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Sample records for cocooning infants tdap

  1. Protecting Newborns by Immunizing Family Members in a Hospital-Based Vaccine Clinic: A Successful Tdap Cocooning Program During the 2010 California Pertussis Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    McBane, Sarah; Wang, Wendy; Sawyer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective Infants are at greatest risk for mortality from pertussis infection. Since 2005, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended a cocooning strategy of vaccinating all close contacts of infants with tetanus, diptheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine to reduce the risk of transmitting pertussis. Difficulties in establishing a complete cocoon have been reported in the literature. We determined whether families of newborns could be fully immunized against pertussis, thereby providing a complete cocoon of protection. Methods Tdap vaccine was offered during visiting hours to contacts aged 7 years and older and to postpartum patients who had not received Tdap vaccine during pregnancy. We then conducted retrospective phone interviews with randomly selected mothers (or other family members) to assess vaccination rates. We compared household vaccination rates during intervention and control periods and the demographic factors associated with Tdap vaccination of all members within the households. Results During the intervention period, 243 postpartum patients and 1,287 other family members of newborns were immunized, with 84.8% of all family members receiving Tdap vaccination. Seventy-six percent of households reported a complete cocoon. In the control group, 52.2% of all family members received Tdap vaccination, and 29.3% of households had a complete cocoon. In the control group, fewer family members completed Tdap vaccination in the larger households than in the smaller households (p=0.008). Conclusion A cocooning strategy can be successfully implemented, such that the majority of newborns leave the hospital with their families fully immunized against pertussis. PMID:24791022

  2. Tdap vaccine attitudes and utilization among pregnant women from a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Amanda F; Brewer, Sarah E; Sevick, Carter; Pyrzanowski, Jennifer; Mazzoni, Sara; O'Leary, Sean T

    2016-04-01

    Infants infected with Bordatella pertussis experience high morbidity and significant mortality. Vaccinating pregnant mothers with the tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine is a recommended strategy for preventing infant pertussis. This is especially important for mothers living in poverty and from racial and ethnic minority populations as these groups are at increased risk of having a pertussis-affected infant. Using the Health Belief Model as a framework, we surveyed a convenience sample of pregnant mothers representing these high-risk populations to understand factors associated with Tdap vaccine uptake during their pregnancy. Among the 316 mothers surveyed, 82% had gotten or planned to get Tdap that same day even though 63% of the sample had concerns about the safety of the vaccine during pregnancy. Perceived benefits and norms were the Health Belief Model constructs most consistently associated with Tdap vaccination. Although 32% of women reported prior Tdap vaccine receipt, this factor was not associated with Tdap vaccination during the current pregnancy, contrasting studies of vaccination done in non-pregnant populations. Important variations in attitudes were apparent, with Spanish-speaking women significantly more likely to have concerns about the vaccine's safety and efficacy than English-speaking women. This study indicates that among this high-risk population acceptance of Tdap vaccine during pregnancy is high. However, our results suggest that it may be important to modify information conveyed about the safety and importance of Tdap during pregnancy based on individual level factors such as language or acculturation. PMID:26430729

  3. Recommendation for the use of newly introduced Tdap vaccine in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Hyo; Kim, Yae-Jean; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Park, Su Eun; Lee, Hoan Jong; Eun, Byung Wook; Jo, Dae Sun; Choi, Eun Hwa; Hong, Young Jin

    2011-01-01

    Pertussis is an acute respiratory infection characterized by paroxysmal cough and inspiratory whoop for over 2 weeks. The incidence of pertussis has decreased markedly after the introduction of DTwP/DTaP vaccine, but the incidence of pertussis has increased steadily among young infant and among adolescents and adults in many countries. Td vaccine was used in this age group but the increase in pertussis has lead to the development of a Tdap vaccine. The Tdap vaccine is a Td vaccine with a pertussis vaccine added and is thought to decrease the incidence and transmission of pertussis in the respective age group. In Korea, two products are approved by the KOREA FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION, which are ADACEL™ (Sanofi-Pasteur, Totonto, Ontario, Canada) and BOOSTRIX® (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium) for those aged between 11-64. This report summarizes the recommendations approved by the Committee on Infectious Diseases, the Korean Pediatric Society. PMID:21738546

  4. Photoprotection by silk cocoons.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasjeet; Rajkhowa, Rangam; Tsuzuki, Takuya; Millington, Keith; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Xungai

    2013-10-14

    A silk cocoon protects a silkworm during its pupal stage from various threats. We systematically investigated the role of fiber, sericin, and embedded crystals in the UV protection of a silk cocoon. Diffuse reflectance and UV absorbance were measured and free radicals generated during exposure to UV radiation were quantified using photoinduced chemiluminescence (PICL). We identified the response to both UV-A and UV-B radiations by silk materials and found that sericin was primarily responsible for UV-A absorption. When sericin was removed, the photoinduced chemiluminescence intensity increased significantly, indicating higher UV-A-induced reactions of cocoons in the absence of sericin. There is progressively higher sericin content toward the outer part of the cocoon shell that allows an effective shield to pupae from UV radiation and resists photodegradation of silk fibers. The study will inspire development of advanced organic photoprotective materials and designing silk-based, free-radical-scavenging antioxidants. PMID:24000973

  5. Tdap (Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis) Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tdap Vaccine What You Need to Know (Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis) Many Vaccine Information Statements are available ... immunize. org/ vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis are very serious diseases. Tdap vaccine ...

  6. CDC update on pertussis surveillance and Tdap vaccine recommendations.

    PubMed

    Clark, Thomas A; Bobo, Nichole

    2012-11-01

    Pertussis is the most poorly controlled bacterial vaccine-preventable disease. Since the early 1980s there has been an increase in reported cases of pertussis. Multiple factors have likely contributed to the increase, including waning immunity, increased recognition, and changes in diagnostic testing and reporting. Of the four combination vaccines used to prevent diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, one dose of Tdap should be used to vaccinate preteens as well as teens and adults who have not yet received this booster dose. It is the position of NASN that immunizations, including the Tdap vaccine, are key to primary prevention of diseasefrom infancy through adulthood. The school nurse is in a critical position to create awareness and influence action-related national and state recommendations for the Tdap vaccine. PMID:23193719

  7. How Do Caterpillars Make Cocoons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kay

    1994-01-01

    Describes a Lexington, Kentucky, kindergarten science project that employed the Reggio Emilia approach of long-term open-ended projects steered by children's interests and group discussions. The children's investigation of how caterpillars make cocoons included direct observation of the metamorphosis process, construction of child-sized cocoons,…

  8. Factors Associated with Intention to Receive Influenza and Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccines during Pregnancy: A Focus on Vaccine Hesitancy and Perceptions of Disease Severity and Vaccine Safety

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Allison T.; Seib, Katherine; Ault, Kevin A.; Orenstein, Walter A.; Frew, Paula M.; Malik, Fauzia; Cortés, Marielysse; Cota, Pat; Whitney, Ellen A. S.; Flowers, Lisa C.; Berkelman, Ruth L.; Omer, Saad B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Improving influenza and tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine coverage among pregnant women is needed. PURPOSE: To assess factors associated with intention to receive influenza and/or Tdap vaccinations during pregnancy with a focus on perceptions of influenza and pertussis disease severity and influenza vaccine safety. METHODS: Participants were 325 pregnant women in Georgia recruited from December 2012 – April 2013 who had not yet received a 2012/2013 influenza vaccine or a Tdap vaccine while pregnant. Women completed a survey assessing influenza vaccination history, likelihood of receiving antenatal influenza and/or Tdap vaccines, and knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about influenza, pertussis, and their associated vaccines. RESULTS: Seventy-three percent and 81% of women believed influenza and pertussis, respectively, would be serious during pregnancy while 87% and 92% believed influenza and pertussis, respectively, would be serious to their infants. Perception of pertussis severity for their infant was strongly associated with an intention to receive a Tdap vaccine before delivery (p=0.004). Despite perceptions of disease severity for themselves and their infants, only 34% and 44% intended to receive antenatal influenza and Tdap vaccines, respectively. Forty-six percent had low perceptions of safety regarding the influenza vaccine during pregnancy, and compared to women who perceived the influenza vaccine as safe, women who perceived the vaccine as unsafe were less likely to intend to receive antenatal influenza (48% vs. 20%; p < 0.001) or Tdap (53% vs. 33%; p < 0.001) vaccinations. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this baseline survey suggest that while pregnant women who remain unvaccinated against influenza within the first three months of the putative influenza season may be aware of the risks influenza and pertussis pose to themselves and their infants, many remain reluctant to receive influenza and Tdap vaccines antenatally. To

  9. A cocooning project to protect newborns from pertussis.

    PubMed

    Rust, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The Pertussis Cocooning Project was created through a collaborative effort by a health care organization and a State Department for Public Health to decrease community pertussis rates and protect infants from the deadly effects of pertussis. Free pertussis immunizations are provided to all mothers who give birth at the health care organization and to all infants' family members and caregivers older than 18 years. PMID:24939197

  10. Oxygen cocoon for patients under intensive care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maas, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Cocoon is made from Teflon film. It includes full-length, pressure zipper on top side and bottom part is rigid pad constructed of burn-resistant material. Cocoon includes oxygen supply port with exhaust port at opposite end.

  11. Cocoon drying through solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kulunk, M.

    1983-12-01

    In this paper, silk cocoon drying operations through solar energy have been presented. Nearly no comprehensive work has been appeared in literature on this unusual application. General mechanism of solar drying methods are presented by some authors for instance, Roman and Jindal. This application seems vitally significant for silk cocoon producer countries like Turkey. The rate of production accelerates year by year and it is about 3000 tons per year presently in Turkey. In Turkey, by now and currently, a water vapour chamber is utilized in the killing process of silkworm. Vapour produced by burning of conventional fuels posses many drawbacks beside being very expensive and also non-renewable. Vapour effects the quality and quantity of silk thread negatively. For instance, the colour of silk cocoon tends to turn to pale instead of being gleamy. This is not tolerable. The length and mass of silk thread obtained per a typical cocoon sample is increased about 10.1 and 16.5 per cent respectively in the average by using solar energy.

  12. Safety of Tdap vaccine in pregnant women: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Petousis-Harris, Helen; Walls, Tony; Watson, Donna; Paynter, Janine; Graham, Patricia; Turner, Nikki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Actively recruit and intensively follow pregnant women receiving a dose of acellular pertussis vaccine for 4 weeks after vaccination. Design and settings A prospective observational study conducted in 2 New Zealand regions. Participants Women in their 28th–38th week of pregnancy, recruited from primary care and antenatal clinics at the time of Tdap administration. Telephone interviews were conducted at 48 h and 4 weeks postvaccination. Main outcomes measures Outcomes were injection site reactions, systemic symptoms and serious adverse events (SAEs). Where available, data have been classified and reported according to Brighton Collaboration definitions. Results 793 women participated with 27.9% receiving trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine concomitantly. 79% of participants reported mild or moderate pain and 2.6% severe pain. Any swelling was reported by 7.6%, induration by 12.0% (collected from 1 site only, n=326), and erythema by 5.8% of participants. Fever was reported by 17 (2.1%) participants, 14 of these occurred within 24 h. Headache, dizziness, nausea, myalgia or arthralgia was reported by <4% of participants, respectively, and fatigue by 8.4%. During the study period, there were 115 adverse events in 113 participants, most of which were minor. At the end of the reporting period, 31 events were classified as serious (eg, obstetric bleeding, hypertension, infection, tachycardia, preterm labour, exacerbation of pre-existing condition and pre-eclampsia). All had variable onset time from vaccination. There were two perinatal deaths. Clinician assessment of all SAEs found none likely to be vaccine related. Conclusions Vaccination with Tdap in pregnant women was well tolerated with no SAE likely to be caused by the vaccine. Trial registration number ACTRN12613001045707. PMID:27091823

  13. Gastro retention using polymer cocoons.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Julien; Hunkeler, David

    2015-02-01

    A gastro-retentive capsule has been prepared which is retained in the stomach for a period of 24h, providing a vehicle for the controlled delivery to the upper intestines. These "gastro cocoons" can resist passage through the sphincter of the stomach, and can retain a high drug payload (30%). They are made from oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and can swell to twice their initial volume. They are strong and also can resist 550 N of compressive force. They are based on filled pharmaceutical capsules which are visible to X-rays. Using ambroxol hydrochloride as a model drug linear, zero-order, release curves were obtained. PMID:25078789

  14. Structure and physical properties of silkworm cocoons

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    Silkworm cocoons have evolved a wide range of different structures and combinations of physical and chemical properties in order to cope with different threats and environmental conditions. We present our observations and measurements on 25 diverse types of cocoons in a first attempt to correlate physical properties with the structure and morphology of the cocoons. These two architectural parameters appear to be far more important than the material properties of the silk fibres themselves. We consider tensile and compressive mechanical properties and gas permeation of the cocoon walls, and in each case identify mechanisms or models that relate these properties to cocoon structure, usually based upon non-woven fibre composites. These properties are of relevance also for synthetic non-woven composite materials and our studies will help formulate bio-inspired design principles for new materials. PMID:22552916

  15. Intention to Accept Pertussis Vaccination for Cocooning: A Qualitative Study of the Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Hautvast, Jeannine L. A.; van der Velden, Koos; Hulscher, Marlies E. J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Context Several countries have reported a resurgence of pertussis in the last decades. This puts infants (especially <6 months) at risk of severe complications, because they are too young to be fully protected by vaccination. The global pertussis initiative has proposed pertussis vaccination of young infants’ close contacts, in order to reduce pertussis transmission and the burden of the disease on infants. Our aim is to explore the perceived determinants (barriers and facilitators) of intention to accept vaccination among the possible target groups of pertussis vaccination for cocooning. Consideration of these determinants is necessary to optimise the uptake of the vaccination. Methods We conducted 13 focus groups and six individual semi-structured interviews with members of possible target groups for pertussis cocooning (i.e. parents, maternity assistants, midwives, and paediatric nurses) in the Netherlands. Here, both maternal pertussis vaccination as well as pertussis cocooning has not been implemented. The topic list was based on a literature review and a barrier framework. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and two researchers performed thematic content analysis. Findings The participants’ risk perception, outcome expectations, general vaccination beliefs, moral norms, opinion of others, perceived autonomy, anticipated regret, decisional uncertainty, and perceived organisational barriers were all factors that influenced the intention to accept pertussis vaccination for cocooning. Discussion This study has identified nine perceived determinants that influence the intention to accept pertussis cocooning vaccination. We add the following determinants to the literature: perceived cost-effectiveness (as a concept of outcome expectations), justice (as a concept of moral norms), anticipated regret, and decisional uncertainty. We recommend considering these determinants in vaccination programmes for pertussis cocooning vaccination. Experience, information

  16. Universal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of adults: What Canadian health care providers know and need to know

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, D; Halperin, BA; MacKinnon-Cameron, D; Li, L; McNeil, SA; Langley, JM; Halperin, SA

    2015-01-01

    The tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) is recommended for all adults in both Canada and the United States. There are few data on the proportion of Canadian adults vaccinated with Tdap; however, anecdotal reports indicate that uptake is low. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of Canadian health care providers (HCPs) in an attempt to identify potential barriers and facilitators to Tdap uptake. HCPs were surveyed and a geographic and practice representative sample was obtained (N =1,167). In addition, 8 focus groups and 4 interviews were conducted nationwide. Results from the survey indicate that less than half (47.5%) of all respondents reported being immunized with Tdap themselves, while 58.5% routinely offer Tdap to their adult patients. Knowledge scores were relatively low (63.2% correct answers). The best predictor of following the adult Tdap immunization guidelines was awareness of and agreement with those recommendations. Respondents who were aware of the recommendations were more likely to think that Tdap is safe and effective, that their patients are at significant risk of getting pertussis, and to feel that they have sufficient information (p < 0.0001 for each statement). Focus group data supported the survey results and indicated that there are substantial gaps in knowledge of pertussis and Tdap among Canadian HCPs. Lack of public knowledge about adult immunization, lack of immunization registries, a costing differential between Td and Tdap, workload required to deliver the vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy were identified as barriers to compliance with the national recommendations for universal adult immunization, and suggestions were provided to better translate recommendations to front-line practitioners. PMID:26090861

  17. Universal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of adults: What Canadian health care providers know and need to know.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, D; Halperin, B A; MacKinnon-Cameron, D; Li, L; McNeil, S A; Langley, J M; Halperin, S A

    2015-01-01

    The tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) is recommended for all adults in both Canada and the United States. There are few data on the proportion of Canadian adults vaccinated with Tdap; however, anecdotal reports indicate that uptake is low. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of Canadian health care providers (HCPs) in an attempt to identify potential barriers and facilitators to Tdap uptake. HCPs were surveyed and a geographic and practice representative sample was obtained (N =1,167). In addition, 8 focus groups and 4 interviews were conducted nationwide. Results from the survey indicate that less than half (47.5%) of all respondents reported being immunized with Tdap themselves, while 58.5% routinely offer Tdap to their adult patients. Knowledge scores were relatively low (63.2% correct answers). The best predictor of following the adult Tdap immunization guidelines was awareness of and agreement with those recommendations. Respondents who were aware of the recommendations were more likely to think that Tdap is safe and effective, that their patients are at significant risk of getting pertussis, and to feel that they have sufficient information (p < 0.0001 for each statement). Focus group data supported the survey results and indicated that there are substantial gaps in knowledge of pertussis and Tdap among Canadian HCPs. Lack of public knowledge about adult immunization, lack of immunization registries, a costing differential between Td and Tdap, workload required to deliver the vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy were identified as barriers to compliance with the national recommendations for universal adult immunization, and suggestions were provided to better translate recommendations to front-line practitioners. PMID:26090861

  18. Flavonoids from the cocoon of Rondotia menciana.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Chikara; Ono, Hiroshi; Meng, Yan; Shimada, Toru; Daimon, Takaaki

    2013-10-01

    Two flavonol glycosides along with four known flavonoids were isolated from the cocoon of the mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae: Bombycinae), a closely related species of the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori, both of which feed on leaves of mulberry (Morus alba). The two glycosides were characterized as quercetin 3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-d-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-d-galactopyranoside, based on spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. The flavonol galactosides found in the cocoon were not present in the host plant, nor in the cocoon of the silkworm, B. mori. Notably, flavonol glucosides, which are the main constituents of cocoon flavonoids in B. mori mori, were not found in the R. menciana cocoon. The present result strongly suggests that R. menciana is quite unique in that they predominantly use an UDP-galactosyltransferase for conjugation of dietary flavonoids, whereas UDP-glucosyltransferases are generally used for conjugation of plant phenolics and xenobiotics in other insects. PMID:23830693

  19. Fish mucous cocoons: the 'mosquito nets' of the sea.

    PubMed

    Grutter, Alexandra S; Rumney, Jennifer G; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Waldie, Peter; Franklin, Craig E

    2011-04-23

    Mucus performs numerous protective functions in vertebrates, and in fishes may defend them against harmful organisms, although often the evidence is contradictory. The function of the mucous cocoons that many parrotfishes and wrasses sleep in, while long used as a classical example of antipredator behaviour, remains unresolved. Ectoparasitic gnathiid isopods (Gnathiidae), which feed on the blood of fish, are removed by cleaner fish during the day; however, it is unclear how parrotfish and wrasse avoid gnathiid attacks at night. To test the novel hypothesis that mucous cocoons protect against gnathiids, we exposed the coral reef parrotfish Chlorurus sordidus (Scaridae) with and without cocoons to gnathiids overnight and measured the energetic content of cocoons. Fish without mucous cocoons were attacked more by gnathiids than fish with cocoons. The energetic content of mucous cocoons was estimated as 2.5 per cent of the fish's daily energy budget fish. Therefore, mucous cocoons protected against attacks by gnathiids, acting like mosquito nets in humans, a function of cocoons and an efficient physiological adaptation for preventing parasite infestation that is not used by any other animal. PMID:21084337

  20. Electricity from the Silk Cocoon Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulachan, Brindan; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Mallick, Chandrakant; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Teotia, Arun Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Bhattacharya, Shantanu; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

    2014-06-01

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM) is an insect engineered structure. We studied the electrical properties of mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Tussar, Antheraea mylitta) SCM. When dry, SCM behaves like an insulator. On absorbing moisture, it generates electrical current, which is modulated by temperature. The current flowing across the SCM is possibly ionic and protonic in nature. We exploited the electrical properties of SCM to develop simple energy harvesting devices, which could operate low power electronic systems. Based on our findings, we propose that the temperature and humidity dependent electrical properties of the SCM could find applications in battery technology, bio-sensor, humidity sensor, steam engines and waste heat management.

  1. Directional moisture transfer through a wild silkworm cocoon wall.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xing; Zhang, Jin; Gao, Weimin; Du, Shan; Li, Jingliang; Wang, Xungai

    2016-01-01

    A silkworm cocoon is a porous biological structure with multiple protective functions. In the current work, the authors have used both experimental and numerical methods to reveal the unique moisture transfer characteristics through a wild Antheraea pernyi silkworm cocoon wall, in comparison with the long-domesticated Bombyx mori silkworm cocoon walls. The water vapor transmission and water vapor permeability (WVP) properties show that the A. pernyi cocoons exhibit directional moisture transfer behavior, with easier moisture transfer from inside out than outside in [e.g., the average WVP is 0.057 g/(h m bar) from inside out and is 0.034 g/(h m bar) from outside in]. Numerical analysis shows that the cubic mineral crystals in the outer section of the A. pernyi cocoon wall create a rough surface that facilitates air turbulence and promotes disturbance amplitude of the flow field, leading to lengthened water vapor transfer path and increased tortuosity of the moist air. It also indicates the vortex of water vapor can be generated in the outer section of cocoon wall, which increases the diffusion distance of water vapor and enhances the turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence eddy dissipation, signifying higher moisture resistance in the outer section. The difference in moisture resistance of the multiple A. pernyi cocoon layers is largely responsible for the unique directional moisture transfer behavior of this wild silkworm cocoon. These findings may inspire a biomimicry approach to develop novel lightweight moisture management materials and structures. PMID:27226205

  2. Immunogenicity and safety results from a randomized multicenter trial comparing a Tdap-IPV vaccine (REPEVAX®) and a tetanus monovalent vaccine in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Laurichesse, Henri; Zimmermann, Ulrich; Galtier, Florence; Launay, Odile; Duval, Xavier; Richard, Patrick; Sadorge, Christine; Soubeyrand, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    In adults with a tetanus-prone injury, combined vaccines such as Tdap-IPV (REPEVAX®) can boost immunity against several diseases simultaneously. This Phase IIIb, parallel-group, open-label trial compared antibody responses to Tdap-IPV and tetanus monovalent vaccine (TMV; Vaccin Tétanique Pasteur® or Tetavax®) against tetanus toxoid 10 and 28 d post-vaccination. Between July and December 2009, four centers in France and five in Germany recruited healthy adults who had received a tetanus-containing vaccine 5−10 y previously. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive at the first visit a single dose (0.5 mL) of Tdap-IPV or TMV, with follow-up visits at Day 10 and Day 28. Outcomes: per protocol (PP) population immunogenicity at Day 10 (primary) and at Day 28 (secondary); safety throughout the study. Of 456 adults randomized, 223 received Tdap-IPV and 233 received TMV (PP population: 183 and 199 participants, respectively). All participants receiving Tdap-IPV and 99.0% receiving TMV had an anti-tetanus antibody concentration ≥ 0.1 IU/mL, confirming non-inferiority of Tdap-IPV to TMV (95% confidence interval of the difference: –1.2, 3.6). Number of adverse events reported was comparable in each group. Injection-site reactions were reported by 76.6% participants receiving Tdap-IPV and 74.6% receiving TMV. Systemic events (e.g., malaise, myalgia and headache) were reported in 47.7% and 39.7% of the Tdap-IPV and the TMV groups, respectively. Tdap-IPV is effective and well-tolerated for use in the management of tetanus-prone injuries in emergency settings in persons for whom a booster against diphtheria, pertussis and poliomyelitis is also needed. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00928785. Research sponsored by Sanofi Pasteur MSD. PMID:23032160

  3. Soft magnetic memory of silk cocoon membrane

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Manas; Dubey, Amarish; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Philip, Deepu; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Bajpai, Alok; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM), a solid matrix of protein fiber, responds to light, heat and moisture and converts these energies to electrical signals. Essentially it exhibits photo-electric and thermo-electric properties; making it a natural electro-magnetic sensor, which may influence the pupal development. This raises the question: ‘is it only electricity?’, or ‘it also posses some kind of magnetic memory?’ This work attempted to explore the magnetic memory of SCM and confirm its soft magnetism. Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, Gd were found in SCM, in traces, through energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Presence of iron was ascertained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). In addition, EPR-spectra showed the presence of a stable pool of carbon-centric free radical in the cocoon structure. Carbon-centric free radicals behaves as a soft magnet inherently. Magnetic-Hysteresis (M-H) of SCM confirmed its soft magnetism. It can be concluded that the soft bio-magnetic feature of SCM is due to the entrapment of ferromagnetic elements in a stable pool of carbon centric radicals occurring on the super-coiled protein structure. Natural soft magnets like SCM provide us with models for developing eco-friendly, protein-based biological soft magnets. PMID:27374752

  4. Soft magnetic memory of silk cocoon membrane.

    PubMed

    Roy, Manas; Dubey, Amarish; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Philip, Deepu; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Bajpai, Alok; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM), a solid matrix of protein fiber, responds to light, heat and moisture and converts these energies to electrical signals. Essentially it exhibits photo-electric and thermo-electric properties; making it a natural electro-magnetic sensor, which may influence the pupal development. This raises the question: 'is it only electricity?', or 'it also posses some kind of magnetic memory?' This work attempted to explore the magnetic memory of SCM and confirm its soft magnetism. Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, Gd were found in SCM, in traces, through energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Presence of iron was ascertained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). In addition, EPR-spectra showed the presence of a stable pool of carbon-centric free radical in the cocoon structure. Carbon-centric free radicals behaves as a soft magnet inherently. Magnetic-Hysteresis (M-H) of SCM confirmed its soft magnetism. It can be concluded that the soft bio-magnetic feature of SCM is due to the entrapment of ferromagnetic elements in a stable pool of carbon centric radicals occurring on the super-coiled protein structure. Natural soft magnets like SCM provide us with models for developing eco-friendly, protein-based biological soft magnets. PMID:27374752

  5. Soft magnetic memory of silk cocoon membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Manas; Dubey, Amarish; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Philip, Deepu; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Bajpai, Alok; Das, Mainak

    2016-07-01

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM), a solid matrix of protein fiber, responds to light, heat and moisture and converts these energies to electrical signals. Essentially it exhibits photo-electric and thermo-electric properties; making it a natural electro-magnetic sensor, which may influence the pupal development. This raises the question: ‘is it only electricity?’, or ‘it also posses some kind of magnetic memory?’ This work attempted to explore the magnetic memory of SCM and confirm its soft magnetism. Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, Gd were found in SCM, in traces, through energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Presence of iron was ascertained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). In addition, EPR-spectra showed the presence of a stable pool of carbon-centric free radical in the cocoon structure. Carbon-centric free radicals behaves as a soft magnet inherently. Magnetic-Hysteresis (M-H) of SCM confirmed its soft magnetism. It can be concluded that the soft bio-magnetic feature of SCM is due to the entrapment of ferromagnetic elements in a stable pool of carbon centric radicals occurring on the super-coiled protein structure. Natural soft magnets like SCM provide us with models for developing eco-friendly, protein-based biological soft magnets.

  6. Presence of Culturable Bacteria in Cocoons of the Earthworm Eisenia fetida†

    PubMed Central

    Zachmann, Joseph E.; Molina, J. A. E.

    1993-01-01

    Viable bacteria were found to coexist with developing embryos in egg capsules (cocoons) of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Earthworms were reared under standardized conditions, and bacterial densities were measured in distinct batches of cocoons collected weekly for 10 weeks. Cocoons weighing 12 mg contained a mean viable bacterial population of approximately 108 CFU/g of cocoons. No difference was found in viable counts obtained from cocoons incubated at 15°C and cocoons incubated at 24°C. Viable bacterial numbers increased with cocoon age, while acridine orange direct counts of microbial cells were stable at approximately 109 cells per g of cocoons. Bacteria isolated from cocoons were used to develop antisera in rabbits for the production of strain-specific fluorescent antibodies. Fluorescent antibody and selective plating techniques were used to monitor populations of these bacteria in earthworm bedding and to determine whether cocoons acquire bacteria from the environment in which they are formed. Cocoon isolates were readily recovered from cocoons formed in inoculated bedding at densities of 108 CFU/g of cocoons. Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 and UMR 161 added to bedding were also recovered from cocoons, but at lower densities than cocoon isolates. Escherichia coli K-12(pJP4) inoculum was recovered from bedding but not from cocoons. The bacterial complement of Eisenia fetida cocoons is affected by inoculation of selected bacterial isolates in the worm growth environment. PMID:16348968

  7. Electricity from the Silk Cocoon Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Tulachan, Brindan; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Mallick, Chandrakant; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Teotia, Arun Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Bhattacharya, Shantanu; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

    2014-01-01

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM) is an insect engineered structure. We studied the electrical properties of mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Tussar, Antheraea mylitta) SCM. When dry, SCM behaves like an insulator. On absorbing moisture, it generates electrical current, which is modulated by temperature. The current flowing across the SCM is possibly ionic and protonic in nature. We exploited the electrical properties of SCM to develop simple energy harvesting devices, which could operate low power electronic systems. Based on our findings, we propose that the temperature and humidity dependent electrical properties of the SCM could find applications in battery technology, bio-sensor, humidity sensor, steam engines and waste heat management. PMID:24961354

  8. Electricity from the silk cocoon membrane.

    PubMed

    Tulachan, Brindan; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Mallick, Chandrakant; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Teotia, Arun Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Bhattacharya, Shantanu; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

    2014-01-01

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM) is an insect engineered structure. We studied the electrical properties of mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Tussar, Antheraea mylitta) SCM. When dry, SCM behaves like an insulator. On absorbing moisture, it generates electrical current, which is modulated by temperature. The current flowing across the SCM is possibly ionic and protonic in nature. We exploited the electrical properties of SCM to develop simple energy harvesting devices, which could operate low power electronic systems. Based on our findings, we propose that the temperature and humidity dependent electrical properties of the SCM could find applications in battery technology, bio-sensor, humidity sensor, steam engines and waste heat management. PMID:24961354

  9. Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2010-10-15

    The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

  10. Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2010-10-01

    The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

  11. The Next Decade in Career Counseling: Cocoon Maintenance or Metamorphosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmer, Twinet; Rush, Lee Covington

    2003-01-01

    Articulates the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, and future vision for career counseling using a cocoon maintenance or metamorphosis metaphor. Concludes with a vision for the future for the discipline and profession of career counseling. (Contains 40 references.) (GCP)

  12. Mechanics of cocoon secretion in a segmented worm (Annelida: Hirudinidae).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Anthony M; Saidel, William M; Gravante, Christopher J; Sayers, Charlene W; Shain, Daniel H

    2016-07-01

    Clitellate annelids (e.g., segmented earthworms, leeches) secrete proteinaceous cocoons into which eggs are deposited. The process of cocoon production is characterized by the coordinated release of micro-granules from secretory cells positioned asymmetrically within the clitellum. Collectively, these assemble into a tubular cocoon sheath that is sealed at either end by globular opercula. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we show here that granules destined to the cocoon operculum in the leech, Erpodbdella obscura, display a series of concentric rings surrounding a structureless core with dimensions approximating a single nanoglobule found in the operculum. Upon their channeling to the surface through narrow tubules, granules are secreted into the cocoon lumen where they appear to fragment upon contact with the operculum matrix. The distribution of partial concentric ring structures throughout the operculum suggests that granular fusion causes dynamic fragmentation of outer surface material, which thereafter integrates into operculum nanoglobules and cavities. Other granules within the same secretory cell display a punctate pattern and likely fuse with the cocoon sheath prior to crystallization. PMID:27129037

  13. Evolution of clouds in radio galaxy cocoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellema, G.; Kurk, J. D.; Röttgering, H. J. A.

    2002-11-01

    This letter presents a numerical study of the evolution of an emission line cloud of initial density 10 cm-3, temperature 104 K, and size 200 pc, being overtaken by a strong shock wave. Whereas previous simple models proposed that such a cloud would either be completely destroyed, or simply shrink in size, our results show a different and more complex behaviour: due to rapid cooling, the cloud breaks up into many small and dense fragments, which can survive for a long time. We show that such rapid cooling behaviour is expected for a wide range of cloud and shock properties. This process applies to the evolution of emission line clouds being overtaken by the cocoon of a radio jet. The resulting small clouds would be Jeans unstable, and form stars. Our results thus give theoretical credibility to the process of jet induced star formation, one of the explanations for the alignment of the optical/UV and radio axis observed in high redshift radio galaxies.

  14. Pertussis vaccination during pregnancy: Antibody persistence in infants.

    PubMed

    Vilajeliu, Alba; Ferrer, Laia; Munrós, Jordina; Goncé, Anna; López, Marta; Costa, Josep; Bayas, José M

    2016-07-19

    Maternal pertussis vaccination is associated with higher levels of pertussis antibodies at birth. We assessed the persistence of pertussis antibodies until primary vaccination in infants whose mothers received Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis) vaccine during pregnancy. Infants were born at the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona (Spain) in November 2014. Anti-PT IgG was determined by ELISA at delivery, between the first and second month of life, and estimated at 2months of age. The study included 37 infants whose mothers received Tdap between 21 and 38weeks of gestation. Infants presented a decline in GMC of anti-PT IgG between peripartum and follow-up levels, 52.7 (95% CI 34.7-80.2) versus 7.5 (95% CI 4.2-13.3) at 2months of age (p<0.001). The median half-life of maternal antibodies was 47days. More than half (51.4%) the infants presented detectable anti-PT IgG before the start of primary infant vaccination. PMID:27265448

  15. An Unlikely Silk: The Composite Material of Green Lacewing Cocoons

    SciTech Connect

    Weisman, Sarah; Trueman, Holly E.; Mudie, Stephen T.; Church, Jeffrey S.; Sutherland, Tara D.; Haritos, Victoria S.

    2009-01-15

    Spiders routinely produce multiple types of silk; however, common wisdom has held that insect species produce one type of silk each. This work reports that the green lacewing (Mallada signata, Neuroptera) produces two distinct classes of silk. We identified and sequenced the gene that encodes the major protein component of the larval lacewing cocoon silk and demonstrated that it is unrelated to the adult lacewing egg-stalk silk. The cocoon silk protein is 49 kDa in size and is alanine rich (>40%), and it contains an {alpha}-helical secondary structure. The final instar lacewing larvae spin protein fibers of {approx}2 {mu}m diameter to construct a loosely woven cocoon. In a second stage of cocoon construction, the insects lay down an inner wall of lipids that uses the fibers as a scaffold. We propose that the silk protein fibers provide the mechanical strength of the composite lacewing cocoon whereas the lipid layer provides a barrier to water loss during pupation.

  16. Transgenic silkworms produce recombinant human type III procollagen in cocoons.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Masahiro; Munetsuna, Hiroto; Sato, Tsutomu; Adachi, Takahiro; Hino, Rika; Hayashi, Masahiro; Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Nakamura, Namiko; Tamura, Toshiki; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi

    2003-01-01

    We describe the generation of transgenic silkworms that produce cocoons containing recombinant human collagen. A fusion cDNA was constructed encoding a protein that incorporated a human type III procollagen mini-chain with C-propeptide deleted, a fibroin light chain (L-chain), and an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). This cDNA was ligated downstream of the fibroin L-chain promoter and inserted into a piggyBac vector. Silkworm eggs were injected with the vectors, producing worms displaying EGFP fluorescence in their silk glands. The cocoons emitted EGFP fluorescence, indicating that the promoter and fibroin L-chain cDNAs directed the synthesized products to be secreted into cocoons. The presence of fusion proteins in cocoons was demonstrated by immunoblotting, collagenase-sensitivity tests, and amino acid sequencing. The fusion proteins from cocoons were purified to a single electrophoretic band. This study demonstrates the viability of transgenic silkworms as a tool for producing useful proteins in bulk. PMID:12483223

  17. Vaccine safety implications of Ontario, Canada's switch from DTaP-IPV to Tdap-IPV for the pre-school booster.

    PubMed

    Klar, Salman; Harris, Tara; Wong, Kenny; Fediurek, Jill; Deeks, Shelley L

    2014-11-12

    Ontario, Canada, replaced the 4-6 year old diphtheria (D, d), tetanus (T), acellular pertussis (aP, ap) and polio (IPV) booster from DTaP-IPV to Tdap-IPV in May 2012. We assessed the impact of this replacement on the rate and types of reported adverse events following immunization (AEFIs). We used AEFIs reported among 4-6 years olds, through the provincial surveillance system, following administration of DTaP-IPV or Tdap-IPV from 2009 to 2013. Reporting rates per 100,000 doses distributed were calculated using publicly funded doses distributed as the denominator. A total of 204 AEFIs were reported (DTaP-IPV, n=182; Tdap-IPV, n=22). AEFI reporting rates were 33.1 and 6.3 per 100,000 doses distributed for DTaP-IPV and Tdap-IPV, respectively. Injection site reaction rate was lower for Tdap-IPV compared with DTaP-IPV (1.7 vs 20.6 per 100,000 doses). The replacement resulted in a decline in the number of reports and AEFI reporting rates, most notably a substantial decrease in injection site reactions. PMID:25252195

  18. Abdominal Cocoon in Association with Adenomyosis and Leiomyomata of the Uterus and Endometriotic Cyst : Unusual Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Mohd. Noor, Nor Haznita; Zaki, Nik Mohamed; Kaur, Gurjeet; Naik, Venkatesh R.; Zakaria, Ahmad Zahari

    2004-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a rare condition. A 46 year old Malay woman with adenomyosis and leiomyomata of the uterus and ovarian endometriotic cyst in association with abdominal cocoon is reported. PMID:22977364

  19. Water balance of field-excavated aestivating Australian desert frogs, the cocoon-forming Neobatrachus aquilonius and the non-cocooning Notaden nichollsi (Amphibia: Myobatrachidae).

    PubMed

    Cartledge, Victoria A; Withers, Philip C; McMaster, Kellie A; Thompson, Graham G; Bradshaw, S Don

    2006-09-01

    Burrowed aestivating frogs of the cocoon-forming species Neobatrachus aquilonius and the non-cocooning species Notaden nichollsi were excavated in the Gibson Desert of central Australia. Their hydration state (osmotic pressure of the plasma and urine) was compared to the moisture content and water potential of the surrounding soil. The non-cocooning N. nichollsi was consistently found in sand dunes. While this sand had favourable water potential properties for buried frogs, the considerable spatial and temporal variation in sand moisture meant that frogs were not always in positive water balance with respect to the surrounding soil. The cocoon-forming N. aquilonius was excavated from two distinct habitat types, a claypan in which frogs had a well-formed cocoon and a dune swale where frogs did not have a cocoon. Cocoons of excavated frogs ranged in thickness from 19.4 microm to 55.61 microm and consisted of 81-229 layers. Cocooned claypan N. aquilonius were nearing exhaustion of their bladder water reserves and had a urine osmolality approaching that of the plasma. By contrast, non-cocooned N. aquilonius from the dune swale were fully hydrated, although soil moisture levels were not as high as calculated to be necessary to maintain water balance. Both species had similar plasma arginine vasotocin (AVT) concentrations ranging from 9.4 to 164 pg ml(-1), except for one cocooned N. aquilonius with a higher concentration of 394 pg ml(-1). For both species, AVT showed no relationship with plasma osmolality over the lower range of plasma osmolalities but was appreciably increased at the highest osmolality recorded. This study provides the first evidence that cocoon formation following burrowing is not obligatory in species that are capable of doing so, but that cocoon formation occurs when soil water conditions are more desiccating than for non-cocooned frogs. PMID:16916967

  20. Microarray analysis of New Green Cocoon associated genes in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ya-Ru; He, Song-Zhen; Tong, Xiao-Ling; Han, Min-Jin; Li, Chun-Lin; Li, Zhi-Quan; Dai, Fang-Yin

    2016-06-01

    Green cocoons in silkworm, Bombyx mori, are caused by flavonoids accumulation in the silk proteins, fibroin and sericin. Despite the economic value of natural green cocoon and medical value of flavonoids, there is limited understanding of the molecular mechanism regulating flavonoids uptake in silkworm, which is tightly associated with the trait of green cocoon. The purpose of this study is to perform a comprehensive analysis to understand the molecular mechanisms of flavonoids uptake in silkworm based on microarray analyses. The study subject was the New Green Cocoon from the silkworm strains, G200 and N100, a new spontaneous dominant green cocoon trait identified in the 2000s. The genes regulating this trait are independent of other green cocoon genes previously reported. Genome-wide gene expression was compared between the New Green Cocoon producing silkworm strains, G200 and N100, and the control sample, which is the white cocoon producing strain 872B. Among these strains, N100 and 872B are near-isogenic lines. The results showed that 130 genes have consistently changing expression patterns in the green cocoon strains when compared with the white cocoon strain. Among these, we focused on the genes related to flavonoids metabolism and absorption, such as sugar transporter genes and UDP-glucosyltransferase genes. Based on our findings, we propose the potential mechanisms for flavonoids absorption and metabolism in silkworm. Our results imply that silkworm might be used as an underlying model for flavonoids in pharmaceutical research. PMID:26936509

  1. Probing the Nature of the Vela X Cocoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Slane, Patrick O.; de Jager, Okkie C.

    2008-12-01

    Vela X is a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) associated with the active pulsar B0833-45 and contained within the Vela supernova remnant (SNR). A collimated X-ray filament ("cocoon") extends south-southwest from the pulsar to the center of Vela X. VLA observations uncovered radio emission coincident with the eastern edge of the cocoon, and H.E.S.S. has detected TeV γ-ray emission from this region as well. Using XMM-Newton archival data, covering the southern portion of this feature, we analyze the X-ray properties of the cocoon. The X-ray data are best fit by an absorbed nonequilibrium plasma model with a power-law component. Our analysis of the thermal emission shows enhanced abundances of O, Ne, and Mg within the cocoon, indicating the presence of ejecta-rich material from the propagation of the SNR reverse shock, consistent with Vela X being a disrupted PWN. We investigate the physical processes that excite the electrons in the PWN to emit in the radio, X-ray, and γ-ray bands. The radio and nonthermal X-ray emission can be explained by synchrotron emission. We model the γ-ray emission by inverse Compton scattering of electrons off of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons. We use a three-component broken power law to model the synchrotron emission, finding an intrinsic break in the electron spectrum at ~5 × 106 keV and a cooling break at ~5.5 × 1010 keV. This cooling break along with a magnetic field strength of 5 × 10-6 G indicate that the synchrotron break occurs at ~1 keV.

  2. Two consecutive randomized controlled pertussis booster trials in children initially vaccinated in infancy with an acellular vaccine: The first with a five-component Tdap vaccine to 5-year olds and the second with five- or monocomponent Tdap vaccines at age 14-15 years.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, R M; Gustafsson, L; Hallander, H O; Ljungman, M; Olin, P; Gothefors, L; Nilsson, L; Netterlid, E

    2015-07-17

    Prior study children from a DTaP efficacy trial were recruited at ages 5 and 15 years to randomized booster trials addressing immunogenicity and reactogenicity; 475 preschool children received mixed or separate injections of a reduced antigen vaccine (Tdap5, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and an inactivated polio vaccine, and 230 adolescents received the same or another booster vaccine (Tdap1, SSI, Denmark). Pre-vaccination antibody concentrations against pertussis antigens were significantly higher at 15 than 5 years of age, probably due to natural boosting between the studies. Tdap5 induced comparable anti-PT concentrations at both ages, but antibody responses were significantly higher to filamentous haemagglutinin, pertactin and fimbriae 2/3 in adolescents. As expected, a higher amount of PT (Tdap1, 20μg) induced a stronger anti-PT response than a lower amount (Tdap5, 2.5μg). The frequency of adverse events was low and there were no serious adverse reactions. All local reactions had an early onset and a short duration. A large swelling or redness of more than half of the upper arm circumference was reported in 8/475 5-year-olds and in 6/230 15-year-olds. Children vaccinated with Tdap5 reported more moderate pain in adolescence than at preschool age, whereas itching was only reported in preschool children. Sweden introduced DTaP vaccines in 1996 after a 17-year hiatus with no general pertussis vaccination and pertussis was still endemic at the time of the studies. The frequency of adverse events was nevertheless low in both preschool children and adolescents and antibody responses were adequate. These studies document immunogenicity and reactogenicity in a trial cohort consecutively vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccines from infancy to adolescence. The adolescent study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on 26 March 2009 (NCT00870350). PMID:26057135

  3. Action of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on cocoon spinning in Ceraeochrysa claveri (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; Garcia, Ana Silvia Gimenes; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Santos, Daniela Carvalho

    2013-11-01

    Neem oil is a biopesticide that disturbs the endocrine and neuroendocrine systems of pests and may interfere with molting, metamorphosis and cocoon spinning. The cocoon serves protective functions for the pupa during metamorphosis, and these functions are dependent on cocoon structure. To assess the changes in cocoon spinning caused by neem oil ingestion, Ceraeochrysa claveri larvae, a common polyphagous predator, were fed with neem oil throughout the larval period. When treated with neem oil, changes were observed on the outer and inner surfaces of the C. claveri cocoon, such as decreased wall thickness and impaired ability to attach to a substrate. These negative effects may reduce the effectiveness of the mechanical and protective functions of cocoons during pupation, which makes the specimen more vulnerable to natural enemies and environmental factors. PMID:23993219

  4. Strain Rate and Anisotropic Microstructure Dependent Mechanical Behaviors of Silkworm Cocoon Shells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Wen; Gao, Xiang; Meng, Wanlin; Guan, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Silkworm cocoons are multi-layered composite structures comprised of high strength silk fiber and sericin, and their mechanical properties have been naturally selected to protect pupas during metamorphosis from various types of external attacks. The present study attempts to gain a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical properties of cocoon shell materials from wild silkworm species Antheraea pernyi under dynamic loading rates. Five dynamic strain rates from 0.00625 s-1 to 12.5 s-1 are tested to show the strain rate sensitivity of the cocoon shell material. In the meantime, the anisotropy of the cocoon shell is considered and the cocoon shell specimens are cut along 0°, 45° and 90° orientation to the short axis of cocoons. Typical mechanical properties including Young’s modulus, yield strength, ultimate strength and ultimate strain are extracted and analyzed from the stress-strain curves. Furthermore, the fracture morphologies of the cocoon shell specimens are observed under scanning electron microscopy to help understand the relationship between the mechanical properties and the microstructures of the cocoon material. A discussion on the dynamic strain rate effect on the mechanical properties of cocoon shell material is followed by fitting our experimental results to two previous models, and the effect could be well explained. We also compare natural and dried cocoon materials for the dynamic strain rate effect and interestingly the dried cocoon shells show better overall mechanical properties. This study provides a different perspective on the mechanical properties of cocoon material as a composite material, and provides some insight for bio-inspired engineering materials. PMID:26939063

  5. Strain Rate and Anisotropic Microstructure Dependent Mechanical Behaviors of Silkworm Cocoon Shells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Wen; Gao, Xiang; Meng, Wanlin; Guan, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Silkworm cocoons are multi-layered composite structures comprised of high strength silk fiber and sericin, and their mechanical properties have been naturally selected to protect pupas during metamorphosis from various types of external attacks. The present study attempts to gain a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical properties of cocoon shell materials from wild silkworm species Antheraea pernyi under dynamic loading rates. Five dynamic strain rates from 0.00625 s-1 to 12.5 s-1 are tested to show the strain rate sensitivity of the cocoon shell material. In the meantime, the anisotropy of the cocoon shell is considered and the cocoon shell specimens are cut along 0°, 45° and 90° orientation to the short axis of cocoons. Typical mechanical properties including Young's modulus, yield strength, ultimate strength and ultimate strain are extracted and analyzed from the stress-strain curves. Furthermore, the fracture morphologies of the cocoon shell specimens are observed under scanning electron microscopy to help understand the relationship between the mechanical properties and the microstructures of the cocoon material. A discussion on the dynamic strain rate effect on the mechanical properties of cocoon shell material is followed by fitting our experimental results to two previous models, and the effect could be well explained. We also compare natural and dried cocoon materials for the dynamic strain rate effect and interestingly the dried cocoon shells show better overall mechanical properties. This study provides a different perspective on the mechanical properties of cocoon material as a composite material, and provides some insight for bio-inspired engineering materials. PMID:26939063

  6. Fish mucous cocoons: the ‘mosquito nets’ of the sea

    PubMed Central

    Grutter, Alexandra S.; Rumney, Jennifer G.; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Waldie, Peter; Franklin, Craig E.

    2011-01-01

    Mucus performs numerous protective functions in vertebrates, and in fishes may defend them against harmful organisms, although often the evidence is contradictory. The function of the mucous cocoons that many parrotfishes and wrasses sleep in, while long used as a classical example of antipredator behaviour, remains unresolved. Ectoparasitic gnathiid isopods (Gnathiidae), which feed on the blood of fish, are removed by cleaner fish during the day; however, it is unclear how parrotfish and wrasse avoid gnathiid attacks at night. To test the novel hypothesis that mucous cocoons protect against gnathiids, we exposed the coral reef parrotfish Chlorurus sordidus (Scaridae) with and without cocoons to gnathiids overnight and measured the energetic content of cocoons. Fish without mucous cocoons were attacked more by gnathiids than fish with cocoons. The energetic content of mucous cocoons was estimated as 2.5 per cent of the fish's daily energy budget fish. Therefore, mucous cocoons protected against attacks by gnathiids, acting like mosquito nets in humans, a function of cocoons and an efficient physiological adaptation for preventing parasite infestation that is not used by any other animal. PMID:21084337

  7. Proteins in the Cocoon of Silkworm Inhibit the Growth of Beauveria bassiana

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Youshan; Liu, Huawei; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Silk cocoons are composed of fiber proteins (fibroins) and adhesive glue proteins (sericins), which provide a physical barrier to protect the inside pupa. Moreover, other proteins were identified in the cocoon silk, many of which are immune related proteins. In this study, we extracted proteins from the silkworm cocoon by Tris-HCl buffer (pH7.5), and found that they had a strong inhibitory activity against fungal proteases and they had higher abundance in the outer cocoon layers than in the inner cocoon layers. Moreover, we found that extracted cocoon proteins can inhibit the germination of Beauveria bassiana spores. Consistent with the distribution of protease inhibitors, we found that proteins from the outer cocoon layers showed better inhibitory effects against B. bassiana spores than proteins from the inner layers. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to reveal the extracted components in the scaffold silk, the outermost cocoon layer. A total of 129 proteins were identified, 30 of which were annotated as protease inhibitors. Protease inhibitors accounted for 89.1% in abundance among extracted proteins. These protease inhibitors have many intramolecular disulfide bonds to maintain their stable structure, and remained active after being boiled. This study added a new understanding to the antimicrobial function of the cocoon. PMID:27032085

  8. Comparative proteome analysis of multi-layer cocoon of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Ping; Dong, Zhaoming; Wang, Dandan; Guo, Pengchao; Guo, Xiaomeng; Song, Qianru; Zhang, Weiwei; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    Bombyx mori cocoon has a multi-layer structure that provides optimal protection for silkworm pupa. Research on the mechanical properties of the multi-layer structure revealed structure-property relationships of the cocoon. Here, we investigated the protein components of the B. mori cocoon in terms of its multi-layer structure. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified 286 proteins from the multiple cocoon layers. In addition to fibroins and sericins, we identified abundant protease inhibitors, seroins and proteins of unknown function. By comparing protein abundance across layers, we found that the outermost layer contained more sericin1 and protease inhibitors and the innermost layer had more seroin1. As many as 36 protease inhibitors were identified in cocoons, showing efficient inhibitory activities against a fungal protease. Thus, we propose that more abundant protease inhibitors in the outer cocoon layers may provide better protection for the cocoon. This study increases our understanding of the multi-layer mechanism of cocoons, and helps clarify the biological characteristics of cocoons. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001469. PMID:25860555

  9. Proteins in the Cocoon of Silkworm Inhibit the Growth of Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaomeng; Dong, Zhaoming; Zhang, Yan; Li, Youshan; Liu, Huawei; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Silk cocoons are composed of fiber proteins (fibroins) and adhesive glue proteins (sericins), which provide a physical barrier to protect the inside pupa. Moreover, other proteins were identified in the cocoon silk, many of which are immune related proteins. In this study, we extracted proteins from the silkworm cocoon by Tris-HCl buffer (pH7.5), and found that they had a strong inhibitory activity against fungal proteases and they had higher abundance in the outer cocoon layers than in the inner cocoon layers. Moreover, we found that extracted cocoon proteins can inhibit the germination of Beauveria bassiana spores. Consistent with the distribution of protease inhibitors, we found that proteins from the outer cocoon layers showed better inhibitory effects against B. bassiana spores than proteins from the inner layers. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to reveal the extracted components in the scaffold silk, the outermost cocoon layer. A total of 129 proteins were identified, 30 of which were annotated as protease inhibitors. Protease inhibitors accounted for 89.1% in abundance among extracted proteins. These protease inhibitors have many intramolecular disulfide bonds to maintain their stable structure, and remained active after being boiled. This study added a new understanding to the antimicrobial function of the cocoon. PMID:27032085

  10. Strategies to decrease pertussis transmission to infants.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Kevin; Plotkin, Stanley; Tan, Tina; Wirsing von König, Carl Heinz

    2015-06-01

    The Global Pertussis Initiative (GPI) is an expert scientific forum addressing the worldwide burden of pertussis, which remains a serious health issue, especially in infants. This age cohort is at risk for developing pertussis by transmission from those in close proximity. Risk is increased in infants aged 0 to 6 weeks, as they are too young to be vaccinated. Older infants are at risk when their vaccination schedules are incomplete. Infants also bear the greatest disease burden owing to their high risk for pertussis-related complications and death; therefore, protecting them is a high priority. Two vaccine strategies have been proposed to protect infants. The first involves vaccinating pregnant women, which directly protects through the passive transfer of pertussis antibodies. The second strategy, cocooning, involves vaccinating parents, caregivers, and other close contacts, which indirectly protects infants from transmission by preventing disease in those in close proximity. The goal of this review was to present and discuss evidence on these 2 strategies. Based on available data, the GPI recommends vaccination during pregnancy as the primary strategy, given its efficacy, safety, and logistic advantages over a cocoon approach. If vaccination during pregnancy is not feasible, then all individuals having close contact with infants <6 months old should be immunized consistent with local health authority guidelines. These efforts are anticipated to minimize pertussis transmission to vulnerable infants, although real-world effectiveness data are limited. Countries should educate lay and medical communities on pertussis and introduce robust surveillance practices while implementing these protective strategies. PMID:25963002

  11. Mechanical properties of cocoons constructed consecutively by a single silkworm caterpillar, Bombyx mori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S. Q.; Zhao, H. P.; Feng, X. Q.; Cui, W.; Lin, Z.; Xu, M. Q.

    2008-04-01

    Most animals have the ability to adapt, to some extends and in different ways, the variation or disturbance of environment. In our experiments, we forced a silkworm caterpillar to spin two, three or four thin cocoons by taking it out from the cocoon being constructed. The mechanical properties of these cocoons were studied by static tensile tests and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. Though external disturbances may cause the decrease in the total weight of silk spun by the silkworm, a gradual enhancement was interestingly found in the mechanical properties of these thin cocoons. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the fractured specimens of the cocoons showed that there exist several different energy dissipation mechanisms occurred simultaneously at macro-, meso-, and micro-scales, yielding a superior capacity of cocoons to adsorb the energy of possible attacks from the outside and to protect efficiently its pupa against damage. Through evolution of millions of years, therefore, the silkworm Bombyx mori seems to have gained the ability to adapt external disturbances and to redesign a new cocoon with optimized protective function when its first cocoon has been damaged for some reasons.

  12. Research on non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoons based on image processing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yong; Kong, Qing-hua; Wei, Li-fu

    2008-03-01

    The major studied in this dissertation is the non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoon's quality, based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. Through the images collection and the data analysis, procession and calculation of the tested silkworm cocoons with the non-destructive testing technology, internet applications automatically reckon all items of the classification indexes. Finally we can conclude the classification result and the purchase price of the silkworm cocoons. According to the domestic classification standard of the silkworm cocoons, the author investigates various testing methods of silkworm cocoons which are used or have been explored at present, and devices a non-destructive testing scheme of the silkworm cocoons based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. They are dissertated about the project design of the experiment. The precisions of all the implements are demonstrated. I establish Manifold mathematic models, compare them with each other and analyze the precision with technology of databank to get the best mathematic model to figure out the weight of the dried silkworm cocoon shells. The classification methods of all the complementary items are designed well and truly. The testing method has less error and reaches an advanced level of the present domestic non-destructive testing technology of the silkworm cocoons.

  13. Triassic leech cocoon from Antarctica contains fossil bell animal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.; Moestrup, Øjvind; Taylor, Edith L.

    2012-12-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth is limited by the imperfection of the fossil record. One reason for this imperfect record is that organisms without hard parts, such as bones, shells, and wood, have a very low potential to enter the fossil record. Occasionally, however, exceptional fossil deposits that preserve soft-bodied organisms provide a rare glimpse of the true biodiversity during past periods of Earth history. We here present an extraordinary find of a fossil ciliate that is encased inside the wall layer of a more than 200 Ma leech cocoon from Antarctica. The microfossil consists of a helically contractile stalk that attaches to a main body with a peristomial feeding apparatus and a large C-shaped macronucleus. It agrees in every aspect with the living bell animals, such as Vorticella. Vorticellids and similar peritrichs are vital constituents of aquatic ecosystems worldwide, but so far have lacked any fossil record. This discovery offers a glimpse of ancient soft-bodied protozoan biotas, and also highlights the potential of clitellate cocoons as microscopic "conservation traps" comparable to amber.

  14. Defense role of the cocoon in the silk worm Bombyx mori L.

    PubMed

    Pandiarajan, Jeyaraj; Cathrin, Britto P; Pratheep, Thangaraj; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2011-11-15

    Silk from the domesticated silk worm Bombyx mori procures foreign body response naturally, so it has been utilized as a biomaterial for decades. In India the prime focus of the sericulture industry is to improve silk production with high quality silk. Naturally, the silk worm builds its cocoon not only with silk proteins, but also with antimicrobial proteins to avoid infection since the cocoon is non-motile and non-feeding. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the antimicrobial proteins that persist in the cocoon of the silk worm Bombyx mori. At the pupal stage, the silk worm cocoon shell extract was prepared from the day of pupation (P0) to the day of natural rupture of the cocoon for the eclosion of moth (NR). Using the cocoon shell extract a microbial susceptibility test was performed by the disc diffusion method against the microbes Escherchia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The development of a zone of inhibition against the microbes confirmed the presence of antimicrobial/immunogenic activity of the cocoon shell extract. For further analysis, the cocoon shell extract was subjected to 7-15% sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The protein profile of the cocoon extract revealed the coomassie blue stained bands resolved from the 150-15 kDa molecular range. Interestingly, a polypeptide localized at around 29 kDa showed remarkable expressional changes during the development of pupa. To characterize the 29 kDa protein, it was eluted from the gel, digested with trypsin and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The trypsin-digested peptide peaks were analyzed through MASCOT and peptides were matched with the NCBI nr database. The peptides were very well matched with the 18 wheeler protein, which is reported to be responsible for innate immunity, belonging to the Toll family in insects and responsible for cellular

  15. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of pregnant women approached to participate in a Tdap maternal immunization randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, Donna M.; Halperin, Beth A.; Langley, Joanne M.; McNeil, Shelly A.; MacKinnon-Cameron, Donna; Li, Li; Halperin, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Immunization with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy is recommended in a number of countries to prevent newborn deaths from whooping cough. In some jurisdictions, vaccine uptake during pregnancy is low. We undertook a survey of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of pregnant women who had been approached to participate in a randomized, controlled trial of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy. A total of 346 women completed the survey. Knowledge about pertussis and pertussis vaccine was generally low; the mean number of correct answers was 10.65 out of 19 questions. Attitudes toward maternal immunization were generally favorable; 51.7%–94.7% of women had positive responses to 10 attitudinal statements. Substantial uncertainty was shown in responses to a number of the attitudinal statements related to vaccination during pregnancy; 22.3%–45.7% neither agreed nor disagreed with the statements. Importantly, 89% of women reported that they would get immunized with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy if their physician recommended it. We conclude that a national recommendation to be immunized with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy supported by their physicians' recommendation would be well received by Canadian women. PMID:27176822

  16. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of pregnant women approached to participate in a Tdap maternal immunization randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, Donna M; Halperin, Beth A; Langley, Joanne M; McNeil, Shelly A; MacKinnon-Cameron, Donna; Li, Li; Halperin, Scott A

    2016-04-01

    Immunization with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy is recommended in a number of countries to prevent newborn deaths from whooping cough. In some jurisdictions, vaccine uptake during pregnancy is low. We undertook a survey of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of pregnant women who had been approached to participate in a randomized, controlled trial of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy. A total of 346 women completed the survey. Knowledge about pertussis and pertussis vaccine was generally low; the mean number of correct answers was 10.65 out of 19 questions. Attitudes toward maternal immunization were generally favorable; 51.7%-94.7% of women had positive responses to 10 attitudinal statements. Substantial uncertainty was shown in responses to a number of the attitudinal statements related to vaccination during pregnancy; 22.3%-45.7% neither agreed nor disagreed with the statements. Importantly, 89% of women reported that they would get immunized with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy if their physician recommended it. We conclude that a national recommendation to be immunized with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy supported by their physicians' recommendation would be well received by Canadian women. PMID:27176822

  17. Study on the microstructure of African wild silk cocoon shells and fibers.

    PubMed

    Teshome, Addis; Vollrath, Fritz; Raina, Suresh K; Kabaru, J M; Onyari, J

    2012-01-01

    Silk fibers and cocoon shells from four African wild silkmoths Gonometa postica, Anaphe panda, Argema mimosae and Epiphora bauhiniae-were studied to gain insight into the structure-property-function relations and potential commercial application. The surface and cross-section of cocoon shells and fibers revealed the presence of prominent structural variations. Cocoon shells were multilayered and porous structures constructed from highly cross-linked fibers that are densely packed within the sericin/gum. Fibers had fibrillar sub-structures running along the fiber axis and with greater number and size of voids. The ecological significance and implication of these structures for further application are discussed. PMID:21986544

  18. Mastrus ridibundus parasitoids eavesdrop on cocoon-spinning codling moth, Cydia pomonella, larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumean, Zaid; Unruh, Tom; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Cocoon-spinning larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) employ a pheromone that attracts or arrests conspecifics seeking pupation sites. Such intraspecific communication signals are important cues for illicit receivers such as parasitoids to exploit. We tested the hypothesis that the prepupal C. pomonella parasitoid Mastrus ridibundus Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) exploits the larval aggregation pheromone to locate host prepupae. In laboratory olfactometer experiments, female M. ridibundus were attracted to 3-day-old cocoons containing C. pomonella larvae or prepupae. Older cocoons containing C. pomonella pupae, or larvae and prepupae excised from cocoons, were not attractive. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of bioactive Porapak Q extract of cocoon-derived airborne semiochemicals, ten compounds elicited responses from female M. ridibundus antennae. Comparative GC-mass spectrometry of authentic standards and cocoon-volatiles determined that these compounds were 3-carene, myrcene, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, sulcatone, and geranylacetone. A synthetic 11-component blend consisting of these ten EAD-active compounds plus EAD-inactive (+)-limonene (the most abundant cocoon-derived volatile) was as effective as Porapak Q cocoon extract in attracting both female M. ridibundus and C. pomonella larvae seeking pupation sites. Only three components could be deleted from the 11-component blend without diminishing its attractiveness to M. ridibundus, which underlines the complexity of information received and processed during foraging for hosts. Mastrus ridibundus obviously “eavesdrop” on the pheromonal communication signals of C. pomonella larvae that reliably indicate host presence.

  19. Pupal cocoons affect sanitary brood care and limit fungal infections in ant colonies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The brood of ants and other social insects is highly susceptible to pathogens, particularly those that penetrate the soft larval and pupal cuticle. We here test whether the presence of a pupal cocoon, which occurs in some ant species but not in others, affects the sanitary brood care and fungal infection patterns after exposure to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum. We use a) a comparative approach analysing four species with either naked or cocooned pupae and b) a within-species analysis of a single ant species, in which both pupal types co-exist in the same colony. Results We found that the presence of a cocoon did not compromise fungal pathogen detection by the ants and that species with cocooned pupae increased brood grooming after pathogen exposure. All tested ant species further removed brood from their nests, which was predominantly expressed towards larvae and naked pupae treated with the live fungal pathogen. In contrast, cocooned pupae exposed to live fungus were not removed at higher rates than cocooned pupae exposed to dead fungus or a sham control. Consistent with this, exposure to the live fungus caused high numbers of infections and fungal outgrowth in larvae and naked pupae, but not in cocooned pupae. Moreover, the ants consistently removed the brood prior to fungal outgrowth, ensuring a clean brood chamber. Conclusion Our study suggests that the pupal cocoon has a protective effect against fungal infection, causing an adaptive change in sanitary behaviours by the ants. It further demonstrates that brood removal–originally described for honeybees as “hygienic behaviour”–is a widespread sanitary behaviour in ants, which likely has important implications on disease dynamics in social insect colonies. PMID:24125481

  20. An unusual case of cocoon abdomen in a patient on hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Jaryal, A.; Rathi, M.; Bal, A.; Goyal, A.; Ramachandran, R.; Kumar, V.; Kohli, H. S.; Gupta, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Cocoon abdomen” or sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction. It has been described in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. The exact etiology is unknown, but pathogenesis rests on chronic peritoneal inflammation. No case has been reported so far in patients on hemodialysis. We hereby report a case of cocoon abdomen presenting as refractory ascites with intestinal obstruction in a patient on maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:26937080

  1. The role of frass and cocoon volatiles in host location by Monodontomerus aeneus, a parasitoid of Megachilid solitary bees.

    PubMed

    Filella, Iolanda; Bosch, Jordi; Llusià, Joan; Seco, Roger; Peñuelas, Josep

    2011-02-01

    Monodontomerus aeneus (Fonscolombe) is a parasitic wasp that oviposits on the prepupae and pupae of Osmia cornuta (Latreille) and other solitary bee species. A two-armed olfactometer was used to test the olfactory attractiveness of O. cornuta prepupae, cocoon, and larval frass to female M. aeneus. Both cocoon and frass attracted the female parasitoids, but frass alone was more attractive than the cocoon and the cocoon with frass was more attractive than frass alone. Female parasitoids were not attracted by the host prepupa. M33 (methanol) was the organic volatile most emitted by cocoons and m61 (acetic acid) was the compound most emitted by frass. However, cocoons showed higher emission for almost all compounds, including m61 (acetic acid). Although acetic acid alone attracted M. aeneus, a complex volatile signal is probably involved in the attraction process because the ratio of acetic acid and acetaldehyde characteristic of the frass was more attractive than other ratios. PMID:22182621

  2. The potential of adjuvants to improve immune responses against TdaP vaccines: A preclinical evaluation of MF59 and monophosphoryl lipid A.

    PubMed

    Agnolon, Valentina; Bruno, Cristina; Leuzzi, Rosanna; Galletti, Bruno; D'Oro, Ugo; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Seubert, Anja; O'Hagan, Derek T; Baudner, Barbara C

    2015-08-15

    The successful approach of combining diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis antigens into a single vaccine has become a cornerstone of immunization programs. Yet, even if vaccination coverage is high, a resurgence of pertussis has been reported in many countries suggesting current vaccines may not provide adequate protection. To induce better tailored and more durable immune responses against pertussis vaccines different approaches have been proposed, including the use of novel adjuvants. Licensed aP vaccines contain aluminum salts, which mainly stimulate humoral immune responses and might not be ideal for protecting against Bordetella pertussis infection. Adjuvants inducing more balanced T-helper profiles or even Th1-prone responses might be more adequate. In this study, two adjuvants already approved for human use have been tested: MF59 emulsion and the combination of aluminum hydroxide with the Toll-Like Receptor 4 agonist MPLA. Adjuvanticity was evaluated in a mouse model using a TdaP vaccine containing three B. pertussis antigens: genetically detoxified pertussis toxin (PT-9K/129G), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (PRN) The physico-chemical compatibility of TdaP antigens with the proposed adjuvants, together with a quicker onset and changed quality of the antibody responses, fully supports the replacement of aluminum salts with a new adjuvant to enhance aP vaccines immunogenicity. PMID:26149936

  3. A Cocoon Found Inside the Black Widow's Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-02-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory image of the mysterious "Black Widow" pulsar reveals the first direct evidence of an elongated cocoon of high-energy particles. This discovery shows that this billion-year-old rejuvenated pulsar is an extremely efficient generator of a high-speed flow of matter and antimatter particles. Known officially as pulsar B1957+20, the Black Widow received its nickname because it is emitting intense high-energy radiation that is destroying its companion through evaporation. B1957+20, which completes one rotation every 1.6-thousandths of a second, belongs to a class of extremely rapidly rotating neutron stars called millisecond pulsars. The motion of B1957+20 through the galaxy -- at a high speed of almost a million kilometers per hour -- creates a bow shock wave visible to optical telescopes. The Chandra observation shows what cannot be seen in visible light: a second shock wave. This secondary shock wave is created from pressure that sweeps the wind back from the pulsar to form the cocoon of high-energy particles, visible for the first time in the Chandra data. "This is the first detection of a double-shock structure around a pulsar," said Benjamin Stappers, of the Dutch Organization for Research in Astronomy (ASTRON), lead author on a paper describing the research that will appear in the Feb. 28, 2003, issue of Science magazine. "It should enable astronomers to test theories of the dynamics of pulsar winds and their interaction with their environment." B1957+20 X-ray-only image of B1957+20 Scientists believe millisecond pulsars are very old neutron stars that have been spun up by accreting material from their companions. The steady push of the infalling matter on the neutron star spins it up in much the same way as pushing on a merry-go-round makes it rotate faster. The result is an object about 1.5 times as massive as the Sun and ten miles in diameter that rotates hundreds of times per second. The advanced age, very rapid rotation rate

  4. Comparing the properties of Bombyx mori silk cocoons against sericin-fibroin regummed biocomposite sheets.

    PubMed

    Morin, Alexander; Alam, Parvez

    2016-08-01

    This paper considers the utility of sericin, a degumming waste product, in the regumming of Bombyx mori silk fibroin fibres to form sericin-fibroin biocomposites. Regummed biocomposites have a chemical character that is somewhat closer to fibroin than sericin, though sericin presence is confirmed through FT-IR spectroscopy. Using direct measurements we further find the weight fractions of sericin in the regummed biocomposites and the native cocoons differ by only 5%. Mechanically, B. mori cocoons exhibit brittle stress-strain characteristics, failing at strengths of X̅= 16.6MPa and at strains of X̅= 13%. Contrarily, aligning fibroin fibres to a unidirectional axis in the regummed biocomposites causes them to exhibit characteristics of strain hardening, which is itself a typical characteristic of silk fibre pulled in tension. Though they are half as strong (X̅= 7.2MPa), regummed biocomposites are able to absorb five times more mechanical energy (X̅= 5.6MJm(-3)) than the B. mori cocoons (X̅= 1.1MJm(-3)) and are furthermore able to elongate to more than ten times (X̅= 180%) that of the native cocoons prior to failure. Our research shows that degummed B. mori cocoons can be regummed into sheets that have potential for use as load bearing engineering biocomposites. PMID:27157746

  5. Fluorescent silk cocoon creating fluorescent diatom using a “Water glass-fluorophore ferry”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusurkar, Tejas S.; Tandon, Ishita; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

    2013-11-01

    Fluorophores are ubiquitous in nature. Naturally occurring fluorophores are exceptionally stable and have high quantum yield. Several natural systems have acquired fluorescent signature due to the presence of these fluorophores. Systematic attempt to harvest these fluorophores from natural systems could reap rich commercial benefit to bio-imaging industry. Silk cocoon biomaterial is one such example of natural system, which has acquired a fluorescent signature. The objective of this study is to develop simple, rapid, commercially viable technique to isolate silk cocoon membrane fluorophores and exploring the possibility of using them as fluorescent dye in bio-imaging. Here, we report an innovative water glass (Na2SiO3) based strategy to isolate the silk cocoon fluorophores. Isolated fluorophore is majorly quercetin derivatives and exhibited remarkable photo- and heat stability. Fluorescence and mass spectrometric analysis confirmed presence of a quercetin derivative. We further used this fluorophore to successfully label the silicate shell of diatom species Nitzschia palea.

  6. Fluorescent silk cocoon creating fluorescent diatom using a “Water glass-fluorophore ferry”

    PubMed Central

    Kusurkar, Tejas S.; Tandon, Ishita; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

    2013-01-01

    Fluorophores are ubiquitous in nature. Naturally occurring fluorophores are exceptionally stable and have high quantum yield. Several natural systems have acquired fluorescent signature due to the presence of these fluorophores. Systematic attempt to harvest these fluorophores from natural systems could reap rich commercial benefit to bio-imaging industry. Silk cocoon biomaterial is one such example of natural system, which has acquired a fluorescent signature. The objective of this study is to develop simple, rapid, commercially viable technique to isolate silk cocoon membrane fluorophores and exploring the possibility of using them as fluorescent dye in bio-imaging. Here, we report an innovative water glass (Na2SiO3) based strategy to isolate the silk cocoon fluorophores. Isolated fluorophore is majorly quercetin derivatives and exhibited remarkable photo- and heat stability. Fluorescence and mass spectrometric analysis confirmed presence of a quercetin derivative. We further used this fluorophore to successfully label the silicate shell of diatom species Nitzschia palea. PMID:24256845

  7. Fossilized spermatozoa preserved in a 50-Myr-old annelid cocoon from Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Mörs, Thomas; Ferraguti, Marco; Reguero, Marcelo A.; McLoughlin, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The origin and evolution of clitellate annelids—earthworms, leeches and their relatives—is poorly understood, partly because body fossils of these delicate organisms are exceedingly rare. The distinctive egg cases (cocoons) of Clitellata, however, are relatively common in the fossil record, although their potential for phylogenetic studies has remained largely unexplored. Here, we report the remarkable discovery of fossilized spermatozoa preserved within the secreted wall layers of a 50-Myr-old clitellate cocoon from Antarctica, representing the oldest fossil animal sperm yet known. Sperm characters are highly informative for the classification of extant Annelida. The Antarctic fossil spermatozoa have several features that point to affinities with the peculiar, leech-like ‘crayfish worms' (Branchiobdellida). We anticipate that systematic surveys of cocoon fossils coupled with advances in non-destructive analytical methods may open a new window into the evolution of minute, soft-bodied life forms that are otherwise only rarely observed in the fossil record. PMID:26179804

  8. Unusual Occurrence of Cocoons in Population of Haplodiplosis marginata (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Censier, F.; Chavalle, S.; Knor, S.; De Proft, M.; Bodson, B.; Skuhravá, M.

    2014-01-01

    The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a phytophagous species that develops in saddle-shaped galls on stems of wheat Triticum vulgare, barley Hordeum sativum, rye Secale cereale, and some other species of Poaceae. Only one generation develops per year. Full-grown larvae leave galls and drop onto the soil where they remain up to the springtime of the following year. Larvae do not usually spin cocoons. However, formation of cocoons by larvae was observed in populations developing in western Europe: in England in 1954, in the Netherlands in the 1960s, and in Belgium in 2011. On the basis of our analysis, a part of the larval population forms cocoons as protection against unfavorable weather conditions, especially drought. PMID:25525104

  9. CPR - infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... CPR is best done by someone trained in an accredited CPR course. The newest techniques emphasize compression ...

  10. Neonatal obstructed Treitz’s hernia with abdominal cocoon simulating volvulus neonatorum

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ramnik V; Lawther, Suzanne; Starzyk, Bozena; de la Hunt, Michael N

    2013-01-01

    A case of congenital obstructed Treitz's hernia presenting with bilious vomiting in a newborn baby girl has been presented. Internal herniation of contents within a peritoneal sac of the right paramesocolic hernia formed abdominal cocoon which simulated volvulus neonatorum. Plain radiographs and contrast studies were helpful in defining the nature and extent of the lesion. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy, reduction of small bowel contents from the hernial sac forming an abdominal cocoon, Ladd's procedure to correct associated midgut malrotation with incidental appendicectomy uneventfully and recovered well. PMID:23832996

  11. Infant Mortality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Mortality Infant Mortality: What is CDC Doing? Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Teen Pregnancy Contraception CDC Contraceptive Guidance for ... and low birth weight Maternal complications of pregnancy Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Injuries (e.g., suffocation). The top ...

  12. Potential mode of protection of silkworm pupae from environmental stress by harboring the bacterial biofilm on the surfaces of silk cocoons.

    PubMed

    Halder, Pranab K; Naskar, Deboki; Kumar, Akash; Yao, Juming; Kundu, Subhas C; Ghosh, Anindya S

    2015-02-01

    The silkworm forms cocoon to protect its pupa that survives for months inside the cocoon without being affected by various environmental stresses. To understand the possible mode of pupal survival within the cocoon encasement, we investigate the cause that protects the cocoon. During the end of the spinning process, we have isolated different bacterial species from the cocoon surface. These are identified using molecular techniques and checked for their abilities to form biofilm in vitro. The bacteria are able to form biofilm either individually or in consortia. Of which, Bacillus and Erwinia species are prominent biofilm formers. Interestingly, these bacteria have the ability to form biofilm on the cocoon mimetic surface of the silk protein Sericin Hope that contains only sericin. The origin and the behavior of the bacteria lead us to hypothesize the possible role of biofilm layer on the cocoon surface, which provides protection from adverse environmental conditions. PMID:25292249

  13. Premature infant

    MedlinePlus

    Preterm infant; Preemie; Premie ... The infant may have trouble breathing and keeping a constant body temperature. ... A premature infant may have signs of the following problems: Anemia Bleeding into the brain or damage to the brain's white ...

  14. Forecasting outbreaks of the douglas-fir tussock moth from lower crown cocoon samples. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.R.; Scott, D.W.; Paul, H.G.

    1993-03-01

    A predictive technique using a simple linear regression was developed to forecast the midcrown density of small tussock moth larvae from estimates of cocoon density in the previous generation. The regression estimator was derived from field samples of cocoons and larvae taken from a wide range of nonoutbreak tussock moth populations. The accuracy of the predictions was demonstrated on an operational basis in an independent tussock moth outbreak.

  15. Predicting future trends in the burden of pertussis in the 21st century: implications for infant pertussis and the success of maternal immunization.

    PubMed

    van den Biggelaar, Anita H J; Poolman, Jan T

    2016-01-01

    Support is growing for maternal immunization using acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines to prevent severe pertussis disease and deaths among very young, unvaccinated infants. Vaccine effectiveness of maternal immunization is 91% in preventing laboratory-confirmed pertussis in infants aged <3 months. To date, most mothers were primed in childhood with whole-cell pertussis vaccines. Soon, the generation of aP-primed individuals will become the new mothers-to-be. The shorter duration of protection afforded by aP vaccines, which is more pronounced with repeated aP boosters, may lead to increased pertussis circulation among aP-primed parents. Maternal Tdap immunization in aP-primed mothers-to-be may become less effective. Additional measures to protect young infants may eventually be needed, along with new vaccines that induce higher quality and more durable responses. PMID:26559122

  16. Multiple Abdominal Cocoons: An Unusual Presentation of Intestinal Obstruction and a Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Sohail, Mohammad Zain; Dala-Ali, Benan; Ali, Shahanoor; Hashmi, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) or abdominal cocoon is a rare acquired condition with an unknown aetiology. It is characterized by encapsulation of the small bowel by a fibrous membrane and can lead to intestinal obstruction. We present the case of a 42-year-old gentleman with a history of hepatitis C, tuberculosis, and previous abdominal surgery, who presented with subacute intestinal obstruction. Surgical exploration of the abdomen revealed that the entire contents were enclosed into three distinct sacs by a dense fibrous membrane. Excision of the sacs was performed followed by adhesiolysis. This is believed to be the first reported case of multiple cocoons within the abdominal cavity. The case is discussed with reference to the literature. PMID:25893128

  17. Sample selection, preparation methods, and the apparent tensile properties of silkworm (B. mori) cocoon silk.

    PubMed

    Reed, Emily J; Bianchini, Lindsay L; Viney, Christopher

    2012-06-01

    Reported literature values of the tensile properties of natural silk cover a wide range. While much of this inconsistency is the result of variability that is intrinsic to silk, some is also a consequence of differences in the way that silk is prepared for tensile tests. Here we explore how measured mechanical properties of Bombyx mori cocoon silk are affected by two intrinsic factors (the location from which the silk is collected within the cocoon, and the color of the silk), and two extrinsic factors (the storage conditions prior to testing, and different styles of reeling the fiber). We find that extrinsic and therefore controllable factors can affect the properties more than the intrinsic ones studied. Our results suggest that enhanced inter-laboratory collaborations, that lead to standardized sample collection, handling, and storage protocols prior to mechanical testing, would help to decrease unnecessary (and complicating) variation in reported tensile properties. PMID:22057343

  18. Water balance and arginine vasotocin in the cocooning frog Cyclorana platycephala (hylidae).

    PubMed

    Cartledge, Victoria A; Withers, Philip C; Bradshaw, S Don

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that forming a cocoon, for frog species capable of doing so, markedly reduces evaporative water loss; however, the capacity of cocooned frogs to maintain hydration during extended estivation is not well understood. The combined effects of long-term estivation and water loss were examined in the cocoon-forming species Cyclorana platycephala by assessing the hydration state of the frogs throughout a 15-mo estivation period. Frogs lost mass throughout the 15-mo period to a maximum of 36%+/-6.5% of their initial standard mass. Plasma osmolality reached maximal levels by the ninth month of estivation at 487 mOsm kg(-1) and then remained stable to the fifteenth month of estivation. Urine osmolality continued to increase to the fifteenth month of estivation, at which point plasma and urine concentrations were isosmotic. The use of bladder water to counter losses from circulation was indicated by the relatively slow rate of increase in plasma osmolality with mass loss and the progressive increase in urine osmolality. For estivating frogs, evidence was found for a possible threshold relationship between plasma osmolality and plasma arginine vasotocin (AVT) concentration. After estivation, plasma AVT concentrations decreased markedly after 15-mo estivators were placed in water for 2 h, suggesting that high levels of AVT may not be integral to rapid rehydration in this species. PMID:18040971

  19. Developing a Web 2.0 telemedical education system: the AJAX-Cocoon portal.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, S; Orabi, A; Fiaidhi, J; Orabi, M

    2008-01-01

    Web 2.0 technologies such as wikis, podcasts/vodcasting, blogs and semantic portals could be quite effective tools in e-learning for health professionals. If effectively deployed, such tools can offer a way to enhance students', clinicians' and patients' learning experiences, and deepens levels of learners' engagement and collaboration within medical learning environments. However, Web 2.0 requires simplicity of use as well as integration with modern web technologies. This article presents a Web 2.0 telemedical portal, which provides a social community-learning paradigm from the desk of the physician, the student, the hospital administrator, or the insurer. The presented portal utilises RESTful web services and techniques like content syndication, mushups and Asynchronous JavaScript API and XML (AJAX). The designed portal is based on the Apache Cocoon RESTful framework for sharing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) medical case studies. Central to this article is the integration between Cocoon and AJAX. The proposed AJAX-Cocoon portal utilises a JSP portlet architecture, which manages the interaction dynamics and overcomes the shortcomings of the JSR 168 and WSRP 1.0 standards. PMID:18583294

  20. Changes in body fluids of the cocooning fossorial frog Cyclorana australis in a seasonally dry environment.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Stephen J; Christian, Keith A; Tracy, Christopher R; Hutley, Lindsay B

    2011-11-01

    We investigated changes in the lymph (equivalent to plasma) and urine of the cocooning frog Cyclorana australis during the dry season in monsoonal northern Australia. Frogs in moist soil for two days were fully hydrated (lymph 220 mOsm kg(-1), urine 49 mOsm kg(-1)). From five weeks onwards the soil was dry (matric potential <-8000 kPa). Aestivating frogs at three and five months formed cocoons in shallow (<20 cm) burrows and retained bladder fluid (25-80% of standard mass). After three months, urine but not lymph osmolality was elevated. After five months, lymph (314 mOsm kg(-1)) and urine (294 mOsm kg(-1)) osmolality and urea concentrations were elevated. Urea was a major contributing osmolyte in urine and accumulated in lymph after five months. Lymph sodium concentration did not change with time, whereas potassium increased in urine after five months. Active animals had moderate lymph osmolality (252 mOsm kg(-1)), but urea concentrations remained low. Urine was highly variable in active frogs, suggesting that they tolerate variation in hydration state. Despite prolonged periods in dry soil, osmolality increase in C. australis was not severe. Aestivation in a cocoon facilitates survival in shallow burrows, but such a strategy may only be effective in environments with seasonally reliable rainfall. PMID:21777688

  1. The Cocoon nebula and its ionizing star: do stellar and nebular abundances agree?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Rojas, J.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Esteban, C.

    2014-11-01

    Context. Main-sequence massive stars embedded in an H ii region should have the same chemical abundances as the surrounding nebular gas+dust. The Cocoon nebula (IC 5146), a close-by Galactic H ii region ionized by a narrow line B0.5 V single star (BD+46 3474), is an ideal target to compare nebular and stellar abundances in detail in the same Galactic region. Aims: We investigate the chemical content of oxygen and other elements in the Cocoon nebula from two different points of view: an empirical analysis of the nebular spectrum, and a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the associated early B-type star using state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere modeling. By comparing the stellar and nebular abundances, we aim to indirectly address the long-standing problem of the discrepancy found between abundances obtained from collisionally excited lines and optical recombination lines in photoionized nebulae. Methods: We collected long-slit spatially resolved spectroscopy of the Cocoon nebula and a high-resolution optical spectrum of the ionizing star. Standard nebular techniques along with updated atomic data were used to compute the physical conditions and gaseous abundances of O, N, and S in eight apertures extracted across a semidiameter of the nebula. We performed a self-consistent spectroscopic abundance analysis of BD+46 3474 based on the atmosphere code FASTWIND to determine the stellar parameters and Si, O, and N abundances. Results: The Cocoon nebula and its ionizing star, located at a distance of 800±80 pc, have a chemical composition very similar to the Orion nebula and other B-type stars in the solar vicinity. This result agrees with the high degree of homogeneity of the present-day composition of the solar neighborhood (up to 1.5 Kpc from the Sun) as derived from the study of the local cold-gas interstellar medium. The comparison of stellar and nebular collisionally excited line abundances in the Cocoon nebula indicates that O and N gas+dust nebular values agree

  2. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    MedlinePlus

    IV fluids - infants; TPN - infants; Intravenous fluids - infants; Hyperalimentation - infants ... vitamins, minerals, and often lipids (fats) into an infant's vein. TPN can be lifesaving for very small ...

  3. Infant botulism.

    PubMed

    Fenicia, Lucia; Anniballi, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Infant botulism is a rare disease that affects infant less than 12 months of age. The illness results from absorption of botulinum toxin produced in situ by neurotoxigenic clostridia that can temporarily colonize the intestinal tract of infants. To date, all inhabited continents except Africa have reported cases of infant botulism. Recognition of cases seem directly related to physician awareness and clinical suspicion. This review summarizes microbiological, clinical and epidemiological features of infant botulism. PMID:19636165

  4. Maternal Immunization Earlier in Pregnancy Maximizes Antibody Transfer and Expected Infant Seropositivity Against Pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Eberhardt, Christiane S.; Blanchard-Rohner, Geraldine; Lemaître, Barbara; Boukrid, Meriem; Combescure, Christophe; Othenin-Girard, Véronique; Chilin, Antonina; Petre, Jean; de Tejada, Begoña Martinez; Siegrist, Claire-Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background. Maternal immunization against pertussis is currently recommended after the 26th gestational week (GW). Data on the optimal timing of maternal immunization are inconsistent. Methods. We conducted a prospective observational noninferiority study comparing the influence of second-trimester (GW 13–25) vs third-trimester (≥GW 26) tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) immunization in pregnant women who delivered at term. Geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of cord blood antibodies to recombinant pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The primary endpoint were GMCs and expected infant seropositivity rates, defined by birth anti-PT >30 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units (EU)/mL to confer seropositivity until 3 months of age. Results. We included 335 women (mean age, 31.0 ± 5.1 years; mean gestational age, 39.3 ± 1.3 GW) previously immunized with Tdap in the second (n = 122) or third (n = 213) trimester. Anti-PT and anti-FHA GMCs were higher following second- vs third-trimester immunization (PT: 57.1 EU/mL [95% confidence interval {CI}, 47.8–68.2] vs 31.1 EU/mL [95% CI, 25.7–37.7], P < .001; FHA: 284.4 EU/mL [95% CI, 241.3–335.2] vs 140.2 EU/mL [95% CI, 115.3–170.3], P < .001). The adjusted GMC ratios after second- vs third-trimester immunization differed significantly (PT: 1.9 [95% CI, 1.4–2.5]; FHA: 2.2 [95% CI, 1.7–3.0], P < .001). Expected infant seropositivity rates reached 80% vs 55% following second- vs third-trimester immunization (adjusted odds ratio, 3.7 [95% CI, 2.1–6.5], P < .001). Conclusions. Early second-trimester maternal Tdap immunization significantly increased neonatal antibodies. Recommending immunization from the second trimester onward would widen the immunization opportunity window and could improve seroprotection. PMID:26797213

  5. Infant Colic.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Amy A

    2016-02-01

    This article reviews the evidence for an association between infant colic and migraine. Infant colic, or excessive crying in an otherwise healthy and well-fed infant, affects approximately 5%-19% of infants. Multiple case-control studies, a cross-sectional study, and a prospective cohort study have all found an association between infant colic and migraine. Although infant colic is often assumed to have a gastrointestinal cause, several treatment trials aimed at gastrointestinal etiologies have been negative. Teaching parents how to respond best to inconsolable crying may be helpful and important for preventing shaken baby syndrome. Given accumulating evidence for a connection between infant colic and pediatric migraine, future studies should examine migraine-oriented treatments for infant colic. Infant colic should be moved into the main body of International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III beta) as one of the "Episodic syndromes that may be associated with migraine." PMID:27017027

  6. Dynamics of conservative Bykov cycles: Tangencies, generalized Cocoon bifurcations and elliptic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessa, Mário; Rodrigues, Alexandre A. P.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a mechanism for the coexistence of hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic dynamics arising in a neighbourhood of a conservative Bykov cycle where trajectories turn in opposite directions near the two saddle-foci. We show that within the class of divergence-free vector fields that preserve the cycle, tangencies of the invariant manifolds of two hyperbolic saddle-foci densely occur. The global dynamics is persistently dominated by heteroclinic tangencies and by the existence of infinitely many elliptic points coexisting with non-uniformly hyperbolic suspended horseshoes. A generalized version of the Cocoon bifurcations for conservative systems is obtained.

  7. Infant botulism

    MedlinePlus

    ... certain foods (such as honey and some corn syrups). Infant botulism occurs mostly in young infants between ... Clostridium spores are found in honey and corn syrup. These foods should not should not be fed ...

  8. Premature infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... infant. Common signs of prematurity include: Abnormal breathing patterns (shallow, irregular pauses in breathing called apnea) Body hair (lanugo) Enlarged clitoris (in female infants) Less body fat Lower muscle tone and ...

  9. Proton spin-lattice relaxation in silkworm cocoons: physisorbed water and serine side-chain motions.

    PubMed

    Geppi, Marco; Mollica, Giulia; Borsacchi, Silvia; Cappellozza, Silvia

    2010-03-01

    The molecular dynamic behavior of silkworm cocoons produced by a single Bombyx mori strain was investigated by means of high- and low-resolution solid-state NMR experiments. Cocoons with different moisture content were prepared to study the effects of physisorbed water on their molecular dynamics in the MHz regime, which was probed through the measurement of (1)H T(1) relaxation times at 25 MHz in the 25-95 degrees C temperature range. The water content of the different samples was determined from the analysis of (1)H free-induction decays. In addition to the rotation of methyl groups, mostly from alanine, and to the reorientation of physisorbed water molecules, already identified in previous works as relaxation sinks, the reorientation of serine side-chains was here found to contribute to (1)H T(1) above room temperature. The analysis of the trends of (1)H T(1) versus temperature was carried out in terms of semiempirical models describing the three main motional processes, and indicated that methyl rotation, water reorientation and serine side-chain motions are the most efficient relaxation mechanisms below 0 degrees C, between 0 and 60 degrees C, and above 60 degrees C, respectively. The activation energies were found to decrease passing from serine to water to methyl motions. PMID:20136080

  10. Large-scale production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor in transgenic silkworm cocoons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Riyuan; Wang, Yuancheng; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    With an increasing clinical demand for functional therapeutic proteins every year, there is an increasing requirement for the massive production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (r-haFGF). In this present study, we delicately explore a strategy for the mass production of r-haFGF protein with biological activity in the transgenic silkworm cocoons. The sequence-optimized haFGF was inserted into an enhanced sericin-1 expression system to generate the original transgenic silkworm strain, which was then further crossed with a PIG jumpstarter strain to achieve the remobilization of the expression cassette to a "safe harbor" locus in the genome for the efficient expression of r-haFGF. In consequence, the expression of r-haFGF protein in the mutant line achieved a 5.6-fold increase compared to the original strain. The high content of r-haFGF facilitated its purification and large-scald yields. Furthermore, the r-haFGF protein bioactively promoted the growth, proliferation and migration of NIH/3T3 cells, suggesting the r-haFGF protein possessed native mitogenic activity and the potential for wound healing. These results show that the silk gland of silkworm could be an efficient bioreactor strategy for recombinant production of bioactive haFGF in silkworm cocoons. PMID:26567460

  11. Combined effects of copper, desiccation, and frost on the viability of earthworm cocoons

    SciTech Connect

    Holmstrup, M.; Petersen, B.F. |; Larsen, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of heavy metal pollution on earthworms have been extensively studied, but no studies have examined how earthworms react if they are simultaneously exposed to metal pollution and climatic stress. This question has been addressed in a laboratory study where cocoons of Aporrectodea caliginosa and Dendrobaena octaedra were initially exposed to copper in aqueous solutions of copper chloride and thereafter exposed to realistic degrees of either desiccation or frost. Earthworm embryos absorbed copper in amounts comparable to concentrations found in various tissues of earthworms from metal-polluted soils. Desiccation and copper exposure in combination had synergistic effects on survival rates for both species. For example, at full saturation, the NOEC (the highest tested concentration with no statistically significant effect) for copper of A. caliginosa was 12 mg/L, whereas at 97% relative humidity it was only 6 mg/L. Frost and copper exposure in combination also showed synergistic effects in some experiments. No cocoons of A. caliginosa exposed to 20 mg copper/L were viable after exposure to {minus}3 C but at 0 C viability was as high as 95%. The same tendency was seen in D. octaedra but not as clearly as in A/. caliginosa. A change of the environmental conditions (moisture, temperature) to increasing severity caused a shift in the statistically derived NOEC toward lower critical values of copper. The involvement of combination effects in ecotoxicological tests could therefore improve risk assessment of soil-polluting compounds.

  12. Large-scale production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor in transgenic silkworm cocoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Riyuan; Wang, Yuancheng; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-11-01

    With an increasing clinical demand for functional therapeutic proteins every year, there is an increasing requirement for the massive production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (r-haFGF). In this present study, we delicately explore a strategy for the mass production of r-haFGF protein with biological activity in the transgenic silkworm cocoons. The sequence-optimized haFGF was inserted into an enhanced sericin-1 expression system to generate the original transgenic silkworm strain, which was then further crossed with a PIG jumpstarter strain to achieve the remobilization of the expression cassette to a “safe harbor” locus in the genome for the efficient expression of r-haFGF. In consequence, the expression of r-haFGF protein in the mutant line achieved a 5.6-fold increase compared to the original strain. The high content of r-haFGF facilitated its purification and large-scald yields. Furthermore, the r-haFGF protein bioactively promoted the growth, proliferation and migration of NIH/3T3 cells, suggesting the r-haFGF protein possessed native mitogenic activity and the potential for wound healing. These results show that the silk gland of silkworm could be an efficient bioreactor strategy for recombinant production of bioactive haFGF in silkworm cocoons.

  13. Large-scale production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor in transgenic silkworm cocoons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Riyuan; Wang, Yuancheng; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    With an increasing clinical demand for functional therapeutic proteins every year, there is an increasing requirement for the massive production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (r-haFGF). In this present study, we delicately explore a strategy for the mass production of r-haFGF protein with biological activity in the transgenic silkworm cocoons. The sequence-optimized haFGF was inserted into an enhanced sericin-1 expression system to generate the original transgenic silkworm strain, which was then further crossed with a PIG jumpstarter strain to achieve the remobilization of the expression cassette to a “safe harbor” locus in the genome for the efficient expression of r-haFGF. In consequence, the expression of r-haFGF protein in the mutant line achieved a 5.6-fold increase compared to the original strain. The high content of r-haFGF facilitated its purification and large-scald yields. Furthermore, the r-haFGF protein bioactively promoted the growth, proliferation and migration of NIH/3T3 cells, suggesting the r-haFGF protein possessed native mitogenic activity and the potential for wound healing. These results show that the silk gland of silkworm could be an efficient bioreactor strategy for recombinant production of bioactive haFGF in silkworm cocoons. PMID:26567460

  14. A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by Fermi in the Cygnus superbubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Isabelle A.; Tibaldo, Luigi; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2013-02-01

    Conspicuous stellar clusters, with high densities of massive stars, powerful stellar winds, and intense UV flux, have formed over the past few million years in the large molecular clouds of the Cygnus X region, 1.4 kpc away from the Sun. By capturing the gamma-ray signal of young cosmic rays spreading in the interstellar medium surrounding the clusters, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has confirmed the long-standing hypothesis that massive-star forming regions host cosmic-ray factories. The 50-pc wide cocoon of energetic particles appears to fill the interstellar cavities carved by the stellar activity. The cocoon provides a first test case to study the impact of wind-powered turbulence on the early phases of cosmic-ray diffusion (between the sources and the Galaxy at large) and to study the acceleration potential of this type of superbubble environment for in-situ cosmic-ray production or to energize Galactic cosmic rays passing by.

  15. 78 FR 61383 - Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components... United States after importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant... certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers, and components thereof...

  16. Solvothermal synthesis and photoluminescence properties of BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons and nanorods with different phases

    SciTech Connect

    Xue Fei; Li Haibo; Zhu Yongchun; Xiong Shenglin; Zhang Xianwen; Wang Tingting; Liang Xin; Qian Yitai

    2009-06-15

    Hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons and monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} nanorods have been synthesized in the mixed solvents of glycerol and distilled water with the volume ratio of 2:1 at 200 deg. C. The solvothermal evolution process from hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons to monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} nanorods was observed by varying the reaction time from 1 to 3 h. In the hydrothermal condition at 160 deg. C, the similar phase transformation from hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} to monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} was also observed, accompanying with a morphology transformation from nanorods to octahedron-like microcrystals. It was found that the volume ratio of glycerol to water in the solvothermal condition had a great impact on the shapes of products, while it had no influence on the formation of different phases. The fluorescence spectra of hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons and monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} nanorods were also studied. - Graphical abstract: Hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons were fabricated by solvothermal method at 200 deg. C for 1 h. When the reaction time was increased to 3 h, monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} nanorods were formed.

  17. Host manipulation by an ichneumonid spider ectoparasitoid that takes advantage of preprogrammed web-building behaviour for its cocoon protection.

    PubMed

    Takasuka, Keizo; Yasui, Tomoki; Ishigami, Toru; Nakata, Kensuke; Matsumoto, Rikio; Ikeda, Kenichi; Maeto, Kaoru

    2015-08-01

    Host manipulation by parasites and parasitoids is a fascinating phenomenon within evolutionary ecology, representing an example of extended phenotypes. To elucidate the mechanism of host manipulation, revealing the origin and function of the invoked actions is essential. Our study focused on the ichneumonid spider ectoparasitoid Reclinervellus nielseni, which turns its host spider (Cyclosa argenteoalba) into a drugged navvy, to modify the web structure into a more persistent cocoon web so that the wasp can pupate safely on this web after the spider's death. We focused on whether the cocoon web originated from the resting web that an unparasitized spider builds before moulting, by comparing web structures, building behaviour and silk spectral/tensile properties. We found that both resting and cocoon webs have reduced numbers of radii decorated by numerous fibrous threads and specific decorating behaviour was identical, suggesting that the cocoon web in this system has roots in the innate resting web and ecdysteroid-related components may be responsible for the manipulation. We also show that these decorations reflect UV light, possibly to prevent damage by flying web-destroyers such as birds or large insects. Furthermore, the tensile test revealed that the spider is induced to repeat certain behavioural steps in addition to resting web construction so that many more threads are laid down for web reinforcement. PMID:26246608

  18. Recent progress in molecular genetic studies on the carotenoid transport system using cocoon-color mutants of the silkworm.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Kozo; Sakudoh, Takashi

    2015-04-15

    The existence of tissue-specific delivery for certain carotenoids is supported by genetic evidence from the silkworm Bombyx mori and the identification of cocoon color mutant genes, such as Yellow blood (Y), Yellow cocoon (C), and Flesh cocoon (F). Mutants with white cocoons are defective in one of the steps involved in transporting carotenoids from the midgut lumen to the middle silk gland via the hemolymph lipoprotein, lipophorin, and the different colored cocoons are caused by the accumulation of specific carotenoids into the middle silk gland. The Y gene encodes carotenoid-binding protein (CBP), which is expected to function as the cytosolic transporter of carotenoids across the enterocyte and epithelium of the middle silk gland. The C and F genes encode the C locus-associated membrane protein, which is homologous to a mammalian high-density lipoprotein receptor-2 (Cameo2) and scavenger receptor class B member 15 (SCRB15), respectively; these membrane proteins are expected to function as non-internalizing lipophorin receptors in the middle silk gland. Cameo2 and SCRB15 belong to the cluster determinant 36 (CD36) family, with Cameo2 exhibiting specificity not only for lutein, but also for zeaxanthin and astaxanthin, while SCRB15 seems to have specificity toward carotene substrates such as α-carotene and β-carotene. These findings suggest that Cameo2 and SCRB15 can discriminate the chemical structure of lutein and β-carotene from circulating lipophorin during uptake. These data provide the first evidence that CD36 family proteins can discriminate individual carotenoid molecules in lipophorin. PMID:25579881

  19. Hierarchical, multilayered cell walls reinforced by recycled silk cocoons enhance the structural integrity of honeybee combs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Duan, Huiling; Karihaloo, Bhushan L.; Wang, Jianxiang

    2010-01-01

    We reveal the sophisticated and hierarchical structure of honeybee combs and measure the elastic properties of fresh and old natural honeycombs at different scales by optical microscope, environmental scanning electron microscope, nano/microindentation, and by tension and shear tests. We demonstrate that the comb walls are continuously strengthened and stiffened without becoming fragile by the addition of thin wax layers reinforced by recycled silk cocoons reminiscent of modern fiber-reinforced composite laminates. This is done to increase its margin of safety against collapse due to a temperature increase. Artificial engineering honeycombs mimic only the macroscopic geometry of natural honeycombs, but have yet to achieve the microstructural sophistication of their natural counterparts. The natural honeycombs serve as a prototype of truly biomimetic cellular materials with hitherto unattainable improvement in stiffness, strength, toughness, and thermal stability. PMID:20439765

  20. A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by Fermi in the Cygnus superbubble.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Belfiore, A; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bottacini, E; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; do Couto E Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dumora, D; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hayashi, K; Hays, E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lee, S-H; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Martin, P; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Naumann-Godo, M; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pesce-Rollins, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Pohl, M; Prokhorov, D; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Parkinson, P M Saz; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, P D; Spinelli, P; Strong, A W; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S; Bontemps, S

    2011-11-25

    The origin of Galactic cosmic rays is a century-long puzzle. Indirect evidence points to their acceleration by supernova shockwaves, but we know little of their escape from the shock and their evolution through the turbulent medium surrounding massive stars. Gamma rays can probe their spreading through the ambient gas and radiation fields. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed the star-forming region of Cygnus X. The 1- to 100-gigaelectronvolt images reveal a 50-parsec-wide cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays that flood the cavities carved by the stellar winds and ionization fronts from young stellar clusters. It provides an example to study the youth of cosmic rays in a superbubble environment before they merge into the older Galactic population. PMID:22116880

  1. The libidinal cocoon: a nurturing retreat for the families of plane crash victims.

    PubMed

    Black, J W

    1987-12-01

    In 1985 the families of 137 passengers killed when a Delta Airlines jet crashed at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport stayed in a secluded hotel while waiting for the victims' bodies to be retrieved and identified. In this protected environment, which the author calls the "libidinal cocoon," the families received intensive nurturing from the author, a Dallas psychiatrist; a team of Red Cross nurses; hotel staff; airline representatives; clergy; and each other. The supportive environment allowed the families to regress safely and to satisfy the basic yearning, intensified in times of personal loss, for an idealized caretaker who will meet all one's needs. The author believes this kind of intervention may be useful in future disasters with massive casualties. PMID:3692459

  2. Infant Care and Infant Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meetings, Conferences & Events Partnering & Donating to the NICHD Staff ... Overview Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Since the NICHD's founding in 1962, infant death ...

  3. Infant Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on infant stimulation. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, educators and primary care personnel, academics and professionals, and for health administrators and family-planning organizations. The contents cover infant needs; infant…

  4. Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Adacel® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Boostrix® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine)

  5. Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... which can cause difficulty breathing, vomiting and disturbed sleep. It can also lead to weight loss, incontinence, and rib fractures. Up to 2 in 100 adolescents and 5 in 100 adults with pertussis are ...

  6. Identification and analysis of the pigment composition and sources in the colored cocoon of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, by HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    This study used the larval tissues and colored cocoons of silkworms, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), that were fed leaves of cultivated mulberry, Husang 32, as experimental material. The pigment composition and content in colored cocoons and tissues of the 5th instar larvae and the mulberry leaves were rapidly detected using organic solvent extraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. It was found that the mulberry leaf mainly contained four types of pigment: lutein (30.86%), β-carotene (26.3%), chlorophyll a (24.62%), and chlorophyll b (18.21%). The silk glands, blood, and cocoon shells of six yellow-red cocoons were used as the experimental materials. The results showed that there were generally two kinds of carotenoids (lutein and β-carotene) in the silk gland and cocoon shell, a little violaxanthin was detected in silk gland, and the pigment found in the blood was mainly lutein in all varieties of silkworm tested. Chlorophyll a and b had not been digested and utilized in the yellow-red series of silkworm. The method used to detect visible pigments reported here could be used to breed new colors of cocoons and to develop and utilize the pigments found in mulberry. PMID:25373178

  7. Identification and Analysis of the Pigment Composition and Sources in the Colored Cocoon of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, by HPLC-DAD

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    This study used the larval tissues and colored cocoons of silkworms, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), that were fed leaves of cultivated mulberry, Husang 32, as experimental material. The pigment composition and content in colored cocoons and tissues of the 5th instar larvae and the mulberry leaves were rapidly detected using organic solvent extraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. It was found that the mulberry leaf mainly contained four types of pigment: lutein (30.86%), β-carotene (26.3%), chlorophyll a (24.62%), and chlorophyll b (18.21%). The silk glands, blood, and cocoon shells of six yellow-red cocoons were used as the experimental materials. The results showed that there were generally two kinds of carotenoids (lutein and β-carotene) in the silk gland and cocoon shell, a little violaxanthin was detected in silk gland, and the pigment found in the blood was mainly lutein in all varieties of silkworm tested. Chlorophyll a and b had not been digested and utilized in the yellow-red series of silkworm. The method used to detect visible pigments reported here could be used to breed new colors of cocoons and to develop and utilize the pigments found in mulberry. PMID:25373178

  8. Neutropenia - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007230.htm Neutropenia - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neutropenia is an abnormally low number of white blood ...

  9. CPR - infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... small or loose parts, sharp edges, points, loose batteries, and other hazards. Create a safe environment. Watch ... infants and small children cannot reach buttons, watch batteries, popcorn, coins, grapes, or nuts. Sit with an ...

  10. Infant reflexes

    MedlinePlus

    ... or her hips toward the touch in a dancing movement. Grasp reflex . This reflex occurs if you ... reflex occurs in slightly older infants when the child is held upright and the baby’s body is ...

  11. Infant reflexes

    MedlinePlus

    ... neck reflex; Galant reflex; Truncal incurvation; Rooting reflex; Parachute reflex; Grasp reflex ... was stroked and begin to make sucking motions. PARACHUTE REFLEX This reflex occurs in slightly older infants ...

  12. Identification of the TeV gamma-ray source ARGO J2031+4157 with the Cygnus Cocoon

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Bernardini, P.; D'Amone, A.; De Mitri, I.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Di Sciascio, G.; Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2014-08-01

    The extended TeV gamma-ray source ARGO J2031+4157 (or MGRO J2031+41) is positionally consistent with the Cygnus Cocoon discovered by Fermi-LAT at GeV energies in the Cygnus superbubble. Reanalyzing the ARGO-YBJ data collected from 2007 November to 2013 January, the angular extension and energy spectrum of ARGO J2031+4157 are evaluated. After subtracting the contribution of the overlapping TeV sources, the ARGO-YBJ excess map is fitted with a two-dimensional Gaussian function in a square region of 10° × 10°, finding a source extension σ{sub ext}= 1.°8 ± 0.°5. The observed differential energy spectrum is dN/dE = (2.5 ± 0.4) × 10{sup –11}(E/1 TeV){sup –2.6±0.3} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} TeV{sup –1}, in the energy range 0.2-10 TeV. The angular extension is consistent with that of the Cygnus Cocoon as measured by Fermi-LAT and the spectrum also shows a good connection with the one measured in the 1-100 GeV energy range. These features suggest to identify ARGO J2031+4157 as the counterpart of the Cygnus Cocoon at TeV energies. The Cygnus Cocoon, located in the star-forming region of Cygnus X, is interpreted as a cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays related to the Cygnus superbubble. The spectral similarity with supernova remnants (SNRs) indicates that the particle acceleration inside a superbubble is similar to that in an SNR. The spectral measurements from 1 GeV to 10 TeV allows for the first time to determine the possible spectrum slope of the underlying particle distribution. A hadronic model is adopted to explain the spectral energy distribution.

  13. 78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components Thereof, DN 2976; the Commission is soliciting...

  14. CPR: Infant

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  15. Antibothrus morimotoi Sasaji, an Old World cocoon-forming beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinelloidea: Bothrideridae) newly established in North America.

    PubMed

    Mcelrath, Thomas C; Androw, Robert A; Mchugh, Joseph V

    2016-01-01

    Antibothrus morimotoi Sasaji, a cocoon-forming beetle (Coccinelloidea: Bothrideridae) native to the Palearctic region, is newly reported from North America. In 2013 and 2015, several series of specimens were collected during an ongoing USDA/APHIS/PPQ exotic bark beetle survey in Franklin County, Ohio, U.S.A. This is the first confirmed record of the species and genus in the New World. The capture of these specimens suggests that the beetle is established in the greater Columbus, Ohio, metropolitan  area. PMID:27615843

  16. The role of photo-electric properties of silk cocoon membrane in pupal metamorphosis: A natural solar cell

    PubMed Central

    Tulachan, Brindan; Srivastava, Shivansh; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Philip, Deepu; Bajpai, Alok; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Silkworm metamorphosis is governed by the intrinsic and extrinsic factors. One key intrinsic factor is the temporal electrical firing of the neuro-secretory cells of the dormant pupae residing inside the silk cocoon membrane (SCM). Extrinsic factors are environmental like temperature, humidity and light. The firing pattern of the cells is a function of the environmental factors that eventually controls the pupal development. How does the nervous organization of the dormant pupae sense the environment even while enclosed inside the cocoon shell? We propose that the SCM does this by capturing the incident light and converting it to electricity in addition to translating the variation in temperature and humidity as an electrical signal. The light to electricity conversion is more pronounced with ultraviolet (UV) frequency. We discovered that a UV sensitive fluorescent quercetin derivative that is present on the SCM and pupal body surface is responsible for generating the observed photo current. Based on these results, we propose an equivalent circuit model of the SCM where an overall electrical output transfers the weather information to pupae, directing its growth. We further discuss the implication of this electrical energy conversion and its utility for consumable electricity. PMID:26907586

  17. Concentrations of heavy metals in the food, faeces, adults, and empty cocoons of Neodiprion sertifer (Hymenoptera, diprionidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Helioevaara, K.; Vaeisaenen, R. Water and Environment Research Institute, Helsinki )

    1990-07-01

    Heavy metals have an adverse effect in polluted forest ecosystems situated in the vicinity of industrial plants and smelters, but little is known about their accumulation along food chains. In some studies, distinct accumulation has been observed from one trophic level to another, while in others no accumulation has been recorded. Insects can excrete heavy metals directly in the faeces, or avoid food containing high concentrations. They may also excrete these elements during metamorphosis in the larval skins including the gut epithelium, pupal remnants, cocoons, gall-walls, or in the droplet excreted by the imago just after hatching. Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy), the European pine sawfly, has mass-outbreaks at approximately ten-year intervals. It is a severe defoliator of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestries L.), usually exploiting only the previous years' needles. Eggs are laid in autumn, and the species overwinters at the egg stage in the needles. The aim of the present study was to analyze the proportion of copper, iron, nickel and cadmium in newly hatched adult insects, in their larval nutrition, faeces and empty cocoons. Larvae of N. sertifer were reared for this purpose on needles of varying heavy metal levels.

  18. Intrinsic tensile properties of cocoon silk fibres can be estimated by removing flaws through repeated tensile tests.

    PubMed

    Rajkhowa, Rangam; Kaur, Jasjeet; Wang, Xungai; Batchelor, Warren

    2015-06-01

    Silk fibres from silkworm cocoons have lower strength than spider silk and have received less attention as a source of high-performance fibres. In this work, we have used an innovative procedure to eliminate the flaws gradually of a single fibre specimen by retesting the unbroken portion of the fibre, after each fracture test. This was done multiple times so that the final test may provide the intrinsic fibre strength. During each retest, the fibre specimen began to yield once the failure load of the preceding test was exceeded. For each fibre specimen, a composite curve was constructed from multiple tests. The composite curves and analysis show that strengths of mass-produced Muga and Eri cocoon silk fibres increased from 446 to 618 MPa and from 337 to 452 MPa, respectively. Similarly, their toughness increased from 84 to 136 MJ m(-3) and from 61 to 104 MJ m(-3), respectively. Composite plots produced significantly less inter-specimen variations compared to values from single tests. The fibres with reduced flaws as a result of retests in the tested section have a tensile strength and toughness comparable to naturally spun dragline spider silk with a reported strength of 574 MPa and toughness of 91-158 MJ m(-3), which is used as a benchmark for developing high-performance fibres. This retesting approach is likely to provide useful insights into discrete flaw distributions and intrinsic mechanical properties of other fatigue-resistant materials. PMID:25948613

  19. The role of photo-electric properties of silk cocoon membrane in pupal metamorphosis: A natural solar cell.

    PubMed

    Tulachan, Brindan; Srivastava, Shivansh; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Philip, Deepu; Bajpai, Alok; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Silkworm metamorphosis is governed by the intrinsic and extrinsic factors. One key intrinsic factor is the temporal electrical firing of the neuro-secretory cells of the dormant pupae residing inside the silk cocoon membrane (SCM). Extrinsic factors are environmental like temperature, humidity and light. The firing pattern of the cells is a function of the environmental factors that eventually controls the pupal development. How does the nervous organization of the dormant pupae sense the environment even while enclosed inside the cocoon shell? We propose that the SCM does this by capturing the incident light and converting it to electricity in addition to translating the variation in temperature and humidity as an electrical signal. The light to electricity conversion is more pronounced with ultraviolet (UV) frequency. We discovered that a UV sensitive fluorescent quercetin derivative that is present on the SCM and pupal body surface is responsible for generating the observed photo current. Based on these results, we propose an equivalent circuit model of the SCM where an overall electrical output transfers the weather information to pupae, directing its growth. We further discuss the implication of this electrical energy conversion and its utility for consumable electricity. PMID:26907586

  20. Intrinsic tensile properties of cocoon silk fibres can be estimated by removing flaws through repeated tensile tests

    PubMed Central

    Rajkhowa, Rangam; Kaur, Jasjeet; Wang, Xungai; Batchelor, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Silk fibres from silkworm cocoons have lower strength than spider silk and have received less attention as a source of high-performance fibres. In this work, we have used an innovative procedure to eliminate the flaws gradually of a single fibre specimen by retesting the unbroken portion of the fibre, after each fracture test. This was done multiple times so that the final test may provide the intrinsic fibre strength. During each retest, the fibre specimen began to yield once the failure load of the preceding test was exceeded. For each fibre specimen, a composite curve was constructed from multiple tests. The composite curves and analysis show that strengths of mass-produced Muga and Eri cocoon silk fibres increased from 446 to 618 MPa and from 337 to 452 MPa, respectively. Similarly, their toughness increased from 84 to 136 MJ m−3 and from 61 to 104 MJ m−3, respectively. Composite plots produced significantly less inter-specimen variations compared to values from single tests. The fibres with reduced flaws as a result of retests in the tested section have a tensile strength and toughness comparable to naturally spun dragline spider silk with a reported strength of 574 MPa and toughness of 91–158 MJ m−3, which is used as a benchmark for developing high-performance fibres. This retesting approach is likely to provide useful insights into discrete flaw distributions and intrinsic mechanical properties of other fatigue-resistant materials. PMID:25948613

  1. The role of photo-electric properties of silk cocoon membrane in pupal metamorphosis: A natural solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulachan, Brindan; Srivastava, Shivansh; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Philip, Deepu; Bajpai, Alok; Das, Mainak

    2016-02-01

    Silkworm metamorphosis is governed by the intrinsic and extrinsic factors. One key intrinsic factor is the temporal electrical firing of the neuro-secretory cells of the dormant pupae residing inside the silk cocoon membrane (SCM). Extrinsic factors are environmental like temperature, humidity and light. The firing pattern of the cells is a function of the environmental factors that eventually controls the pupal development. How does the nervous organization of the dormant pupae sense the environment even while enclosed inside the cocoon shell? We propose that the SCM does this by capturing the incident light and converting it to electricity in addition to translating the variation in temperature and humidity as an electrical signal. The light to electricity conversion is more pronounced with ultraviolet (UV) frequency. We discovered that a UV sensitive fluorescent quercetin derivative that is present on the SCM and pupal body surface is responsible for generating the observed photo current. Based on these results, we propose an equivalent circuit model of the SCM where an overall electrical output transfers the weather information to pupae, directing its growth. We further discuss the implication of this electrical energy conversion and its utility for consumable electricity.

  2. Production of an active feline interferon in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms using the fibroin H-chain expression system

    SciTech Connect

    Kurihara, H. . E-mail: Hiroyuki_Kurihara@nts.toray.co.jp; Sezutsu, H.; Tamura, T.; Yamada, K.

    2007-04-20

    We constructed the fibroin H-chain expression system to produce recombinant proteins in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms. Feline interferon (FeIFN) was used for production and to assess the quality of the product. Two types of FeIFN fusion protein, each with N- and C-terminal sequences of the fibroin H-chain, were designed to be secreted into the lumen of the posterior silk glands. The expression of the FeIFN/H-chain fusion gene was regulated by the fibroin H-chain promoter domain. The transgenic silkworms introduced these constructs with the piggyBac transposon-derived vector, which produced the normal sized cocoons containing each FeIFN/H-chain fusion protein. Although the native-protein produced by transgenic silkworms have almost no antiviral activity, the proteins after the treatment with PreScission protease to eliminate fibroin H-chain derived N- and C-terminal sequences from the products, had very high antiviral activity. This H-chain expression system, using transgenic silkworms, could be an alternative method to produce an active recombinant protein and silk-based biomaterials.

  3. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (abdominal cocoon) associated with liver cirrhosis and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: autopsy case.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Sohsuke; Tanimoto, Akihide; Matsuki, Yasumasa; Hisada, Yuji; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki

    2009-09-01

    A case of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) associated with liver cirrhosis (LC) and complicated by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is reported herein. A 49-year-old Japanese man had undergone peritoneo-venous shunt against refractory ascites due to hepatitis C virus-positive uncompensated LC for 2 years. After he received a diagnosis of DLBCL of the left neck lymph node 3 months before his death, palliative care was given because of his poor general condition. He developed severe abdominal distention and pain over 1 week and was found to have marked ascites and whole bowel lumped together on abdominal CT. At autopsy, the peritoneum was covered with a thick white membrane and the bowel could not be distinguished, which was macroscopically characterized by a cocoon-like appearance. Histology indicated a proliferation of diffusely thickened or hyalinized fibrocollagenous tissue in the entire peritoneum with a slight chronic inflammatory infiltrate and without remarkable change of mucosa. A diagnosis of SEP, also known as abdominal cocoon, was established based on these features. Additionally, in the abdominal cavity, a large amount of serous ascites and multiple peritoneal nodules or masses involved by DLBCL were recognized. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case report of SEP associated with LC and complicated by the invasion of DLBCL in the abdominal cavity. PMID:19712139

  4. Osteopenia - premature infants

    MedlinePlus

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... baby. This helps the baby grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of calcium ...

  5. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant younger than one year old. Some people call ... boys, African Americans, and American Indian/Alaska Native infants have a higher risk of SIDS. Although health ...

  6. A new estimation of the total flavonoids in silkworm cocoon sericin layer through aglycone determination by hydrolysis-assisted extraction and HPLC-DAD analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jin-Ge; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background Silk sericin and a few non-protein components isolated from the cocoon layer including two silk proteins in silkworm Bombyx mori has many bioactivities. The dietary sericin possess antinatural oxidation, anticancer, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activities. The non-protein components surrounding the sericin layer involve in wax, pigments mainly meaning flavonoids, sugars, and other impurities. However, very few investigations have reported the estimation of the total flavonoids derived from the cocoon layer. The flavonoids are commonly present in their glycosylated forms and mostly exist as quercetin glycosides in the sericin layers of silkworm cocoons. Objective The aim of this study was to find a more accurate method to estimate the level of the total flavonoids in silkworm cocoons. Design An efficient procedure of hydrolysis-assisted extraction (HAE) was first established to estimate the level of the total flavonoids through the determination of their aglycones, quercetin, and kaempferol. Then, a comparison was made between traditional colorimetric method and our method. In addition, the antioxidant activities of hydrolysis-assisted extract sample were determined. Results The average contents of quercetin and kaempferol were 1.98 and 0.42 mg/g in Daizo cocoon. Their recoveries were 99.56 and 99.17%. The total sum of quercetin and kaempferol was detected to be 2.40±0.07 mg/g by HAE-HPLC, while the total flavonoids (2.59±0.48 mg/g) estimated by the traditional colorimetric method were only equivalent to 1.28±0.04 mg/g of quercetin. The HAE sample also exhibits that IC50 values of scavenging ability of diphenyl picryl hydrazinyl (DPPH) radical and hydroxyl radical (HO·) are 243.63 µg/mL and 4.89 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions These results show that the HAE-HPLC method is specificity of cocoon and far superior to the colorimetric method. Therefore, this study has profound significance for the comprehensive utilization of silkworm cocoon and

  7. The silkworm Green b locus encodes a quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase that produces green cocoons with UV-shielding properties.

    PubMed

    Daimon, Takaaki; Hirayama, Chikara; Kanai, Masatoshi; Ruike, Yoshinao; Meng, Yan; Kosegawa, Eiichi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

    2010-06-22

    In the silkworm Bombyx mori, dietary flavonoids are metabolized and accumulate in cocoons, thereby causing green coloration. Classical genetic studies suggest that more than seven independent loci are associated with this trait; however, because of the complex inheritance pattern, none of these loci have been characterized molecularly, and a plausible and comprehensive model for their action has not been proposed. Here, we report the identification of the gene responsible for the Green b (Gb) locus involving the green cocoon trait. In +(Gb) animals, glucosylation at the 5-O position of dietary quercetin did not occur, and the total amount of flavonoids in tissues and cocoons was dramatically reduced. We performed positional cloning of Gb and found a 38-kb deletion in a UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) gene cluster associated with the +(Gb) allele. RT-PCR and biochemical studies suggested that deletion of Bm-UGT10286 (UGT) is responsible for Gb and Bm-UGT10286 is virtually the sole source of UGT activity toward the 5-O position of quercetin. Our data show that the regiospecific glucosylation of flavonoids by the quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase can greatly affect the overall bioavailability of flavonoids in animals. Furthermore, we provide evidence that flavonoids increase the UV-shielding activity of cocoons and thus could confer an increased survival advantage to insects contained in these cocoons. This study will lead to greater understanding of mechanisms for metabolism, uptake, and transport of dietary flavonoids, which have a variety of biological activities in animals and beneficial effects on human health. PMID:20534444

  8. The silkworm Green b locus encodes a quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase that produces green cocoons with UV-shielding properties

    PubMed Central

    Daimon, Takaaki; Hirayama, Chikara; Kanai, Masatoshi; Ruike, Yoshinao; Kosegawa, Eiichi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

    2010-01-01

    In the silkworm Bombyx mori, dietary flavonoids are metabolized and accumulate in cocoons, thereby causing green coloration. Classical genetic studies suggest that more than seven independent loci are associated with this trait; however, because of the complex inheritance pattern, none of these loci have been characterized molecularly, and a plausible and comprehensive model for their action has not been proposed. Here, we report the identification of the gene responsible for the Green b (Gb) locus involving the green cocoon trait. In +Gb animals, glucosylation at the 5-O position of dietary quercetin did not occur, and the total amount of flavonoids in tissues and cocoons was dramatically reduced. We performed positional cloning of Gb and found a 38-kb deletion in a UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) gene cluster associated with the +Gb allele. RT-PCR and biochemical studies suggested that deletion of Bm-UGT10286 (UGT) is responsible for Gb and Bm-UGT10286 is virtually the sole source of UGT activity toward the 5-O position of quercetin. Our data show that the regiospecific glucosylation of flavonoids by the quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase can greatly affect the overall bioavailability of flavonoids in animals. Furthermore, we provide evidence that flavonoids increase the UV-shielding activity of cocoons and thus could confer an increased survival advantage to insects contained in these cocoons. This study will lead to greater understanding of mechanisms for metabolism, uptake, and transport of dietary flavonoids, which have a variety of biological activities in animals and beneficial effects on human health. PMID:20534444

  9. A CD36-related Transmembrane Protein Is Coordinated with an Intracellular Lipid-binding Protein in Selective Carotenoid Transport for Cocoon Coloration*

    PubMed Central

    Sakudoh, Takashi; Iizuka, Tetsuya; Narukawa, Junko; Sezutsu, Hideki; Kobayashi, Isao; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Banno, Yutaka; Kitamura, Akitoshi; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Takada, Naoko; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Mita, Kazuei; Tamura, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Tsuchida, Kozo

    2010-01-01

    The transport pathway of specific dietary carotenoids from the midgut lumen to the silk gland in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a model system for selective carotenoid transport because several genetic mutants with defects in parts of this pathway have been identified that manifest altered cocoon pigmentation. In the wild-type silkworm, which has both genes, Yellow blood (Y) and Yellow cocoon (C), lutein is transferred selectively from the hemolymph lipoprotein to the silk gland cells where it is accumulated into the cocoon. The Y gene encodes an intracellular carotenoid-binding protein (CBP) containing a lipid-binding domain known as the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid transfer domain. Positional cloning and transgenic rescue experiments revealed that the C gene encodes Cameo2, a transmembrane protein gene belonging to the CD36 family genes, some of which, such as the mammalian SR-BI and the fruit fly ninaD, are reported as lipoprotein receptors or implicated in carotenoid transport for visual system. In C mutant larvae, Cameo2 expression was strongly repressed in the silk gland in a specific manner, resulting in colorless silk glands and white cocoons. The developmental profile of Cameo2 expression, CBP expression, and lutein pigmentation in the silk gland of the yellow cocoon strain were correlated. We hypothesize that selective delivery of lutein to specific tissue requires the combination of two components: 1) CBP as a carotenoid transporter in cytosol and 2) Cameo2 as a transmembrane receptor on the surface of the cells. PMID:20053988

  10. Idiopathic abdominal cocoon syndrome with unilateral abdominal cryptorchidism and greater omentum hypoplasia in a young case of small bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Xiang; Yang, Hai-Rui; Yu, Peng-Fei; Sheng, Hai-Bo; Gu, Guo-Li

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon syndrome (ACS) is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to total or partial encapsulation of the small intestine by a fibrocollagenous membrane. Idiopathic ACS with abdominal cryptorchidism and greater omentum hypoplasia is even rarer clinically. We successfully treated a 26-year-old male case of small bowel obstruction with acute peritonitis. He was finally diagnosed with idiopathic ACS with unilateral abdominal cryptorchidism and greater omentum hypoplasia during exploratory laparotomy. He then underwent enterolysis, cryptorchidectomy, and appendectomy. He recovered gradually from the operations and early postoperative inflammatory ileus. There has been no recurrence of intestinal obstruction since the operation, and he is still in follow-up. We analyzed his clinical data and retrospectively reviewed the literature, and our findings may be helpful for the clinical diagnosis and treatment on ACS. PMID:27239122

  11. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanospheres derived from cocoon silk as metal-free electrocatalyst for glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Li, Tongtong; Li, Yahang; Wang, Chunyu; Gao, Zhi-Da; Song, Yan-Yan

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon materials have attracted tremendous attention because of their high activity in electrocatalysis. In the present work, cocoon silk -- a biomass material is used to prepare porous carbon fibers due to its abundant nitrogen content. The as-prepared carbon microfibers have been activated and disintegrated into carbon nanospheres (CNS) with a diameter of 20--60 nm by a simple nitric acid refluxing process. Considering their excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of oxygen, the CNS modified electrodes are further applied in the construction of glucose amperometric biosensor using glucose oxidase as a model. The proposed biosensor exhibits fast response, high sensitivity, good stability and selectivity for glucose detection with a wide linear range from 79.7 to 2038.9 μM, and a detection limit of 39.1 μM. The performance is comparable to leading literature results indicating a great potential for electrochemical sensing application. PMID:26452954

  12. Idiopathic abdominal cocoon syndrome with unilateral abdominal cryptorchidism and greater omentum hypoplasia in a young case of small bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Fei, Xiang; Yang, Hai-Rui; Yu, Peng-Fei; Sheng, Hai-Bo; Gu, Guo-Li

    2016-05-28

    Abdominal cocoon syndrome (ACS) is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to total or partial encapsulation of the small intestine by a fibrocollagenous membrane. Idiopathic ACS with abdominal cryptorchidism and greater omentum hypoplasia is even rarer clinically. We successfully treated a 26-year-old male case of small bowel obstruction with acute peritonitis. He was finally diagnosed with idiopathic ACS with unilateral abdominal cryptorchidism and greater omentum hypoplasia during exploratory laparotomy. He then underwent enterolysis, cryptorchidectomy, and appendectomy. He recovered gradually from the operations and early postoperative inflammatory ileus. There has been no recurrence of intestinal obstruction since the operation, and he is still in follow-up. We analyzed his clinical data and retrospectively reviewed the literature, and our findings may be helpful for the clinical diagnosis and treatment on ACS. PMID:27239122

  13. Infant distress.

    PubMed

    Keating, Brad

    2014-05-01

    This case was one that would put many EMS personnel out of their comfort zones. The presentation of an unstable child is enough to have some providers put on their blinders and focus solely on the respiratory causes and overlook the cardiac. This child had been unstable most of the evening and by the time EMS was summoned was in severe need of treatment. The diagnosis of WPW in the field is almost impossible, especially when there is no history with the patient. Quick recognition of the infant's symptoms and analysis of the ECG allowed the paramedics to deliver the correct treatment for the arrhythmia while ensuring the respiratory issues weren't overlooked. The rapid treatment and transport were a significant part PMID:24984434

  14. Percutaneously inserted central catheter - infants

    MedlinePlus

    PICC - infants; PQC - infants; Pic line - infants; Per-Q cath - infants ... A percutaneously inserted central catheter (PICC) is a long, very thin, soft plastic tube that is put into a small blood vessel. This article addresses PICCs in ...

  15. Parenting Your Infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... easily. This can lead to choking! Infants Have Personalities Even very tiny infants act in very individual ... a parent, you already know your baby’s unique personality. Think about this personality when you are caring ...

  16. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and ...

  17. Infant formulas - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... meet all their nutritional needs. Infant formulas include powders, concentrated liquids, and ready-to-use forms. ... it. Reflux formulas are pre-thickened with rice starch. They are usually needed only for infants with ...

  18. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... your baby only breast milk or iron-fortified formula during the first 12 months of life, not ... baby's diet. If breastfeeding is not possible, infant formulas provide a healthy diet for your infant. Whether ...

  19. Infant formulas - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 months of life, infants need only breast milk or formula to meet all their nutritional needs. ... 12 months old who are not drinking breast milk . While there are some differences, infant formulas sold ...

  20. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant younger than one year old. Some people call SIDS "crib death" because many babies who die of SIDS are found in their ...

  1. Peripheral arterial line - infants

    MedlinePlus

    PAL - infants; Art line - infants ... an "art line." This article addresses PALs in babies. Why is a PAL used? Doctors and nurses use a PAL to watch your baby's blood pressure. A PAL can also be use ...

  2. High blood pressure - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... Bronchopulmonary dysplasia Renal artery stenosis In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

  3. Osteopenia - premature infants

    MedlinePlus

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... the amount of calcium and phosphorus in the bone. This can cause bones to be weak and ...

  4. Infant Temperament and Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Infants have definite personality characteristics from birth onward. Despite wide variation in infant temperament styles, ranging from easy to difficult, responsive parents and non-parental caregivers can ensure positive emotional-social development. This paper, which reviews various theories and research on personality development in infants and…

  5. Deposition of cocoon-like ZnO on graphene sheets for improving gas-sensing properties to ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shiming; Zhu, Junwu; Ding, Jing; Bi, Huiping; Yao, Pengcheng; Han, Qiaofeng; Wang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    Developing an efficient gas sensor device with high sensitivity and selectivity still remains a challenge for its practical application. Herein, we demonstrated a facile one-step hydrothermal method to deposit cocoon-like ZnO nanoparticles onto surfaces of graphene sheets, leading to the formation of ZnO/graphene composite. The structural characterization confirmed the successful deposition of ZnO nanocrystals with hexagonal wurtzite on graphene sheets, which further facilitated the exfoliation of graphene sheets. The gas sensing performances of as-prepared ZnO/graphene composites were investigated towards a series of typical organic vapors. The results showed that the ZnO/graphene composite exhibited significantly higher performance than that of pure ZnO nanoparticles. Especially, the ZnO/graphene could offer a high gas response value of 513 towards 1000 ppm of ethanol, which is nearly 5.0 times higher than that of pure ZnO, indicating the potential application as a sensor material towards enhanced gas detection.

  6. Parenting and infant sleep.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Avi; Tikotzky, Liat; Scher, Anat

    2010-04-01

    Infant sleep undergoes dramatic evolution during the first year of life. This process is driven by underlying biological forces but is highly dependent on environmental cues including parental influences. In this review the links between infant sleep and parental behaviors, cognitions, emotions and relationships as well as psychopathology are examined within the context of a transactional model. Parental behaviors, particularly those related to bedtime interactions and soothing routines, are closely related to infant sleep. Increased parental involvement is associated with more fragmented sleep. Intervention based on modifying parental behaviors and cognitions have direct effect on infant sleep. It appears that parental personality, psychopathology and related cognitions and emotions contribute to parental sleep-related behaviors and ultimately influence infant sleep. However, the links are bidirectional and dynamic so that poor infant sleep may influence parental behaviors and poor infant sleep appears to be a family stressor and a risk factor for maternal depression. PMID:19631566

  7. Infant-Infant Interaction in a Daycare Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durfee, Joan T.; Lee, Lee C.

    The Infant-Infant Contact Code, developed to observe the social behavior in infants, is described. Results from using this scale with nine infants under nine months indicated that contacts between infants are complex in nature, that there are developmental changes in models of encounter, and that babies take different roles in relation to the…

  8. When infants talk, infants listen: pre-babbling infants prefer listening to speech with infant vocal properties.

    PubMed

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-03-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to vowel sounds with infant vocal properties over vowel sounds with adult vocal properties. A listening preference favoring infant vowels may derive from their higher voice pitch, which has been shown to attract infant attention in infant-directed speech (IDS). In addition, infants' nascent articulatory abilities may induce a bias favoring infant speech given that 4- to 6-month-olds are beginning to produce vowel sounds. We created infant and adult /i/ ('ee') vowels using a production-based synthesizer that simulates the act of speaking in talkers at different ages and then tested infants across four experiments using a sequential preferential listening task. The findings provide the first evidence that infants preferentially attend to vowel sounds with infant voice pitch and/or formants over vowel sounds with no infant-like vocal properties, supporting the view that infants' production abilities influence how they process infant speech. The findings with respect to voice pitch also reveal parallels between IDS and infant speech, raising new questions about the role of this speech register in infant development. Research exploring the underpinnings and impact of this perceptual bias can expand our understanding of infant language development. PMID:25754812

  9. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, Ed.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    This second edition contains articles on (1) infant day care, (2) day care as a way to extend parental support systems, (3) meeting developmental needs of infants, (4) ecology of day care, (5) ecology of infant day care, (6) quality care for infants, (7) the daily schedule, (8) precautions in establishing infant day care, (9) teaching--learning…

  10. Infants in cocktail parties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Rochelle S.

    2003-04-01

    Most work on listeners' ability to separate streams of speech has focused on adults. Yet infants also find themselves in noisy environments. In order to learn from their caregivers' speech in these settings, they must first separate it from background noise such as that from television shows and siblings. Previous work has found that 7.5-month-old infants can separate streams of speech when the target voice is more intense than the distractor voice (Newman and Jusczyk, 1996), when the target voice is known to the infant (Barker and Newman, 2000) or when infants are presented with an audiovisual (rather than auditory-only) signal (Hollich, Jusczyk, and Newman, 2001). Unfortunately, the paradigm in these studies can only be used on infants at least 7.5 months of age, limiting the ability to investigate how stream segregation develops over time. The present work uses a new paradigm to explore younger infants' ability to separate streams of speech. Infants aged 4.5 months heard a female talker repeat either their own name or another infants' name, while several other voices spoke fluently in the background. We present data on infants' ability to recognize their own name in this cocktail party situation. [Work supported by NSF and NICHD.

  11. Tdap Booster Requirements for Secondary Schools

    MedlinePlus

    ... VISs Spanish-language VISs What's New: VISs Diseases & Vaccines Anthrax Pertussis Chickenpox (varicella) PCV Diphtheria PPSV H. influenzae (Hib) Polio Hepatitis A Rabies Hepatitis B Rotavirus HPV Rubella ... Adjuvants Religious Concerns Alternative Medicine Responding to Parents ...

  12. Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis) Vaccine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Canada, and many other countries. Pertussis (also called whooping cough) is a bacterial illness that usually begins with symptoms like those of the common cold. Severe coughing can develop over several weeks. Fast, heavy ... sound when breathing in. Pertussis is most serious ...

  13. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of infant mortality. Asian/Pacific Islanders women generally have lower infant mortality rates ...

  14. [Infant mortality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Ramos Padilla, M A

    1987-01-01

    Bolivia, Haiti, and Peru have infant mortality levels as high as those of the developed countries a century ago. The decline of general and especially infant mortality experienced in Latin America beginning in the 1940s was uneven throughout the continent. Cuba's infant mortality rate declined by 86% between 1940-80, but Peru's declined by only 48% despite its higher initial level. In 1984, 34% of all deaths in Peru were to children under 1 year and about 21% were to children 1-5 years old. Socioeconomic factors are the major explanation of Peru's poor infant mortality levels. Regional and social disparities in access to housing, food, urban infrastructure, and other vital goods and services are reflected in infant mortality statistics. Infant mortality has declined in both rural and urban areas, but the magnitude of the decline was much greater in urban areas. Between 1960-75, the infant mortality rate declined from 133 to 80/1000 live births in urban areas, but only from 180 to 150/1000 in rural areas. Investment in the infrastructure and services of the cities during the 1950s and 60s was not matched by any significant investment in rural infrastructure. Rural-urban mortality differentials are not as profound in countries which distribute public investment more evenly between rural and urban areas. Cuba's rural infant mortality rate is only 16% greater than its urban rate, while Peru's rural rate is 47% higher. The rural-urban differential in Peru hides a steep gap between the metropolitan zone of Lima-Callao, which has an infant mortality rate of 55/1000, and that of all cities, which have a rate 45% higher. Metropolitan Lima has the highest levels of living in Peru, including the highest incomes and best housing and service infrastructure. A majority of Peru's economic and industrial development has been concentrated in Lima. Peru's infant mortality differentials are also striking at the departmental level. The 5 departments with the highest infant mortality

  15. Infant neurologic assessment.

    PubMed

    Hobdell, E

    2001-08-01

    Infant neurologic assessment reflects the ongoing maturation of the central nervous system. Traditional approaches to assessment cannot be used. Key factors are accurate observation and flexibility in obtaining the data. A case example using a 4-month-old infant illustrates specific approaches to assessment. PMID:11497071

  16. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... energy and nutrients that babies need to be healthy. For a baby, breast milk is best. It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and 6 months of ...

  17. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that…

  18. Milk Allergy in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy Almost all infants are fussy at times. ...

  19. Infants' Concept of Animacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the concept of animacy of 9- and 12-month-old infants by exposing them to autonomous motion with animate and inanimate objects in a series of three experiments. Three experiments were carried out. Results indicated that infants discriminate animate from inanimate objects on the basis of motion cues by the age of nine months. (MOK)

  20. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

    There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

  1. [Resuscitation of newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, Kilian; Leonhardt, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    Successful resuscitation of newborn infants depends on adequate preparation, exact evaluation and prompt initiation of support according to the recently updated recommendations by trained personnel. The key step in postnatal adaptation is the initiation of breathing with a subsequent increase in pulmonary blood flow and pulmonary gas exchange. Therefore, in compromised newborn infants, adequate ventilation is the most important step in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Ventilation should be initiated with room air in term infants and with low concentrations of supplemental oxygen in preterm infants. Subsequently, oxygen supplementation should always be guided by pulse oximetry. Chest compressions are only effective if adequate ventilation has been ensured. The compression ventilation ratio remains 3:1. The prevention of heat loss and maintaining a normal body temperature by adequate measures is an essential part of the care for healthy as well as asphyxiated infants. Therapeutic hypothermia should only be initiated after successful resuscitation and consultation with the regional neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:21815119

  2. Crying in infants

    PubMed Central

    de Weerth, Carolina; Fuentes, Susana; de Vos, Willem M

    2013-01-01

    Up to around a quarter of all infants cry excessively and unsoothably during their first months of life. This phenomenon has been termed “infant colic.” In most cases, physicians are unable to determine the cause of the colicky behavior. In a recent study, and by means of comprehensive and deep analyses of more than 1000 intestinal phylotypes, we found that infants with colic showed lower microbiota diversity and stability than control infants in the first weeks of life. Colic-control differences in the abundance of certain bacteria were also found at 2 weeks. These microbial signatures possibly explain the colic phenotype. In this addendum we discuss other recent publications on the subject and present previously unpublished analyses of our own. We address possible mechanisms behind the links between microbiota and crying, and present future directions that could further help elucidate the hypothesized relations between intestinal microbiota and infant colic. PMID:23941920

  3. Infant feeding in India.

    PubMed

    1984-09-15

    The report of a survey organized by the Nutrition Foundation of India indicated that, although breastfeeding is the traditional standard of infant nutrition in India, good infant feeding practices depend on education provided by health services. Interviews with 4926 mothers with infants under 1 year indicated that over 97% motherrs suckle their infants, and 75% or more in most centers are still breastfeeding when the infant is 1 year old. At age 5 months 30-40% of infants are fed entirely from the breast; at age 1, 5-10% were getting no other food. Of the very small number of mothers who never breastfed their infants, most belonged to the highest income group. Causes of lactation failure in India and other countries seem to be social and psychological and not physiological. Most Indian babies grow well at first, but by the age of 6 months are growth retarded. Growth retardation may be caused by insufficient breast milk and repeated gastrointestinal and respiratory infections associated with poor hygiene and abject poverty, both more prevalent in Calcutta than in Bombay and Madras. Because of risk of infection, dietary supplements should be given to the mother (rather than to the infant) during the 1st 6 months of lactation. Traditional cow and buffalo milk was the main supplement given to 1955 of infants surveyed, but 1531 were given commerical milk formulas. Commercial milk was used mainly by the wealthy in big cities but some was used in rural areas, where some of the poorest mothers spend 10% of family income on commerical milk. It is important that fresh animal milk be made available to the poor at reasonable prices. Indian mothers are reluctant to give older infants any normal family foods except cereals. Manuals should be prepared for use by health workers to teach practical nutrition education in different regions. PMID:6147646

  4. A HOT COCOON IN THE ULTRALONG GRB 130925A: HINTS OF A POPIII-LIKE PROGENITOR IN A LOW-DENSITY WIND ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, Luigi; Troja, Eleonora; Kidd, Lauren A.; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Ricci, Roberto; Bannister, Keith; Fiore, Fabrizio; Piranomonte, Silvia; Wieringa, Mark H.

    2014-08-01

    GRB 130925A is a peculiar event characterized by an extremely long gamma-ray duration (≈7 ks), as well as dramatic flaring in the X-rays for ≈20 ks. After this period, its X-ray afterglow shows an atypical soft spectrum with photon index Γ ∼ 4, as observed by Swift and Chandra, until ≈10{sup 7} s, when XMM-Newton observations uncover a harder spectral shape with Γ ∼ 2.5, commonly observed in gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. We find that two distinct emission components are needed to explain the X-ray observations: a thermal component, which dominates the X-ray emission for several weeks, and a non-thermal component, consistent with a typical afterglow. A forward shock model well describes the broadband (from radio to X-rays) afterglow spectrum at various epochs. It requires an ambient medium with a very low-density wind profile, consistent with that expected from a low-metallicity blue supergiant (BSG). The thermal component has a remarkably constant size and a total energy consistent with those expected by a hot cocoon surrounding the relativistic jet. We argue that the features observed in this GRB (its ultralong duration, the thermal cocoon, and the low-density wind environment) are associated with a low metallicity BSG progenitor and, thus, should characterize the class of ultralong GRBs.

  5. Antioxidant activities of two sericin proteins extracted from cocoon of silkworm (Bombyx mori) measured by DPPH, chemiluminescence, ORAC and ESR methods

    PubMed Central

    TAKECHI, TAYORI; WADA, RITSUKO; FUKUDA, TSUBASA; HARADA, KAZUKI; TAKAMURA, HITOSHI

    2014-01-01

    Recent efforts have focused on the use of sericin proteins extracted from cocoons of silkworm as a healthy food source for human consumption. In this study, we focused on the antioxidative properties of sericin proteins. The antioxidative properties were measured in sericin proteins extracted from the shell of the cocoon, designated hereafter as white sericin protein and yellow-green sericin protein, as well as bread without sericin protein and bread to which white sericin powder had been added using four measurement methods: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), chemiluminescence, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and electron spin resonance (ESR). High antioxidative properties of sericin proteins were indicated by all four methods. A comparison of the two types of sericin proteins revealed that yellow-green sericin protein exhibited high antioxidative properties as indicated by the DPPH, chemiluminescence and ORAC methods. By contrast, a higher antioxidative property was determined in white sericin protein by the ESR method. Consequently, our findings confirmed that sericin proteins have antioxidative properties against multiple radicals. In addition, the antioxidative property of bread was enhanced by the addition of sericin powder to the bread. Therefore, findings of this study suggest that sericin proteins may be efficiently used as beneficial food for human health. PMID:24748975

  6. Cepheids and their 'Cocoons'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at Cerro Paranal, Chile, and the CHARA Interferometer at Mount Wilson, California, a team of French and North American astronomers has discovered envelopes around three Cepheids, including the Pole star. This is the first time that matter is found surrounding members of this important class of rare and very luminous stars whose luminosity varies in a very regular way. Cepheids play a crucial role in cosmology, being one of the first "steps" on the cosmic distance ladder. ESO PR Photo 09/06 ESO PR Photo 09/06 Model Image of Cepheid L Carinae (VINCI, MIDI/VLTI) The southern Cepheid L Carinae was observed with the VINCI and MIDI instrument at the VLTI, while Polaris (the Pole Star) and Delta Cephei (the prototype of its class) were scrutinised with FLUOR on CHARA, located on the other side of the equator. FLUOR is the prototype instrument of VINCI. Both were built by the Paris Observatory (France). For most stars, the observations made with the interferometers follow very tightly the theoretical stellar models. However, for these three stars, a tiny deviation was detected, revealing the presence of an envelope. "The fact that such deviations were found for all three stars, which however have very different properties, seems to imply that envelopes surrounding Cepheids are a widespread phenomenon", said Pierre Kervella, one of the lead authors. The envelopes were found to be 2 to 3 times as large as the star itself. Although such stars are rather large - about fifty to several hundreds of solar radii - they are so far away that they can't be resolved by single telescopes. Indeed, even the largest Cepheids in the sky subtend an angle of only 0.003 arc second. To observe this is similar to viewing a two-storey house on the Moon. Astronomers have thus to rely on the interferometric technique, which combines the light of two or more distant telescopes, thereby providing the angular resolution of a unique telescope as large as the separation between them. With the VLTI, it is possible to achieve a resolution of 0.001 arc second or less. "The physical processes that have created these envelopes are still uncertain, but, in analogy to what happens around other classes of stars, it is most probable that the environments were created by matter ejected by the star itself", said Antoine Mérand, lead-author of the second paper describing the results. Cepheids pulsate with periods of a few days. As a consequence, they go regularly through large amplitude oscillations that create very rapid motions of its apparent surface (the photosphere) with velocities up to 30 km/s, or 108 000 km/h! While this remains to be established, there could be a link between the pulsation, the mass loss and the formation of the envelopes. Notes Cepheids are commonly used as distance indicators, thanks to the existence of a basic relation between their intrinsic brightness and their pulsation period. By measuring the period of a Cepheid star, its intrinsic brightness can be deduced and from the observed apparent brightness, the distance may then be calculated. As they are intrinsically very bright stars, and can be observed in distant galaxies, this remarkable property has turned these yellow supergiant stars into primary 'standard candles' for extragalactic distance estimations (see ESO PR 25/04). L Carinae is the brightest Cepheid in the sky, and also the one that presents the largest apparent angular diameter. This is a massive supergiant star, having about 10 times the mass of the Sun and a radius approximately 180 times that of the Sun. Polaris is a peculiar star as it is located very close to the North celestial pole (hence its name). It is classified as a Cepheid, but it shows very weak pulsations compared to the other stars of its class. Delta Cephei is the prototype of the Cepheids. It was discovered to be a variable star in the 18th century by the English amateur John Goodricke, and it is still one of the brightest members of the Cepheid class. Its short period is characteristic of a relatively small supergiant, with a radius of "only" 43 times that of the Sun. These results are published in two articles to appear in Astronomy and Astrophysics: "Extended envelopes around Galactic Cepheids I. L Car from near and mid-infrared interferometry with the VLTI" by P. Kervella et al., and "Extended envelopes around Cepheids II. Near infrared interferometric observations of Polaris and delta Cep using CHARA/FLUOR" by Antoine Mérand et al. The first paper is available as a PDF file from the editor's web site. The team is composed of Pierre Kervella, Antoine Mérand, Vincent Coudé du Foresto , Guy Perrin (LESIA, Paris Observatory, France), Stephen T. Ridgway (NOAO, Tucson, US and CHARA, Georgia, US), Jason P. Aufdenberg (NOAO, Tucson, US), Theo A. ten Brummelaar, Harold A. McAlister, Laszlo Sturmann, Judit Sturmann, Nils H. Turner and David H. Berger (CHARA, Georgia, US). The Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) Array interferometer is operated by the Georgia State University, United States.

  7. Multivariate Model of Infant Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kierscht, Marcia Selland; Vietze, Peter M.

    This paper describes a multivariate model of early infant competence formulated from variables representing infant-environment transaction including: birthweight, habituation index, personality ratings of infant social orientation and task orientation, ratings of maternal responsiveness to infant distress and social signals, and observational…

  8. When Infants Talk, Infants Listen: Pre-Babbling Infants Prefer Listening to Speech with Infant Vocal Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to…

  9. [The infant with leukemia].

    PubMed

    Kamps, W A; Sjamsoedin-Visser, E J; van Wering, E R

    1988-04-01

    Infant leukemia is rare and especially in newborn leukemoid reactions should be excluded by careful cytogenetic analysis before starting cytotoxic therapy. Infants have either acute lymphoblastic leukemia, monoblastic leukemia or acute undifferentiated leukemia. At present they have a bad outlook due to many coinciding unfavorable initial disease characteristics: high leukocyte count, liver and spleen enlargement, meningeal involvement, no expression of common ALL antigen, and a high frequency of pseudodiploid cells, that is with a translocation 4;II. The immaturity of organs and systems makes it difficult to treat these infants, and requires optimal supportive care. Therapeutic protocols for prospective clinical trials for leukemia in this age group are urgently needed. PMID:3287687

  10. Benefits of infant massage.

    PubMed

    Day, Jane

    2014-05-01

    After spending three months as a clinical midwifery tutor at a remote hospital in Zambia, where I helped to train student midwives and other students, my interest in infant massage was ignited, having witnessed the benefits of massage to both mother and baby. Once back in the UK, I trained and qualified as a massage instructor with an international infant massage training organisation, which has led me to work extensively with parents and babies, offering one-to-one and group courses. It has been a privilege to be able to teach parents the valuable skill of infant massage, and consequently pass on the benefits both physiological and psychosocial. PMID:24873112

  11. Sudden infant death syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Crib death; SIDS ... However, SIDS is still a major cause of death in infants under 1 year old. Thousands of ... affects boys more often than girls. Most SIDS deaths occur in the winter. The following may increase ...

  12. Unconscious Choking: Infant

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Unconscious Choking—Infant (1:36) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  13. CPR - infant - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100216.htm CPR - infant - series To use the sharing features on ... yourself to call 911 until you have performed CPR for about 2 minutes. 3. Carefully place the ...

  14. Infant dental care (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Even though newborns and infants do not have teeth, care of the mouth and gums is important. ... sugar water. As the child grows, establishing proper dental hygiene will promote healthy teeth and gums which ...

  15. Infant - newborn development

    MedlinePlus

    ... holding a hand; may take few steps alone SENSORY DEVELOPMENT Hearing, begins before birth, and is mature at birth. The infant prefers the human voice. Touch, taste, and smell, mature at birth; ...

  16. Infant deaths in slings.

    PubMed

    Madre, Chrystèle; Rambaud, Caroline; Avran, David; Michot, Charlotte; Sachs, Philippe; Dauger, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    Although the incidence of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) decreased markedly after campaigns to promote supine positioning during sleeping, it has remained unchanged over the last decade. Epidemiological data suggest a role for new causes such as suffocation, asphyxia, and entrapment. Health authorities in several countries have issued warnings about slings used to carry infants. However, few reports of infant deaths in slings have been published in medical journals. Our paediatric intensive care unit has admitted two infants who experienced cardiorespiratory arrest while carried in a sling. Diagnostic investigations including a post-mortem examination established asphyxia as the mechanism of death. In conclusion, baby slings may carry a risk of SUDI, either by compression of the baby into a forward-flexed position or by direct suffocation. European recommendations for the cautious use of baby slings should be disseminated to families and professionals involved in caring for infants, as done recently in Australia, Canada, and the USA. PMID:24343674

  17. Gastroesophageal reflux in infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001134.htm Gastroesophageal reflux in infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gastroesophageal reflux occurs when stomach contents leak backward from the ...

  18. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  19. [Salmonellosis in young infants].

    PubMed

    Köhler, H

    2009-01-01

    In Germany Salmonella belong to the most frequently detected pathogens in bacterial enteritis, Remarkably infants show a higher incidence than adults. In addition to the intestinal symptoms extraintestinal complications, such as bacteremia, infections of the central nervous system and osteomyelitis, are responsible for the disease severity. An age specific source of infection is the often hardly detectable contamination of powdered infant formula. Also infants seem very susceptible to disease transmission through reptiles held in the family's home. Immunologic functions, which are partly age dependent, might be responsible for a high susceptibility and severe salmonella infection in individuals. Due to the reported problems infected infants under 6 months should receive antibiotic therapy. The use of probiotics is not (yet) established in this setting. PMID:19263322

  20. Diarrhea in infants

    MedlinePlus

    When your infant has diarrhea; When your baby has diarrhea; BRAT diet; Diarrhea in children ... Children who have diarrhea may have less energy, dry eyes, or a dry, sticky mouth. They may also not wet their diaper as ...

  1. Infant - newborn development

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye-muscle control allows the infant to track objects Begins to control hand and feet actions, but ... unable to coordinate the grasp, but swipes at objects to bring them closer Increased vision allows the ...

  2. Infant Botulism (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... cause botulism in infants are everywhere in the environment. They're in dust and dirt, and even ...

  3. Urolithiasis in infants.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Jallouli; Riadh, Mhiri; Abdellatif, Nouri

    2007-04-01

    There are few publications about urolithiasis of the new born baby and infant (UNI). The UNI represents 20% of the pediatric urolithiasis. The etiologies in this age group are chiefly dominated by the urinary-tract infections and metabolic abnormalities. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of infant urolithiasis and to define the various treatment modalities adapted to this age group. PMID:17287940

  4. Sudden infant death syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Carl E.; Hauck, Fern R.

    2006-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) continues to be the most common cause of postneonatal infant death. SIDS is a complex, multifactorial disorder, the cause of which is still not fully understood. However, much is known now about environmental risk factors, some of which are modifiable. These include maternal and antenatal risk factors such as smoking during pregnancy, as well as infant-related risk factors such as non-supine sleeping position and soft bedding. Emerging evidence also substantiates an expanding number of genetic risk factors. Interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors may be of critical importance in determining an infant's actual risk of SIDS. Although no practical way exists to identify which infants will die of SIDS, nor is there a safe and proven prevention strategy even if identification were feasible, reducing exposure to modifiable risk factors has helped to lower the incidence of SIDS. Current challenges include wider dissemination of guidelines to all people who care for infants, dissemination of guidelines in culturally appropriate ways, and surveillance of SIDS trends and other outcomes associated with implementation of these guidelines. PMID:16785462

  5. Sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adams, Stephen M; Ward, Chad E; Garcia, Karla L

    2015-06-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden unexpected death of a child younger than one year during sleep that cannot be explained after a postmortem evaluation including autopsy, a thorough history, and scene evaluation. The incidence of SIDS has decreased more than 50% in the past 20 years, largely as a result of the Back to Sleep campaign. The most important risk factors relate to the sleep environment. Prone and side sleeping positions are significantly more dangerous than the supine position. Bed sharing with a parent is strongly correlated with an increased risk of SIDS, especially in infants younger than 12 weeks. Apparent life-threatening events are not a risk factor for SIDS. Parents should place infants on their backs to sleep, should not share a bed, and should avoid exposing the infant to tobacco smoke. Other risk-reducing measures include using a firm crib mattress, breastfeeding, keeping vaccinations up to date, avoiding overheating due to overbundling, avoiding soft bedding, and considering the use of a pacifier during sleep once breastfeeding is established. One consequence of the Back to Sleep campaign is a significant increase in the incidence of occipital flattening. Infants who develop a flat spot should be placed with the head facing alternating directions each time he or she is put to bed. Supervised prone positioning while the infant is awake, avoiding excessive use of carriers, and upright positioning while awake are also recommended. PMID:26034855

  6. Infant psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Bolten, Margarete I

    2013-02-01

    Infant mental health problems include difficulties to regulate emotions or attention, crying, sleeping or feeding problems as well as aggressive behavior. Early identifications of these problems help to change developmental trajectories and improve developmental outcomes. Psychiatric assessment and classification have to take into account the rapid processes of development as well as the inseparable linkage between symptoms of the infant, psychosocial risks in the family environment, and parent-child relations. The proposed DSM-5 classification system presents a systematic description of mental health disorders which are relevant for infant psychiatry. However, the proposal has provided rather limited attention to developmental differences and parent-infant relations. Therefore, additional classification systems, like the Zero-to-Three (DC: 0-3R), are strongly recommended. In terms of assessment and in accordance with the guidelines of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, infant psychiatrists have to consider the close relation between somatic and mental health and the interplay between behaviors of the caregiver and the infant. Therefore, the assessment has to be multidisciplinary and relationship based. A standard assessment in infancy includes a clinical interview, behavior observations, caregiver questionnaires, and a pediatric screening. All assessments should pay attention to motor, cognitive, language, and social-emotional development. Because infant development is embedded in the family context, socio-economic factors, parents' mental problems, including drug abuse, domestic violence, and trauma history should be assessed. The treatment has to be oriented toward symptoms and development and has to address underlying medical conditions. The focus should be on parent-child interactions. Evidence-based interventions are based on attachment theory, use social-learning perspectives, and behavioral approaches. PMID:23229140

  7. Recurrent Wheezing in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Belhassen, Manon; De Blic, Jacques; Laforest, Laurent; Laigle, Valérie; Chanut-Vogel, Céline; Lamezec, Liliane; Brouard, Jacques; Fauroux, Brigitte; de Pouvourville, Gérard; Ginoux, Marine; Van Ganse, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent wheezing (RW) has a significant impact on infants, caregivers, and society, but morbidity and related medical resource utilization (MRU) have not been thoroughly explored. The burden of RW needs to be documented with population-based data. The objective was to assess the characteristics, medical management, and MRU of RW infants identified from national claims data. Infants aged from 6 to 24 months, receiving ≥2 dispensations of respiratory drugs within 3 months, and presenting a marker of poor control (index date), were selected. During the 6 months after index date, MRU was described in the cohort and among 3 subgroups with more severe RW, defined as ≥4 dispensations of respiratory drugs, ≥3 dispensations of oral corticosteroids (OCS), or ≥1 hospitalization for respiratory symptoms. A total of 115,489 infants had RW, corresponding to 8.2% of subjects in this age group. During follow-up, 68.7% of infants received inhaled corticosteroids, but only 1.8 U (unit) were dispensed over 6 months, suggesting discontinuous use. Control was mostly inadequate: 61.7% of subjects received OCS, 80.2% antibiotics, and 71.2% short-acting beta-agonists, and medical/paramedical visits were numerous, particularly for physiotherapy. Severe RW concerned 39.0% of the cohort; 32.8% and 11.7% of infants had repeated use of respiratory drugs and OCS, respectively, and 5.5% were hospitalized for respiratory symptoms. In this real-life nation-wide study, RW was common and infants had poor control and high MRU. Interventions are needed to support adequate use of controller therapy, and to improve medical care. PMID:27082618

  8. Reducing blood glucose levels in TIDM mice with an orally administered extract of sericin from hIGF-I-transgenic silkworm cocoons.

    PubMed

    Song, Zuowei; Zhang, Mengyao; Xue, Renyu; Cao, Guangli; Gong, Chengliang

    2014-05-01

    In previous studies, we reported that the blood glucose levels of mice with type I diabetes mellitus (TIDM) was reduced with orally administered silk gland powder from silkworms transgenic for human insulin-like growth factor-I (hIGF-I). However, potential safety hazards could not be eliminated because the transgenic silk gland powder contained heterologous DNA, including the green fluorescent protein (gfp) and neomycin resistance (neo) genes. These shortcomings might be overcome if the recombinant hIGF-I were secreted into the sericin layer of the cocoon. In this study, silkworm eggs were transfected with a novel piggyBac transposon vector, pigA3GFP-serHS-hIGF-I-neo, containing the neo, gfp, and hIGF-I genes controlled by the sericin-1 (ser-1) promoter with the signal peptide DNA sequence of the fibrin heavy chain (Fib-H) and a helper plasmid containing the piggyBac transposase sequence under the control of the Bombyx mori actin 3 (A3) promoter, using sperm-mediated gene transfer to generate the transformed silkworms. The hIGF-I content estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was approximately 162.7 ng/g. To estimate the biological activity of the expressed hIGF-I, streptozotocin-induced TIDM mice were orally administered sericin from the transgenic silkworm. The blood glucose levels of the mice were significantly reduced, suggesting that the extract from the transgenic hIGF-I silkworm cocoons can be used as an orally administered drug. PMID:24632065

  9. [Changes in infant mortality].

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A

    1997-01-01

    Mexico's infant mortality rate is estimated to have declined from 189 in 1930 to 129 in 1950 and 30 in 1995. The infant mortality rate has continued its decline despite the economic crisis of recent years. The use of oral rehydration therapy has reduced mortality from diarrhea, and the spread of family planning has reduced the numbers of births at high risk due to maternal age, parity, or short birth intervals. The types of causes of infant death have changed as the numbers have decreased. They can be grouped in ascending order according to the difficulty of prevention: diseases preventable by immunization, acute diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, perinatal disorders, and congenital anomalies. Over two-thirds of infant deaths recorded since 1950 have been due to these causes. Infectious diseases, including diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, and conditions preventable by immunization predominated as causes of infant mortality before 1930. As the epidemiological transition progresses, diseases preventable by immunization lose importance, and diarrhea and respiratory infections occupy the first two places, with perinatal disorders being third. Between 1980 and 1990, in Mexico, diarrhea and acute respiratory infections dropped to second and third place after perinatal disorders, with congenital anomalies in fourth place. In most developed countries, perinatal disorders and congenital anomalies are the two most frequent causes of death, while diarrhea and respiratory infections no longer appear in the top five. In 1995, the four main causes in Mexico in descending order were perinatal disorders, congenital anomalies, acute respiratory infections, and diarrhea. PMID:12158082

  10. Renal transplantation in infants.

    PubMed

    Jalanko, Hannu; Mattila, Ilkka; Holmberg, Christer

    2016-05-01

    Renal transplantation (RTx) has become an accepted mode of therapy in infants with severe renal failure. The major indications are structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, congenital nephrotic syndrome, polycystic diseases, and neonatal kidney injury. Assessment of these infants needs expertise and time as well as active treatment before RTx to ensure optimal growth and development, and to avoid complications that could lead to permanent neurological defects. RTx can be performed already in infants weighing around 5 kg, but most operations occur in infants with a weight of 10 kg or more. Perioperative management focuses on adequate perfusion of the allograft and avoidance of thrombotic and other surgical complications. Important long-term issues include rejections, infections, graft function, growth, bone health, metabolic problems, neurocognitive development, adherence to medication, pubertal maturation, and quality of life. The overall outcome of infant RTx has dramatically improved, with long-term patient and graft survivals of over 90 and 80 %, respectively. PMID:26115617

  11. Infant-Directed Speech Is Modulated by Infant Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nicholas A.; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2008-01-01

    When mothers engage in infant-directed (ID) speech, their voices change in a number of characteristic ways, including adopting a higher overall pitch. Studies have examined these acoustical cues and have tested infants' preferences for ID speech. However, little is known about how these cues change with maternal sensitivity to infant feedback in…

  12. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): Condition Information Skip sharing on social ... Share this: Page Content SIDS is the sudden death of an infant younger than 1 year of ...

  13. Infant Mortality and Hispanic Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table A. http://www. ... from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table 5. http://www. ...

  14. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table A. http://www. ... from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table 5. http://www. ...

  15. Cronobacter Illness and Infant Formula

    MedlinePlus

    ... many germs. Breastfeeding helps prevent many kinds of sicknesses among infants. Wash your hands carefully with soap ... do: Breastfeed. Breastfeeding helps prevent many kinds of sicknesses among infants. Almost no cases of Cronobacter sickness ...

  16. Care of the well newborn.

    PubMed

    Warren, Johanna B; Phillipi, Carrie A

    2012-01-01

    The birth of an infant is one of the most memorable experiences a family shares. Pediatric health care professionals are privileged to participate in this experience and recognize it as a time to promote the health of the newborn and family. Ideally, a well-designed care system would be replete with comprehensive supports during the prenatal period, birth, and transition to home. Opportunities exist to improve the care we deliver with universal screening of all pregnant women; coordinated assessments of family health, including mental health; and access to coordinated supports and services for mother and infant. If 90% of US families could comply with medical recommendations to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months, it is estimated the United States would save billions of dollars per year and prevent more than 900 deaths, nearly all of which would be in infants. All infants, whether breastfed or formula fed, should receive 400 IU supplemental vitamin D. Influenza and TdaP vaccination of postpartum mothers and other caregivers helps cocoon the vulnerable infant from influenza and pertussis until he or she can be fully vaccinated. When children reach the highest weight or length allowed by the manufacturer of their infant-only seat, they should continue to ride rear-facing in a convertible seat. It is best for children to ride rear-facing as long as possible to the highest weight and height allowed by the manufacturer of their convertible seat. PMID:22210929

  17. Infant death scene investigation.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Pamela D; Ragan, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The sudden unexpected death of an infant is a tragedy to the family, a concern to the community, and an indicator of national health. To accurately determine the cause and manner of the infant's death, a thorough and accurate death scene investigation by properly trained personnel is key. Funding and resources are directed based on autopsy reports, which are only as accurate as the scene investigation. The investigation should include a standardized format, body diagrams, and a photographed or videotaped scene recreation utilizing doll reenactment. Forensic nurses, with their basic nursing knowledge and additional forensic skills and abilities, are optimally suited to conduct infant death scene investigations as well as train others to properly conduct death scene investigations. Currently, 49 states have child death review teams, which is an idea avenue for a forensic nurse to become involved in death scene investigations. PMID:25642921

  18. Diminished Reactivity of Postmature Human Infants to Sucrose Compared with Term Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study of healthy 39-week-old infants, so-called term infants, and chronically stressed 42-week-old infants, so-called postmature infants, showed that sucrose was extremely effective in calming term infants but less effective in calming postmature infants. Results supported the hypothesis that sucrose engages an opioid system in infants. (BG)

  19. Infant Affect and Home Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate relationship between infant affect and quality of home environment. Found that infant irritability was negatively correlated with quality of home environment in both low-risk and high-risk families. Infant positive affect was more strongly related to quality of care in…

  20. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, E.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    These proceedings of the first annual SACUS workshop on infant day care contain the papers presented at the conference, plus an appendix--Developmental Objectives for Infants and Toddlers. The papers are: "Infant Day Care--Fads, Facts, and Fancies" by Bettye M. Caldwell; "Family Day Care""A Broad Perspective" by Malcolm S. Host; "Getting…

  1. Infant Feeding: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowhurst, Christine Marie, Comp.; Kumer, Bonnie Lee, Comp.

    Intended for parents, health professionals and allied health workers, and others involved in caring for infants and young children, this annotated bibliography brings together in one selective listing a review of over 700 current publications related to infant feeding. Reflecting current knowledge in infant feeding, the bibliography has as its…

  2. Generalized Vocal Imitation in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulson, Claire L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes a study of three infants whose parents presented vocal models for the infants to imitate. Parents presented vocal models both with and without social praise. Infants showed systematic increases in matching after praise was introduced. Nonmatching vocalizations did not increase with introduction of praise. Findings demonstrate generalized…

  3. Infant Care Suggestions for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... fragile infants. They can help parents learn the skills and gain confidence necessary to care for their fragile. The infant who has osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) has some special characteristics. The infant may have an unusually soft skull, startle very easily, have bone deformity and ...

  4. Tinea Capitis in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, Brent D.

    2012-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a reasonably common infection among the pediatric population; however, it is still a relatively rare entity among infants less than one year of age. As such, a high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis among infants and an appropriate diagnostic work up should be employed in any case where a dermatophyte infection is suspected. Several methods are available for diagnosis. In addition, proper identification of the specific dermatophyte genera involved should be considered as treatment options may be altered based on the causative pathogen identified. PMID:22468173

  5. [Seizures in newborn infant].

    PubMed

    Eskola, Vesa; Jäntti, Ville; Eriksson, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Seizures in newborn infants are common. The may constitute a neurologic emergency or a nonepileptic, harmless symptom. Diagnostics is becoming more specific with current methodologies. Detailed description of seizures and their connection with EEG abnormalities are the diagnostic cornerstones. The treatment has made slow progress, but newer antiepileptic drugs may aid in the treatment of epileptic seizures in newborn infants in the future. For the time being, evidence-based research results for them are lacking, as well as data on long-term effects. Differential diagnosis of seizures has become increasingly important. PMID:21188877

  6. Improving Infant Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Vince L.

    This speech sketches a picture of post-natal health care in the United States, circa 1979. Between 1970 and 1976, post-natal infant deaths in the first week after birth dropped 32%. During the same period, the post-neonatal decline was just 12%. Statistics are presented which highlight areas of concern. Variation across states, high incidence in…

  7. Infant Phonotactic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatte, Victoria Anne

    2011-01-01

    For the past several decades, researchers have been investigating the stages infants go through on their way to acquiring their native language. Research into the question of the order in which, and time when, various facets of phonology are acquired has resulted in a basic timeline of development. Exploration of a second question, namely what…

  8. [Infants and Toddlers].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue contains four articles which focus on the development of normal and handicapped infants in various settings. "The Baby's World," by Lois Barclay Murphy and Colleen T. Small, emphasizes experiences of sensation and discovery in the first three years of life, noting the role of caregivers and the cultural context. "The…

  9. Infant Group Care Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Earline D.

    Children under 3 years of age who are in group care face special health risks. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control indicate the existence of a causal relationship between infant group day care and certain diseases that are spread through contact at day care centers. Children in group care who are still in diapers are especially vulnerable to…

  10. ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To estimate the energy requirements of infants from total energy expenditure and energy deposition during growth. Design: Energy requirements during infancy were estimated from total energy expenditure measured by the doubly labeled water method and energy deposition based on measured pr...

  11. Parent-Infant Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charnley, Lucile; Myre, Gloria

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the development and philosophy of parent-infant education programs provided by Washington State community colleges and vocational technical schools consisting of parent-participation classes and cooperative preschools for 10,000 families. Describes program at Seattle Community College. (BF/JH)

  12. Intervention for Unsettled Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Beulah; And Others

    Outcomes of a follow-up, preventive care program based on a self-regulation model of neonate and parent behavior were studied in a controlled experiment. Subjects included a preterm control group, preterm intervention group, and full-term control group, with each group consisting of 27 infants. The assessment, which used the Brazelton Neonatal…

  13. Infant feeding and vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

  14. Infant Vocal Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hursh, Daniel E.

    In Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior, three categories of environmental control over instances of verbal behavior appear to be relevant to the study of infant vocal development: the mand, the tact, and the echoic categories. Procedures used in the remediation of language deficiencies and procedures found in work in the area of language…

  15. Neuroprotection in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Berger, R.; Söder, S.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm infants born before the 30th week of pregnancy are especially at risk of perinatal brain damage which is usually a result of cerebral ischemia or an ascending intrauterine infection. Prevention of preterm birth and early intervention given signs of imminent intrauterine infection can reduce the incidence of perinatal cerebral injury. It has been shown that administering magnesium intravenously to women at imminent risk of a preterm birth leads to a significant reduction in the likelihood of the infant developing cerebral palsy and motor skill dysfunction. It has also been demonstrated that delayed clamping of the umbilical cord after birth reduces the rate of brain hemorrhage among preterm infants by up to 50%. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells seem to have significant neuroprotective potential in animal experiments, as they increase the rate of regeneration of the damaged cerebral area. Clinical tests of these types of therapeutic intervention measures appear to be imminent. In the last trimester of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone increase significantly. Preterm infants are removed abruptly from this estradiol and progesterone rich environment. It has been demonstrated in animal experiments that estradiol and progesterone protect the immature brain from hypoxic-ischemic lesions. However, this neuroprotective strategy has unfortunately not yet been subject to sufficient clinical investigation. PMID:25650134

  16. Infant Development: Recent Advances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, Gavin, Ed.; Slater, Alan, Ed.; Butterworth, George, Ed.

    Noting that the last 30 years have seen enormous increases in the understanding of infancy, this book examines the current state of knowledge regarding infant development. The book's contents stem from meetings of the British Infancy Research Group. Although the book was intended for advanced undergraduates, it would also be useful for advanced…

  17. Reading with an Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda Leonard

    1980-01-01

    Emphasizes that parents' reading to infants fosters interest in literature and provides foundation for basic reading skills. Titles of musical books, point-and-say books, touch and smell books, cardboard books, cloth books, plastic books, and early stories are provided. (Author/DB)

  18. Pareidolia in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Masaharu; Mugitani, Ryoko

    2015-01-01

    Faces convey primal information for our social life. This information is so primal that we sometimes find faces in non-face objects. Such illusory perception is called pareidolia. In this study, using infants’ orientation behavior toward a sound source, we demonstrated that infants also perceive pareidolic faces. An image formed by four blobs and an outline was shown to infants with or without pure tones, and the time they spent looking at each blob was compared. Since the mouth is the unique sound source in a face and the literature has shown that infants older than 6 months already have sound-mouth association, increased looking time towards the bottom blob (pareidolic mouth area) during sound presentation indicated that they illusorily perceive a face in the image. Infants aged 10 and 12 months looked longer at the bottom blob under the upright-image condition, whereas no differences in looking time were observed for any blob under the inverted-image condition. However, 8-month-olds did not show any difference in looking time under both the upright and inverted conditions, suggesting that the perception of pareidolic faces, through sound association, comes to develop at around 8 to 10 months after birth. PMID:25689630

  19. Ptosis - infants and children

    MedlinePlus

    Blepharoptosis-children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  20. Infants Understand Others' Needs.

    PubMed

    Köster, Moritz; Ohmer, Xenia; Nguyen, Thanh Dung; Kärtner, Joscha

    2016-04-01

    Infants begin to help other individuals in the second year of life. However, it is still unclear whether early helping behavior is based on an understanding of other individuals' needs and is thus motivated prosocially. In the present eye-tracking study, 9- to 18-month-old infants (N= 71) saw a character in need of help, unable to reach its goal because of an obstacle, and a second character that was able to achieve a goal on its own. When a third individual (a helper) initiated an action, the infants expected the helper to help the character in need (as indicated during the anticipatory-looking and violation-of-expectation phases). Their prosocial understanding did not differ between age groups and was not related to their helping behavior (measured in two behavioral tasks). Thus, infants understand other individuals' needs even before they start to help others themselves. This indicates that early helping may indeed be motivated prosocially and raises the question of which other competences underlie the ontogeny of helping behavior. PMID:26902106

  1. ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition, and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention, and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METH...

  2. [Cocooning strategy: Effectiveness of a pertussis vaccination program for parents in the maternity unit of a university hospital].

    PubMed

    Decréquy, A; de Vienne, C; Bellot, A; Guillois, B; Dreyfus, M; Brouard, J

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on vaccination coverage of a protocol in which promotion and administration of pertussis vaccine in the maternity ward were proposed upon discharge from a French university hospital. Pertussis is a potentially fatal bacterial respiratory infection, especially in young infants. Since 2004 the High Council of Public Health has recommended vaccinating adults who may become parents. This recommendation is not widely applied in France. The study, organized as a professional practice evaluation (EPP) was conducted by a multidisciplinary team at Caen University Hospital. Thirty couples were included for each period. The primary endpoint was the rate of vaccination coverage for both parents at hospital discharge. Before the information campaign (first period, January 2012), immunization coverage of mothers and fathers was 20% and 13%, respectively. No couple had received a prescription for vaccines. During the second period (June 2013), vaccination coverage was 77% at hospital discharge for mothers and 57% for fathers. Parental immunization coverage against pertussis was multiplied by four to five during the study, which is very encouraging, and it is important to continue this campaign at the region and national levels. PMID:27345559

  3. Maternal and infant sleep postpartum.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    New parents should be aware that infants' sleep is unlike that of adults and that meeting their infant's needs is likely to disrupt their own sleep. They will need to adjust their routine to manage their own sleep needs. Parental sleep patterns in the postpartum period are tied to the infant's development of a circadian sleep-wake rhythm, and the infant's feeds. Close contact with the mother and exposure to light/dark cues appear to assist in the development of the infant's circadian rhythm. The composition of breastmilk varies over the course of 24 hours and some components produced at night are likely to contribute to the infant's day/night entrainment. There is no clear evidence that using artificial feeds improves maternal sleep. Most infants need night feeds but requirements for nighttime feeds vary with the individual. PMID:23957180

  4. Infant memory for musical experiences.

    PubMed

    Saffran, J R; Loman, M M; Robertson, R R

    2000-10-16

    Recent findings suggest that infants can remember words from stories over 2 week delays (Jusczyk, P. W., & Hohne, E. A. (1997). Infants' memory for spoken words. Science, 277, 1984-1986). Because music, like language, presents infants with a massively complex auditory learning task, it is possible that infant memory for musical stimuli is equally powerful. Seven-month-old infants heard two Mozart sonata movements daily for 2 weeks. Following a 2 week retention interval, the infants were tested on passages of the familiarized music, and passages taken from similar but novel music. Results from two experiments suggest that the infants retained the familiarized music in long-term memory, and that their listening preferences were affected by the extent to which familiar passages were removed from the musical contexts within which they were originally learned. PMID:10980255

  5. Infant neurobehavioral development.

    PubMed

    Lester, Barry M; Miller, Robin J; Hawes, Katheleen; Salisbury, Amy; Bigsby, Rosemarie; Sullivan, Mary C; Padbury, James F

    2011-02-01

    The trend toward single-room neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) is increasing; however scientific evidence is, at this point, mostly anecdotal. This is a critical time to assess the impact of the single-room NICU on improving medical and neurobehavioral outcomes of the preterm infant. We have developed a theoretical model that may be useful in studying how the change from an open-bay NICU to a single-room NICU could affect infant medical and neurobehavioral outcome. The model identifies mediating factors that are likely to accompany the change to a single-room NICU. These mediating factors include family centered care, developmental care, parenting and family factors, staff behavior and attitudes, and medical practices. Medical outcomes that plan to be measured are sepsis, length of stay, gestational age at discharge, weight gain, illness severity, gestational age at enteral feeding, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Neurobehavioral outcomes include the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) scores, sleep state organization and sleep physiology, infant mother feeding interaction scores, and pain scores. Preliminary findings on the sample of 150 patients in the open-bay NICU showed a "baseline" of effects of family centered care, developmental care, parent satisfaction, maternal depression, and parenting stress on the neurobehavioral outcomes of the newborn. The single-room NICU has the potential to improve the neurobehavioral status of the infant at discharge. Neurobehavioral assessment can assist with early detection and therefore preventative intervention to maximize developmental outcome. We also present an epigenetic model of the potential effects of maternal care on improving infant neurobehavioral status. PMID:21255702

  6. Neurobiology of infant attachment.

    PubMed

    Moriceau, Stephanie; Sullivan, Regina M

    2005-11-01

    A strong attachment to the caregiver is critical for survival in altricial species, including humans. While some behavioral aspects of attachment have been characterized, its neurobiology has only recently received attention. Using a mammalian imprinting model, we are assessing the neural circuitry that enables infant rats to attach quickly to a caregiver, thus enhancing survival in the nest. Specifically, the hyper-functioning noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) enables pups to learn rapid, robust preference for the caregiver. Conversely, a hypo-functional amygdala appears to prevent the infant from learning aversions to the caregiver. Adult LC and amygdala functional emergence correlates with sensitive period termination. This study suggests the neonatal brain is not an immature version of the adult brain but is uniquely designed to optimize attachment to the caregiver. Although human attachment may not rely on identical circuitry, the work reviewed here suggests a new conceptual framework in which to explore human attachments, particularly attachments to abusive caregivers. PMID:16252291

  7. Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this…

  8. The Role of Infant Cognitive Level in Mother-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Patricia L.; Jones, Freda A.

    Videotapes of mother/infant pairs were made to assess the influence of selected infant and maternal characteristics on parent/child interaction. Characteristics of interest were infant mental age, infant chronological age, infant gender, and parity. Subjects were 37 mothers (20 primiparous, 17 multiparous) and their infants (19 males, 18 females)…

  9. Infant feeding: a critical look at infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Motil, K J

    2000-10-01

    Commercially available infant formulas serve as the best alternative to human milk when breastfeeding is not possible. Infant formulas are designed specifically to mimic the composition of human milk or the functional aspects of human milk feeding. This review highlights the issues related to the composition of infant formulas. The most hotly debated issue currently is whether to add long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to infant formulas. Other controversial topics include the safety and efficacy of soy-based protein formulas, protein quantity and quality as they relate to the infant's nutritional needs and feeding tolerance, and the replacement of lactose with other carbohydrate sources for specialized infant formulas. Recent modifications in the fat blend of infant formulas have led to improved fat digestibility. However, the full spectrum of benefits associated with the addition of nucleotides awaits further study. Modifications to infant formulas are made when the preponderance of scientific evidence suggests that the compositional change will better meet the nutritional needs of the infant. PMID:11021413

  10. Unnatural sudden infant death

    PubMed Central

    Meadow, R.

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To identify features to help paediatricians differentiate between natural and unnatural infant deaths.
METHOD—Clinical features of 81 children judged by criminal and family courts to have been killed by their parents were studied. Health and social service records, court documents, and records from meetings with parents, relatives, and social workers were studied.
RESULTS—Initially, 42 children had been certified as dying from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and 29 were given another cause of natural death. In 24 families, more than one child died; 58died before the age of 6 months and most died in the afternoon or evening. Seventy per cent had experienced unexplained illnesses; over half were admitted to hospital within the previous month, and 15 had been discharged within 24 hours of death. The mother, father, or both were responsible for death in 43, five, and two families, respectively. Most homes were disadvantaged—no regular income, receiving income support—and mothers smoked. Half the perpetrators had a history of somatising or factitious disorder. Death was usually by smothering and 43% of children had bruises, petechiae, or blood on the face.
CONCLUSIONS—Although certain features are indicative of unnatural infant death, some are also associated with SIDS. Despite the recent reduction in numbers of infants dying suddenly, inadequacies in the assessment of their deaths exist. Until a thorough postmortem examination is combined with evaluation of the history and circumstances of death by an experienced paediatrician, most cases of covert fatal abuse will go undetected. The term SIDS requires revision or abandonment.

 PMID:10325752

  11. Brain tumors in infants

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Seyyed Mohammad; Habibi, Zohreh; Hanaei, Sara; Moradi, Ehsan; Nejat, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brain tumors in infants have different clinical presentations, anatomical distribution, histopathological diagnosis, and clinical prognosis compared with older children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done in patients <12 months old who were operated on for primary brain tumor in Children's Hospital Medical Center since 2008 to 2014. Results: Thirty-one infants, 20 males and 11 females, with the mean age of 7.13 months (0.5–12) were enrolled. There were 16 supratentorial and 15 infratentorial tumors. The presenting symptoms included increased head circumference (16); bulge fontanel (15); vomiting (15); developmental regression (11); sunset eye (7); seizure (4); loss of consciousness (4); irritability (3); nystagmus (2); visual loss (2); hemiparesis (2); torticollis (2); VI palsy (3); VII, IX, X nerve palsy (each 2); and ptosis (1). Gross total and subtotal resection were performed in 19 and 11 cases, respectively. Fourteen patients needed external ventricular drainage in the perioperative period, from whom four infants required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. One patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting without tumor resection. The most common histological diagnoses were primitive neuroectodermal tumor (7), followed by anaplastic ependymoma (6) and grade II ependymoma. The rate of 30-day mortality was 19.3%. Eighteen patients are now well-controlled with or without adjuvant therapy (overall survival; 58%), from whom 13 cases are tumor free (disease free survival; 41.9%), 3 cases have residual masses with fixed or decreased size (progression-free survival; 9.6%), and 2 cases are still on chemotherapy. Conclusion: Brain tumors in infants should be treated with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy when necessary. PMID:26962338

  12. Bone densitometry in infants

    SciTech Connect

    Barden, H.S.; Mazess, R.B.

    1988-07-01

    Bone mineral mass and density can be measured noninvasively by various absorptiometric procedures. Two methods, dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) and quantitative computed tomography, have widespread application in adults but only limited use in children. One method, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), has been used extensively in adults and children and has been modified for use in infants. The radius shaft has been used for most research on infants. However, the difficulty of using older SPA methods on this small bone (4 to 7 mm width) has led a few investigators to measure the shaft of the humerus. The typical precision of measurement in a newborn is about 5% with the use of computerized rectilinear scanners for the radius; older linear scanners have a precision error of 5% to 10% on the humerus. Linear scanners cannot measure precisely the radius in individual neonates. The SPA scans typically take about 5 minutes. The DPA technique using /sup 153/Gd has been modified for use on smaller animals (5 to 10 kg monkeys and dogs), but it has not been used on infants because DPA scans take 20 minutes. New methods using x-ray absorptiometry allow rapid (1 minute), precise (1%) measurements in the perinate. The need for a soft tissue bolus is eliminated, and both the axial and peripheral skeletons can be measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Ultrasonic measurements do not yet offer adequate precision in the neonate, given the limited biologic range of values. 83 references.

  13. History of infant feeding practices.

    PubMed

    Barness, L A

    1987-07-01

    Human milk was the one successful infant food until the advent of scientific pediatrics, the invention of electric refrigeration, and the development of formulas containing the major nutrients in concentrations similar to human milk. Infants apparently thrive on artificial formulas but the current formulas represent only a stage in the journey to optimal nutrition for infants. Better analyses of the composition of human milk are likely to lead to an improved understanding of the infant's nutritional requirements and thus to better feeding practices. PMID:3300255

  14. Safety of Sildenafil in Infants*

    PubMed Central

    Samiee-Zafarghandy, Samira; Smith, P. Brian; van den Anker, Johannes N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In view of the recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s warning against the use of sildenafil in pediatric patients, we aimed to provide an updated overview of the dosing and safety of sildenafil in infants and to explore the relevance of the present safety concerns to the infant population. Data Source The National Library of Medicine PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched using the following terms: Sildenafil AND (infant OR infants OR newborn OR newborns OR child OR children OR childhood OR pediatric OR pediatrics OR paediatric OR paediatrics). Study Selection Studies presenting original clinical data regarding the dosing, use, or safety of sildenafil in infants with pulmonary hypertension would be included. Data Extraction Of the 49 included studies, case reports and case series were the most common type of publications (n = 25). The identified trials included 625 children, with more than 140 infants. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and pulmonary hypertension associated with other conditions were the most common underlying diagnoses. Conclusion There is currently no evidence of serious adverse event in infants exposed to sildenafil. Present safety concerns regarding the use of sildenafil in pediatric patients should be further explored before being applied to infant population. Sildenafil remains a valuable option for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in young infants. Prospective studies should be designed in such a way that they include a safety assessment to evaluate potential adverse outcomes of sildenafil therapy in this population. PMID:24583505

  15. Infant of a substance using mother

    MedlinePlus

    ... Maternal substance use; Maternal drug use; Narcotic exposure - infant; Substance use disorder - infant ... ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS SEEN IN AN INFANT OF A SUBSTANCE-ABUSING MOTHER? Babies born to ...

  16. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the ... using infant formula . Buying, Preparing, and Storing Infant Formula The following tips can help you buy, prepare, ...

  17. Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies and infants; Formula feeding - babies and infants ... life, your baby needs only breast milk or formula for proper nutrition. Your baby will digest breast ...

  18. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Facts for Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents risk factors and prevention measures related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Offers infant sleep recommendations and five discussion questions to test knowledge of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (DLH)

  19. Infants' Behavioral and Physiological Profile and Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Raquel; Figueiredo, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to (a) identify and profile groups of infants according to their behavioral and physiological characteristics, considering their neurobehavioral organization, social withdrawal behavior, and endocrine reactivity to stress, and to (b) analyze group differences in the quality of mother-infant interaction. Ninety-seven 8-week-old…

  20. Infant Neurosensory Development: Considerations for Infant Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Infant brain development is a dynamic process dependent upon endogenous and exogenous stimulation and a supportive environment. A critical period of brain and neurosensory development occurs during the third trimester and into the "fourth" trimester (first three months of life). Disruption, damage, or deprivation in the infant's social and…

  1. Individual and Maturational Differences in Infant Expressivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1989-01-01

    Reports that, even though young infants can discriminate among different facial expressions, there are individual differences in infants' expressivity and ability to produce and discriminate facial expressions. (PCB)

  2. Cholestasis in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Satrom, Katie; Gourley, Glenn

    2016-06-01

    Cholestasis in preterm infants has a multifactorial etiology. Risk factors include degree of prematurity, lack of enteral feeding, intestinal injury, prolonged use of parenteral nutrition (PN), and sepsis. Soy-based parenteral lipid emulsions have been implicated in the pathophysiology of PN-associated liver injury. Inflammation plays an important role. Medical therapies are used; however, their effects have not consistently proven effective. Evaluation of cholestasis involves laboratory work; direct bilirubin levels are used for diagnosis and trending. Adverse outcomes include risk for hepatobiliary dysfunction, irreversible liver failure, and death. Early enteral feedings as tolerated is the best way to prevent and manage cholestasis. PMID:27235213

  3. Pollution and Infant Health

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Janet

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I review recent research showing that even relatively low levels of pollution can affect infants' health. This research attempts to go beyond documenting correlations by using sharp changes in pollution levels, carefully selecting control groups (including unexposed siblings as controls for exposed children), and considering behavioral responses to pollution such as maternal mobility. Poor and minority children are more likely to be affected and differential exposure could be responsible for some of the observed group-level differences in health at birth. Policymakers concerned about the roots of inequality should consider the role played by environmental exposures of pregnant mothers. PMID:27134646

  4. How Infants Encode Spatial Extent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Sean; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Levine, Susan; Duffy, Renee

    2005-01-01

    This study explores how infants encode an object's spatial extent. We habituated 6.5-month-old infants to a dowel inside a container and then tested whether they dishabituate to a change in absolute size when the relation between dowel and container is held constant (by altering the size of both container and dowel) and when the relation changes…

  5. Averaged Electroencephalic Audiometry in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lentz, William E.; McCandless, Geary A.

    1971-01-01

    Normal, preterm, and high-risk infants were tested at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of age using averaged electroencephalic audiometry (AEA) to determine the usefulness of AEA as a measurement technique for assessing auditory acuity in infants, and to delineate some of the procedural and technical problems often encountered. (KW)

  6. [Infant and Toddler Communication Disorders].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter issue contains four articles all addressing aspects of intervention with infants and toddlers having communication disorders. The first, "Assessing the Communication of Infants and Toddlers: Integrating a Socioemotional Perspective" (Barry M. Prizant and Amy M. Wetherby) describes a new instrument, the Communication and Symbolic…

  7. Caring for Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "The Future of Children" focuses on the daily care of infants and toddlers in the United States, including shifting caregiving arrangement for children younger than 3 years, developmental needs of infants and toddlers, findings of recent child care studies, public opinion regarding child care, and recent innovations seeking to…

  8. Number Sense in Human Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fei; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Goddard, Sydney

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments used a preferential looking method to investigate 6-month-old infants' capacity to represent numerosity in visual-spatial displays. Building on previous findings that such infants discriminate between arrays of eight versus 16 discs, but not eight versus 12 discs (Xu & Spelke, 2000), Experiments 1 and 2 investigated whether…

  9. Trends in infant abductions (2005).

    PubMed

    Nahirny, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    Infant kidnapping in healthcare facilities has been sharply reduced since the 1990s when educational programs and tagging systems were introduced. However, infant abductors in recent years have changed their methods of operation to meet improved nursery safeguards. In this updated report, the author warns of some new dangers posed by the Internet. PMID:16535955

  10. Determinants of Infant Behaviour IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss, B. M., Ed.

    This volume consists of reports of individual studies and surveys of research work on mother-infant interactions. It is divided into two parts. The first section presents a wide range of studies on mother-infant relations as exhibited in the behavior of animals. The second part, concerning human behavior, includes studies on the natural history of…