Troja, Eleonora; Kidd, Lauren A.; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Ricci, Roberto; Bannister, Keith; Fiore, Fabrizio; Piranomonte, Silvia; Wieringa, Mark H.

    2014-08-01

    GRB 130925A is a peculiar event characterized by an extremely long gamma-ray duration (≈7 ks), as well as dramatic flaring in the X-rays for ≈20 ks. After this period, its X-ray afterglow shows an atypical soft spectrum with photon index Γ ∼ 4, as observed by Swift and Chandra, until ≈10{sup 7} s, when XMM-Newton observations uncover a harder spectral shape with Γ ∼ 2.5, commonly observed in gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. We find that two distinct emission components are needed to explain the X-ray observations: a thermal component, which dominates the X-ray emission for several weeks, and a non-thermal component, consistent with a typical afterglow. A forward shock model well describes the broadband (from radio to X-rays) afterglow spectrum at various epochs. It requires an ambient medium with a very low-density wind profile, consistent with that expected from a low-metallicity blue supergiant (BSG). The thermal component has a remarkably constant size and a total energy consistent with those expected by a hot cocoon surrounding the relativistic jet. We argue that the features observed in this GRB (its ultralong duration, the thermal cocoon, and the low-density wind environment) are associated with a low metallicity BSG progenitor and, thus, should characterize the class of ultralong GRBs.

  4. Antioxidant activities of two sericin proteins extracted from cocoon of silkworm (Bombyx mori) measured by DPPH, chemiluminescence, ORAC and ESR methods

    PubMed Central

    TAKECHI, TAYORI; WADA, RITSUKO; FUKUDA, TSUBASA; HARADA, KAZUKI; TAKAMURA, HITOSHI

    2014-01-01

    Recent efforts have focused on the use of sericin proteins extracted from cocoons of silkworm as a healthy food source for human consumption. In this study, we focused on the antioxidative properties of sericin proteins. The antioxidative properties were measured in sericin proteins extracted from the shell of the cocoon, designated hereafter as white sericin protein and yellow-green sericin protein, as well as bread without sericin protein and bread to which white sericin powder had been added using four measurement methods: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), chemiluminescence, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and electron spin resonance (ESR). High antioxidative properties of sericin proteins were indicated by all four methods. A comparison of the two types of sericin proteins revealed that yellow-green sericin protein exhibited high antioxidative properties as indicated by the DPPH, chemiluminescence and ORAC methods. By contrast, a higher antioxidative property was determined in white sericin protein by the ESR method. Consequently, our findings confirmed that sericin proteins have antioxidative properties against multiple radicals. In addition, the antioxidative property of bread was enhanced by the addition of sericin powder to the bread. Therefore, findings of this study suggest that sericin proteins may be efficiently used as beneficial food for human health. PMID:24748975

  5. Infant feeding in India.

    PubMed

    1984-09-15

    The report of a survey organized by the Nutrition Foundation of India indicated that, although breastfeeding is the traditional standard of infant nutrition in India, good infant feeding practices depend on education provided by health services. Interviews with 4926 mothers with infants under 1 year indicated that over 97% motherrs suckle their infants, and 75% or more in most centers are still breastfeeding when the infant is 1 year old. At age 5 months 30-40% of infants are fed entirely from the breast; at age 1, 5-10% were getting no other food. Of the very small number of mothers who never breastfed their infants, most belonged to the highest income group. Causes of lactation failure in India and other countries seem to be social and psychological and not physiological. Most Indian babies grow well at first, but by the age of 6 months are growth retarded. Growth retardation may be caused by insufficient breast milk and repeated gastrointestinal and respiratory infections associated with poor hygiene and abject poverty, both more prevalent in Calcutta than in Bombay and Madras. Because of risk of infection, dietary supplements should be given to the mother (rather than to the infant) during the 1st 6 months of lactation. Traditional cow and buffalo milk was the main supplement given to 1955 of infants surveyed, but 1531 were given commerical milk formulas. Commercial milk was used mainly by the wealthy in big cities but some was used in rural areas, where some of the poorest mothers spend 10% of family income on commerical milk. It is important that fresh animal milk be made available to the poor at reasonable prices. Indian mothers are reluctant to give older infants any normal family foods except cereals. Manuals should be prepared for use by health workers to teach practical nutrition education in different regions. PMID:6147646

  6. Cepheids and their 'Cocoons'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at Cerro Paranal, Chile, and the CHARA Interferometer at Mount Wilson, California, a team of French and North American astronomers has discovered envelopes around three Cepheids, including the Pole star. This is the first time that matter is found surrounding members of this important class of rare and very luminous stars whose luminosity varies in a very regular way. Cepheids play a crucial role in cosmology, being one of the first "steps" on the cosmic distance ladder. ESO PR Photo 09/06 ESO PR Photo 09/06 Model Image of Cepheid L Carinae (VINCI, MIDI/VLTI) The southern Cepheid L Carinae was observed with the VINCI and MIDI instrument at the VLTI, while Polaris (the Pole Star) and Delta Cephei (the prototype of its class) were scrutinised with FLUOR on CHARA, located on the other side of the equator. FLUOR is the prototype instrument of VINCI. Both were built by the Paris Observatory (France). For most stars, the observations made with the interferometers follow very tightly the theoretical stellar models. However, for these three stars, a tiny deviation was detected, revealing the presence of an envelope. "The fact that such deviations were found for all three stars, which however have very different properties, seems to imply that envelopes surrounding Cepheids are a widespread phenomenon", said Pierre Kervella, one of the lead authors. The envelopes were found to be 2 to 3 times as large as the star itself. Although such stars are rather large - about fifty to several hundreds of solar radii - they are so far away that they can't be resolved by single telescopes. Indeed, even the largest Cepheids in the sky subtend an angle of only 0.003 arc second. To observe this is similar to viewing a two-storey house on the Moon. Astronomers have thus to rely on the interferometric technique, which combines the light of two or more distant telescopes, thereby providing the angular resolution of a unique telescope as large as the separation between them. With the VLTI, it is possible to achieve a resolution of 0.001 arc second or less. "The physical processes that have created these envelopes are still uncertain, but, in analogy to what happens around other classes of stars, it is most probable that the environments were created by matter ejected by the star itself", said Antoine Mérand, lead-author of the second paper describing the results. Cepheids pulsate with periods of a few days. As a consequence, they go regularly through large amplitude oscillations that create very rapid motions of its apparent surface (the photosphere) with velocities up to 30 km/s, or 108 000 km/h! While this remains to be established, there could be a link between the pulsation, the mass loss and the formation of the envelopes. Notes Cepheids are commonly used as distance indicators, thanks to the existence of a basic relation between their intrinsic brightness and their pulsation period. By measuring the period of a Cepheid star, its intrinsic brightness can be deduced and from the observed apparent brightness, the distance may then be calculated. As they are intrinsically very bright stars, and can be observed in distant galaxies, this remarkable property has turned these yellow supergiant stars into primary 'standard candles' for extragalactic distance estimations (see ESO PR 25/04). L Carinae is the brightest Cepheid in the sky, and also the one that presents the largest apparent angular diameter. This is a massive supergiant star, having about 10 times the mass of the Sun and a radius approximately 180 times that of the Sun. Polaris is a peculiar star as it is located very close to the North celestial pole (hence its name). It is classified as a Cepheid, but it shows very weak pulsations compared to the other stars of its class. Delta Cephei is the prototype of the Cepheids. It was discovered to be a variable star in the 18th century by the English amateur John Goodricke, and it is still one of the brightest members of the Cepheid class. Its short period is characteristic of a relatively small supergiant, with a radius of "only" 43 times that of the Sun. These results are published in two articles to appear in Astronomy and Astrophysics: "Extended envelopes around Galactic Cepheids I. L Car from near and mid-infrared interferometry with the VLTI" by P. Kervella et al., and "Extended envelopes around Cepheids II. Near infrared interferometric observations of Polaris and delta Cep using CHARA/FLUOR" by Antoine Mérand et al. The first paper is available as a PDF file from the editor's web site. The team is composed of Pierre Kervella, Antoine Mérand, Vincent Coudé du Foresto , Guy Perrin (LESIA, Paris Observatory, France), Stephen T. Ridgway (NOAO, Tucson, US and CHARA, Georgia, US), Jason P. Aufdenberg (NOAO, Tucson, US), Theo A. ten Brummelaar, Harold A. McAlister, Laszlo Sturmann, Judit Sturmann, Nils H. Turner and David H. Berger (CHARA, Georgia, US). The Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) Array interferometer is operated by the Georgia State University, United States.

  7. Multivariate Model of Infant Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kierscht, Marcia Selland; Vietze, Peter M.

    This paper describes a multivariate model of early infant competence formulated from variables representing infant-environment transaction including: birthweight, habituation index, personality ratings of infant social orientation and task orientation, ratings of maternal responsiveness to infant distress and social signals, and observational…

  8. When Infants Talk, Infants Listen: Pre-Babbling Infants Prefer Listening to Speech with Infant Vocal Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to…

  9. [The infant with leukemia].

    PubMed

    Kamps, W A; Sjamsoedin-Visser, E J; van Wering, E R

    1988-04-01

    Infant leukemia is rare and especially in newborn leukemoid reactions should be excluded by careful cytogenetic analysis before starting cytotoxic therapy. Infants have either acute lymphoblastic leukemia, monoblastic leukemia or acute undifferentiated leukemia. At present they have a bad outlook due to many coinciding unfavorable initial disease characteristics: high leukocyte count, liver and spleen enlargement, meningeal involvement, no expression of common ALL antigen, and a high frequency of pseudodiploid cells, that is with a translocation 4;II. The immaturity of organs and systems makes it difficult to treat these infants, and requires optimal supportive care. Therapeutic protocols for prospective clinical trials for leukemia in this age group are urgently needed. PMID:3287687

  10. Benefits of infant massage.

    PubMed

    Day, Jane

    2014-05-01

    After spending three months as a clinical midwifery tutor at a remote hospital in Zambia, where I helped to train student midwives and other students, my interest in infant massage was ignited, having witnessed the benefits of massage to both mother and baby. Once back in the UK, I trained and qualified as a massage instructor with an international infant massage training organisation, which has led me to work extensively with parents and babies, offering one-to-one and group courses. It has been a privilege to be able to teach parents the valuable skill of infant massage, and consequently pass on the benefits both physiological and psychosocial. PMID:24873112

  11. Infant deaths in slings.

    PubMed

    Madre, Chrystèle; Rambaud, Caroline; Avran, David; Michot, Charlotte; Sachs, Philippe; Dauger, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    Although the incidence of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) decreased markedly after campaigns to promote supine positioning during sleeping, it has remained unchanged over the last decade. Epidemiological data suggest a role for new causes such as suffocation, asphyxia, and entrapment. Health authorities in several countries have issued warnings about slings used to carry infants. However, few reports of infant deaths in slings have been published in medical journals. Our paediatric intensive care unit has admitted two infants who experienced cardiorespiratory arrest while carried in a sling. Diagnostic investigations including a post-mortem examination established asphyxia as the mechanism of death. In conclusion, baby slings may carry a risk of SUDI, either by compression of the baby into a forward-flexed position or by direct suffocation. European recommendations for the cautious use of baby slings should be disseminated to families and professionals involved in caring for infants, as done recently in Australia, Canada, and the USA. PMID:24343674

  12. Gastroesophageal reflux in infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001134.htm Gastroesophageal reflux in infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gastroesophageal reflux occurs when stomach contents leak backward from the ...

  13. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  14. [Salmonellosis in young infants].

    PubMed

    Köhler, H

    2009-01-01

    In Germany Salmonella belong to the most frequently detected pathogens in bacterial enteritis, Remarkably infants show a higher incidence than adults. In addition to the intestinal symptoms extraintestinal complications, such as bacteremia, infections of the central nervous system and osteomyelitis, are responsible for the disease severity. An age specific source of infection is the often hardly detectable contamination of powdered infant formula. Also infants seem very susceptible to disease transmission through reptiles held in the family's home. Immunologic functions, which are partly age dependent, might be responsible for a high susceptibility and severe salmonella infection in individuals. Due to the reported problems infected infants under 6 months should receive antibiotic therapy. The use of probiotics is not (yet) established in this setting. PMID:19263322

  15. Sudden infant death syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Crib death; SIDS ... However, SIDS is still a major cause of death in infants under 1 year old. Thousands of ... affects boys more often than girls. Most SIDS deaths occur in the winter. The following may increase ...

  16. Unconscious Choking: Infant

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Unconscious Choking—Infant (1:36) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  17. CPR - infant - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100216.htm CPR - infant - series To use the sharing features on ... yourself to call 911 until you have performed CPR for about 2 minutes. 3. Carefully place the ...

  18. Infant dental care (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Even though newborns and infants do not have teeth, care of the mouth and gums is important. ... sugar water. As the child grows, establishing proper dental hygiene will promote healthy teeth and gums which ...

  19. Infant - newborn development

    MedlinePlus

    ... holding a hand; may take few steps alone SENSORY DEVELOPMENT Hearing, begins before birth, and is mature at birth. The infant prefers the human voice. Touch, taste, and smell, mature at birth; ...

  20. Infant Botulism (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... cause botulism in infants are everywhere in the environment. They're in dust and dirt, and even ...

  1. Diarrhea in infants

    MedlinePlus

    When your infant has diarrhea; When your baby has diarrhea; BRAT diet; Diarrhea in children ... Children who have diarrhea may have less energy, dry eyes, or a dry, sticky mouth. They may also not wet their diaper as ...

  2. Infant - newborn development

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye-muscle control allows the infant to track objects Begins to control hand and feet actions, but ... unable to coordinate the grasp, but swipes at objects to bring them closer Increased vision allows the ...

  3. Urolithiasis in infants.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Jallouli; Riadh, Mhiri; Abdellatif, Nouri

    2007-04-01

    There are few publications about urolithiasis of the new born baby and infant (UNI). The UNI represents 20% of the pediatric urolithiasis. The etiologies in this age group are chiefly dominated by the urinary-tract infections and metabolic abnormalities. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of infant urolithiasis and to define the various treatment modalities adapted to this age group. PMID:17287940

  4. Sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adams, Stephen M; Ward, Chad E; Garcia, Karla L

    2015-06-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden unexpected death of a child younger than one year during sleep that cannot be explained after a postmortem evaluation including autopsy, a thorough history, and scene evaluation. The incidence of SIDS has decreased more than 50% in the past 20 years, largely as a result of the Back to Sleep campaign. The most important risk factors relate to the sleep environment. Prone and side sleeping positions are significantly more dangerous than the supine position. Bed sharing with a parent is strongly correlated with an increased risk of SIDS, especially in infants younger than 12 weeks. Apparent life-threatening events are not a risk factor for SIDS. Parents should place infants on their backs to sleep, should not share a bed, and should avoid exposing the infant to tobacco smoke. Other risk-reducing measures include using a firm crib mattress, breastfeeding, keeping vaccinations up to date, avoiding overheating due to overbundling, avoiding soft bedding, and considering the use of a pacifier during sleep once breastfeeding is established. One consequence of the Back to Sleep campaign is a significant increase in the incidence of occipital flattening. Infants who develop a flat spot should be placed with the head facing alternating directions each time he or she is put to bed. Supervised prone positioning while the infant is awake, avoiding excessive use of carriers, and upright positioning while awake are also recommended. PMID:26034855

  5. Sudden infant death syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Carl E.; Hauck, Fern R.

    2006-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) continues to be the most common cause of postneonatal infant death. SIDS is a complex, multifactorial disorder, the cause of which is still not fully understood. However, much is known now about environmental risk factors, some of which are modifiable. These include maternal and antenatal risk factors such as smoking during pregnancy, as well as infant-related risk factors such as non-supine sleeping position and soft bedding. Emerging evidence also substantiates an expanding number of genetic risk factors. Interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors may be of critical importance in determining an infant's actual risk of SIDS. Although no practical way exists to identify which infants will die of SIDS, nor is there a safe and proven prevention strategy even if identification were feasible, reducing exposure to modifiable risk factors has helped to lower the incidence of SIDS. Current challenges include wider dissemination of guidelines to all people who care for infants, dissemination of guidelines in culturally appropriate ways, and surveillance of SIDS trends and other outcomes associated with implementation of these guidelines. PMID:16785462

  6. Reducing blood glucose levels in TIDM mice with an orally administered extract of sericin from hIGF-I-transgenic silkworm cocoons.

    PubMed

    Song, Zuowei; Zhang, Mengyao; Xue, Renyu; Cao, Guangli; Gong, Chengliang

    2014-05-01

    In previous studies, we reported that the blood glucose levels of mice with type I diabetes mellitus (TIDM) was reduced with orally administered silk gland powder from silkworms transgenic for human insulin-like growth factor-I (hIGF-I). However, potential safety hazards could not be eliminated because the transgenic silk gland powder contained heterologous DNA, including the green fluorescent protein (gfp) and neomycin resistance (neo) genes. These shortcomings might be overcome if the recombinant hIGF-I were secreted into the sericin layer of the cocoon. In this study, silkworm eggs were transfected with a novel piggyBac transposon vector, pigA3GFP-serHS-hIGF-I-neo, containing the neo, gfp, and hIGF-I genes controlled by the sericin-1 (ser-1) promoter with the signal peptide DNA sequence of the fibrin heavy chain (Fib-H) and a helper plasmid containing the piggyBac transposase sequence under the control of the Bombyx mori actin 3 (A3) promoter, using sperm-mediated gene transfer to generate the transformed silkworms. The hIGF-I content estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was approximately 162.7 ng/g. To estimate the biological activity of the expressed hIGF-I, streptozotocin-induced TIDM mice were orally administered sericin from the transgenic silkworm. The blood glucose levels of the mice were significantly reduced, suggesting that the extract from the transgenic hIGF-I silkworm cocoons can be used as an orally administered drug. PMID:24632065

  7. Infant psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Bolten, Margarete I

    2013-02-01

    Infant mental health problems include difficulties to regulate emotions or attention, crying, sleeping or feeding problems as well as aggressive behavior. Early identifications of these problems help to change developmental trajectories and improve developmental outcomes. Psychiatric assessment and classification have to take into account the rapid processes of development as well as the inseparable linkage between symptoms of the infant, psychosocial risks in the family environment, and parent-child relations. The proposed DSM-5 classification system presents a systematic description of mental health disorders which are relevant for infant psychiatry. However, the proposal has provided rather limited attention to developmental differences and parent-infant relations. Therefore, additional classification systems, like the Zero-to-Three (DC: 0-3R), are strongly recommended. In terms of assessment and in accordance with the guidelines of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, infant psychiatrists have to consider the close relation between somatic and mental health and the interplay between behaviors of the caregiver and the infant. Therefore, the assessment has to be multidisciplinary and relationship based. A standard assessment in infancy includes a clinical interview, behavior observations, caregiver questionnaires, and a pediatric screening. All assessments should pay attention to motor, cognitive, language, and social-emotional development. Because infant development is embedded in the family context, socio-economic factors, parents' mental problems, including drug abuse, domestic violence, and trauma history should be assessed. The treatment has to be oriented toward symptoms and development and has to address underlying medical conditions. The focus should be on parent-child interactions. Evidence-based interventions are based on attachment theory, use social-learning perspectives, and behavioral approaches. PMID:23229140

  8. Recurrent Wheezing in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Belhassen, Manon; De Blic, Jacques; Laforest, Laurent; Laigle, Valérie; Chanut-Vogel, Céline; Lamezec, Liliane; Brouard, Jacques; Fauroux, Brigitte; de Pouvourville, Gérard; Ginoux, Marine; Van Ganse, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent wheezing (RW) has a significant impact on infants, caregivers, and society, but morbidity and related medical resource utilization (MRU) have not been thoroughly explored. The burden of RW needs to be documented with population-based data. The objective was to assess the characteristics, medical management, and MRU of RW infants identified from national claims data. Infants aged from 6 to 24 months, receiving ≥2 dispensations of respiratory drugs within 3 months, and presenting a marker of poor control (index date), were selected. During the 6 months after index date, MRU was described in the cohort and among 3 subgroups with more severe RW, defined as ≥4 dispensations of respiratory drugs, ≥3 dispensations of oral corticosteroids (OCS), or ≥1 hospitalization for respiratory symptoms. A total of 115,489 infants had RW, corresponding to 8.2% of subjects in this age group. During follow-up, 68.7% of infants received inhaled corticosteroids, but only 1.8 U (unit) were dispensed over 6 months, suggesting discontinuous use. Control was mostly inadequate: 61.7% of subjects received OCS, 80.2% antibiotics, and 71.2% short-acting beta-agonists, and medical/paramedical visits were numerous, particularly for physiotherapy. Severe RW concerned 39.0% of the cohort; 32.8% and 11.7% of infants had repeated use of respiratory drugs and OCS, respectively, and 5.5% were hospitalized for respiratory symptoms. In this real-life nation-wide study, RW was common and infants had poor control and high MRU. Interventions are needed to support adequate use of controller therapy, and to improve medical care. PMID:27082618

  9. [Changes in infant mortality].

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A

    1997-01-01

    Mexico's infant mortality rate is estimated to have declined from 189 in 1930 to 129 in 1950 and 30 in 1995. The infant mortality rate has continued its decline despite the economic crisis of recent years. The use of oral rehydration therapy has reduced mortality from diarrhea, and the spread of family planning has reduced the numbers of births at high risk due to maternal age, parity, or short birth intervals. The types of causes of infant death have changed as the numbers have decreased. They can be grouped in ascending order according to the difficulty of prevention: diseases preventable by immunization, acute diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, perinatal disorders, and congenital anomalies. Over two-thirds of infant deaths recorded since 1950 have been due to these causes. Infectious diseases, including diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, and conditions preventable by immunization predominated as causes of infant mortality before 1930. As the epidemiological transition progresses, diseases preventable by immunization lose importance, and diarrhea and respiratory infections occupy the first two places, with perinatal disorders being third. Between 1980 and 1990, in Mexico, diarrhea and acute respiratory infections dropped to second and third place after perinatal disorders, with congenital anomalies in fourth place. In most developed countries, perinatal disorders and congenital anomalies are the two most frequent causes of death, while diarrhea and respiratory infections no longer appear in the top five. In 1995, the four main causes in Mexico in descending order were perinatal disorders, congenital anomalies, acute respiratory infections, and diarrhea. PMID:12158082

  10. Renal transplantation in infants.

    PubMed

    Jalanko, Hannu; Mattila, Ilkka; Holmberg, Christer

    2016-05-01

    Renal transplantation (RTx) has become an accepted mode of therapy in infants with severe renal failure. The major indications are structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, congenital nephrotic syndrome, polycystic diseases, and neonatal kidney injury. Assessment of these infants needs expertise and time as well as active treatment before RTx to ensure optimal growth and development, and to avoid complications that could lead to permanent neurological defects. RTx can be performed already in infants weighing around 5 kg, but most operations occur in infants with a weight of 10 kg or more. Perioperative management focuses on adequate perfusion of the allograft and avoidance of thrombotic and other surgical complications. Important long-term issues include rejections, infections, graft function, growth, bone health, metabolic problems, neurocognitive development, adherence to medication, pubertal maturation, and quality of life. The overall outcome of infant RTx has dramatically improved, with long-term patient and graft survivals of over 90 and 80 %, respectively. PMID:26115617

  11. Infant-Directed Speech Is Modulated by Infant Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nicholas A.; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2008-01-01

    When mothers engage in infant-directed (ID) speech, their voices change in a number of characteristic ways, including adopting a higher overall pitch. Studies have examined these acoustical cues and have tested infants' preferences for ID speech. However, little is known about how these cues change with maternal sensitivity to infant feedback in…

  12. Infant Mortality and Hispanic Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table A. http://www. ... from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table 5. http://www. ...

  13. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table A. http://www. ... from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table 5. http://www. ...

  14. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): Condition Information Skip sharing on social ... Share this: Page Content SIDS is the sudden death of an infant younger than 1 year of ...

  15. Cronobacter Illness and Infant Formula

    MedlinePlus

    ... many germs. Breastfeeding helps prevent many kinds of sicknesses among infants. Wash your hands carefully with soap ... do: Breastfeed. Breastfeeding helps prevent many kinds of sicknesses among infants. Almost no cases of Cronobacter sickness ...

  16. Care of the well newborn.

    PubMed

    Warren, Johanna B; Phillipi, Carrie A

    2012-01-01

    The birth of an infant is one of the most memorable experiences a family shares. Pediatric health care professionals are privileged to participate in this experience and recognize it as a time to promote the health of the newborn and family. Ideally, a well-designed care system would be replete with comprehensive supports during the prenatal period, birth, and transition to home. Opportunities exist to improve the care we deliver with universal screening of all pregnant women; coordinated assessments of family health, including mental health; and access to coordinated supports and services for mother and infant. If 90% of US families could comply with medical recommendations to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months, it is estimated the United States would save billions of dollars per year and prevent more than 900 deaths, nearly all of which would be in infants. All infants, whether breastfed or formula fed, should receive 400 IU supplemental vitamin D. Influenza and TdaP vaccination of postpartum mothers and other caregivers helps cocoon the vulnerable infant from influenza and pertussis until he or she can be fully vaccinated. When children reach the highest weight or length allowed by the manufacturer of their infant-only seat, they should continue to ride rear-facing in a convertible seat. It is best for children to ride rear-facing as long as possible to the highest weight and height allowed by the manufacturer of their convertible seat. PMID:22210929

  17. Infant death scene investigation.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Pamela D; Ragan, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The sudden unexpected death of an infant is a tragedy to the family, a concern to the community, and an indicator of national health. To accurately determine the cause and manner of the infant's death, a thorough and accurate death scene investigation by properly trained personnel is key. Funding and resources are directed based on autopsy reports, which are only as accurate as the scene investigation. The investigation should include a standardized format, body diagrams, and a photographed or videotaped scene recreation utilizing doll reenactment. Forensic nurses, with their basic nursing knowledge and additional forensic skills and abilities, are optimally suited to conduct infant death scene investigations as well as train others to properly conduct death scene investigations. Currently, 49 states have child death review teams, which is an idea avenue for a forensic nurse to become involved in death scene investigations. PMID:25642921

  18. Diminished Reactivity of Postmature Human Infants to Sucrose Compared with Term Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study of healthy 39-week-old infants, so-called term infants, and chronically stressed 42-week-old infants, so-called postmature infants, showed that sucrose was extremely effective in calming term infants but less effective in calming postmature infants. Results supported the hypothesis that sucrose engages an opioid system in infants. (BG)

  19. Infant Feeding: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowhurst, Christine Marie, Comp.; Kumer, Bonnie Lee, Comp.

    Intended for parents, health professionals and allied health workers, and others involved in caring for infants and young children, this annotated bibliography brings together in one selective listing a review of over 700 current publications related to infant feeding. Reflecting current knowledge in infant feeding, the bibliography has as its…

  20. Generalized Vocal Imitation in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulson, Claire L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes a study of three infants whose parents presented vocal models for the infants to imitate. Parents presented vocal models both with and without social praise. Infants showed systematic increases in matching after praise was introduced. Nonmatching vocalizations did not increase with introduction of praise. Findings demonstrate generalized…

  1. Infant Affect and Home Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate relationship between infant affect and quality of home environment. Found that infant irritability was negatively correlated with quality of home environment in both low-risk and high-risk families. Infant positive affect was more strongly related to quality of care in…

  2. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, E.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    These proceedings of the first annual SACUS workshop on infant day care contain the papers presented at the conference, plus an appendix--Developmental Objectives for Infants and Toddlers. The papers are: "Infant Day Care--Fads, Facts, and Fancies" by Bettye M. Caldwell; "Family Day Care""A Broad Perspective" by Malcolm S. Host; "Getting…

  3. Infant Care Suggestions for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... fragile infants. They can help parents learn the skills and gain confidence necessary to care for their fragile. The infant who has osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) has some special characteristics. The infant may have an unusually soft skull, startle very easily, have bone deformity and ...

  4. Tinea Capitis in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, Brent D.

    2012-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a reasonably common infection among the pediatric population; however, it is still a relatively rare entity among infants less than one year of age. As such, a high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis among infants and an appropriate diagnostic work up should be employed in any case where a dermatophyte infection is suspected. Several methods are available for diagnosis. In addition, proper identification of the specific dermatophyte genera involved should be considered as treatment options may be altered based on the causative pathogen identified. PMID:22468173

  5. [Seizures in newborn infant].

    PubMed

    Eskola, Vesa; Jäntti, Ville; Eriksson, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Seizures in newborn infants are common. The may constitute a neurologic emergency or a nonepileptic, harmless symptom. Diagnostics is becoming more specific with current methodologies. Detailed description of seizures and their connection with EEG abnormalities are the diagnostic cornerstones. The treatment has made slow progress, but newer antiepileptic drugs may aid in the treatment of epileptic seizures in newborn infants in the future. For the time being, evidence-based research results for them are lacking, as well as data on long-term effects. Differential diagnosis of seizures has become increasingly important. PMID:21188877

  6. [Cocooning strategy: Effectiveness of a pertussis vaccination program for parents in the maternity unit of a university hospital].

    PubMed

    Decréquy, A; de Vienne, C; Bellot, A; Guillois, B; Dreyfus, M; Brouard, J

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on vaccination coverage of a protocol in which promotion and administration of pertussis vaccine in the maternity ward were proposed upon discharge from a French university hospital. Pertussis is a potentially fatal bacterial respiratory infection, especially in young infants. Since 2004 the High Council of Public Health has recommended vaccinating adults who may become parents. This recommendation is not widely applied in France. The study, organized as a professional practice evaluation (EPP) was conducted by a multidisciplinary team at Caen University Hospital. Thirty couples were included for each period. The primary endpoint was the rate of vaccination coverage for both parents at hospital discharge. Before the information campaign (first period, January 2012), immunization coverage of mothers and fathers was 20% and 13%, respectively. No couple had received a prescription for vaccines. During the second period (June 2013), vaccination coverage was 77% at hospital discharge for mothers and 57% for fathers. Parental immunization coverage against pertussis was multiplied by four to five during the study, which is very encouraging, and it is important to continue this campaign at the region and national levels. PMID:27345559

  7. Parent-Infant Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charnley, Lucile; Myre, Gloria

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the development and philosophy of parent-infant education programs provided by Washington State community colleges and vocational technical schools consisting of parent-participation classes and cooperative preschools for 10,000 families. Describes program at Seattle Community College. (BF/JH)

  8. Intervention for Unsettled Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Beulah; And Others

    Outcomes of a follow-up, preventive care program based on a self-regulation model of neonate and parent behavior were studied in a controlled experiment. Subjects included a preterm control group, preterm intervention group, and full-term control group, with each group consisting of 27 infants. The assessment, which used the Brazelton Neonatal…

  9. Infant feeding and vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

  10. [Infants and Toddlers].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue contains four articles which focus on the development of normal and handicapped infants in various settings. "The Baby's World," by Lois Barclay Murphy and Colleen T. Small, emphasizes experiences of sensation and discovery in the first three years of life, noting the role of caregivers and the cultural context. "The…

  11. Infant Group Care Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Earline D.

    Children under 3 years of age who are in group care face special health risks. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control indicate the existence of a causal relationship between infant group day care and certain diseases that are spread through contact at day care centers. Children in group care who are still in diapers are especially vulnerable to…

  12. ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To estimate the energy requirements of infants from total energy expenditure and energy deposition during growth. Design: Energy requirements during infancy were estimated from total energy expenditure measured by the doubly labeled water method and energy deposition based on measured pr...

  13. ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition, and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention, and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METH...

  14. Reading with an Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda Leonard

    1980-01-01

    Emphasizes that parents' reading to infants fosters interest in literature and provides foundation for basic reading skills. Titles of musical books, point-and-say books, touch and smell books, cardboard books, cloth books, plastic books, and early stories are provided. (Author/DB)

  15. Pareidolia in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Masaharu; Mugitani, Ryoko

    2015-01-01

    Faces convey primal information for our social life. This information is so primal that we sometimes find faces in non-face objects. Such illusory perception is called pareidolia. In this study, using infants’ orientation behavior toward a sound source, we demonstrated that infants also perceive pareidolic faces. An image formed by four blobs and an outline was shown to infants with or without pure tones, and the time they spent looking at each blob was compared. Since the mouth is the unique sound source in a face and the literature has shown that infants older than 6 months already have sound-mouth association, increased looking time towards the bottom blob (pareidolic mouth area) during sound presentation indicated that they illusorily perceive a face in the image. Infants aged 10 and 12 months looked longer at the bottom blob under the upright-image condition, whereas no differences in looking time were observed for any blob under the inverted-image condition. However, 8-month-olds did not show any difference in looking time under both the upright and inverted conditions, suggesting that the perception of pareidolic faces, through sound association, comes to develop at around 8 to 10 months after birth. PMID:25689630

  16. Ptosis - infants and children

    MedlinePlus

    Blepharoptosis-children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  17. Neuroprotection in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Berger, R.; Söder, S.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm infants born before the 30th week of pregnancy are especially at risk of perinatal brain damage which is usually a result of cerebral ischemia or an ascending intrauterine infection. Prevention of preterm birth and early intervention given signs of imminent intrauterine infection can reduce the incidence of perinatal cerebral injury. It has been shown that administering magnesium intravenously to women at imminent risk of a preterm birth leads to a significant reduction in the likelihood of the infant developing cerebral palsy and motor skill dysfunction. It has also been demonstrated that delayed clamping of the umbilical cord after birth reduces the rate of brain hemorrhage among preterm infants by up to 50%. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells seem to have significant neuroprotective potential in animal experiments, as they increase the rate of regeneration of the damaged cerebral area. Clinical tests of these types of therapeutic intervention measures appear to be imminent. In the last trimester of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone increase significantly. Preterm infants are removed abruptly from this estradiol and progesterone rich environment. It has been demonstrated in animal experiments that estradiol and progesterone protect the immature brain from hypoxic-ischemic lesions. However, this neuroprotective strategy has unfortunately not yet been subject to sufficient clinical investigation. PMID:25650134

  18. Infant Development: Recent Advances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, Gavin, Ed.; Slater, Alan, Ed.; Butterworth, George, Ed.

    Noting that the last 30 years have seen enormous increases in the understanding of infancy, this book examines the current state of knowledge regarding infant development. The book's contents stem from meetings of the British Infancy Research Group. Although the book was intended for advanced undergraduates, it would also be useful for advanced…

  19. Improving Infant Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Vince L.

    This speech sketches a picture of post-natal health care in the United States, circa 1979. Between 1970 and 1976, post-natal infant deaths in the first week after birth dropped 32%. During the same period, the post-neonatal decline was just 12%. Statistics are presented which highlight areas of concern. Variation across states, high incidence in…

  20. Infant Phonotactic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatte, Victoria Anne

    2011-01-01

    For the past several decades, researchers have been investigating the stages infants go through on their way to acquiring their native language. Research into the question of the order in which, and time when, various facets of phonology are acquired has resulted in a basic timeline of development. Exploration of a second question, namely what…

  1. Infants Understand Others' Needs.

    PubMed

    Köster, Moritz; Ohmer, Xenia; Nguyen, Thanh Dung; Kärtner, Joscha

    2016-04-01

    Infants begin to help other individuals in the second year of life. However, it is still unclear whether early helping behavior is based on an understanding of other individuals' needs and is thus motivated prosocially. In the present eye-tracking study, 9- to 18-month-old infants (N= 71) saw a character in need of help, unable to reach its goal because of an obstacle, and a second character that was able to achieve a goal on its own. When a third individual (a helper) initiated an action, the infants expected the helper to help the character in need (as indicated during the anticipatory-looking and violation-of-expectation phases). Their prosocial understanding did not differ between age groups and was not related to their helping behavior (measured in two behavioral tasks). Thus, infants understand other individuals' needs even before they start to help others themselves. This indicates that early helping may indeed be motivated prosocially and raises the question of which other competences underlie the ontogeny of helping behavior. PMID:26902106

  2. Infant Vocal Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hursh, Daniel E.

    In Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior, three categories of environmental control over instances of verbal behavior appear to be relevant to the study of infant vocal development: the mand, the tact, and the echoic categories. Procedures used in the remediation of language deficiencies and procedures found in work in the area of language…

  3. Infant memory for musical experiences.

    PubMed

    Saffran, J R; Loman, M M; Robertson, R R

    2000-10-16

    Recent findings suggest that infants can remember words from stories over 2 week delays (Jusczyk, P. W., & Hohne, E. A. (1997). Infants' memory for spoken words. Science, 277, 1984-1986). Because music, like language, presents infants with a massively complex auditory learning task, it is possible that infant memory for musical stimuli is equally powerful. Seven-month-old infants heard two Mozart sonata movements daily for 2 weeks. Following a 2 week retention interval, the infants were tested on passages of the familiarized music, and passages taken from similar but novel music. Results from two experiments suggest that the infants retained the familiarized music in long-term memory, and that their listening preferences were affected by the extent to which familiar passages were removed from the musical contexts within which they were originally learned. PMID:10980255

  4. Maternal and infant sleep postpartum.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    New parents should be aware that infants' sleep is unlike that of adults and that meeting their infant's needs is likely to disrupt their own sleep. They will need to adjust their routine to manage their own sleep needs. Parental sleep patterns in the postpartum period are tied to the infant's development of a circadian sleep-wake rhythm, and the infant's feeds. Close contact with the mother and exposure to light/dark cues appear to assist in the development of the infant's circadian rhythm. The composition of breastmilk varies over the course of 24 hours and some components produced at night are likely to contribute to the infant's day/night entrainment. There is no clear evidence that using artificial feeds improves maternal sleep. Most infants need night feeds but requirements for nighttime feeds vary with the individual. PMID:23957180

  5. Infant neurobehavioral development.

    PubMed

    Lester, Barry M; Miller, Robin J; Hawes, Katheleen; Salisbury, Amy; Bigsby, Rosemarie; Sullivan, Mary C; Padbury, James F

    2011-02-01

    The trend toward single-room neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) is increasing; however scientific evidence is, at this point, mostly anecdotal. This is a critical time to assess the impact of the single-room NICU on improving medical and neurobehavioral outcomes of the preterm infant. We have developed a theoretical model that may be useful in studying how the change from an open-bay NICU to a single-room NICU could affect infant medical and neurobehavioral outcome. The model identifies mediating factors that are likely to accompany the change to a single-room NICU. These mediating factors include family centered care, developmental care, parenting and family factors, staff behavior and attitudes, and medical practices. Medical outcomes that plan to be measured are sepsis, length of stay, gestational age at discharge, weight gain, illness severity, gestational age at enteral feeding, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Neurobehavioral outcomes include the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) scores, sleep state organization and sleep physiology, infant mother feeding interaction scores, and pain scores. Preliminary findings on the sample of 150 patients in the open-bay NICU showed a "baseline" of effects of family centered care, developmental care, parent satisfaction, maternal depression, and parenting stress on the neurobehavioral outcomes of the newborn. The single-room NICU has the potential to improve the neurobehavioral status of the infant at discharge. Neurobehavioral assessment can assist with early detection and therefore preventative intervention to maximize developmental outcome. We also present an epigenetic model of the potential effects of maternal care on improving infant neurobehavioral status. PMID:21255702

  6. Neurobiology of infant attachment.

    PubMed

    Moriceau, Stephanie; Sullivan, Regina M

    2005-11-01

    A strong attachment to the caregiver is critical for survival in altricial species, including humans. While some behavioral aspects of attachment have been characterized, its neurobiology has only recently received attention. Using a mammalian imprinting model, we are assessing the neural circuitry that enables infant rats to attach quickly to a caregiver, thus enhancing survival in the nest. Specifically, the hyper-functioning noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) enables pups to learn rapid, robust preference for the caregiver. Conversely, a hypo-functional amygdala appears to prevent the infant from learning aversions to the caregiver. Adult LC and amygdala functional emergence correlates with sensitive period termination. This study suggests the neonatal brain is not an immature version of the adult brain but is uniquely designed to optimize attachment to the caregiver. Although human attachment may not rely on identical circuitry, the work reviewed here suggests a new conceptual framework in which to explore human attachments, particularly attachments to abusive caregivers. PMID:16252291

  7. Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this…

  8. The Role of Infant Cognitive Level in Mother-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Patricia L.; Jones, Freda A.

    Videotapes of mother/infant pairs were made to assess the influence of selected infant and maternal characteristics on parent/child interaction. Characteristics of interest were infant mental age, infant chronological age, infant gender, and parity. Subjects were 37 mothers (20 primiparous, 17 multiparous) and their infants (19 males, 18 females)…

  9. Infant feeding: a critical look at infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Motil, K J

    2000-10-01

    Commercially available infant formulas serve as the best alternative to human milk when breastfeeding is not possible. Infant formulas are designed specifically to mimic the composition of human milk or the functional aspects of human milk feeding. This review highlights the issues related to the composition of infant formulas. The most hotly debated issue currently is whether to add long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to infant formulas. Other controversial topics include the safety and efficacy of soy-based protein formulas, protein quantity and quality as they relate to the infant's nutritional needs and feeding tolerance, and the replacement of lactose with other carbohydrate sources for specialized infant formulas. Recent modifications in the fat blend of infant formulas have led to improved fat digestibility. However, the full spectrum of benefits associated with the addition of nucleotides awaits further study. Modifications to infant formulas are made when the preponderance of scientific evidence suggests that the compositional change will better meet the nutritional needs of the infant. PMID:11021413

  10. Unnatural sudden infant death

    PubMed Central

    Meadow, R.

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To identify features to help paediatricians differentiate between natural and unnatural infant deaths.
METHOD—Clinical features of 81 children judged by criminal and family courts to have been killed by their parents were studied. Health and social service records, court documents, and records from meetings with parents, relatives, and social workers were studied.
RESULTS—Initially, 42 children had been certified as dying from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and 29 were given another cause of natural death. In 24 families, more than one child died; 58died before the age of 6 months and most died in the afternoon or evening. Seventy per cent had experienced unexplained illnesses; over half were admitted to hospital within the previous month, and 15 had been discharged within 24 hours of death. The mother, father, or both were responsible for death in 43, five, and two families, respectively. Most homes were disadvantaged—no regular income, receiving income support—and mothers smoked. Half the perpetrators had a history of somatising or factitious disorder. Death was usually by smothering and 43% of children had bruises, petechiae, or blood on the face.
CONCLUSIONS—Although certain features are indicative of unnatural infant death, some are also associated with SIDS. Despite the recent reduction in numbers of infants dying suddenly, inadequacies in the assessment of their deaths exist. Until a thorough postmortem examination is combined with evaluation of the history and circumstances of death by an experienced paediatrician, most cases of covert fatal abuse will go undetected. The term SIDS requires revision or abandonment.

 PMID:10325752

  11. Brain tumors in infants

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Seyyed Mohammad; Habibi, Zohreh; Hanaei, Sara; Moradi, Ehsan; Nejat, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brain tumors in infants have different clinical presentations, anatomical distribution, histopathological diagnosis, and clinical prognosis compared with older children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done in patients <12 months old who were operated on for primary brain tumor in Children's Hospital Medical Center since 2008 to 2014. Results: Thirty-one infants, 20 males and 11 females, with the mean age of 7.13 months (0.5–12) were enrolled. There were 16 supratentorial and 15 infratentorial tumors. The presenting symptoms included increased head circumference (16); bulge fontanel (15); vomiting (15); developmental regression (11); sunset eye (7); seizure (4); loss of consciousness (4); irritability (3); nystagmus (2); visual loss (2); hemiparesis (2); torticollis (2); VI palsy (3); VII, IX, X nerve palsy (each 2); and ptosis (1). Gross total and subtotal resection were performed in 19 and 11 cases, respectively. Fourteen patients needed external ventricular drainage in the perioperative period, from whom four infants required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. One patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting without tumor resection. The most common histological diagnoses were primitive neuroectodermal tumor (7), followed by anaplastic ependymoma (6) and grade II ependymoma. The rate of 30-day mortality was 19.3%. Eighteen patients are now well-controlled with or without adjuvant therapy (overall survival; 58%), from whom 13 cases are tumor free (disease free survival; 41.9%), 3 cases have residual masses with fixed or decreased size (progression-free survival; 9.6%), and 2 cases are still on chemotherapy. Conclusion: Brain tumors in infants should be treated with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy when necessary. PMID:26962338

  12. Bone densitometry in infants

    SciTech Connect

    Barden, H.S.; Mazess, R.B.

    1988-07-01

    Bone mineral mass and density can be measured noninvasively by various absorptiometric procedures. Two methods, dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) and quantitative computed tomography, have widespread application in adults but only limited use in children. One method, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), has been used extensively in adults and children and has been modified for use in infants. The radius shaft has been used for most research on infants. However, the difficulty of using older SPA methods on this small bone (4 to 7 mm width) has led a few investigators to measure the shaft of the humerus. The typical precision of measurement in a newborn is about 5% with the use of computerized rectilinear scanners for the radius; older linear scanners have a precision error of 5% to 10% on the humerus. Linear scanners cannot measure precisely the radius in individual neonates. The SPA scans typically take about 5 minutes. The DPA technique using /sup 153/Gd has been modified for use on smaller animals (5 to 10 kg monkeys and dogs), but it has not been used on infants because DPA scans take 20 minutes. New methods using x-ray absorptiometry allow rapid (1 minute), precise (1%) measurements in the perinate. The need for a soft tissue bolus is eliminated, and both the axial and peripheral skeletons can be measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Ultrasonic measurements do not yet offer adequate precision in the neonate, given the limited biologic range of values. 83 references.

  13. History of infant feeding practices.

    PubMed

    Barness, L A

    1987-07-01

    Human milk was the one successful infant food until the advent of scientific pediatrics, the invention of electric refrigeration, and the development of formulas containing the major nutrients in concentrations similar to human milk. Infants apparently thrive on artificial formulas but the current formulas represent only a stage in the journey to optimal nutrition for infants. Better analyses of the composition of human milk are likely to lead to an improved understanding of the infant's nutritional requirements and thus to better feeding practices. PMID:3300255

  14. Safety of Sildenafil in Infants*

    PubMed Central

    Samiee-Zafarghandy, Samira; Smith, P. Brian; van den Anker, Johannes N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In view of the recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s warning against the use of sildenafil in pediatric patients, we aimed to provide an updated overview of the dosing and safety of sildenafil in infants and to explore the relevance of the present safety concerns to the infant population. Data Source The National Library of Medicine PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched using the following terms: Sildenafil AND (infant OR infants OR newborn OR newborns OR child OR children OR childhood OR pediatric OR pediatrics OR paediatric OR paediatrics). Study Selection Studies presenting original clinical data regarding the dosing, use, or safety of sildenafil in infants with pulmonary hypertension would be included. Data Extraction Of the 49 included studies, case reports and case series were the most common type of publications (n = 25). The identified trials included 625 children, with more than 140 infants. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and pulmonary hypertension associated with other conditions were the most common underlying diagnoses. Conclusion There is currently no evidence of serious adverse event in infants exposed to sildenafil. Present safety concerns regarding the use of sildenafil in pediatric patients should be further explored before being applied to infant population. Sildenafil remains a valuable option for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in young infants. Prospective studies should be designed in such a way that they include a safety assessment to evaluate potential adverse outcomes of sildenafil therapy in this population. PMID:24583505

  15. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the ... using infant formula . Buying, Preparing, and Storing Infant Formula The following tips can help you buy, prepare, ...

  16. Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies and infants; Formula feeding - babies and infants ... life, your baby needs only breast milk or formula for proper nutrition. Your baby will digest breast ...

  17. Infant of a substance using mother

    MedlinePlus

    ... Maternal substance use; Maternal drug use; Narcotic exposure - infant; Substance use disorder - infant ... ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS SEEN IN AN INFANT OF A SUBSTANCE-ABUSING MOTHER? Babies born to ...

  18. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Facts for Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents risk factors and prevention measures related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Offers infant sleep recommendations and five discussion questions to test knowledge of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (DLH)

  19. Infants' Behavioral and Physiological Profile and Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Raquel; Figueiredo, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to (a) identify and profile groups of infants according to their behavioral and physiological characteristics, considering their neurobehavioral organization, social withdrawal behavior, and endocrine reactivity to stress, and to (b) analyze group differences in the quality of mother-infant interaction. Ninety-seven 8-week-old…

  20. Infant Neurosensory Development: Considerations for Infant Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Infant brain development is a dynamic process dependent upon endogenous and exogenous stimulation and a supportive environment. A critical period of brain and neurosensory development occurs during the third trimester and into the "fourth" trimester (first three months of life). Disruption, damage, or deprivation in the infant's social and…

  1. Individual and Maturational Differences in Infant Expressivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1989-01-01

    Reports that, even though young infants can discriminate among different facial expressions, there are individual differences in infants' expressivity and ability to produce and discriminate facial expressions. (PCB)

  2. Cholestasis in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Satrom, Katie; Gourley, Glenn

    2016-06-01

    Cholestasis in preterm infants has a multifactorial etiology. Risk factors include degree of prematurity, lack of enteral feeding, intestinal injury, prolonged use of parenteral nutrition (PN), and sepsis. Soy-based parenteral lipid emulsions have been implicated in the pathophysiology of PN-associated liver injury. Inflammation plays an important role. Medical therapies are used; however, their effects have not consistently proven effective. Evaluation of cholestasis involves laboratory work; direct bilirubin levels are used for diagnosis and trending. Adverse outcomes include risk for hepatobiliary dysfunction, irreversible liver failure, and death. Early enteral feedings as tolerated is the best way to prevent and manage cholestasis. PMID:27235213

  3. Pollution and Infant Health

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Janet

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I review recent research showing that even relatively low levels of pollution can affect infants' health. This research attempts to go beyond documenting correlations by using sharp changes in pollution levels, carefully selecting control groups (including unexposed siblings as controls for exposed children), and considering behavioral responses to pollution such as maternal mobility. Poor and minority children are more likely to be affected and differential exposure could be responsible for some of the observed group-level differences in health at birth. Policymakers concerned about the roots of inequality should consider the role played by environmental exposures of pregnant mothers. PMID:27134646

  4. Trends in infant abductions (2005).

    PubMed

    Nahirny, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    Infant kidnapping in healthcare facilities has been sharply reduced since the 1990s when educational programs and tagging systems were introduced. However, infant abductors in recent years have changed their methods of operation to meet improved nursery safeguards. In this updated report, the author warns of some new dangers posed by the Internet. PMID:16535955

  5. Determinants of Infant Behaviour IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss, B. M., Ed.

    This volume consists of reports of individual studies and surveys of research work on mother-infant interactions. It is divided into two parts. The first section presents a wide range of studies on mother-infant relations as exhibited in the behavior of animals. The second part, concerning human behavior, includes studies on the natural history of…

  6. How Infants Encode Spatial Extent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Sean; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Levine, Susan; Duffy, Renee

    2005-01-01

    This study explores how infants encode an object's spatial extent. We habituated 6.5-month-old infants to a dowel inside a container and then tested whether they dishabituate to a change in absolute size when the relation between dowel and container is held constant (by altering the size of both container and dowel) and when the relation changes…

  7. Averaged Electroencephalic Audiometry in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lentz, William E.; McCandless, Geary A.

    1971-01-01

    Normal, preterm, and high-risk infants were tested at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of age using averaged electroencephalic audiometry (AEA) to determine the usefulness of AEA as a measurement technique for assessing auditory acuity in infants, and to delineate some of the procedural and technical problems often encountered. (KW)

  8. [Infant and Toddler Communication Disorders].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter issue contains four articles all addressing aspects of intervention with infants and toddlers having communication disorders. The first, "Assessing the Communication of Infants and Toddlers: Integrating a Socioemotional Perspective" (Barry M. Prizant and Amy M. Wetherby) describes a new instrument, the Communication and Symbolic…

  9. Caring for Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "The Future of Children" focuses on the daily care of infants and toddlers in the United States, including shifting caregiving arrangement for children younger than 3 years, developmental needs of infants and toddlers, findings of recent child care studies, public opinion regarding child care, and recent innovations seeking to…

  10. Learning and Memory in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses important recent strides in the documentation and understanding of the infant's learning and memory capacity. Focuses on the psychobiology of learning, hedonic mediation of approach-avoidance and learned behavior, infant memory, and critical conditions of infancy and behavioral misadventures. (RJC)

  11. What Is Infant Mental Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

  12. NUTRITIONAL INFLUENCES ON INFANT DEVELOPMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutritional requirements of infants and children reflect this population's unique needs for growth and developmental changes in organ function and body composition as well as their maintenance needs. Moreover, since the metabolic rate of infants and children is greater and the turnover of nutri...

  13. Evaluating Infant-Family Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Compiling articles from participants of the Leadership Development Initiative Class of 2001-2002, this issue focuses on evaluation of…

  14. Number Sense in Human Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fei; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Goddard, Sydney

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments used a preferential looking method to investigate 6-month-old infants' capacity to represent numerosity in visual-spatial displays. Building on previous findings that such infants discriminate between arrays of eight versus 16 discs, but not eight versus 12 discs (Xu & Spelke, 2000), Experiments 1 and 2 investigated whether…

  15. Newborn Infants Orient to Sounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Darwin; Field, Jeffrey

    1979-01-01

    In two experiments, the majority of 21 newborn infants who were maintained in an alert state consistently turned their heads toward a continuous sound source presented 90 degrees from midline. For most infants, this orientation response was rather slow, taking median latencies of 2.5 seconds to begin and 5.5 seconds to end. (JMB)

  16. Infants Infer Intentions from Prosody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakkalou, Elena; Gattis, Merideth

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine infants' ability to discern intentions from lexical and prosodic cues. Two groups of 14-18-month-olds participated in these studies. In both studies, infants watched an adult perform a sequence of two-step actions on novel toys that produced an end-result. In the first study actions were marked intentionally…

  17. Panchromatic observations of dwarf starburst galaxies: Infant super star clusters and a low-luminosity AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Amy Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Globular star clusters and supermassive black holes are fundamental components of today's massive galaxies, with origins dating back to the very early universe. Both globular clusters and the seeds of supermassive black holes are believed to have formed in the progenitors of modern massive galaxies, although the details are poorly understood. Direct observations of these low-mass, distant, and hence faint systems are unobtainable with current capabilities. However, gas-rich dwarf starburst galaxies in the local universe, analogous in many ways to protogalaxies at high-redshift, can provide critical insight into the early stages of galaxy evolution including the formation of globular clusters and massive black holes. This thesis presents a panchromatic study of nearby dwarf starburst galaxies harboring nascent globular clusters still embedded in their birth material. Infant clusters are identified via their production of thermal radio emission at centimeter wavelengths, which comes from dense gas ionized by young massive stars. By combining radio observations with complementary data at ultraviolet, optical and infrared wavelengths, we obtain a comprehensive view of massive clusters emerging from their gaseous and dusty birth cocoons. This thesis also presents the first example of a nearby dwarf starburst galaxy hosting an actively accreting massive central black hole. The black hole in this dwarf galaxy is unusual in that it is not associated with a bulge, a nuclear star cluster, or any other well-defined nucleus, likely reflecting an early phase of black hole and galaxy evolution that has not been previously observed.

  18. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination among women of childbearing age-United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Alissa C; Lu, Peng-Jun; Williams, Walter W; Ding, Helen; Meyer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased since the 1990s. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of pregnant women provides passive protection to infants. Tdap vaccination is currently recommended for pregnant women during each pregnancy, but coverage among pregnant women and women of childbearing age has been suboptimal. Data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to determine national and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage among women of childbearing age by self-reported pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Although this study could not assess coverage of Tdap vaccination received during pregnancy because questions on whether Tdap vaccination was received during pregnancy were not asked in BRFSS and NHIS, demographic and access-to-care factors associated with Tdap vaccination coverage in this population were assessed. Tdap vaccination coverage among all women 18-44 years old was 38.4% based on the BRFSS and 23.3% based on the NHIS. Overall, coverage did not differ by pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Coverage among all women 18-44 years old varied widely by state. Age, race and ethnicity, education, number of children in the household, and access-to-care characteristics were independently associated with Tdap vaccination in both surveys. We identified associations of demographic and access-to-care characteristics with Tdap vaccination that can guide strategies to improve vaccination rates in women during pregnancy. PMID:27372388

  19. Probing the Physics of Narrow-line Regions in Active Galaxies. III. Accretion and Cocoon Shocks in the LINER NGC 1052

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dopita, Michael A.; Ho, I.-Ting; Dressel, Linda L.; Sutherland, Ralph; Kewley, Lisa; Davies, Rebecca; Hampton, Elise; Shastri, Prajval; Kharb, Preeti; Jose, Jessy; Bhatt, Harish; Ramya, S.; Scharwächter, Julia; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; James, Bethan; Juneau, Stéphanie; Srivastava, Shweta

    2015-03-01

    We present Wide Field Spectrograph integral field spectroscopy and Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph spectroscopy for the low-ionization nuclear emission line region (LINER) galaxy NGC 1052. We infer the presence of a turbulent accretion flow forming a small-scale accretion disk. We find a large-scale outflow and ionization cone along the minor axis of the galaxy. Part of this outflow region is photoionized by the active galactic nucleus and shares properties with the extended narrow-line region of Seyfert galaxies, but the inner (R≲ 1.0″) accretion disk and the region around the radio jet appear shock excited. The emission-line properties can be modeled by a “double-shock” model in which the accretion flow first passes through an accretion shock in the presence of a hard X-ray radiation, and the accretion disk is then processed through a cocoon shock driven by the overpressure of the radio jets. This model explains the observation of two distinct densities (˜104 and ˜106 cm-3) and provides a good fit to the observed emission-line spectrum. We derive estimates for the velocities of the two shock components and their mixing fractions, the black hole mass, and the accretion rate needed to sustain the LINER emission and derive an estimate for the jet power. Our emission-line model is remarkably robust against variation of input parameters and hence offers a generic explanation for the excitation of LINER galaxies, including those of spiral type such as NGC 3031 (M81).

  20. Percutaneous absorption in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    West, D P; Halket, J M; Harvey, D R; Hadgraft, J; Solomon, L M; Harper, J I

    1987-11-01

    The skin of preterm infants varies considerably in its level of maturity. To understand skin absorption in premature infants better, we report a technique for the assessment of percutaneous absorption at various gestational and postnatal ages using stable, isotope-labeled (13C6) benzoic acid. Our results indicate that in the preterm infant, this method detects enhanced skin absorption in the first postnatal days, which declines over three weeks to that expected of a full-term infant. This approach also indicates an inverse relationship between gestational age and skin absorption, as well as postnatal age and skin absorption. The reported technique is a safe and noninvasive method using a model skin penetrant for the study of percutaneous absorption in preterm infants from which basic data may be derived to add to our understanding of skin barrier function. PMID:3422856

  1. Infant colic, distress, and crying.

    PubMed

    Hewson, P; Oberklaid, F; Menahem, S

    1987-02-01

    The literature regarding infant colic is critically reviewed. Although there have been a number of theories proposed as to etiology of colic, the literature is characterized by difficulties in definition, methodologic problems, and numerous claims as to both etiology and management that are anecdotal. Infant colic is best conceptualized as the end result of a complex transaction between the infant and his environment, with multiple factors responsible for the crying and distress of an infant. The most important factors in appropriate intervention are a physician's receptivity and sensitivity toward the stressed mother, together with an interested and practical approach to providing adequate support while delineating the individual stresses acting on both mother and baby. Future research is needed to delineate markers for those subgroups of infants who may present with crying as a manifestation of specific clinical situations. PMID:3802693

  2. Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Joanna; Faress, Ahmed; Bornstein, Marc H; Haley, David W

    2016-01-01

    The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs) on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1) or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2). To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs) in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200) and increased conflict processing (larger N450), albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is distracting; they

  3. Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Dudek, Joanna; Faress, Ahmed; Bornstein, Marc H.; Haley, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs) on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1) or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2). To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs) in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200) and increased conflict processing (larger N450), albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is distracting; they

  4. Primary hyperoxaluria in infants.

    PubMed

    Jellouli, Manel; Ferjani, Mariem; Abidi, Kamel; Zarrouk, Chokri; Naija, Ouns; Abdelmoula, J; Gargah, Tahar

    2016-05-01

    The infantile form of primary hyperoxaluria type-1 (PH-1) is characterized by a rapid progression to the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to both increased oxalate load and reduced glomerular filtration rate. In the literature, data on this form are limited. The purpose of this study is to analyze retrospectively the clinical, biological, and radiological features of children who were diagnosed with PH-1 during the 1(st) year of life. We reviewed the records of all children with PH-1 diagnosed and followed-up at our department between January 1995 and December 2013. Among them, only infants younger than 12 months of age were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Fourteen infants with the median age of two months were enrolled in the study. At diagnosis, 11 patients had ESRD. All patients had nephrocalcinosis and two of them had calculi. The diagnosis was established in nine patients on the basis of the positive family history of PH-1, bilateral nephrocalcinosis, and quantitative crystalluria. In four patients, the diagnosis was made with molecular analysis of DNA. Kidney biopsy contributed to the diagnosis in one patient. During follow-up, two patients were pyridoxine sensitive and preserved renal function. Seven among 11 patients who had ESRD died, four patients are currently undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Children with infantile PH and ESRD are at high risk of early death. Peritoneal dialysis is not a treatment of choice. Combined liver-kidney transplantation is mandatory. PMID:27215245

  5. Infant-directed prosody helps infants map sounds to meanings

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Katharine Graf; Hurley, Karinna

    2012-01-01

    Adults typically use an exaggerated, distinctive speaking style when addressing infants. However, the effects of infant-directed (ID) speech on infants’ learning is not yet well understood. This research investigates how ID speech affects how infants perform a key function in language acquisition, associating the sounds of words with their meanings. Seventeen-month-old infants were presented with two label-object pairs in a habituation-based word learning task. In Experiment 1, the labels were produced in adult-directed (AD) speech. In Experiment 2, the labels were produced in ID prosody; they had higher pitch, greater pitch variation, and longer durations than the AD labels. We found that infants failed to learn the labels in AD speech, but succeeded in learning the same labels when they were produced in ID speech. Experiment 3 investigated the role of variability in learning from ID speech. When the labels were presented in ID prosody with no variation across tokens, infants failed to learn them. Our findings indicate that ID prosody can affect how readily infants map sounds to meanings and that the variability in prosody that is characteristic of ID speech may play a key role in its effect on learning new words. PMID:24244106

  6. Maternal Responsiveness to Infant Crying, Perceived Infant Temperament and Infant-Mother Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frodi, Ann

    The present study examined longitudinally the origin of a prior finding that mothers who perceived their infant's temperament as either "easy" or "difficult" exhibited a differential psychophysiological response pattern. Additionally examined were the pattern's behavioral correlates and relation to infant-mother attachment. Participants were 57…

  7. Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis vaccination coverage before, during, and after pregnancy - 16 States and New York City, 2011.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Indu B; Ding, Helen; D'Angelo, Denise; Shealy, Kristen H; Singleton, James A; Liang, Jennifer; Rosenberg, Kenneth D

    2015-05-22

    In June 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunizations Practices (ACIP) recommended 1 dose of a tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy for women who had not received Tdap previously. Before 2011, Tdap was recommended for unvaccinated women either before pregnancy or postpartum. In October 2012, ACIP expanded the 2011 recommendation, advising pregnant women to be vaccinated with Tdap during each pregnancy to provide maternal antibodies for each infant. The optimal time for vaccination is at 27-36 weeks' gestation as recommended by ACIP. In response to ACIP's Tdap recommendation for pregnant women in 2011, CDC added a supplemental question to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey to determine women's Tdap vaccination status before, during, or after their most recent delivery. This report describes overall and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage around the time of pregnancy using data from 6,852 sampled women who delivered a live-born infant during September-December 2011 in one of 16 states or New York City (NYC). Among the 17 jurisdictions, the median percentage of women with live births who reported any Tdap vaccination was 55.7%, ranging from 38.2% in NYC to 76.6% in Nebraska. The median percentage who received Tdap before pregnancy was 13.9% (range = 7.7%-20.1%), during pregnancy was 9.8% (range = 3.8%-14.2%), and after delivery was 30.9% (range = 13.6%-46.5%). The PRAMS data indicate a wide variation in Tdap vaccination coverage among demographic groups, with generally higher postpartum coverage for non-Hispanic white women, those who started prenatal care in the first trimester, and those who had private health insurance coverage. This information can be used for promoting evidence-based strategies to communicate the importance of ACIP guidelines related to Tdap vaccination coverage to women and their prenatal care providers. PMID:25996094

  8. Infant Touching Behaviour during Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moszkowski, Robin J.; Stack, Dale M.

    2007-01-01

    The study of infant communication during mother-infant interactions has largely focused on infants' distal behaviours, while neglecting their more proximal behaviours, such as touch. Yet, touch is an important modality through which infants and mothers communicate; it is also a vital means through which infants self-regulate and explore their…

  9. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

  10. Applying Infant Massage Practices: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappin, Grace; Kretschmer, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the dynamic interaction between a mother and her 11-month-old visually impaired infant before and after the mother was taught infant massage. After the mother learned infant massage, she had more appropriate physical contact with her infant, engaged with him within his field of vision, directly vocalized to him, and had a…

  11. Infants Make Quantity Discriminations for Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hespos, Susan J.; Dora, Begum; Rips, Lance J.; Christie, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Infants can track small groups of solid objects, and infants can respond when these quantities change. But earlier work is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 ("N" = 88) used a habituation paradigm to show infants can register changes in the size of piles of sand that they see poured…

  12. Tuned in Parenting and Infant Sleep Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddis, Lynn E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on infant sleep behaviour that is of concern to mothers of young infants, and disruptive to families. It reports on the incidence of sleep problems in dyads that self-referred to a specialist clinic, and the relationship between the mother's sensitive responsiveness and infant sleep patterns in a sample of 65 Australian infants.…

  13. Observed Infant Reactions during Live Interparental Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; White, Clare R.; Fleischhauer, Emily A.; Fitzgerald, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    Associations between interparental conflict and infant reactions were examined. Infants' history of exposure to interparental conflict and infant reactive temperament were examined as moderators. A community sample of 74 infants, aged 6-14 months, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' marital conflict and…

  14. Micronutrient requirements of high-risk infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronutrient requirements are well-established for healthy full-term infants. However, few such recommendations exist for high-risk infants, including full-term infants with a variety of medical disorders or very preterm infants. Key micronutrients considered in this review are calcium, phosphorus,...

  15. Infant stimulation curriculum for infants with cerebral palsy: effects on infant temperament, parent-infant interaction, and home environment.

    PubMed

    Palmer, F B; Shapiro, B K; Allen, M C; Mosher, B S; Bilker, S A; Harryman, S E; Meinert, C L; Capute, A J

    1990-03-01

    To assess the effects of intervention in cerebral palsy, 48 infants 12 to 19 months of age, with mild to severe spastic diplegia, were randomly assigned to receive either 6 months of infant stimulation followed by 6 months of physical therapy (test group) or 12 months of neurodevelopmental physical therapy (contrast group). The infant stimulation protocol consisted of cognitive, motor, sensory, and language activities. Outcome was assessed after 12 months by using Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire subscores (activity, rhythmicity, adaptability, approach, threshold, intensity, mood, distractibility, and persistence); Roth Mother-Child Relationship Evaluation subscores (acceptance, overprotection, overindulgence, rejection); and Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment subscores (maternal responsiveness, avoidance of restriction and punishment, organization of environment, play materials, maternal involvement, and variety of daily stimulation). Motor and cognitive outcomes suggesting advantage for the test group have been reported previously. After 12 months of intervention, mothers with infants in the contrast group showed a greater improvement in emotional and verbal responsiveness as measured by the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (mean score change in control group = 1.2, test group = 0.3 P less than .04). None of the 19 other measures differed significantly between treatment groups in change from baseline. This study demonstrates no short-term systematic effect on temperament, maternal-infant interaction, or home environment attributable to the inclusion of an infant stimulation curriculum in an intervention program for infants with spastic diplegia. It suggests that motor and cognitive advantages associated with infant stimulation are not mediated by measurable changes in the psychosocial variables studied. PMID:2406695

  16. Fear of heights in infants?

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Karen E.; Kretch, Kari S.; LoBue, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Based largely on the famous “visual cliff” paradigm, conventional wisdom is that crawling infants avoid crossing the brink of a dangerous drop-off because they are afraid of heights. However, recent research suggests that the conventional wisdom is wrong. Avoidance and fear are conflated, and there is no compelling evidence to support fear of heights in human infants. Infants avoid crawling or walking over an impossibly high drop-off because they perceive affordances for locomotion—the relations between their own bodies and skills and the relevant properties of the environment that make an action such as descent possible or impossible. PMID:25267874

  17. Infant hip sonography: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Harcke, H T; Grissom, L E

    1994-08-01

    Sonography of the infant hip has gained wide acceptance in the decade since its introduction. The two principle techniques of Graf and Harcke have been combined with the proposal of a Dynamic Standard Minimum Examination. Whereas sonography is used increasingly to manage developmental dislocation and/or displasia of the hip, there is no agreement on the use of sonography for universal newborn screening. This article describes in detail the Dynamic Standard Minimum Sonographic Examination of the infant hip. In addition, this article reviews the classification and management of infant hip disorders. PMID:7946476

  18. Breastfeeding infants with congenital torticollis.

    PubMed

    Genna, Catherine Watson

    2015-05-01

    Infants with unilateral sternocleidomastoid tension and associated craniofacial, spinal, and hip asymmetries may feed poorly. Anatomic and muscular asymmetry stress both biomechanics and state control, increasing the potential for difficulty latching and sucking. A combination of positioning modifications to allow the infant to maintain his or her comfortable head tilt and turn, supportive techniques to restore alignment of oral structures, and handling techniques to help activate the weak contralateral muscles have been effective in the author's practice. Lactation consultants can promote positioning and muscle activation strategies and encourage physical therapy referrals for infants who do not respond promptly to reduce the risk of craniofacial deformity and developmental problems. PMID:25616913

  19. Infant Transport Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The photo sequence illustrates the movement of an ill infant to a special care hospital by means of a new Pediatric Monitoring and Transport System, in which NASA technology and technical assistance are being applied to an urgent medical problem. Development of the system is a collaborative effort involving several organizations, principally, NASA Ames Research Center and Children's Hospital Medical Center, Oakland, California. Key to the system's efficacy is a custom-designed ambulance-to-hospital and hospital-to-hospital communications network, including two-way voice capability and space-derived biotelemetry; it allows a specialist at the destination hospital to monitor continuously the vital signs of the patient during transit.

  20. Infant care following delivery (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... determine the APGAR scores. If some cyanosis (bluish skin) is present, the APGAR scores are lower and oxygen may be administered. The oxygen can often be merely blown by the newborn's face, through the mask in front of the infant.

  1. Home apnea monitor use - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000755.htm Home apnea monitor use - infants To use the sharing features on this page, ... oxygen or a breathing machine How Does my Baby get Started on an Apnea Monitor? A home ...

  2. Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities Page Content Article Body Human breast milk typically ... your pediatrician about your family’s medical history. Food Sensitivities A few mothers notice minor reactions to other ...

  3. Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... humidity Abrasive clothing Tobacco smoke and chemicals Some soaps and detergents Who's At Risk Infants are more ... eczema. Moisturizing skin-care routines are essential. Non-soap cleansers, such as Cetaphil®, or moisturizing soaps, such ...

  4. Wheezing and Asthma in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Wheezing and Asthma in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Wheezing and Asthma ... of asthma.) My Baby Is Wheezing. Is It Asthma? If your baby has a cold and is ...

  5. Maternal Responsiveness and Infant Vocalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Linda I.

    The rapidity with which mothers respond to their infants' vocalizations by either vocalizing or verbalizing was compared for five male and five female later-born, (i.e., not first-born) children and their mothers. Videotapes were made from behind a one-way mirror when infants were 2, 26, 52, and 78 weeks of age; each tape represented a five-minute…

  6. Wearable Sensor Systems for Infants

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhihua; Liu, Tao; Li, Guangyi; Li, Tong; Inoue, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant's body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future. PMID:25664432

  7. Maternal postnatal psychiatric symptoms and infant temperament affect early mother-infant bonding.

    PubMed

    Nolvi, Saara; Karlsson, Linnea; Bridgett, David J; Pajulo, Marjukka; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Karlsson, Hasse

    2016-05-01

    Postnatal mother-infant bonding refers to the early emotional bond between mothers and infants. Although some factors, such as maternal mental health, especially postnatal depression, have been considered in relation to mother-infant bonding, few studies have investigated the role of infant temperament traits in early bonding. In this study, the effects of maternal postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms and infant temperament traits on mother-infant bonding were examined using both mother and father reports of infant temperament. Data for this study came from the first phase of the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study (n=102, father reports n=62). After controlling for maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety, mother-reported infant positive emotionality, measured by infant smiling was related to better mother-infant bonding. In contrast, infant negative emotionality, measured by infant distress to limitations was related to lower quality of bonding. In regards to father-report infant temperament, only infant distress to limitations (i.e., frustration/anger) was associated with lower quality of mother-infant bonding. These findings underline the importance of infant temperament as one factor contributing to early parent-infant relationships, and counseling parents in understanding and caring for infants with different temperament traits. PMID:27054496

  8. Thrombosis in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Bacciedoni, Viviana; Attie, Myriam; Donato, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of thrombosis is higher among newborn infants than in any other stage of pediatric development. This fact is the consequence of labile characteristics of the neonatal hemostatic system, in addition to exposure to multiple risk factors and the wide use of vascular catheters. Venous thromboses, which mainly affect the limbs, the right atrium and renal veins, are more frequently seen than arterial thromboses. A stroke may be caused by the occlusion of the arterial flow entering the brain or by occlusion of its venous drainage system. Purpura fulminans is a very severe condition that should be treated as a medical emergency, and is secondary to severe protein C deficiency or, less frequently, protein S or antithrombin deficiency. Most thrombotic events should be managed with antithrombotic therapy, which is done with unfractionated and/or low molecular weight heparins. Purpura fulminans requires protein C replacement and/or fresh frozen plasma infusion. Thrombolytic therapy is done using tissue plasminogen activator and should only be used for life-, or limb-, or organ-threatening thrombosis. PMID:27079395

  9. Infant malnutrition in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Oomen, H. A. P. C.

    1953-01-01

    Infant malnutrition, resulting frequently in the death of children of pre-school age, is a problem requiring urgent solution in Indonesia. Children suffering from malnutrition show a variety of symptoms, the most characteristic being emaciation, growth retardation, liver changes, dyspigmentation of skin and hair, other skin lesions, oedema, muscular wasting, anaemia, and xerophthalmia. The indicative value of xerophthalmia, which often leads to the development of keratomalacia, in the diagnosis of malnutrition is stressed by the author. Further research is required to determine the causes—and particularly the part played by diet—of the clinical differences observed in malnutrition cases. Far greater interest in the problem of malnutrition must be shown by the entire medical profession in Indonesia if treatment is to be carried out successfully. The specific symptom, xerophthalmia, is easily curable with cod-liver oil. General malnutrition can be prevented only if sufficient amounts, both quantitatively and qualitatively, of protein, vitamin A, and calories are provided for every child. The Indonesian must be taught, by practical example, the necessity of adequate feeding, and be encouraged to make maximum use of locally available foods. It is hoped that the centres to deal with malnutrition, envisaged by the Ministry of Health, will provide both curative and preventive treatment and facilities for propaganda and research. ImagesFIG. 1-2FIG. 3-4FIG. 5-6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:13106702

  10. Prevention of pertussis through adult vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Suryadevara, Manika; Domachowske, Joseph B

    2015-01-01

    Pertussis is a vaccine preventable respiratory infection. Young infants are at high risk of developing severe complications from infection. Despite high rates of pediatric vaccine uptake, there continues to be increases in pertussis cases, likely due to waning immunity from childhood vaccine and increased transmission through adults. Currently, pertussis booster vaccine (Tdap) is recommended for unimmunized adults and for women in the third trimester of each pregnancy; yet adult Tdap coverage remains low. Administering Tdap vaccine at non-traditional vaccination clinics and at sites where adults are accessing care for their children are effective in improving adult Tdap uptake. While most are willing to receive vaccine when recommended by their provider, lack of provider recommendation is a major obstacle to immunization. Future studies to understand barriers to provider vaccine recommendations need to be undertaken to develop interventions to improve adult Tdap vaccine uptake and reduce pertussis infection in the susceptible population. PMID:25912733

  11. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    PubMed

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (<1000 g) remain at high risk for death and disability with 30% to 50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20% to 50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of continuous positive airway pressure, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address

  12. Multifocal ERG Responses in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ronald M.; Moskowitz, Anne; Fulton, Anne B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To assess function of the central retina in 10 week old infants, multifocal electroretinograms (mfERG) were recorded. MfERG responses represent post-receptor retinal activity. Methods In infants (N = 23) and adults (N = 10), mfERG responses to both unscaled and scaled 61 hexagon arrays were recorded. The amplitude and implicit time of the negative (N1, N2) and positive (P1) peaks of the first order kernel were examined. The response from the entire area stimulated and responses to concentric rings were analyzed separately. The overall averaged response of the first slice of the second order kernel was also evaluated. Results from infants and adults were compared. Results The amplitude of the infants’ responses (N1, P1, N2) were significantly smaller and the implicit time significantly longer than those of adults. In infants, amplitude and implicit time varied little with eccentricity. In adults, amplitude decreased with eccentricity while implicit time varied little. The infants’ second order kernel was relatively more attenuated than their first order kernel. Conclusion The infants’ mfERG responses indicate immaturities of processing in the central retina. Infant-adult differences in the distribution of cones and bipolar cells may account for the results. PMID:18719077

  13. Mothers' Beliefs about Infant Size: Associations with Attitudes and Infant Feeding Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Shayla C.; Dolan, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal attitudes toward infant body size, but extant work suggests there might be less negativity toward overweight sizes and less positivity toward thin sizes for infants than older children. Fifty mothers of 12 to 25 month-old infants completed questionnaires examining attitudes toward infants', children's and their…

  14. Do Young Infants Prefer an Infant-Directed Face or a Happy Face?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hojin I.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Infants' visual preference for infant-directed (ID) faces over adult-directed (AD) faces was examined in two experiments that introduced controls for emotion. Infants' eye movements were recorded as they viewed a series of side-by-side dynamic faces. When emotion was held constant, 6-month-old infants showed no preference for ID faces…

  15. Marital and Infant Factors in the Emerging Parent-Infant Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Nancy Illback

    The effects of infant responsiveness and marital satisfaction on parent-infant reciprocity in face-to-face interactions are examined in this study. Thirty-two middle to upper-middle class couples attending LaMaze classes were recruited for the study. There were equal numbers of male and female infants. When the infants were approximately three…

  16. Continuous Tracking of Behavioral Development in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Mark; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Reports on a strategy of continuous measurement of the frequency of the same infant behavior over time, which was applied to measuring infant development in the prone position, namely, chin lifting, chest lifting, and a creeping response. (BD/BR)

  17. Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... is your infant throwing up small amounts of formula after a feeding? Yes This is probably "SPITTING UP," a common occurrence for infants on formula. Less common is a LACTOSE INTOLERANCE or MILK ...

  18. Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... urging consumers to carefully read the labels of liquid acetaminophen marketed for infants to avoid giving the ... less concentrated version for all children. Until now, liquid acetaminophen marketed for infants has only been available ...

  19. Crying in Newborn and Young Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelsson, Katarina

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the reasons that newborns and young infants cry, the communicative effect and perception of crying, crying in sick and healthy infants, the sound spectograph, and crying for the use of clinical diagnostics. (RJC)

  20. Infants, Children, and Informed Consent*

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, A. G. M.

    1974-01-01

    Obtaining informed consent for non-therapeutic experimentation on infants and children has ethical and legal implications that cause great controversy. There is some danger that worthy research will be inhibited if current ethical codes are interpreted too strictly, yet infants, children, and other vulnerable groups clearly must be protected from exploitation as research subjects. It is suggested that permission from parents coupled with integrity of the investigator will remain the child's best protection, but several additional protective mechanisms are available and should be used. Some guidelines for non-therapeutic research are suggested which should not only provide adequate protection for infants and young children involved in research projects, but allow investigators reasonable freedom to prosecute worthy research vital to continued improvements in child care. PMID:4413853

  1. Breastmilk contaminants and infant behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Worobey, J.; Thomas, D.A.; Lewis, M. )

    1990-02-26

    Recent work has shown that certain heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (p,p{prime}-DDE) can affect newborn behavior via transplacental exposure. In this study, a number of fluids were collected from a sample of mothers and infants, with gas liquid chromatography used to determine the levels of environmental contaminants in breastmilk obtained in the first postpartum week. Analysis of the first 15 cases revealed normal concentrations of metals, no detectable traces of PCBs, and detectable levels of heptachlor epoxide and p,p{prime}-DDE in breastmilk. No significant associations were found between metals and infant development, but p,p{prime}-DDE was inversely related to perceptual performance and motor scores at 2-1/2 years. These results suggest that contaminants in human milk may affect infant behavior beyond the newborn period, although prediction from other sources must also be considered.

  2. Infants' memory for musical performances.

    PubMed

    Volkova, Anna; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2006-11-01

    We evaluated 6- and 7-month-olds' preference and memory for expressive recordings of sung lullabies. In Experiment 1, both age groups preferred lower-pitched to higher-pitched renditions of unfamiliar lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants were tested after 2 weeks of daily exposure to a lullaby at one pitch level. Seven-month-olds listened significantly longer to the lullaby at a novel pitch level than at the original pitch level. Six-month-olds showed no preference but their low-pitch preference was eliminated. We conclude that infants' memory for musical performances is enhanced by the ecological validity of the materials. Moreover, infants' pitch preferences are influenced by their previous exposure and by the nature of the music. PMID:17059455

  3. Motor Development of Infants with Positional Plagiocephaly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Eileen; Majnemer, Annette; Farmer, Jean-Pierre; Barr, Ronald G.; Platt, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent with recommendations to place infants to sleep in supine, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of infants with positional plagiocephaly (PP). Recent evidence suggests that infants who have decreased exposure to prone position may have a higher incidence of PP and may be at risk for a delay in the acquisition of certain motor…

  4. The Power of Touch: Massage for Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Elaine Fogel

    1996-01-01

    The potential benefits of massage for infants are discussed, including the role of touch on attachment and bonding and implications of massage for special needs infants. Research results on the benefits of massage for the infant and caregiver are covered, including increased bonding and enhanced growth and development. Historical information on…

  5. Infants and Toddlers, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroenke, Lillian DeVault, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document is comprised of the 2001-2002 issues of a quarterly journal for teachers and parents of children in Montessori infant and toddler programs. The spring 2001 issue presents articles on the history of infant and toddler programs in Italy and how to fulfill infant needs in Montessori child care, and on learning activities in the kitchen…

  6. NATIONAL MATERNAL AND INFANT HEALTH SURVEY (NMIHS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMIHS) provides data on maternal and infant health, including prenatal care, birth weight, fetal loss, and infant mortality. The objective of the NMIHS is to collect data needed by Federal, State, and private researchers to study fa...

  7. Prediction of Neurodevelopmental Sequelae in VLBW Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolke, Dieter; And Others

    The study examined pre-, peri-, and neonatal factors in 271 British infants (weighing less than 1500 grams at birth), 188 of whom survived to 2 years. The study represented an attempt to define those factors which predict normal neurodevelopmental outcome in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Surviving infants were seen at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24…

  8. Locomotor Expertise Predicts Infants' Perseverative Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the development of inhibition in a locomotor context. In a within-subjects design, infants received high- and low-demand locomotor A-not-B tasks. In Experiment 1, walking 13-month-old infants followed an indirect path to a goal. In a control condition, infants took a direct route. In Experiment 2, crawling and walking…

  9. Assessing Speech Discrimination in Individual Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Derek M.; Horn, David L.; Qi, Rong; Ting, Jonathan Y.; Gao, Sujuan

    2007-01-01

    Assessing speech discrimination skills in individual infants from clinical populations (e.g., infants with hearing impairment) has important diagnostic value. However, most infant speech discrimination paradigms have been designed to test group effects rather than individual differences. Other procedures suffer from high attrition rates. In this…

  10. Infants' Physical Knowledge Affects Their Change Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Su-hua; Baillargeon, Renee

    2006-01-01

    Prior research suggests that infants attend to a variable in an event category when they have identified it as relevant for predicting outcomes in the category, and that the age at which infants identify a variable depends largely on the age at which they are exposed to appropriate observations. Thus, depending on age of exposure, infants may…

  11. The feeding of infants and children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment of feeding practices that are comfortable and satisfying for both the parents and the infant is crucial not only for the emotional well-being of both but also for ensuring adequate nutrient intakes for the infant. Maternal feelings are readily transmitted to the infant and are a ma...

  12. The feeding of infants and children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment of feeding practices that are comfortable and satisfying for both the mother and the infant is crucial for the emotional well being of both and for assuring adequate nutrient intakes for the infant. Maternal feelings are readily transmitted to the infant and are a major determinan...

  13. The Ecology of Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard

    This paper explores some of the attributed of quality day care programs for infants, age 0 to 30 months. High-quality interactions with adults result in positive developmental outcomes for infants. Adults involved in day care should focus on providing an environment of stimulating experiences, which help infants to develop satisfactorily. Other…

  14. Thirty Years in Infant Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    In the late 1960s and early 1970s, psychiatrists, psychoanalysts, and developmental psychologists pioneered the study of infant mental health. The author, a clinician who helped to develop the field of infant mental health, uses an anecdote-enriched account of his 30-year career to describe the origins and evolution of the infant mental health…

  15. [Drug Exposed Infants and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This bulletin issue addresses the theme of drug-exposed infants and the services required by these infants and their families. "Cocaine-Exposed Infants: Myths and Misunderstandings" (Barbara J. Myers and others) comments on the negative accounts of drug-exposed babies presented by mass media and reviews the mix of positive and negative findings…

  16. Infant Communicative Behaviors and Maternal Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative…

  17. Infant Developmental Outcomes: A Family Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfitt, Ylva; Pike, Alison; Ayers, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine whether parental mental health, parent-infant relationship, infant characteristics and couple's relationship factors were associated with the infant's development. Forty-two families took part at three time points. The first, at 3?months postpartum, involved a video recorded observation…

  18. Enacting Caring Pedagogy in the Infant Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Minsun

    2015-01-01

    This single case study was undertaken to explore how an infant head teacher meets the needs of the infants, who express their desire to be cared for, in their caring encounters. Natural daily interactions between infants and the teacher were observed for approximately 10 weeks. Through the qualitative data analysis, the results of this study…

  19. Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that…

  20. Learning in the Development of Infant Locomotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adolph, Karen E.

    1997-01-01

    Examined how infants acquire adaptive locomotion in the novel task of going up and down slopes. Found that infants' judgments became increasingly accurate and exploration became increasingly efficient, with no transfer over the transition from crawling to walking. Infants learned to gauge their abilities on-line as they encountered each hill at…

  1. Social Information Guides Infants' Selection of Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; McKee, Caitlin B.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of socially conveyed emotions and speech on infants' choices among food. After watching films in which two unfamiliar actresses each spoke while eating a different kind of food, 12-month-old infants were allowed to choose between the two foods. In Experiment 1, infants selected a food endorsed by a…

  2. Synchrony in Mother-Infant Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karger, Rex H.

    1979-01-01

    A measure of mother-infant synchrony was developed and used to compare the interactions of mothers with pre-term and mothers with full-term infants. Each mother-infant dyad was observed during a standard bottle feeding session on three separate occasions: once prior to discharge and at one and three months after discharge. (JMB)

  3. Programme Planning for Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Teresa; Sims, Margaret

    Caring for infants and toddlers has long been conceptualized in Western society as mothers' work, and consequently devalued. Alternative care for infants and toddlers has lacked a knowledge base like that undergirding preschool education. Factors impeding research on infant/toddler care include strong ideological opposition to nonmaternal care,…

  4. Clinical assessment of infant colour at delivery

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Colm P F; Kamlin, C Omar F; Davis, Peter G; Carlin, John B; Morley, Colin J

    2007-01-01

    Objective Use of video recordings of newborn infants to determine: (1) if clinicians agreed whether infants were pink; and (2) the pulse oximeter oxygen saturation (Spo2) at which infants first looked pink. Methods Selected clips from video recordings of infants taken immediately after delivery were shown to medical and nursing staff. The infants received varying degrees of resuscitation (including none) and were monitored with pulse oximetry. The oximeter readings were obscured to observers but known to the investigators. A timer was visible and the sound was inaudible. The observers were asked to indicate whether each infant was pink at the beginning, became pink during the clip, or was never pink. If adjudged to turn pink during the clip, observers recorded the time this occurred and the corresponding Spo2 was determined. Results 27 clinicians assessed videos of 20 infants (mean (SD) gestation 31(4) weeks). One infant (5%) was perceived to be pink by all observers. The number of clinicians who thought each of the remaining 19 infants were never pink varied from 1 (4%) to 22 (81%). Observers determined the 10 infants with a maximum Spo2 ⩾95% never pink on 17% (46/270) of occasions. The Spo2 at which individual infants were perceived to turn pink varied from 10% to 100%. Conclusion Among clinicians observing the same videos there was disagreement about whether newborn infants looked pink with wide variation in the Spo2 when they were considered to become pink. PMID:17613535

  5. Facial Expressivity in Infants of Depressed Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickens, Jeffrey; Field, Tiffany

    1993-01-01

    Facial expressions were examined in 84 3-month-old infants of mothers classified as depressed, nondepressed, or low scoring on the Beck Depression Inventory. Infants of both depressed and low-scoring mothers showed significantly more sadness and anger expressions and fewer interest expressions than infants of nondepressed mothers. (Author/MDM)

  6. The Neural Substrates of Infant Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro

    2014-01-01

    Infants often pay special attention to speech sounds, and they appear to detect key features of these sounds. To investigate the neural foundation of speech perception in infants, we measured cortical activation using near-infrared spectroscopy. We presented the following three types of auditory stimuli while 3-month-old infants watched a silent…

  7. Infants' Developing Understanding of Social Gaze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beier, Jonathan S.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Young infants are sensitive to self-directed social actions, but do they appreciate the intentional, target-directed nature of such behaviors? The authors addressed this question by investigating infants' understanding of social gaze in third-party interactions (N = 104). Ten-month-old infants discriminated between 2 people in mutual versus…

  8. New Methods for Testing Infant Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwiazda, Jane; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Based on studies and clinical findings, two techniques for testing infant vision are described: near-retinoscopy (used to assess the refractive state of infants and young children) and a fast preferential looking procedure (used to assess the acuity of infants up to one year of age). (DLS)

  9. Faces Attract Infants' Attention in Complex Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gliga, Teodora; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Andravizou, Athina; Johnson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Infant's face preferences have previously been assessed in displays containing 1 or 2 faces. Here we present 6-month-old infants with a complex visual array containing faces among multiple visual objects. Despite the competing objects, infants direct their first saccade toward faces more frequently than expected by chance (Experiment 1). The…

  10. Infants Attribute to Agents Goals and Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yuyan; Choi, You-jung

    2012-01-01

    This commentary article is to be published alongside: Hernik, M., & Southgate, V. (2012). What do infants know about agents' goals? The authors see this issue consisting of two closely related questions. First, what is an agent to infants? Second, how do infants attribute goals to agents? Hernik and Southgage (H&S) focused on the second question.…

  11. Segmental Production in Mandarin-Learning Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Mei; Kent, Raymond D.

    2010-01-01

    The early development of vocalic and consonantal production in Mandarin-learning infants was studied at the transition from babbling to producing first words. Spontaneous vocalizations were recorded for 24 infants grouped by age: G1 (0 ; 7 to 1 ; 0) and G2 (1 ; 1 to 1 ; 6). Additionally, the infant-directed speech of 24 caregivers was recorded…

  12. Maternal Behavior and Sex of Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Will, Jerrie Ann; And Others

    This study examines the influence of maternal predispositions toward sex-appropriate behavior and the mother's response to "feminine" or "masculine" cues in infant behavior. In the investigation, one 6-month-old male infant was presented to 11 mothers who served as subjects. The infant was dressed as either boy (blue clothes) and named Adam, or…

  13. Caffeine therapy in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hady, Hesham; Nasef, Nehad; Shabaan, Abd Elazeez; Nour, Islam

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly used medication for treatment of apnea of prematurity. Its effect has been well established in reducing the frequency of apnea, intermittent hypoxemia, and extubation failure in mechanically ventilated preterm infants. Evidence for additional short-term benefits on reducing the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and patent ductus arteriosus has also been suggested. Controversies exist among various neonatal intensive care units in terms of drug efficacy compared to other methylxanthines, dosage regimen, time of initiation, duration of therapy, drug safety and value of therapeutic drug monitoring. In the current review, we will summarize the available evidence for the best practice in using caffeine therapy in preterm infants. PMID:26566480

  14. Caffeine therapy in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hady, Hesham; Nasef, Nehad; Shabaan, Abd Elazeez; Nour, Islam

    2015-11-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly used medication for treatment of apnea of prematurity. Its effect has been well established in reducing the frequency of apnea, intermittent hypoxemia, and extubation failure in mechanically ventilated preterm infants. Evidence for additional short-term benefits on reducing the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and patent ductus arteriosus has also been suggested. Controversies exist among various neonatal intensive care units in terms of drug efficacy compared to other methylxanthines, dosage regimen, time of initiation, duration of therapy, drug safety and value of therapeutic drug monitoring. In the current review, we will summarize the available evidence for the best practice in using caffeine therapy in preterm infants. PMID:26566480

  15. Infant Gaze Following during Parent-Infant Coviewing of Baby Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demers, Lindsay B.; Hanson, Katherine G.; Kirkorian, Heather L.; Pempek, Tiffany A.; Anderson, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 122 parent–infant dyads were observed as they watched a familiar or novel infant-directed video in a laboratory setting. Infants were between 12-15 and 18-21 months old. Infants were more likely to look toward the TV immediately following their parents' look toward the TV. This apparent social influence on infant looking at television…

  16. Frequency Discrimination in Young Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsho, Lynne Werner; And Others

    Frequency difference thresholds were determined for fourteen 4- to 9-month-old infants (mean age, 6 months 10 days) using a discrimination learning paradigm, following a one-up, two-down staircase procedure. The subject heard 500 msec tone bursts repeated at a rate of one per sec, with a fixed standard frequency. At various points in this pulse…

  17. Infants Hierarchically Organize Memory Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Rebecca D.; Feigenson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Throughout development, working memory is subject to capacity limits that severely constrain short-term storage. However, adults can massively expand the total amount of remembered information by grouping items into "chunks". Although infants also have been shown to chunk objects in memory, little is known regarding the limits of this…

  18. Invulnerable High Risk Preterm Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, David R.; And Others

    In an effort to look at factors moderating the negative effects of preterm low birthweight and perinatal illness, the study followed up (at 7 and 12 months of age) 50 preterm infants whose cumulative morbidity score was greater than 100 and/or who had a life threatening complication. Home visits provided ratings of maternal sensitivity, the…

  19. [The Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida's Health, 1976

    1976-01-01

    This collection of articles on the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), drawn from a southeastern regional symposium on the subject, summarizes much of what is known about the occurrence of SIDS, including current information about its causes. The background of state action in Florida is reviewed, with emphasis on the need for increased public and…

  20. Infant Massage: Communicating through Touch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Vivian

    1998-01-01

    Describes the benefits of infant massage, particularly for babies with deafness who have hearing parents. Steps for giving baby massages are provided, including placing a hand on the baby's stomach and making eye contact, starting with the legs, looking for cues, and communicating with the baby. (CR)

  1. Tetraploidy in a liveborn infant.

    PubMed Central

    López Pajares, I; Delicado, A; Diaz de Bustamante, A; Pellicer, A; Pinel, I; Pardo, M; Martin, M

    1990-01-01

    We report a 3 month old boy with tetraploidy, found in peripheral blood and skin fibroblast cultures, with severely delayed growth and neurodevelopment, and with a cleft lip; these findings have not been described before. This report brings to seven the total number of liveborn infants with a 92,XXYY karyotype. Images PMID:2074564

  2. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  3. Infants' Perception of Object Trajectories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Scott P.; Bremner, J. Gavin; Slater, Alan; Mason, Uschi; Foster, Kirsty; Cheshire, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    Three experiments investigated 2- to 6-month-olds' perception of the continuity of an object trajectory that was briefly occluded. Results across experiments provided little evidence of veridical responses to trajectory occlusion in the youngest infants, but by 6 months, perception completion was more robust. Results suggest that perceptual…

  4. Infant Mortality: 1989 Research Accomplishments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Collected in this document are reports of the National Institutes of Health's 1989 accomplishments in research on the problem of infant mortality. Reports are provided by the: (1) National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; (2) National Cancer Institute; (3) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; (4) National Institute of…

  5. Infant Care Self-Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Robin D.

    The Infant Care Survey (ICS) was developed to measure new mothers' confidence in their knowledge and skills regarding the care of babies under one year of age. One potential use of this test would be the identification of groups at high risk for health problems or for avoiding medical care. Self-efficacy was an important construct in the…

  6. Infant Memory for Musical Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Loman, Michelle M.; Robertson, Rachel R. W.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined memory of 7-month-olds after 2-week retention interval for passages of two Mozart movements heard daily for 2 weeks. Results suggested that the infants retained familiarized music in long-term memory and that their listening preferences were affected by the extent to which familiar passages were removed from the musical…

  7. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  8. [Current aspects of infant nutrition].

    PubMed

    Baerlocher, K

    1991-01-01

    It is still an important duty for pediatricians to inform parents about infant nutrition. An effort to insure successful breastfeeding in newborns is particularly necessary in order to avoid the introduction of foreign proteins, especially in high risk children. Allergy prevention is thus instigated early on. If necessary, a hypoallergenic milk may be used. Recently, there has been great concern that a high content of dioxine in breast milk exists, higher than in infant formulas. However, no evidence of toxicity has been noticed to date in breast fed children due to dioxine. Therefore, because of the many advantages, breast feeding should still be recommended for the first 4-6 months. In the last few years infant formulas have been adapted to simulate breastmilk by supplementation with taurine, carnitine and nucleotides. Most recently, Omega-3-fatty acids, which are important constituents of membrane phospholipids in the nervous system and the retina, have been added. In infant nutrition there is a trend nowadays toward unconventional forms of nutrition. An exclusive "lactoovo-vegetable" diet is able to meet all the requirements of a growing child. The critical components of a vegetarian diet are iron, calcium, vitamin B12 and vitamin D. These few examples demonstrate how important a nutrition-committee could be in elaborating basic information for the pediatrician, which would be useful in his daily work. PMID:2057211

  9. Early Identification and Infant Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lintz, Brenda

    1976-01-01

    This article describes the Zucker Center's program in Toledo, Ohio which identifies children with developmental delays and enrolls them in a demonstration infant stimulation program. The center provides educational programs in neonatal care, nutrition, general stimulation, and parenting techniques. Available from: PS 504 969. (JMB)

  10. What Do Infants Really Eat?

    PubMed

    Ryan, Claire; Dwyer, Johanna; Ziegler, Paula; Yang, Eunju; Moore, Linda; Song, Won O.

    2002-01-01

    This article compares the feeding practices of healthy infants reported by their mothers in studies spanning two decades. Nutrient intakes are largely adequate and feeding practices are changing to meet recommendations, but breast-feeding rates do not meet public health guidelines. PMID:11984433

  11. Developing Programs for Infants & Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L., Comp.

    This collection of conference papers (presented at the 1975 Texas Conference on Infancy sponsored by the Association for Childhood Education International) is directed primarily to caretakers, potential caretakers, and parents of young children. Articles included are: (1) Some Observations on Group Care of Infants; (2) What a State Can Do--For…

  12. Infants' Recognition of Their Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ann

    The ability of infants to recognize their mothers as distinct from others was investigated by presenting 6 boys and 6 girls at two age levels (5 weeks and 13 weeks) with the following six sequential stimulus conditions: (1) mother's face (MO); (2) stranger's face (SO); (3) mother's face with stranger's voice (MS); (4) stranger's face with mother's…

  13. Infants' Memory for Musical Performances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkova, Anna; Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated 6- and 7-month-olds' preference and memory for expressive recordings of sung lullabies. In Experiment 1, both age groups preferred lower-pitched to higher-pitched renditions of unfamiliar lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants were tested after 2 weeks of daily exposure to a lullaby at one pitch level. Seven-month-olds listened…

  14. Mother's personality and infant temperament.

    PubMed

    Macedo, A; Marques, M; Bos, S; Maia, B R; Pereira, T; Soares, M J; Valente, J; Gomes, A A; Nogueira, V; Azevedo, M H

    2011-12-01

    We examined if perfectionism and the perception of being an anxious person were associated with more negative infant temperament ratings by the mothers. 386 women (mean age=30.08; standard deviation=4.21) in their last trimester of pregnancy completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and an item about their perception of being or not an anxious person. The Portuguese version of the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies and the Operational Criteria Checklist for Psychotic Illness were used to generate diagnoses according to DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. After delivery, women completed eight items of the Difficult Infant Temperament Questionnaire (developed by our team) and filled in, again, the BDI-II and were interviewed with the DIGS. Women with depression (DSM-IV/ICD-10) and probable cases of depression using different cut-offs adjusted to Portuguese prevalence (BDI-II), in pregnancy and postpartum, were excluded. The Difficult Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed to have factorial validity and internal consistency. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between perfectionism total scale score and item 6 from the temperament scale ("is your baby irritable or fussy?"). Considering MPS 3-factor solution found for pregnancy there was also a statistically significant negative correlation between SOP and the same item. Women with low SOP differed from those with medium and high SOP in the total temperament score. Moreover, the low SOP group differed from the medium group on items three and four scores. There were no significant associations with SPP, which is the dimension more closely associated with negative outcomes. There was an association between anxiety trait status (having it or not) and scoring low, medium or high in the infant temperament scale. The proportion of anxious vs. non-anxious women presenting a high score on the infant temperament scale was higher (24.2% vs. 12

  15. Fabrication of a Feeding Obturator for Infants.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Paul A; Cook, N Blaine; Ahmad, Omaid

    2016-03-01

    Large clefts in the lip and palate are common congenital anomalies. If the cleft palate is large enough, conventional feeding techniques may not provide proper nutrition for the infant. Feeding obturators will aid in the ability of the infant to attain suction and help the infant to feed adequately. It is necessary for the infant to have sustained weight gain prior to surgery to correct the cleft lip and/or palate. Fabrication of an infant feeding obturator is a simple technique using materials found in every dental office. An impression is made using modeling plastic impression compound. This impression is relined using irreversible hydrocolloid, and the resulting cast is used to enable a vacuum-formed obturator to be fabricated. The vacuum-formed obturator is smoothed and adjusted in the infant's mouth to ensure closure of the palate but allows pace posteriorly to allow normal breathing. The resulting obturator is well retained in the infant's mouth, allowing feeding. PMID:26237189

  16. The Goldilocks effect in infant auditory attention.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T; Aslin, Richard N

    2014-01-01

    Infants must learn about many cognitive domains (e.g., language, music) from auditory statistics, yet capacity limits on their cognitive resources restrict the quantity that they can encode. Previous research has established that infants can attend to only a subset of available acoustic input. Yet few previous studies have directly examined infant auditory attention, and none have directly tested theorized mechanisms of attentional selection based on stimulus complexity. This work utilizes model-based behavioral methods that were recently developed to examine visual attention in infants (e.g., Kidd, Piantadosi, & Aslin, 2012). The present results demonstrate that 7- to 8-month-old infants selectively attend to nonsocial auditory stimuli that are intermediately predictable/complex with respect to their current implicit beliefs and expectations. These findings provide evidence of a broad principle of infant attention across modalities and suggest that sound-to-sound transitional statistics heavily influence the allocation of auditory attention in human infants. PMID:24990627

  17. The infant caring process among Cherokee mothers.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Lee Anne

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the social process of infant care among Cherokee mothers. Nineteen informants, who had an infant less than 2 years of age, were interviewed. The data were analyzed using the technique of constant comparative analysis. A social process of Indian infant care among Cherokee mothers was identified. Eight concepts emerged from data analysis. The first and principal concept, being a Cherokee mother, describes the functions of being an Indian mother in Cherokee society. The other seven concepts describe the patterns of cultural care the mothers provided to their infants. These included accommodating everyday infant care, accommodating health perspectives, building a care-providing consortium, living spiritually, merging the infant into Indian culture, using noncoercive discipline techniques, and vigilantly watching for the natural unfolding of the infant. Trustworthiness and credibility of the generated theory were evaluated through multiple measures. PMID:15296577

  18. Go naked: diapers affect infant walking.

    PubMed

    Cole, Whitney G; Lingeman, Jesse M; Adolph, Karen E

    2012-11-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that walking is adversely affected by old-fashioned cloth diapers, and that even modern disposable diapers - habitually worn by most infants in the sample - incur a cost relative to walking naked. Infants displayed less mature gait patterns and more missteps and falls while wearing diapers. Thus, infants' own diapers constitute an ongoing biomechanical perturbation while learning to walk. Furthermore, shifts in diapering practices may have contributed to historical and cross-cultural differences in infant walking. PMID:23106732

  19. Infants' learning of phonological status.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina

    2012-01-01

    There is a substantial literature describing how infants become more sensitive to differences between native phonemes (sounds that are both present and meaningful in the input) and less sensitive to differences between non-native phonemes (sounds that are neither present nor meaningful in the input) over the course of development. Here, we review an emergent strand of literature that gives a more nuanced notion of the problem of sound category learning. This research documents infants' discovery of phonological status, signaled by a decrease in sensitivity to sounds that map onto the same phonemic category vs. different phonemic categories. The former phones are present in the input, but their difference does not cue meaning distinctions because they are tied to one and the same phoneme. For example, the diphthong I in I'm should map to the same underlying category as the diphthong in I'd, despite the fact that the first vowel is nasal and the second oral. Because such pairs of sounds are processed differently than those than map onto different phonemes by adult speakers, the learner has to come to treat them differently as well. Interestingly, there is some evidence that infants' sensitivity to dimensions that are allophonic in the ambient language declines as early as 11 months. We lay out behavioral research, corpora analyses, and computational work which sheds light on how infants achieve this feat at such a young age. Collectively, this work suggests that the computation of complementary distribution and the calculation of phonetic similarity operate in concert to guide infants toward a functional interpretation of sounds that are present in the input, yet not lexically contrastive. In addition to reviewing this literature, we discuss broader implications for other fundamental theoretical and empirical questions. PMID:23130004

  20. Hydrolyzed Formula for Every Infant?

    PubMed

    Fleischer, David M; Venter, Carina; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Presently, hydrolyzed formulas (HF) are used primarily in infants that cannot be exclusively breastfed, those with cow's milk allergy and for primary prevention of allergic disease, but HFs are increasingly being used worldwide, begging the question if they may be recommended as the optimal choice for all standard-risk, full-term, non-exclusively breastfed infants. Data regarding the nutritional adequacy of modern-day HFs are scarce and lack long-term data suggesting that growth in infants fed HF versus an intact protein formula (IPF) is different. While human breast milk is the optimal source of nutrition for multiple reasons, a 2006 systematic review determined there were no comparable long-term studies regarding prolonged use of HFs versus breastfeeding. Meta-analyses of formula consumption and risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) have found that infants fed partially HF compared to IPF had a lower risk of AD, but there are significant limitations to these studies, making conclusions about the general use of HFs problematic. Costs should be considered in decision-making regarding the choice of the formula, but global comparison of this is difficult given large cost differences in different countries. Despite the issues raised here, the desire to provide concrete recommendations of widespread HF use needs to be balanced carefully in order not to overstate claims of benefit. Long-term studies are needed to investigate the feasibility of HF as a routine feeding option for healthy, standard-risk infants. Because of the paucity of data, routine use of HF as an equivalent option to breastfeeding or IPF cannot be supported at present based on available scientific evidence. PMID:27336594

  1. Differences in the Biodiversity of the Fecal Microbiota of Infants With Rotaviral Diarrhea and Healthy Infants

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Peng; Li, Lin; Cai, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xinjie; Bai, Hong Jian; Jiang, Yu Jun; Feng, Zhen; Guo, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background Rotaviral diarrhea (RD) has been associated with the biodiversity of the fecal microbiota in infants; however, the differences in the biodiversity of the fecal microbiota between infants with RD and healthy (H) infants have not been clearly elucidated. Objectives This study aimed to reveal the changes in the biodiversity of the fecal microbiota of infants with RD. Patients and Methods For this study, 30 fecal samples from 15 RD infants and 15 H infants were collected. The biodiversity of the fecal microbiota from the two groups was compared via polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and gene sequencing. Results The Shannon-Weaver index showed that the biodiversity of the fecal microbiota from the RD infants was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that from the H infants. All fifteen RD infants were grouped into one cluster and were separated from the H infants by the un weighted-pair group method, with the arithmetic average (UPGMA) clustering algorithm. In addition, when compared with the healthy infants, the communities of the dominant microbes, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, in the fecal microbiota from the RD infants have obviously changed. Conclusions With regard to improving the understanding of the differences in the biodiversity of the fecal microbiota between RD infants and H infants, the findings of this study can provide a possible basis to reveal the relationship between RD and intestinal microbiota. PMID:27279991

  2. Analysis of Mother-Infant Interaction in Infants with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonims, Vicky; McConachie, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Delays in development of early social behaviors in babies with Down syndrome are likely to affect patterns of interaction with their caregivers. We videotaped 23 babies in face-to-face interaction with their mothers at 8 and 20 weeks of age and compared them to 23 typically developing infants and their mothers. Social behaviors, mothers'…

  3. Distinguishing Mother-Infant Interaction from Stranger-Infant Interaction at 2, 4, and 6 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ann E.; Power, Michelle; Mcquaid, Nancy; Ward, Ashley; Rochat, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Observers watched videotaped face-to-face mother-infant and stranger-infant interactions of 12 infants at 2, 4, or 6 months of age. Half of the observers saw each mother paired with her own infant and another infant of the same age (mother tapes) and half saw each infant paired with his or her mother and with a stranger (infant tapes). Observers…

  4. Infant feeding and infant mortality in rural Chile.

    PubMed

    Plank, S J; Milanesi, M L

    1973-01-01

    This study examines infant feeding practices to: 1) measure the effect of early weaning on mortality; 2) identify characteristics distinguishing mothers who practised early weaning; 3) clarify the respective roles of maternal milk deprivation and factors associated with bottle feeding; and 4) measure the effect on survival of giving bottlefed babies additional foods. 1712 rural mothers who had had deliveries in the preceding years were interviewed. Level of statistical significance was preset at 0.01. Three times as many deaths occurred among babies given bottles before the age of 3 months as among those who were wholly breastfed. As nearly 50% of the children had started bottlefeeding by that age, bottlefeeding was considered a major factor in infant mortality. Additional foods provided these babies with some protection but continued breastfeeding did not. Improvement in living standards accelerated weaning and let to an increase in the proportion of children being fed on bottle alone. Infant mortality consequently increased with income. The findings confirm the claim that early weaning is a concomitant of economic developments. It is suggested however that the risk associated with bottle feeding may be reduced by adding or supplementing other foods to the diet. PMID:4541686

  5. Challenges of infant nutrition research: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Alan S; Hay, William W

    2016-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made in the field of infant feeding research. The last few decades have witnessed the expansion in the number of studies on the composition and benefits of human milk. The practice of breastfeeding and use of human milk represent today's reference standards for infant feeding and nutrition. Additional research regarding the benefits of breastfeeding is needed to determine which factors in human milk and in the act of breastfeeding itself, singly or in combination, are most important for producing the beneficial effects on infant growth, body composition, and neurodevelopmental outcome. We examine evidence that breastfeeding confers health benefits and offer suggestions on how best to interpret the data and present it to the public. We also describe some examples of well-designed infant nutrition studies that provide useful and clinically meaningful data regarding infant feeding, growth, and development. Because not all mothers choose to breastfeed or can breastfeed, other appropriate feeding options should be subjected to critical review to help establish how infant formula and bottle feeding can confer benefits similar to those of human milk and the act of breastfeeding. We conclude with the overarching point that the goal of infant feeding research is to promote optimal infant growth and development. Since parents/families may take different paths to feeding their infants, it is fundamental that health professionals understand how best to interpret research studies and their findings to support optimal infant growth and development. PMID:27103229

  6. Congenital Anomalies in Infant with Congenital Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Zahra; Yavarikia, Alireza; Torabian, Saadat

    2012-01-01

    Objective Congenital hypothyroidism is characterized by inadequate thyroid hormone production in newborn infants. Many infants with CH have co-occurring congenital malformations. This is an investigation on the frequency and types of congenital anomalies in infants with congenital hypothyroidism born from May 2006-2010 in Hamadan, west province of Iran. Methods The Iranian neonatal screening program for congenital hypothyroidism was initiated in May 2005. This prospective descriptive study was conducted in infants diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism being followed up in Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic of Besat Hospital, a tertiary care centre in Hamadan. Cases included all infants with congenital hypothyroidism diagnosed through newborn screening program or detected clinically. Anomalies were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, and X-ray of the hip during the infant’s first year of life. Results A total of 150 infants with biochemically confirmed primary congenital hypothyroidism (72 females and 78 males) were recruited during the period between May 2006-2010. Overall, 30 (20%) infants had associated congenital anomalies. The most common type of anomaly was Down syndrome. Seven infants (3.1%) had congenital cardiac anomalies such as: ASD (n=3), VSD (n=2), PS (n =1), PDA (n=1). Three children (2.6%) had developmental dysplasia of the hip (n=3). Conclusion The overall frequency of Down syndrome, cardiac malformation and other birth defect was high in infants with CH. This reinforces the need to examine all infants with congenital hypothyroidism for the presence of associated congenital anomalies. PMID:23074545

  7. Infant sleep location: Associated maternal and infant characteristics with SIDS prevention recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Linda Y.; Colson, Eve R.; Corwin, Michael J.; Moon, Rachel Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with infant sleep location. Methods Demographic information and infant care practices were assessed for 708 mothers of infants ages 0 to 8 months at Women, Infants and Children centers (WIC). Generalized linear latent mixed models were constructed for the outcome, sleeping arrangement last night (bedsharing with infants vs. roomsharing without bedsharing, and versus sleeping in separate rooms). Results Two-thirds of the mothers were black. 48.6% roomshared without bedsharing; 32.5% bedshared; and 18.9% slept in separate rooms. Compared with infants who slept in separate rooms, infants who roomshared without bedsharing were more likely to be Hispanic (OR 2.58, 95%CI 1.11–5.98) and younger (3.66 and 1.74 times more likely for infants 0–1 month and 2–3 months old respectively as compared with older infants). Compared with infants who bedshared, those that roomshared without bedsharing were more likely to be 0–1 month old (1.57, 1.05–2.35), and less likely to be black (0.43, 0.26–0.70) or have a teenage mother (0.37, 0.23–0.58). Conclusions Approximately one-third of mothers and infants bedshare despite increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The factors associated with bedsharing are also associated with SIDS likely rendering infants with these characteristics at high risk for SIDS. PMID:18582898

  8. A History of Infant Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  9. Infant mortality in Rajasthan villages.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S D; Jain, T P; Joshi, S; Mangal, D K

    1981-02-01

    Social, cultural and economic factors, beside medical causes, contribute to the high percentage of infant mortality in India. This study was carried out in 12 villages in the area of the Rural Health Training Centre, Naila, India; all villages were being regularly visited by paramedical staff and doctors. During 1977 62 infants died. Most parents were illiterate and very poor. 50.3% of deaths occurred within the first 28 days of life, and 25.8% within the first 7 days of life; 72.8% of deaths occurred within the first 6 months of life. Infections and malnutrition accounted for 77.3% of all deaths; pneumonia alone claimed 25.8% of lives, malnutrition 19.3%, fever for unknown reasons 16.1%, diarrhea 14.5% and prematurity 12.9%. Deaths for pneumonia were 56.3% in the postneonatal period and 43.7% in the neonatal period, while fever predominated as a cause of death in the neonatal rather than in postneonatal period, with 70% and 30% of deaths respectively. 56.4% of deaths were recorded among children born to mothers aged 21-30, 30.7% among children of mothers over 30, and 12.9% among children of mothers below 20. 51.6% of dead children had a birth order of 5 and over; only 17.8% had first birth order. 50.1% of deaths were observed in infants who were born less than 12 months from the previous conception. Similar studies done in other Indian regions show similar percentages of infant mortality and of causes for mortality. PMID:7263000

  10. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Goh; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extremely humanlike robots called "androids" have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants) were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm-a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android-two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants' looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body) was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human. PMID:26441772

  11. Infant Formula Fat Analogs and Human Milk Fat: New Focus on Infant Developmental Needs.

    PubMed

    Zou, Long; Pande, Garima; Akoh, Casimir C

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk is generally and universally recognized as the optimal choice for nutrition during the first year of life. In certain cases in which it is not feasible to breast-feed the infant or the breast milk is not sufficient, especially in the case of preterm infants, infant formula is the next best alternative to provide nutrition to nurture the infant. Therefore, it is highly important that the nutrient composition of the infant formula is as close to breast milk as possible for proper growth and development of the infant. However, human milk is a complex dynamic matrix, and therefore significant research has been done and is still ongoing to fully understand and mimic human breast milk, particularly its fat composition. Lipids play a critical role in infant nutrition. A number of advances have been made in infant formula lipid content and composition so that formula can better simulate or mimic the nutritional functions of human maternal milk. PMID:26934172

  12. Do infants detect indirect reciprocity?

    PubMed

    Meristo, Marek; Surian, Luca

    2013-10-01

    In social interactions involving indirect reciprocity, agent A acts prosocially towards B and this prompts C to act prosocially towards A. This happens because A's actions enhanced its reputation in the eyes of third parties. Indirect reciprocity may have been of central importance in the evolution of morality as one of the major mechanisms leading to the selection of helping and fair attitudes. Here we show that 10-month-old infants expect third parties to act positively towards fair donors who have distributed attractive resources equally between two recipients, rather than toward unfair donors who made unequal distributions. Infants' responses were dependent on the reciprocator's perceptual exposure to previous relevant events: they expected the reciprocator to reward the fair donor only when it had seen the distributive actions performed by the donors. We propose that infants were able to generate evaluations of agents that were based on the fairness of their distributive actions and to generate expectations about the social preferences of informed third parties. PMID:23887149

  13. Early mother-infant reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Brazelton, T B; Tronick, E; Adamson, L; Als, H; Wise, S

    1975-01-01

    By three weeks of age, the human neonate demonstrates behaviours which are quite different with an object and with a human interactant. He also demonstrates an expectancy for interaction with his caregiver which has clearly defined limits, as demonstrated behaviourally. In microanalysis of videotape, we saw regularly a set of interactive behaviours which were demonstrable in optimal face-to-face interaction between infants and their mothers. All parts of the infant's body move in smooth circular patterns as he attends to her. His face-to-face attention to her is rhythmic with approach-withdrawal cycling of extremities. The attention phase and build-up to her cues are followed by turning away and a recovery phase in a rhythm of attention-non-attention which seems to define a cyclical homeostatic curve of attention, averaging several cycles per minute. When she violates his expectancy for rhythmic interaction by presenting a still, unresponsive face to him, he becomes visibly concerned, his movements become jerky, he averts his face, then attempts to draw her into interaction. When repeated attempts fail, he finally withdraws into an attitude of helplessness, face averted, body curled up and motionless. If she returns to her usual interactive responses, he comes alive after an initial puzzled period, and returns to his rhythmic cyclical behaviour which has previously characterized their ongoing face-to-face interaction. This attentional cycling may be diagnostic of optimal mother-infant interactions and seems not to be present in more disturbed interactions. PMID:1045978

  14. Anatomy of the infant head

    SciTech Connect

    Bosma, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ.

  15. Preclinical assessment of infant formula.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome. PMID:22699767

  16. Infants' Vagal Regulation in the Still-Face Paradigm Is Related to Dyadic Coordination of Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ginger A.; Calkins, Susan D.

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated relations between mother-infant dyadic coordination and infants' physiological responses. Mothers (N=73) and 3-month-old male and female infants were observed in the still-face paradigm, and mothers' and infants' affective states were coded at 1-s intervals. Synchrony and levels of matching between mother-infant affective…

  17. Assessing Vocal Development in Infants and Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Nathani, Suneeti; Ertmer, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in prelinguistic vocal productions during the first 20 months of life. Vocalizations were classified into 23 mutually exclusive and exhaustive types, and grouped into five ascending levels using the Stark Assessment of Early Vocal Development-Revised (SAEVD-R). Data from 30 typically developing infants, aged 0–20 months, show that older infants attained higher developmental levels on the SAEVD-R than younger infants. Infants 0–2, 3–5, and 6–8 months of age primarily produced vocalizations from Levels 1 (Reflexive), 2 (Control of Phonation), and 3 (Expansion). Infants 9–20 months of age also produced vocalizations from Level 4 (Basic Canonical Syllables). Only infants from 16–20 months of age produced Level 5 (Advanced Forms) vocalizations in significant quantities. The outcomes indicate that the SAEVD-R is a valuable instrument for evaluating prelinguistic vocal development. PMID:16728333

  18. How Infants Learn About the Visual World

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    The visual world of adults consists of objects at various distances, partly occluding one another, substantial and stable across space and time. The visual world of young infants, in contrast, is often fragmented and unstable, consisting not of coherent objects but rather surfaces that move in unpredictable ways. Evidence from computational modeling and from experiments with human infants highlights three kinds of learning that contribute to infants' knowledge of the visual world: learning via association, learning via active assembly, and learning via visual-manual exploration. Infants acquire knowledge by observing objects move in and out of sight, forming associations of these different views. In addition, the infant's own self-produced behavior—oculomotor patterns and manual experience, in particular—are important means by which infants discover and construct their visual world. PMID:21116440

  19. Bilingual exposure influences infant VOT perception.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liquan; Kager, René

    2015-02-01

    Linking the discrimination of voice onset time (VOT) in infancy with infant language background, we examine the perceptual changes of two VOT contrasts (/b/-/p/ and /p(h)/-/p/) by Dutch monolingual and bilingual infants from 8 to 15 months of age. Results showed that language exposure and language dominance had a strong impact on monolingual and bilingual infant VOT perceptual patterns. In addition, perceptual turbulence was found at 8-9 months for bilingual infants, and stabilized perception was presented for all infants from 11 months onwards. We thus report a general input-driven developmental VOT perception in both monolingual and bilingual infants, with perceptual turbulence for bilinguals in the second half of the first year of life. PMID:25555248

  20. Maternal postpartum behavior and the emergence of infant-mother and infant-father synchrony in preterm and full-term infants: the role of neonatal vagal tone.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth; Eidelman, Arthur I

    2007-04-01

    Relations between maternal postpartum behavior and the emergence of parent-infant relatedness as a function of infant autonomic maturity were examined in 56 premature infants (birthweight = 1000-1500 g) and 52 full-term infants. Maternal behavior, mother depressive symptoms, and infant cardiac vagal tone were assessed in the neonatal period. Infant-mother and infant-father synchrony, maternal and paternal affectionate touch, and the home environment were observed at 3 months. Premature birth was associated with higher maternal depression, less maternal behaviors, decreased infant alertness, and lower coordination of maternal behavior with infant alertness in the neonatal period. At 3 months, interactions between premature infants with their mothers and fathers were less synchronous. Interaction effects of premature birth and autonomic maturity indicated that preterm infants with low vagal tone received the lowest amounts of maternal behavior in the postpartum and the least maternal touch at 3 months. Infant-mother and infant-father synchrony were each predicted by cardiac vagal tone and maternal postpartum behavior in both the preterm and full-term groups. Among preterm infants, additional predictors of parent-infant synchrony were maternal depression (mother only) and the home environment (mother and father). Findings are consistent with evolutionary perspectives on the higher susceptibility of dysregulated infants to rearing contexts and underscore the compensatory mechanisms required for social-emotional growth under risk conditions for parent-infant bonding. PMID:17380505

  1. Increased Brain Activity to Infant-Directed Speech in 6- and 13-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zangl, Renate; Mills, Debra L.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the impact of infant-directed speech (IDS) versus adult-directed speech (ADS) on neural activity to familiar and unfamiliar words in 6- and 13-month-old infants. Event-related potentials were recorded while infants listened to familiar words in IDS, familiar words in ADS, unfamiliar words in IDS, and unfamiliar words in ADS.…

  2. Infant and Toddler Interactions with a New Infant in a Group Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessee, Peggy O.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated young children's social interactions with a baby in a group care setting. Observations of young children as they responded to an infant revealed differences in comforting, sharing, and cooperation according to age and sex. Also, toddlers' social interactions with the infant increased after the infant reached 18 months of age, and…

  3. 78 FR 37706 - Safety Standards for Infant Walkers and Infant Swings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... for Infant Walkers, with 22 modifications to make the standard more stringent. 75 FR 35266. ASTM... assessment bodies for testing infant walkers (75 FR 35282 (June 21, 2010)) and infant swings (78 FR 15836..., with two modifications to make the standard more stringent. 77 FR 66703. ASTM notified CPSC that...

  4. In and out of Synch: Infant Childcare Teachers' Adaptations to Infants' Developmental Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recchia, Susan L.; Shin, Minsun

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative multi-case study explored the social exchanges and responsive connections between infants and their infant childcare teachers within a group care context. Infants' naturally occurring behaviours were videotaped purposefully at two separate time points, near the end of their first year and approximately six months later. Findings…

  5. The Infant Parent Training Institute: A Developmental Model for Training Infant Mental Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arons, Judith; Epstein, Ann; Sklan, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The Infant Parent Training Institute (IPTI) at Jewish Family and Children's Service of Greater Boston offers integrated clinical and theoretical infant mental health training. The curriculum reflects the belief that nurturing and reflective relationships promote optimal learning and growth. A specialty in infant mental health requires knowledge…

  6. Infants as Others: Uncertainties, Difficulties and (Im)possibilities in Researching Infants' Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwick, Sheena; Bradley, Ben; Sumsion, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers are trying to understand what daily life is like for infants in non-parental care from the perspectives of the infants themselves. In this article, we argue that it is profoundly difficult, if not impossible, to know how infants experience their worlds with any certainty and, indeed, whether they do or do not possess…

  7. The Leiden Infant Simulator Sensitivity Assessment (LISSA): Parenting an Infant Simulator as Your Own Baby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Biro, Szilvia; Voorthuis, Alexandra; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2015-01-01

    Observation of parental sensitivity in a standard procedure, in which caregivers are faced with the same level of infant demand, enables the comparison of sensitivity "between" caregivers. We developed an ecologically valid standardized setting using an infant simulator with interactive features, the Leiden Infant Simulator Sensitivity…

  8. Infant Temperament, Maternal Personality, and Parenting Stress as Contributors to Infant Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Beswick, Jennifer L.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.; Ferguson, Melissa C.; White, Jamie M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined contributions of maternal personality and infant temperament to infant vocabulary and cognitive development both directly and indirectly through parental stress. Participants were recruited at birth and included 63 infant twin pairs and their mothers. Assessments were completed at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age and included…

  9. Use of the Bayley Infant Behavior Record With Preterm and Full-Term Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisels, Samuel J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the use of the Bayley Infant Behavior Record (IBR) with premature and full-term infants. Analysis of the two discriminant functions obtained from the discriminant analysis appear to substantiate the claim that the IBR is an index of cognitive test-taking behaviors, which can be used reliably with preterm and full-term infants.…

  10. Infant Abuse, Neglect, and Failure-to-Thrive: Mother-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Kim N.; And Others

    This study was designed to investigate whether or not degree of child maltreatment is related in some meaningful way to the interactional characteristics of the mother/infant dyad and to the infant's developmental status. A group of 53 mother/infant dyads was divided into five diagnostic groups: nonaccidental trauma combined with…

  11. Sex of Infant Differences in Mother-Infant Interaction: A Reinterpretation of Past Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Valerie J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the nature and consistency differences in mother-infant interaction affected by sex of infant, and reviews past interpretations. Offers an alternative interpretation, drawing on evidence from animal studies, studies of pregnant women, and work by epidemiologists and ethologists on sex ratio data that suggests mothers of male infants may…

  12. Socially guided attention influences infants' communicative behavior.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer L; Gros-Louis, Julie

    2013-12-01

    For effective prelinguistic communication, infants must be able to direct their attention, vocalizations, and nonverbal gestures in social interactions. The purpose of our study was to examine how different styles of caregiver responses influenced infant attentional and communicative behavior in social interactions, based on prior studies that have shown influences of responsiveness on attention, language and cognitive outcomes. Infants were exposed to redirective and sensitive behavior systematically using an ABA design to examine real-time changes in infants' behavior as a function of caregiver responses. During the two baseline "A" periods, caregivers were instructed to play as they would at home. During the social response "B" period, caregivers were instructed to respond sensitively to infants' behavior on one visit and redirectively on the other visit. Results demonstrated that when caregivers behaved redirectively, infants shifted their attention more frequently and decreased the duration of their visual attention. Caregiver responses also resulted in changes in vocal and gesture production. Infants decreased their production of caregiver-directed vocalizations, gestures, and gesture-vocal combinations during in the redirective condition. Results suggest that caregiver sensitive responding to infants' attentional focus may be one influence on infants' attentional and prelinguistic communicative behavior. PMID:23906941

  13. Touch and massage for medically fragile infants.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J; Gallardo, Constance C; Joseph, Michael H; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2009-12-01

    Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores

  14. Application of prebiotics in infant foods.

    PubMed

    Veereman-Wauters, Gigi

    2005-04-01

    The rationale for supplementing an infant formula with prebiotics is to obtain a bifidogenic effect and the implied advantages of a 'breast-fed-like' flora. So far, the bifidogenic effect of oligofructose and inulin has been demonstrated in animals and in adults, of oligofructose in infants and toddlers and of a long-chain inulin (10 %) and galactooligosaccharide (90 %) mixture in term and preterm infants. The addition of prebiotics to infant formula softens stools but other putative effects remain to be demonstrated. Studies published post marketing show that infants fed a long-chain inulin/galactooligosaccharide mixture (0.8 g/dl) in formula grow normally and have no side-effects. The addition of the same mixture at a concentration of 0.8 g/dl to infant formula was therefore recognized as safe by the European Commission in 2001 but follow-up studies were recommended. It is thought that a bifidogenic effect is beneficial for the infant host. The rising incidence in allergy during the first year of life may justify the attempts to modulate the infant's flora. Comfort issues should not be confused with morbidity and are likely to be multifactorial. The functional effects of prebiotics on infant health need further study in controlled intervention trials. PMID:15877896

  15. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall infant mortality rate for Asians/Pacific Islanders is comparable to the white population, disparities ...

  16. Relationship of Maternal Psychological Distress Classes to Later Mother-Infant Interaction, Home Environment, and Infant Development in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Santos, Hudson; Yang, Qing; Docherty, Sharron L; White-Traut, Rosemary; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2016-06-01

    Latent class analyses can be used early in the postpartum period to identify mothers of preterm infants experiencing similar patterns of psychological distress symptoms, but whether these classes of mothers also differ in parental responses to their infants or in their infants' development is largely unknown. In this longitudinal multisite-repeated measures study, we evaluated the usefulness of three psychological distress classes (low distress, high depressive and anxiety symptoms, and extreme distress) in predicting mother-infant interactions, quality of home environment, and infant development in 229 mother-preterm infant pairs. Mothers completed psychological distress questionnaires at study entry; parent-infant interaction was recorded at 2 and 6 months of age corrected for prematurity; and infant developmental data were collected 12 months corrected age. Mothers in the extreme distress class engaged in more developmental stimulation at 2 months (β = .99, p < 0.01) and at 6 months (β = 1.38, p < .01) than mothers in the other classes and had better quality of home environment at 2 months (β = 2.52, p = .03). When not controlling for neurological insult, infants of mothers in the extreme distress class had poorer cognitive (β = -10.28, p = .01) and motor (β = -15.12, p < .01) development scores at 12 months corrected age than infants of mothers in the other distress classes, but after controlling for infant neurological insult, there were no differences in cognitive, motor, and language development based on maternal psychological distress class. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27059608

  17. Infants' Temperament and Mothers', and Fathers' Depression Predict Infants' Attention to Objects Paired with Emotional Faces.

    PubMed

    Aktar, Evin; Mandell, Dorothy J; de Vente, Wieke; Majdandžić, Mirjana; Raijmakers, Maartje E J; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-07-01

    Between 10 and 14 months, infants gain the ability to learn about unfamiliar stimuli by observing others' emotional reactions to those stimuli, so called social referencing (SR). Joint processing of emotion and head/gaze direction is essential for SR. This study tested emotion and head/gaze direction effects on infants' attention via pupillometry in the period following the emergence of SR. Pupil responses of 14-to-17-month-old infants (N = 57) were measured during computerized presentations of unfamiliar objects alone, before-and-after being paired with emotional (happy, sad, fearful vs. neutral) faces gazing towards (vs. away) from objects. Additionally, the associations of infants' temperament, and parents' negative affect/depression/anxiety with infants' pupil responses were explored. Both mothers and fathers of participating infants completed questionnaires about their negative affect, depression and anxiety symptoms and their infants' negative temperament. Infants allocated more attention (larger pupils) to negative vs. neutral faces when the faces were presented alone, while they allocated less attention to objects paired with emotional vs. neutral faces independent of head/gaze direction. Sad (but not fearful) temperament predicted more attention to emotional faces. Infants' sad temperament moderated the associations of mothers' depression (but not anxiety) with infants' attention to objects. Maternal depression predicted more attention to objects paired with emotional expressions in infants low in sad temperament, while it predicted less attention in infants high in sad temperament. Fathers' depression (but not anxiety) predicted more attention to objects paired with emotional expressions independent of infants' temperament. We conclude that infants' own temperamental dispositions for sadness, and their exposure to mothers' and fathers' depressed moods may influence infants' attention to emotion-object associations in social learning contexts. PMID

  18. [Traditional force-feeding of infants].

    PubMed

    Buffin, A

    1994-06-01

    Between July 1992 and June 1993, 896 cases of bronchopneumonia were seen at the hospital in rural Tokombere, Cameroon. 100 (11%) were hospitalized. The practice of gorging was responsible for bronchopneumonia in 28 of the hospitalized cases, all under 1 year old. Ten infants died. Interviews with 1000 young and old village women were conducted to examine the traditional practice of gorging infants. Mothers gorged their infants 3-8 times/day and 2-5 times/night, while being careful not to flood the airways. They gorged them with hot water mixed with butter, soda, or red millet water or hot water mixed at the bottom of a pot serving grilled millet. The mothers claimed to gorge their infants because tradition, ancestors, and God require it and their parents, mothers-in-law, or peers told them about it. They believed that hot water gorging promotes a long life, survival, adequate child growth, strength and intelligence, and fast walking; fights against illness and death; prevents drowning; and heals the umbilical stump. Other supposed powers of hot water gorging were facilitates sucking and digestion, complements lactation, prevents hunger, warms the entire body of the infant, kills pathogens, aids respiration, cures the cold, cleans the bronchia, calms the infant, and causes restful sleep. Some mothers even filled the infant's nostrils with hot water or held the infant's nose. Mothers know the risks of hot water gorging and have often experienced the death of one of their infants. Some continue to gorge their infants hospitalized for grave respiratory illness, even when they conceded explanations, advice, and treatments. Many women have abandoned this practice, however. One is now advising mothers to give small amounts of tepid water with a spoon or a goblet without touching the nose or forcing it on the infant. Health workers should try to avoid condemning hot water gorging because condemnation is not the best pedagogical approach. PMID:12288247

  19. Nutritional management of newborn infants: Practical guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Ben, Xiao-Ming

    2008-01-01

    The requirements of growth and organ development create a challenge in nutritional management of newborn infants, especially premature newborn and intestinal-failure infants. Since their feeding may increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, some high-risk infants receive a small volume of feeding or parenteral nutrition (PN) without enteral feeding. This review summarizes the current research progress in the nutritional management of newborn infants. Searches of MEDLINE (1998-2007), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2007), abstracts and conference proceedings, references from relevant publications in the English language were performed, showing that breast milk is the preferred source of nutrients for enteral feeding of newborn infants. The number of nutrients found in human milk was recommended as a guideline in establishing the minimum and maximum levels in infant formulas. The fear of necrotizing enterocolitis and feeding intolerance are the major factors limiting the use of the enteral route as the primary means of nourishing premature infants. PN may help to meet many of the nutritional needs of these infants, but has significant detrimental side effects. Trophic feedings (small volume of feeding given at the same rate for at least 5 d) during PN are a strategy to enhance the feeding tolerance and decrease the side effects of PN and the time to achieve full feeding. Human milk is a key component of any strategy for enteral nutrition of all infants. However, the amounts of calcium, phosphorus, zinc and other nutrients are inadequate to meet the needs of the very low birth weight (VLBW) infants during growth. Therefore, safe and effective means to fortify human milk are essential to the care of VLBW infants. PMID:18985802

  20. Effects of infant and maternal sensory processing on infant fussing, crying, and sleep.

    PubMed

    McGeorge, Kate; Milne, Lisa; Cotton, Louise; Whelan, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of infant and maternal sensory processing on sleep, fussing, and crying in a sample of 55 firstborn, 4- to 7-month-old infants and their mothers. Mothers completed self-report questionnaires to assess maternal and infant sensory processing styles and a 4-day diary of infant behavior, including sleep, fussing, and crying. Higher levels of infant Sensation Avoiding were associated with less sleep, more fussing, and more crying whereas higher levels of Sensory Sensitivity were associated with less sleep and more fussing. The positive association between infant Sensation Avoiding and crying was strengthened by lower levels of Low Registration in mothers. The effect of infant Sensory Sensitivity on reducing total sleep also was strengthened by lower levels of maternal Low Registration. Assessment of infant sensory processing as well as the moderating effect of maternal sensory processing on the relationship between infant sensory processing and infant regulatory capacities need to be considered when assessing and designing interventions for families in which infant regulation is problematic. PMID:25892527

  1. Teenage mothers and their infants.

    PubMed

    Badger, E

    1985-06-01

    The outcomes of the IS/MT pilot project and the expanded services program as well as program replications in other geographic areas suggest that efforts to support the teenage mother in the care of her firstborn infant can have a demonstrable effect. Completing school, securing employment, going off welfare, and acting on a decision to prevent subsequent unwanted pregnancies were all secondary effects of a 20-week postnatal mother-infant class program designed to positively influence infant development. Similar treatment effects have been reported by IS/MT replications in St. Louis and Genesee County, Michigan. Other program innovations, however, lacking the funds and/or the expertise to conduct adequate evaluations, are nonetheless significant because they provide a groundswell capable of establishing a climate for social change. At the community level, this is expressed in the creation of new service paradigms, as in Norfolk and Memphis, where individuals and agencies are transformed and experiment with new solutions to thorny problems. At the national level, it is expressed in coalitions and political alliances around a single issue, as with the Children's Defense Fund and adolescent and single-parent families. As one who has spent almost 20 years addressing the consequences of teenage parenthood, it is heartening to know that the time is near to address the prevention of the problem. Let us hope that the Children's Defense Fund agenda accurately reflects the beliefs and feelings of the majority of our citizenry and that our national priorities will change to include the reduction of teen pregnancy and teen parenthood. PMID:2410176

  2. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Goh; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extremely humanlike robots called “androids” have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants) were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm—a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android—two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants’ looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body) was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human. PMID:26441772

  3. Infant feeding practices and obesity.

    PubMed

    Himes, J H

    1979-08-01

    Selected assumptions regarding associations between artificial feeding and infantile obesity are examined. Although some artificial baby foods (desserts, meats, egg yolks) have considerably greater caloric density than breast milk, a large class of baby foods and most milks and formulas are comparable to breast milk in caloric density. The intake of infant foods seems to be related more to caloric density than volume. Modern day artificial feeding in developed countries tends to produce larger weight gains than breast feeding, although no good data exist to evaluate the composition of these weight gains. Many more data from well planned studies are needed to fully elucidate possible mechanisms of infantile obesity. PMID:458075

  4. Palatal Mucormycosis in An Infant.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Nikhil; Bansal, Vishal; Kantoor, Pallavi

    2015-01-01

    The maxilla rarely undergoes necrosis due to its rich vascularity. Maxillary necrosis can occur due to bacterial infections, viral infections, or fungal infections. Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fulminant fungal infection that mainly infects immunocompromised patients. The fungus invades the arteries, leading to thrombosis that subsequently causes necrosis of hard and soft tissues. The occurrence of mucormycosis is not considered rare in the jaws of adults, but involvement of the maxilla in infants is not usually seen. The purpose of this report is to discuss the diagnosis and management of a rare case of mucormycosis in the palate of a two-month-old boy. PMID:26731251

  5. Parents' Responses to Normal and Premature Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frodi, Ann; Willie, Diana

    This paper discusses a series of three studies investigating the influence of infants' characteristics and signaling behavior on parents. Videotapes of either smiling/cooing/gurgling or crying infants were used to elicit parents' physiological and affective responses. Measured physiological responses included skin conductance, heart rate, and…

  6. 21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infant foods. 105.65 Section 105.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than...

  7. The Teachable Moment and the Handicapped Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, M. Beth

    The report examines, from a cognitive developmental view, research on the teachable moment or critical learning period in handicapped infants. The author explains that developmental gaps are produced by a mismatch between the infant's readiness and opportunity to learn. Characteristics and educational implications of specific handicapping…

  8. Infant Eyes: A Window on Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslin, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking "under the hood" if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants' gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous…

  9. Cytogenetic findings in acute leukaemias of infants.

    PubMed Central

    Lampert, F.; Harbott, J.; Ritterbach, J.

    1992-01-01

    Of 706 children, 528 with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and 178 with acute myelocytic leukaemia (AML), whose leukaemia karyotypes could be successfully analysed, 48 were infants less than 1 year of age, 28 with ALL (5% of ALL patients) and 20 with AML (11% of AML patients). In contrast to older children. ALL-leukaemocytogenetics in infants was characterised by lack of hyperdiploidy with over 50 chromosomes and higher incidence of pseudodiploidy. Thirteen (= 46%) infants had an 11q23 aberration, and 11 of them had t(4;11). In AML, nine (= 45%) infants also had an 11q23 abnormality, e.g. t(9;11). Thus, the 11q23 aberration was present in almost 50% of all leukaemia karyotypes of infants. In ALL of infants, the CALLA negative, pre-pre-B immunophenotype prevailed. In AML of infants, the monocytic subtype dominated. A biphenotypic morphology (lymphoid-monocytic) with the expression of lymphoid and myeloid antigens was seen in several ALL and AML cases. In conclusion, leukaemogenesis in infants is a rare event, arising in stem cells of very early hematopoietic differentiation (probably due to gene rearrangement errors, most frequently at FRA11B), and differs from leukaemogenesis in older age groups by unique clinical and cellular features. PMID:1503922

  10. Posture Support Improves Object Individuation in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Rebecca J.; Wilcox, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    A hierarchical progression in infants' ability to use surface features, such as color, as a basis for object individuation in the first year has been well established (Tremoulet, Leslie, & Hall, 2000; Wilcox, 1999). There is evidence, however, that infants' sensitivity to surface features can be increased through multisensory (i.e.,…

  11. Undernutrition malnutrition in infants in developing countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We commend Dr. Humphrey on an insightful and well-written editorial on infant underweight malnutrition and thank her for her interest in our study on this topic. In our trial, provision of fortified spread, a novel lipid-based nutrient supplement, to Malawian infants was associated with a markedly ...

  12. The Distribution of Visual Attention in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankowski, Jeffery J.; Rose, Susan A.

    1997-01-01

    Infants were familiarized with geometric forms and were then tested with a novel form paired with the familiar one. Compared to infants who had longer looks at the display, those who had shorter looks demonstrated more broadly distributed looks, showed more looks and shifts, and inspected more stimulus areas; and their shifts included more…

  13. Development of Abstract Grammatical Categorization in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Marilyn; Shi, Rushen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined abstract syntactic categorization in infants, using the case of grammatical gender. Ninety-six French-learning 14-, 17-, 20-, and 30-month-olds completed the study. In a preferential looking procedure infants were tested on their generalized knowledge of grammatical gender involving pseudonouns and gender-marking determiners.…

  14. 21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Infant foods. 105.65 Section 105.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than...

  15. 21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Infant foods. 105.65 Section 105.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than...

  16. 21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Infant foods. 105.65 Section 105.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than...

  17. 21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Infant foods. 105.65 Section 105.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than...

  18. Infant Contingency Learning in Different Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Frauke; Lamm, Bettina; Goertz, Claudia; Kolling, Thorsten; Freitag, Claudia; Spangler, Sibylle; Fassbender, Ina; Teubert, Manuel; Vierhaus, Marc; Keller, Heidi; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Knopf, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Three-month-old Cameroonian Nso farmer and German middle-class infants were compared regarding learning and retention in a computerized mobile task. Infants achieving a preset learning criterion during reinforcement were tested for immediate and long-term retention measured in terms of an increased response rate after reinforcement and after a…

  19. Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between…

  20. Optimizing Infant Development: Strategies for Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine

    This guide for infant day care providers examines the importance of early experience for brain development and strategies for providing optimal infant care. The introduction discusses the current devaluation of day care and idealization of maternal care and identifies benefits of quality day care experience for intellectual development, sleep…

  1. Infant Botulism and Raised Intraocular Pressure.

    PubMed

    Eberly, Matthew D; Uber, Ian; Kieling, Christopher R; Birdsong, Richard H

    2009-11-01

    Infant botulism is an exceedingly rare disease. Because confirmatory laboratory testing is not available for several days after time of presentation, infant botulism remains a clinical diagnosis. The authors demonstrate how raised intraocular pressure may provide an additional clinical clue to making the diagnosis. PMID:19873952

  2. Motor Acquisition Rate in Brazilian Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Virlaine Bardella; de Lima, Carolina Daniel; Tudella, Eloisa

    2009-01-01

    This study used the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) with the aim of characterizing motor acquisition rate in 70 healthy 0-6-month-old Brazilian infants, as well as comparing both emergence (initial age) and establishment (final age) of each skill between the study sample and the AIMS normative data. New motor skills were continuously acquired…

  3. Who's Vulnerable in Infant Child Care Centers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Earline D.; Moukaddem, Virginia E.

    1992-01-01

    Maintains that infants and toddlers, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to a variety of infectious diseases from infant-toddler child care centers. These diseases include infectious diarrhea; rubella; cytomeglovirus; hepatitis A, and haemophilus influenza type B. Suggests ways to prevent the spread of such diseases. (BB)

  4. Art and the Infant-Toddler Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Marilyn

    Stages in the development of art expression in infants and toddlers are briefly described and illustrated in this paper. Following this overview, suggestions are made about ways to introduce infants and toddlers to various developmentally appropriate media and how to support the artistic efforts of very young children. Materials recommended…

  5. Infant and Maternal Sensitivity to Interpersonal Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Anne; Striano, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    A perturbation paradigm was employed to assess 3- and 6-month-old infants' and their mothers' sensitivity to a 3-s temporal delay implemented in an ongoing televised interaction. At both ages, the temporal delay affected infant but not maternal behavior and only when implementing the temporal delay in maternal (Experiment 1, N = 64) but not infant…

  6. Treatment - mother-infant relationship psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Guedeney, Antoine; Guedeney, Nicole; Wendland, Jaqueline; Burtchen, Nina

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we briefly describe several modes of parent-infant-psychotherapy, an efficient way of treating parent-infant relationship disorders. We then focus on treatment for postnatally depressed mothers. Perinatal depression defines an episode of major or minor depression occurring during pregnancy or the first 12 months after birth. Attachment-based parent-infant interventions are particularly helpful in the context of maternal perinatal depression, as postpartum depression has a special link with unresolved trauma and losses in the mother's childhood. The goal of treatment is to improve the mother's mood but also to prevent or reduce the effects of postpartum depression on the child. Infants of perinatally depressed mothers are at risk for a large array of negative outcomes, including attachment insecurity (particularly disorganised attachment), social-skills deficits, cognitive difficulties, behaviour problems, and later psychopathology. The 'ghosts in the nursery' concept refers to the painful or disturbed early childhood experiences coming from the mother's past, which haunt the present mother-infant relationship. By addressing the mother's unresolved attachment conflicts (in her relationship to her own parents), it is believed that the development of a more adaptive parenting and a more secure and less disorganised attachment between the mother and her infant is facilitated. Changes in parent- infant interaction are not dependent on the port of entry (e.g. child's behaviour, parent's representation or parent-infant relationship). The perspective of attachment is key to install a therapeutic alliance with parents. PMID:24045134

  7. Object Permanence in Young Infants: Further Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baillargeon, Renee; DeVos, Julie

    1991-01-01

    Observed the reactions of 3.5-month-old infants looking at a carrot that should have but did not appear in a window after passing behind a screen. The results of this and several similar experiments indicated that 3.5-month-old infants are able to represent and reason about hidden objects. (BC)

  8. Paraprofessionals in Infant/Family Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    "Zero to Three is a single focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that sometimes practice needs to be "translated" into research, as with understanding the phenomenon of paraprofessional workers in…

  9. How to Save Money on Infant Formula

    MedlinePlus

    ... months. Here are some ways you can save money on infant formula . ... Here are a few ways to save money on infant formula: DO NOT buy just one type of baby bottle at first. Try a few different types to see which kind ...

  10. Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…

  11. Do infants have the horizontal bias?

    PubMed

    Van Renswoude, D R; Johnson, S P; Raijmakers, M E J; Visser, I

    2016-08-01

    A robust set of studies show that adults make more horizontal than vertical and oblique saccades, while scanning real-world scenes. In this paper we study the horizontal bias in infants. The directions of eye movements were calculated for 41 infants (M=8.40 months, SD=3.74, range=3.48-15.47) and 47 adults (M=21.74 years, SD=4.54, range=17.89-39.84) while viewing 28 real-world scenes. Saccade directions were binned to study the proportion of saccades in the horizontal, vertical and oblique directions. In addition, saccade directions were also modeled using a mixture of Von Mises distributions, to account for the relatively large amount of variance in infants data. Horizontal bias was replicated in adults and also found in infants, using both the binning and Von Mises approach. Moreover, a developmental pattern was observed in which older infants are more precise in targeting their saccades than younger infants. That infants have a horizontal bias is important in understanding infants' eye movements. Future studies should account for the horizontal bias in their designs and analyses. PMID:27281348

  12. Infants recognize the subtle happiness expression.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hiroko; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2014-01-01

    Facial movement facilitates the recognition of facial expressions. While an intense expression is expressive enough to be recognized in a still image, a subtle expression can be recognized only in motion (Ambadar, Schooler, & Cohn, 2005, Psychological Science, 16, 403-410). The present study investigated whether infants recognize a subtle expression, and whether facial movement facilitates infants' recognition of a subtle expression. In experiment 1 4- to 7-month-old infants were tested for their spontaneous preference for a happy subtle expression rather than a neutral face, but they did not show a spontaneous preference. To confirm that infants did not recognize the static subtle expression, we conducted experiment 2 using the familiarization-novelty procedure. Infants were first familiarized with a static subtle happy expression. Following familiarization, they were presented with a pair of peak expressions of happiness and anger, but showed no significant novelty preference. In experiment 3 we presented the subtle expression dynamically. Infants were familiarized with a dynamic subtle expression and were tested for their novelty preference. The 6- to 7-month-olds showed a significant novelty preference, while 4- to 5-month-olds did not. These results suggest that infants can recognize the subtle expression only in dynamic presentation and that facial movement facilitates infants' recognition of facial expression. PMID:25109015

  13. Infants Learn Baby Signs from Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayanim, Shoshana; Namy, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    There is little evidence that infants learn from infant-oriented educational videos and television programming. This 4-week longitudinal experiment investigated 15-month-olds' (N = 92) ability to learn American Sign Language signs (e.g., patting head for hat) from at-home viewing of instructional video, either with or without parent support,…

  14. The Goldilocks Effect in Infant Auditory Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Infants must learn about many cognitive domains (e.g., language, music) from auditory statistics, yet capacity limits on their cognitive resources restrict the quantity that they can encode. Previous research has established that infants can attend to only a subset of available acoustic input. Yet few previous studies have directly examined infant…

  15. Neighborhood linguistic diversity predicts infants' social learning.

    PubMed

    Howard, Lauren H; Carrazza, Cristina; Woodward, Amanda L

    2014-11-01

    Infants' direct interactions with caregivers have been shown to powerfully influence social and cognitive development. In contrast, little is known about the cognitive influence of social contexts beyond the infant's immediate interactions with others, for example, the communities in which infants live. The current study addressed this issue by asking whether neighborhood linguistic diversity predicts infants' propensity to learn from diverse social partners. Data were taken from a series of experiments in which 19-month-old infants from monolingual, English-speaking homes were tested in paradigms that assessed their tendency to imitate the actions of an adult who spoke either English or Spanish. Infants who lived in more linguistically diverse neighborhoods imitated more of the Spanish speaker's actions. This relation was observed in two separate datasets and found to be independent from variation in infants' general imitative abilities, age, median family income and population density. These results provide novel evidence suggesting that infants' social learning is predicted by the diversity of the communities in which they live. PMID:25156630

  16. Development of Categorical Exclusivity in Young Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eimas, Peter D.; And Others

    Previous research has shown that 3- to 4-month-old infants form a global categorical representation for cats that includes female lions, whereas 6- to 7-month-old infants differentiate between cats and lions. Three experiments using familiarization-novelty preference procedures attempted to determine whether the differentiation of a global…

  17. Jaundice in Newborn Infants (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... infants The following organizations also provide reliable health information. ● National Library of Medicine ( www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/healthtopics.html ) ● American Academy of Pediatrics ( www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/pages/Jaundice.aspx ) ● Parents of Infants ...

  18. Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2010-01-01

    We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

  19. Reduction of head flattening in preterm infants.

    PubMed Central

    Cartlidge, P H; Rutter, N

    1988-01-01

    During the first few weeks of life many preterm infants develop flattened heads. We have shown that this deformity can be reduced by nursing preterm infants on soft, air filled mattresses of the type used for detecting apnoea. Images Fig 2 PMID:3415321

  20. Glucose kinetics in infants of diabetic mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Cowett, R.M.; Susa, J.B.; Giletti, B.; Oh, W.; Schwartz, R.

    1983-08-01

    Glucose kinetic studies were performed to define the glucose turnover rate with 78% enriched D-(U-13C) glucose by the prime constant infusion technique at less than or equal to 6 hours of age in nine infants of diabetic mothers (four insulin-dependent and five chemical diabetic patients) at term. Five normal infants were studied as control subjects. All infants received 0.9% saline intravenously during the study with the tracer. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and glucose13/12C ratios were measured during the steady state, and the glucose turnover rate was derived. The average plasma glucose concentration was similar during the steady state in the infants of the diabetic mothers and in the control infants, and the glucose turnover rate was not significantly different among the groups: 2.3 +/- 0.6 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of insulin-dependent diabetic patients; 2.4 +/- 0.4 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of chemical diabetic patients; and 3.2 +/- 0.3 mg . kg-1 min-1 in the control subjects. Good control of maternal diabetes evidenced by the normal maternal hemoglobin A1c and plasma glucose concentration at delivery and cord plasma glucose concentration resulted in glucose kinetic values in the infants of diabetic mothers that were indistinguishable from those of control subjects. The data further support the importance of good control of the diabetic state in the pregnant woman to minimize or prevent neonatal hypoglycemia.

  1. Social Bundles: Thinking through the Infant Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlie, Julie; Leith, Valerie M. Sheach

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a UK research study on immunization, this article investigates parents' understandings of the relationship between themselves, their infants, other bodies, the state, and cultural practices--material and symbolic. The article argues that infant bodies are best thought of as always social bundles, rather than as biobundles made social…

  2. Phonotactic Constraints on Infant Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Katharine Graf; Edwards, Jan; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2011-01-01

    How do infants use their knowledge of native language sound patterns when learning words? There is ample evidence of infants' precocious acquisition of native language sound structure during the first year of life, but much less evidence concerning how they apply this knowledge to the task of associating sounds with meanings in word learning. To…

  3. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  4. Nap-Dependent Learning in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hupbach, Almut; Gomez, Rebecca L.; Bootzin, Richard R.; Nadel, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Sleep has been shown to aid a variety of learning and memory processes in adults (Stickgold, 2005 ). Recently, we showed that infants' learning also benefits from subsequent sleep such that infants who nap are able to abstract the general grammatical pattern of a briefly presented artificial language (Gomez, Bootzin & Nadel, 2006 ). In the present…

  5. Do Infants Have a Theory of Mind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakoczy, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    The central question debated in current research on infant social cognition is "do infants have a theory of mind?" It is argued here that this question is understood and treated in radically different ways by different participants of the debate arguing either for (e.g., Onishi & Baillargeon, 2005) or against early competence in theory of mind…

  6. Nutrient requirements of term and preterm infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth of the healthy breast-fed term infant is the most widely accepted standard for growth from birth through 4-6 months of age. Thus, it is logical to assume that the amounts of each nutrient ingested by the breast-fed term infant during this period are adequate and the most recent dietary refer...

  7. Phonotactic Acquisition in Healthy Preterm Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has shown that preterm infants are at higher risk for cognitive/language delays than full-term infants. Recent studies, focusing on prosody (i.e. rhythm, intonation), have suggested that prosodic perception development in preterms is indexed by maturational rather than postnatal/listening age. However, because prosody is heard…

  8. Families, Infants and the Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This periodical issue focuses on infants and toddlers and the justice system. The main article is entitled: "Families, Infants and the Justice System," written by Robert Horowitz. It looks at the role of the justice system in family dissolution and creation, the use of courts to resolve disputes, the role of the justice system in family…

  9. Pupil Dilation and Object Permanence in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirois, Sylvain; Jackson, Iain R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relative merits of looking time and pupil diameter measures in the study of early cognitive abilities of infants. Ten-month-old infants took part in a modified version of the classic drawbridge experiment used to study object permanence (Baillargeon, Spelke, & Wasserman, 1985). The study involved a factorial design where…

  10. Update in Maternal and Infant Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Elizabeth M.

    1989-01-01

    This review emphasizes research that confirms or questions established practices regarding maternal and infant nutrition. Controversial issues include weight gain and use of vitamins and mineral supplements during pregnancy and the effects of second-hand smoke. Infant nutrition topics include use of unmodified cow's milk, level of fat, and…

  11. Decreasing Dangerous Infant Behaviors through Parent Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Judith R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Four young mothers with one-year-old infants were successfully taught to reduce their children's potential for injury in the home through interventions which included increasing positive interactions with the infant, child-proofing the home, using playpen time-out for potentially dangerous behaviors, and giving positive attention for safe…

  12. Reducing Infant Mortality. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Despite the wide range of expertise that has been brought to bear on reducing infant mortality across the nation, the first year of life remains a time of considerable risk for many babies. Although the U.S. spends more on health care than any other country, its infant mortality rate remains higher than that of most other industrialized nations.…

  13. Women's Responses to Young Infants' Cries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Gwen E.; Harris, Karen L.

    1990-01-01

    Assessed 40 women's responses to young infants' cries. Mothers and nonmothers were similar in basic features of caregiving behaviors. Although the sound of infant cries may inform caregivers about distress level, caregiving behaviors appear to be determined by additional factors. (RH)

  14. The Creative Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombro, Amy Laura; And Others

    Stemming from the core idea that infant and toddler care should be based on building relationships, this curriculum provides a foundation for staff development. Section 1, "Why a Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers?" examines key quality indicators; discusses curriculum components; describes how to use it to make decisions throughout a typical…

  15. Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Libby

    Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…

  16. Brief report: sound output of infant humidifiers.

    PubMed

    Royer, Allison K; Wilson, Paul F; Royer, Mark C; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2015-06-01

    The sound pressure levels (SPLs) of common infant humidifiers were determined to identify the likely sound exposure to infants and young children. This primary investigative research study was completed at a tertiary-level academic medical center otolaryngology and audiology laboratory. Five commercially available humidifiers were obtained from brick-and-mortar infant supply stores. Sound levels were measured at 20-, 100-, and 150-cm distances at all available humidifier settings. Two of 5 (40%) humidifiers tested had SPL readings greater than the recommended hospital infant nursery levels (50 dB) at distances up to 100 cm. In this preliminary study, it was demonstrated that humidifiers marketed for infant nurseries may produce appreciably high decibel levels. Further characterization of the effect of humidifier design on SPLs and further elucidation of ambient sound levels associated with hearing risk are necessary before definitive conclusions and recommendations can be made. PMID:25904578

  17. Human Milk for Preterm Infants and Fortification.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Jatinder

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is universally accepted as the preferred feeding for all newborn infants, including premature infants. The World Health Organization, American Academy of Pediatrics, Canadian Pediatric Society and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, among others, recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months in term infants, while complementary feeding is introduced over the next several months. However, for preterm infants, fortification is recommended to meet requirements. Human milk composition varies with the duration of lactation, within a day and even during one expression, and composition may be altered by method of storage and pasteurization. In this monograph, the use of human milk for premature infants, its limitations, strategies to overcome said limitations and follow-up studies will be reviewed. PMID:27347886

  18. Shining light on infants' discovery of structure.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Jennifer K; Baldwin, Dare

    2014-01-01

    Learning and discovery seem often to begin with noting patterns. Human infants are skilled at pattern detection, even patterns only definable at an abstract level, which is key to their acquisition of complex knowledge systems such as language and music. However, research examining infants' abstract rule learning has generated inconsistent results. We propose that apparent domain differences in infants' abstract rule learning may be the result of extraneous stimulus variation and discrepancies in the methodologies employed across studies probing this skill. We discuss how a behavioral methodology indexing infants' online learning would be valuable in furthering understanding of infants' (as well as adults') abstract rule learning and its neurophysiological concomitants. We outline current research aimed at developing such an index, and we propose future research, pairing such techniques with neurophysiological methods, aimed at shining more light on human skill at discovering structure. PMID:24851348

  19. Cefepime and Ceftazidime Safety in Hospitalized Infants

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Christopher J.; Ericson, Jessica; Cho, Nathan; Tian, James; Wilson, Shelby; Chu, Vivian H.; Hornik, Christoph P.; Clark, Reese H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P. Brian

    2015-01-01

    Background Cefepime and ceftazidime are cephalosporins used for the treatment of serious gram-negative infections. These cephalosporins are used off-label in the setting of minimal safety data for young infants. Methods We identified all infants discharged from 348 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group between 1997 and 2012 who were exposed to either cefepime or ceftazidime in the first 120 days of life. We reported clinical and laboratory adverse events occurring in infants exposed to cefepime or ceftazidime and used multivariable logistic regression to compare the odds of seizures and death between the 2 groups. Results A total of 1761 infants received 13,293 days of ceftazidime, and 594 infants received 4628 days of cefepime. Laboratory adverse events occurred more frequently on days of therapy with ceftazidime compared with cefepime (373 vs. 341 per 1000 infant days, p<0.001). Seizure was the most commonly observed clinical adverse event, occurring in 3% of ceftazidime-treated infants and 4% of cefepime-treated infants (p=0.52). Mortality was similar between the ceftazidime and cefepime groups (5% vs. 3%, p=0.07). There was no difference in the adjusted odds of seizure (odds ratio [OR] = 0.96 [95% confidence interval, 0.89–1.03]) or the combined outcome of mortality or seizures (OR = 1.00 [0.96–1.04]) in infants exposed to ceftazidime vs. those exposed to cefepime. Conclusions In this cohort of infants, cefepime was associated with fewer laboratory adverse events than ceftazidime, although this may have been due to a significant difference in clinical exposures and severity of illness between the 2 groups. There was no difference in seizure risk or mortality between the 2 drugs. PMID:26376308

  20. Infant mortality rates declining, but still high.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M

    1992-10-01

    Family planning can improve infant survival. Specifically, use of family planning methods can minimize family size, increase birth spacing, and reduce the likelihood of pregnancy for teenagers and women aged 40 or older. Immunizations and oral rehydration are responsible for the falling infant mortality rats since 1977 in developing countries, especially among 1-12 month old infants. Yet, neonatal mortality in developing countries had not changed. WHO intends to step up efforts to improve newborn survival. Accurate data are needed, however. Even in developed countries which keep good statistics, infant mortality bias exists. For example, in Japan, some infant deaths are called fetal deaths. In developing countries, much of the data come from hospitals, yet most birth do not occur in hospitals. Even in surveys, bias exists, such as problems with recall. Many researchers use traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to follow up on all births in an area which may eliminate some biases. Such a prospective and longitudinal study in Trairi county in northeastern Brazil shows the infant mortality rate to be less than half of the official rate (65 vs. 142). The major causes of infant death in developed countries, which tends to occur in the neonatal period, are low birth weight, prematurity, birth complications, and congenital defects; developing countries; they are vaccine preventable infectious diseases, diarrhea and dehydration, and respiratory illnesses, all complicated by malnutrition. To make further strides in reducing infant mortality, public health workers must concentrate on the neonatal period. Training TBAs in sterile techniques, appropriate technology, resuscitation of infants, and identification of potential problems is a positive step. Yet, unpredictable conditions (e.g., AIDS) exist and/or will arise which erode improvements. For example, in Nicaragua, within 1 year after the new government introduced health budget cuts which resulted in the poor paying for

  1. The low-birth-weight infant

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Low-birth-weight (LBW) infants have special nutritional requirements arising from their rapid growth rate and developmental immaturity. LBW infants are of many kinds; for example, the nutritional needs and functional capabilities of a small-for-gestational-age full-term infant are not the same as those of a very LBW premature infant. Ideal criteria for evaluating the nutritional management of these infants have not been established, and thus the recommended intakes given here do not represent proven physiological requirements. They nevertheless provide a basis from which more refined recommendations may be made. Although this chapter is not intended as such to be a discussion of applicable feeding techniques, it would be difficult and artificial to divorce two such closely intertwined aspects of the distinctive needs of this highly vulnerable group. Feeding techniques have to be carefully assessed in the light of specific environments and the expertise available, and none is entirely risk-free in any setting. Thus, it is essential to compensate for the immaturity of the infants and to avoid compromising the airway or risking aspiration of gastric contents. The choice between using breast milk or proprietary formulas in feeding LBW infants is complex on both nutritional and immunological grounds as well as for practical reasons. Given that the preponderance (>90%) of LBW infants are born in developing countries, the use of an infant's own mother's fresh milk may be the only realistic option. However, irrespective of the health care facilities, level of technology or alternative formulas that might be available, studies show that there is much to recommend feeding LBW infants their own mothers' milk in any environment. PMID:20604471

  2. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) risk reduction and infant sleep location - moving the discussion forward.

    PubMed

    Ball, Helen L; Volpe, Lane E

    2013-02-01

    The notion that infant sleep environments are 'good' or 'bad' and that parents who receive appropriate instruction will modify their infant-care habits has been fundamental to SIDS reduction campaigns. However infant sleep location recommendations have failed to emulate the previously successful infant sleep position campaigns that dramatically reduced infant deaths. In this paper we discuss the conflict between 'safeguarding' and 'well-being', contradictory messages, and rejected advice regarding infant sleep location. Following a summary of the relevant background literature we argue that bed-sharing is not a modifiable infant-care practice that can be influenced by risk-education and simple recommendations. We propose that differentiation between infant-care practices, parental behaviors, and cultural beliefs would assist in the development of risk-reduction interventions. Failure to recognize the importance of infant sleep location to ethnic and sub-cultural identity, has led to inappropriate and ineffective risk-reduction messages that are rejected by their target populations. Furthermore transfer of recommendations from one geographic or cultural setting to another without evaluation of variation within and between the origin and destination populations has led to inappropriate targeting of groups or behaviors. We present examples of how more detailed research and culturally-embedded interventions could reorient discussion around infant sleep location. PMID:22571891

  3. Phospholipids in Human Milk and Infant Formulas: Benefits and Needs for Correct Infant Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Cilla, Antonio; Diego Quintaes, Késia; Barberá, Reyes; Alegría, Amparo

    2016-08-17

    The composition of human milk has served as a basis for the development of infant formulas, which are used when breastfeeding is not possible. Among the human milk nutrients, 50% of the total energetic value corresponds to fat, with a high level of fatty acids and 0.2-2.0% present in the form of phospholipids (PLs). The PL contents and fatty acid distribution in PL species have been investigated as bioactive elements for the production of infant formulas, since they offer potential benefits for the optimum growth and health of the newborn infant. The differences in the amount of PLs and in fatty acid distribution in PL species between human milk and infant formulas can imply biologically significant differences for newborn infants fed with infant formulas versus human milk-mainly due to the greater proportion of sphingomyelin with respect to phosphatidylcholine in infant formulas. The limited information referred to the characterization of fatty acid distribution in PL species in infant formulas or in ingredients used to enrich them merits further research in order to obtain products with benefits similar to those of human milk in terms of infant growth, visual acuity, and neurological development. The present review establishes the scientific basis for helping to adjust formulations to the requirements of infant nutrition. PMID:26075805

  4. Young Infants Match Facial and Vocal Emotional Expressions of Other Infants

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant-Molina, Mariana; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Flom, Ross

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that infants recognize emotional expressions of adults in the first half-year of life. We extended this research to a new domain, infant perception of the expressions of other infants. In an intermodal matching procedure, 3.5- and 5-month-old infants heard a series of infant vocal expressions (positive and negative affect) along with side-by-side dynamic videos in which one infant conveyed positive facial affect and another infant conveyed negative facial affect. Results demonstrated that 5-month-olds matched the vocal expressions with the affectively congruent facial expressions, whereas 3.5-month-olds showed no evidence of matching. These findings indicate that by 5 months of age, infants detect, discriminate, and match the facial and vocal affective displays of other infants. Further, because the facial and vocal expressions were portrayed by different infants and shared no face-voice synchrony, temporal or intensity patterning, matching was likely based on detection of a more general affective valence common to the face and voice. PMID:24302853

  5. Who's talking now? Infants' perception of vowels with infant vocal properties.

    PubMed

    Polka, Linda; Masapollo, Matthew; Ménard, Lucie

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about infants' abilities to perceive and categorize their own speech sounds or vocalizations produced by other infants. In the present study, prebabbling infants were habituated to /i/ ("ee") or /a/ ("ah") vowels synthesized to simulate men, women, and children, and then were presented with new instances of the habituation vowel and a contrasting vowel on different trials, with all vowels simulating infant talkers. Infants showed greater recovery of interest to the contrasting vowel than to the habituation vowel, which demonstrates recognition of the habituation-vowel category when it was produced by an infant. A second experiment showed that encoding the vowel category and detecting the novel vowel required additional processing when infant vowels were included in the habituation set. Despite these added cognitive demands, infants demonstrated the ability to track vowel categories in a multitalker array that included infant talkers. These findings raise the possibility that young infants can categorize their own vocalizations, which has important implications for early vocal learning. PMID:24890498

  6. Vestibular Stimulation and Development of the Small Premature Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Mary V.

    This study was designed to explore the effects of vestibular stimulation on the developmental behavior, respiratory functioning, weight and length gains, and morbidity and mortality rates of premature infants. A total of 20 infants participated in this study in 4 groups of 5 infants each. Group A infants were placed in a motorized hammock within…

  7. Breastfeeding and the Mother-Infant Relationship--A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Jarno; de Weerth, Carolina; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne

    2008-01-01

    A positive effect of breastfeeding on the mother-infant relationship is often assumed in the scientific literature, but this has not been systematically reviewed. This review aims to clarify the role of breastfeeding in the mother-infant relationship, which is conceptualized as the maternal bond toward the infant and infant attachment toward the…

  8. "Songese": Maternal Structuring of Musical Interaction with Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal structure of mother-infant interactions with songs, with particular attention to two aspects: 1) the singing of the mothers to their infants, and 2) the non-verbal behaviours mothers and infants produce in synchrony with the musical beat. Four mother-infant dyads were video-recorded when the…

  9. When Do Infants Begin to Follow a Point?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertenthal, Bennett I.; Boyer, Ty W.; Harding, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Infants' understanding of a pointing gesture represents a major milestone in their communicative development. The current consensus is that infants are not capable of following a pointing gesture until 9-12 months of age. In this article, we present evidence from 4- and 6-month-old infants challenging this conclusion. Infants were tested with…

  10. Infant-mother attachment among the Dogon of Mali.

    PubMed

    True, M M; Pisani, L; Oumar, F

    2001-01-01

    This study of mothers and infants from the Dogon ethnic group of Mali, West Africa examined three attachment hypotheses: (1) that infant attachment security is linked to the quality of mother-infant communication, (2) that mothers of secure infants respond more sensitively to their infants than do mothers of insecure infants, and (3) that infant disorganization is linked to maternal frightened or frightening behaviors. Participants were 27 mother-infant pairs from a rural town and 15 mother-infant pairs from two agrarian villages; infants ranged in age from 10 to 12.5 months at the first assessment. The distribution of the Strange Situation classifications was 67% secure, 0% avoidant, 8% resistant, and 25% disorganized. Infant attachment security was significantly related to the quality of mother-infant communication as observed in a well-infant exam. The correlation between infant attachment security ratings and maternal sensitivity (assessed in the home) was modest and approached significance. Mothers of disorganized infants had significantly higher ratings of frightened or frightening behaviors. Maternal sensitivity predicted little of the variance in infant security; however, the addition of the frightened/frightening variable in the regression equation tripled the explained variance. The findings are discussed in light of Dogon childrearing practices and key tenets of attachment theory. PMID:11699681

  11. Marital Aggression Predicts Infant Orienting toward Mother at Six Months

    PubMed Central

    Parade, Stephanie H.; Leerkes, Esther M.

    2011-01-01

    Links between marital aggression and infant orienting toward mother in fearful and frustrating contexts were examined in 92 mother-infant dyads when infants were 6 months. Results demonstrated that marital aggression was linked with less orienting toward mothers in frustrating situations, in fearful situations marital aggression was linked with less orienting among infants who were high on fear reactivity only. PMID:21440304

  12. Maternal alexithymic traits, prenatal stress, and infant temperament.

    PubMed

    Kantonen, T; Karlsson, L; Nolvi, S; Karukivi, M; Tolvanen, M; Karlsson, H

    2015-11-01

    We aimed at investigating, whether maternal alexithymia or prenatal anxiety influences infant temperament (Infant Temperament Questionnaire, IBQ) at six months. Maternal alexithymic trait of "Difficulty in Identifying Feelings" predicted higher infant "Duration of Orienting". "Fear of Bearing a Handicapped Child" predicted lower infant "Activity Level". PMID:26263082

  13. Linguistic Significance of Babbling: Evidence from a Tracheostomized Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, John L.; Pearson, Dawn M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the phonetic patterns and linguistic development of an infant who was tracheostomized during the period that infants normally begin to produce syllabic vocalization. It was found that the infant had developed only a tenth of the canonical syllables expected in normally developing infants, a small inventory of consonant-like segments, and…

  14. Attachment Security in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Compared 34 infants of very low birth weight (VLBW) and 40 full-term infants, using Ainsworth's Strange Situation procedure and Waters' Attachment Q-Set. Found that, at 14 months, VLBW infants were more likely than full-term infants to be insecurely attached when rated using the Q-Set but not when using the Strange Situation. (MDM)

  15. Relationships between Preterm Infants and Their Parents: Disruption and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmi, Ayelet; Harmon, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    The birth and hospitalization of a preterm infant have powerful effects on the emerging parent-infant relationship. Characteristics of parents, infant factors, and factors in the hospital and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) environments--in addition to the circumstances surrounding preterm birth--may disrupt parent-infant relationships.…

  16. 34 CFR 303.16 - Infants and toddlers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infants and toddlers with disabilities. 303.16 Section... INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Purpose, Eligibility, and Other General Provisions § 303.16 Infants and toddlers with disabilities. (a) As used in this part, infants and toddlers with...

  17. Optimal Time of Tracheotomy in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin, Leyla Karadeniz; Gonulal, Deniz; Akcan, Fatih Alper

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Infants with respiratory failure may require prolonged intubation. There is no consensus on the time of tracheotomy in neonates. Methods. We evaluated infants applied tracheotomy, time of procedure, and early complications in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) retrospectively from January 2012 to December 2013. Results. We identified 9 infants applied tracheotomy with gestational ages 34 to 41 weeks. Their diagnoses were hypotonic infant, subglottic stenosis, laryngeal cleft, neck mass, and chronic lung disease. Age on tracheotomy ranged from 4 to 10 weeks. Early complication ratio was 33.3% with minimal bleeding (1), air leak (1), and canal revision requirement (1). We discharged 7 infants, and 2 infants died in the NICU. Conclusion. Tracheotomy makes infant nursing easy for staff and families even at home. If carried out by a trained team, the procedure is safe and has low complication. When to apply tracheotomy should be individualized, and airway damage due to prolonged intubation versus risks of tracheotomy should be taken into consideration. PMID:27335940

  18. Pacifier Use, Finger Sucking, and Infant Sleep.

    PubMed

    Butler, Rachel; Moore, Melisa; Mindell, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Few studies to date have investigated the relationship between pacifier use or finger sucking and infant sleep. One hundred and four mothers of infants (ages 0-11 months) completed the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ). Infants who engaged in finger sucking had fewer night wakings and longer stretches of nighttime sleep, although less daytime sleep. There were no significant differences in sleep patterns between pacifier users and infants who did not engage in nonnutritive sucking. Furthermore, no significant differences were found across groups for sleep ecology, including parental involvement at bedtime and following night wakings. Finally, infants were consistently able to retrieve their pacifiers independently by 7 months of age, although this did not appear to be associated with sleep outcomes. Results suggest that when parents are deciding whether to give their infant a pacifier, sleep may not be a critical factor. In contrast, parents of finger and thumb suckers should be reassured that this nonnutritive sucking is beneficial to sleep, at least in the first year of life. PMID:26548755

  19. The signal functions of early infant crying.

    PubMed

    Soltis, Joseph

    2004-08-01

    In this article I evaluate recent attempts to illuminate the human infant cry from an evolutionary perspective. Infants are born into an uncertain parenting environment, which can range from indulgent care of offspring to infanticide. Infant cries are in large part adaptations that maintain proximity to and elicit care from caregivers. Although there is not strong evidence for acoustically distinct cry types, infant cries may function as a graded signal. During pain-induced autonomic nervous system arousal, for example, neural input to the vocal cords increases cry pitch. Caregivers may use this acoustic information, together with other cues, to guide caregiving behavior. Serious pathology, on the other hand, results in chronically and severely abnormal cry acoustics. Such abnormal crying may be a proximate cause of adaptive infant maltreatment, in circumstances in which parents cut their losses and reduce or withdraw investment from infants with low survival chances. An increase in the amount of crying during the first few months of life is a human universal, and excessive crying, or colic, represents the upper end of this normal increase. Potential signal functions of excessive crying include manipulation of parents to acquire additional resources, honest signaling of need, and honest signaling of vigor. Current evidence does not strongly support any one of these hypotheses, but the evidence is most consistent with the hypothesis that excessive early infant crying is a signal of vigor that evolved to reduce the risk of a reduction or withdrawal of parental care. PMID:15773426

  20. Mechanical analysis of infant carrying in hominoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Lia Q.

    2008-04-01

    In all higher nonhuman primates, species survival depends upon safe carrying of infants clinging to body hair of adults. In this work, measurements of mechanical properties of ape hair (gibbon, orangutan, and gorilla) are presented, focusing on constraints for safe infant carrying. Results of hair tensile properties are shown to be species-dependent. Analysis of the mechanics of the mounting position, typical of heavier infant carrying among African apes, shows that both clinging and friction are necessary to carry heavy infants. As a consequence, a required relationship between infant weight, hair-hair friction coefficient, and body angle exists. The hair-hair friction coefficient is measured using natural ape skin samples, and dependence on load and humidity is analyzed. Numerical evaluation of the equilibrium constraint is in agreement with the knuckle-walking quadruped position of African apes. Bipedality is clearly incompatible with the usual clinging and mounting pattern of infant carrying, requiring a revision of models of hominization in relation to the divergence between apes and hominins. These results suggest that safe carrying of heavy infants justify the emergence of biped form of locomotion. Ways to test this possibility are foreseen here.

  1. Speech vs. singing: infants choose happier sounds.

    PubMed

    Corbeil, Marieve; Trehub, Sandra E; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants' attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech and singing. In Experiment 1, infants 4-13 months of age were exposed to happy-sounding infant-directed speech vs. hummed lullabies by the same woman. They listened significantly longer to the speech, which had considerably greater acoustic variability and expressiveness, than to the lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants of comparable age who heard the lyrics of a Turkish children's song spoken vs. sung in a joyful/happy manner did not exhibit differential listening. Infants in Experiment 3 heard the happily sung lyrics of the Turkish children's song vs. a version that was spoken in an adult-directed or affectively neutral manner. They listened significantly longer to the sung version. Overall, happy voice quality rather than vocal mode (speech or singing) was the principal contributor to infant attention, regardless of age. PMID:23805119

  2. How do infants recognize joint attention?

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Erik; Brisson, Julie; Beaulieu, Christelle; Mainville, Marc; Mailloux, Dominique; Sirois, Sylvain

    2015-08-01

    The emergence of joint attention is still a matter of vigorous debate. It involves diverse hypotheses ranging from innate modules dedicated to intention reading to more neuro-constructivist approaches. The aim of this study was to assess whether 12-month-old infants are able to recognize a "joint attention" situation when observing such a social interaction. Using a violation-of-expectation paradigm, we habituated infants to a "joint attention" video and then compared their looking time durations between "divergent attention" videos and "joint attention" ones using a 2 (familiar or novel perceptual component)×2 (familiar or novel conceptual component) factorial design. These results were enriched with measures of pupil dilation, which are considered to be reliable measures of cognitive load. Infants looked longer at test events that involved novel speaker and divergent attention but no changes in infants' pupil dilation were observed in any conditions. Although looking time data suggest that infants may appreciate discrepancies from expectations related to joint attention behavior, in the absence of clear evidence from pupillometry, the results show no demonstration of understanding of joint attention, even at a tacit level. Our results suggest that infants may be sensitive to relevant perceptual variables in joint attention situations, which would help scaffold social cognitive development. This study supports a gradual, learning interpretation of how infants come to recognize, understand, and participate in joint attention. PMID:26036712

  3. Speech vs. singing: infants choose happier sounds

    PubMed Central

    Corbeil, Marieve; Trehub, Sandra E.; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants' attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech and singing. In Experiment 1, infants 4–13 months of age were exposed to happy-sounding infant-directed speech vs. hummed lullabies by the same woman. They listened significantly longer to the speech, which had considerably greater acoustic variability and expressiveness, than to the lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants of comparable age who heard the lyrics of a Turkish children's song spoken vs. sung in a joyful/happy manner did not exhibit differential listening. Infants in Experiment 3 heard the happily sung lyrics of the Turkish children's song vs. a version that was spoken in an adult-directed or affectively neutral manner. They listened significantly longer to the sung version. Overall, happy voice quality rather than vocal mode (speech or singing) was the principal contributor to infant attention, regardless of age. PMID:23805119

  4. Preterm infants--odontological aspects.

    PubMed

    Rythén, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with medical complications and treatments postnatally and disturbances in growth and development. Primary and permanent teeth develop during this postnatal period. The overall aim of the present thesis was to elucidate the effects of preterm birth and postnatal complications on oral health and the dentoalveolar development during adolescence, and to study the effects of preterm birth on caries during childhood, in a well-defined group of preterm infants. In the same group, explore the development of the primary and permanent teeth and compare the results with a matched control group and control teeth. The subjects consisted of 40 (45) of 56 surviving infants, born < 29 weeks of gestational age (GA), and matched healthy children born at term. The material consisted of 44 teeth from 14 of the preterm adolescents and 36 control teeth from healthy children. Clinical examinations and dental cast analysis were performed during adolescence and morbidity was noted. Retrospective information from medical and dental records was obtained. Dental enamel was analyzed in a polarized light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Further, chemical analyses of enamel and dentin were performed with X-ray microanalysis. The results showed that during adolescence, more preterms had plaque and gingival inflammation, lower salivary secretion, more S. mutans and severe hypomineralization. Retrospectively, less caries was noted at six years of age, but more children had hypomineralization in the primary dentition. Angle Class II malocclusion, large over-bite and deep bite associated with medical diagnoses were frequent. Furthermore, smaller dental arch perimeters in girls, at 16 years of age, and smaller tooth size in the incisors, canines and first molars were found. The morphological findings were confirmed in the XRMA analyses. In postnatal enamel, varying degrees of porosities > 5% and incremental lines were seen. Lower values of Ca and Ca/C ratio and

  5. Sudden infant death syndrome in Australian aboriginal and non-aboriginal infants: an analytical comparison.

    PubMed

    Alessandri, L M; Read, A W; Burton, P R; Stanley, F J

    1996-07-01

    Our previous research has shown that the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) rate for Aboriginal infants in Western Australia (WA) is markedly higher than that for non-Aboriginal infants. The aim of this study was to identify factors that may be important in explaining this disparity. A case-control study was conducted based on routinely collected data for the population of WA singleton births from 1980 to 1990 inclusive. Cases were infants born and classified as dying from SIDS in WA (Aboriginal n = 88, non-Aboriginal n = 409). Controls were infants born in WA and not classified as dying from SIDS; 2% samples of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants were included. The risk of dying from SIDS in Aboriginal infants was 3.86 times [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.98 to 5.02] that in non-Aboriginal infants. Statistically significant univariable risk factors for SIDS in Aboriginal infants were preterm birth, low birthweight and small-for-gestational-age; for non-Aboriginal infants they included these factors as well as single marital status, young maternal age, parity of one or greater and male sex. Comparing Aboriginal with non-Aboriginal controls, most of the risk factors were more common in the Aboriginal population. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that Aboriginal infants were 1.43 times [95% CI = 1.04 to 1.95] more likely to die from SIDS than non-Aboriginal infants. Differences in the risk factor profile for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants were sought using interaction terms. The only important differences were that the risk of SIDS in Aboriginal infants, unlike that in non-Aboriginal infants, appeared not to be strongly related to male sex or to single marital status. Thus, the results show that the disparity between the incidence of SIDS in the Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations can be explained largely, although not totally, by the high prevalence of routinely recorded risk factors in the Aboriginal population. A limitation of

  6. Extra tactile stimulation of the premature infant.

    PubMed

    Kramer, M; Chamorro, I; Green, D; Knudtson, F

    1975-01-01

    To ascertain whether touch, in the form of extra tactile stimulation, would result in more rapid physical and social development and a greater degree of social development of the premature infant, 48 minutes of extra tactile stimulation, defines as a gentle, nonrhythmic stroking of the greatest possible area of skin surface of the infant's body by the nurse's hand, was given to eight experimental group premature infants daily for a minimum of two weeks while they were confined to an isolette. Six infants formed a control group. Regain of birth weight was used to assess physical development. Scores on the applicable portions of the Gesell Development Schedule and Bayley Scales of Infant Development and plasma cortisol levels were used to measure rate and degree of social development. Data were analyzed in terms of the total group and for pairs of infants matched for gestational age, birth weight, and Apgar score. No significant difference was found between control and experimental groups in rate of physical development as measured by regain of birth weight. Analysis of the relationship between weight gain and gestational age, sex, and Apgar scores indicated that none was a substantial indicator of the rate at which infants gained weight while in the hospital. There was no significant difference in the degree of social development between experimental and control infants, but, as hypothesized, there was significant difference in rate of social development. Plasma cortisol levels as an indication of the infant's adrenocorticol development as evidenced by his ability to respond to stressful situations, and hence indirectly his social development, revealed no significant difference between the two groups. PMID:1041616

  7. Perchlorate exposure and dose estimates in infants.

    PubMed

    Valentín-Blasini, Liza; Blount, Benjamin C; Otero-Santos, Samaret; Cao, Yang; Bernbaum, Judy C; Rogan, Walter J

    2011-05-01

    Perchlorate is a naturally occurring inorganic anion used as a component of solid rocket fuel, explosives, and pyrotechnics. Sufficiently high perchlorate intakes can modify thyroid function by competitively inhibiting iodide uptake in adults; however, little is known about perchlorate exposure and health effects in infants. Food intake models predict that infants have higher perchlorate exposure doses than adults. For this reason, we measured perchlorate and related anions (nitrate, thiocyanate, and iodide) in 206 urine samples from 92 infants ages 1-377 days and calculated perchlorate intake dose for this sample of infants. The median estimated exposure dose for this sample of infants was 0.160 μg/kg/day. Of the 205 individual dose estimates, 9% exceeded the reference dose of 0.7 μg/kg/day; 6% of infants providing multiple samples had multiple perchlorate dose estimates above the reference dose. Estimated exposure dose differed by feeding method: breast-fed infants had a higher perchlorate exposure dose (geometric mean 0.220 μg/kg/day) than infants consuming cow milk-based formula (geometric mean 0.103 μg/kg/day, p < 0.0001) or soy-based formula (geometric mean 0.027 μg/kg/day, p < 0.0001), consistent with dose estimates based on dietary intake data. The ability of perchlorate to block adequate iodide uptake by the thyroid may have been reduced by the iodine-sufficient status of the infants studied (median urinary iodide 125 μg/L). Further research is needed to see whether these perchlorate intake doses lead to any health effects. PMID:21449579

  8. Perchlorate exposure and dose estimates in infants

    PubMed Central

    Valentín-Blasini, Liza; Blount, Benjamin C.; Otero-Santos, Samaret; Cao, Yang; Bernbaum, Judy C.; Rogan, Walter J.

    2011-01-01

    Perchlorate is a naturally occurring inorganic anion used as a component of solid rocket fuel, explosives, and pyrotechnics. Sufficiently high perchlorate intakes can modify thyroid function by competitively inhibiting iodide uptake in adults; however little is known about perchlorate exposure and health effects in infants. Food intake models predict that infants have higher perchlorate exposure doses than adults. For this reason, we measured perchlorate and related anions (nitrate, thiocyanate, and iodide) in 206 urine samples from 92 infants ages 1–377 days and calculated perchlorate intake dose for this population of infants. The median estimated exposure dose for this population of infants was 0.160 μg/kg/day. Of the 205 individual dose estimates, 9% exceeded the reference dose of 0.7 μg/kg/day; 6% of infants providing multiple samples had multiple perchlorate dose estimates above the reference dose. Estimated exposure dose differed by feeding method: breast-fed infants had a higher perchlorate exposure dose (geometric mean 0.220 μg/kg/day) than infants consuming cow milk-based formula (geometric mean 0.103 μg/kg/day, p<0.0001) or soy-based formula (geometric mean 0.027 μg/kg/day, p<0.0001), consistent with dose estimates based on dietary intake data. The ability of perchlorate to block adequate iodide uptake by the thyroid may have been reduced by the iodine-sufficient status of the infants studied (median urinary iodide 125 μg/L). Further research is needed to see whether these perchlorate intake doses lead to any health effects. PMID:21449579

  9. Thiamine deficiency in tachypnoeic Cambodian infants.

    PubMed

    Keating, Elizabeth M; Nget, Phot; Kea, Sreng; Kuong, Suy; Daly, Leng; Phearom, Seng; Enders, Felicity; Cheryk, Lynn A; Topazian, Mark; Fischer, Philip R; Kumar, Varun

    2014-10-27

    Background: Beriberi is endemic in South-east Asia. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings, but correlation of clinical features with blood thiamine concentrations is uncertain. Objectives: To investigate in tachypnoeic Cambodian infants the correlation between whole blood thiamine diphosphate (TDP) concentrations, clinical findings and blood TDP levels after therapy. Methods: Infants hospitalised with tachypnoea were enrolled from October 2011 to January 2012. Initial clinical features, diagnostic test results and final diagnoses were recorded. Blood for TDP determination was collected prior to treatment and at discharge. Matched infants from the general outpatient clinic with minor complaints were enrolled as controls. Thiamine was administered at the discretion of the treating paediatrician. Results: Of the 47 tachypnoeic and 47 control infants, median initial blood TDP concentrations were 83 and 93 nmol/L, respectively (P = 0·69), and were below the estimated limit of normal (<70 nmol/L) in 43% vs 34% (P = 0·40). Median initial TDP levels were 72 and 91 nmol/L in tachypnoeic infants who did or did not receive thiamine, respectively (P = 0·56); at hospital discharge, median TDP concentration had increased by 107 and 3·5 nmol/L in these two subgroups (P<0·001). Classical findings of beriberi such as dysphonia, tachycardia and hepatomegaly did not correlate with low initial TDP concentrations, but infant age, Tiger Balm use, absence of wheezing and low blood CRP levels were associated with low initial TDP levels. Use of infant formula was associated with higher initial TDP levels. Conclusions: Thiamine deficiency is common in tachypnoeic Cambodian infants, but routine clinical assessments do not accurately identify those with low blood TDP concentrations. Parenteral thiamine administration markedly increases TDP levels. Empirical thiamine treatment should be considered for tachypnoeic infants in regions with endemic thiamine deficiency. PMID

  10. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula.

    PubMed

    Martin, Camilia R; Ling, Pei-Ra; Blackburn, George L

    2016-01-01

    Mothers' own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow's milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow's milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required. PMID:27187450

  11. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Camilia R.; Ling, Pei-Ra; Blackburn, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Mothers’ own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow’s milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow’s milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required. PMID:27187450

  12. [Infant psychiatry - more reality than tale].

    PubMed

    Puura, Kaija; Tamminen, Tuula

    2016-01-01

    In early childhood, the ability of the parent and the child to adapt to each other's needs during early interaction is essential for a healthy mental development.The parent's ability to carry out adequate early interaction may be compromised because of various problems. Positive, shared emotional experiences with the parent can protect the child's mental health. Severe or prolonged problems in baby care, interaction or behavior of the infant may result in the development of a psychic disorder in the infant. Infant psychiatric diagnosis and treatment plan are based on clinical examination of the child and the family and evaluation of the need for support. PMID:27382831

  13. Parental responsibility and the Infant Bioethics Committee.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, A R

    1990-01-01

    The prognosis is not good for an infant whose entire intestine has been destroyed by necrotizing enterocolitis. An infant bioethics committee is asked to advise whether the parents should be offered the option of total parenteral intravenous nutrition, with its ultimately fatal complications, for their child. Committee members agree that the option of intravenous feeding should be offered, and that it is morally acceptable for the parents to refuse it. Fleischman reviews the issues that an infant bioethics committee must consider when it is asked to help decide what treatment options will be discussed with the family of a seriously ill neonate. PMID:2108103

  14. Lead content of milk and infant formula

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.

    1980-03-01

    Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's milk, and human milk were 0.135 g/ml, 0.03 g/ml, 0.01 g/ml, 0.53 g/ml, and 0.02 g/ml respectively. (2 references, 2 tables)

  15. Management of ovarian cysts in infants

    PubMed Central

    Xue-qiang, Yan; Nan-nan, Zheng; Lei, Yu; Wei, Lu; Hong-qiang, Bian; Jun, Yang; Xu-fei, Duan; Xin-ke, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Background: To discuss the experience of diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cyst in infants. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 20 infants who suffered from ovarian cyst. Results: There were no dysplasia ovarian was found in children which were preoperatively diagnosed simplex cyst. Within thirteen children preoperatively detected mixed cystic-solid lesion, six cases ovarian cysts disappeared and two cases underwent poor blood supply in the following time. Conclusion: Adverse effects for ovarian cyst in infants can be prevented by agressive surgical intervention. Harmful effects of ovarian cyst can be prevented by positive surgical intervention despite the diagnostic difficulties in children with clinical symptoms of this condition. PMID:26958055

  16. Sleep Homeostasis in Infant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Blumberg, Mark S.; Middlemis-Brown, Jessica E.; Johnson, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Homeostatic regulation is a defining characteristic of sleep but has rarely been examined in infants. This study presents an automated method of sleep deprivation in which 5-day-old rats were shocked whenever the nuchal muscle became atonic. The intensity of shock was always set at the minimal level required to maintain arousal. Deprived pups exhibited rapid increases in sleep pressure, as evidenced by increased attempts to enter sleep and subsequent increases in sensory threshold; this increased sensory threshold was not due to sensory adaptation of peripheral receptors. In addition, myoclonic twitching was suppressed during the 30-min deprivation period, leading to rebound twitching during recovery sleep. These results provide the earliest demonstration of the homeostatic regulation of sleep in an altricial mammal. PMID:15598134

  17. [An infant with unexplained epilepsy].

    PubMed

    van Gaal, J Carlijn; Petru, Ronald; Sie, Lilian T J

    2010-01-01

    A 6-month-old male infant with an unremarkable past medical history was admitted to the emergency department in an epileptic state. The seizures were resistant to treatment with conventional drugs. The child was sedated, intubated and admitted to the intensive care department. Despite extensive investigations no underlying disease was found. The seizures persisted and the child was repeatedly admitted to the hospital. Four months after the first presentation, ventricular fibrillation occurred from which the child was successfully resuscitated. His stomach appeared to contain a disinfectant and a severe ethanol-intoxication was found, leading to the diagnosis "Munchausen syndrome by proxy". The incidence of this syndrome is underestimated. Recognition of this potentially fatal phenomenon is often difficult, resulting in a delay in diagnosis. Paediatricians and general practitioners should be aware of this syndrome in children presenting with an unusual disease or an unusual medical history reported by the parents or care providers. PMID:21176267

  18. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals. PMID:755160

  19. Transdermal estradiol treatment during breastfeeding: maternal and infant serum concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Emily; Bogen, Debra L; Hoxha, Denada; Wisner, Katherine L

    2016-04-01

    We examined estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) concentrations in breastfeeding mother-infant dyads. The mothers had postpartum depression and were participants in a randomized clinical trial with three treatments (transdermal E2, sertraline, and placebo). Neither infant E1 and E2 concentrations nor infant growth differed across the treatments. Transdermal E2 administration of 50 to 200 mcg/day for breastfeeding women did not affect infant E1 or E2 concentrations or infant growth. PMID:25956588

  20. Costs and Infant Outcomes After Implementation of a Care Process Model for Febrile Infants

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Carolyn C.; Korgenski, Kent; Sheng, Xiaoming; Valentine, Karen J.; Nelson, Richard E.; Daly, Judy A.; Osguthorpe, Russell J.; James, Brent; Savitz, Lucy; Pavia, Andrew T.; Clark, Edward B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Febrile infants in the first 90 days may have life-threatening serious bacterial infection (SBI). Well-appearing febrile infants with SBI cannot be distinguished from those without by examination alone. Variation in care resulting in both undertreatment and overtreatment is common. METHODS: We developed and implemented an evidence-based care process model (EB-CPM) for the management of well-appearing febrile infants in the Intermountain Healthcare System. We report an observational study describing changes in (1) care delivery, (2) outcomes of febrile infants, and (3) costs before and after implementation of the EB-CPM in a children’s hospital and in regional medical centers. RESULTS: From 2004 through 2009, 8044 infants had 8431 febrile episodes, resulting in medical evaluation. After implementation of the EB-CPM in 2008, infants in all facilities were more likely to receive evidence-based care including appropriate diagnostic testing, determination of risk for SBI, antibiotic selection, decreased antibiotic duration, and shorter hospital stays (P < .001 for all). In addition, more infants had a definitive diagnosis of urinary tract infection or viral illness (P < .001 for both). Infant outcomes improved with more admitted infants positive for SBI (P = .011), and infants at low risk for SBI were more often managed without antibiotics (P < .001). Although hospital admissions were shortened by 27%, there were no cases of missed SBI. Health Care costs were also reduced, with the mean cost per admitted infant decreasing from $7178 in 2007 to $5979 in 2009 (−17%, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The EB-CPM increased evidence-based care in all facilities. Infant outcomes improved and costs were reduced, substantially improving value. PMID:22732178