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Sample records for cocooning infants tdap

  1. Protecting Newborns by Immunizing Family Members in a Hospital-Based Vaccine Clinic: A Successful Tdap Cocooning Program During the 2010 California Pertussis Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    McBane, Sarah; Wang, Wendy; Sawyer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective Infants are at greatest risk for mortality from pertussis infection. Since 2005, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended a cocooning strategy of vaccinating all close contacts of infants with tetanus, diptheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine to reduce the risk of transmitting pertussis. Difficulties in establishing a complete cocoon have been reported in the literature. We determined whether families of newborns could be fully immunized against pertussis, thereby providing a complete cocoon of protection. Methods Tdap vaccine was offered during visiting hours to contacts aged 7 years and older and to postpartum patients who had not received Tdap vaccine during pregnancy. We then conducted retrospective phone interviews with randomly selected mothers (or other family members) to assess vaccination rates. We compared household vaccination rates during intervention and control periods and the demographic factors associated with Tdap vaccination of all members within the households. Results During the intervention period, 243 postpartum patients and 1,287 other family members of newborns were immunized, with 84.8% of all family members receiving Tdap vaccination. Seventy-six percent of households reported a complete cocoon. In the control group, 52.2% of all family members received Tdap vaccination, and 29.3% of households had a complete cocoon. In the control group, fewer family members completed Tdap vaccination in the larger households than in the smaller households (p=0.008). Conclusion A cocooning strategy can be successfully implemented, such that the majority of newborns leave the hospital with their families fully immunized against pertussis. PMID:24791022

  2. Infant outcomes after exposure to Tdap vaccine in pregnancy: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Tony; Graham, Patricia; Petousis-Harris, Helen; Hill, Linda; Austin, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Objective Pertussis vaccination during pregnancy has recently been recommended in both the USA and UK to prevent pertussis infection in infants. While there are no apparent safety concerns about the administration of Tdap vaccine during pregnancy, there is only limited safety data available. We aimed to closely monitor infants exposed to Tdap during pregnancy to look for any adverse outcomes that may be attributable to the vaccine. Design This was a prospective observational study, collecting information to evaluate the safety of Tdap vaccine for infants exposed during pregnancy. Infants were followed for between 6 and 12 months after birth, with 84% completing 12 months of follow-up. Information was obtained from objective sources including routine health visits and vaccination records wherever possible, as well as frequent parental reports. Setting The Canterbury region of New Zealand. Patients A cohort of 403 infants whose mothers had received Tdap vaccine. Main outcome measures Gestational age at birth, growth parameters, congenital anomalies, immunisation status and timeliness of immunisation, development of pertussis infection. Results There were no significant differences in birth weight, gestational age at birth, congenital anomalies or infant growth as compared with baseline population data. Infants of mothers who had received the vaccine were more likely to receive their vaccinations on time during infancy. No cases of pertussis occurred in this cohort despite high rates of disease in the community. We have not found any adverse events attributable to vaccine exposure. Conclusions These data add to the growing pool of evidence that the administration of Tdap vaccine during pregnancy is an appropriate strategy for reducing the burden of pertussis in infants. Clinical trial registration Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613001045707. PMID:26739731

  3. Abdominal cocoon: a unique presentation in an immunodeficient infant.

    PubMed

    Browne, Lorna P; Patel, Jigar; Guillerman, R Paul; Hanson, Imelda C; Cass, Darrell L

    2012-02-01

    Abdominal cocoon is a rare disorder that may pose a diagnostic conundrum in patients presenting with intermittent symptoms of small bowel obstruction. We describe the imaging findings of a unique case of abdominal cocoon that presented in infancy. PMID:21713442

  4. Abdominal cocoon

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Christian B S; Diggory, Robert T; Samee, Abdus

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction secondary to cocoon formation is not common. We report a case of a patient who had presented with abdominal pain and distension accompanied by vomiting. Investigations, laparotomy and histology together revealed primary peritoneal carcinoma as the cause of the patient's symptoms. PMID:24682136

  5. Hofstadter's Cocoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones-Smith, Katherine; Wallace, Connor

    2015-01-01

    Hofstadter showed that the energy levels of electrons on a lattice plotted as a function of magnetic field form an beautiful structure now referred to as "Hofstadter's butterfly". We study a non-Hermitian continuation of Hofstadter's model; as the non-Hermiticity parameter g increases past a sequence of critical values the eigenvalues successively go complex in a sequence of "double-pitchfork bifurcations" wherein pairs of real eigenvalues degenerate and then become complex conjugate pairs. The associated wavefunctions undergo a spontaneous symmetry breaking transition that we elucidate. Beyond the transition a plot of the real parts of the eigenvalues against magnetic field resembles the Hofstadter butterfly; a plot of the imaginary parts plotted against magnetic fields forms an intricate structure that we call the Hofstadter cocoon. The symmetries of the cocoon are described. Hatano and Nelson have studied a non-Hermitian continuation of the Anderson model of localization that has close parallels to the model studied here. The relationship of our work to that of Hatano and Nelson and to PT transitions studied in PT quantum mechanics is discussed.

  6. Post trauma abdominal cocoon

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Supreet; Doley, Rudra Prasad; Chabbhra, Mohinish; Kapoor, Rajeev; Wig, Jaidev

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing peritonitis refers to a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to formation of a membrane encasing the bowel. We report a case of abdominal cocoon post blunt trauma abdomen. The patient presented with a history of subacute intestinal obstruction and a mobile abdomen lump. Abdominal cocoon was diagnosed on computed tomography. He underwent adhesiolysis with excision of membrane. PMID:25590647

  7. The impact of parental postpartum pertussis vaccination on infection in infants: A population-based study of cocooning in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Carcione, Dale; Regan, Annette K; Tracey, Lauren; Mak, Donna B; Gibbs, Robyn; Dowse, Gary K; Bulsara, Max; Effler, Paul V

    2015-10-13

    During a pertussis epidemic in 2011-2012 the Western Australian (WA) Department of Health implemented a 'cocooning' programme, offering free pertussis-containing vaccine (dTpa) to new parents. We assessed the impact of vaccinating parents with dTpa on the incidence of pertussis infection in newborns. Births in WA during 2011-2012 were linked to a register of parental pertussis vaccinations and to notified reports of laboratory-proven pertussis in children <6 months of age. Parents who received dTpa during the four weeks after their child's birth were defined as 'vaccinated postpartum.' Cox proportional-hazards methods were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of pertussis infection among infants born to parents vaccinated postpartum vs. unvaccinated parents, adjusted for maternal age, geographic region, timing of birth, and number of siblings. Of 64,364 live-births, 43,480 (68%) infants had at least one vaccinated parent (60% of mothers and 36% of fathers). After excluding records where parent(s) were either vaccinated prior to the birth, vaccinated >28 days after the birth, the vaccination date was uncertain, or the child died at birth (n=42), the final cohort contained 53,149 children, 118 of whom developed pertussis. There was no difference in the incidence of pertussis among infants whose parents were both vaccinated postpartum compared to those with unvaccinated parents (1.9 vs 2.2 infections per 1000 infants; adjusted HR 0.91; 95%CI 0.55-1.53). Similarly, when assessed independently, maternal postpartum vaccination was not protective (adjusted HR 1.19; 95%CI 0.82-1.72). Supplemental sensitivity analyses which varied the time period for parental vaccination and accounted for under-reporting of vaccination status did not significantly alter these findings. In our setting, vaccinating parents with dTpa during the four weeks following delivery did not reduce pertussis diagnoses in infants. WA now provides dTpa vaccine to pregnant women during the third trimester. PMID:26320420

  8. Neonatal pertussis, cocooning and maternal immunization.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Geeta K; Wheeler, Sarahn M

    2014-09-01

    The rising incidence of whooping cough, a highly contagious infection caused by Bordetella pertussis, is particularly significant for young infants who have the highest risk for morbidity and mortality. The pertussis resurgence has led to a shift in primary prevention relying on childhood vaccination to a cocooning strategy, that is, vaccination of close contacts of newborn infants (new mothers, fathers, grandparents, siblings, caretakers, etc.), thereby reducing pertussis exposure. Immunization of women during pregnancy rather than during the immediate postpartum period (the initial cocooning recommendation) appears to be a better approach by directly providing protection through transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies. This article describes neonatal pertussis, cocooning as a means of reducing neonatal exposure to pertussis and maternal immunization as a means of protecting young infants against pertussis infection. PMID:25075629

  9. CDC update on pertussis surveillance and Tdap vaccine recommendations.

    PubMed

    Clark, Thomas A; Bobo, Nichole

    2012-11-01

    Pertussis is the most poorly controlled bacterial vaccine-preventable disease. Since the early 1980s there has been an increase in reported cases of pertussis. Multiple factors have likely contributed to the increase, including waning immunity, increased recognition, and changes in diagnostic testing and reporting. Of the four combination vaccines used to prevent diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, one dose of Tdap should be used to vaccinate preteens as well as teens and adults who have not yet received this booster dose. It is the position of NASN that immunizations, including the Tdap vaccine, are key to primary prevention of diseasefrom infancy through adulthood. The school nurse is in a critical position to create awareness and influence action-related national and state recommendations for the Tdap vaccine. PMID:23193719

  10. Carbondioxide gating in silk cocoon.

    PubMed

    Roy, Manas; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Das, Mainak

    2012-12-01

    Silk is the generic name given to the fibrous proteins spun by a number of arthropods. During metamorphosis, the larva of the silk producing arthropods excrete silk-fiber from its mouth and spun it around the body to form a protective structure called cocoon. An adult moth emerges out from the cocoon after the dormant phase (pupal phase) varying from 2 weeks to 9 months. It is intriguing how CO(2)/O(2) and ambient temperature are regulated inside the cocoon during the development of the pupa. Here we show that the cocoon membrane is asymmetric, it allows preferential gating of CO(2) from inside to outside and it regulates a physiological temperature inside the cocoon irrespective of the surrounding environment temperature. We demonstrate that under simulating CO(2) rich external environment, the CO(2) does not diffuse inside the cocoon. Whereas, when CO(2) was injected inside the cocoon, it diffuses out in 20 s, indicating gating of CO(2) from inside to outside the membrane. Removal of the calcium oxalate hydrate crystals which are naturally present on the outer surface of the cocoon affected the complete blockade of CO(2) flow from outside to inside suggesting its role to trap most of the CO(2) as hydrogen bonded bicarbonate on the surface. The weaved silk of the cocoon worked as the second barrier to prevent residual CO(2) passage. Furthermore, we show that under two extreme natural temperature regime of 5 and 50 C, a temperature of 25 and 34 C respectively were maintained inside the cocoons. Our results demonstrate, how CO(2) gating and thermoregulation helps in maintaining an ambient atmosphere inside the cocoon for the growth of pupa. Such natural architectural control of gas and temperature regulation could be helpful in developing energy saving structures and gas filters. PMID:22791361

  11. How Do Caterpillars Make Cocoons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kay

    1994-01-01

    Describes a Lexington, Kentucky, kindergarten science project that employed the Reggio Emilia approach of long-term open-ended projects steered by children's interests and group discussions. The children's investigation of how caterpillars make cocoons included direct observation of the metamorphosis process, construction of child-sized cocoons,

  12. Operculum ultrastructure in leech cocoons.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Anthony M; Saidel, William M; Marotta, Roberto; Saglam, Naim; Shain, Daniel H

    2013-08-01

    Clitellate annelids (i.e., oligochaetes including leeches) secrete cocoons as part of their normal reproductive cycle. Typically, the cocoon sheath is passed over the head of the leech and sealed at both ends by opercula (i.e., glue-like material secreted by the clitellum). Both the fibrous cocoon wall (CW) and opercula are chemically-related biomaterials that share unusual physiochemical properties, including thermal and chemical resiliency. To explore the underlying morphology of the operculum, we examined cocoons from four leech species (i.e., Myzobdella lugubris, Theromyzon tessulatum, Erpobdella obscura, and Erpobdella punctata) by transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Transmission electron micrographs of all opercula revealed a common, ultrastructural pattern comprising an electron-dense mosaic of ordered polygons that surrounded interspersed cavities. The long axes of cavities were often oriented directionally, suggesting that operculum material is pliable prior to solidification and distorted as a consequence of cocoon deposition. Concomitantly, the operculum permeates jagged edges of the cocoon sheath sealing the cocoon, which provides a mechanically strong CW/operculum boundary. SEM of leech opercula revealed globular nanoparticles comparable to that observed in bioadhesives from disparate animal phyla (e.g., mussel, barnacle, sea star), suggesting a convergent mechanism of bioadhesion among animals. PMID:23625511

  13. Protecting newborns from pertussis the challenge of complete cocooning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An increase of pertussis cases, especially in young infants and adolescents, has been noted in various countries. Whooping cough is most serious in neonates and young infants in whom it may cause serious complications such as cyanosis, apnoea, pneumonia, encephalopathy and death. To protect newborns and infants too young to be fully immunized, immunization of close contact persons has been proposed (cocoon strategy) and implemented in several countries, including Switzerland in 2011. The goal of this study was to assess knowledge about pertussis among parents of newborns and acceptance, practicability and implementation of the recently recommended pertussis cocoon strategy in Switzerland. Methods We performed a cross sectional survey among all parents of newborns born between May and September 2012 and 2013 in Basel city and country. Regional statistical offices provided family addresses after approval by the ethical and data protection committees. A standardized questionnaire with detailed instructions was sent to all eligible families. For statistical analyses, independent proportions were compared by Pearsons chi-squared test. Results Of 3546 eligible parents, 884 (25%) participated. All three questions exploring pertussis knowledge were answered correctly by 37% of parents; 25% gave two correct answers, 22% gave one correct answer and in the remaining 16% no answer was correct. Pertussis immunization as part of cocooning was recommended to 20% and 37% of mothers and 14% and 32% of fathers in the 2012 and 2013 study cohorts, respectively. Principal advisors for cocooning were pediatricians (66%) followed by gynecologists/obstetricians (12%) and general practitioners (5%). When recommended, 64% of mothers and 59% of fathers accepted pertussis immunization. The majority of vaccinations were administered in the perinatal period and within 2 months of the childs birth. However, cocooning remained incomplete in 93% of families and in most families <50% of close contacts received pertussis vaccination. Conclusions Implementation of cocooning for protecting newborns from pertussis is challenging and usually remains incomplete. Pertussis immunization rates among close contacts of newborns need to be improved. Ideally, all healthcare providers involved in family planning, pregnancy and child birth should recommend cocooning. Pertussis immunization of pregnant women is an additional measure for optimal protection of newborns and should be promoted. PMID:25037057

  14. Abdominal cocoon secondary to disseminated tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Puppala, Radha; Sripathi, Smiti; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Koteshwar, Prakashini; Singh, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon, also known as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, represents a rare entity where a variable length of the small bowel is enveloped by a fibrocollagenous membrane giving the appearance of a cocoon. It may be asymptomatic and is often diagnosed incidentally at laparotomy. We present a rare case of abdominal cocoon due to abdominal tuberculosis. PMID:25239980

  15. Cocoon drying through solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kulunk, M.

    1983-12-01

    In this paper, silk cocoon drying operations through solar energy have been presented. Nearly no comprehensive work has been appeared in literature on this unusual application. General mechanism of solar drying methods are presented by some authors for instance, Roman and Jindal. This application seems vitally significant for silk cocoon producer countries like Turkey. The rate of production accelerates year by year and it is about 3000 tons per year presently in Turkey. In Turkey, by now and currently, a water vapour chamber is utilized in the killing process of silkworm. Vapour produced by burning of conventional fuels posses many drawbacks beside being very expensive and also non-renewable. Vapour effects the quality and quantity of silk thread negatively. For instance, the colour of silk cocoon tends to turn to pale instead of being gleamy. This is not tolerable. The length and mass of silk thread obtained per a typical cocoon sample is increased about 10.1 and 16.5 per cent respectively in the average by using solar energy.

  16. Universal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of adults: What the Canadian public knows and wants to know.

    PubMed

    Halperin, B A; MacDougall, D; MacKinnon-Cameron, D; Li, L; McNeil, S A; Langley, J M; Halperin, S A

    2015-11-27

    Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) is recommended for all adults in Canada but uptake is low. This study measured the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of Canadian adults to identify potential barriers and facilitators to Tdap uptake. A survey was undertaken on a geographically representative sample of Canadian adults (n=4023) and 8 focus groups (62 participants) were conducted nationwide. The survey revealed that knowledge about pertussis and Tdap was low (38.3% correct answers). Only 36.0% of respondents reported being aware that all adults were recommended to receive Tdap and only 10.7% reported being immunized; 36.7% did not know whether they had received Tdap. Respondents who were aware of the immunization recommendations were twice as likely to be immunized (16.6% vs. 8.3%; p<0.001). Only 9.3% believed that their health care provider thought that Tdap was important for adults. The focus group data supported the survey results. Participants wanted information about pertussis and Tdap communicated through multiple modalities, but a recommendation by their family physician was most important to their decision to be immunized or not. This study demonstrates that current recommendations for universal adult vaccination with Tdap are not reaching the general public in Canada and an alternative strategy will be required to improve Tdap vaccine uptake. PMID:26392011

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of Tdap Vaccination of Adults Aged ?65 Years in the Prevention of Pertussis in the US: A Dynamic Model of Disease Transmission

    PubMed Central

    McGarry, Lisa J.; Krishnarajah, Girishanthy; Hill, Gregory; Masseria, Cristina; Skornicki, Michelle; Pruttivarasin, Narin; Arondekar, Bhakti; Roiz, Julie; Pelton, Stephen I.; Weinstein, Milton C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In February 2012, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) advised that all adults aged ?65 years receive a single dose of reduced-antigen-content tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap), expanding on a 2010 recommendation for adults >65 that was limited to those with close contact with infants. We evaluated clinical and economic outcomes of adding Tdap booster of adults aged ?65 to baseline practice [full-strength DTaP administered from 2 months to 46 years, and one dose of Tdap at 1164 years replacing decennial Td booster], using a dynamic model. Methods We constructed a population-level disease transmission model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of supplementing baseline practice by vaccinating 10% of eligible adults aged ?65 with Tdap replacing the decennial Td booster. US population effects, including indirect benefits accrued by unvaccinated persons, were estimated during a 1-year period after disease incidence reached a new steady state, with consequences of deaths and long-term pertussis sequelae projected over remaining lifetimes. Model outputs include: cases by severity, encephalopathy, deaths, costs (of vaccination and pertussis care) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) associated with each strategy. Results in terms of incremental cost/QALY gained are presented from payer and societal perspectives. Sensitivity analyses vary key parameters within plausible ranges. Results For the US population, the intervention is expected to prevent >97,000 cases (>4,000 severe and >5,000 among infants) of pertussis annually at steady state. Additional vaccination costs are $4.7 million. Net cost savings, including vaccination costs, are $47.7 million (societal perspective) and $44.8 million (payer perspective). From both perspectives, the intervention strategy is dominant (less costly, and more effective by >3,000 QALYs) versus baseline. Results are robust to sensitivity analyses and alternative scenarios. Conclusions Immunization of eligible adults aged ?65, consistent with the current ACIP recommendation, is cost saving from both payer and societal perspectives. PMID:24416118

  18. Gastro retention using polymer cocoons.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Julien; Hunkeler, David

    2015-02-01

    A gastro-retentive capsule has been prepared which is retained in the stomach for a period of 24h, providing a vehicle for the controlled delivery to the upper intestines. These "gastro cocoons" can resist passage through the sphincter of the stomach, and can retain a high drug payload (30%). They are made from oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and can swell to twice their initial volume. They are strong and also can resist 550 N of compressive force. They are based on filled pharmaceutical capsules which are visible to X-rays. Using ambroxol hydrochloride as a model drug linear, zero-order, release curves were obtained. PMID:25078789

  19. Structure and physical properties of silkworm cocoons

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    Silkworm cocoons have evolved a wide range of different structures and combinations of physical and chemical properties in order to cope with different threats and environmental conditions. We present our observations and measurements on 25 diverse types of cocoons in a first attempt to correlate physical properties with the structure and morphology of the cocoons. These two architectural parameters appear to be far more important than the material properties of the silk fibres themselves. We consider tensile and compressive mechanical properties and gas permeation of the cocoon walls, and in each case identify mechanisms or models that relate these properties to cocoon structure, usually based upon non-woven fibre composites. These properties are of relevance also for synthetic non-woven composite materials and our studies will help formulate bio-inspired design principles for new materials. PMID:22552916

  20. Control of pertussis in infants: time has finally come?

    PubMed

    Safadi, Marco Aurelio P

    2015-06-01

    Despite the success of routine immunization programs against pertussis worldwide, control of the disease in young infants has never been achieved. The greatest risk of disease, hospitalization and death occur in infants, who are too young to have received the primary pertussis immunization course. Different interventions to provide indirect protection to infants were recommended, including vaccination programs with Tdap for adolescents, adults, postpartum women and household contacts of infants, but all of them failed to effectively control the disease in infants. Based on the successful experience of maternal tetanus vaccination, and more recently influenza vaccination, maternal Tdap vaccine has been universally recommended since 2011/2012 in several countries to prevent pertussis in infants. The recent publication of data on the uptake, safety and effectiveness of these programs, as well as impact on disease rates in infants is encouraging, anticipating the possibility to at last control pertussis in this vulnerable age group. PMID:25968349

  1. Expandable coating cocoon leak detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, R. L.; Kochansky, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    Development of system and materials for detecting leaks in cocoon protective coatings are discussed. Method of applying materials for leak determination is presented. Pressurization of system following application of materials will cause formation of bubble if leak exists.

  2. Prevention of pertussis, tetanus, and diphtheria among pregnant and postpartum women and their infants recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).

    PubMed

    Murphy, Trudy V; Slade, Barbara A; Broder, Karen R; Kretsinger, Katrina; Tiwari, Tejpratap; Joyce, Patricia M; Iskander, John K; Brown, Kristin; Moran, John S

    2008-05-30

    In 2005, two tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines were licensed and recommended for use in adults and adolescents in the United States: ADACEL (sanofi pasteur, Swiftwater, Pennsylvania), which is licensed for use in persons aged 11--64 years, and BOOSTRIX (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium), which is licensed for use in persons aged 10-18 years. Both Tdap vaccines are licensed for single-dose use to add protection against pertussis and to replace the next dose of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids vaccine (Td). Available evidence does not address the safety of Tdap for pregnant women, their fetuses, or pregnancy outcomes sufficiently. Available data also do not indicate whether Tdap-induced transplacental maternal antibodies provide early protection against pertussis to infants or interfere with an infant's immune responses to routinely administered pediatric vaccines. Until additional information is available, CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that pregnant women who were not vaccinated previously with Tdap: 1) receive Tdap in the immediate postpartum period before discharge from hospital or birthing center, 2) may receive Tdap at an interval as short as 2 years since the most recent Td vaccine, 3) receive Td during pregnancy for tetanus and diphtheria protection when indicated, or 4) defer the Td vaccine indicated during pregnancy to substitute Tdap vaccine in the immediate postpartum period if the woman is likely to have sufficient protection against tetanus and diphtheria. Although pregnancy is not a contraindication for receiving Tdap vaccine, health-care providers should weigh the theoretical risks and benefits before choosing to administer Tdap vaccine to a pregnant woman. This report 1) describes the clinical features of pertussis, tetanus, and diphtheria among pregnant and postpartum women and their infants, 2) reviews available evidence of pertussis vaccination during pregnancy as a strategy to prevent infant pertussis, 3) summarizes Tdap vaccination policy in the United States, and 4) presents recommendations for use of Td and Tdap vaccines among pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:18509304

  3. Abdominal cocoon: idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Frost, Jason H; Price, Elizabeth E

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon, or idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, is a rare condition characterised by the presence of a dense fibrocollagenous membrane partially or totally encapsulating the small bowel leading to recurrent intestinal obstructions. We present the case of a patient who has presented for the fourth time with a small bowel obstruction. Previous laparoscopy revealed a plaque-like reactive process encapsulating much of the small bowel and the liver. After initial adhesiolysis, the patient's obstructions continued to reoccur. Further laparotomy was performed in order to excise the entirety of the cocoon membrane and free up loops of small bowel encapsulated by the process, hopefully preventing future obstructions. PMID:25612756

  4. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's public health response to monitoring Tdap safety in pregnant women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Moro, Pedro L; McNeil, Michael M; Sukumaran, Lakshmi; Broder, Karen R

    2015-12-01

    In 2010, in response to a widespread pertussis outbreak and neonatal deaths, California became the first state to recommend routine administration of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy. In 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) followed with a similar recommendation for Tdap vaccination during pregnancy for previously unvaccinated women. In 2012, this recommendation was expanded to include Tdap vaccination of every pregnant woman during each pregnancy. These recommendations were based on urgent public health needs and available evidence on the safety of other inactivated vaccines during pregnancy. However, there were limited data on the safety of Tdap during pregnancy. In response to the new ACIP recommendations, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) implemented ongoing collaborative studies to evaluate whether vaccination with Tdap during pregnancy adversely affects the health of mothers and their offspring and provide the committee with regular updates. The current commentary describes the public health actions taken by CDC to respond to the ACIP recommendation to study and monitor the safety of Tdap vaccines in pregnant women and describes the current state of knowledge on the safety of Tdap vaccines in pregnant women. Data from the various monitoring activities support the safety of Tdap use during pregnancy. PMID:26378718

  5. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis: abdominal cocoon.

    PubMed

    Tannoury, Jenny N; Abboud, Bassam N

    2012-05-01

    Abdominal cocoon, the idiopathic form of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, is a rare condition of unknown etiology that results in an intestinal obstruction due to total or partial encapsulation of the small bowel by a fibrocollagenous membrane. Preoperative diagnosis requires a high index of clinical suspicion. The early clinical features are nonspecific, are often not recognized and it is difficult to make a definite pre-operative diagnosis. Clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent episodes of small intestinal obstruction combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies. The radiological diagnosis of abdominal cocoon may now be confidently made on computed tomography scan. Surgery is important in the management of this disease. Careful dissection and excision of the thick sac with the release of the small intestine leads to complete recovery in the vast majority of cases. PMID:22563185

  6. Demineralization enables reeling of wild silkmoth cocoons.

    PubMed

    Gheysens, Tom; Collins, Andrew; Raina, Suresh; Vollrath, Fritz; Knight, David P

    2011-06-13

    Wild Silkmoth cocoons are difficult or impossible to reel under conditions that work well for cocoons of the Mulberry silkmoth, Bombyx mori . Here we report evidence that this is caused by mineral reinforcement of Wild Silkmoth cocoons and that washing these minerals out allows for the reeling of commercial lengths of good quality fibers with implications for the development of the "Wild Silk" industry. We show that in the Lasiocampid silkmoth Gonometa postica , the mineral is whewellite (calcium oxalate monohydrate). Evidence is presented that its selective removal by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) leaves the gum substantially intact, preventing collapse and entanglement of the network of fibroin brins, enabling wet reeling. Therefore, this method clearly differs from the standard "degumming" and should be referred to as "demineralizing". Mechanical testing shows that such preparation results in reeled silks with markedly improved breaking load and extension to break by avoiding the damage produced by the rather harsh degumming, carding, or dry reeling methods currently in use, what may be important for the development of the silk industries not only in Asia but also in Africa and South America. PMID:21491856

  7. The evolution of cocoons surrounding light, extragalactic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioffi, Denis F.; Blondin, John M.

    1992-01-01

    If the mass density of supersonic, collimated material is less than that of the surrounding medium, a so-called light jet will be enveloped by a cocoon of overpressured shocked gas. Hydrodynamical simulations are used to understand the evolution of the cocoon. The cocoon's evolution is also compared to a simple analytic theory. To reconcile the theory with the simulations, the growth of the jet head must be taken into account. The overpressured cocoon stage exists for a relatively short astronomical time, after which only the region of the cocoon near the jet head remains overpressured. The spatial distribution of the optical emission often observed in distant extragalactic jet systems can be explained with this improved understanding of cocoon evolution.

  8. Fish mucous cocoons: the 'mosquito nets' of the sea.

    PubMed

    Grutter, Alexandra S; Rumney, Jennifer G; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Waldie, Peter; Franklin, Craig E

    2011-04-23

    Mucus performs numerous protective functions in vertebrates, and in fishes may defend them against harmful organisms, although often the evidence is contradictory. The function of the mucous cocoons that many parrotfishes and wrasses sleep in, while long used as a classical example of antipredator behaviour, remains unresolved. Ectoparasitic gnathiid isopods (Gnathiidae), which feed on the blood of fish, are removed by cleaner fish during the day; however, it is unclear how parrotfish and wrasse avoid gnathiid attacks at night. To test the novel hypothesis that mucous cocoons protect against gnathiids, we exposed the coral reef parrotfish Chlorurus sordidus (Scaridae) with and without cocoons to gnathiids overnight and measured the energetic content of cocoons. Fish without mucous cocoons were attacked more by gnathiids than fish with cocoons. The energetic content of mucous cocoons was estimated as 2.5 per cent of the fish's daily energy budget fish. Therefore, mucous cocoons protected against attacks by gnathiids, acting like mosquito nets in humans, a function of cocoons and an efficient physiological adaptation for preventing parasite infestation that is not used by any other animal. PMID:21084337

  9. Electricity from the Silk Cocoon Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulachan, Brindan; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Mallick, Chandrakant; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Teotia, Arun Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Bhattacharya, Shantanu; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

    2014-06-01

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM) is an insect engineered structure. We studied the electrical properties of mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Tussar, Antheraea mylitta) SCM. When dry, SCM behaves like an insulator. On absorbing moisture, it generates electrical current, which is modulated by temperature. The current flowing across the SCM is possibly ionic and protonic in nature. We exploited the electrical properties of SCM to develop simple energy harvesting devices, which could operate low power electronic systems. Based on our findings, we propose that the temperature and humidity dependent electrical properties of the SCM could find applications in battery technology, bio-sensor, humidity sensor, steam engines and waste heat management.

  10. Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2010-10-01

    The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

  11. Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2010-10-15

    The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

  12. Abdominal cocoon: a potential pitfall in patients with ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Isacson, Rut; Segal, Amiel; Alberton, Joseph; Reinus, Constantin; Schwarz, Alon; Grenader, Tal

    2012-11-01

    Background. Abdominal cocoon, or sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, is a rare condition characterized by partial or total encasement of small bowel and mesentery by a thick fibrocollagenous sack that looks like a cocoon. Within the sack, bowel loops are drawn together causing intestinal obstruction.Case presentation. We report on a 57-year-old female patient who developed a very unusual complication of ovarian cancer: abdominal cocoon formation.Conclusions. This report highlights the need for a timely diagnosis of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis in cancer patients. PMID:23389380

  13. Electricity from the Silk Cocoon Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Tulachan, Brindan; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Mallick, Chandrakant; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Teotia, Arun Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Bhattacharya, Shantanu; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

    2014-01-01

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM) is an insect engineered structure. We studied the electrical properties of mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Tussar, Antheraea mylitta) SCM. When dry, SCM behaves like an insulator. On absorbing moisture, it generates electrical current, which is modulated by temperature. The current flowing across the SCM is possibly ionic and protonic in nature. We exploited the electrical properties of SCM to develop simple energy harvesting devices, which could operate low power electronic systems. Based on our findings, we propose that the temperature and humidity dependent electrical properties of the SCM could find applications in battery technology, bio-sensor, humidity sensor, steam engines and waste heat management. PMID:24961354

  14. Electricity from the silk cocoon membrane.

    PubMed

    Tulachan, Brindan; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Mallick, Chandrakant; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Teotia, Arun Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Bhattacharya, Shantanu; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

    2014-01-01

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM) is an insect engineered structure. We studied the electrical properties of mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Tussar, Antheraea mylitta) SCM. When dry, SCM behaves like an insulator. On absorbing moisture, it generates electrical current, which is modulated by temperature. The current flowing across the SCM is possibly ionic and protonic in nature. We exploited the electrical properties of SCM to develop simple energy harvesting devices, which could operate low power electronic systems. Based on our findings, we propose that the temperature and humidity dependent electrical properties of the SCM could find applications in battery technology, bio-sensor, humidity sensor, steam engines and waste heat management. PMID:24961354

  15. The Next Decade in Career Counseling: Cocoon Maintenance or Metamorphosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmer, Twinet; Rush, Lee Covington

    2003-01-01

    Articulates the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, and future vision for career counseling using a cocoon maintenance or metamorphosis metaphor. Concludes with a vision for the future for the discipline and profession of career counseling. (Contains 40 references.) (GCP)

  16. Abdominal cocoon with small bowel obstruction: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravinder; Chauhan, Dinesh; Dalal, Usha; Khurana, Ujjawal

    2012-04-01

    Abdominal cocoon is a rare condition that results in an intestinal obstruction due to total or partial encapsulation of the small bowel by a fibrocollagenous membrane. Treatment is surgical resection of the membrane and free the bowel. Preoperative diagnosis is possible with combination of sonography and CT scan. We report two cases where the diagnosis of abdominal cocoon was suggested preoperatively based on the sonography and CT scan of abdomen. PMID:21643736

  17. Abdominal cocoon: an unusual cause of subacute intestinal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Shah, Md Yunus S; Gedam, B S; Sonarkar, R; Gopinath, K S S

    2013-06-01

    We report an unusual cause of subacute intestinal obstruction in a young adolescent girl, which is a nontubercular abdominal cocoon. Barium meal follow-through revealed "cauliflower"-like appearance of small bowel. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy showing thick fibrous-like coverings which were encasing the small bowel loops to form an abdominal cocoon. Fibrocollagenous membrane was excised after adhesiolysis. Histopathological examination of membrane revealed fibrocollagenous membrane with hyaline deposition of nontubercular origin. PMID:24426626

  18. Evolution of clouds in radio galaxy cocoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellema, G.; Kurk, J. D.; Rttgering, H. J. A.

    2002-11-01

    This letter presents a numerical study of the evolution of an emission line cloud of initial density 10 cm-3, temperature 104 K, and size 200 pc, being overtaken by a strong shock wave. Whereas previous simple models proposed that such a cloud would either be completely destroyed, or simply shrink in size, our results show a different and more complex behaviour: due to rapid cooling, the cloud breaks up into many small and dense fragments, which can survive for a long time. We show that such rapid cooling behaviour is expected for a wide range of cloud and shock properties. This process applies to the evolution of emission line clouds being overtaken by the cocoon of a radio jet. The resulting small clouds would be Jeans unstable, and form stars. Our results thus give theoretical credibility to the process of jet induced star formation, one of the explanations for the alignment of the optical/UV and radio axis observed in high redshift radio galaxies.

  19. An Unlikely Silk: The Composite Material of Green Lacewing Cocoons

    SciTech Connect

    Weisman, Sarah; Trueman, Holly E.; Mudie, Stephen T.; Church, Jeffrey S.; Sutherland, Tara D.; Haritos, Victoria S.

    2009-01-15

    Spiders routinely produce multiple types of silk; however, common wisdom has held that insect species produce one type of silk each. This work reports that the green lacewing (Mallada signata, Neuroptera) produces two distinct classes of silk. We identified and sequenced the gene that encodes the major protein component of the larval lacewing cocoon silk and demonstrated that it is unrelated to the adult lacewing egg-stalk silk. The cocoon silk protein is 49 kDa in size and is alanine rich (>40%), and it contains an {alpha}-helical secondary structure. The final instar lacewing larvae spin protein fibers of {approx}2 {mu}m diameter to construct a loosely woven cocoon. In a second stage of cocoon construction, the insects lay down an inner wall of lipids that uses the fibers as a scaffold. We propose that the silk protein fibers provide the mechanical strength of the composite lacewing cocoon whereas the lipid layer provides a barrier to water loss during pupation.

  20. Abdominal Cocoon in Association with Adenomyosis and Leiomyomata of the Uterus and Endometriotic Cyst : Unusual Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Mohd. Noor, Nor Haznita; Zaki, Nik Mohamed; Kaur, Gurjeet; Naik, Venkatesh R.; Zakaria, Ahmad Zahari

    2004-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a rare condition. A 46 year old Malay woman with adenomyosis and leiomyomata of the uterus and ovarian endometriotic cyst in association with abdominal cocoon is reported. PMID:22977364

  1. Mechanical properties and structure of silkworm cocoons: a comparative study of Bombyx mori, Antheraea assamensis, Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea mylitta silkworm cocoons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Kaur, J; Rajkhowa, R; Li, J L; Liu, X Y; Wang, X G

    2013-08-01

    As a protective shell against environmental damage and attack by natural predators, the silkworm cocoon has outstanding mechanical properties. In particular, this multilayer non-woven composite structure can be exceptionally tough to enhance the chance of survival for silkworms while supporting their metabolic activity. Peel, out-of-plane compression and nano-indentation tests and micro-structure analysis were performed on four types of silkworm cocoon walls (domesticated Bombyx mori, semi-domesticated Antheraea assamensis and wild Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea mylitta silkworm cocoons) to understand the structure and mechanical property relationships. The wild silkworm cocoons were shown to be uniquely tough composite structures. The maximum work-of-fracture for the wild cocoons (A. pernyi and A. mylitta) was approximately 1000 J/m(2), which was almost 10 times the value for the domesticated cocoon (Bombyx mori) and 3~4 times the value for the semi-domesticated cocoon (A. assamensis). Calcium oxalate crystals were found to deposit on the outer surfaces of the semi-domesticated and wild cocoons. They did not show influence in enhancing the interlaminar adhesion between cocoon layers but exhibited much higher hardness than the cocoon pelades. PMID:23706202

  2. Water balance of field-excavated aestivating Australian desert frogs, the cocoon-forming Neobatrachus aquilonius and the non-cocooning Notaden nichollsi (Amphibia: Myobatrachidae).

    PubMed

    Cartledge, Victoria A; Withers, Philip C; McMaster, Kellie A; Thompson, Graham G; Bradshaw, S Don

    2006-09-01

    Burrowed aestivating frogs of the cocoon-forming species Neobatrachus aquilonius and the non-cocooning species Notaden nichollsi were excavated in the Gibson Desert of central Australia. Their hydration state (osmotic pressure of the plasma and urine) was compared to the moisture content and water potential of the surrounding soil. The non-cocooning N. nichollsi was consistently found in sand dunes. While this sand had favourable water potential properties for buried frogs, the considerable spatial and temporal variation in sand moisture meant that frogs were not always in positive water balance with respect to the surrounding soil. The cocoon-forming N. aquilonius was excavated from two distinct habitat types, a claypan in which frogs had a well-formed cocoon and a dune swale where frogs did not have a cocoon. Cocoons of excavated frogs ranged in thickness from 19.4 microm to 55.61 microm and consisted of 81-229 layers. Cocooned claypan N. aquilonius were nearing exhaustion of their bladder water reserves and had a urine osmolality approaching that of the plasma. By contrast, non-cocooned N. aquilonius from the dune swale were fully hydrated, although soil moisture levels were not as high as calculated to be necessary to maintain water balance. Both species had similar plasma arginine vasotocin (AVT) concentrations ranging from 9.4 to 164 pg ml(-1), except for one cocooned N. aquilonius with a higher concentration of 394 pg ml(-1). For both species, AVT showed no relationship with plasma osmolality over the lower range of plasma osmolalities but was appreciably increased at the highest osmolality recorded. This study provides the first evidence that cocoon formation following burrowing is not obligatory in species that are capable of doing so, but that cocoon formation occurs when soil water conditions are more desiccating than for non-cocooned frogs. PMID:16916967

  3. Two consecutive randomized controlled pertussis booster trials in children initially vaccinated in infancy with an acellular vaccine: The first with a five-component Tdap vaccine to 5-year olds and the second with five- or monocomponent Tdap vaccines at age 14-15 years.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, R M; Gustafsson, L; Hallander, H O; Ljungman, M; Olin, P; Gothefors, L; Nilsson, L; Netterlid, E

    2015-07-17

    Prior study children from a DTaP efficacy trial were recruited at ages 5 and 15 years to randomized booster trials addressing immunogenicity and reactogenicity; 475 preschool children received mixed or separate injections of a reduced antigen vaccine (Tdap5, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and an inactivated polio vaccine, and 230 adolescents received the same or another booster vaccine (Tdap1, SSI, Denmark). Pre-vaccination antibody concentrations against pertussis antigens were significantly higher at 15 than 5 years of age, probably due to natural boosting between the studies. Tdap5 induced comparable anti-PT concentrations at both ages, but antibody responses were significantly higher to filamentous haemagglutinin, pertactin and fimbriae 2/3 in adolescents. As expected, a higher amount of PT (Tdap1, 20?g) induced a stronger anti-PT response than a lower amount (Tdap5, 2.5?g). The frequency of adverse events was low and there were no serious adverse reactions. All local reactions had an early onset and a short duration. A large swelling or redness of more than half of the upper arm circumference was reported in 8/475 5-year-olds and in 6/230 15-year-olds. Children vaccinated with Tdap5 reported more moderate pain in adolescence than at preschool age, whereas itching was only reported in preschool children. Sweden introduced DTaP vaccines in 1996 after a 17-year hiatus with no general pertussis vaccination and pertussis was still endemic at the time of the studies. The frequency of adverse events was nevertheless low in both preschool children and adolescents and antibody responses were adequate. These studies document immunogenicity and reactogenicity in a trial cohort consecutively vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccines from infancy to adolescence. The adolescent study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on 26 March 2009 (NCT00870350). PMID:26057135

  4. A hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the unobservable predation rate on sawfly cocoons by small mammals

    PubMed Central

    Pinkantayong, Panisara; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kubo, Mamoru; Muramoto, Ken-ichiro; Kamata, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Predation by small mammals has been reported as an important mortality factor for the cocoons of sawfly species. However, it is difficult to provide an accurate estimate of newly spun cocoons and subsequent predation rates by small mammals for several reasons. First, all larvae do not spin cocoons at the same time. Second, cocoons are exposed to small mammal predation immediately after being spun. Third, the cocoons of the current generation are indistinguishable from those of the previous generation. We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate these values from annual one-time soil sampling datasets. To apply this model to an actual data set, field surveys were conducted in eight stands of larch plantations in central Hokkaido (Japan) from 2009 to 2012. Ten 0.04-m2 soil samples were annually collected from each site in mid-October. The abundance of unopened cocoons (I), cocoons emptied by small-mammal predation (M), and empty cocoons caused by something other than small-mammal predation (H) were determined. The abundance of newly spun cocoons, the predation rate by small mammals before and after cocoon sampling, and the annual rate of empty cocoons that remained were estimated. A posterior predictive check yielded Bayesian P-values of 0.54, 0.48, and 0.07 for I, M, and H, respectively. Estimated predation rates showed a significant positive correlation with the number of trap captures of small mammals. Estimates of the number of newly spun cocoons had a significant positive correlation with defoliation intensity. These results indicate that our model showed an acceptable fit, with reasonable estimates. Our model is expected to be widely applicable to all hymenopteran and lepidopteran insects that spin cocoons in soil. PMID:25691994

  5. Perforated GIST in Jejunum - A Rare Cause of Abdominal Cocoon.

    PubMed

    M, Usha; Kumar, Vijay; R, Rau Aarathi; Kamath, Sulatha

    2014-03-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours [GISTs] are rare but they commonly arise in stomach, and small or large intestines. They are usually accompanied with gastrointestinal bleeding. We are reporting a case of GIST which occurred in a 52-year-old male,who presented with acute abdomen. On laparotomy, the entire segment of jejunum was found to be partially encased in fibrocollagenous tissue, which formed a cocoon. Moreover, the intestine showed diffuse thickening with multiple tumour masses, which is an uncommon gross finding in GIST. This case report highlights variable clinical and morphological manifestations of GIST. Awareness on its rare clinical manifestations, including abdominal cocoon, may help in making an early diagnosis and providing timely appropriate treatment. PMID:24783106

  6. Perforated GIST in Jejunum A Rare Cause of Abdominal Cocoon

    PubMed Central

    M, Usha; Kumar, Vijay; R, Rau Aarathi; Kamath, Sulatha

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours [GISTs] are rare but they commonly arise in stomach, and small or large intestines. They are usually accompanied with gastrointestinal bleeding. We are reporting a case of GIST which occurred in a 52-year-old male,who presented with acute abdomen. On laparotomy, the entire segment of jejunum was found to be partially encased in fibrocollagenous tissue, which formed a cocoon. Moreover, the intestine showed diffuse thickening with multiple tumour masses, which is an uncommon gross finding in GIST. This case report highlights variable clinical and morphological manifestations of GIST. Awareness on its rare clinical manifestations, including abdominal cocoon, may help in making an early diagnosis and providing timely appropriate treatment. PMID:24783106

  7. Strain Rate and Anisotropic Microstructure Dependent Mechanical Behaviors of Silkworm Cocoon Shells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Wen; Gao, Xiang; Meng, Wanlin; Guan, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Silkworm cocoons are multi-layered composite structures comprised of high strength silk fiber and sericin, and their mechanical properties have been naturally selected to protect pupas during metamorphosis from various types of external attacks. The present study attempts to gain a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical properties of cocoon shell materials from wild silkworm species Antheraea pernyi under dynamic loading rates. Five dynamic strain rates from 0.00625 s-1 to 12.5 s-1 are tested to show the strain rate sensitivity of the cocoon shell material. In the meantime, the anisotropy of the cocoon shell is considered and the cocoon shell specimens are cut along 0°, 45° and 90° orientation to the short axis of cocoons. Typical mechanical properties including Young's modulus, yield strength, ultimate strength and ultimate strain are extracted and analyzed from the stress-strain curves. Furthermore, the fracture morphologies of the cocoon shell specimens are observed under scanning electron microscopy to help understand the relationship between the mechanical properties and the microstructures of the cocoon material. A discussion on the dynamic strain rate effect on the mechanical properties of cocoon shell material is followed by fitting our experimental results to two previous models, and the effect could be well explained. We also compare natural and dried cocoon materials for the dynamic strain rate effect and interestingly the dried cocoon shells show better overall mechanical properties. This study provides a different perspective on the mechanical properties of cocoon material as a composite material, and provides some insight for bio-inspired engineering materials. PMID:26939063

  8. Strain Rate and Anisotropic Microstructure Dependent Mechanical Behaviors of Silkworm Cocoon Shells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Wen; Gao, Xiang; Meng, Wanlin; Guan, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Silkworm cocoons are multi-layered composite structures comprised of high strength silk fiber and sericin, and their mechanical properties have been naturally selected to protect pupas during metamorphosis from various types of external attacks. The present study attempts to gain a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical properties of cocoon shell materials from wild silkworm species Antheraea pernyi under dynamic loading rates. Five dynamic strain rates from 0.00625 s-1 to 12.5 s-1 are tested to show the strain rate sensitivity of the cocoon shell material. In the meantime, the anisotropy of the cocoon shell is considered and the cocoon shell specimens are cut along 0°, 45° and 90° orientation to the short axis of cocoons. Typical mechanical properties including Young’s modulus, yield strength, ultimate strength and ultimate strain are extracted and analyzed from the stress-strain curves. Furthermore, the fracture morphologies of the cocoon shell specimens are observed under scanning electron microscopy to help understand the relationship between the mechanical properties and the microstructures of the cocoon material. A discussion on the dynamic strain rate effect on the mechanical properties of cocoon shell material is followed by fitting our experimental results to two previous models, and the effect could be well explained. We also compare natural and dried cocoon materials for the dynamic strain rate effect and interestingly the dried cocoon shells show better overall mechanical properties. This study provides a different perspective on the mechanical properties of cocoon material as a composite material, and provides some insight for bio-inspired engineering materials. PMID:26939063

  9. Comparative Proteome Analysis of Multi-Layer Cocoon of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhaoming; Wang, Dandan; Guo, Pengchao; Guo, Xiaomeng; Song, Qianru; Zhang, Weiwei; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    Bombyx mori cocoon has a multi-layer structure that provides optimal protection for silkworm pupa. Research on the mechanical properties of the multi-layer structure revealed structure-property relationships of the cocoon. Here, we investigated the protein components of the B. mori cocoon in terms of its multi-layer structure. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified 286 proteins from the multiple cocoon layers. In addition to fibroins and sericins, we identified abundant protease inhibitors, seroins and proteins of unknown function. By comparing protein abundance across layers, we found that the outermost layer contained more sericin1 and protease inhibitors and the innermost layer had more seroin1. As many as 36 protease inhibitors were identified in cocoons, showing efficient inhibitory activities against a fungal protease. Thus, we propose that more abundant protease inhibitors in the outer cocoon layers may provide better protection for the cocoon. This study increases our understanding of the multi-layer mechanism of cocoons, and helps clarify the biological characteristics of cocoons. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001469. PMID:25860555

  10. Strategies to decrease pertussis transmission to infants.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Kevin; Plotkin, Stanley; Tan, Tina; Wirsing von Knig, Carl Heinz

    2015-06-01

    The Global Pertussis Initiative (GPI) is an expert scientific forum addressing the worldwide burden of pertussis, which remains a serious health issue, especially in infants. This age cohort is at risk for developing pertussis by transmission from those in close proximity. Risk is increased in infants aged 0 to 6 weeks, as they are too young to be vaccinated. Older infants are at risk when their vaccination schedules are incomplete. Infants also bear the greatest disease burden owing to their high risk for pertussis-related complications and death; therefore, protecting them is a high priority. Two vaccine strategies have been proposed to protect infants. The first involves vaccinating pregnant women, which directly protects through the passive transfer of pertussis antibodies. The second strategy, cocooning, involves vaccinating parents, caregivers, and other close contacts, which indirectly protects infants from transmission by preventing disease in those in close proximity. The goal of this review was to present and discuss evidence on these 2 strategies. Based on available data, the GPI recommends vaccination during pregnancy as the primary strategy, given its efficacy, safety, and logistic advantages over a cocoon approach. If vaccination during pregnancy is not feasible, then all individuals having close contact with infants <6 months old should be immunized consistent with local health authority guidelines. These efforts are anticipated to minimize pertussis transmission to vulnerable infants, although real-world effectiveness data are limited. Countries should educate lay and medical communities on pertussis and introduce robust surveillance practices while implementing these protective strategies. PMID:25963002

  11. Mechanical properties of cocoons constructed consecutively by a single silkworm caterpillar, Bombyx mori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S. Q.; Zhao, H. P.; Feng, X. Q.; Cui, W.; Lin, Z.; Xu, M. Q.

    2008-04-01

    Most animals have the ability to adapt, to some extends and in different ways, the variation or disturbance of environment. In our experiments, we forced a silkworm caterpillar to spin two, three or four thin cocoons by taking it out from the cocoon being constructed. The mechanical properties of these cocoons were studied by static tensile tests and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. Though external disturbances may cause the decrease in the total weight of silk spun by the silkworm, a gradual enhancement was interestingly found in the mechanical properties of these thin cocoons. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the fractured specimens of the cocoons showed that there exist several different energy dissipation mechanisms occurred simultaneously at macro-, meso-, and micro-scales, yielding a superior capacity of cocoons to adsorb the energy of possible attacks from the outside and to protect efficiently its pupa against damage. Through evolution of millions of years, therefore, the silkworm Bombyx mori seems to have gained the ability to adapt external disturbances and to redesign a new cocoon with optimized protective function when its first cocoon has been damaged for some reasons.

  12. Research on non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoons based on image processing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yong; Kong, Qing-hua; Wei, Li-fu

    2008-03-01

    The major studied in this dissertation is the non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoon's quality, based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. Through the images collection and the data analysis, procession and calculation of the tested silkworm cocoons with the non-destructive testing technology, internet applications automatically reckon all items of the classification indexes. Finally we can conclude the classification result and the purchase price of the silkworm cocoons. According to the domestic classification standard of the silkworm cocoons, the author investigates various testing methods of silkworm cocoons which are used or have been explored at present, and devices a non-destructive testing scheme of the silkworm cocoons based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. They are dissertated about the project design of the experiment. The precisions of all the implements are demonstrated. I establish Manifold mathematic models, compare them with each other and analyze the precision with technology of databank to get the best mathematic model to figure out the weight of the dried silkworm cocoon shells. The classification methods of all the complementary items are designed well and truly. The testing method has less error and reaches an advanced level of the present domestic non-destructive testing technology of the silkworm cocoons.

  13. Modeling the Composition and Emissions of Gamma-Ray Burst Jet Cocoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, Helen; Masdea, C. J.; Lazzati, D.; Lopez-Camara, D.

    2014-01-01

    Massive stars end their lives with powerful supernova explosions that, in extreme cases, may produce a gamma-ray burst. The driving mechanisms of these bursts are relativistic jets that propagate through the dense, rapidly rotating star. Previous studies have examined the general formation and photospheric emissions of the cocoons of these jets. However, the structure of the cocoon and the effect of cocoon composition on the creation of the gamma-ray burst have not yet been determined. In this study, we present the results of numerical simulations aimed at determining the composition and mixing of the cocoon material in gamma-ray burst progenitors and study how mixing affects the emitted radiation. We do so by adding tracer particles to special relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of collapsars to follow the mixing of matter within the cocoon as it evolves. Using this data, we compute the radiation signatures of cocoons from different progenitor stars with varying cocoon mixing. These simulations will enable us to understand the luminosity and radiation properties of the cocoon. When compared to observations, our calculations may put constraints on the progenitor stars structure that produces gamma-ray bursts.

  14. Abdominal cocoon secondary to meconium peritonitis in a neonate: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Safwan; Kayastha, Kanchan; Javed, Sana; Wasti, Arsalan

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon is a complete or partial encasement of intestines and rarely viscera by a fibrocollagenous sac which is usually formed by a nonspecific chronic inflammatory reaction. We report a case of abdominal cocoon in a 2-day-old neonate presenting with intestinal obstruction. PMID:26023432

  15. Do stellar and nebular abundances in the Cocoon nebula agree?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garca-Rojas, J.; Simn-Daz, S.; Esteban, C.

    2015-05-01

    The Cocoon nebula is an apparently spherical Galactic HII region ionized by a single star (BD+46 3474). This nebula seems to be appropriate to investigate the chemical behavior of oxygen and other heavy elements from two different points of view: a detailed analysis of the chemical content of the ionized gas through nebular spectrophotometry and a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the spectrum of the ionizing star using the state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere modelling. In this poster we present the results from a set of high-quality observations, from 2m-4m class telescopes, including the optical spectrum of the ionizing star BD+46 3474, along with long-slit spatially resolved spectroscopy of the nebula. We have used state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere codes to determine stellar parameters and the chemical content of several heavy elements. Traditional nebular techniques along with updated atomic data have been used to compute gaseous abundances of O, N and S in the Cocoon nebula. Thanks to the low ionization degree of the nebula, we could determine total abundances directly from observable ions (no ionization correction factors were needed) for three of the analyzed elements (O, S, and N). The derived stellar and nebular abundances are compared and the influence of the possible presence of the so-called temperature fluctuations on the nebula is discussed. The results of this study are presented in more detail in Garca-Rojas, Simn-Daz & Esteban 2014, A&A, 571, A93.

  16. Rare etiology of mechanical intestinal obstruction: Abdominal cocoon syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Uzunoglu, Yener; Altintoprak, Fatih; Yalkin, Omer; Gunduz, Yasemin; Cakmak, Guner; Ozkan, Orhan V; Celebi, Fehmi

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon syndrome is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction with unknown etiology. Diagnosis of this syndrome, which can be summarized as the small intestine being surrounded by a fibrous capsule not containing the mesothelium, is difficult in the preoperative period. A 47-year-old male patient was referred to the emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting for two days. The abdominal computed tomography examination detected dilated small intestinal loops containing air-fluid levels clustered in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen and surrounded by a thick, saclike, contrast-enhanced membrane. During exploratory surgery, a capsular structure was identified in the upper left quadrant with a regular surface that was solid-fibrous in nature. Abdominal cocoon syndrome is a rarely seen condition, for which the preoperative diagnosis is difficult. The combination of physical examination and radiological signs, and the knowledge of recurrent characteristics of the complaints that can be learned by a careful history, may be helpful in diagnosis. PMID:25405199

  17. Safety and immunogenicity of one dose of MenACWY-CRM, an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine, when administered to adolescents concomitantly or sequentially with Tdap and HPV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Arguedas, A; Soley, C; Loaiza, C; Rincon, G; Guevara, S; Perez, A; Porras, W; Alvarado, O; Aguilar, L; Abdelnour, A; Grunwald, U; Bedell, L; Anemona, A; Dull, P M

    2010-04-19

    This Phase III study evaluates an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal CRM(197) conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM (Novartis Vaccines), when administered concomitantly or sequentially with two other recommended adolescent vaccines; combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. In this single-centre study, 1620 subjects 11-18 years of age, were randomized to three groups (1:1:1) to receive MenACWY-CRM concomitantly or sequentially with Tdap and HPV. Meningococcal serogroup-specific serum bactericidal assay using human complement (hSBA), and antibodies to Tdap antigens and HPV virus-like particles were determined before and 1 month after study vaccinations. Proportions of subjects with hSBA titres > or =1:8 for all four meningococcal serogroups (A, C, W-135, Y) were non-inferior for both concomitant and sequential administration. Immune responses to Tdap and HPV antigens were comparable when these vaccines were given alone or concomitantly with MenACWY-CRM. All vaccines were well tolerated; concomitant or sequential administration did not increase reactogenicity. MenACWY-CRM was well tolerated and immunogenic in subjects 11-18 years of age, with comparable immune responses to the four serogroups when given alone or concomitantly with Tdap or HPV antigens. This is the first demonstration that these currently recommended adolescent vaccines could be administered concomitantly without causing increased reactogenicity. PMID:20189491

  18. The cocoon of the fossorial frog Cyclorana australis functions primarily as a barrier to water exchange with the substrate.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Stephen J; Christian, Keith A; Tracy, Christopher R

    2010-01-01

    Studies of evaporative water loss using streams of dry air in the laboratory have demonstrated reduced rates in various taxa of cocooned frogs. However, because the cocoon is formed in subterranean burrows with humid microclimates and no air flow, loss of water by evaporation is likely to be negligible. In contrast, although potentially important, the influence of the cocoon on water exchange with the soil surface has not been characterized. In dry soils, there is a sizable water potential gradient between the frog and the soil; hence, we hypothesized that cocoons would play a role in reducing liquid water loss to dry substrates. Individuals of the burrowing frog Cyclorana australis (Hylidae: Pelodryadinae) were induced to form cocoons in the laboratory. On semisolid agar-solute substrates across a range of water potentials, the hygroscopic cocoon absorbed small but similar amounts of moisture. With the cocoon removed, the frogs gained or lost water, depending on the direction of the frog-substrate water potential difference. Plasma osmolality of cocooned frogs was significantly higher than in hydrated frogs. Because cocooned frogs did not exchange significant amounts of water at either high (wet) or low (dry) substrate water potentials, we conclude that the cocoon of fossorial frogs acts as a physical barrier that breaks the continuity between frog and substrate. We contend that the primary function of the cocoon is to prevent liquid water loss to drying clay and loam soils, rather than to prevent subterranean evaporative water loss. PMID:20687829

  19. Cocoon of the silkworm Antheraea pernyi as an example of a thermally insulating biological interface.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xing; Zhang, Jin; Gao, Weimin; Li, Jingliang; Wang, Xungai

    2014-09-01

    Biological materials are hierarchically organized complex composites, which embrace multiple practical functionalities. As an example, the wild silkworm cocoon provides multiple protective functions against environmental and physical hazards, promoting the survival chance of moth pupae that resides inside. In the present investigation, the microstructure and thermal property of the Chinese tussah silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) cocoon in both warm and cold environments under windy conditions have been studied by experimental and numerical methods. A new computational fluid dynamics model has been developed according to the original fibrous structure of the Antheraea pernyi cocoon to simulate the unique heat transfer process through the cocoon wall. The structure of the Antheraea pernyi cocoon wall can promote the disorderness of the interior air, which increases the wind resistance by stopping most of the air flowing into the cocoon. The Antheraea pernyi cocoon is wind-proof due to the mineral crystals deposited on the outer layer surface and its hierarchical structure with low porosity and high tortuosity. The research findings have important implications to enhancing the thermal function of biomimetic protective textiles and clothing. PMID:25280854

  20. Spherical cocoon models for the flat infrared spectrum of the T Tauri phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorrell, Wilfred H.

    2002-08-01

    Numerical radiative transfer models are used to discuss the observed flat infrared spectrum of T Tauri stars showing moderate dust obscuration. The models consist of a central young star surrounded by a static cocoon of gas and dust, but with no equatorial accretion disc. Here the cocoon is treated as a spherical dust shell undergoing no systematic inflow or outflow motion. The static cocoon is supported against the gravity of the central star by a large-scale magnetic field system that anchors in the star and threads the cocoon material. Using an approximation in which magnetic force densities inside the cocoon are averaged over all polar and azimuthal angles, the cocoon may be treated as a spherical-like configuration for the purpose of numerical radiative transfer calculations. It is shown that the model infrared spectral energy distributions of a spherical static cocoon produce both the Lada spectral types and the flat infrared spectrum of T Tauri stars as well as do models based upon discs or infalling clouds with a bipolar cavity. The static dust cocoon model is applied to the young T Tau binary system. The cocoon is illuminated by radiation emitted from the optical primary (T Tau N), which is a classical T Tauri star. The infrared secondary (T Tau S) is identified as a magnetic brown dwarf in binary orbital motion outside the cocoon, but still embedded in a large nebula of cold gas and dust distributed around the binary system. Both T Tau N and T Tau S are magnetically linked to each other. The radiative transfer model for the cocoon infrared energy distribution is compared with observational flux data for T Tau N. The model appears in good agreement with the data from the optical to submillimetre wavebands. The model shows an almost flat infrared spectrum for T Tau N, except for the strong 10-?m silicate band in emission as observed. It is suggested that the magnetic brown dwarf (T Tau S) undergoes episodic and luminous non-thermal infrared and radio outburst emissions. Such a possibility is well in accord with a non-thermal origin for the circular polarized radio emission observed from the T Tau system. Nevertheless, if future high-resolution observations prove that the blue continuum emission from T Tauri stars originates from stellar chromospheric activity or boundary-layer emission from an equatorial disc, then a spherical cocoon model for the T Tauri phenomenon is wrong.

  1. The potential of adjuvants to improve immune responses against TdaP vaccines: A preclinical evaluation of MF59 and monophosphoryl lipid A.

    PubMed

    Agnolon, Valentina; Bruno, Cristina; Leuzzi, Rosanna; Galletti, Bruno; D'Oro, Ugo; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Seubert, Anja; O'Hagan, Derek T; Baudner, Barbara C

    2015-08-15

    The successful approach of combining diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis antigens into a single vaccine has become a cornerstone of immunization programs. Yet, even if vaccination coverage is high, a resurgence of pertussis has been reported in many countries suggesting current vaccines may not provide adequate protection. To induce better tailored and more durable immune responses against pertussis vaccines different approaches have been proposed, including the use of novel adjuvants. Licensed aP vaccines contain aluminum salts, which mainly stimulate humoral immune responses and might not be ideal for protecting against Bordetella pertussis infection. Adjuvants inducing more balanced T-helper profiles or even Th1-prone responses might be more adequate. In this study, two adjuvants already approved for human use have been tested: MF59 emulsion and the combination of aluminum hydroxide with the Toll-Like Receptor 4 agonist MPLA. Adjuvanticity was evaluated in a mouse model using a TdaP vaccine containing three B. pertussis antigens: genetically detoxified pertussis toxin (PT-9K/129G), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (PRN) The physico-chemical compatibility of TdaP antigens with the proposed adjuvants, together with a quicker onset and changed quality of the antibody responses, fully supports the replacement of aluminum salts with a new adjuvant to enhance aP vaccines immunogenicity. PMID:26149936

  2. An unusual case of cocoon abdomen in a patient on hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Jaryal, A.; Rathi, M.; Bal, A.; Goyal, A.; Ramachandran, R.; Kumar, V.; Kohli, H. S.; Gupta, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Cocoon abdomen” or sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction. It has been described in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. The exact etiology is unknown, but pathogenesis rests on chronic peritoneal inflammation. No case has been reported so far in patients on hemodialysis. We hereby report a case of cocoon abdomen presenting as refractory ascites with intestinal obstruction in a patient on maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:26937080

  3. Mastrus ridibundus parasitoids eavesdrop on cocoon-spinning codling moth, Cydia pomonella, larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumean, Zaid; Unruh, Tom; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Cocoon-spinning larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) employ a pheromone that attracts or arrests conspecifics seeking pupation sites. Such intraspecific communication signals are important cues for illicit receivers such as parasitoids to exploit. We tested the hypothesis that the prepupal C. pomonella parasitoid Mastrus ridibundus Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) exploits the larval aggregation pheromone to locate host prepupae. In laboratory olfactometer experiments, female M. ridibundus were attracted to 3-day-old cocoons containing C. pomonella larvae or prepupae. Older cocoons containing C. pomonella pupae, or larvae and prepupae excised from cocoons, were not attractive. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of bioactive Porapak Q extract of cocoon-derived airborne semiochemicals, ten compounds elicited responses from female M. ridibundus antennae. Comparative GC-mass spectrometry of authentic standards and cocoon-volatiles determined that these compounds were 3-carene, myrcene, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, sulcatone, and geranylacetone. A synthetic 11-component blend consisting of these ten EAD-active compounds plus EAD-inactive (+)-limonene (the most abundant cocoon-derived volatile) was as effective as Porapak Q cocoon extract in attracting both female M. ridibundus and C. pomonella larvae seeking pupation sites. Only three components could be deleted from the 11-component blend without diminishing its attractiveness to M. ridibundus, which underlines the complexity of information received and processed during foraging for hosts. Mastrus ridibundus obviously eavesdrop on the pheromonal communication signals of C. pomonella larvae that reliably indicate host presence.

  4. Mastrus ridibundus parasitoids eavesdrop on cocoon-spinning codling moth, Cydia pomonella, larvae.

    PubMed

    Jumean, Zaid; Unruh, Tom; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Cocoon-spinning larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) employ a pheromone that attracts or arrests conspecifics seeking pupation sites. Such intraspecific communication signals are important cues for illicit receivers such as parasitoids to exploit. We tested the hypothesis that the prepupal C. pomonella parasitoid Mastrus ridibundus Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) exploits the larval aggregation pheromone to locate host prepupae. In laboratory olfactometer experiments, female M. ridibundus were attracted to 3-day-old cocoons containing C. pomonella larvae or prepupae. Older cocoons containing C. pomonella pupae, or larvae and prepupae excised from cocoons, were not attractive. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of bioactive Porapak Q extract of cocoon-derived airborne semiochemicals, ten compounds elicited responses from female M. ridibundus antennae. Comparative GC-mass spectrometry of authentic standards and cocoon-volatiles determined that these compounds were 3-carene, myrcene, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, sulcatone, and geranylacetone. A synthetic 11-component blend consisting of these ten EAD-active compounds plus EAD-inactive (+)-limonene (the most abundant cocoon-derived volatile) was as effective as Porapak Q cocoon extract in attracting both female M. ridibundus and C. pomonella larvae seeking pupation sites. Only three components could be deleted from the 11-component blend without diminishing its attractiveness to M. ridibundus, which underlines the complexity of information received and processed during foraging for hosts. Mastrus ridibundus obviously "eavesdrop" on the pheromonal communication signals of C. pomonella larvae that reliably indicate host presence. PMID:15551108

  5. Pupal cocoons affect sanitary brood care and limit fungal infections in ant colonies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The brood of ants and other social insects is highly susceptible to pathogens, particularly those that penetrate the soft larval and pupal cuticle. We here test whether the presence of a pupal cocoon, which occurs in some ant species but not in others, affects the sanitary brood care and fungal infection patterns after exposure to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum. We use a) a comparative approach analysing four species with either naked or cocooned pupae and b) a within-species analysis of a single ant species, in which both pupal types co-exist in the same colony. Results We found that the presence of a cocoon did not compromise fungal pathogen detection by the ants and that species with cocooned pupae increased brood grooming after pathogen exposure. All tested ant species further removed brood from their nests, which was predominantly expressed towards larvae and naked pupae treated with the live fungal pathogen. In contrast, cocooned pupae exposed to live fungus were not removed at higher rates than cocooned pupae exposed to dead fungus or a sham control. Consistent with this, exposure to the live fungus caused high numbers of infections and fungal outgrowth in larvae and naked pupae, but not in cocooned pupae. Moreover, the ants consistently removed the brood prior to fungal outgrowth, ensuring a clean brood chamber. Conclusion Our study suggests that the pupal cocoon has a protective effect against fungal infection, causing an adaptive change in sanitary behaviours by the ants. It further demonstrates that brood removal–originally described for honeybees as “hygienic behaviour”–is a widespread sanitary behaviour in ants, which likely has important implications on disease dynamics in social insect colonies. PMID:24125481

  6. Slow desiccation improves dehydration tolerance and accumulation of compatible osmolytes in earthworm cocoons (Dendrobaena octaedra Savigny).

    PubMed

    Petersen, Christina R; Holmstrup, Martin; Malmendal, Anders; Bayley, Mark; Overgaard, Johannes

    2008-06-01

    The earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, is a common species in temperate and subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere. The egg capsules ('cocoons') of D. octaedra are deposited in the upper soil layers where they may be exposed to desiccation. Many previous studies on desiccation tolerance in soil invertebrates have examined acute exposure to harsh desiccating conditions, however, these animals are often more likely to be exposed to a gradually increasing drought stress. In the present study we slowly desiccated D. octaedra cocoons to simulate ecologically realistic drought conditions and the results clearly demonstrate that gradually dehydrated cocoons show an increased tolerance of extreme drought compared with acutely dehydrated cocoons. NMR spectroscopic analysis of compatible osmolytes revealed the presence of sorbitol, glucose, betaine, alanine and mannitol in dehydrated embryos. The superior drought survival of gradually desiccated embryos could partly be attributed to a higher accumulation of osmolytes (especially sorbitol). Thus, gradually and acutely desiccated embryos accumulated approximately 2 mol l(-1) and 1 mol l(-1) total osmolytes, respectively. However, in addition to osmolyte accumulation, the gradually desiccated cocoons also tolerated a higher degree of water loss, demonstrating that gradually dehydrated D. octaedra cocoons are able to survive loss of approximately 95% of the original water content. Although D. octaedra embryos can probably not be categorized as a truly anhydrobiotic organism we propose that they belong in a transition zone between the desiccation sensitive and the truly anhydrobiotic organisms. Clearly, these earthworm embryos share many physiological traits with anhydrobiotic organisms. PMID:18515720

  7. A Cocoon Found Inside the Black Widow's Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-02-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory image of the mysterious "Black Widow" pulsar reveals the first direct evidence of an elongated cocoon of high-energy particles. This discovery shows that this billion-year-old rejuvenated pulsar is an extremely efficient generator of a high-speed flow of matter and antimatter particles. Known officially as pulsar B1957+20, the Black Widow received its nickname because it is emitting intense high-energy radiation that is destroying its companion through evaporation. B1957+20, which completes one rotation every 1.6-thousandths of a second, belongs to a class of extremely rapidly rotating neutron stars called millisecond pulsars. The motion of B1957+20 through the galaxy -- at a high speed of almost a million kilometers per hour -- creates a bow shock wave visible to optical telescopes. The Chandra observation shows what cannot be seen in visible light: a second shock wave. This secondary shock wave is created from pressure that sweeps the wind back from the pulsar to form the cocoon of high-energy particles, visible for the first time in the Chandra data. "This is the first detection of a double-shock structure around a pulsar," said Benjamin Stappers, of the Dutch Organization for Research in Astronomy (ASTRON), lead author on a paper describing the research that will appear in the Feb. 28, 2003, issue of Science magazine. "It should enable astronomers to test theories of the dynamics of pulsar winds and their interaction with their environment." B1957+20 X-ray-only image of B1957+20 Scientists believe millisecond pulsars are very old neutron stars that have been spun up by accreting material from their companions. The steady push of the infalling matter on the neutron star spins it up in much the same way as pushing on a merry-go-round makes it rotate faster. The result is an object about 1.5 times as massive as the Sun and ten miles in diameter that rotates hundreds of times per second. The advanced age, very rapid rotation rate and relatively low magnetic field of millisecond pulsars put them in a totally separate class from young pulsars observed in the remnants of supernova explosions. "This star has had an incredible journey. It was born in a supernova explosion as a young and energetic pulsar, but after a few million years grew old and slow and faded from view," said Bryan Gaensler of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., a coauthor of the paper. "Over the next few hundred million years, this dead pulsar had material dumped on it by its companion, and the pulsar's magnetic field has been dramatically reduced. B1957+20 B1957+20 Artist's illustrations of B1957+20 "This pulsar has been through hell, yet somehow it's still able to generate high-energy particles just like its younger brethren," continued Gaensler. The key is the rapid rotation of B1957+20. The Chandra result confirms the theory that even a relatively weakly magnetized neutron star can generate intense electromagnetic forces and accelerate particles to high energies to create a pulsar wind, if it is rotating rapidly enough. Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer observed B1957+20 for over 40,000 seconds on June 21, 2001. Other members of the research team include Victoria Kaspi (McGill University, Montreal), Michiel van der Klis (University of Amsterdam) and Walter Lewin (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program, and TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif., is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass., for the Office of Space Science at NASA Headquarters, Washington.

  8. Utilization of silkworm cocoon waste as a sorbent for the removal of oil from water.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Shiori; Kurashima, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Ayaka; Haraguchi, Kazuma; Shirai, Koji; Kanekatsu, Rensuke; Kiguchi, Kenji

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate the utilization of silkworm cocoon waste, such as pierced or stained cocoons, as a sorbent material for the removal of motor and vegetable oils from water. The oil-sorption capacity, rate and reusability of the material were evaluated. The results show the high sorption capacity of the silkworm cocoon waste sorbent (42-52 g(oil)/g(sorbent) for motor oil and 37-60 g(oil)/g(sorbent) for vegetable oil). The oil sorbed onto the material could be recovered by squeezing the sorbent, and the squeezed material showed an oil-sorption capacity over 15 g(oil)/g(sorbent). We concluded that the material shows a high performance as a low cost and environmental friendly sorbent for the removal of oil from water. PMID:19008047

  9. Fossilized spermatozoa preserved in a 50-Myr-old annelid cocoon from Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Mrs, Thomas; Ferraguti, Marco; Reguero, Marcelo A; McLoughlin, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    The origin and evolution of clitellate annelids--earthworms, leeches and their relatives--is poorly understood, partly because body fossils of these delicate organisms are exceedingly rare. The distinctive egg cases (cocoons) of Clitellata, however, are relatively common in the fossil record, although their potential for phylogenetic studies has remained largely unexplored. Here, we report the remarkable discovery of fossilized spermatozoa preserved within the secreted wall layers of a 50-Myr-old clitellate cocoon from Antarctica, representing the oldest fossil animal sperm yet known. Sperm characters are highly informative for the classification of extant Annelida. The Antarctic fossil spermatozoa have several features that point to affinities with the peculiar, leech-like 'crayfish worms' (Branchiobdellida). We anticipate that systematic surveys of cocoon fossils coupled with advances in non-destructive analytical methods may open a new window into the evolution of minute, soft-bodied life forms that are otherwise only rarely observed in the fossil record. PMID:26179804

  10. Unusual Occurrence of Cocoons in Population of Haplodiplosis marginata (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Censier, F.; Chavalle, S.; Knor, S.; De Proft, M.; Bodson, B.; Skuhrav, M.

    2014-01-01

    The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a phytophagous species that develops in saddle-shaped galls on stems of wheat Triticum vulgare, barley Hordeum sativum, rye Secale cereale, and some other species of Poaceae. Only one generation develops per year. Full-grown larvae leave galls and drop onto the soil where they remain up to the springtime of the following year. Larvae do not usually spin cocoons. However, formation of cocoons by larvae was observed in populations developing in western Europe: in England in 1954, in the Netherlands in the 1960s, and in Belgium in 2011. On the basis of our analysis, a part of the larval population forms cocoons as protection against unfavorable weather conditions, especially drought. PMID:25525104

  11. Fluorescent silk cocoon creating fluorescent diatom using a Water glass-fluorophore ferry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusurkar, Tejas S.; Tandon, Ishita; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

    2013-11-01

    Fluorophores are ubiquitous in nature. Naturally occurring fluorophores are exceptionally stable and have high quantum yield. Several natural systems have acquired fluorescent signature due to the presence of these fluorophores. Systematic attempt to harvest these fluorophores from natural systems could reap rich commercial benefit to bio-imaging industry. Silk cocoon biomaterial is one such example of natural system, which has acquired a fluorescent signature. The objective of this study is to develop simple, rapid, commercially viable technique to isolate silk cocoon membrane fluorophores and exploring the possibility of using them as fluorescent dye in bio-imaging. Here, we report an innovative water glass (Na2SiO3) based strategy to isolate the silk cocoon fluorophores. Isolated fluorophore is majorly quercetin derivatives and exhibited remarkable photo- and heat stability. Fluorescence and mass spectrometric analysis confirmed presence of a quercetin derivative. We further used this fluorophore to successfully label the silicate shell of diatom species Nitzschia palea.

  12. Unusual Occurrence of Cocoons in Population of Haplodiplosis marginata (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Censier, F.; Chavalle, S.; Knor, S.; De Proft, M.; Bodson, B.; Skuhravá, M.

    2014-01-01

    The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a phytophagous species that develops in saddle-shaped galls on stems of wheat Triticum vulgare, barley Hordeum sativum, rye Secale cereale, and some other species of Poaceae. Only one generation develops per year. Full-grown larvae leave galls and drop onto the soil where they remain up to the springtime of the following year. Larvae do not usually spin cocoons. However, formation of cocoons by larvae was observed in populations developing in western Europe: in England in 1954, in the Netherlands in the 1960s, and in Belgium in 2011. On the basis of our analysis, a part of the larval population forms cocoons as protection against unfavorable weather conditions, especially drought.

  13. Fluorescent silk cocoon creating fluorescent diatom using a “Water glass-fluorophore ferry”

    PubMed Central

    Kusurkar, Tejas S.; Tandon, Ishita; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

    2013-01-01

    Fluorophores are ubiquitous in nature. Naturally occurring fluorophores are exceptionally stable and have high quantum yield. Several natural systems have acquired fluorescent signature due to the presence of these fluorophores. Systematic attempt to harvest these fluorophores from natural systems could reap rich commercial benefit to bio-imaging industry. Silk cocoon biomaterial is one such example of natural system, which has acquired a fluorescent signature. The objective of this study is to develop simple, rapid, commercially viable technique to isolate silk cocoon membrane fluorophores and exploring the possibility of using them as fluorescent dye in bio-imaging. Here, we report an innovative water glass (Na2SiO3) based strategy to isolate the silk cocoon fluorophores. Isolated fluorophore is majorly quercetin derivatives and exhibited remarkable photo- and heat stability. Fluorescence and mass spectrometric analysis confirmed presence of a quercetin derivative. We further used this fluorophore to successfully label the silicate shell of diatom species Nitzschia palea. PMID:24256845

  14. Abdominal cocoon as a presenting feature of systemic lupus erythematosus. A rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Rinkesh K; Kumar, Ashish; Bansal, Naresh; Arora, Anil

    2013-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-organ disorder, which can involve any system of the body, single, or in combination. In the gastrointestinal tract, it can present as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, gastroesophageal reflux, dysphagia, constipation, diarrhea, fecal incontinence, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, perforation, and hemorrhage. Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing-encapsulated peritonitis is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction, resulting from the encasement of variable lengths of bowel by a dense fibrocollagenous membrane that gives the appearance of a cocoon. It is often seen in adolescent girls. We hereby present a case of abdominal cocoon with repeated vomiting and subacute intestinal obstruction as presenting features of SLE in a young girl. The abdominal features responded well to steroids and immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:24252899

  15. Fossilized spermatozoa preserved in a 50-Myr-old annelid cocoon from Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Mörs, Thomas; Ferraguti, Marco; Reguero, Marcelo A.; McLoughlin, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The origin and evolution of clitellate annelids—earthworms, leeches and their relatives—is poorly understood, partly because body fossils of these delicate organisms are exceedingly rare. The distinctive egg cases (cocoons) of Clitellata, however, are relatively common in the fossil record, although their potential for phylogenetic studies has remained largely unexplored. Here, we report the remarkable discovery of fossilized spermatozoa preserved within the secreted wall layers of a 50-Myr-old clitellate cocoon from Antarctica, representing the oldest fossil animal sperm yet known. Sperm characters are highly informative for the classification of extant Annelida. The Antarctic fossil spermatozoa have several features that point to affinities with the peculiar, leech-like ‘crayfish worms' (Branchiobdellida). We anticipate that systematic surveys of cocoon fossils coupled with advances in non-destructive analytical methods may open a new window into the evolution of minute, soft-bodied life forms that are otherwise only rarely observed in the fossil record. PMID:26179804

  16. Cocoon and epidermis of Australian Cyclorana frogs differ in composition of lipid classes that affect water loss.

    PubMed

    Sadowski-Fugitt, Leslie M; Tracy, Christopher R; Christian, Keith A; Williams, Joseph B

    2012-01-01

    For amphibians to survive in environments that experience annual droughts, they must minimize evaporative water loss. One genus of Australian hylid frogs, Cyclorana, prevents desiccation by burrowing in the soil and forming cocoons composed of alternating layers of shed epidermis and glandular secretions. Previous data are inconclusive about the role that lipids play in reducing evaporative water loss through skin (cutaneous water loss [CWL]) when Cyclorana spp. are within cocoons. In this study, we measured CWL and lipids in the epidermis and in cocoons of five species of Cyclorana. CWL was significantly lower in frogs within cocoons than in frogs without cocoons. Surface-area-specific CWL for the three small species was significantly higher than that of the two larger species of Cyclorana, but this difference was not apparent in frogs within cocoons. Although lipids were responsible for more of the dry mass of the epidermis (approximately 20%) than of the cocoons (approximately 7%) we found that cerebrosides and ceramides, two polar lipid classes, were almost exclusively found in cocoons. This suggests that these lipid classes are in the glandular secretions rather than in the epidermis. Because these polar lipids are the types that reduce water loss in birds (cerebrosides and ceramides) and mammals (ceramides), we conclude that they are important not only for holding together the shed layers of skin but also for contributing to the barrier against water loss. PMID:22237288

  17. Cell dynamics during cocoon secretion in the aquatic leech, Theromyzon tessulatum (Annelida: Clitellata: Glossiphoniidae).

    PubMed

    Sayers, C W; Coleman, J; Shain, D H

    2009-02-01

    One distinguishing feature of clitellate annelids is the presence of specialized segments comprising the clitellum, whose primary function is to secrete a cocoon. Using histological analyses, we have documented cell types (I-V) and cellular processes associated with cocoon secretion in the aquatic leech, Theromyzon tessulatum. Our data indicate that the bulk of the cocoon's biomass arises from precursor cells of a single type that hypertrophy and proliferate approximately 1 week prior to egg laying, and then differentiate into either of two cell types (i.e., Type II or Type III) depending on their position within the clitellum. Type II cells are concentrated along the lateral edges and venter of the clitellum and secrete alcian blue-staining granules that form opercula (i.e., glue-like material that seals both cocoon ends), while Type III cells populate the dorsal midline and secrete azocarmine-staining granules that build the cocoon wall. Both cell types occupy spaces between deep muscle layers and extend long-neck tubules to the surface epithelium as they fill with granules a few days prior to egg laying. Other cell types appear to make minor contributions to the cocoon (e.g., Type I, Type IV) or have supporting or signaling roles (e.g., Type V). Our observations suggest that post-translational modification (i.e., glycosylation) of the same core protein(s) distinguishes the granules of Type II/III cells, and that the default state of the Type II/III precursor may be evolutionarily linked to secretory cells in basal polychaetes. PMID:18775546

  18. Evidence for a significant mixture of electron/positron pairs in FRII jets constrained by cocoon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakatu, Nozomu; Kino, Motoki; Takahara, Fumio

    2016-03-01

    We examine the plasma composition of relativistic jets in four Fanaroff-Riley type II (FRII) radio galaxies by analysing the total cocoon pressure in terms of partial pressures of thermal and non-thermal electrons/positrons and protons. The total cocoon pressure is determined by cocoon dynamics via comparison of theoretical model with the observed cocoon shape. By inserting the observed number density of non-thermal electrons/positrons and the upper limit of thermal electron/positron number density into the equation of state, the number density of protons is constrained. We apply this method to four FRII radio galaxies (Cygnus A, 3C 219, 3C 223 and 3C 284), for which the total cocoon pressures have been already evaluated. We find that the positron-free plasma comprising protons and electrons is ruled out, when we consider plausible particle distribution functions. In other words, the mixture of positrons is required for all four FRII radio galaxies; the number density ratio of electrons/positrons to protons is larger than 2. Thus, we find that the plasma composition is independent of the jet power and the size of cocoons. We also investigate the additional contribution of thermal electrons/positrons and protons on the cocoon dynamics. When thermal electrons/positrons are absent, the cocoon is supported by the electron/proton plasma pressure, while both electron/positron pressure supported and electron/proton plasma pressure supported cocoons are allowed if the number density of thermal electrons/positrons is about 10 times larger than that of non-thermal ones.

  19. Infant Mortality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes infant mortality rates from 1940 to 2007, and the leading causes of infant mortality in 2007, for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Infant mortality is defined as the death of an infant from the time of live birth to the age of 1 year. Infant...

  20. Forecasting outbreaks of the douglas-fir tussock moth from lower crown cocoon samples. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.R.; Scott, D.W.; Paul, H.G.

    1993-03-01

    A predictive technique using a simple linear regression was developed to forecast the midcrown density of small tussock moth larvae from estimates of cocoon density in the previous generation. The regression estimator was derived from field samples of cocoons and larvae taken from a wide range of nonoutbreak tussock moth populations. The accuracy of the predictions was demonstrated on an operational basis in an independent tussock moth outbreak.

  1. Hyperglycemia - infants

    MedlinePLUS

    High blood sugar - infants; High blood glucose level - infants ... Hyperglycemia is abnormally high blood sugar. The medical term for blood sugar is blood glucose. This article discusses hyperglycemia in infants.

  2. The 'secret cocoon': fantasies about the private self in the absence of consensual reality.

    PubMed

    Rudden, Marie G

    2011-04-01

    Clinical material is presented from an analysand whose defense of withdrawal to 'a private internal space' was mobilized when she became confused, within her relationships and within the transference, about whose understanding of a shared event was 'real.' Analysis of the defense as resistance revealed a disrupted sense of connection to others and to the analyst in the face of the difficulty in determining a consensual reality. This was accompanied by emotional withdrawal, with a complex fantasy of retreat to a protective inner hiding place, or cocoon. The phenomenology and functions of such withdrawals, the fantasies accompanying them, and the ways in which they changed during the analysis are discussed in this paper. For the patient described, the analysis of her shifting 'cocoon' states and of the fantasies connected with them eventually enabled her to access her creative 'private self' more freely and with less conflict. PMID:21518364

  3. An unusual case of ingestion of a moth cocoon in a 14-month-old girl.

    PubMed

    Tripi, Paul A; Lee, Richard; Keiper, Joe B; Jones, Andrew W; Arnold, James E

    2010-01-01

    We present a case report of a 14-month-old girl who ingested a moth cocoon, which resulted in dramatic symptoms of irritability, drooling, and anorexia. Direct laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, and esophagoscopy under general anesthesia revealed copious, tenaciously adherent, barbed hairs embedded in her tongue and buccal mucosa. Removal of the hairs with irrigation, suction, and brushing was unsuccessful and was eventually abandoned. In the following 48 hours, the girl recovered uneventfully with supportive care. The hairs were subsequently identified as coming from the hickory tussock moth (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae: Lophocampa caryae), which is ubiquitously distributed throughout much of North America. This is the first detailed case report of ingestion of an L caryae cocoon. PMID:20015715

  4. Multiple Abdominal Cocoons: An Unusual Presentation of Intestinal Obstruction and a Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Sohail, Mohammad Zain; Dala-Ali, Benan; Ali, Shahanoor; Hashmi, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) or abdominal cocoon is a rare acquired condition with an unknown aetiology. It is characterized by encapsulation of the small bowel by a fibrous membrane and can lead to intestinal obstruction. We present the case of a 42-year-old gentleman with a history of hepatitis C, tuberculosis, and previous abdominal surgery, who presented with subacute intestinal obstruction. Surgical exploration of the abdomen revealed that the entire contents were enclosed into three distinct sacs by a dense fibrous membrane. Excision of the sacs was performed followed by adhesiolysis. This is believed to be the first reported case of multiple cocoons within the abdominal cavity. The case is discussed with reference to the literature. PMID:25893128

  5. Conundrum of the cocoon: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Ambil S; Rajagopal, Ramasamy

    2003-08-01

    Idiopathic, sclerosing, encapsulating peritonitis, or abdominal cocoon, is a rare cause of bowel obstruction in the elderly. A 65-year-old male patient presented with acute bowel obstruction caused by torsion of the encapsulated small bowel. He was treated successfully with subtotal excision of the fibrocollagenous membrane and small bowel resection. Despite anecdotal reports of a preoperative diagnosis, in the majority of cases, sclerosing, encapsulating peritonitis is a fortuitous finding. A better awareness of this condition may facilitate preoperative diagnosis. PMID:12907915

  6. Developing a Web 2.0 telemedical education system: the AJAX-Cocoon portal.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, S; Orabi, A; Fiaidhi, J; Orabi, M

    2008-01-01

    Web 2.0 technologies such as wikis, podcasts/vodcasting, blogs and semantic portals could be quite effective tools in e-learning for health professionals. If effectively deployed, such tools can offer a way to enhance students', clinicians' and patients' learning experiences, and deepens levels of learners' engagement and collaboration within medical learning environments. However, Web 2.0 requires simplicity of use as well as integration with modern web technologies. This article presents a Web 2.0 telemedical portal, which provides a social community-learning paradigm from the desk of the physician, the student, the hospital administrator, or the insurer. The presented portal utilises RESTful web services and techniques like content syndication, mushups and Asynchronous JavaScript API and XML (AJAX). The designed portal is based on the Apache Cocoon RESTful framework for sharing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) medical case studies. Central to this article is the integration between Cocoon and AJAX. The proposed AJAX-Cocoon portal utilises a JSP portlet architecture, which manages the interaction dynamics and overcomes the shortcomings of the JSR 168 and WSRP 1.0 standards. PMID:18583294

  7. Predicting future trends in the burden of pertussis in the 21st century: implications for infant pertussis and the success of maternal immunization.

    PubMed

    van den Biggelaar, Anita H J; Poolman, Jan T

    2016-01-01

    Support is growing for maternal immunization using acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines to prevent severe pertussis disease and deaths among very young, unvaccinated infants. Vaccine effectiveness of maternal immunization is 91% in preventing laboratory-confirmed pertussis in infants aged <3months. To date, most mothers were primed in childhood with whole-cell pertussis vaccines. Soon, the generation of aP-primed individuals will become the new mothers-to-be. The shorter duration of protection afforded by aP vaccines, which is more pronounced with repeated aP boosters, may lead to increased pertussis circulation among aP-primed parents. Maternal Tdap immunization in aP-primed mothers-to-be may become less effective. Additional measures to protect young infants may eventually be needed, along with new vaccines that induce higher quality and more durable responses. PMID:26559122

  8. The Cocoon nebula and its ionizing star: do stellar and nebular abundances agree?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Rojas, J.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Esteban, C.

    2014-11-01

    Context. Main-sequence massive stars embedded in an H ii region should have the same chemical abundances as the surrounding nebular gas+dust. The Cocoon nebula (IC 5146), a close-by Galactic H ii region ionized by a narrow line B0.5 V single star (BD+46 3474), is an ideal target to compare nebular and stellar abundances in detail in the same Galactic region. Aims: We investigate the chemical content of oxygen and other elements in the Cocoon nebula from two different points of view: an empirical analysis of the nebular spectrum, and a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the associated early B-type star using state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere modeling. By comparing the stellar and nebular abundances, we aim to indirectly address the long-standing problem of the discrepancy found between abundances obtained from collisionally excited lines and optical recombination lines in photoionized nebulae. Methods: We collected long-slit spatially resolved spectroscopy of the Cocoon nebula and a high-resolution optical spectrum of the ionizing star. Standard nebular techniques along with updated atomic data were used to compute the physical conditions and gaseous abundances of O, N, and S in eight apertures extracted across a semidiameter of the nebula. We performed a self-consistent spectroscopic abundance analysis of BD+46 3474 based on the atmosphere code FASTWIND to determine the stellar parameters and Si, O, and N abundances. Results: The Cocoon nebula and its ionizing star, located at a distance of 800±80 pc, have a chemical composition very similar to the Orion nebula and other B-type stars in the solar vicinity. This result agrees with the high degree of homogeneity of the present-day composition of the solar neighborhood (up to 1.5 Kpc from the Sun) as derived from the study of the local cold-gas interstellar medium. The comparison of stellar and nebular collisionally excited line abundances in the Cocoon nebula indicates that O and N gas+dust nebular values agree better with stellar values assuming small temperature fluctuations on the order of those found in the Orion nebula (t2 = 0.022). For S, the behaviour is somewhat puzzling, and different conclusions can be reached depending on the atomic data set used. Based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated by the Isaac Newton Group and with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association. Both telescopes are at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  9. Infant botulism.

    PubMed

    Fenicia, Lucia; Anniballi, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Infant botulism is a rare disease that affects infant less than 12 months of age. The illness results from absorption of botulinum toxin produced in situ by neurotoxigenic clostridia that can temporarily colonize the intestinal tract of infants. To date, all inhabited continents except Africa have reported cases of infant botulism. Recognition of cases seem directly related to physician awareness and clinical suspicion. This review summarizes microbiological, clinical and epidemiological features of infant botulism. PMID:19636165

  10. A cosmic ray cocoon along the X-ray jet of M87?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dainotti, M. G.; Ostrowski, M.; Harris, D.; Siemiginowska, A.; Siejkowski, H.

    2012-10-01

    Relativistic jets propagating through an ambient medium must produce some observational effects along their side boundaries because of interactions across the large velocity gradient. One possible effect of such an interaction would be a sheared magnetic field structure at the jet boundaries, leading to a characteristic radio polarization pattern. As proposed by Ostrowski, another effect can come from the generation of a high-energy cosmic ray component at the boundary, producing dynamic effects on the medium surrounding the jet and forming a cocoon dominated by cosmic rays with a decreased thermal gas emissivity. We selected this process for our first attempt to look for the effects of this type of interaction. We analysed the Chandra X-ray data for the radio galaxy M87 in order to verify if the expected regions of diminished emissivity may be present near the spectacular X-ray jet in this source. The detailed analysis of the data, merged from 42 separate observations, shows signatures of lower emissivity surrounding the jet. In particular we detect an intensity dip along the part of the jet, which would be approximately 1.5 0.15 kpc2 in size, if situated along the jet which is inclined towards us. Due to a highly non-uniform X-ray background in the central region, we are not able to claim the discovery of a cosmic ray cocoon around the M87 jet: we only have demonstrated that the data show morphological structures which could be accounted for if a cosmic ray cocoon exists.

  11. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of silk cocoon (Abresham) on isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Srivastav, Ritesh Kumar; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Mahmood, Tarique; Ahsan, Farogh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate cardioprotective effect of silk cocoon (Abresham) Bombyx mori (B. mori) on isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction. This study deals with the cocoons, which is called Abresham in the Unani system of medicine. It is one of the 64 drugs which Avicenna has mentioned in Avicennas tract on cardiac drugs and used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Abresham is a chief ingredient of the two very famous Unani formulation viz. Khamira Abresham Sada, and Khamira Abresham Hakim Arshad Wala. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of B. mori (Abresham) silk cocoons in the dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight was administered orally for 28 days before isoprenaline administration to test their cardioprotective effect. Isoprenaline (85 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously on days 29th and 30th, respectively in order to induce myocardial infarction. Results: The parameters for evaluation of cardioprotective activity were the physical parameters and the biochemical estimations. The physical parameters were gross examination of heart, heart weight/body weight ratio and histopathology examination. In biochemical estimations, the activity of various cardiac enzymes such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, creatinine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and the gold marker troponin-I were determined. The levels altered by isoproterenol were restored significantly by the administration of the both doses of test extract especially at higher dose. Conclusion: The result of this study shows that alcoholic extract B. mori has significant cardioprotective activity against isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction. PMID:25050277

  12. Maternal Immunization Earlier in Pregnancy Maximizes Antibody Transfer and Expected Infant Seropositivity Against Pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Eberhardt, Christiane S.; Blanchard-Rohner, Geraldine; Lemaître, Barbara; Boukrid, Meriem; Combescure, Christophe; Othenin-Girard, Véronique; Chilin, Antonina; Petre, Jean; de Tejada, Begoña Martinez; Siegrist, Claire-Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background. Maternal immunization against pertussis is currently recommended after the 26th gestational week (GW). Data on the optimal timing of maternal immunization are inconsistent. Methods. We conducted a prospective observational noninferiority study comparing the influence of second-trimester (GW 13–25) vs third-trimester (≥GW 26) tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) immunization in pregnant women who delivered at term. Geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of cord blood antibodies to recombinant pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The primary endpoint were GMCs and expected infant seropositivity rates, defined by birth anti-PT >30 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units (EU)/mL to confer seropositivity until 3 months of age. Results. We included 335 women (mean age, 31.0 ± 5.1 years; mean gestational age, 39.3 ± 1.3 GW) previously immunized with Tdap in the second (n = 122) or third (n = 213) trimester. Anti-PT and anti-FHA GMCs were higher following second- vs third-trimester immunization (PT: 57.1 EU/mL [95% confidence interval {CI}, 47.8–68.2] vs 31.1 EU/mL [95% CI, 25.7–37.7], P < .001; FHA: 284.4 EU/mL [95% CI, 241.3–335.2] vs 140.2 EU/mL [95% CI, 115.3–170.3], P < .001). The adjusted GMC ratios after second- vs third-trimester immunization differed significantly (PT: 1.9 [95% CI, 1.4–2.5]; FHA: 2.2 [95% CI, 1.7–3.0], P < .001). Expected infant seropositivity rates reached 80% vs 55% following second- vs third-trimester immunization (adjusted odds ratio, 3.7 [95% CI, 2.1–6.5], P < .001). Conclusions. Early second-trimester maternal Tdap immunization significantly increased neonatal antibodies. Recommending immunization from the second trimester onward would widen the immunization opportunity window and could improve seroprotection. PMID:26797213

  13. Premature infant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... clitoris (in female infants) Less body fat Lower muscle tone and less activity than full-term infants ... or delayed by a medication that blocks uterine contractions. Many times, however, attempts to delay premature labor ...

  14. Diversity, host association, and cocoon variability of reared Indian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Fernndez-Triana, Jos L

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 3,500 specimens of microgastrine wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were reared during caterpillar surveys undertaken in 2010-2013 across India, covering 16 States and one Union Territory (Andaman & Nicobar islands), and deposited in the National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects, Bangalore, India. The caterpillar inventory recovered over two hundred morpho-species within 22 families of Lepidoptera and yielded 90+ morpho-species of microgastrine wasps distributed among 13 genera: Apanteles Frster, Buluka de Saeger, Cotesia Cameron, Diolcogaster Ashmead, Distatrix Mason, Dolichogenidea Viereck, Fornicia Brulle, Glyptapanteles Ashmead, Microgaster Latreille, Microplitis Frster, Neoclarkinella Rema & Narendran, Parapanteles Ashmead, and Protapanteles Ashmead. Records of hyperparasitoids are also included: Mokrzeckia menzeli Subba Rao (Pteromalidae), Pachyneuron groenlandicum (Holmgren) (Pteromalidae), Pediobius foveolatus (Crawford) (Eulophidae), Trichomalopsis thekkadiensis Sureshan & Narendran (Pteromalidae), Eurytoma sp., and Pediobius sp. (Eurytomidae). The present study adds eight new host records and provides illustrations of 40 species of wasps (including types). A comprehensive list of microgastrine genera, host caterpillar species, host plants, cocoon colour, structure and spinning pattern, and hyperparasitoids is provided. Numerous photographs of parasitized caterpillars, cocoons (number/arrangement), associated host plants, and adult wasps are also provided. The Indian species Deuterixys ruidus (Wilkinson, 1928) is transferred to the genus Cotesia based on the shape and sculpture of the first and second mediotergites: Cotesia ruidus (Wilkinson) comb. nov. Microgaster carinicollis Cameron is transferred to Microplitis, based on examination of first and second mediotergites, length of metatibia spurs, and size of metaxocoxa: Microplitis carinicollis (Cameron) stat. rev. PMID:24870869

  15. Large-scale production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor in transgenic silkworm cocoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Riyuan; Wang, Yuancheng; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-11-01

    With an increasing clinical demand for functional therapeutic proteins every year, there is an increasing requirement for the massive production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (r-haFGF). In this present study, we delicately explore a strategy for the mass production of r-haFGF protein with biological activity in the transgenic silkworm cocoons. The sequence-optimized haFGF was inserted into an enhanced sericin-1 expression system to generate the original transgenic silkworm strain, which was then further crossed with a PIG jumpstarter strain to achieve the remobilization of the expression cassette to a “safe harbor” locus in the genome for the efficient expression of r-haFGF. In consequence, the expression of r-haFGF protein in the mutant line achieved a 5.6-fold increase compared to the original strain. The high content of r-haFGF facilitated its purification and large-scald yields. Furthermore, the r-haFGF protein bioactively promoted the growth, proliferation and migration of NIH/3T3 cells, suggesting the r-haFGF protein possessed native mitogenic activity and the potential for wound healing. These results show that the silk gland of silkworm could be an efficient bioreactor strategy for recombinant production of bioactive haFGF in silkworm cocoons.

  16. Combined effects of copper, desiccation, and frost on the viability of earthworm cocoons

    SciTech Connect

    Holmstrup, M.; Petersen, B.F. |; Larsen, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of heavy metal pollution on earthworms have been extensively studied, but no studies have examined how earthworms react if they are simultaneously exposed to metal pollution and climatic stress. This question has been addressed in a laboratory study where cocoons of Aporrectodea caliginosa and Dendrobaena octaedra were initially exposed to copper in aqueous solutions of copper chloride and thereafter exposed to realistic degrees of either desiccation or frost. Earthworm embryos absorbed copper in amounts comparable to concentrations found in various tissues of earthworms from metal-polluted soils. Desiccation and copper exposure in combination had synergistic effects on survival rates for both species. For example, at full saturation, the NOEC (the highest tested concentration with no statistically significant effect) for copper of A. caliginosa was 12 mg/L, whereas at 97% relative humidity it was only 6 mg/L. Frost and copper exposure in combination also showed synergistic effects in some experiments. No cocoons of A. caliginosa exposed to 20 mg copper/L were viable after exposure to {minus}3 C but at 0 C viability was as high as 95%. The same tendency was seen in D. octaedra but not as clearly as in A/. caliginosa. A change of the environmental conditions (moisture, temperature) to increasing severity caused a shift in the statistically derived NOEC toward lower critical values of copper. The involvement of combination effects in ecotoxicological tests could therefore improve risk assessment of soil-polluting compounds.

  17. Large-scale production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor in transgenic silkworm cocoons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Riyuan; Wang, Yuancheng; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    With an increasing clinical demand for functional therapeutic proteins every year, there is an increasing requirement for the massive production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (r-haFGF). In this present study, we delicately explore a strategy for the mass production of r-haFGF protein with biological activity in the transgenic silkworm cocoons. The sequence-optimized haFGF was inserted into an enhanced sericin-1 expression system to generate the original transgenic silkworm strain, which was then further crossed with a PIG jumpstarter strain to achieve the remobilization of the expression cassette to a “safe harbor” locus in the genome for the efficient expression of r-haFGF. In consequence, the expression of r-haFGF protein in the mutant line achieved a 5.6-fold increase compared to the original strain. The high content of r-haFGF facilitated its purification and large-scald yields. Furthermore, the r-haFGF protein bioactively promoted the growth, proliferation and migration of NIH/3T3 cells, suggesting the r-haFGF protein possessed native mitogenic activity and the potential for wound healing. These results show that the silk gland of silkworm could be an efficient bioreactor strategy for recombinant production of bioactive haFGF in silkworm cocoons. PMID:26567460

  18. Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... which can cause difficulty breathing, vomiting and disturbed sleep. It can also lead to weight loss, incontinence, and rib fractures. Up to 2 in 100 adolescents and 5 in 100 adults with pertussis are ...

  19. Structural model of an antistasin/notch-like fusion protein from the cocoon wall of the aquatic leech, Theromyzon tessulatum.

    PubMed

    Mason, Tarin A; McIlroy, Patrick J; Shain, Daniel H

    2006-09-01

    The aquatic leech, Theromyzon tessulatum, secretes a proteinaceous cocoon with extraordinary physical properties (e.g., proteolytic, thermal resiliency). The deduced amino acid sequence of a major protein (Tcp-Theromyzon cocoon protein) from the T. tessulatum cocoon wall has been used to model the endogenous structure of the Tcp protein. The Tcp protein sequence comprises six internal repeats, each containing 12 ordered Cys residues. Amino acid alignments suggest that the region Cys1-->6 is homologous to antistasin, a leech anticoagulant, and Cys7-->12 is homologous to an epidermal growth factor-like domain found in notch-class proteins, which play critical roles in development, signaling, and adhesion throughout the Animalia. Modeling of individual domains (i.e., antistasin and notch) positions multiple hydrophobic and charged residues on the surface. When the antistasin and notch domains were fused, hydrophobic pockets appeared that may facilitate a polymerization mechanism. Collectively, the predicted features of our Tcp model are consistent with the physical properties of the leech cocoon wall. PMID:16523290

  20. Solvothermal synthesis and photoluminescence properties of BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons and nanorods with different phases

    SciTech Connect

    Xue Fei; Li Haibo; Zhu Yongchun; Xiong Shenglin; Zhang Xianwen; Wang Tingting; Liang Xin; Qian Yitai

    2009-06-15

    Hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons and monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} nanorods have been synthesized in the mixed solvents of glycerol and distilled water with the volume ratio of 2:1 at 200 deg. C. The solvothermal evolution process from hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons to monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} nanorods was observed by varying the reaction time from 1 to 3 h. In the hydrothermal condition at 160 deg. C, the similar phase transformation from hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} to monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} was also observed, accompanying with a morphology transformation from nanorods to octahedron-like microcrystals. It was found that the volume ratio of glycerol to water in the solvothermal condition had a great impact on the shapes of products, while it had no influence on the formation of different phases. The fluorescence spectra of hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons and monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} nanorods were also studied. - Graphical abstract: Hexagonal phase BiPO{sub 4} nano-cocoons were fabricated by solvothermal method at 200 deg. C for 1 h. When the reaction time was increased to 3 h, monoclinic phase BiPO{sub 4} nanorods were formed.

  1. [Singing for preterm born infants music therapy in neonatology].

    PubMed

    Desquiotz-Sunnen, N

    2008-01-01

    The use of music as part of a stress reduction therapy has been applied both to premature infants and their parents in the Neonatal Reanimation Service. This aim of music therapy amounts to an attempt to help the premature infant regaining its physical and neurological balance, so important to its psychological and physical development, mainly by masking the sometimes excessive noise present in the intensive care unit and/or in the incubator. Studies have demonstrated the positive impact of music therapy on oxygen saturation, heartbeat, and on the general level of relaxation experienced by premature infants. In this project, the palliative technique used was that of live singing, directly to the infant, accompanied by a pentatonic harp. The aim was to improve the state of health, both physical and psychological, of a group of premature infants, whose gestation period varied between 23 and 36 weeks. The technique used was to apply what amounts to a protective cocoon of sounds to a premature infant in the neonatal unit, which measurably reduced the level of stress as indicated by the babies' increasingly relaxed demeanour and induced a measurable increase on the level of oxygen saturation and a reduction of heart rate. PMID:18404877

  2. Recent progress in molecular genetic studies on the carotenoid transport system using cocoon-color mutants of the silkworm.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Kozo; Sakudoh, Takashi

    2015-04-15

    The existence of tissue-specific delivery for certain carotenoids is supported by genetic evidence from the silkworm Bombyx mori and the identification of cocoon color mutant genes, such as Yellow blood (Y), Yellow cocoon (C), and Flesh cocoon (F). Mutants with white cocoons are defective in one of the steps involved in transporting carotenoids from the midgut lumen to the middle silk gland via the hemolymph lipoprotein, lipophorin, and the different colored cocoons are caused by the accumulation of specific carotenoids into the middle silk gland. The Y gene encodes carotenoid-binding protein (CBP), which is expected to function as the cytosolic transporter of carotenoids across the enterocyte and epithelium of the middle silk gland. The C and F genes encode the C locus-associated membrane protein, which is homologous to a mammalian high-density lipoprotein receptor-2 (Cameo2) and scavenger receptor class B member 15 (SCRB15), respectively; these membrane proteins are expected to function as non-internalizing lipophorin receptors in the middle silk gland. Cameo2 and SCRB15 belong to the cluster determinant 36 (CD36) family, with Cameo2 exhibiting specificity not only for lutein, but also for zeaxanthin and astaxanthin, while SCRB15 seems to have specificity toward carotene substrates such as α-carotene and β-carotene. These findings suggest that Cameo2 and SCRB15 can discriminate the chemical structure of lutein and β-carotene from circulating lipophorin during uptake. These data provide the first evidence that CD36 family proteins can discriminate individual carotenoid molecules in lipophorin. PMID:25579881

  3. Infant Constipation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Diapers & Clothing > Infant Constipation Ages & Stages Listen Español Text ...

  4. A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by Fermi in the Cygnus superbubble.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Belfiore, A; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bottacini, E; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; do Couto E Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dumora, D; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hayashi, K; Hays, E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lee, S-H; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Martin, P; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Naumann-Godo, M; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pesce-Rollins, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Pohl, M; Prokhorov, D; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Parkinson, P M Saz; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, P D; Spinelli, P; Strong, A W; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S; Bontemps, S

    2011-11-25

    The origin of Galactic cosmic rays is a century-long puzzle. Indirect evidence points to their acceleration by supernova shockwaves, but we know little of their escape from the shock and their evolution through the turbulent medium surrounding massive stars. Gamma rays can probe their spreading through the ambient gas and radiation fields. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed the star-forming region of Cygnus X. The 1- to 100-gigaelectronvolt images reveal a 50-parsec-wide cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays that flood the cavities carved by the stellar winds and ionization fronts from young stellar clusters. It provides an example to study the youth of cosmic rays in a superbubble environment before they merge into the older Galactic population. PMID:22116880

  5. Hierarchical, multilayered cell walls reinforced by recycled silk cocoons enhance the structural integrity of honeybee combs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Duan, Huiling; Karihaloo, Bhushan L.; Wang, Jianxiang

    2010-01-01

    We reveal the sophisticated and hierarchical structure of honeybee combs and measure the elastic properties of fresh and old natural honeycombs at different scales by optical microscope, environmental scanning electron microscope, nano/microindentation, and by tension and shear tests. We demonstrate that the comb walls are continuously strengthened and stiffened without becoming fragile by the addition of thin wax layers reinforced by recycled silk cocoons reminiscent of modern fiber-reinforced composite laminates. This is done to increase its margin of safety against collapse due to a temperature increase. Artificial engineering honeycombs mimic only the macroscopic geometry of natural honeycombs, but have yet to achieve the microstructural sophistication of their natural counterparts. The natural honeycombs serve as a prototype of truly biomimetic cellular materials with hitherto unattainable improvement in stiffness, strength, toughness, and thermal stability. PMID:20439765

  6. Luminescence properties of silk cocoon derived carbonaceous fluorescent nanoparticles/PVA hybrid film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Haobin; Zheng, Mingtao; Dong, Hanwu; Lei, Bingfu; Zhang, Haoran; Xiao, Yong; Liu, Yingliang

    2014-09-01

    Carbonaceous fluorescent nanoparticles (CFNs) with broad particle distribution were synthesized by thermal-treatment using carbonation of silk cocoon as raw materials. The experimental results showed tunable emission wavelength of the nanoparticles. The quantum yield of the CFNs was calculated to be 23%. A CFNs/PVA hybrid thin film was prepared from a blend of the CFNs with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) showing interesting green afterglow which could be observed by naked eyes. The afterglow spectrum revealed that the CFNs/PVA thin film had a broad afterglow emission peak located at 520 nm. The afterglow intensity decay curve of the film showed visually recognizable period longer than 140 s. The PVA-PVA hydrogen bonding in the PVA matrix may play a key role for the afterglow.

  7. Hierarchical, multilayered cell walls reinforced by recycled silk cocoons enhance the structural integrity of honeybee combs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Duan, Huiling; Karihaloo, Bhushan L; Wang, Jianxiang

    2010-05-25

    We reveal the sophisticated and hierarchical structure of honeybee combs and measure the elastic properties of fresh and old natural honeycombs at different scales by optical microscope, environmental scanning electron microscope, nano/microindentation, and by tension and shear tests. We demonstrate that the comb walls are continuously strengthened and stiffened without becoming fragile by the addition of thin wax layers reinforced by recycled silk cocoons reminiscent of modern fiber-reinforced composite laminates. This is done to increase its margin of safety against collapse due to a temperature increase. Artificial engineering honeycombs mimic only the macroscopic geometry of natural honeycombs, but have yet to achieve the microstructural sophistication of their natural counterparts. The natural honeycombs serve as a prototype of truly biomimetic cellular materials with hitherto unattainable improvement in stiffness, strength, toughness, and thermal stability. PMID:20439765

  8. [Trend in the emergence of flea imagoes from cocoons in the nests of a mountain gopher (Spermophilus musicus) in the central Caucasian highland natural focus of plague].

    PubMed

    Beliavtseva, L I

    2012-01-01

    The results of observations of a trend in the emergence of flea imagoes from cocoons in the nests of mountain gopher (Spermophilus musicus) (Elbrus region) confirm that the dominant species: Citellophilus tesquorum elbrusensis and Ctenophthalmus golovi golovi have two generations. Emergence of first-generation imagoes from cocoons is recorded in July-August in the nests where the grophers constantly inhabit in May-June. These are brood-rearing and other summer nests and, to a lesser degree, former wintering ones. Hatching of the bulk of second-generation flea imagoes is observed in the nests constantly inhabited by grophers in July-August (these are nests made from summer holes and renovable wintering nests). The onset of emergence of second-generation imagoes from cocoons in both flea species is noted in September; some specimens hibernate in the cocoons, by emerging from them next April. PMID:23437722

  9. The silk cocoon of the silkworm, Bombyx mori: macro structure and its influence on transmural diffusion of oxygen and water vapor.

    PubMed

    Blossman-Myer, Bonnie; Burggren, Warren W

    2010-02-01

    The cocoon of insect larvae is thought to help conserve water while affording mechanical protection. If the cocoon is a barrier to water loss, then it must also impose a barrier to inward oxygen diffusion. We tested this hypothesis in pupae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The rate of water loss and oxygen uptake (VO(2)) at 25 degrees C was measured in control pupae in their naturally spun cocoon and in exposed pupae experimentally removed from their cocoon. Additional measurements included the oxygen diffusion coefficient, DO(2), of the cocoon wall and dimensions and density of the cocoon fibers. Water loss (as % body mass loss) in both control and exposed pupae was approximately 1% x day(-1), and was not significantly different between populations. Similarly, VO(2) was statistically identical in both control and exposed pupae, at 0.22+/-0.01 and 0.21+/-0.02 mL g(-1) x h(-1), respectively. The silk fiber diameter was significantly different in the outer fibers, 26+/-1 microm, compared with 16+/-1 microm for the inner fibers lining the cocoon. Inner fibers were also spun significantly more densely (20.8+/-1.2 mm(-1) transect) than outer fibers (8.3+/-0.2). Mean DO(2) at 25 degrees C was 0.298+/-0.002 cm(2) x s(-1), approximately the same as unstirred air. These data indicate that the cocoon, while creating a tough barrier offering mechanical protection to the pupa, imposes no barrier to the diffusion of oxygen or water vapor. PMID:19913633

  10. 78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants... importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers and...

  11. Infant botulism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... found in soil and certain foods (such as honey and some corn syrups). Infant botulism occurs mostly ... late as 1 year. Risk factors include swallowing honey as a baby, being around contaminated soil, and ...

  12. Infant categorization.

    PubMed

    Rakison, David H; Yermolayeva, Yevdokiya

    2010-11-01

    In this article, we review the principal findings on infant categorization from the last 30 years. The review focuses on behaviorally based experiments with visual preference, habituation, object examining, sequential touching, and inductive generalization procedures. We propose that although this research has helped to elucidate the 'what' and 'when' of infant categorization, it has failed to clarify the mechanisms that underpin this behavior and the development of concepts. We outline a number of reasons for why the field has failed in this regard, most notably because of the context-specific nature of infant categorization and a lack of ground rules in interpreting data. We conclude by suggesting that one remedy for this issue is for infant categorization researchers to adopt more of an interdisciplinary approach by incorporating imaging and computational methods into their current methodological arsenal. WIREs Cogn Sci 2010 1 894-905 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26271785

  13. CPR - infant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that is done when a baby's breathing or heartbeat has stopped. This may happen after drowning, suffocation, ... you must continue these procedures until the infant's heartbeat and breathing return, or trained medical help arrives.

  14. Infant reflexes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... neck reflex; Galant reflex; Truncal incurvation; Rooting reflex; Parachute reflex; Grasp reflex ... was stroked and begin to make sucking motions. Parachute reflex . This reflex occurs in slightly older infants ...

  15. Infant Botulism

    PubMed Central

    Cagan, Eren; Peker, Erdal; Dogan, Murat; Caksen, Huseyin

    2010-01-01

    Infant botulism is a rare condition caused by intestinal colonization with Clostridium botulinum. The enteric toxin causes intestinal immobility and progressive descending paralysis due to the effect on acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction and other cholinergic nerve terminals, particularly in the gut. Herein, we report an infant with infantile botulism because of rare clinically entity, with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment recover no squeal. PMID:25610131

  16. Identification of the TeV gamma-ray source ARGO J2031+4157 with the Cygnus Cocoon

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Bernardini, P.; D'Amone, A.; De Mitri, I.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Di Sciascio, G.; Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2014-08-01

    The extended TeV gamma-ray source ARGO J2031+4157 (or MGRO J2031+41) is positionally consistent with the Cygnus Cocoon discovered by Fermi-LAT at GeV energies in the Cygnus superbubble. Reanalyzing the ARGO-YBJ data collected from 2007 November to 2013 January, the angular extension and energy spectrum of ARGO J2031+4157 are evaluated. After subtracting the contribution of the overlapping TeV sources, the ARGO-YBJ excess map is fitted with a two-dimensional Gaussian function in a square region of 10° × 10°, finding a source extension σ{sub ext}= 1.°8 ± 0.°5. The observed differential energy spectrum is dN/dE = (2.5 ± 0.4) × 10{sup –11}(E/1 TeV){sup –2.6±0.3} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} TeV{sup –1}, in the energy range 0.2-10 TeV. The angular extension is consistent with that of the Cygnus Cocoon as measured by Fermi-LAT and the spectrum also shows a good connection with the one measured in the 1-100 GeV energy range. These features suggest to identify ARGO J2031+4157 as the counterpart of the Cygnus Cocoon at TeV energies. The Cygnus Cocoon, located in the star-forming region of Cygnus X, is interpreted as a cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays related to the Cygnus superbubble. The spectral similarity with supernova remnants (SNRs) indicates that the particle acceleration inside a superbubble is similar to that in an SNR. The spectral measurements from 1 GeV to 10 TeV allows for the first time to determine the possible spectrum slope of the underlying particle distribution. A hadronic model is adopted to explain the spectral energy distribution.

  17. Planarians in toxicology. I. Physiology of sexual-only Dugesia dorotocephala: effects of diet and population density on adult weight and cocoon production.

    PubMed

    Kostelecky, J; Elliott, B; Schaeffer, D J

    1989-12-01

    A rare sexual-only race of Dugesia dorotocephala produces offspring from cocoons rather than by fissioning, allowing individuals to be accurately aged. Because each animal possesses fully developed male and female reproductive systems and a true brain with synapses, many types of toxicological studies which normally use vertebrates are possible with these animals. Prior to using this race for toxicological studies, a 3(3) factorial study was carried out to determine the effects of environmental conditions on reproduction and growth. The factors studied were crowding (2, 4, or 8 animals/50 ml medium), age (17, 19, 21 months), and type of dietary protein (soy, liver, cooked egg yolk). Protein composition dramatically affected the numbers of cocoons deposited per planarian, mean weight, and temporal patterns of weight changes. During 65 days of observation, planarians fed liver deposited an average of 3.28 cocoons/planarian while those fed soya or egg yolk deposited an average of 0.24 cocoon/planarian. Crowding, but not age, affected the numbers of cocoons deposited. Statistical analysis showed that protein composition, age, and crowding, alone and in factorial combinations, affected both the absolute weight changes and the temporal patterns in weight changes in each group. PMID:2612420

  18. An ultrastructural study of oogenesis and cell dynamics during cocoon shell secretion in the subterranean freshwater planarian Dendrocoelum constrictum (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida).

    PubMed

    Harrath, A H; Ahmed, M; Sayed, S R; Saifi, M A; Alwasel, S H

    2013-02-01

    The ultrastructure of the ovary and the female atrium during cocoon formation was investigated in the subterranean freshwater planarian Dendrocoelum constrictum. In the peripheral portion of the ovary, the oogonia are recognized as undifferentiated germ cells, which are morphologically similar to neoblasts that have a high nucleus/cytoplasm ratio. Oocyte maturation is characterized by a marked growth of the cytoplasm because of the accumulation of cytoplasmic organelles and inclusions. The Golgi complexes begin to increase within the ooplasm and produce vesicles with an electron-dense content that fuse to produce larger spherical globules with homogeneous and electron-dense material. In the mature oocyte, the spherical globules migrate toward the cortical ooplasm, forming a continuous monolayer. We confirm that these spherical globules, which represent cortical granules rather than eggshell globules, vary in size up to 2?m and their electron-dense content shows concentric thin bands. After leaving the ovary through the oviduct, the mature and fertilized oocytes reach the female atrium where they are packaged with thousands of vitelline cells in the cocoon shell. Based on our ultrastructural analysis, we demonstrate that the wall of the cocoon shell is composed of two layers, each of which has a different origin. The shell granules extruded from the vitelline cells are involved in the secretion of the inner layer of the cocoon shell, whereas the outer layer of the cocoon shell is synthesized by the epithelial cells in the genital atrium. PMID:23107980

  19. The late jet in gamma-ray bursts and its interactions with a supernova ejecta and a cocoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Rongfeng; Kumar, Pawan; Piran, Tsvi

    2010-03-01

    Late X-ray flares observed in X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) suggest late central engine activities at a few minutes to hours after the burst. A few unambiguously confirmed cases of supernova associations with nearby long GRBs imply that an accompanying supernova-like component might be a common feature in all long GRB events. These motivate us to study the interactions of a late jet, responsible for an X-ray flare, with various components in a stellar explosion, responsible for a GRB. These components include a supernova shell-like ejecta and a cocoon that was produced when the main jet producing the GRB itself was propagating through the progenitor star. We find that the interaction between the late jet and the supernova ejecta may produce a luminous (up to 1049ergs-1) thermal X-ray transient lasting for ~10s. The interaction between the late jet and the cocoon produces synchrotron self-absorbed non-thermal emission, with the observed peak X-ray flux density from 0.001?Jy to 1mJy at 1 keV and a peak optical flux density from 0.01?Jy to 0.1Jy (for a redshift z = 2). The light curve due to the late-jet-cocoon interaction has a very small pulse-width-to-time ratio, ?t/t ~ 0.01-0.5, where t is the pulse peak time since the burst trigger. Identifying these features in current and future observations would open a new frontier in the study of GRB progenitor stars.

  20. Learning in Premature Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoman, Evelyn B.; Ingersoll, Evan W.

    1993-01-01

    Examined instrumental learning in premature infants by providing 45 infants at 33 weeks conceptual age with either a teddy bear that "breathed" quietly at the infant's respiration rate (BB) or a nonbreathing bear (NBB). Over a two-week period, infants provided with the BB decreased their latency to contact the bear; infants exposed to the NBB

  1. Intrinsic tensile properties of cocoon silk fibres can be estimated by removing flaws through repeated tensile tests.

    PubMed

    Rajkhowa, Rangam; Kaur, Jasjeet; Wang, Xungai; Batchelor, Warren

    2015-06-01

    Silk fibres from silkworm cocoons have lower strength than spider silk and have received less attention as a source of high-performance fibres. In this work, we have used an innovative procedure to eliminate the flaws gradually of a single fibre specimen by retesting the unbroken portion of the fibre, after each fracture test. This was done multiple times so that the final test may provide the intrinsic fibre strength. During each retest, the fibre specimen began to yield once the failure load of the preceding test was exceeded. For each fibre specimen, a composite curve was constructed from multiple tests. The composite curves and analysis show that strengths of mass-produced Muga and Eri cocoon silk fibres increased from 446 to 618 MPa and from 337 to 452 MPa, respectively. Similarly, their toughness increased from 84 to 136 MJ m(-3) and from 61 to 104 MJ m(-3), respectively. Composite plots produced significantly less inter-specimen variations compared to values from single tests. The fibres with reduced flaws as a result of retests in the tested section have a tensile strength and toughness comparable to naturally spun dragline spider silk with a reported strength of 574 MPa and toughness of 91-158 MJ m(-3), which is used as a benchmark for developing high-performance fibres. This retesting approach is likely to provide useful insights into discrete flaw distributions and intrinsic mechanical properties of other fatigue-resistant materials. PMID:25948613

  2. The role of photo-electric properties of silk cocoon membrane in pupal metamorphosis: A natural solar cell

    PubMed Central

    Tulachan, Brindan; Srivastava, Shivansh; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Philip, Deepu; Bajpai, Alok; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Silkworm metamorphosis is governed by the intrinsic and extrinsic factors. One key intrinsic factor is the temporal electrical firing of the neuro-secretory cells of the dormant pupae residing inside the silk cocoon membrane (SCM). Extrinsic factors are environmental like temperature, humidity and light. The firing pattern of the cells is a function of the environmental factors that eventually controls the pupal development. How does the nervous organization of the dormant pupae sense the environment even while enclosed inside the cocoon shell? We propose that the SCM does this by capturing the incident light and converting it to electricity in addition to translating the variation in temperature and humidity as an electrical signal. The light to electricity conversion is more pronounced with ultraviolet (UV) frequency. We discovered that a UV sensitive fluorescent quercetin derivative that is present on the SCM and pupal body surface is responsible for generating the observed photo current. Based on these results, we propose an equivalent circuit model of the SCM where an overall electrical output transfers the weather information to pupae, directing its growth. We further discuss the implication of this electrical energy conversion and its utility for consumable electricity. PMID:26907586

  3. The role of photo-electric properties of silk cocoon membrane in pupal metamorphosis: A natural solar cell.

    PubMed

    Tulachan, Brindan; Srivastava, Shivansh; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Philip, Deepu; Bajpai, Alok; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Silkworm metamorphosis is governed by the intrinsic and extrinsic factors. One key intrinsic factor is the temporal electrical firing of the neuro-secretory cells of the dormant pupae residing inside the silk cocoon membrane (SCM). Extrinsic factors are environmental like temperature, humidity and light. The firing pattern of the cells is a function of the environmental factors that eventually controls the pupal development. How does the nervous organization of the dormant pupae sense the environment even while enclosed inside the cocoon shell? We propose that the SCM does this by capturing the incident light and converting it to electricity in addition to translating the variation in temperature and humidity as an electrical signal. The light to electricity conversion is more pronounced with ultraviolet (UV) frequency. We discovered that a UV sensitive fluorescent quercetin derivative that is present on the SCM and pupal body surface is responsible for generating the observed photo current. Based on these results, we propose an equivalent circuit model of the SCM where an overall electrical output transfers the weather information to pupae, directing its growth. We further discuss the implication of this electrical energy conversion and its utility for consumable electricity. PMID:26907586

  4. Production of an active feline interferon in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms using the fibroin H-chain expression system

    SciTech Connect

    Kurihara, H. . E-mail: Hiroyuki_Kurihara@nts.toray.co.jp; Sezutsu, H.; Tamura, T.; Yamada, K.

    2007-04-20

    We constructed the fibroin H-chain expression system to produce recombinant proteins in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms. Feline interferon (FeIFN) was used for production and to assess the quality of the product. Two types of FeIFN fusion protein, each with N- and C-terminal sequences of the fibroin H-chain, were designed to be secreted into the lumen of the posterior silk glands. The expression of the FeIFN/H-chain fusion gene was regulated by the fibroin H-chain promoter domain. The transgenic silkworms introduced these constructs with the piggyBac transposon-derived vector, which produced the normal sized cocoons containing each FeIFN/H-chain fusion protein. Although the native-protein produced by transgenic silkworms have almost no antiviral activity, the proteins after the treatment with PreScission protease to eliminate fibroin H-chain derived N- and C-terminal sequences from the products, had very high antiviral activity. This H-chain expression system, using transgenic silkworms, could be an alternative method to produce an active recombinant protein and silk-based biomaterials.

  5. The role of photo-electric properties of silk cocoon membrane in pupal metamorphosis: A natural solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulachan, Brindan; Srivastava, Shivansh; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Philip, Deepu; Bajpai, Alok; Das, Mainak

    2016-02-01

    Silkworm metamorphosis is governed by the intrinsic and extrinsic factors. One key intrinsic factor is the temporal electrical firing of the neuro-secretory cells of the dormant pupae residing inside the silk cocoon membrane (SCM). Extrinsic factors are environmental like temperature, humidity and light. The firing pattern of the cells is a function of the environmental factors that eventually controls the pupal development. How does the nervous organization of the dormant pupae sense the environment even while enclosed inside the cocoon shell? We propose that the SCM does this by capturing the incident light and converting it to electricity in addition to translating the variation in temperature and humidity as an electrical signal. The light to electricity conversion is more pronounced with ultraviolet (UV) frequency. We discovered that a UV sensitive fluorescent quercetin derivative that is present on the SCM and pupal body surface is responsible for generating the observed photo current. Based on these results, we propose an equivalent circuit model of the SCM where an overall electrical output transfers the weather information to pupae, directing its growth. We further discuss the implication of this electrical energy conversion and its utility for consumable electricity.

  6. Coexistence of abdominal cocoon, intestinal perforation and incarcerated Meckels diverticulum in an inguinal hernia: A troublesome condition

    PubMed Central

    Akbulut, Sami; Yagmur, Yusuf; Babur, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a rare disease entity, in which the small intestine becomes encased and mechanically obstructed by a dense, fibrotic membrane. The disorder is characterized as either primary (idiopathic) or secondary to other causes. The idiopathic cases of SEP, which lack any identifiable etiology according to clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, are also reported under the designation of abdominal cocoon syndrome. The most frequent presenting symptoms of all SEP cases are nausea, vomiting, abdominal distention and inability to defecate, all of which are associated with the underlying intestinal obstruction. Persistent untreated SEP may advance to intestinal perforation, representing a life-threatening condition. However, preoperative diagnosis remains a particular clinical challenge, and most diagnoses are confirmed only when the typical fibrous membrane encasing the small intestine is discovered by laparotomy. Here, we report the clinical presentation of an 87-year-old male with signs of intestinal obstruction and the ultimate diagnosis of concurrent abdominal cocoon, right incarcerated Meckels diverticulum, and gastrointestinal perforation in laparotomy. PMID:24672651

  7. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (abdominal cocoon) associated with liver cirrhosis and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: autopsy case.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Sohsuke; Tanimoto, Akihide; Matsuki, Yasumasa; Hisada, Yuji; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki

    2009-09-01

    A case of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) associated with liver cirrhosis (LC) and complicated by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is reported herein. A 49-year-old Japanese man had undergone peritoneo-venous shunt against refractory ascites due to hepatitis C virus-positive uncompensated LC for 2 years. After he received a diagnosis of DLBCL of the left neck lymph node 3 months before his death, palliative care was given because of his poor general condition. He developed severe abdominal distention and pain over 1 week and was found to have marked ascites and whole bowel lumped together on abdominal CT. At autopsy, the peritoneum was covered with a thick white membrane and the bowel could not be distinguished, which was macroscopically characterized by a cocoon-like appearance. Histology indicated a proliferation of diffusely thickened or hyalinized fibrocollagenous tissue in the entire peritoneum with a slight chronic inflammatory infiltrate and without remarkable change of mucosa. A diagnosis of SEP, also known as abdominal cocoon, was established based on these features. Additionally, in the abdominal cavity, a large amount of serous ascites and multiple peritoneal nodules or masses involved by DLBCL were recognized. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case report of SEP associated with LC and complicated by the invasion of DLBCL in the abdominal cavity. PMID:19712139

  8. Concentrations of heavy metals in the food, faeces, adults, and empty cocoons of Neodiprion sertifer (Hymenoptera, diprionidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Helioevaara, K.; Vaeisaenen, R. Water and Environment Research Institute, Helsinki )

    1990-07-01

    Heavy metals have an adverse effect in polluted forest ecosystems situated in the vicinity of industrial plants and smelters, but little is known about their accumulation along food chains. In some studies, distinct accumulation has been observed from one trophic level to another, while in others no accumulation has been recorded. Insects can excrete heavy metals directly in the faeces, or avoid food containing high concentrations. They may also excrete these elements during metamorphosis in the larval skins including the gut epithelium, pupal remnants, cocoons, gall-walls, or in the droplet excreted by the imago just after hatching. Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy), the European pine sawfly, has mass-outbreaks at approximately ten-year intervals. It is a severe defoliator of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestries L.), usually exploiting only the previous years' needles. Eggs are laid in autumn, and the species overwinters at the egg stage in the needles. The aim of the present study was to analyze the proportion of copper, iron, nickel and cadmium in newly hatched adult insects, in their larval nutrition, faeces and empty cocoons. Larvae of N. sertifer were reared for this purpose on needles of varying heavy metal levels.

  9. Infant weaning.

    PubMed

    1990-07-01

    This communication supplement provides instructions for weaning an infant through the 1st year of life. Since a new born infant grows much faster than an older child, the baby requires sufficient nourishment. The order of foods, though, is important. The baby should begin with liquid foods, then semisolid foods, and lastly solid foods. The best food for an infant, breast milk, contains all the necessary nutrients for a baby. It is clean, safe, easy to digest, and it protects the new born from disease and infection. But when the baby reaches 4 months of age, the weaning process should begin. Fruit juice and soup made of green leafy vegetables contain the vitamins and minerals that the baby needs. Beginning in the 5th month, the baby's diet should include boiled mashed potatoes and smashed bananas. And by the 7th month, the baby is able to digest semisolid food such as khichadi or dalia (roasted cereal which is grounded and mixed with water and dal, and then cooked). Parents should realize that the weaning process does not beginning immediately after birth, and when it begins, the food should be introduced gradually. The food should not contain any spices and should be freshly prepared (the hands should be washed and the utensils cleaned before preparing the foods). To prevent diarrhea and other infections, the food must be kept covered, protected from dust and flies. By the end of the 1st year, the baby should able to eat the normal diet of the family. PMID:2267164

  10. Peripheral intravenous line - infants

    MedlinePLUS

    PIV - infants; Peripheral IV - infants; Peripheral line - infants ... A peripheral intravenous line (PIV) is a small, short, plastic tube, called a catheter. A health care provider puts the PIV through the skin into ...

  11. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... provide the best diet and nutrition for your infant, the AAP recommends: If possible, you should feed ... your baby's diet. If breastfeeding is not possible, infant formulas provide a healthy diet for your infant. ...

  12. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanospheres derived from cocoon silk as metal-free electrocatalyst for glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Li, Tongtong; Li, Yahang; Wang, Chunyu; Gao, Zhi-Da; Song, Yan-Yan

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon materials have attracted tremendous attention because of their high activity in electrocatalysis. In the present work, cocoon silk -- a biomass material is used to prepare porous carbon fibers due to its abundant nitrogen content. The as-prepared carbon microfibers have been activated and disintegrated into carbon nanospheres (CNS) with a diameter of 20--60 nm by a simple nitric acid refluxing process. Considering their excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of oxygen, the CNS modified electrodes are further applied in the construction of glucose amperometric biosensor using glucose oxidase as a model. The proposed biosensor exhibits fast response, high sensitivity, good stability and selectivity for glucose detection with a wide linear range from 79.7 to 2038.9 ?M, and a detection limit of 39.1 ?M. The performance is comparable to leading literature results indicating a great potential for electrochemical sensing application. PMID:26452954

  13. [Infants in Day Care].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue looks at infant day care models including those emphasizing early intervention with special needs infants. The lead article, "Infants in Day Care: Reflections on Experiences, Expectations and Relationships," by Jeree H. Pawl, stresses the importance of understanding infants' and toddlers' capacities and needs in

  14. Tdap Booster Requirements for Secondary Schools

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Smallpox Meningococcal Tetanus Mumps View All Talking about Vaccines Adjuvants Religious Concerns Alternative Medicine Responding to Parents Autism Thimerosal Countering Dr. Sears Too Many Vaccines? Importance ...

  15. Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis) Vaccine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Canada, and many other countries. Pertussis (also called whooping cough) is a bacterial illness that usually begins with symptoms like those of the common cold. Severe coughing can develop over several weeks. Fast, heavy ... sound when breathing in. Pertussis is most serious ...

  16. Milk Allergy in Infants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... espaol Alergia a la leche en bebs About Milk Allergy Almost all infants are fussy at times. ...

  17. Infant Botulism (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Impetigo Head Lice Vomiting Chickenpox Helping ... Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Infant Botulism KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Infant Botulism Print A ...

  18. Infant formulas - overview

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 6 months of life, infants need only breast milk or formula to meet all their nutritional needs. ... 12 months old who are not drinking breast milk . While there are some differences, infant formulas sold ...

  19. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    ... It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and ...

  20. Osteopenia - premature infants

    MedlinePLUS

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... the amount of calcium and phosphorus in the bone. This can cause bones to be weak and ...

  1. Exceptional Infant. Volume 1: The Normal Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellmuth, Jerome, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of papers that focus on normal infant development, particularly from the standpoint of learning. Written by leading experts from a member of disciplines, these papers deal with topics such as: the examination and observation of infants, including neurological, neuropsychological, and neurobehavioral aspects;

  2. Infant and Toddler Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hast, Fran; Hollyfield, Ann

    Based on experiences gained at the Palo Alto Infant-Toddler Center, this book presents a model of infant and toddler child care. The purpose of the book is to offer caregivers and interested parents a repertoire of ways to respond to infants and toddlers that support individual development. Planned experiences and practical strategies for

  3. A Montessori Infant Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueter, Barbara H.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a teacher's experience with infants at a Montessori program. Discusses observations made in the areas of rapid change in development, crying as communication, the thumb-sucking versus pacifier dilemma, and intellectual growth. Discusses factors critical to quality infant care and how infants can teach us. (HTH)

  4. Deposition of cocoon-like ZnO on graphene sheets for improving gas-sensing properties to ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shiming; Zhu, Junwu; Ding, Jing; Bi, Huiping; Yao, Pengcheng; Han, Qiaofeng; Wang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    Developing an efficient gas sensor device with high sensitivity and selectivity still remains a challenge for its practical application. Herein, we demonstrated a facile one-step hydrothermal method to deposit cocoon-like ZnO nanoparticles onto surfaces of graphene sheets, leading to the formation of ZnO/graphene composite. The structural characterization confirmed the successful deposition of ZnO nanocrystals with hexagonal wurtzite on graphene sheets, which further facilitated the exfoliation of graphene sheets. The gas sensing performances of as-prepared ZnO/graphene composites were investigated towards a series of typical organic vapors. The results showed that the ZnO/graphene composite exhibited significantly higher performance than that of pure ZnO nanoparticles. Especially, the ZnO/graphene could offer a high gas response value of 513 towards 1000 ppm of ethanol, which is nearly 5.0 times higher than that of pure ZnO, indicating the potential application as a sensor material towards enhanced gas detection.

  5. BODY BUILD IN INFANTS

    PubMed Central

    Bakwin, Harry; Bakwin, Ruth Morris

    1931-01-01

    In these three papers the body build of infants during health and disease is described quantitatively. This is done by comparison of ratios of various external dimensions to the total body length. In the first paper the technique for measuring the external dimensions of the body in infants is described and various sources of error discussed. In the second paper general empirical formulae for the relationship between various external dimensions and total body length in healthy infants are developed. By comparing two groups of infants from different social environments, it is shown that environment may influence body build. In the third paper the results obtained in the second paper for healthy infants are used for comparison with sick infants. Various differences in the body build of infants with acute intestinal intoxication, tetany and eczema are described. PMID:16693985

  6. Mother-Infant Interaction and Perceived Infant Temperament.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagekull, Berit; Bohlin, Gunilla

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes relationships between directly observed infant and mother behavior and infant temperament characteristics, as described in maternal ratings; separates the effects of different variance components in prediction of the observed behaviors; and explores possible interactions between infant sex and infant temperament in determining both infant

  7. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, Ed.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    This second edition contains articles on (1) infant day care, (2) day care as a way to extend parental support systems, (3) meeting developmental needs of infants, (4) ecology of day care, (5) ecology of infant day care, (6) quality care for infants, (7) the daily schedule, (8) precautions in establishing infant day care, (9) teaching--learning

  8. Carrying Position Influences Infant Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A total of 32 3-month-old infants were carried by their mothers in a soft infant carrier designed to place the infants facing either inward or outward. A within-subject comparison found that when infants were carried facing in, they spent significantly more time sleeping, while infants carried facing out were more active. (MDM)

  9. Skin Equivalent Tissue-Engineered Construct: Co-Cultured Fibroblasts/ Keratinocytes on 3D Matrices of Sericin Hope Cocoons

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Sunita; Dey, Sancharika; Kundu, Subhas C.

    2013-01-01

    The development of effective and alternative tissue-engineered skin replacements to autografts, allografts and xenografts has became a clinical requirement due to the problems related to source of donor tissue and the perceived risk of disease transmission. In the present study 3D tissue engineered construct of sericin is developed using co-culture of keratinocytes on the upper surface of the fabricated matrices and with fibroblasts on lower surface. Sericin is obtained from “Sericin Hope” silkworm of Bombyx mori mutant and is extracted from cocoons by autoclave. Porous sericin matrices are prepared by freeze dried method using genipin as crosslinker. The matrices are characterized biochemically and biophysically. The cell proliferation and viability of co-cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes on matrices for at least 28 days are observed by live/dead assay, Alamar blue assay, and by dual fluorescent staining. The growth of the fibroblasts and keratinocytes in co-culture is correlated with the expression level of TGF-β, b-FGF and IL-8 in the cultured supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The histological analysis further demonstrates a multi-layered stratified epidermal layer of uninhibited keratinocytes in co-cultured constructs. Presence of involucrin, collagen IV and the fibroblast surface protein in immuno-histochemical stained sections of co-cultured matrices indicates the significance of paracrine signaling between keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the expression of extracellular matrix protein for dermal repair. No significant amount of pro inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and nitric oxide) production are evidenced when macrophages grown on the sericin matrices. The results all together depict the potentiality of sericin 3D matrices as skin equivalent tissue engineered construct in wound repair. PMID:24058626

  10. Infants in cocktail parties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Rochelle S.

    2003-04-01

    Most work on listeners' ability to separate streams of speech has focused on adults. Yet infants also find themselves in noisy environments. In order to learn from their caregivers' speech in these settings, they must first separate it from background noise such as that from television shows and siblings. Previous work has found that 7.5-month-old infants can separate streams of speech when the target voice is more intense than the distractor voice (Newman and Jusczyk, 1996), when the target voice is known to the infant (Barker and Newman, 2000) or when infants are presented with an audiovisual (rather than auditory-only) signal (Hollich, Jusczyk, and Newman, 2001). Unfortunately, the paradigm in these studies can only be used on infants at least 7.5 months of age, limiting the ability to investigate how stream segregation develops over time. The present work uses a new paradigm to explore younger infants' ability to separate streams of speech. Infants aged 4.5 months heard a female talker repeat either their own name or another infants' name, while several other voices spoke fluently in the background. We present data on infants' ability to recognize their own name in this cocktail party situation. [Work supported by NSF and NICHD.

  11. Prebiotics in infant formula

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  12. Heart-respiratory monitor - infants

    MedlinePLUS

    Cardiorespiratory monitor - infants; Apnea monitor - infants; Heart rate monitor - infants ... A heart–respiratory monitor can measure a baby's or child's: Breathing rate Heart beat Oxygen level Caregivers can use ...

  13. [Infant mortality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Ramos Padilla, M A

    1987-01-01

    Bolivia, Haiti, and Peru have infant mortality levels as high as those of the developed countries a century ago. The decline of general and especially infant mortality experienced in Latin America beginning in the 1940s was uneven throughout the continent. Cuba's infant mortality rate declined by 86% between 1940-80, but Peru's declined by only 48% despite its higher initial level. In 1984, 34% of all deaths in Peru were to children under 1 year and about 21% were to children 1-5 years old. Socioeconomic factors are the major explanation of Peru's poor infant mortality levels. Regional and social disparities in access to housing, food, urban infrastructure, and other vital goods and services are reflected in infant mortality statistics. Infant mortality has declined in both rural and urban areas, but the magnitude of the decline was much greater in urban areas. Between 1960-75, the infant mortality rate declined from 133 to 80/1000 live births in urban areas, but only from 180 to 150/1000 in rural areas. Investment in the infrastructure and services of the cities during the 1950s and 60s was not matched by any significant investment in rural infrastructure. Rural-urban mortality differentials are not as profound in countries which distribute public investment more evenly between rural and urban areas. Cuba's rural infant mortality rate is only 16% greater than its urban rate, while Peru's rural rate is 47% higher. The rural-urban differential in Peru hides a steep gap between the metropolitan zone of Lima-Callao, which has an infant mortality rate of 55/1000, and that of all cities, which have a rate 45% higher. Metropolitan Lima has the highest levels of living in Peru, including the highest incomes and best housing and service infrastructure. A majority of Peru's economic and industrial development has been concentrated in Lima. Peru's infant mortality differentials are also striking at the departmental level. The 5 departments with the highest infant mortality rats are all located in the southern sierra. The departments with higher infant mortality rates than the national average also have the least coverage of potable water and sewage systems in their housing. Between 1965-75, the infant mortality differential by maternal educational level actually increased, as children of more educated mothers made greater improvements. In 1975, the infant mortality rate was 158/1000 live births for children of illiterate mothers, 73 for children of mothers with 4-6 years of schooling, and 44 for those with 7 or more years. A regression analysis demonstrated that illiteracy of the mother was most highly correlated with the infant mortality rate, followed closely by rural residence. PMID:3603217

  14. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

    There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

  15. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that

  16. [Sensory Systems of Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero To Three, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter contains six articles: (1) "Early Flavor Experiences: When Do They Start?" Julie A. Mennella and Gary K. Beauchamp); (2) "Infant Massage" (Tiffany Field); (3) "The Infant's Sixth Sense: Awareness and Regulation of Bodily Processes" (Stephen W. Porges); (4) "Sensory Contributions to Action: A Sensory Integrative Approach" (Marie E.

  17. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

    There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and

  18. Ultrasound: Infant Hip

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Ultrasound: Infant Hip KidsHealth > For Parents > Ultrasound: Infant Hip Print A A A Text Size ... español Ultrasonido: cadera What It Is A hip ultrasound is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  19. Crying in infants

    PubMed Central

    de Weerth, Carolina; Fuentes, Susana; de Vos, Willem M

    2013-01-01

    Up to around a quarter of all infants cry excessively and unsoothably during their first months of life. This phenomenon has been termed “infant colic.” In most cases, physicians are unable to determine the cause of the colicky behavior. In a recent study, and by means of comprehensive and deep analyses of more than 1000 intestinal phylotypes, we found that infants with colic showed lower microbiota diversity and stability than control infants in the first weeks of life. Colic-control differences in the abundance of certain bacteria were also found at 2 weeks. These microbial signatures possibly explain the colic phenotype. In this addendum we discuss other recent publications on the subject and present previously unpublished analyses of our own. We address possible mechanisms behind the links between microbiota and crying, and present future directions that could further help elucidate the hypothesized relations between intestinal microbiota and infant colic. PMID:23941920

  20. Immunisation of premature infants

    PubMed Central

    Bonhoeffer, J; Siegrist, C?A; Heath, P T

    2006-01-01

    Premature infants are at increased risk of vaccine preventable infections, but audits have shown that their vaccinations are often delayed. Early protection is desirable. While the evidence base for immunisation of preterm infants is limited, the available data support early immunisation without correction for gestational age. For a number of antigens the antibody response to initial doses may be lower than that of term infants, but protective concentrations are often achieved and memory successfully induced. A 2?3?4?month schedule may be preferable for immunisation of preterm infants in order to achieve protection as early as possible, but an additional dose may be required to achieve persistence of protection. This update focuses on the use of routine childhood vaccines in premature infants. PMID:17056868

  1. A HOT COCOON IN THE ULTRALONG GRB 130925A: HINTS OF A POPIII-LIKE PROGENITOR IN A LOW-DENSITY WIND ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, Luigi; Troja, Eleonora; Kidd, Lauren A.; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Ricci, Roberto; Bannister, Keith; Fiore, Fabrizio; Piranomonte, Silvia; Wieringa, Mark H.

    2014-08-01

    GRB 130925A is a peculiar event characterized by an extremely long gamma-ray duration (≈7 ks), as well as dramatic flaring in the X-rays for ≈20 ks. After this period, its X-ray afterglow shows an atypical soft spectrum with photon index Γ ∼ 4, as observed by Swift and Chandra, until ≈10{sup 7} s, when XMM-Newton observations uncover a harder spectral shape with Γ ∼ 2.5, commonly observed in gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. We find that two distinct emission components are needed to explain the X-ray observations: a thermal component, which dominates the X-ray emission for several weeks, and a non-thermal component, consistent with a typical afterglow. A forward shock model well describes the broadband (from radio to X-rays) afterglow spectrum at various epochs. It requires an ambient medium with a very low-density wind profile, consistent with that expected from a low-metallicity blue supergiant (BSG). The thermal component has a remarkably constant size and a total energy consistent with those expected by a hot cocoon surrounding the relativistic jet. We argue that the features observed in this GRB (its ultralong duration, the thermal cocoon, and the low-density wind environment) are associated with a low metallicity BSG progenitor and, thus, should characterize the class of ultralong GRBs.

  2. Antioxidant activities of two sericin proteins extracted from cocoon of silkworm (Bombyx mori) measured by DPPH, chemiluminescence, ORAC and ESR methods

    PubMed Central

    TAKECHI, TAYORI; WADA, RITSUKO; FUKUDA, TSUBASA; HARADA, KAZUKI; TAKAMURA, HITOSHI

    2014-01-01

    Recent efforts have focused on the use of sericin proteins extracted from cocoons of silkworm as a healthy food source for human consumption. In this study, we focused on the antioxidative properties of sericin proteins. The antioxidative properties were measured in sericin proteins extracted from the shell of the cocoon, designated hereafter as white sericin protein and yellow-green sericin protein, as well as bread without sericin protein and bread to which white sericin powder had been added using four measurement methods: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), chemiluminescence, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and electron spin resonance (ESR). High antioxidative properties of sericin proteins were indicated by all four methods. A comparison of the two types of sericin proteins revealed that yellow-green sericin protein exhibited high antioxidative properties as indicated by the DPPH, chemiluminescence and ORAC methods. By contrast, a higher antioxidative property was determined in white sericin protein by the ESR method. Consequently, our findings confirmed that sericin proteins have antioxidative properties against multiple radicals. In addition, the antioxidative property of bread was enhanced by the addition of sericin powder to the bread. Therefore, findings of this study suggest that sericin proteins may be efficiently used as beneficial food for human health. PMID:24748975

  3. When Infants Talk, Infants Listen: Pre-Babbling Infants Prefer Listening to Speech with Infant Vocal Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to…

  4. When Infants Talk, Infants Listen: Pre-Babbling Infants Prefer Listening to Speech with Infant Vocal Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Mnard, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6months) prefer listening to

  5. Infants' Enumeration of Dynamic Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearfield, Melissa W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined infants' enumeration of puppet jumping tasks. In Experiment 1, 5-7-month-old infants were familiarized to a puppet jumping two or three times, and tested with both numbers of jumps. Infants looked significantly longer at the new number, replicating Wynn [Psychol. Sci. 7 (1996) 164]. To probe further the stability of infants'

  6. Multivariate Model of Infant Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kierscht, Marcia Selland; Vietze, Peter M.

    This paper describes a multivariate model of early infant competence formulated from variables representing infant-environment transaction including: birthweight, habituation index, personality ratings of infant social orientation and task orientation, ratings of maternal responsiveness to infant distress and social signals, and observational

  7. [Pneumocystis pneumonia in infants].

    PubMed

    Craiu, M; Stan, Iustina; Cern?tescu, I; Sajin, Maria; Georgescu, A; Avram, P

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study is to present the clinical and evolutive features of Pneumocystis infection (PCP) in infants admitted in our clinic. We summarise these aspects from 17 cases (10 male and 7 female infants), admitted between 1st January 2004 and 31st May 2005. PCP infection is rare. It represents 1,5/1000 children (17 cases of 11328 total patients) admitted in our hospital. The risk factors for PCP were age between 6 weeks and 6 months (average 3,38 months) low birth weight (average = 2428 grams), low weight for age, prolonged hospital admission (88,23% of the 17 infants were abandoned in nursery). Only one of them had HIV infection and none presented neoplastic disease. The most prominent clinical aspect was tachypnea (average 78 breath/minute, maximum 130). 16 (94,11%) had difficult breathing with chest in-drawing and flaring of ala nasi. 14 (82,35%) had generalised cyanosis. Only two (11,72%) infants had fever. Radiologic aspects were evocative, with diffuse pulmonary involvement in almost all cases (88,23%). 6 infants (35,29%) had pneumothorax and 2 (11,76%) presented pneumomediastinum. Positive diagnosis was made by microscopic examination of secretions from endotracheal tube aspiration (Grocott methenamine silver stain and Romanowsky stain). 14 infants were ventilated with a good outcome--12 surviving infants (85,7%). All infants had a full course of intravenous Co-trimoxazole. The deceased infants had more risk factors--congenital heart disease 1 case, severe cerebral palsy with organic epilepsy 2 cases. The apparent increase of PCP cases can be related to the number of abandoned children in Romanian pediatric hospitals and nurseries. PMID:16536025

  8. [Scrotal hair in infants].

    PubMed

    Sentchordi Montane, L; Quintanar Rioja, A; Ayala Bernardo de Quirós, L; Martínez Granero, M A; Bonet Serra, B

    2008-02-01

    The presence of pubic hair is exceptional in healthy infants of both sexes. In most of the cases described in the literature, the process was self-limited and no etiology was found. Nevertheless, in some patients, this finding has been associated with other manifestations of hyperandrogenism related to potentially serious diseases such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia or virilizing tumors. In the present article, we describe seven infants followed-up in the Pediatric Endocrine Clinic because of scrotal hair. In all patients, the process was self-limited and resolved spontaneously and no hormonal or developmental alterations were observed. Key words: Scrotal hair, infants, virilization. PMID:18341882

  9. Benefits of infant massage.

    PubMed

    Day, Jane

    2014-05-01

    After spending three months as a clinical midwifery tutor at a remote hospital in Zambia, where I helped to train student midwives and other students, my interest in infant massage was ignited, having witnessed the benefits of massage to both mother and baby. Once back in the UK, I trained and qualified as a massage instructor with an international infant massage training organisation, which has led me to work extensively with parents and babies, offering one-to-one and group courses. It has been a privilege to be able to teach parents the valuable skill of infant massage, and consequently pass on the benefits both physiological and psychosocial. PMID:24873112

  10. When infants talk, infants listen: pre-babbling infants prefer listening to speech with infant vocal properties.

    PubMed

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-03-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to vowel sounds with infant vocal properties over vowel sounds with adult vocal properties. A listening preference favoring infant vowels may derive from their higher voice pitch, which has been shown to attract infant attention in infant-directed speech (IDS). In addition, infants' nascent articulatory abilities may induce a bias favoring infant speech given that 4- to 6-month-olds are beginning to produce vowel sounds. We created infant and adult /i/ ('ee') vowels using a production-based synthesizer that simulates the act of speaking in talkers at different ages and then tested infants across four experiments using a sequential preferential listening task. The findings provide the first evidence that infants preferentially attend to vowel sounds with infant voice pitch and/or formants over vowel sounds with no infant-like vocal properties, supporting the view that infants' production abilities influence how they process infant speech. The findings with respect to voice pitch also reveal parallels between IDS and infant speech, raising new questions about the role of this speech register in infant development. Research exploring the underpinnings and impact of this perceptual bias can expand our understanding of infant language development. PMID:25754812

  11. Cepheids and their 'Cocoons'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at Cerro Paranal, Chile, and the CHARA Interferometer at Mount Wilson, California, a team of French and North American astronomers has discovered envelopes around three Cepheids, including the Pole star. This is the first time that matter is found surrounding members of this important class of rare and very luminous stars whose luminosity varies in a very regular way. Cepheids play a crucial role in cosmology, being one of the first "steps" on the cosmic distance ladder. ESO PR Photo 09/06 ESO PR Photo 09/06 Model Image of Cepheid L Carinae (VINCI, MIDI/VLTI) The southern Cepheid L Carinae was observed with the VINCI and MIDI instrument at the VLTI, while Polaris (the Pole Star) and Delta Cephei (the prototype of its class) were scrutinised with FLUOR on CHARA, located on the other side of the equator. FLUOR is the prototype instrument of VINCI. Both were built by the Paris Observatory (France). For most stars, the observations made with the interferometers follow very tightly the theoretical stellar models. However, for these three stars, a tiny deviation was detected, revealing the presence of an envelope. "The fact that such deviations were found for all three stars, which however have very different properties, seems to imply that envelopes surrounding Cepheids are a widespread phenomenon", said Pierre Kervella, one of the lead authors. The envelopes were found to be 2 to 3 times as large as the star itself. Although such stars are rather large - about fifty to several hundreds of solar radii - they are so far away that they can't be resolved by single telescopes. Indeed, even the largest Cepheids in the sky subtend an angle of only 0.003 arc second. To observe this is similar to viewing a two-storey house on the Moon. Astronomers have thus to rely on the interferometric technique, which combines the light of two or more distant telescopes, thereby providing the angular resolution of a unique telescope as large as the separation between them. With the VLTI, it is possible to achieve a resolution of 0.001 arc second or less. "The physical processes that have created these envelopes are still uncertain, but, in analogy to what happens around other classes of stars, it is most probable that the environments were created by matter ejected by the star itself", said Antoine Mrand, lead-author of the second paper describing the results. Cepheids pulsate with periods of a few days. As a consequence, they go regularly through large amplitude oscillations that create very rapid motions of its apparent surface (the photosphere) with velocities up to 30 km/s, or 108 000 km/h! While this remains to be established, there could be a link between the pulsation, the mass loss and the formation of the envelopes. Notes Cepheids are commonly used as distance indicators, thanks to the existence of a basic relation between their intrinsic brightness and their pulsation period. By measuring the period of a Cepheid star, its intrinsic brightness can be deduced and from the observed apparent brightness, the distance may then be calculated. As they are intrinsically very bright stars, and can be observed in distant galaxies, this remarkable property has turned these yellow supergiant stars into primary 'standard candles' for extragalactic distance estimations (see ESO PR 25/04). L Carinae is the brightest Cepheid in the sky, and also the one that presents the largest apparent angular diameter. This is a massive supergiant star, having about 10 times the mass of the Sun and a radius approximately 180 times that of the Sun. Polaris is a peculiar star as it is located very close to the North celestial pole (hence its name). It is classified as a Cepheid, but it shows very weak pulsations compared to the other stars of its class. Delta Cephei is the prototype of the Cepheids. It was discovered to be a variable star in the 18th century by the English amateur John Goodricke, and it is still one of the brightest members of the Cepheid class. Its short period is characteristic of a relatively small supergiant, with a radius of "only" 43 times that of the Sun. These results are published in two articles to appear in Astronomy and Astrophysics: "Extended envelopes around Galactic Cepheids I. L Car from near and mid-infrared interferometry with the VLTI" by P. Kervella et al., and "Extended envelopes around Cepheids II. Near infrared interferometric observations of Polaris and delta Cep using CHARA/FLUOR" by Antoine Mrand et al. The first paper is available as a PDF file from the editor's web site. The team is composed of Pierre Kervella, Antoine Mrand, Vincent Coud du Foresto , Guy Perrin (LESIA, Paris Observatory, France), Stephen T. Ridgway (NOAO, Tucson, US and CHARA, Georgia, US), Jason P. Aufdenberg (NOAO, Tucson, US), Theo A. ten Brummelaar, Harold A. McAlister, Laszlo Sturmann, Judit Sturmann, Nils H. Turner and David H. Berger (CHARA, Georgia, US). The Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) Array interferometer is operated by the Georgia State University, United States.

  12. Sudden infant death syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Crib death; SIDS ... However, SIDS is still a major cause of death in infants under one year old. Thousands of ... affects boys more often than girls. Most SIDS deaths occur in the winter. The following may increase ...

  13. Diarrhea in infants

    MedlinePLUS

    When your infant has diarrhea; When your baby has diarrhea; BRAT diet; Diarrhea in children ... Children who have diarrhea may have less energy, dry eyes, or a dry, sticky mouth. They may also not wet their diaper as ...

  14. Infant - newborn development

    MedlinePLUS

    ... holding a hand; may take few steps alone SENSORY DEVELOPMENT Hearing, begins before birth, and is mature at birth. The infant prefers the human voice. Touch, taste, and smell, mature at birth; ...

  15. Bathing an infant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your baby's umbilical cord dry. Use warm, not hot, water. Place your elbow under the water to ... al. Prevention of drowning in infants, children, and adolescents. A technical report of the American Academy of ...

  16. Infant Feeding 1980

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Anthony S.

    1980-01-01

    Recent reports from the Canadian Pediatric Society's Nutrition Committee1-5 have re-examined issues concerning the feeding of infants, and recommendations have been presented. In an article reviewing a similar report by the Nutrition Committee of the American Academy of Pediatrics, Woodruff6 refers to the art of infant feeding and the science of infant nutrition—the former being the practical application of the latter. The distinction is important. While the science of infant nutrition is obviously a complex area of expertise appropriate to pediatricians, factors affecting the art of infant feeding—the interplay between the needs of the infant and the community's current social and cultural beliefs and practices, between the recommendations of professional groups and food manufacturers' products and advertising—fall very definitely within the purview of the family physician. These two papers examine some of the current Canadian recommendations, their rationale and the practical problems they pose from a family practice viewpoint. Imagesp1191-ap1193-a PMID:21293682

  17. Reducing blood glucose levels in TIDM mice with an orally administered extract of sericin from hIGF-I-transgenic silkworm cocoons.

    PubMed

    Song, Zuowei; Zhang, Mengyao; Xue, Renyu; Cao, Guangli; Gong, Chengliang

    2014-05-01

    In previous studies, we reported that the blood glucose levels of mice with type I diabetes mellitus (TIDM) was reduced with orally administered silk gland powder from silkworms transgenic for human insulin-like growth factor-I (hIGF-I). However, potential safety hazards could not be eliminated because the transgenic silk gland powder contained heterologous DNA, including the green fluorescent protein (gfp) and neomycin resistance (neo) genes. These shortcomings might be overcome if the recombinant hIGF-I were secreted into the sericin layer of the cocoon. In this study, silkworm eggs were transfected with a novel piggyBac transposon vector, pigA3GFP-serHS-hIGF-I-neo, containing the neo, gfp, and hIGF-I genes controlled by the sericin-1 (ser-1) promoter with the signal peptide DNA sequence of the fibrin heavy chain (Fib-H) and a helper plasmid containing the piggyBac transposase sequence under the control of the Bombyx mori actin 3 (A3) promoter, using sperm-mediated gene transfer to generate the transformed silkworms. The hIGF-I content estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was approximately 162.7 ng/g. To estimate the biological activity of the expressed hIGF-I, streptozotocin-induced TIDM mice were orally administered sericin from the transgenic silkworm. The blood glucose levels of the mice were significantly reduced, suggesting that the extract from the transgenic hIGF-I silkworm cocoons can be used as an orally administered drug. PMID:24632065

  18. Iron intake of infants: the importance of infant cereals.

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, D. L.; Pennell, M. D.; Leung, M.; Hall, J.; Anderson, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1976 many baby foods have been reformulated and the iron used to fortify infant cereals has been changed to a more bioavailable form. Therefore, the dietary intake of iron by infants from 1 to 18 months of age was assessed in a longitudinal survey conducted in Toronto and Montreal between 1977 and 1979. Except in the 1st and 18th months the mean daily iron consumption of the infants was above that recommended in the Dietary Standard for Canada. The main source of this nutrient was infant cereals. Examination of the diets of the infants who did not have the recommended daily intake of iron showed that they did not consume sufficient amounts of infant cereals and other iron-rich foods. These results indicate that without such cereals it is difficult to provide infants with the amount of iron they need. Therefore, infants should receive these cereals during the first 2 years of life. PMID:7332896

  19. An "Infant Control" Procedure for Studying Infant Visual Fixations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Frances Degen; And Others

    A study was conducted in which the infants' behavior was allowed to control stimulus duration. A group of five infants were tested once a week from 3 through 14 weeks of age. A second group of five infants were tested once a week from 8 through 14 weeks of age. A third group of 18 infants were tested once at 3, 8, or 14 weeks of age. Once a

  20. [Changes in infant mortality].

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A

    1997-01-01

    Mexico's infant mortality rate is estimated to have declined from 189 in 1930 to 129 in 1950 and 30 in 1995. The infant mortality rate has continued its decline despite the economic crisis of recent years. The use of oral rehydration therapy has reduced mortality from diarrhea, and the spread of family planning has reduced the numbers of births at high risk due to maternal age, parity, or short birth intervals. The types of causes of infant death have changed as the numbers have decreased. They can be grouped in ascending order according to the difficulty of prevention: diseases preventable by immunization, acute diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, perinatal disorders, and congenital anomalies. Over two-thirds of infant deaths recorded since 1950 have been due to these causes. Infectious diseases, including diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, and conditions preventable by immunization predominated as causes of infant mortality before 1930. As the epidemiological transition progresses, diseases preventable by immunization lose importance, and diarrhea and respiratory infections occupy the first two places, with perinatal disorders being third. Between 1980 and 1990, in Mexico, diarrhea and acute respiratory infections dropped to second and third place after perinatal disorders, with congenital anomalies in fourth place. In most developed countries, perinatal disorders and congenital anomalies are the two most frequent causes of death, while diarrhea and respiratory infections no longer appear in the top five. In 1995, the four main causes in Mexico in descending order were perinatal disorders, congenital anomalies, acute respiratory infections, and diarrhea. PMID:12158082

  1. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): Condition Information Skip sharing on social ... Share this: Page Content SIDS is the sudden death of an infant younger than 1 year of ...

  2. Infant Mortality and Hispanic Americans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table A. http://www. ... from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table 5. http://www. ...

  3. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table A. http://www. ... from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table 5. http://www. ...

  4. Diminished Reactivity of Postmature Human Infants to Sucrose Compared with Term Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study of healthy 39-week-old infants, so-called term infants, and chronically stressed 42-week-old infants, so-called postmature infants, showed that sucrose was extremely effective in calming term infants but less effective in calming postmature infants. Results supported the hypothesis that sucrose engages an opioid system in infants. (BG)

  5. Infants perception of chasing

    PubMed Central

    Frankenhuis, Willem E.; House, Bailey; Barrett, H. Clark; Johnson, Scott P.

    2012-01-01

    Two significant questions in cognitive and developmental science are first, whether objects and events are selected for attention based on their features (featural processing) or the configuration of their features (configural processing), and second, how these modes of processing develop. These questions have been addressed in part with experiments focused on infants perception of faces, human body shapes, and biological motion of individual agents. Here, we investigate 4- and 10-month-old infants (N = 192) attention to social motions, specifically to chasinga ubiquitous, ancient, and fitness-relevant mode of interaction. We constructed computer-generated animations of chasing that had three properties: acceleration, high turning rates, and attraction (heat-seeking). In the first experiment we showed chasing side-by-side with a control display of inanimate, billiard-ball-like motions. Infants strongly preferred attending to chasing. In the next three studies, we systematically investigated the effect of each property in turn (acceleration, turning, and attraction) by showing a display of that property side-by-side with the control display. Infants preferentially attended to acceleration, and to attraction, but not to turning. If infants preferred chasing for its configuration, then the sum of the effect sizes of individual properties should be smaller than their combined effects. That is not what we found: instead, on three measures of visual behavior, the summed effects of individual properties equaled (or exceeded) that of chasing. Moreover, although attraction drew little attention and turning no attention at all, acceleration drew (nearly) as much attention as chasing. Our results thus provide evidence that infants preferred chasing because of its features, not its configuration. PMID:23121710

  6. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, E.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    These proceedings of the first annual SACUS workshop on infant day care contain the papers presented at the conference, plus an appendix--Developmental Objectives for Infants and Toddlers. The papers are: "Infant Day Care--Fads, Facts, and Fancies" by Bettye M. Caldwell; "Family Day Care""A Broad Perspective" by Malcolm S. Host; "Getting…

  7. GLUCOSE EXTREMES IN NEWBORN INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most healthy term infants adapt rapidly to the metabolic demands of extrauterine life by activating their glycogenolytic and gluconeogenic pathways within a few hours after birth. Some infants, although born at term, have disturbed glucose metabolism and are at risk of hypoglycemia (e.g. infants wit...

  8. Babies: Responding Appropriately to Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Marilyn; Linke, Pam

    1999-01-01

    This issue of the Australian Early Childhood Association Research in Practice Series discusses how educators can observe and respond appropriately to the infants in their care. The booklet examines the two major opportunities for early childhood educators that have been shown to influence outcomes for infants: (1) the opportunity to help infants

  9. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, E.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    These proceedings of the first annual SACUS workshop on infant day care contain the papers presented at the conference, plus an appendix--Developmental Objectives for Infants and Toddlers. The papers are: "Infant Day Care--Fads, Facts, and Fancies" by Bettye M. Caldwell; "Family Day Care""A Broad Perspective" by Malcolm S. Host; "Getting

  10. Infant Assessment: Issues and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Betty L., Ed.; May, Marcia J., Ed.

    The book offers 14 papers presented at two conferences on assessment and intervention with handicapped infants, sponsored by the Western States Technical Assistance Resource. Titles and authors include: "Neonatal Diagnosis of the Neurologically Handicapped" (M. Coleman); "Principles of Infant Assessment" (J. Swanson); "Focus on the Parent-Infant

  11. Tinea Capitis in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, Brent D.

    2012-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a reasonably common infection among the pediatric population; however, it is still a relatively rare entity among infants less than one year of age. As such, a high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis among infants and an appropriate diagnostic work up should be employed in any case where a dermatophyte infection is suspected. Several methods are available for diagnosis. In addition, proper identification of the specific dermatophyte genera involved should be considered as treatment options may be altered based on the causative pathogen identified. PMID:22468173

  12. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... months old. Premature babies, boys, African Americans, and American Indian/Alaska Native infants have a higher risk of SIDS. Although health care professionals don't know what causes SIDS, they do ... baby NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

  13. Neuroprotection in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Berger, R.; Söder, S.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm infants born before the 30th week of pregnancy are especially at risk of perinatal brain damage which is usually a result of cerebral ischemia or an ascending intrauterine infection. Prevention of preterm birth and early intervention given signs of imminent intrauterine infection can reduce the incidence of perinatal cerebral injury. It has been shown that administering magnesium intravenously to women at imminent risk of a preterm birth leads to a significant reduction in the likelihood of the infant developing cerebral palsy and motor skill dysfunction. It has also been demonstrated that delayed clamping of the umbilical cord after birth reduces the rate of brain hemorrhage among preterm infants by up to 50%. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells seem to have significant neuroprotective potential in animal experiments, as they increase the rate of regeneration of the damaged cerebral area. Clinical tests of these types of therapeutic intervention measures appear to be imminent. In the last trimester of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone increase significantly. Preterm infants are removed abruptly from this estradiol and progesterone rich environment. It has been demonstrated in animal experiments that estradiol and progesterone protect the immature brain from hypoxic-ischemic lesions. However, this neuroprotective strategy has unfortunately not yet been subject to sufficient clinical investigation. PMID:25650134

  14. Infant and Toddler Resilience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Kimberly A. Gordon

    1998-01-01

    Examines research findings on the resilience of infants and toddlers raised in poverty and stress. Describes the personal and environmental resilience characteristics of infancy and toddlerhood that are related to later resilience in middle childhood and adulthood. Highlights research findings significant for policymakers and caregivers, offering

  15. Mother Infant Literacy Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sledge, Andrea Celine

    Based upon the Mother-Infant Literacy Knowledge (MILK) program--in which imprisoned mothers are allowed to care for their children until they are one year old--a study investigated how placing parents in a print rich environment affects parental ability to provide their children with book oriented experiences. The study was conducted in a

  16. Infant Phonotactic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatte, Victoria Anne

    2011-01-01

    For the past several decades, researchers have been investigating the stages infants go through on their way to acquiring their native language. Research into the question of the order in which, and time when, various facets of phonology are acquired has resulted in a basic timeline of development. Exploration of a second question, namely what…

  17. Infant Development: Recent Advances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, Gavin, Ed.; Slater, Alan, Ed.; Butterworth, George, Ed.

    Noting that the last 30 years have seen enormous increases in the understanding of infancy, this book examines the current state of knowledge regarding infant development. The book's contents stem from meetings of the British Infancy Research Group. Although the book was intended for advanced undergraduates, it would also be useful for advanced

  18. Infant Group Care Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Earline D.

    Children under 3 years of age who are in group care face special health risks. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control indicate the existence of a causal relationship between infant group day care and certain diseases that are spread through contact at day care centers. Children in group care who are still in diapers are especially vulnerable to

  19. Infant Development: Recent Advances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, Gavin, Ed.; Slater, Alan, Ed.; Butterworth, George, Ed.

    Noting that the last 30 years have seen enormous increases in the understanding of infancy, this book examines the current state of knowledge regarding infant development. The book's contents stem from meetings of the British Infancy Research Group. Although the book was intended for advanced undergraduates, it would also be useful for advanced…

  20. ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition, and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention, and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METH...

  1. Intervention for Unsettled Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Beulah; And Others

    Outcomes of a follow-up, preventive care program based on a self-regulation model of neonate and parent behavior were studied in a controlled experiment. Subjects included a preterm control group, preterm intervention group, and full-term control group, with each group consisting of 27 infants. The assessment, which used the Brazelton Neonatal

  2. Infant Visual Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2004-01-01

    Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant

  3. Infants are Trichromats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to demonstrate that human infants 3 months of age perceive color in a normal, trichromatic manner. Results from these studies of the neutral zone and hue discrimination evidence trichromatic vision in infancy and are discussed in the context of their clinical, social, and intellectual implications. (Author/SB)

  4. ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To estimate the energy requirements of infants from total energy expenditure and energy deposition during growth. Design: Energy requirements during infancy were estimated from total energy expenditure measured by the doubly labeled water method and energy deposition based on measured pr...

  5. Learning in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papousek, Hanus

    Studies on learning in infants show that in infancy every month of life represents a new level of learning. The functional state of the central nervous system can be influenced by physiological factors which cause fluctuating changes in functions important for learning. Once a stimulus becomes a conditioned signal, it acquires strong power in

  6. Infant feeding and vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

  7. Lactose intolerance in infants.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Cathy

    Cathy Taylor describes the pathophysiology and aetiology of lactose intolerance and how to diagnose and treat it. Management of the infant by the primary health care team is discussed, with emphasis on advice and nutritional support that can be recommended to parents. PMID:16700234

  8. [Infant acute leukemia].

    PubMed

    Brethon, Benoît; Cavé, Hélène; Fahd, Mony; Baruchel, André

    2016-03-01

    If acute leukemia is the most frequent cancer in childhood (33%), it remains a very rare diagnosis in infants less than one year old, e.g. less than 5% of cases. At this age, the frequency of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (almost all of B-lineage) is quite similar to the one of myeloblastic forms (AML). Infant leukemia frequently presents with high hyperleucocytosis, major tumoral burden and numerous extra-hematological features, especially in central nervous system and skin. Whatever the lineage, the leukemic cell is often very immature cytologically and immunologically. Rearrangements of the Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) gene, located on band 11q23, are the hallmark of these immature leukemias and confer a particular resistance to conventional approaches, corticosteroids and chemotherapy. The immaturity of infants less than 1-year-old is associated to a decrease of the tolerable dose-intensity of some drugs (anthracyclines, alkylating agents) or asks questions about some procedures like radiotherapy or high dose conditioning regimen, responsible of inacceptable acute and late toxicities. The high level of severe infectious diseases and other high-grade side effects limits also the capacity to cure these infants. The survival of infants less than 1-year-old with AML is only 50% but similar to older children. On the other hand, survival of those with ALL is the same, then quite limited comparing the 80% survival in children over one year. Allogeneic stem cell transplantations are indicated in high-risk subgroups of infant ALL (age below 6 months, high hyperleucocytosis >300.10(9)/L, MLL-rearrangement, initial poor prednisone response). However, morbidity and mortality remain very important and these approaches cannot be extended to all cases. During the neonatal period, the dismal prognosis linked to the high number of primary failures or very early relapses and uncertainties about the late toxicities question physicians about ethics. It is an emergency to propose different strategies (targeted therapies) to these infants with acute leukemia as conventional trials failed to improve outcome. PMID:26826739

  9. Supporting Fathering Through Infant Massage

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Carolynn Darrell; Volk, Anthony A.; Marini, Zopito A.

    2011-01-01

    Fathers may feel dissatisfied with their ability to form a close attachment with their infants in the early postpartum period, which, in turn, may increase their parent-related stress. Our study sought to determine if an infant massage intervention assisted fathers with decreasing stress and increasing bonding with their infants during this time. To address the complex fatherinfant relationship, we conducted a pilot study using a mixed methodology approach. Twelve infantfather dyads participated in the intervention, and 12 infantfather dyads populated a wait-list control group. Paternal stress was measured using the Parenting Stress Index at baseline and at postintervention. We found infant massage instruction significantly decreased paternal stress. Our findings were also supported by the qualitative data and suggest fathers may benefit from applied postnatal education. PMID:22942622

  10. Infant memory for musical experiences.

    PubMed

    Saffran, J R; Loman, M M; Robertson, R R

    2000-10-16

    Recent findings suggest that infants can remember words from stories over 2 week delays (Jusczyk, P. W., & Hohne, E. A. (1997). Infants' memory for spoken words. Science, 277, 1984-1986). Because music, like language, presents infants with a massively complex auditory learning task, it is possible that infant memory for musical stimuli is equally powerful. Seven-month-old infants heard two Mozart sonata movements daily for 2 weeks. Following a 2 week retention interval, the infants were tested on passages of the familiarized music, and passages taken from similar but novel music. Results from two experiments suggest that the infants retained the familiarized music in long-term memory, and that their listening preferences were affected by the extent to which familiar passages were removed from the musical contexts within which they were originally learned. PMID:10980255

  11. Ultrastructural study of the egg wall surrounding the developing miracidia of the digenean Prosotocus confusus (Looss, 1894) (Plagiorchiida: Pleurogenidae), with the description of a unique cocoon-like envelope.

    PubMed

    ?widerski, Zdzis?aw; Miquel, Jordi; Torres, Jordi; Conn, David Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Helminth eggs play a critical role in movement of the parasite from definitive to intermediate host. Eggs of the pleurogenid digenean trematode Prosotocus confusus (Looss, 1894), a parasite of naturally infected frogs Pelophylax lessonae (Amphibia: Ranidae) in Europe, are described here for the first time. Particular emphasis is placed on the ultrastructure on the egg wall and on the detailed description of a unique cocoon-like envelope. Each embryonating egg is composed of an early embryo surrounded by a four-layered egg wall: (1) an outer, anucleate layer external to the eggshell, which forms a thick cocoon; (2) the operculate eggshell; (3) not fully formed, a differentiating outer embryonic envelope containing large nuclei of macromeres; and (4) situated below, an undifferentiated layer of the future inner embryonic envelope containing mesomere nuclei. Layers enveloping the egg apparently play an important role in the protection, metabolism, and storage of nutritive reserves for the developing miracidium. The outer anucleate layer, or cocoon, is situated externally to the eggshell and composed of an electron-lucent substance with numerous electron-dense islands attached to its peripheral membrane. A cocoon envelope such as this has never been seen in previous TEM studies of the eggs of parasitic platyhelminths, with the exception of another pleurogenid Brandesia turgida. The origin, formation, functional ultrastructure, and chemical composition of this peculiar layer remain enigmatic, although its function appears to be protective. The thick, electron-dense eggshell resembles that of other trematodes, exhibiting a characteristic fissure zone around the operculum. Numerous lysosome-like structures observed in some eggs may be involved in the autolysis of both the embryonic envelopes (particularly the early degeneration of macromere nuclei of the outer envelope, characteristic for this species) and in the disintegration of several early micromeres. The inner envelope, which forms later from mesomeres, persists longer during embryogenesis. PMID:25320045

  12. The Development of Peripheral Vision in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guez, Jean R.

    This study investigated the extent of infant peripheral vision, specifically the extent of infants' constricted field, or tunnel vision. Thirteen infants, 2 to 5 months old, were tested using a psychophysical procedure to obtain contrast sensitivity thresholds at four retinal loci (-40, -15, +15, +40 deg.). Infants were placed in an infant bed in

  13. Neurobiology of Infant Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Moriceau, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    A strong attachment to the caregiver is critical for survival in altricial species, including humans. While some behavioral aspects of attachment have been characterized, its neurobiology has only recently received attention. Using a mammalian imprinting model, we are assessing the neural circuitry that enables infant rats to attach quickly to a caregiver, thus enhancing survival in the nest. Specifically, the hyper-functioning noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) enables pups to learn rapid, robust preference for the caregiver. Conversely, a hypo-functional amygdala appears to prevent the infant from learning aversions to the caregiver. Adult LC and amygdala functional emergence correlates with sensitive period termination. This study suggests the neonatal brain is not an immature version of the adult brain but is uniquely designed to optimize attachment to the caregiver. Although human attachment may not rely on identical circuitry, the work reviewed here suggests a new conceptual framework in which to explore human attachments, particularly attachments to abusive caregivers. PMID:16252291

  14. Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this

  15. Infant feeding: a critical look at infant formulas.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Motil KJ

    2000-10-01

    Commercially available infant formulas serve as the best alternative to human milk when breastfeeding is not possible. Infant formulas are designed specifically to mimic the composition of human milk or the functional aspects of human milk feeding. This review highlights the issues related to the composition of infant formulas. The most hotly debated issue currently is whether to add long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to infant formulas. Other controversial topics include the safety and efficacy of soy-based protein formulas, protein quantity and quality as they relate to the infant's nutritional needs and feeding tolerance, and the replacement of lactose with other carbohydrate sources for specialized infant formulas. Recent modifications in the fat blend of infant formulas have led to improved fat digestibility. However, the full spectrum of benefits associated with the addition of nucleotides awaits further study. Modifications to infant formulas are made when the preponderance of scientific evidence suggests that the compositional change will better meet the nutritional needs of the infant.

  16. Infant feeding: a critical look at infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Motil, K J

    2000-10-01

    Commercially available infant formulas serve as the best alternative to human milk when breastfeeding is not possible. Infant formulas are designed specifically to mimic the composition of human milk or the functional aspects of human milk feeding. This review highlights the issues related to the composition of infant formulas. The most hotly debated issue currently is whether to add long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to infant formulas. Other controversial topics include the safety and efficacy of soy-based protein formulas, protein quantity and quality as they relate to the infant's nutritional needs and feeding tolerance, and the replacement of lactose with other carbohydrate sources for specialized infant formulas. Recent modifications in the fat blend of infant formulas have led to improved fat digestibility. However, the full spectrum of benefits associated with the addition of nucleotides awaits further study. Modifications to infant formulas are made when the preponderance of scientific evidence suggests that the compositional change will better meet the nutritional needs of the infant. PMID:11021413

  17. Psychosomatic Disorders in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Julius B.

    1970-01-01

    Our studies have led us to attempt to define individual differences in patterns of behavior (visceral, as well as motor behavior) in young infants. The methodologic problems encountered in these studies will be presented in considerably more detail in the presentation which follows. Because of the limited capacity of the organism to respond in psychological terms, the approach to these studies has been predominantly physiologic. Imagesp48-a PMID:20468476

  18. An infant with tachypnea.

    PubMed

    Cramm, Kelly J; Cattaneo, Raymond A; Schremmer, Robert D

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this case report is to illustrate the diagnostic difficulties of congestive heart failure in an infant. When presenting to the emergency department, these patients are often evaluated for sepsis, congenital heart disease, metabolic disorders, and myocarditis. We report a case of a 3(1/2)-month-old male who presented to the pediatric emergency department with congestive heart failure. He was found to have vitamin D deficiency rickets induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:17110866

  19. Brain tumors in infants

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Seyyed Mohammad; Habibi, Zohreh; Hanaei, Sara; Moradi, Ehsan; Nejat, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brain tumors in infants have different clinical presentations, anatomical distribution, histopathological diagnosis, and clinical prognosis compared with older children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done in patients <12 months old who were operated on for primary brain tumor in Children's Hospital Medical Center since 2008 to 2014. Results: Thirty-one infants, 20 males and 11 females, with the mean age of 7.13 months (0.5–12) were enrolled. There were 16 supratentorial and 15 infratentorial tumors. The presenting symptoms included increased head circumference (16); bulge fontanel (15); vomiting (15); developmental regression (11); sunset eye (7); seizure (4); loss of consciousness (4); irritability (3); nystagmus (2); visual loss (2); hemiparesis (2); torticollis (2); VI palsy (3); VII, IX, X nerve palsy (each 2); and ptosis (1). Gross total and subtotal resection were performed in 19 and 11 cases, respectively. Fourteen patients needed external ventricular drainage in the perioperative period, from whom four infants required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. One patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting without tumor resection. The most common histological diagnoses were primitive neuroectodermal tumor (7), followed by anaplastic ependymoma (6) and grade II ependymoma. The rate of 30-day mortality was 19.3%. Eighteen patients are now well-controlled with or without adjuvant therapy (overall survival; 58%), from whom 13 cases are tumor free (disease free survival; 41.9%), 3 cases have residual masses with fixed or decreased size (progression-free survival; 9.6%), and 2 cases are still on chemotherapy. Conclusion: Brain tumors in infants should be treated with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy when necessary.

  20. Bone densitometry in infants

    SciTech Connect

    Barden, H.S.; Mazess, R.B.

    1988-07-01

    Bone mineral mass and density can be measured noninvasively by various absorptiometric procedures. Two methods, dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) and quantitative computed tomography, have widespread application in adults but only limited use in children. One method, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), has been used extensively in adults and children and has been modified for use in infants. The radius shaft has been used for most research on infants. However, the difficulty of using older SPA methods on this small bone (4 to 7 mm width) has led a few investigators to measure the shaft of the humerus. The typical precision of measurement in a newborn is about 5% with the use of computerized rectilinear scanners for the radius; older linear scanners have a precision error of 5% to 10% on the humerus. Linear scanners cannot measure precisely the radius in individual neonates. The SPA scans typically take about 5 minutes. The DPA technique using /sup 153/Gd has been modified for use on smaller animals (5 to 10 kg monkeys and dogs), but it has not been used on infants because DPA scans take 20 minutes. New methods using x-ray absorptiometry allow rapid (1 minute), precise (1%) measurements in the perinate. The need for a soft tissue bolus is eliminated, and both the axial and peripheral skeletons can be measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Ultrasonic measurements do not yet offer adequate precision in the neonate, given the limited biologic range of values. 83 references.

  1. Skeletal changes in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Koo, W W; Gupta, J M; Nayanar, V V; Wilkinson, M; Posen, S

    1982-06-01

    The skeletal changes in 19 very low birthweight infants (less than 1500 g) were observed from birth to 10 weeks, by means of clinical, biochemical, and radiological techniques. All infants were receiving a supplement of 800 IU vitamin D a day from age 2 weeks. None of the infants showed any specific physical sign of rickets during the period of study. Six infants showed radiological evidence of skeletal demineralisation; 1 of these had severe changes of rickets and 1 had both rickets and fractures. These 6 infants were of shorter gestational periods and lower birthweights than the infants not showing radiological changes. They tended to have more clinical problems and to reach a predetermined volume of feeds (160 ml/kg a day) later than the unaffected infants. Serum alkaline phosphatase values were significantly higher at 5 weeks in the infants with abnormal radiographs than in those without. There were no significant differences between the two groups in relation to serum calcium, inorganic phosphate, 25 hydroxyvitamin D, and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone. The pathogenesis of the skeletal lesions of very low birthweight infants remains unknown. PMID:6979978

  2. Panchromatic observations of dwarf starburst galaxies: Infant super star clusters and a low-luminosity AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Amy Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Globular star clusters and supermassive black holes are fundamental components of today's massive galaxies, with origins dating back to the very early universe. Both globular clusters and the seeds of supermassive black holes are believed to have formed in the progenitors of modern massive galaxies, although the details are poorly understood. Direct observations of these low-mass, distant, and hence faint systems are unobtainable with current capabilities. However, gas-rich dwarf starburst galaxies in the local universe, analogous in many ways to protogalaxies at high-redshift, can provide critical insight into the early stages of galaxy evolution including the formation of globular clusters and massive black holes. This thesis presents a panchromatic study of nearby dwarf starburst galaxies harboring nascent globular clusters still embedded in their birth material. Infant clusters are identified via their production of thermal radio emission at centimeter wavelengths, which comes from dense gas ionized by young massive stars. By combining radio observations with complementary data at ultraviolet, optical and infrared wavelengths, we obtain a comprehensive view of massive clusters emerging from their gaseous and dusty birth cocoons. This thesis also presents the first example of a nearby dwarf starburst galaxy hosting an actively accreting massive central black hole. The black hole in this dwarf galaxy is unusual in that it is not associated with a bulge, a nuclear star cluster, or any other well-defined nucleus, likely reflecting an early phase of black hole and galaxy evolution that has not been previously observed.

  3. Transcathater percutaneous device closure of a large PDA closed in a 3kg infant

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, N.O.; Prabhu, Sandesh; Ware, Dhananjay; Shivapuje, Sanjaykumar K.

    2014-01-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is common congenital heart disease which may require treatment as transcatheter percutaneous device closure (PDA device closure) or surgical ligation in symptomatic full-term patients. Surgical ligation is an invasive procedure and has more complications especially in the neonates. Problems in PDA device closure are difficult vascular access, manipulation of catheters and sheath, residual shunts, residual obstruction of major arteries etc and these complications increase in low birth weight babies, but it is a less invasive procedure and has fewer complications than surgery, so should be tried in low birth weight patients also. We are presenting a case of 3kg infant with large PDA (8mm) presented with failure to thrive, lower respiratory tract infection and heart failure. He successfully underwent PDA device closure with 10נ12mm Cocoon PDA device. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of the use of such a large device in a 3kg child with good results. PMID:25634411

  4. Infants' Behavioral and Physiological Profile and Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Raquel; Figueiredo, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to (a) identify and profile groups of infants according to their behavioral and physiological characteristics, considering their neurobehavioral organization, social withdrawal behavior, and endocrine reactivity to stress, and to (b) analyze group differences in the quality of mother-infant interaction. Ninety-seven 8-week-old

  5. Infant-directed prosody helps infants map sounds to meanings.

    PubMed

    Estes, Katharine Graf; Hurley, Karinna

    2013-09-01

    Adults typically use an exaggerated, distinctive speaking style when addressing infants. However, the effects of infant-directed (ID) speech on infants' learning is not yet well understood. This research investigates how ID speech affects how infants perform a key function in language acquisition, associating the sounds of words with their meanings. Seventeen-month-old infants were presented with two label-object pairs in a habituation-based word learning task. In Experiment 1, the labels were produced in adult-directed (AD) speech. In Experiment 2, the labels were produced in ID prosody; they had higher pitch, greater pitch variation, and longer durations than the AD labels. We found that infants failed to learn the labels in AD speech, but succeeded in learning the same labels when they were produced in ID speech. Experiment 3 investigated the role of variability in learning from ID speech. When the labels were presented in ID prosody with no variation across tokens, infants failed to learn them. Our findings indicate that ID prosody can affect how readily infants map sounds to meanings and that the variability in prosody that is characteristic of ID speech may play a key role in its effect on learning new words. PMID:24244106

  6. Infant Neurosensory Development: Considerations for Infant Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Infant brain development is a dynamic process dependent upon endogenous and exogenous stimulation and a supportive environment. A critical period of brain and neurosensory development occurs during the third trimester and into the "fourth" trimester (first three months of life). Disruption, damage, or deprivation in the infant's social and

  7. Individual and Maturational Differences in Infant Expressivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1989-01-01

    Reports that, even though young infants can discriminate among different facial expressions, there are individual differences in infants' expressivity and ability to produce and discriminate facial expressions. (PCB)

  8. Number Sense in Human Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fei; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Goddard, Sydney

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments used a preferential looking method to investigate 6-month-old infants' capacity to represent numerosity in visual-spatial displays. Building on previous findings that such infants discriminate between arrays of eight versus 16 discs, but not eight versus 12 discs (Xu & Spelke, 2000), Experiments 1 and 2 investigated whether…

  9. More Infant and Toddler Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hast, Fran; Hollyfield, Ann

    Based on experiences gained at the Palo Alto Infant-Toddler Center and the view that quality child care for infants and toddlers depends upon nurturing, long-term connections with their caregivers, other children, and their families, this book presents strategies for interacting with young children that support the developing child as well as the

  10. Evaluating Infant-Family Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Compiling articles from participants of the Leadership Development Initiative Class of 2001-2002, this issue focuses on evaluation of…

  11. NUTRITIONAL INFLUENCES ON INFANT DEVELOPMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutritional requirements of infants and children reflect this population's unique needs for growth and developmental changes in organ function and body composition as well as their maintenance needs. Moreover, since the metabolic rate of infants and children is greater and the turnover of nutri...

  12. Infant Studies: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Adele M., Comp.

    This bibliography, compiled to alert educators to documents on infant studies, combines entries from the abstract journal, "Research in Education (RIE)" and journal article citations from "Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE)." The bibliography includes all the citations concerning infants from these 1970-71 ERIC publications, excluding

  13. Newborn Infants Orient to Sounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Darwin; Field, Jeffrey

    1979-01-01

    In two experiments, the majority of 21 newborn infants who were maintained in an alert state consistently turned their heads toward a continuous sound source presented 90 degrees from midline. For most infants, this orientation response was rather slow, taking median latencies of 2.5 seconds to begin and 5.5 seconds to end. (JMB)

  14. What Is Infant Mental Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

  15. Binaural Perception in Young Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundy, Robert S.

    This paper describes three experiments which demonstrated the presence of binaural perception abilities (the ability to use both ears) in 4-month-old but not in 2-month-old infants. All of the experiments employed a visual fixation habituation-dishabituation paradigm in which infants were given a series of visual fixation trials while binaural

  16. Determinants of Infant Behaviour IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss, B. M., Ed.

    This volume consists of reports of individual studies and surveys of research work on mother-infant interactions. It is divided into two parts. The first section presents a wide range of studies on mother-infant relations as exhibited in the behavior of animals. The second part, concerning human behavior, includes studies on the natural history of

  17. Infant Stimulation Curriculum. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Herschel W. Nisonger Center.

    Presented is the Infant Stimulation Curriculum (developed by the Developmentally Delayed Infant Outreach Project) for parents and teachers to use with children who are developmentally between birth and 36 months of age. Published in a card format at a sixth grade readability level, the curriculum includes introductory cards providing information

  18. Determinants of Infant Behaviour IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss, B. M., Ed.

    This volume consists of reports of individual studies and surveys of research work on mother-infant interactions. It is divided into two parts. The first section presents a wide range of studies on mother-infant relations as exhibited in the behavior of animals. The second part, concerning human behavior, includes studies on the natural history of…

  19. Evaluating Infant-Family Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Compiling articles from participants of the Leadership Development Initiative Class of 2001-2002, this issue focuses on evaluation of

  20. Caring for Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "The Future of Children" focuses on the daily care of infants and toddlers in the United States, including shifting caregiving arrangement for children younger than 3 years, developmental needs of infants and toddlers, findings of recent child care studies, public opinion regarding child care, and recent innovations seeking to…

  1. Infant mortality in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Guerra de Macedo, C

    1988-01-01

    Approximately 700,000 infants die annually in the Americas from causes that could be prevented by low-cost interventions and technologies. The main determinants of infant mortality in the Americas are the socioeconomic status of the family, environmental factors, and some specific maternal and child health problems. Progress in reducing infant mortality has varied widely among the countries. From 1960-1985, the infant mortality rate declined 21% in Bolivia, while it decreased 64% in Costa Rica, but even in the most recent 5-year period, Bolivia and Haiti still had infant mortality rates above 100/1000. Unfortunately, an increase in the gross national product does not automatically translate into greater expenditures on health; conversely, significant improvements in health can be achieved in the absence of high levels of economic progress. Parental education, especially the mother's, is 1 of the most important factors affecting infant mortality. Regrettably, per capita public spending on education declined between 1980 and 1984 in Latin America and the Caribbean. The sizable migrations, both voluntary and involuntary, have contributed to infant mortality. The lack of potable water and sanitation facilities contributes to the spread of disease and higher infant mortality. The priority problems accounting for the largest portion of neonatal and infant mortality in the region are 1) perinatal problems and lack of prenatal care, 2) intestinal and respiratory infections, 3) vaccine-preventable diseases, 4) malnutrition, and 5) high-risk fertility behavior. Since the introduction of the Expanded Program on Immunization and the Program for the Control of Diarrheal Diseases in the 1970s, the level and character of infant mortality have changed dramatically in the region. Vaccine-preventable diseases are no longer among the 5 principal causes of infant mortality. The highly effective technologies used in the fight against diarrheal diseases have removed them from 1st place among causes of infant death in a number of countries. As a result, perinatal causes now rank 1st in 21 countries of the region. Low birth weight is a major factor associated with perinatal and infant mortality. 1 of the most important means of reducing infant mortality is to improve the social and economic situation of families--for example, by educating women and providing the social support necessary for a healthy family. PMID:2465052

  2. Infant colic, distress, and crying.

    PubMed

    Hewson, P; Oberklaid, F; Menahem, S

    1987-02-01

    The literature regarding infant colic is critically reviewed. Although there have been a number of theories proposed as to etiology of colic, the literature is characterized by difficulties in definition, methodologic problems, and numerous claims as to both etiology and management that are anecdotal. Infant colic is best conceptualized as the end result of a complex transaction between the infant and his environment, with multiple factors responsible for the crying and distress of an infant. The most important factors in appropriate intervention are a physician's receptivity and sensitivity toward the stressed mother, together with an interested and practical approach to providing adequate support while delineating the individual stresses acting on both mother and baby. Future research is needed to delineate markers for those subgroups of infants who may present with crying as a manifestation of specific clinical situations. PMID:3802693

  3. Association of Maternal and Infant Salivary Testosterone and Cortisol and Infant Gender With Mother-Infant Interaction in Very-Low-Birthweight Infants.

    PubMed

    Cho, June; Su, Xiaogang; Phillips, Vivien; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2015-10-01

    Male very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants are more prone than females to health and developmental problems and less positive mother-infant interactions. Because gender differences in brain development and social relationships suggest hormonal influences on quality of mother-infant interaction, the authors explored the associations of maternal and infant salivary testosterone and cortisol levels with mother-infant interactions in the sample as a whole and by gender, after controlling for covariates. Data were collected prospectively from 62 mothers and their VLBW infants through infant record review, maternal interview, biochemical measurement of both mothers and infants, and observation of mother-infant interactions at 40 weeks postmenstrual age and at three and six months corrected age. Infants' positive interactions increased and mothers' decreased from three to six months. In generalized estimating equation (GEE) analyses, after controlling for covariates, higher maternal testosterone and infant cortisol were associated with more positive and more frequent maternal interactive behaviors. In GEE analyses by infant gender, after controlling for covariates, effects of maternal and infant hormone levels became more significant, especially on infants' interactive behaviors. Based on these preliminary findings, among VLBW infants, males with high testosterone are expected to have less positive mother-infant interactions than males with low testosterone or female infants. PMID:26152823

  4. Probing the Physics of Narrow-line Regions in Active Galaxies. III. Accretion and Cocoon Shocks in the LINER NGC 1052

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dopita, Michael A.; Ho, I.-Ting; Dressel, Linda L.; Sutherland, Ralph; Kewley, Lisa; Davies, Rebecca; Hampton, Elise; Shastri, Prajval; Kharb, Preeti; Jose, Jessy; Bhatt, Harish; Ramya, S.; Scharwchter, Julia; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; James, Bethan; Juneau, Stphanie; Srivastava, Shweta

    2015-03-01

    We present Wide Field Spectrograph integral field spectroscopy and Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph spectroscopy for the low-ionization nuclear emission line region (LINER) galaxy NGC 1052. We infer the presence of a turbulent accretion flow forming a small-scale accretion disk. We find a large-scale outflow and ionization cone along the minor axis of the galaxy. Part of this outflow region is photoionized by the active galactic nucleus and shares properties with the extended narrow-line region of Seyfert galaxies, but the inner (R? 1.0?) accretion disk and the region around the radio jet appear shock excited. The emission-line properties can be modeled by a double-shock model in which the accretion flow first passes through an accretion shock in the presence of a hard X-ray radiation, and the accretion disk is then processed through a cocoon shock driven by the overpressure of the radio jets. This model explains the observation of two distinct densities (104 and 106 cm-3) and provides a good fit to the observed emission-line spectrum. We derive estimates for the velocities of the two shock components and their mixing fractions, the black hole mass, and the accretion rate needed to sustain the LINER emission and derive an estimate for the jet power. Our emission-line model is remarkably robust against variation of input parameters and hence offers a generic explanation for the excitation of LINER galaxies, including those of spiral type such as NGC 3031 (M81).

  5. Sudden infant death syndrome: links with infant care practices.

    PubMed Central

    Gantley, M; Davies, D P; Murcott, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To investigate infant care practices in a small ethnic minority population within Britain that might suggest possible factors contributing to the low incidence of the sudden infant death syndrome in Asian populations. DESIGN--Ethnographic interviewing, a qualitative comparative method drawn from social anthropology. SETTING--Central Cardiff. SUBJECTS--Non-random sample of 60 mothers of Bangladeshi or Welsh ethnic origin and working or middle class occupational status, who had infants under one year old. None of the families interviewed had experienced a sudden infant death. RESULTS--Broad cultural contrasts emerged as a series of themes from the interview data: living patterns, family networks, sleeping patterns, and concepts of time and dependence. CONCLUSION--Bangladeshi infants were cared for in a consistently rich sensory environment; Welsh infants, in contrast, were more likely to experience alternating periods of high and low sensory input. Long periods of lone quiet sleep may be one factor that contributes to a higher rate of sudden deaths in white than in Asian infants. Images p18-a PMID:8435569

  6. Infant-directed prosody helps infants map sounds to meanings

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Katharine Graf; Hurley, Karinna

    2012-01-01

    Adults typically use an exaggerated, distinctive speaking style when addressing infants. However, the effects of infant-directed (ID) speech on infants’ learning is not yet well understood. This research investigates how ID speech affects how infants perform a key function in language acquisition, associating the sounds of words with their meanings. Seventeen-month-old infants were presented with two label-object pairs in a habituation-based word learning task. In Experiment 1, the labels were produced in adult-directed (AD) speech. In Experiment 2, the labels were produced in ID prosody; they had higher pitch, greater pitch variation, and longer durations than the AD labels. We found that infants failed to learn the labels in AD speech, but succeeded in learning the same labels when they were produced in ID speech. Experiment 3 investigated the role of variability in learning from ID speech. When the labels were presented in ID prosody with no variation across tokens, infants failed to learn them. Our findings indicate that ID prosody can affect how readily infants map sounds to meanings and that the variability in prosody that is characteristic of ID speech may play a key role in its effect on learning new words. PMID:24244106

  7. Infant color vision: prediction of infants' spontaneous color preferences.

    PubMed

    Zemach, Iris; Chang, Susan; Teller, Davida Y

    2007-05-01

    Infants show spontaneous looking preferences among isoluminant chromatic stimuli [Adams, R. J. (1987). An evaluation of color preferences in early infancy. Infant Behavior and Development, 10, 143-150; Bornstein, M. H. (1975). Qualities of color vision in infancy. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19 (3), 401-419.]. These differences in preference have often been called "hue" or "color" preferences, and attributed to differences in hue, but there are alternative explanations. Spontaneous preference variations remain after stimuli are equated for adult brightness, and thus cannot be attributed to adult-like brightness differences [Teller, D. Y., Civan, A., & Bronson-Castain, K. (2004). Infants' spontaneous color preferences are not due to adult-like brightness variations. Visual Neuroscience, 21 (3), 397-401]. In the present paper, we address three more alternative explanations: colorimetric purity; infant detection thresholds; and adult-like variations in saturation. Three experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1 we measured infants' spontaneous preferences for each of 22 different chromatic stimuli of varying dominant wavelength and colorimetric purity, each paired against the same white standard. In Experiment 2, we measured infants' chromatic detection thresholds. In Experiment 3, adult subjects made saturation matches between a blue-green standard and each of five other chromatic stimuli. Infant detection thresholds accounted for 34% of the variance in infant "hue" preferences, much more than colorimetric purity (2.4%) or adult saturation judgments (3%), but none of the three variables accounted for the majority of the variance. In our view, the most likely remaining option is that infants' spontaneous "hue" preferences indeed arise from preferences for the hues of stimuli that adults see as blue, purple and red. PMID:17118421

  8. Infant Touching Behaviour during Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moszkowski, Robin J.; Stack, Dale M.

    2007-01-01

    The study of infant communication during mother-infant interactions has largely focused on infants' distal behaviours, while neglecting their more proximal behaviours, such as touch. Yet, touch is an important modality through which infants and mothers communicate; it is also a vital means through which infants self-regulate and explore their

  9. Infant Gaze Following during Parent-Infant Coviewing of Baby Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demers, Lindsay B.; Hanson, Katherine G.; Kirkorian, Heather L.; Pempek, Tiffany A.; Anderson, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 122 parentinfant dyads were observed as they watched a familiar or novel infant-directed video in a laboratory setting. Infants were between 12-15 and 18-21months old. Infants were more likely to look toward the TV immediately following their parents' look toward the TV. This apparent social influence on infant looking at television

  10. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

  11. Observed Infant Reactions during Live Interparental Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; White, Clare R.; Fleischhauer, Emily A.; Fitzgerald, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    Associations between interparental conflict and infant reactions were examined. Infants' history of exposure to interparental conflict and infant reactive temperament were examined as moderators. A community sample of 74 infants, aged 6-14 months, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' marital conflict and

  12. Applying Infant Massage Practices: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappin, Grace; Kretschmer, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the dynamic interaction between a mother and her 11-month-old visually impaired infant before and after the mother was taught infant massage. After the mother learned infant massage, she had more appropriate physical contact with her infant, engaged with him within his field of vision, directly vocalized to him, and had a

  13. Infants Make Quantity Discriminations for Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hespos, Susan J.; Dora, Begum; Rips, Lance J.; Christie, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Infants can track small groups of solid objects, and infants can respond when these quantities change. But earlier work is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 ("N" = 88) used a habituation paradigm to show infants can register changes in the size of piles of sand that they see poured…

  14. Tuned in Parenting and Infant Sleep Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddis, Lynn E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on infant sleep behaviour that is of concern to mothers of young infants, and disruptive to families. It reports on the incidence of sleep problems in dyads that self-referred to a specialist clinic, and the relationship between the mother's sensitive responsiveness and infant sleep patterns in a sample of 65 Australian infants.

  15. Infants Make Quantity Discriminations for Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hespos, Susan J.; Dora, Begum; Rips, Lance J.; Christie, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Infants can track small groups of solid objects, and infants can respond when these quantities change. But earlier work is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 ("N" = 88) used a habituation paradigm to show infants can register changes in the size of piles of sand that they see poured

  16. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,

  17. Observed Infant Reactions during Live Interparental Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; White, Clare R.; Fleischhauer, Emily A.; Fitzgerald, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    Associations between interparental conflict and infant reactions were examined. Infants' history of exposure to interparental conflict and infant reactive temperament were examined as moderators. A community sample of 74 infants, aged 6-14 months, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' marital conflict and…

  18. Optimizing nutrition in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Su, Bai-Horng

    2014-02-01

    Extrauterine growth restriction is common in very preterm infants. The incidence in very-low-birth-weight infants ranges between 43% and 97% in various centers, with a wide variability due to the use of different reference growth charts and nonstandard nutritional strategies. Extrauterine growth restriction is associated with an increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcome. Inadequate postnatal nutrition is an important factor contributing to growth failure, as most very preterm infants experience major protein and energy deficits during neonatal intensive care unit hospitalization. First-week protein and energy intake are associated with 18-month developmental outcomes in very preterm infants. Early aggressive nutrition, including parenteral and enteral, is well tolerated in the very preterm infant and is effective in improving growth. Continued provision of appropriate nutrition (fortified human milk or premature formula) is important throughout the growing care during the hospitalization. After discharge, exclusively breast-fed infants require additional supplementation. If formula-fed, nutrient-enriched postdischarge formula should be continued for approximately 9 months corrected age. Supplementation of the preterm formulas with protein would increase the protein/energy ratio (3g/100 kcal), leading to increased lean mass with relatively decreased fat deposition. Further research is required to optimize the nutritional needs of preterm infants and to evaluate the effects of nutritional interventions on long-term growth, neurodevelopment, and other health outcomes. PMID:24050843

  19. Multifrequency tympanometry in infants

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Tamyne Ferreira Duarte; Macedo, Camila de Cssia; Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction:?The use of conventional tympanometry is not sufficiently sensitive to detect all cases of middle ear changes, and this hinders accurate diagnosis. Objective:?To characterize acoustic immittance measures of infants from 0 to 3 months of age using multifrequency tympanometry in a prospective study. Method:?54 infants from 0 to 3 months of age were evaluated. The inclusion criteria included absence of respiratory infections during the evaluation, presence of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, and absence of risk indicators for hearing loss. The subjects were evaluated by an audiologic interview, a visual inspection of the ear canal, and measures of acoustic immittance at the frequencies of 226?Hz, 678?Hz, and 1,000 Hz. Tympanometric records of the occlusion effect, tympanometric curve type, tympanometric peak pressure, equivalent ear canal volume, and peak compensated static acoustic admittance were collected. Results:?The results indicated the presence of an occlusion effect (2.88% at 226?Hz, 4.81% at 678?Hz and 3.85% at 1,000 Hz), predominance of a tympanometric curve with a single peak (65.35% at 226?Hz, 81.82% at 678?Hz, and 77.00% at 1,000 Hz), and tympanometric peak pressure ranging from -155 to 180 daPa. Further, the equivalent ear canal volume increased with the frequency of the probe (0.64 mL at 226?Hz, 1.63 mho at 678?Hz, and 2.59 mmho at 1,000 Hz) and the peak compensated static acoustic admittance values increased with an increase in frequency (0.51 mL at 226?Hz, 0.55 mmho at 678?Hz and 1.20 mmho at 1,000 Hz). 93.06% of the tympanograms were classified as normal at 226?Hz, 81.82% at 678?Hz, and 77.00?% at 1,000?Hz, respectively. Conclusion:?Taken together, these results demonstrated that utilizing these evaluations made it possible to characterize the acoustic immittance measures of infants. PMID:25991934

  20. [Infant botulism after honey exposure].

    PubMed

    Godart, V; Dan, B; Mascart, G; Fikri, Y; Dierick, K; Lepage, P

    2014-06-01

    Infant botulism is a rare neuroparalytic disease caused by the neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum. Initial clinical features are constipation, poor feeding, descending hypotonia, drooling, irritability, weak crying and cranial nerve dysfunctions. We describe the clinical progression and the epidemiological investigation carried out in a 3-month-old infant. Better knowledge of the disease should allow faster diagnosis and adequate management. We emphasize the risks associated with honey exposure in children less than one year old and that honey should not be fed to infants under 12 months of age. PMID:24768073

  1. Infant salmonellosis and vacuum cleaners.

    PubMed

    Haddock, R L; Nocon, F A

    1994-02-01

    Microbiological examination of the contents of vacuum cleaner bags collected from case and control homes demonstrated a statistically significant association (OR = 3.13, CL = 1.32-7.50) between infant salmonellosis cases and Salmonella contamination of the vacuums used in their homes. This suggests that some cases of infant salmonellosis may result from contact with contamination in the home environment and that steps taken to protect infants from potentially contaminated dust or dust aerosols may reduce the risk of contracting this infection. PMID:8182786

  2. Infant Transport Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The photo sequence illustrates the movement of an ill infant to a special care hospital by means of a new Pediatric Monitoring and Transport System, in which NASA technology and technical assistance are being applied to an urgent medical problem. Development of the system is a collaborative effort involving several organizations, principally, NASA Ames Research Center and Children's Hospital Medical Center, Oakland, California. Key to the system's efficacy is a custom-designed ambulance-to-hospital and hospital-to-hospital communications network, including two-way voice capability and space-derived biotelemetry; it allows a specialist at the destination hospital to monitor continuously the vital signs of the patient during transit.

  3. Enoximone pharmacokinetics in infants.

    PubMed

    Booker, P D; Gibbons, S; Stewart, J I; Selby, A; Wilson-Smith, E; Pozzi, M

    2000-08-01

    Enoximone and enoximone sulphoxide concentrations were measured in plasma of 20 infants, median age 6.0 (range 0.6-49.7) weeks, during and after prolonged continuous infusions. Patients were given enoximone 1 mg kg-1 and an infusion at 10 micrograms kg-1 min-1 just before being weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The infusion was stopped when clinically indicated, after a median 97 (range 24-572) h. Arterial blood samples were taken 30 min and 12 h after CPB, every 24 h during the infusion, and then 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h after the infusion was stopped. Pharmacokinetic non-compartmental analysis was performed using TOPFIT software. Fourteen patients who retained normal hepatic function had a median (95% confidence intervals) clearance of 9.7 (6.3-14.1) ml min-1 kg-1, elimination half-life of 5.2 (2.4-6.8) h and a volume of distribution of 3.6 (2.0-5.7) litre kg-1. The six patients with significant hepatic dysfunction had a lower clearance, 5.7 (2.4-14.5) ml min-1 kg-1, and significantly longer elimination half-life, 7.6 (6.5-10.9) h (P = 0.02). Enoximone sulphoxide elimination half-life was significantly prolonged in three patients with renal dysfunction, 16.2 (10.5-17.7) h versus 6.9 (6.1-9.4) h (P = 0.03). These results confirm that enoximone pharmacokinetics in infants is similar to that found in adults. The infusion rate of enoximone should be reduced if hepatic or renal dysfunction supervenes. PMID:10992825

  4. Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis vaccination coverage before, during, and after pregnancy - 16 States and New York City, 2011.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Indu B; Ding, Helen; D'Angelo, Denise; Shealy, Kristen H; Singleton, James A; Liang, Jennifer; Rosenberg, Kenneth D

    2015-05-22

    In June 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunizations Practices (ACIP) recommended 1 dose of a tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy for women who had not received Tdap previously. Before 2011, Tdap was recommended for unvaccinated women either before pregnancy or postpartum. In October 2012, ACIP expanded the 2011 recommendation, advising pregnant women to be vaccinated with Tdap during each pregnancy to provide maternal antibodies for each infant. The optimal time for vaccination is at 27-36 weeks' gestation as recommended by ACIP. In response to ACIP's Tdap recommendation for pregnant women in 2011, CDC added a supplemental question to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey to determine women's Tdap vaccination status before, during, or after their most recent delivery. This report describes overall and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage around the time of pregnancy using data from 6,852 sampled women who delivered a live-born infant during September-December 2011 in one of 16 states or New York City (NYC). Among the 17 jurisdictions, the median percentage of women with live births who reported any Tdap vaccination was 55.7%, ranging from 38.2% in NYC to 76.6% in Nebraska. The median percentage who received Tdap before pregnancy was 13.9% (range=7.7%-20.1%), during pregnancy was 9.8% (range=3.8%-14.2%), and after delivery was 30.9% (range=13.6%-46.5%). The PRAMS data indicate a wide variation in Tdap vaccination coverage among demographic groups, with generally higher postpartum coverage for non-Hispanic white women, those who started prenatal care in the first trimester, and those who had private health insurance coverage. This information can be used for promoting evidence-based strategies to communicate the importance of ACIP guidelines related to Tdap vaccination coverage to women and their prenatal care providers. PMID:25996094

  5. Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) in Infants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... humidity Abrasive clothing Tobacco smoke and chemicals Some soaps and detergents Who's At Risk Infants are more ... eczema. Moisturizing skin-care routines are essential. Non-soap cleansers, such as Cetaphil®, or moisturizing soaps, such ...

  6. Wheezing and Asthma in Infants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Wheezing and Asthma in Infants KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Asthma > Wheezing ... of asthma.) My Baby Is Wheezing. Is It Asthma? If your baby has a cold and is ...

  7. Social theory and infant feeding

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  8. Breastfeeding the infant with PKU.

    PubMed

    Duncan, L L; Elder, S B

    1997-09-01

    Breastfeeding is possible with children who have phenylketonuria. Based on the decisions made by the breastfeeding mother and the infant's physician, there are multiple methods of management which can be utilized to provide breast milk for the infant with PKU. This article describes some of the methods that have been used to manage the treatment of phenylketonuria when a mother chooses to breastfeed. PMID:9341417

  9. Wearable Sensor Systems for Infants

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhihua; Liu, Tao; Li, Guangyi; Li, Tong; Inoue, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant's body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future. PMID:25664432

  10. Coronary artery grafting in infants

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, MR; Maskari, S; Zacharias, S; Valliathu, J

    2009-01-01

    Background Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiac vale repair is an uncommon surgery in infants. CABG is technically demanding in infants due to the small size not only of the coronary arteries but also the potential graft arteries. The short and long-term outcome of surgery is not known and thus has largely been avoided. Results We report the case histories of two infants in whom CABG was undertaken successfully as a life-saving measure. Case 1: This infant needed an arterial switch operation after which the right coronary artery (RCA) was stenosed resulting in low cardiac output. After the right internal mammary artery (RIMA) was used to anastamose the RCA, the hemodynamic status improved drastically. Case 2: This infant underwent surgical correction for Anomalous Left Coronary Artery from Pulmonary Artery (ALCAPA). Postoperatively, she was in low cardiac output. She was found to have an occluded left coronary artery and mitral regurgitation (MR). After she underwent left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to Left Anterior Descending (LAD) anastamosis and mitral valve repair, the clinical condition improved dramatically. Conclusion CABG is an uncommon operation in infants. This surgery is technically difficult. The long term results are not known and there are very few reports for the same. Though such an operation is best avoided, it can be used as a desperate life saving measure. PMID:22368554

  11. Blind ratings of mother-infant interaction in home movies of prepsychotic and normal infants.

    PubMed

    Massie, H N

    1978-11-01

    Home movies of infants later diagnosed as having early childhood psychoses were compared with movies of normal control infants. A scale of attachment indicators measured mother-infant dyadic avoidance and reciprocity in the first 6 months of the infant's life. Three judges blind to diagnosis saw a general trend to dampened interaction for prepsychotic infants and their mothers. Prepsychotic and normal infants were not significantly different in touching and eye gaze behaviors, whereas mothers of prepsychotic infants exhibited less adequate eye gaze and touching than mothers of normal infants. PMID:707639

  12. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 566: Update on immunization and pregnancy: tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccination.

    PubMed

    2013-06-01

    In the face of dramatic and persistent increases in pertussis disease in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has updated its guidelines for the use of the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) for pregnant women. The new guidance was issued based on an imperative to minimize the significant burden of pertussis disease in vulnerable newborns, the reassuring safety data on the use of Tdap in adults, and the evolving immunogenicity data that demonstrate considerable waning of immunity after immunization. The revised Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices guidelines recommend that health care personnel administer a dose of Tdap during each pregnancy, irrespective of the patient's prior history of receiving Tdap. To maximize the maternal antibody response and passive antibody transfer and levels in the newborn, optimal timing for Tdap administration is between 27 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation, although Tdap may be given at any time during pregnancy. However, there may be compelling reasons to vaccinate earlier in pregnancy. There is no evidence of adverse fetal effects from vaccinating pregnant women with an inactivated virus or bacterial vaccines or toxoids, and a growing body of robust data demonstrates safety of such use. For women who previously have not received Tdap, if Tdap was not administered during pregnancy it should be administered immediately postpartum to the mother in order to reduce the risk of transmission to the newborn. Additionally, other family members and planned direct caregivers also should receive Tdap as previously recommended (sustained efforts at cocooning). Given the rapid evolution of data surrounding this topic, immunization guidelines are likely to change over time and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists will continue to issue updates accordingly. PMID:23812487

  13. Analgesia for infants circumcision

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Male circumcision (MC) is one of the oldest and most common operations performed all over the world. It can be performed at different ages, using different surgical techniques, for different religious, cultural and medical reasons. Our aim is to examine and compare the various methods of analgesia and different surgical procedures reported in literature that are applied in infant MC. We performed a PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane search in the papers published since 2000: 14 studies met the inclusion criteria, most of them showing that a combined pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention is the best analgesic option, in particular when the dorsal penile nerve block is combined with other treatments. The Mogen surgical procedure seems to be the less painful surgical intervention, when compared with Gomco clamp or PlastiBell device. Only 3 papers studied groups of at least 20 babies each with the use of validated pain scales. Data show a dramatic decrease of pain with dorsal penile nerve block, plus acetaminophen associated to oral sucrose or topic analgesic cream. However, no procedure has been found to definetively eliminate pain; the gold standard procedure to make MC totally painfree has not yet been established. PMID:23759130

  14. Indonesia lowers infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Bain, S

    1991-11-01

    Indonesia's success in reaching World Health Organization (WHO) universal immunization coverage standards is described as the result of a strong national program with timely, targeted donor support. USAID/Indonesia's Expanded Program for Immunization (EPI) and other USAID bilateral cooperation helped the government of Indonesia in its goal to immunize children against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, and measles by age 1. The initial project was to identify target areas and deliver vaccines against the diseases, strengthen the national immunization organization and infrastructure, and develop the Ministry of Health's capacity to conduct studies and development activities. This EPI project spanned the period 1979-90, and set the stage for continued expansion of Indonesia's immunization program to comply with the full international schedule and range of immunizations of 3 DPT, 3 polio, 1 BCG, and 1 measles inoculation. The number of immunization sites has increased from 55 to include over 5,000 health centers in all provinces, with additional services provided by visiting vaccinators and nurses in most of the 215,000 community-supported integrated health posts. While other contributory factors were at play, program success is at least partially responsible for the 1990 infant mortality rate of 58/1,000 live births compared to 72/1,000 in 1985. Strong national leadership, dedicated health workers and volunteers, and cooperation and funding from UNICEF, the World Bank, Rotary International, and WHO also played crucially positive roles in improving immunization practice in Indonesia. PMID:12317022

  15. Vaccine update: the latest from ACIP.

    PubMed

    Campos-Outcalt, Doug

    2013-03-01

    ACIP has combined 2 vaccine schedules into a single schedule for infants, children, and adolescents. It also recommends the Tdap vaccine for those ? 65 years and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for adults at high risk. PMID:23520584

  16. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    PubMed

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (<1000 g) remain at high risk for death and disability with 30% to 50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20% to 50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of continuous positive airway pressure, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages.The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and techniques that benefit one organ are likely to also benefit the other. Finally, because therapy and supportive care continue to change, the outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants are ever evolving. Efforts to minimize injury, preserve growth, and identify interventions focused on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways are now being evaluated. Thus, treating and preventing long-term deficits must be developed in the context of a "moving target." PMID:25988638

  17. New supplements to infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Eshach Adiv, Orly; Berant, Moshe; Shamir, Raanan

    2004-12-01

    Foods, which, in addition to their nutritional attributes, contain also elements that are considered to be health-promoting, have been termed "functional foods". In this regard, human milk has gained recognition as being the ultimate functional food for infants - by its biological compatibility, nutritional value and the undisputed added value of its health promoting qualities. Intensive research activity has recently evolved in a quest to identify and define the components of human milk that might confer disease-preventing and health-enhancing properties and to determine the instances and clinical conditions in which these factors become particularly important. The outcome of such research would also provide a rationale for advocating the supplementation of commercial infant formulas with such substances. In effect, the body of data accumulated from scientific and clinical studies on nucleotides, probiotics, prebiotics and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk and as additives to infant formula, has become regarded as convincing enough by the infant formula industry so as to launch into the market formulas supplemented with one or more of these factors - in an effort to emulate human milk and its beneficial effects. The following review is intended for the reader to obtain a general idea of the new supplements that have been introduced to infant formulas. We summarize the pertinent experimental and clinical observations concerning each of the supplements, pointing out their potential specific benefits, their possible disadvantages and the issues that still remain unresolved. PMID:16429109

  18. Vocal Development of Infants with Very Low Birth Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rvachew, Susan; Creighton, Dianne; Feldman, Naida; Sauve, Reg

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the vocal development of infants born with very low birth weights (VLBW). Samples of vocalizations were recorded from three groups of infants when they were 8, 12 and 18 months of age: preterm VLBW infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), preterm VLBW infants without BPD, and healthy full-term infants. Infants with BPD

  19. Vocal Development of Infants with Very Low Birth Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rvachew, Susan; Creighton, Dianne; Feldman, Naida; Sauve, Reg

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the vocal development of infants born with very low birth weights (VLBW). Samples of vocalizations were recorded from three groups of infants when they were 8, 12 and 18 months of age: preterm VLBW infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), preterm VLBW infants without BPD, and healthy full-term infants. Infants with BPD…

  20. [Severe digestive disorders in infants: infants who let themselves die?].

    PubMed

    Boucher, L

    1987-01-01

    Do infants suffering of severe feeding problems let themselves die? From this question, the author attempts to describe some of the central elements of her psychodynamic understanding of merycist infants and of their treatment in an inpatient paediatric setting. Merycism appears as a vicissitude, within the parent-child relationship, of pathological mourning. Projective identifications allow the parents to avoid a melancholic fate but they hinder the development of the child's psychic and physical life. A clinical vignette illustrates the theoretical constructions as well as the therapeutic setting and approaches used by the author. The important role of a mother-child room and the central place of interpretations are discussed. PMID:3659205

  1. Mothers' Beliefs about Infant Size: Associations with Attitudes and Infant Feeding Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Shayla C.; Dolan, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal attitudes toward infant body size, but extant work suggests there might be less negativity toward overweight sizes and less positivity toward thin sizes for infants than older children. Fifty mothers of 12 to 25 month-old infants completed questionnaires examining attitudes toward infants', children's and their…

  2. Are Breastfed Infants more Resilient?-Feeding Method and Cortisol in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yang; Rao, Sanmati D.; Phillips, Terry M.; Umbach, David M.; Bernbaum, Judy C.; Archer, Janet I.; Rogan, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of feeding method on stress hormone levels in infants is unknown. We studied infants from birth to one year, and found salivary cortisol 40% higher in breastfed infants compared with formula-fed infants. The higher cortisol levels among breastfed children may be involved in the analgesic effect of breastfeeding. PMID:19874763

  3. Do Young Infants Prefer an Infant-Directed Face or a Happy Face?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hojin I.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Infants' visual preference for infant-directed (ID) faces over adult-directed (AD) faces was examined in two experiments that introduced controls for emotion. Infants' eye movements were recorded as they viewed a series of side-by-side dynamic faces. When emotion was held constant, 6-month-old infants showed no preference for ID faces…

  4. Do Young Infants Prefer an Infant-Directed Face or a Happy Face?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hojin I.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Infants' visual preference for infant-directed (ID) faces over adult-directed (AD) faces was examined in two experiments that introduced controls for emotion. Infants' eye movements were recorded as they viewed a series of side-by-side dynamic faces. When emotion was held constant, 6-month-old infants showed no preference for ID faces

  5. Mothers' Beliefs about Infant Size: Associations with Attitudes and Infant Feeding Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Shayla C.; Dolan, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal attitudes toward infant body size, but extant work suggests there might be less negativity toward overweight sizes and less positivity toward thin sizes for infants than older children. Fifty mothers of 12 to 25 month-old infants completed questionnaires examining attitudes toward infants', children's and their

  6. Crying in Newborn and Young Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelsson, Katarina

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the reasons that newborns and young infants cry, the communicative effect and perception of crying, crying in sick and healthy infants, the sound spectograph, and crying for the use of clinical diagnostics. (RJC)

  7. Continuous Tracking of Behavioral Development in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Mark; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Reports on a strategy of continuous measurement of the frequency of the same infant behavior over time, which was applied to measuring infant development in the prone position, namely, chin lifting, chest lifting, and a creeping response. (BD/BR)

  8. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table A. http://www. ... from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table 5. http://www. ...

  9. Breastmilk contaminants and infant behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Worobey, J.; Thomas, D.A.; Lewis, M. )

    1990-02-26

    Recent work has shown that certain heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (p,p{prime}-DDE) can affect newborn behavior via transplacental exposure. In this study, a number of fluids were collected from a sample of mothers and infants, with gas liquid chromatography used to determine the levels of environmental contaminants in breastmilk obtained in the first postpartum week. Analysis of the first 15 cases revealed normal concentrations of metals, no detectable traces of PCBs, and detectable levels of heptachlor epoxide and p,p{prime}-DDE in breastmilk. No significant associations were found between metals and infant development, but p,p{prime}-DDE was inversely related to perceptual performance and motor scores at 2-1/2 years. These results suggest that contaminants in human milk may affect infant behavior beyond the newborn period, although prediction from other sources must also be considered.

  10. [Nutrition of the preterm infant].

    PubMed

    Lapillonne, A; Razafimahefa, H; Rigourd, V; Granier, M

    2011-03-01

    The quality of nutritional support impacts not only the growth and quality of growth of preterm infants, but also all aspects of their development. In order to provide optimal nutrition, two main rules should be followed: optimise early parenteral nutrition and introduce appropriate enteral nutrition preferably with the mother's milk as early as possible. Recommendations have recently increased early energy and protein intake. The term "aggressive nutrition" has been introduced to qualify these changes, but we prefer the term "optimal nutrition," which more precisely reflects the physiology and needs of the preterm infant. Specific efforts should be continued to improve physician training in neonatal nutrition and to facilitate the dissemination of the most recent recommendations. Standardization of nutritional protocols in neonatal units should be promoted as a way to improve overall nutritional care. A full field of research remains open to determine the most effective nutritional strategy for preterm infants in order to maximize their growth and development. PMID:21288702

  11. [Acute Mitral Regurgitation in Infant].

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yasutaka

    2015-07-01

    The acute mitral regurgitation of the infants are believed to be very rare until recently. However, there have been increasing number of reports of acute massive mitral regurgitation attributable to rupture of the chordae tendaniae escecially in Japan. If undiagnosed or the optimal treatment including surgery is delayed, it may cause cardiogenic shock and death in infants. Thus pediatricians, pediatric cardiologists and pediatric caridiac surgeons should consider this diagnosis when previously healthy infant suddenly develop cardiorespiratory collapse. It is very important to diagnose early and if there is over moderate mitral regurgitation, the 1st choice will be the mitral valve repair if possible. Pediatric cardiac suregon should be skilled at the mitral valve repair and mitral valve replacement. There are several techniques which are different from the adult operation, so pediatric cardiac surgeon also has to be prepared for these techniques including supraannular mitral valve replacement. PMID:26197907

  12. Prediction of Neurodevelopmental Sequelae in VLBW Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolke, Dieter; And Others

    The study examined pre-, peri-, and neonatal factors in 271 British infants (weighing less than 1500 grams at birth), 188 of whom survived to 2 years. The study represented an attempt to define those factors which predict normal neurodevelopmental outcome in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Surviving infants were seen at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24…

  13. Clinical assessment of infant colour at delivery

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Colm P F; Kamlin, C Omar F; Davis, Peter G; Carlin, John B; Morley, Colin J

    2007-01-01

    Objective Use of video recordings of newborn infants to determine: (1) if clinicians agreed whether infants were pink; and (2) the pulse oximeter oxygen saturation (Spo2) at which infants first looked pink. Methods Selected clips from video recordings of infants taken immediately after delivery were shown to medical and nursing staff. The infants received varying degrees of resuscitation (including none) and were monitored with pulse oximetry. The oximeter readings were obscured to observers but known to the investigators. A timer was visible and the sound was inaudible. The observers were asked to indicate whether each infant was pink at the beginning, became pink during the clip, or was never pink. If adjudged to turn pink during the clip, observers recorded the time this occurred and the corresponding Spo2 was determined. Results 27 clinicians assessed videos of 20 infants (mean (SD) gestation 31(4) weeks). One infant (5%) was perceived to be pink by all observers. The number of clinicians who thought each of the remaining 19 infants were never pink varied from 1 (4%) to 22 (81%). Observers determined the 10 infants with a maximum Spo2 ?95% never pink on 17% (46/270) of occasions. The Spo2 at which individual infants were perceived to turn pink varied from 10% to 100%. Conclusion Among clinicians observing the same videos there was disagreement about whether newborn infants looked pink with wide variation in the Spo2 when they were considered to become pink. PMID:17613535

  14. Infant Behaviors Interpreted by Their Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Laura; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Sixty infants (ages 11 to 26 weeks) were divided into 3 groups (healthy, preterm healthy, and preterm sick). Ten minutes of infant-parent interaction were videotaped, and mothers viewed the tapes and identified infant behaviors they interpreted. Differences in behavioral interpretations among mothers are identified, as are correlations among

  15. Infants' Understanding of Object-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Ann T.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2005-01-01

    When and in what ways do infants recognize humans as intentional actors? An important aspect of this larger question concerns when infants recognize specific human actions (e.g. a reach) as object-directed (i.e. as acting toward goal-objects). In two studies using a visual habituation technique, 12-month-old infants were tested to assess their

  16. Faces Attract Infants' Attention in Complex Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gliga, Teodora; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Andravizou, Athina; Johnson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Infant's face preferences have previously been assessed in displays containing 1 or 2 faces. Here we present 6-month-old infants with a complex visual array containing faces among multiple visual objects. Despite the competing objects, infants direct their first saccade toward faces more frequently than expected by chance (Experiment 1). The

  17. Social Information Guides Infants' Selection of Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; McKee, Caitlin B.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of socially conveyed emotions and speech on infants' choices among food. After watching films in which two unfamiliar actresses each spoke while eating a different kind of food, 12-month-old infants were allowed to choose between the two foods. In Experiment 1, infants selected a food endorsed by a

  18. The Goldilocks Effect in Infant Auditory Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Infants must learn about many cognitive domains (e.g., language, music) from auditory statistics, yet capacity limits on their cognitive resources restrict the quantity that they can encode. Previous research has established that infants can attend to only a subset of available acoustic input. Yet few previous studies have directly examined infant

  19. Segmental Production in Mandarin-Learning Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Mei; Kent, Raymond D.

    2010-01-01

    The early development of vocalic and consonantal production in Mandarin-learning infants was studied at the transition from babbling to producing first words. Spontaneous vocalizations were recorded for 24 infants grouped by age: G1 (0 ; 7 to 1 ; 0) and G2 (1 ; 1 to 1 ; 6). Additionally, the infant-directed speech of 24 caregivers was recorded

  20. Infants and Toddlers, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroenke, Lillian DeVault, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document is comprised of the four 1999-2000 issues of a quarterly journal for teachers and parents of children in Montessori infant and toddler programs. The May 1999 issue presents articles on eating in the prepared environment and meeting infants' basic needs for food. The August 1999 issue includes articles discussing infants' sensory

  1. Infant and Maternal Sensitivity to Interpersonal Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Anne; Striano, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    A perturbation paradigm was employed to assess 3- and 6-month-old infants' and their mothers' sensitivity to a 3-s temporal delay implemented in an ongoing televised interaction. At both ages, the temporal delay affected infant but not maternal behavior and only when implementing the temporal delay in maternal (Experiment 1, N = 64) but not infant

  2. Infant Developmental Outcomes: A Family Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfitt, Ylva; Pike, Alison; Ayers, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine whether parental mental health, parent-infant relationship, infant characteristics and couple's relationship factors were associated with the infant's development. Forty-two families took part at three time points. The first, at 3?months postpartum, involved a video recorded observation

  3. Infants Attribute to Agents Goals and Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yuyan; Choi, You-jung

    2012-01-01

    This commentary article is to be published alongside: Hernik, M., & Southgate, V. (2012). What do infants know about agents' goals? The authors see this issue consisting of two closely related questions. First, what is an agent to infants? Second, how do infants attribute goals to agents? Hernik and Southgage (H&S) focused on the second question.

  4. How Infants Use Vision for Grasping Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Michael E.; Clifton, Rachel K.; Ashmead, Daniel H.; Lee, Philip; Goubet, Nathalie

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments examined vision's role in infants' grasping of horizontally and vertically oriented rods. Found that infants differentially oriented their hand regardless of lighting and similar to control conditions where they could see rod and hand throughout reach. Findings suggest that infants may use current sight of object's orientation or

  5. Motor Development of Infants with Positional Plagiocephaly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Eileen; Majnemer, Annette; Farmer, Jean-Pierre; Barr, Ronald G.; Platt, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent with recommendations to place infants to sleep in supine, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of infants with positional plagiocephaly (PP). Recent evidence suggests that infants who have decreased exposure to prone position may have a higher incidence of PP and may be at risk for a delay in the acquisition of certain motor

  6. Enacting Caring Pedagogy in the Infant Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Minsun

    2015-01-01

    This single case study was undertaken to explore how an infant head teacher meets the needs of the infants, who express their desire to be cared for, in their caring encounters. Natural daily interactions between infants and the teacher were observed for approximately 10 weeks. Through the qualitative data analysis, the results of this study…

  7. Infant Developmental Outcomes: A Family Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfitt, Ylva; Pike, Alison; Ayers, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine whether parental mental health, parent-infant relationship, infant characteristics and couple's relationship factors were associated with the infant's development. Forty-two families took part at three time points. The first, at 3?months postpartum, involved a video recorded observation…

  8. Locomotor Expertise Predicts Infants' Perseverative Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the development of inhibition in a locomotor context. In a within-subjects design, infants received high- and low-demand locomotor A-not-B tasks. In Experiment 1, walking 13-month-old infants followed an indirect path to a goal. In a control condition, infants took a direct route. In Experiment 2, crawling and walking

  9. Sensitivity to Binocular Depth Information in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, F. Robert; Yonas, Albert

    1976-01-01

    In order to study infants' sensitivity to binocular information for depth, 11 infants, 20 to 26 weeks of age, were presented with real and stereoscopically projected virtual objects at three distances, and the infants' reaching behavior was videotaped. (Author/SB)

  10. Faces Attract Infants' Attention in Complex Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gliga, Teodora; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Andravizou, Athina; Johnson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Infant's face preferences have previously been assessed in displays containing 1 or 2 faces. Here we present 6-month-old infants with a complex visual array containing faces among multiple visual objects. Despite the competing objects, infants direct their first saccade toward faces more frequently than expected by chance (Experiment 1). The…

  11. High Priority Infant Tracking Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biro, Patricia J.; And Others

    The study compared the effectiveness of the Washington State High Priority Infant Tracking Project in maintaining high risk infants in continuing health care, determining health and developmental outcomes, and surveying the use of community resources with other state tracking projects. The project identifies infants during the first 30 days of…

  12. The Power of Touch: Massage for Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Elaine Fogel

    1996-01-01

    The potential benefits of massage for infants are discussed, including the role of touch on attachment and bonding and implications of massage for special needs infants. Research results on the benefits of massage for the infant and caregiver are covered, including increased bonding and enhanced growth and development. Historical information on

  13. The feeding of infants and children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment of feeding practices that are comfortable and satisfying for both the mother and the infant is crucial for the emotional well being of both and for assuring adequate nutrient intakes for the infant. Maternal feelings are readily transmitted to the infant and are a major determinan...

  14. The feeding of infants and children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment of feeding practices that are comfortable and satisfying for both the parents and the infant is crucial not only for the emotional well-being of both but also for ensuring adequate nutrient intakes for the infant. Maternal feelings are readily transmitted to the infant and are a ma...

  15. Infant Social Attention Predicts Preschool Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Henry M.; Phillips, Ann T.; Dunphy-Lelii, Sarah; LaLonde, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Recent research examining infants' understanding of intentional action claims to be studying the early origins or precursors of children's later theories of mind. If these infant understandings are continuous with later preschool achievements, there should be empirical connections between the two. We provide initial evidence that infants' social

  16. Infants' Physical Knowledge Affects Their Change Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Su-hua; Baillargeon, Renee

    2006-01-01

    Prior research suggests that infants attend to a variable in an event category when they have identified it as relevant for predicting outcomes in the category, and that the age at which infants identify a variable depends largely on the age at which they are exposed to appropriate observations. Thus, depending on age of exposure, infants may…

  17. Mothers' and Fathers' Singing to Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trehub, Sandra E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Parents sang a song once to their infants and once in a simulated setting. The song's pitch was higher and tempo slower for infant-directed than simulated singing. Listeners of varying child care experience, musical background, and culture were able to identify which version was infant-directed. Listeners who rated parents' emotional engagement

  18. Infants' Physical Knowledge Affects Their Change Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Su-hua; Baillargeon, Renee

    2006-01-01

    Prior research suggests that infants attend to a variable in an event category when they have identified it as relevant for predicting outcomes in the category, and that the age at which infants identify a variable depends largely on the age at which they are exposed to appropriate observations. Thus, depending on age of exposure, infants may

  19. Segmental Production in Mandarin-Learning Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Mei; Kent, Raymond D.

    2010-01-01

    The early development of vocalic and consonantal production in Mandarin-learning infants was studied at the transition from babbling to producing first words. Spontaneous vocalizations were recorded for 24 infants grouped by age: G1 (0 ; 7 to 1 ; 0) and G2 (1 ; 1 to 1 ; 6). Additionally, the infant-directed speech of 24 caregivers was recorded…

  20. Acoustic Packaging of Action Sequences by Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Rebecca J.; Tapscott, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether acoustic input, in the form of infant-directed speech, influenced infants' segmenting of action sequences. Thirty-two 7.5- to 11.5-month-old infants were familiarized with video sequences made up of short action clips. Narration coincided with portions of the action stream to package certain pairs of clips together.

  1. Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that…

  2. [Drug Exposed Infants and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This bulletin issue addresses the theme of drug-exposed infants and the services required by these infants and their families. "Cocaine-Exposed Infants: Myths and Misunderstandings" (Barbara J. Myers and others) comments on the negative accounts of drug-exposed babies presented by mass media and reviews the mix of positive and negative findings…

  3. The Neural Substrates of Infant Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro

    2014-01-01

    Infants often pay special attention to speech sounds, and they appear to detect key features of these sounds. To investigate the neural foundation of speech perception in infants, we measured cortical activation using near-infrared spectroscopy. We presented the following three types of auditory stimuli while 3-month-old infants watched a silent

  4. Infant Communicative Behaviors and Maternal Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative…

  5. Thirty Years in Infant Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    In the late 1960s and early 1970s, psychiatrists, psychoanalysts, and developmental psychologists pioneered the study of infant mental health. The author, a clinician who helped to develop the field of infant mental health, uses an anecdote-enriched account of his 30-year career to describe the origins and evolution of the infant mental health

  6. NATIONAL MATERNAL AND INFANT HEALTH SURVEY (NMIHS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMIHS) provides data on maternal and infant health, including prenatal care, birth weight, fetal loss, and infant mortality. The objective of the NMIHS is to collect data needed by Federal, State, and private researchers to study fa...

  7. Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that

  8. Enacting Caring Pedagogy in the Infant Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Minsun

    2015-01-01

    This single case study was undertaken to explore how an infant head teacher meets the needs of the infants, who express their desire to be cared for, in their caring encounters. Natural daily interactions between infants and the teacher were observed for approximately 10 weeks. Through the qualitative data analysis, the results of this study

  9. Infant Communicative Behaviors and Maternal Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative

  10. The Neural Substrates of Infant Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro

    2014-01-01

    Infants often pay special attention to speech sounds, and they appear to detect key features of these sounds. To investigate the neural foundation of speech perception in infants, we measured cortical activation using near-infrared spectroscopy. We presented the following three types of auditory stimuli while 3-month-old infants watched a silent…

  11. Locomotor Expertise Predicts Infants' Perseverative Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the development of inhibition in a locomotor context. In a within-subjects design, infants received high- and low-demand locomotor A-not-B tasks. In Experiment 1, walking 13-month-old infants followed an indirect path to a goal. In a control condition, infants took a direct route. In Experiment 2, crawling and walking…

  12. Programme Planning for Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Teresa; Sims, Margaret

    Caring for infants and toddlers has long been conceptualized in Western society as mothers' work, and consequently devalued. Alternative care for infants and toddlers has lacked a knowledge base like that undergirding preschool education. Factors impeding research on infant/toddler care include strong ideological opposition to nonmaternal care,

  13. Congenital Sialolipoma in an Infant.

    PubMed

    Mazlumoglu, Muhammed Recai; Altas, Enver; Oner, Fatih; Ucuncu, Harun; Calik, Muhammed

    2015-11-01

    Sialolipoma is a newly recognized tumor of the major and minor salivary glands and represents only 0.3% of all salivary gland tumors. Only 3 cases of congenital sialolipoma are available in the literature. In the current case, we performed a total parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation on a 12-week-old infant exhibiting huge mass in the parotid region. Histopathology results showed sialolipoma. There was no recurrence at the 18-month follow-up. Although it is a very rare disease in infants, congenital sialolipoma should be kept in mind in patients with parotid mass. The primary treatment is parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation. PMID:26594977

  14. Caffeine therapy in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hady, Hesham; Nasef, Nehad; Shabaan, Abd Elazeez; Nour, Islam

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly used medication for treatment of apnea of prematurity. Its effect has been well established in reducing the frequency of apnea, intermittent hypoxemia, and extubation failure in mechanically ventilated preterm infants. Evidence for additional short-term benefits on reducing the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and patent ductus arteriosus has also been suggested. Controversies exist among various neonatal intensive care units in terms of drug efficacy compared to other methylxanthines, dosage regimen, time of initiation, duration of therapy, drug safety and value of therapeutic drug monitoring. In the current review, we will summarize the available evidence for the best practice in using caffeine therapy in preterm infants. PMID:26566480

  15. Infant Gaze Following during Parent-Infant Coviewing of Baby Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demers, Lindsay B.; Hanson, Katherine G.; Kirkorian, Heather L.; Pempek, Tiffany A.; Anderson, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 122 parent–infant dyads were observed as they watched a familiar or novel infant-directed video in a laboratory setting. Infants were between 12-15 and 18-21 months old. Infants were more likely to look toward the TV immediately following their parents' look toward the TV. This apparent social influence on infant looking at television…

  16. Fluoride intake of Japanese infants from infant milk formula.

    PubMed

    Nohno, K; Zohoori, F V; Maguire, A

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to measure the fluoride (F) content of all infant milk formulas (IMF) available for purchase in Japan and estimate the F exposure of infants whose primary source of nutrition is IMF when reconstituted with different F concentrations of water. Twenty-two commercially available IMFs were purchased from 6 manufacturers in Japan. These IMFs included 21 milk-based products and 1 soy-based product. Each IMF was reconstituted using distilled water and 0.13 μg F/ml fluoridated water according to the manufacturers' instructions. The F concentrations in each sample were measured using the hexamethyldisiloxane diffusion technique and an F ion-selective electrode. The mean F concentration of all products was 0.41 (range 0.15-1.24) μg/g. There were no statistically significant differences among mean F concentrations of newborn milks, follow-on milks and other milks or among manufacturers. The mean F concentration of all products, when reconstituted with distilled water and 0.13 μg F/ml water, was 0.09 and 0.18 μg/ml, respectively. The mean F intake from IMF ranged from 0.039 to 0.134 mg/day with distilled water and from 0.078 to 0.258 mg/day with 0.13 μg/ml fluoridated water, respectively. These results suggested that F intake of infants from IMFs depended on the F concentration of added water, and therefore the risk of dental fluorosis for most Japanese infants would be small since most Japanese municipal water supplies are low in F. However, there was a possibility to exceed the tolerable upper intake level, even under the limit of the law, especially for infants within the first 5 months of life. PMID:21912129

  17. Parental concern and distress about infant pain

    PubMed Central

    Franck, L; Cox, S; Allen, A; Winter, I

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe parent views on infant pain care and to explore relations between parents' experience of their infant's pain care and parental stress. Design: Descriptive, cross sectional survey. Setting: Nine neonatal units (196 parents) in the United Kingdom and two neonatal units in the United States (61 parents). Participants: Parents of preterm and full term infants admitted to hospital. Interventions: Parents completed a three part questionnaire after the second day of the infant's admission and after they had made at least one previous visit to see their infant in the neonatal unit. Main outcome measures: Parent concerns about infant pain; parental stress; parent state and trait anxiety. Results: Parents reported that their infants had experienced moderate to severe pain that was greater than they had expected (p < 0.001). Few parents (4%) received written information, although 58% reported that they received verbal information about infant pain or pain management. Only 18% of parents reported that they were shown signs of infant pain, but 55% were shown how to comfort their infant. Parents had numerous worries about pain and pain treatments. Parental stress was independently predicted by parents' estimation of their infant's worst pain, worries about pain and its treatment, and dissatisfaction with pain information received, after controlling for state anxiety and satisfaction with overall care (F = 29.56, df 6, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.44). The findings were similar across sites, despite differences in infant characteristics. Conclusions: Parents have unmet information needs about infant pain and wish greater involvement in their infant's pain care. Parent concerns about infant pain may contribute to parental stress. PMID:14711862

  18. Recording infant ERP data for cognitive research.

    PubMed

    Hoehl, Stefanie; Wahl, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Researchers from different backgrounds have an increasing interest in investigating infant cognitive development using electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Although EEG measurements are suitable for infants, the method poses several challenges including setting up an infant-friendly, but interference-free lab environment and designing age-appropriate stimuli and paradigms. Certain specifics of infant EEG data have to be considered when deriving event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate cognitive processes in the developing brain. The present article summarizes the practical aspects of conducting ERP research with infants and describes how researchers typically deal with the specific challenges entailed in this work. PMID:22545658

  19. Neurodevelopmental outcome of the premature infant.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Bonnie E; Vohr, Betty R

    2009-06-01

    Advances in antenatal medicine and neonatal intensive care have successfully resulted in improved survival rates of preterm infants. These improvements have been most dramatic in infants born extremely low birth weight (ELBW, infants who remain at high risk for neurodevelopmental and behavioral morbidities. There is now increasing evidence of sustained adverse outcomes into school age and adolescence, not only for ELBW infants but for infants born late preterm. PMID:19501696

  20. [Infant characteristics and anger reduction].

    PubMed

    Mischkulnig, M

    1989-01-01

    Konrad Lorenz first suggested in 1943 that certain physical and behavioral characteristics common to infants (babyishness) serve as cues to attract adult attention and care as well as to decrease the likelihood of aggression. The present study was designed to determine whether the visual stimuli of a baby's face alone are sufficient to reduce anger. The subjects were 60 female students between 18 and 30 years of age. Anger was evoked by setting unsolvable tasks and by noise and maintained by adequate instructions and by continuing noise. Three procedures of measurement (heart rate, retrospective self-report, and interpretation of facial affect by two observers) were designed to show the reactions of the subjects viewing photos of babies and adults. We found a slight increase in heart rate to be an expression of happiness and a massive acceleration to be an expression of anger. The self-report measures and interpretation of facial affect supported the hypothesis that there is a more positive response to infants than to adults, and to cute babies also a more positive one than to less attractive infants. We found weak evidence that babyishness reduces anger. As a consequence of the length of the experiment, subjects who should not be aroused became angry. Thus, it was possible to register a reduction of anger as reaction to cute infants. PMID:2629360

  1. Infant Attention to Auditory Discrepancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Dennis K.; Kagan, Jerome

    1976-01-01

    Groups of 7 1/2-month-old infants heard 1 of 8 episodes consisting of no, slight, moderate, or large discrepancy between a habituated standard and a transformed auditory stimulus. Patterns of cardiac deceleration supported the hypothesis that attentiveness is an inverted-U function of the degree of discrepancy between stimulus event and schema.…

  2. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  3. Infant Memory for Musical Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Loman, Michelle M.; Robertson, Rachel R. W.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined memory of 7-month-olds after 2-week retention interval for passages of two Mozart movements heard daily for 2 weeks. Results suggested that the infants retained familiarized music in long-term memory and that their listening preferences were affected by the extent to which familiar passages were removed from the musical

  4. Resurgence of Infant Caregiving Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruzek, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Peters, Lindsay C.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to identify the conditions likely to produce resurgence among adult human participants. The preparation was a simulated caregiving context, wherein a recorded infant cry sounded and was terminated contingent upon targeted caregiving responses. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated resurgence with human participants in

  5. Infant Massage: Communicating through Touch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Vivian

    1998-01-01

    Describes the benefits of infant massage, particularly for babies with deafness who have hearing parents. Steps for giving baby massages are provided, including placing a hand on the baby's stomach and making eye contact, starting with the legs, looking for cues, and communicating with the baby. (CR)

  6. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  7. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of

  8. Quality Training for Infant Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Addressed to trainers of infant day care providers, this presentation indicates knowledge and skills through which trainers can foster competence in caregivers. First, caregivers should be familiar with Eriksonian and Piagetian developmental theory. Second, caregivers should be aware of the guidelines for practice provided by empirical research.…

  9. Infants Hierarchically Organize Memory Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Rebecca D.; Feigenson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Throughout development, working memory is subject to capacity limits that severely constrain short-term storage. However, adults can massively expand the total amount of remembered information by grouping items into "chunks". Although infants also have been shown to chunk objects in memory, little is known regarding the limits of this

  10. Infant Mortality: 1989 Research Accomplishments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Collected in this document are reports of the National Institutes of Health's 1989 accomplishments in research on the problem of infant mortality. Reports are provided by the: (1) National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; (2) National Cancer Institute; (3) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; (4) National Institute of…

  11. Hearing Aid Fitting in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Brenda M.

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the latest technological advances in hearing aids and explores the available research to help families and professionals make informed decisions when fitting amplification devices on infants and young children. Diagnostic procedures, evaluation techniques, hearing aid selection, circuit and advanced technology options, and

  12. Infants and Toddlers Exploring Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    A good deal of research is beginning to support the idea of emergent mathematics and that, much as with reading, children begin to learn mathematics from the day they are born. Infants and toddlers begin to notice relationships as they interact with their parents or primary caregivers through songs, rocking, and other verbal and nonverbal

  13. The Goldilocks Effect in Infant Auditory Attention

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Infants must learn about many cognitive domains (e.g., language, music) from auditory statistics, yet capacity-limited cognitive resources restrict the quantity that they can encode. While we know infants can attend to only a subset of available acoustic input, few previous studies have directly examined infant auditory attention—and none have directly tested theorized mechanisms of attentional selection based on stimulus complexity. Using model-based behavioral methods that were recently developed to examine visual attention in infants (e.g., Kidd, Piantadosi, & Aslin, 2012), we demonstrate that 7- to 8-month-old infants selectively attend to non-social auditory stimuli that are intermediately predictable/complex with respect to their current implicit beliefs and expectations. Our results provide evidence of a broad principle of infant attention across modalities and suggest that sound-to-sound transitional statistics heavily influence the allocation of auditory attention in human infants. PMID:24990627

  14. Infant formulas: practical answers for common questions.

    PubMed

    Tigges, B B

    1997-08-01

    The pediatric health care provider is often faced with myriad decisions related to the use of infant formula. This article compares human milk to cow's milk. It addresses the composition, classification, and use of some of the most common infant formulas manufactured for use with the term infant in the outpatient setting. Common clinical situations are discussed, including the role for low-iron, goat's milk, and follow-up formulas, and formula use for the infant with diarrhea, colic, and atopic disease. The article highlights the poor quality of research and the lack of definitive answers available to the clinician when managing the infant with atopic disease. It concludes with a review of practical aspects of infant formula feeding for use in client education and management, including guidelines for formula preparation, calculating necessary formula intake, frequency, and quantity of infant feedings, and provisions of the WIC program. PMID:9279846

  15. Go naked: diapers affect infant walking.

    PubMed

    Cole, Whitney G; Lingeman, Jesse M; Adolph, Karen E

    2012-11-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that walking is adversely affected by old-fashioned cloth diapers, and that even modern disposable diapers - habitually worn by most infants in the sample - incur a cost relative to walking naked. Infants displayed less mature gait patterns and more missteps and falls while wearing diapers. Thus, infants' own diapers constitute an ongoing biomechanical perturbation while learning to walk. Furthermore, shifts in diapering practices may have contributed to historical and cross-cultural differences in infant walking. PMID:23106732

  16. Fabrication of a Feeding Obturator for Infants.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Paul A; Cook, N Blaine; Ahmad, Omaid

    2016-03-01

    Large clefts in the lip and palate are common congenital anomalies. If the cleft palate is large enough, conventional feeding techniques may not provide proper nutrition for the infant. Feeding obturators will aid in the ability of the infant to attain suction and help the infant to feed adequately. It is necessary for the infant to have sustained weight gain prior to surgery to correct the cleft lip and/or palate. Fabrication of an infant feeding obturator is a simple technique using materials found in every dental office. An impression is made using modeling plastic impression compound. This impression is relined using irreversible hydrocolloid, and the resulting cast is used to enable a vacuum-formed obturator to be fabricated. The vacuum-formed obturator is smoothed and adjusted in the infant's mouth to ensure closure of the palate but allows pace posteriorly to allow normal breathing. The resulting obturator is well retained in the infant's mouth, allowing feeding. PMID:26237189

  17. Generalization of word meanings during infant sleep

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Manuela; Wilhelm, Ines; Born, Jan; Friederici, Angela D.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep consolidates memory and promotes generalization in adults, but it is still unknown to what extent the rapidly growing infant memory benefits from sleep. Here we show that during sleep the infant brain reorganizes recent memories and creates semantic knowledge from individual episodic experiences. Infants aged between 9 and 16 months were given the opportunity to encode both objects as specific word meanings and categories as general word meanings. Event-related potentials indicate that, initially, infants acquire only the specific but not the general word meanings. About 1.5?h later, infants who napped during the retention period, but not infants who stayed awake, remember the specific word meanings and, moreover, successfully generalize words to novel category exemplars. Independently of age, the semantic generalization effect is correlated with sleep spindle activity during the nap, suggesting that sleep spindles are involved in infant sleep-dependent brain plasticity. PMID:25633407

  18. Infants Learning of Phonological Status

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina

    2012-01-01

    There is a substantial literature describing how infants become more sensitive to differences between native phonemes (sounds that are both present and meaningful in the input) and less sensitive to differences between non-native phonemes (sounds that are neither present nor meaningful in the input) over the course of development. Here, we review an emergent strand of literature that gives a more nuanced notion of the problem of sound category learning. This research documents infants discovery of phonological status, signaled by a decrease in sensitivity to sounds that map onto the same phonemic category vs. different phonemic categories. The former phones are present in the input, but their difference does not cue meaning distinctions because they are tied to one and the same phoneme. For example, the diphthong I in Im should map to the same underlying category as the diphthong in Id, despite the fact that the first vowel is nasal and the second oral. Because such pairs of sounds are processed differently than those than map onto different phonemes by adult speakers, the learner has to come to treat them differently as well. Interestingly, there is some evidence that infants sensitivity to dimensions that are allophonic in the ambient language declines as early as 11?months. We lay out behavioral research, corpora analyses, and computational work which sheds light on how infants achieve this feat at such a young age. Collectively, this work suggests that the computation of complementary distribution and the calculation of phonetic similarity operate in concert to guide infants toward a functional interpretation of sounds that are present in the input, yet not lexically contrastive. In addition to reviewing this literature, we discuss broader implications for other fundamental theoretical and empirical questions. PMID:23130004

  19. Do Infants Influence their Quality of Care? Infants Communicative Gestures Predict Caregivers Responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Vallotton, Claire D.

    2012-01-01

    Infants effects on adults are a little studied but important aspect of development. What do infants do that increases caregiver responsiveness in childcare environments? Infants communicative behaviors (i.e. smiling, crying) affect mothers responsiveness; and preschool childrens language abilities affect teachers responses in the classroom setting. However, the effects of infants intentional communications on either parents or non-parental caregivers responsiveness have not been examined. Using longitudinal video data from an infant classroom where infant signing was used along with conventional gestures (i.e. pointing), this study examines whether infants use of gestures and signs elicited greater responsiveness from caregivers during daily interactions. Controlling child age and individual child effects, infants gestures and signs used specifically to respond to caregivers elicited more responsiveness from caregivers during routine interactions. Understanding the effects of infants behaviors on caregivers is critical for helping caregivers understand and improve their own behavior towards children in their care. PMID:19560826

  20. Analysis of Mother-Infant Interaction in Infants with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonims, Vicky; McConachie, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Delays in development of early social behaviors in babies with Down syndrome are likely to affect patterns of interaction with their caregivers. We videotaped 23 babies in face-to-face interaction with their mothers at 8 and 20 weeks of age and compared them to 23 typically developing infants and their mothers. Social behaviors, mothers'

  1. Analysis of Mother-Infant Interaction in Infants with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonims, Vicky; McConachie, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Delays in development of early social behaviors in babies with Down syndrome are likely to affect patterns of interaction with their caregivers. We videotaped 23 babies in face-to-face interaction with their mothers at 8 and 20 weeks of age and compared them to 23 typically developing infants and their mothers. Social behaviors, mothers'…

  2. Distinguishing Mother-Infant Interaction from Stranger-Infant Interaction at 2, 4, and 6 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ann E.; Power, Michelle; Mcquaid, Nancy; Ward, Ashley; Rochat, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Observers watched videotaped face-to-face mother-infant and stranger-infant interactions of 12 infants at 2, 4, or 6 months of age. Half of the observers saw each mother paired with her own infant and another infant of the same age (mother tapes) and half saw each infant paired with his or her mother and with a stranger (infant tapes). Observers

  3. Infant color vision: infants' spontaneous color preferences are well behaved.

    PubMed

    Zemach, Iris K; Teller, Davida Y

    2007-05-01

    Stochastic transitivity (ST) is a property of preferences among pairs of objects formed from three alternatives, a, b, and c. In general, ST states that if a is preferred to b, and b is preferred to c, then a will be preferred to c. Stochastic transitivity can be weak, moderate, strong or strict (see text). In the present paper, we analyse the presence and degree of ST in the data from two experiments concerning 12-week-old infants' spontaneous color preferences. In the first experiment (Triads), we tested five sets of three stimuli in pairs of two (a vs. b, b vs. c, a vs. c). In each case two stimuli were chromatic and one was White. Strict ST was seen in all cases. In Experiment 2 (Complementaries), we tested White against pairs of stimuli from opposite sides of the White point (red vs. blue-green, blue vs. yellow, and green vs. purple). The purities required for equal (50/50) preference between the two chromatic stimuli were consistent with the preferences for each of the two stimuli over White. In addition, 12 new triads were generated from the Complementaries experiment. Strict ST was seen in six out of 12 cases, and Moderate ST was seen in the other six. As discussed further in the accompanying paper [Zemach, I. K., Chang, S., & Teller, D. Y. (2007). Infant color vision: prediction of infants' spontaneous color preferences], White was the least preferred stimulus in every triad tested. Although more extensive studies are needed, the data suggest that infants' hue preferences are reasonably well behaved across different choices of stimulus pairs. PMID:17397896

  4. Infant autonomic functioning and neonatal abstinence syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, Lauren M.; DiPietro, Janet A.; Elko, Andrea; Velez, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Background Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) expression is widely variable among affected infants and the reasons for this variability are largely unknown; mechanisms that predispose infants to NAS expression are not understood. It has been postulated that the regulatory problems of prenatally drug exposed infants are manifested in dysfunctional vagal regulation of autonomic processes. The current study examines whether cardiac vagal tone, an indicator of parasympathetic neuroregulation, provides a marker for autonomic dysregulation subsequently expressed as NAS in prenatally opioid-exposed newborns. Methods Heart period (HP) and cardiac vagal tone (V) were derived from electrocardiogram data collected from 64 methadone-exposed infants on postnatal days 1 and 3. The postpartum NAS course was assessed serially. Results Infants with lower V on day 1 had significantly higher NAS symptomatology on day 3. Boys had more severe NAS symptoms than girls through the first 4 days of life and, among infants receiving pharmacologic treatment for NAS, boys required longer treatment course and hospitalizations. Greater poly-drug exposure, detected through toxicology screening throughout pregnancy, and cocaine use in particular, were associated with lower V and shorter HP (faster heart rate) in newborns. Multiple regression models accounted for 25 to 35% of the variance in NAS symptoms and duration of hospitalization in methadone-exposed infants. Significant predictors included infant sex, SSRI/SNRI use, and cigarette smoking. Conclusions Results support the hypothesis of a biologic vulnerability of autonomic regulatory functioning in methadone-exposed infants and greater male infant vulnerability to maternal methadone use. PMID:20189732

  5. Infants Representations of 3-Dimensional Occluded Objects

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Rebecca J.; Wilcox, Teresa; Armstrong, Jennifer; Alexander, Gerianne

    2012-01-01

    Infants ability to represent objects has received significant attention from the developmental research community. With the advent of eye-tracking technology, detailed analysis of infants looking patterns during object occlusion have revealed much about the nature of infants representations. The current study continues this research by analyzing infants looking patterns in a novel manner and by comparing infants looking at a simple display in which a single 3-dimensional (3-D) object moves along a continuous trajectory to a more complex display in which two 3-D objects undergo trajectories that are interrupted behind an occluder. Six-month-old infants saw an occlusion sequence in which a ball moved along a linear path, disappeared behind a rectangular screen, and then a ball (ball-ball event) or a box (ball-box event) emerged at the other edge. An eye-tracking system recorded infants eye-movements during the event sequence. Results from examination of infants attention to the occluder indicate that during the occlusion interval infants looked longer to the side of the occluder behind which the moving occluded object was located, shifting gaze from one side of the occluder to the other as the object(s) moved behind the screen. Furthermore, when events included two objects, infants attended to the spatiotemporal coordinates of the objects longer than when a single object was involved. These results provide clear evidence that infants visual tracking is different in response to a one-object display than to a two-object display. Furthermore, this finding suggests that infants may require more focused attention to the hidden position of objects in more complex multiple-object displays and provides additional evidence that infants represent the spatial location of moving occluded objects. PMID:20926138

  6. Maternal Compensatory Factors for Infants with Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrncir, Elizabeth J.; And Others

    Viewed from an ecological perspective, maternal sense of competence and social support would be expected to influence a mother's spontaneous interactions with her infant. In this study 29 mother-infant dyads were visited in their homes when the infants with cerebral palsy were 18 months old. Infants' solitary spontaneous play and mother-infant

  7. A history of infant feeding.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  8. A History of Infant Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  9. Pulse oximetry in preterm infants.

    PubMed Central

    Wasunna, A; Whitelaw, A G

    1987-01-01

    One hundred and twenty five measurements of arterial oxygen saturation (Stcao2) obtained with a transcutaneous pulse oximeter were compared with direct arterial oxygen tension (Pao2) in 13 preterm infants with predominantly fetal haemoglobin. Stcao2 of 86-92% corresponded to Pao2 of 5-13 kPa. Stcao2 above 92%, however, was sometimes associated with Pao2 above 13 kPa. PMID:3674949

  10. Optimal growth of preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Corpeleijn, Willemijn E; Kouwenhoven, Stefanie M P; van Goudoever, Johannes B

    2013-01-01

    The cause of growth restriction in preterm infants is multifactorial, but it has been estimated that about 50% of the variance in early postnatal growth can be attributed to nutrition. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants who were born small-for-gestational age (SGA) seem to have the highest risk to become growth restricted. Possibly, the intrauterine growth-retarded preterm infant is metabolically different from its appropriately grown counterpart and therefore has different nutritional needs. Neonatal nutrition and the resulting postnatal growth are major determinants in the short- and long-term outcomes of preterm neonates. Although having favorable effects on neurodevelopmental outcome, rapid postnatal weight gain after a period of nutritional restriction is associated with the development of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in later life. It seems likely that minimization of postnatal growth failure will decrease the need for catch-up growth and thereby decrease the risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors. Monitoring postnatal growth with current growth charts is complicated. Most growth charts that are currently being used are a reflection of current (nutritional) practices and are not a prescription of how VLBW should grow under optimal conditions. In addition to body weight, other aspects of growth such as lean body mass and length gain should also be taken into account when assessing the quality of postnatal growth. Noninvasive measurements of infant body composition are useful tools in evaluating the success of different nutritional interventions. However, all currently available methods have substantial drawbacks. A relatively new and promising method is air displacement plethysmography. This method still needs to be validated in preterm neonates. In conclusion, neonatal nutrition is a major determinant in the short- and long-term outcomes of preterm neonates. Monitoring postnatal growth is complicated by the lack of prescriptive growth charts and noninvasive measurements to assess the quality of growth. PMID:23428694

  11. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Goh; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extremely humanlike robots called "androids" have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants) were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm-a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android-two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants' looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body) was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human. PMID:26441772

  12. Orientational anisotropy in infant vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen Leehey, S.; Moskowitz-Cook, A.; Brill, S.; Held, R.

    1975-01-01

    Infants prefer to look at horizontal and vertical gratings rather than at oblique gratings only when they are at or near threshold spatial frequencies, as would be expected if acuity for oblique edges is lower than that for horizontal and vertical edges. That such a bias exists as early as 6 weeks of age suggests that the orientational asymmetry of the visual system depends on endogeneous maturation rather than exposure to a carpentered world.

  13. [Nutritional support in preterm infants].

    PubMed

    Cai, Wei

    2014-07-01

    Extrauterine growth restriction is much popular in China and it is still challenge job for pediatricians. This article described the benefits for PICC in route of PN choice. New fat emulsions were appeared recently years, however they are no strong evidence for using in premature infants and need do more clinical trial. Parenteral nutrition associated with liver damage still is a serious complication of TPN and we encourage early enteral feeding, appropriate calore intake, anti sepsis for prevention. PMID:25008868

  14. Sudden Unexpected Infant Death and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Reducing the Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancel Submit Search The CDC Sudden Unexpected Infant Death and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... the risk of SIDS and other sleep-related deaths. Start by always placing babies on their backs ...

  15. Infant Formula Fat Analogs and Human Milk Fat: New Focus on Infant Developmental Needs.

    PubMed

    Zou, Long; Pande, Garima; Akoh, Casimir C

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk is generally and universally recognized as the optimal choice for nutrition during the first year of life. In certain cases in which it is not feasible to breast-feed the infant or the breast milk is not sufficient, especially in the case of preterm infants, infant formula is the next best alternative to provide nutrition to nurture the infant. Therefore, it is highly important that the nutrient composition of the infant formula is as close to breast milk as possible for proper growth and development of the infant. However, human milk is a complex dynamic matrix, and therefore significant research has been done and is still ongoing to fully understand and mimic human breast milk, particularly its fat composition. Lipids play a critical role in infant nutrition. A number of advances have been made in infant formula lipid content and composition so that formula can better simulate or mimic the nutritional functions of human maternal milk. PMID:26934172

  16. Anatomy of the infant head

    SciTech Connect

    Bosma, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ.

  17. Preclinical assessment of infant formula.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome. PMID:22699767

  18. Observed and Reported Supportive Coparenting as Predictors of Infant-Mother and Infant-Father Attachment Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Neff, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between supportive coparenting and infant-mother and infant-father attachment security. Observed and parent-reported coparenting, and observed maternal and paternal sensitivity were assessed in a sample of 68 families with 3.5-month-old infants. Infant-mother and infant-father attachment security were assessed in…

  19. Observed and Reported Supportive Coparenting as Predictors of Infant-Mother and Infant-Father Attachment Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Neff, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between supportive coparenting and infant-mother and infant-father attachment security. Observed and parent-reported coparenting, and observed maternal and paternal sensitivity were assessed in a sample of 68 families with 3.5-month-old infants. Infant-mother and infant-father attachment security were assessed in

  20. How Infants Learn About the Visual World

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    The visual world of adults consists of objects at various distances, partly occluding one another, substantial and stable across space and time. The visual world of young infants, in contrast, is often fragmented and unstable, consisting not of coherent objects but rather surfaces that move in unpredictable ways. Evidence from computational modeling and from experiments with human infants highlights three kinds of learning that contribute to infants' knowledge of the visual world: learning via association, learning via active assembly, and learning via visual-manual exploration. Infants acquire knowledge by observing objects move in and out of sight, forming associations of these different views. In addition, the infant's own self-produced behavior—oculomotor patterns and manual experience, in particular—are important means by which infants discover and construct their visual world. PMID:21116440

  1. Using Language to Navigate the Infant Mind

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Laura; Lakusta, Laura

    2009-01-01

    How do infants represent objects, actions, and relations in events? In this review, we discuss an approach to studying this question that begins with linguistic theory—specifically, semantic structures in language. On the basis of recent research exploring infant cognition and prominent linguistic analyses, we examine whether infants' representations of motion events are articulated in terms of the components proposed by Talmy (1985; e.g., path, manner) and whether infants' event representations are defined in terms of broad semantic roles (agent, patient, source, goal) as proposed by Jackendoff (1990) and Dowty (1991). We show how recent findings in infant cognition are consistent with the idea that the infant's representation of events is a close reflection of the linguistic categories. We especially highlight research that is explicitly guided by linguistic categories likely to have correlates in nonlinguistic cognition to illustrate the usefulness of using language to pose questions about early conceptual representations. PMID:20161142

  2. Racial and ethnic disparities in infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Fern R; Tanabe, Kawai O; Moon, Rachel Y

    2011-08-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in infant mortality in the United States seem to defy all attempts at elimination. Despite national priorities to eliminate these disparities, black infants are 2.5 times more likely to die in infancy compared with non-Hispanic white infants. This disparity is largely related to the greater incidence among black infants of prematurity and low birth weight, congenital malformations, sudden infant death syndrome, and unintentional injuries. This greater incidence, in turn, is related to a complex interaction of behavioral, social, political, genetic, medical, and health care access factors. Thus, to influence the persistent racial disparity in infant mortality, a highly integrated approach is needed, with interventions adapted along a continuum from childhood through the periods of young adulthood, pregnancy, postpartum and beyond. The content and methodologies of these interventions need to be adapted to the underlying behaviors, social influences, and technology and access issues they are meant to address. PMID:21798401

  3. Using Language to Navigate the Infant Mind.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Laura; Lakusta, Laura

    2009-03-01

    How do infants represent objects, actions, and relations in events? In this review, we discuss an approach to studying this question that begins with linguistic theory-specifically, semantic structures in language. On the basis of recent research exploring infant cognition and prominent linguistic analyses, we examine whether infants representations of motion events are articulated in terms of the components proposed by Talmy (1985; e.g., path, manner) and whether infants' event representations are defined in terms of broad semantic roles (agent, patient, source, goal) as proposed by Jackendoff (1990) and Dowty (1991). We show how recent findings in infant cognition are consistent with the idea that the infant's representation of events is a close reflection of the linguistic categories. We especially highlight research that is explicitly guided by linguistic categories likely to have correlates in nonlinguistic cognition to illustrate the usefulness of using language to pose questions about early conceptual representations. PMID:20161142

  4. Infant Mortality: A Challenge to the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Bureau (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    From 1956-1960 an estimated 34,000 infants annually failed to survive in many parts of the United States due to risks far in excess of those for some areas of the country. There is a growing gap between death rates for white and nonwhite infants in the United States, with the excess mortality rate of nonwhite infants continuing to rise. Only 15

  5. Primary orbital mycosis in immunocompetent infants.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Bhavna; Sharma, Sanjay; Kashyap, Seema; Kabra, S K; Pushker, Neelam; Bajaj, Mandeep S

    2011-04-01

    Fungal orbital infections are rare among children, especially in immunocompetent infants. Two infants presented to us with unilateral proptosis and swelling of the eyelids and periorbital area. Imaging showed an intraorbital mass causing proptosis and bony orbital expansion. There was no sinus, nasal, or intracranial involvement. Systemic evaluation did not reveal any evidence of a compromised immune system. A biopsy from the mass showed the presence of fungal infection. Both infants responded well to medical therapy with intravenous amphotericin B. PMID:21596302

  6. Effect of feeding on infants' faecal flora.

    PubMed Central

    Simhon, A.; Douglas, J. R.; Drasar, B. S.; Soothill, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    In newborn English Infants, the predominant faecal bacteria were coliforms and bacteroides, as shown by Gram film, culture, and gas-liquid chromatography, whether they were bottle fed or exclusively breast fed. This contrasted with bifidobacterial predominance in faeces from breast-fed Nigerian infants. Presumably environmental factors other than exclusive breast feeding are also important for establishing the flora. No differences were detected between the flora of infants of atopic and non-atopic controls. PMID:7039517

  7. Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Benitz, William E

    2016-01-01

    Despite a large body of basic science and clinical research and clinical experience with thousands of infants over nearly 6 decades,(1) there is still uncertainty and controversy about the significance, evaluation, and management of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants, resulting in substantial heterogeneity in clinical practice. The purpose of this clinical report is to summarize the evidence available to guide evaluation and treatment of preterm infants with prolonged ductal patency in the first few weeks after birth. PMID:26672023

  8. The Relationship between Social Support, Infant Risk Status and Mother-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social support network of mothers with high risk infants and the relation between support and mother-infant interactive behavior. Two issues were investigated: who gave what kind of support to the mother as a function of her infant's birth status; and the relation between type of support and

  9. Infant Abuse, Neglect, and Failure-to-Thrive: Mother-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Kim N.; And Others

    This study was designed to investigate whether or not degree of child maltreatment is related in some meaningful way to the interactional characteristics of the mother/infant dyad and to the infant's developmental status. A group of 53 mother/infant dyads was divided into five diagnostic groups: nonaccidental trauma combined with

  10. The Leiden Infant Simulator Sensitivity Assessment (LISSA): Parenting an Infant Simulator as Your Own Baby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Biro, Szilvia; Voorthuis, Alexandra; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2015-01-01

    Observation of parental sensitivity in a standard procedure, in which caregivers are faced with the same level of infant demand, enables the comparison of sensitivity "between" caregivers. We developed an ecologically valid standardized setting using an infant simulator with interactive features, the Leiden Infant Simulator Sensitivity

  11. The Leiden Infant Simulator Sensitivity Assessment (LISSA): Parenting an Infant Simulator as Your Own Baby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Biro, Szilvia; Voorthuis, Alexandra; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2015-01-01

    Observation of parental sensitivity in a standard procedure, in which caregivers are faced with the same level of infant demand, enables the comparison of sensitivity "between" caregivers. We developed an ecologically valid standardized setting using an infant simulator with interactive features, the Leiden Infant Simulator Sensitivity…

  12. Infant Abuse, Neglect, and Failure-to-Thrive: Mother-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Kim N.; And Others

    This study was designed to investigate whether or not degree of child maltreatment is related in some meaningful way to the interactional characteristics of the mother/infant dyad and to the infant's developmental status. A group of 53 mother/infant dyads was divided into five diagnostic groups: nonaccidental trauma combined with…

  13. Relations of Motor and Vocal Milestones in Typically Developing Infants and Infants with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobo-Lewis, Alan B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Comparison of ages at which typically developing infants and infants with Down syndrome achieved vocal and motor milestones found that rhythmic behaviors (canonical babbling, hand-banging) were associated with each other and somewhat delayed in Down syndrome infants. Postural behaviors (stepping, standing, sitting, creeping) were also associated

  14. The Infant Parent Training Institute: A Developmental Model for Training Infant Mental Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arons, Judith; Epstein, Ann; Sklan, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The Infant Parent Training Institute (IPTI) at Jewish Family and Children's Service of Greater Boston offers integrated clinical and theoretical infant mental health training. The curriculum reflects the belief that nurturing and reflective relationships promote optimal learning and growth. A specialty in infant mental health requires knowledge…

  15. Sex of Infant Differences in Mother-Infant Interaction: A Reinterpretation of Past Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Valerie J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the nature and consistency differences in mother-infant interaction affected by sex of infant, and reviews past interpretations. Offers an alternative interpretation, drawing on evidence from animal studies, studies of pregnant women, and work by epidemiologists and ethologists on sex ratio data that suggests mothers of male infants may

  16. In and out of Synch: Infant Childcare Teachers' Adaptations to Infants' Developmental Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recchia, Susan L.; Shin, Minsun

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative multi-case study explored the social exchanges and responsive connections between infants and their infant childcare teachers within a group care context. Infants' naturally occurring behaviours were videotaped purposefully at two separate time points, near the end of their first year and approximately six months later. Findings

  17. The Infant Parent Training Institute: A Developmental Model for Training Infant Mental Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arons, Judith; Epstein, Ann; Sklan, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The Infant Parent Training Institute (IPTI) at Jewish Family and Children's Service of Greater Boston offers integrated clinical and theoretical infant mental health training. The curriculum reflects the belief that nurturing and reflective relationships promote optimal learning and growth. A specialty in infant mental health requires knowledge

  18. Mothers' Insightfulness Regarding Their Infants' Internal Experience: Relations with Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koren-Karie, Nina; Oppenheim, David; Dolev, Smadar; Sher, Efrat; Etzion-Carasso, Ayelet

    2002-01-01

    Examined associations among mothers' insightfulness into their 12-month-olds' internal experience as assessed through interviews regarding mothers' videotaped interaction with their infant, mothers' sensitivity to infant's signals during laboratory and home play sessions, and infant's security of attachment to mothers in the Strange Situation.

  19. Infant Temperament, Maternal Personality, and Parenting Stress as Contributors to Infant Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Beswick, Jennifer L.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.; Ferguson, Melissa C.; White, Jamie M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined contributions of maternal personality and infant temperament to infant vocabulary and cognitive development both directly and indirectly through parental stress. Participants were recruited at birth and included 63 infant twin pairs and their mothers. Assessments were completed at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age and included

  20. Infant Temperament, Maternal Personality, and Parenting Stress as Contributors to Infant Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Beswick, Jennifer L.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.; Ferguson, Melissa C.; White, Jamie M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined contributions of maternal personality and infant temperament to infant vocabulary and cognitive development both directly and indirectly through parental stress. Participants were recruited at birth and included 63 infant twin pairs and their mothers. Assessments were completed at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age and included…

  1. An Ecological Model for Premature Infant Feeding

    PubMed Central

    White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Premature infants are at increased risk for poor health, feeding difficulties, and impaired mother-infant interaction leading to developmental delay. Social-environmental risks, such as poverty or minority status, compound these biologic risks, placing premature infants in double jeopardy. Guided by an ecological model, the Hospital-Home Transition: Optimizing Prematures Environment (H-HOPE) intervention combines the Auditory, Tactile, Visual, and Vestibular intervention with participatory guidance provided by a nurse and community advocate to address the impact of multiple risk factors on premature infants development. PMID:19614884

  2. Hepatitis B vaccination in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Huang, F.; Lee, P.; Lee, C.; Huang, L.; Chang, L.; Liu, S.

    1997-01-01

    AIMTo investigate the immunogenicity and safety of existing recommendations for hepatitis B vaccination in preterm infants.?METHODSRecombinant hepatitis B vaccine (H-B-VAX II, 5g per dose) was given to 85preterm infants divided into two groups, using two different schedules. Forty four group A infants with birthweights of<2000g received three doses at 1,2,and 7months of age. Forty one group B infants with birthweights of ?2000 g received three doses at 0,1,and 6months of age.?RESULTSAfter vaccination, 42infants from group A (95%) and 37infants from group B (90%) developed protective levels of antibody. The final seropositive rate and the geometric mean concentration of hepatitis B surface antibody between the two groups were not significantly different. The immune response of preterm infants to hepatitis B vaccines was similar to that of term infants in a previous study.?CONCLUSIONSPreterm infants can be given hepatitis B vaccines using one of the above two different schedules, at a cutoff birthweight of 2000g.?? Keywords: hepatitis B vaccine, prematurity, antibodies PMID:9377137

  3. Infant botulism: review and clinical update.

    PubMed

    Rosow, Laura K; Strober, Jonathan B

    2015-05-01

    Botulism is a rare neuromuscular condition, and multiple clinical forms are recognized. Infant botulism was first identified in the 1970s, and it typically occurs in infants younger than 1 year of age who ingest Clostridium botulinum spores. A specific treatment for infant botulism, intravenous botulism immunoglobulin (BIG-IV or BabyBIG®), was developed in 2003, and this treatment has substantially decreased both morbidity and hospital costs associated with this illness. This article will review the pathogenesis of infant botulism as well as the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition. PMID:25882077

  4. Touch and massage for medically fragile infants.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J; Gallardo, Constance C; Joseph, Michael H; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2009-12-01

    Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver-infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants. PMID:18955228

  5. Disposition to recognize goals in infant chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Uller, Claudia

    2004-07-01

    Do nonhuman primates attribute goals to others? Traditional studies with chimpanzees provide equivocal evidence for "mind reading" in nonhuman primates. Here we adopt looking time, a methodology commonly used with human infants to test infant chimpanzees. In this experiment, four infant chimpanzees saw computer-generated stimuli that mimicked a goal-directed behavior. The baby chimps performed as well as human infants, namely, they were sensitive to the trajectories of the objects, thus suggesting that chimpanzees may be endowed with a disposition to understand goal-directed behaviors. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:14685823

  6. Facial Diversity and Infant Preferences for Attractive Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Judith H.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three studies examined infant preferences for attractive faces of White males, White females, Black females, and infants. Infants viewed pairs of faces rated for attractiveness by adults. Preferences for attractive faces were found for all facial types. (BC)

  7. Preventing Infant Mortality: An Investment in the Nation's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Patricia

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the National Commission to Prevent Infant Mortality's research concerning infant mortality and low birth weight. Also discusses the Commission's public policy efforts regarding the health of children, infants, and pregnant women. (RJC)

  8. Two-Month-Old Infants' Sensitivity to Social Contingency in Mother-Infant and Stranger-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ann E.; Rochat, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Two-month-old infants (N = 29) participated in face-to-face interactions with their mothers and with strangers. The contingent responsiveness for smiles and vocalizations, while attending to the partner, was assessed for each partner in both interactions. For smiles and for vocalizations, infants were less responsive to the stranger relative to

  9. Early Detection of Kawasaki Disease in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ji Hae; Hong, Seung Ji; Seo, In Ae; Kwak, Min Ha; Cho, Seung Man; Kim, Doo Kwon; Choi, Sung Min

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of infantile Kawasaki disease (KD), and to evaluate early diagnostic features of KD in febrile infants. Subjects and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 64 KD patients from January 2010 to October 2014. There was an analysis of the clinical, laboratory data of the infants versus children groups. Furthermore, the clinical and laboratory data of infantile KD patients were compared with 16 infants who were admitted for other acute febrile diseases. Results A total of 64 patients with KD were identified; 20 (31.3%) were infants; 44 (68.8%) were >1 year old children. Incomplete KD was much more common in infants (n=13, 65.0%) than in children group (n=14, 31.8%) (p=0.013). The infants were characterized by significantly higher rates of inflammatory changes at the Bacille Calmett-Guérin (BCG) inoculation site (p<0.001), but lower rates of changes in the extremities (p=0.029) and cervical lymphadenopathy (p=0.006). The serum levels of platelet after 1 week (p=0.005), C-reactive protein (p=0.038), and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (p=0.026) were all significantly higher in the infants group. Comparing the infants with KD versus the other acute febrile diseases, there were significantly higher serum levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p=0.002), C-reactive protein (p=0.046) and NT-proBNP (p=0.001) for the infants with KD group. Conclusion BCGitis and higher levels of NT-proBNP can be helpful for early diagnosis of the incomplete KD in infants, and may be a good predictor of KD in acute febrile infants, when combined with other acute phase reactants. PMID:26617654

  10. Effects of infant and maternal sensory processing on infant fussing, crying, and sleep.

    PubMed

    McGeorge, Kate; Milne, Lisa; Cotton, Louise; Whelan, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of infant and maternal sensory processing on sleep, fussing, and crying in a sample of 55 firstborn, 4- to 7-month-old infants and their mothers. Mothers completed self-report questionnaires to assess maternal and infant sensory processing styles and a 4-day diary of infant behavior, including sleep, fussing, and crying. Higher levels of infant Sensation Avoiding were associated with less sleep, more fussing, and more crying whereas higher levels of Sensory Sensitivity were associated with less sleep and more fussing. The positive association between infant Sensation Avoiding and crying was strengthened by lower levels of Low Registration in mothers. The effect of infant Sensory Sensitivity on reducing total sleep also was strengthened by lower levels of maternal Low Registration. Assessment of infant sensory processing as well as the moderating effect of maternal sensory processing on the relationship between infant sensory processing and infant regulatory capacities need to be considered when assessing and designing interventions for families in which infant regulation is problematic. PMID:25892527

  11. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Goh; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extremely humanlike robots called “androids” have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants) were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm—a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android—two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants’ looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body) was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human. PMID:26441772

  12. Infant gaze following during parent-infant coviewing of baby videos.

    PubMed

    Demers, Lindsay B; Hanson, Katherine G; Kirkorian, Heather L; Pempek, Tiffany A; Anderson, Daniel R

    2013-01-01

    A total of 122 parent-infant dyads were observed as they watched a familiar or novel infant-directed video in a laboratory setting. Infants were between 12-15 and 18-21 months old. Infants were more likely to look toward the TV immediately following their parents' look toward the TV. This apparent social influence on infant looking at television was not solely due to the common influence of the television program on looking behavior. Moreover, infant looks that were preceded by parent looks tended to be longer in length than those that were not preceded by parent looks, suggesting that infants assign greater value to media content attended to by their parents. Thus, parental patterns of attention to television may influence early viewing behavior. PMID:23072612

  13. Takayasu arteritis in an infant.

    PubMed

    Sandeep, S; Unni, V N; Sreekumar, K P; Mathew, A; Nair, R R; Kurian, G

    2014-07-01

    Takayasu arteritis (TA), a chronic inflammatory arteritis affecting the aorta and its main branches, is a rare condition mainly affecting young women in the second and third decades of life. Occurrence of TA in infants is extremely rare, with only less than 10 cases reported all over the world until date. We report a case of a 2-year-old girl who presented with hypertension and was diagnosed to have TA with bilateral renal artery stenosis and this is probably the youngest case reported from India. PMID:25097343

  14. Anencephalic infants as organ donors.

    PubMed

    Botkin, J R

    1988-08-01

    Transplantation technology has been refined in recent years and now offers hope to pediatric patients with a variety of end stage disease processes. The lack of available donors for the smallest potential organ recipients has led to the suggestion that anencephalic infants be used as organ donors. This suggested policy is contrary to current law and raises fundamental ethical issues relating to the definition of death and the treatment of the dying. The technical issues in the potential organ supply from this source are described and the opposing ethical positions developing in this debate are discussed. PMID:3041364

  15. CPV Cell Infant Mortality Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, Nick; Sweet, Cassi; Silverman, Timothy J.; Kurtz, Sarah

    2011-12-01

    Six hundred and fifty CPV cells were characterized before packaging and then after a four-hour concentrated on-sun exposure. An observed infant mortality failure rate was reproduced and attributed to epoxy die-attach voiding at the corners of the cells. These voids increase the local thermal resistance allowing thermal runaway to occur under normal operating conditions in otherwise defect-free cells. FEM simulations and experiments support this hypothesis. X-ray transmission imaging of the affected assemblies was found incapable of detecting all suspect voids and therefore cannot be considered a reliable screening technique in the case of epoxy die-attach.

  16. Patterns of Specific Infant Behavior Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Samera Major; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Mothers viewed videotapes of interaction with their 20 full-term healthy, 20 preterm healthy, and 20 preterm sick infants between 11 and 26 weeks of age. Relationships between infant gazing, laughing, and fussing and maternal interpretation of emotional state, attention preference, attention curiosity, and physical needs were analyzed. (Author/SW)

  17. 21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Infant foods. 105.65 Section 105.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than...

  18. 21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infant foods. 105.65 Section 105.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than...

  19. Infant Eyes: A Window on Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslin, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking "under the hood" if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants' gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous…

  20. Paraprofessionals in Infant/Family Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    "Zero to Three is a single focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that sometimes practice needs to be "translated" into research, as with understanding the phenomenon of paraprofessional workers in…

  1. Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Libby

    Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…

  2. Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,

  3. Imitation of Televised Models by Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    1988-01-01

    Children aged 14 and 24 months were shown television depictions of adults manipulating toys in novel ways. Infants at both ages showed imitation of television models, even after 24-hour delays. This deferred imitation has social and policy implications as it suggests that television viewing can potentially affect infant behavior and development

  4. Social Bundles: Thinking through the Infant Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlie, Julie; Leith, Valerie M. Sheach

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a UK research study on immunization, this article investigates parents' understandings of the relationship between themselves, their infants, other bodies, the state, and cultural practices--material and symbolic. The article argues that infant bodies are best thought of as always social bundles, rather than as biobundles made social

  5. Do Infants Have a Theory of Mind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakoczy, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    The central question debated in current research on infant social cognition is "do infants have a theory of mind?" It is argued here that this question is understood and treated in radically different ways by different participants of the debate arguing either for (e.g., Onishi & Baillargeon, 2005) or against early competence in theory of mind

  6. Employment Decisions Made by Mothers of Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hock, Ellen; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Assessed how individual characteristics and perceptions of infant needs are associated with decisions about employment. Comparisons and findings about decisions to work or stay home are interpreted in light of maternal demographic and personality attributes and maternal perceptions of infant needs and characteristics. (Author/BL)

  7. Infant Contingency Learning in Different Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Frauke; Lamm, Bettina; Goertz, Claudia; Kolling, Thorsten; Freitag, Claudia; Spangler, Sibylle; Fassbender, Ina; Teubert, Manuel; Vierhaus, Marc; Keller, Heidi; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Knopf, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Three-month-old Cameroonian Nso farmer and German middle-class infants were compared regarding learning and retention in a computerized mobile task. Infants achieving a preset learning criterion during reinforcement were tested for immediate and long-term retention measured in terms of an increased response rate after reinforcement and after a…

  8. The "Effects" of Infant Day Care Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay

    1988-01-01

    Examines evidence concerning developmental correlates of nonmaternal care in the infant's first year with respect to infant-mother attachment and subsequent social development. Concludes that more than 20 hours a week of nonmaternal care may be a risk factor contributing to developmental difficulties. (SKC)

  9. The "Effects" of Infant Day Care Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay

    Evidence concerning the developmental correlates of nonmaternal care in the first year of life are examined with respect to infant-mother attachment and subsequent social development. Even though the evidence is not without its inconsistencies, a circumstantial case, consistent with attachment theory, can be made that extensive infant day care…

  10. Infant Mother Vocalization Patterns in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbourne, Brock K.; Ginsburg, Gerald P.

    Video-analysis was used to investigate the transition from coacting to alternating patterns of infant-mother vocalizations in this longitudinal study of one infant. In addition to investigating the transition and its developmental implications, the relationship between the temporal patterning of kinesic and vocal behaviors was studied. The study

  11. Infants Learn Baby Signs from Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayanim, Shoshana; Namy, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    There is little evidence that infants learn from infant-oriented educational videos and television programming. This 4-week longitudinal experiment investigated 15-month-olds' (N = 92) ability to learn American Sign Language signs (e.g., patting head for hat) from at-home viewing of instructional video, either with or without parent support,…

  12. Phonotactic Acquisition in Healthy Preterm Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has shown that preterm infants are at higher risk for cognitive/language delays than full-term infants. Recent studies, focusing on prosody (i.e. rhythm, intonation), have suggested that prosodic perception development in preterms is indexed by maturational rather than postnatal/listening age. However, because prosody is heard

  13. Infant Eyes: A Window on Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslin, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking "under the hood" if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants' gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous

  14. Glucose kinetics in infants of diabetic mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Cowett, R.M.; Susa, J.B.; Giletti, B.; Oh, W.; Schwartz, R.

    1983-08-01

    Glucose kinetic studies were performed to define the glucose turnover rate with 78% enriched D-(U-13C) glucose by the prime constant infusion technique at less than or equal to 6 hours of age in nine infants of diabetic mothers (four insulin-dependent and five chemical diabetic patients) at term. Five normal infants were studied as control subjects. All infants received 0.9% saline intravenously during the study with the tracer. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and glucose13/12C ratios were measured during the steady state, and the glucose turnover rate was derived. The average plasma glucose concentration was similar during the steady state in the infants of the diabetic mothers and in the control infants, and the glucose turnover rate was not significantly different among the groups: 2.3 +/- 0.6 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of insulin-dependent diabetic patients; 2.4 +/- 0.4 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of chemical diabetic patients; and 3.2 +/- 0.3 mg . kg-1 min-1 in the control subjects. Good control of maternal diabetes evidenced by the normal maternal hemoglobin A1c and plasma glucose concentration at delivery and cord plasma glucose concentration resulted in glucose kinetic values in the infants of diabetic mothers that were indistinguishable from those of control subjects. The data further support the importance of good control of the diabetic state in the pregnant woman to minimize or prevent neonatal hypoglycemia.

  15. Considerations in planning vegan diets: infants.

    PubMed

    Mangels, A R; Messina, V

    2001-06-01

    Appropriately planned vegan diets can satisfy nutrient needs of infants. The American Dietetic Association and The American Academy of Pediatrics state that vegan diets can promote normal infant growth. It is important for parents to provide appropriate foods for vegan infants, using guidelines like those in this article. Key considerations when working with vegan families include composition of breast milk from vegan women, appropriate breast milk substitutes, supplements, type and amount of dietary fat, and solid food introduction. Growth of vegan infants appears adequate with post-weaning growth related to dietary adequacy. Breast milk composition is similar to that of non-vegetarians except for fat composition. For the first 4 to 6 months, breast milk should be the sole food with soy-based infant formula as an alternative. Commercial soymilk should not be the primary beverage until after age 1 year. Breastfed vegan infants may need supplements of vitamin B-12 if maternal diet is inadequate; older infants may need zinc supplements and reliable sources of iron and vitamins D and B-12. Timing of solid food introduction is similar to that recommended for non-vegetarians. Tofu, dried beans, and meat analogs are introduced as protein sources around 7-8 months. Vegan diets can be planned to be nutritionally adequate and support growth for infants. PMID:11424546

  16. Infant-Mother Relationship and Object Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafica, Felicisima C.; Uzgiris, Ina C.

    The aims of this study were: (1) to specify who the infant-mother relationship evolves, and (2) to demonstrate how the development of object concept affects the evolution of that relationship. Subjects were 19 male and 17 female Caucasian infants from 4 to 12 months of age. The development of an interpersonal relationship was assessed through the…

  17. Development of Abstract Grammatical Categorization in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Marilyn; Shi, Rushen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined abstract syntactic categorization in infants, using the case of grammatical gender. Ninety-six French-learning 14-, 17-, 20-, and 30-month-olds completed the study. In a preferential looking procedure infants were tested on their generalized knowledge of grammatical gender involving pseudonouns and gender-marking determiners.

  18. Treatment - mother-infant relationship psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Guedeney, Antoine; Guedeney, Nicole; Wendland, Jaqueline; Burtchen, Nina

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we briefly describe several modes of parent-infant-psychotherapy, an efficient way of treating parent-infant relationship disorders. We then focus on treatment for postnatally depressed mothers. Perinatal depression defines an episode of major or minor depression occurring during pregnancy or the first 12 months after birth. Attachment-based parent-infant interventions are particularly helpful in the context of maternal perinatal depression, as postpartum depression has a special link with unresolved trauma and losses in the mother's childhood. The goal of treatment is to improve the mother's mood but also to prevent or reduce the effects of postpartum depression on the child. Infants of perinatally depressed mothers are at risk for a large array of negative outcomes, including attachment insecurity (particularly disorganised attachment), social-skills deficits, cognitive difficulties, behaviour problems, and later psychopathology. The 'ghosts in the nursery' concept refers to the painful or disturbed early childhood experiences coming from the mother's past, which haunt the present mother-infant relationship. By addressing the mother's unresolved attachment conflicts (in her relationship to her own parents), it is believed that the development of a more adaptive parenting and a more secure and less disorganised attachment between the mother and her infant is facilitated. Changes in parent- infant interaction are not dependent on the port of entry (e.g. child's behaviour, parent's representation or parent-infant relationship). The perspective of attachment is key to install a therapeutic alliance with parents. PMID:24045134

  19. Phonotactic Constraints on Infant Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Katharine Graf; Edwards, Jan; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2011-01-01

    How do infants use their knowledge of native language sound patterns when learning words? There is ample evidence of infants' precocious acquisition of native language sound structure during the first year of life, but much less evidence concerning how they apply this knowledge to the task of associating sounds with meanings in word learning. To

  20. Infants Experience Perceptual Narrowing for Nonprimate Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Varga, Krisztina; Frick, Janet E.; Fragaszy, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing--a phenomenon in which perception is broad from birth, but narrows as a function of experience--has previously been tested with primate faces. In the first 6 months of life, infants can discriminate among individual human and monkey faces. Though the ability to discriminate monkey faces is lost after about 9 months, infants

  1. The Teachable Moment and the Handicapped Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, M. Beth

    The report examines, from a cognitive developmental view, research on the teachable moment or critical learning period in handicapped infants. The author explains that developmental gaps are produced by a mismatch between the infant's readiness and opportunity to learn. Characteristics and educational implications of specific handicapping

  2. Infant Contingency Learning in Different Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Frauke; Lamm, Bettina; Goertz, Claudia; Kolling, Thorsten; Freitag, Claudia; Spangler, Sibylle; Fassbender, Ina; Teubert, Manuel; Vierhaus, Marc; Keller, Heidi; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Knopf, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Three-month-old Cameroonian Nso farmer and German middle-class infants were compared regarding learning and retention in a computerized mobile task. Infants achieving a preset learning criterion during reinforcement were tested for immediate and long-term retention measured in terms of an increased response rate after reinforcement and after a

  3. Acoustical Characteristics of Infant Cries: Fundamental Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murry, Thomas; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The fundamental frequencies (Fo) of infant cries were analyzed to determine if mean cry Fo differed as a function of the infant's sex or due to the stimulus evoking the cry. Results indicate no significant differences in either; however, males exhibited a tendency to have higher mean Fo. (Author/KM)

  4. Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Libby

    Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the

  5. Infants Segment Continuous Events Using Transitional Probabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Aimee E.; Romberg, Alexa R.; Roseberry, Sarah; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Throughout their 1st year, infants adeptly detect statistical structure in their environment. However, little is known about whether statistical learning is a primary mechanism for event segmentation. This study directly tests whether statistical learning alone is sufficient to segment continuous events. Twenty-eight 7- to 9-month-old infants

  6. Precision of Auditory Localization in Human Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmead, Daniel H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Study measures the precision of auditory localization in 26- to 30-week-old infants using the adult minimum audible angle test. Results show that infants discriminate sound displacements of about 19 degrees, considerably less accurate than adult values of one to two degrees. (Author/RWB)

  7. Perception of Serial Order in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Serial order is fundamental to perception, cognition and behavioral action. Three experiments investigated infants' perception, learning and discrimination of serial order. Four- and 8-month-old infants were habituated to three sequentially moving objects making visible and audible impacts and then were tested on separate test trials for their

  8. Intermodal Perception of Affect Expressions by Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Arlene

    Four experiments (E1, E2, E3 and E4) investigated whether or not 5- to 7-month-old infants could detect auditory-visual relationships in audiovisual presentations of affective expressions, thereby perceiving the bimodally-presented expressions as unitary events. In E1, 16 infants were simultaneously shown two 2-minute films of a "happy" and a

  9. Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2010-01-01

    We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object

  10. Motor Acquisition Rate in Brazilian Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Virlaine Bardella; de Lima, Carolina Daniel; Tudella, Eloisa

    2009-01-01

    This study used the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) with the aim of characterizing motor acquisition rate in 70 healthy 0-6-month-old Brazilian infants, as well as comparing both emergence (initial age) and establishment (final age) of each skill between the study sample and the AIMS normative data. New motor skills were continuously acquired

  11. Decreasing Dangerous Infant Behaviors through Parent Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Judith R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Four young mothers with one-year-old infants were successfully taught to reduce their children's potential for injury in the home through interventions which included increasing positive interactions with the infant, child-proofing the home, using playpen time-out for potentially dangerous behaviors, and giving positive attention for safe

  12. Neurophysiological Development in Premature Infants Following Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Ruth Dianne

    1977-01-01

    Fifteen mothers were trained to administer tactile-kinesthetic stimulation to their premature infants for 15 minutes four times a day for 1 month. At 4 months of age, experimental infants were compared to 14 controls for neurophysiological development. (Author/SB)

  13. Parents' Responses to Normal and Premature Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frodi, Ann; Willie, Diana

    This paper discusses a series of three studies investigating the influence of infants' characteristics and signaling behavior on parents. Videotapes of either smiling/cooing/gurgling or crying infants were used to elicit parents' physiological and affective responses. Measured physiological responses included skin conductance, heart rate, and

  14. Reduction of head flattening in preterm infants.

    PubMed Central

    Cartlidge, P H; Rutter, N

    1988-01-01

    During the first few weeks of life many preterm infants develop flattened heads. We have shown that this deformity can be reduced by nursing preterm infants on soft, air filled mattresses of the type used for detecting apnoea. Images Fig 2 PMID:3415321

  15. Development of Categorical Exclusivity in Young Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eimas, Peter D.; And Others

    Previous research has shown that 3- to 4-month-old infants form a global categorical representation for cats that includes female lions, whereas 6- to 7-month-old infants differentiate between cats and lions. Three experiments using familiarization-novelty preference procedures attempted to determine whether the differentiation of a global

  16. Women's Responses to Young Infants' Cries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Gwen E.; Harris, Karen L.

    1990-01-01

    Assessed 40 women's responses to young infants' cries. Mothers and nonmothers were similar in basic features of caregiving behaviors. Although the sound of infant cries may inform caregivers about distress level, caregiving behaviors appear to be determined by additional factors. (RH)

  17. The Creative Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombro, Amy Laura; And Others

    Stemming from the core idea that infant and toddler care should be based on building relationships, this curriculum provides a foundation for staff development. Section 1, "Why a Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers?" examines key quality indicators; discusses curriculum components; describes how to use it to make decisions throughout a typical

  18. Infant and Toddler Program Quality Review Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This program quality review instrument for California's infant and toddler programs focuses on seven functional program components. Components include: (1) philosophy, goals, and objectives; (2) administration; (3) maintenance of a developmental profile on each infant and toddler; (4) provision of a developmental program; (5) parent education and…

  19. Infants' Ability to Parse Continuous Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hespos, Susan J.; Saylor, Megan M.; Grossman, Stacy R.

    2009-01-01

    In a series of 3 experiments, the authors examined 6- and 8-month-old infants' capacities to detect target actions in a continuous action sequence. In Experiment 1, infants were habituated to 2 different target actions and subsequently were presented with 2 continuous action sequences that either included or did not include the familiar target

  20. Who's Vulnerable in Infant Child Care Centers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Earline D.; Moukaddem, Virginia E.

    1992-01-01

    Maintains that infants and toddlers, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to a variety of infectious diseases from infant-toddler child care centers. These diseases include infectious diarrhea; rubella; cytomeglovirus; hepatitis A, and haemophilus influenza type B. Suggests ways to prevent the spread of such diseases. (BB)

  1. Update in Maternal and Infant Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Elizabeth M.

    1989-01-01

    This review emphasizes research that confirms or questions established practices regarding maternal and infant nutrition. Controversial issues include weight gain and use of vitamins and mineral supplements during pregnancy and the effects of second-hand smoke. Infant nutrition topics include use of unmodified cow's milk, level of fat, and

  2. Art and the Infant-Toddler Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Marilyn

    Stages in the development of art expression in infants and toddlers are briefly described and illustrated in this paper. Following this overview, suggestions are made about ways to introduce infants and toddlers to various developmentally appropriate media and how to support the artistic efforts of very young children. Materials recommended

  3. Visually Elicited Finger Movements in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Iris; Turkewitz, Gerald

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between visual stimulus intensity and finger movements was examined in infants ranging in age from 10 to 15 weeks and from 20 to 25 weeks. Infants were shown a cone that varied in size, brightness, and distance from them. (Author/JMB)

  4. Preference patterns in infant vowel perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Monika T.; Polka, Linda

    2001-05-01

    Infants show directional asymmetries in vowel discrimination tasks that reveal an underlying perceptual bias favoring more peripheral vowels. Polka and Bohn (2003) propose that this bias is language independent and plays an important role in the development of vowel perception. In the present study we measured infant listening preferences for vowels to assess whether a perceptual bias favoring peripheral vowels can be measured more directly. Monolingual (French and English) and bilingual infants completed a listening preference task using multiple natural tokens of German /dut/ and /dyt/ produced by a male talker. In previous work, discrimination of this vowel pair by German-learning and by English-learning infants revealed a robust directional asymmetry in which /u/ acts as a perceptual anchor; specifically, infants had difficulty detecting a change from /u/ to /y/, whereas a change from /y/ to /u/ was readily detected. Preliminary results from preference tests with these stimuli show that most infants between 3 and 5 months of age also listen longer to /u/ than to /y/. Preference data obtained from older infants and with other vowel pairs will also be reported to further test the claim that peripheral vowels have a privileged perceptual status in infant perception.

  5. Do Infants Have a Theory of Mind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakoczy, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    The central question debated in current research on infant social cognition is "do infants have a theory of mind?" It is argued here that this question is understood and treated in radically different ways by different participants of the debate arguing either for (e.g., Onishi & Baillargeon, 2005) or against early competence in theory of mind…

  6. Posture Support Improves Object Individuation in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Rebecca J.; Wilcox, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    A hierarchical progression in infants' ability to use surface features, such as color, as a basis for object individuation in the first year has been well established (Tremoulet, Leslie, & Hall, 2000; Wilcox, 1999). There is evidence, however, that infants' sensitivity to surface features can be increased through multisensory (i.e.,

  7. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  8. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal

  9. Paraprofessionals in Infant/Family Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    "Zero to Three is a single focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that sometimes practice needs to be "translated" into research, as with understanding the phenomenon of paraprofessional workers in

  10. Enhancing Early Communication through Infant Sign Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Rachel H.; Cotnoir-Bichelman, Nicole M.; McKerchar, Paige M.; Tate, Trista L.; Dancho, Kelly A.

    2007-01-01

    Existing research suggests that there may be benefits to teaching signing to hearing infants who have not yet developed vocal communication. In the current study, each of 4 infants ranging in age from 6 to 10 months was taught a simple sign using delayed prompting and reinforcement. In addition, Experiment 1 showed that 2 children independently…

  11. Undernutrition malnutrition in infants in developing countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We commend Dr. Humphrey on an insightful and well-written editorial on infant underweight malnutrition and thank her for her interest in our study on this topic. In our trial, provision of fortified spread, a novel lipid-based nutrient supplement, to Malawian infants was associated with a markedly ...

  12. Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between

  13. Recognition on Maternal Axillary Odors by Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernoch, Jennifer M.; Porter, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    Displaying no evidence of recognizing the axillary odors of their fathers, breastfed infants discriminated between their mother's axillary odor and odors produced by nonparturient or unfamiliar lactating females. Bottle-fed infants appeared unable to recognize the odor of their mother when presented along with odors from a nonparturient female or

  14. The Creative Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombro, Amy Laura; And Others

    Stemming from the core idea that infant and toddler care should be based on building relationships, this curriculum provides a foundation for staff development. Section 1, "Why a Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers?" examines key quality indicators; discusses curriculum components; describes how to use it to make decisions throughout a typical…

  15. Nap-Dependent Learning in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hupbach, Almut; Gomez, Rebecca L.; Bootzin, Richard R.; Nadel, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Sleep has been shown to aid a variety of learning and memory processes in adults (Stickgold, 2005 ). Recently, we showed that infants' learning also benefits from subsequent sleep such that infants who nap are able to abstract the general grammatical pattern of a briefly presented artificial language (Gomez, Bootzin & Nadel, 2006 ). In the present

  16. 21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Infant foods. 105.65 Section 105.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than...

  17. 21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Infant foods. 105.65 Section 105.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than...

  18. 21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Infant foods. 105.65 Section 105.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than...

  19. Personalizing Care with Infants, Toddlers and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surbeck, Elaine, Ed.; Kelley, Michael F., Ed.

    This publication deals with the present crisis in infant/toddler care. It presents information on infant/toddler development and optimal caregiving paractices, citing recent research on appropriate practices and the impact of poor versus quality care. The book is divided into two sections. In the first section, "Development and Program

  20. Intermodal Perception of Affect Expressions by Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Arlene

    Four experiments (E1, E2, E3 and E4) investigated whether or not 5- to 7-month-old infants could detect auditory-visual relationships in audiovisual presentations of affective expressions, thereby perceiving the bimodally-presented expressions as unitary events. In E1, 16 infants were simultaneously shown two 2-minute films of a "happy" and a…

  1. Infants recognize the subtle happiness expression.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hiroko; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2014-01-01

    Facial movement facilitates the recognition of facial expressions. While an intense expression is expressive enough to be recognized in a still image, a subtle expression can be recognized only in motion (Ambadar, Schooler, & Cohn, 2005, Psychological Science, 16, 403-410). The present study investigated whether infants recognize a subtle expression, and whether facial movement facilitates infants' recognition of a subtle expression. In experiment 1 4- to 7-month-old infants were tested for their spontaneous preference for a happy subtle expression rather than a neutral face, but they did not show a spontaneous preference. To confirm that infants did not recognize the static subtle expression, we conducted experiment 2 using the familiarization-novelty procedure. Infants were first familiarized with a static subtle happy expression. Following familiarization, they were presented with a pair of peak expressions of happiness and anger, but showed no significant novelty preference. In experiment 3 we presented the subtle expression dynamically. Infants were familiarized with a dynamic subtle expression and were tested for their novelty preference. The 6- to 7-month-olds showed a significant novelty preference, while 4- to 5-month-olds did not. These results suggest that infants can recognize the subtle expression only in dynamic presentation and that facial movement facilitates infants' recognition of facial expression. PMID:25109015

  2. Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2010-01-01

    We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

  3. Reducing Infant Mortality. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Despite the wide range of expertise that has been brought to bear on reducing infant mortality across the nation, the first year of life remains a time of considerable risk for many babies. Although the U.S. spends more on health care than any other country, its infant mortality rate remains higher than that of most other industrialized nations.…

  4. Phonotactic Acquisition in Healthy Preterm Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has shown that preterm infants are at higher risk for cognitive/language delays than full-term infants. Recent studies, focusing on prosody (i.e. rhythm, intonation), have suggested that prosodic perception development in preterms is indexed by maturational rather than postnatal/listening age. However, because prosody is heard…

  5. Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…

  6. Infant Toys for You to Make.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Provides instructions for making 14 different toys for infants from birth to 9 months. The toys are safe and stimulating, support specific aspects of infant development, and cost no more that $2 each to make. The instructions include toys made from fabric, toys made from plastic, and toys made with plastic, cardboard, and paper combined. (TJQ)

  7. Optimizing Infant Development: Strategies for Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine

    This guide for infant day care providers examines the importance of early experience for brain development and strategies for providing optimal infant care. The introduction discusses the current devaluation of day care and idealization of maternal care and identifies benefits of quality day care experience for intellectual development, sleep…

  8. Object Permanence in Young Infants: Further Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baillargeon, Renee; DeVos, Julie

    1991-01-01

    Observed the reactions of 3.5-month-old infants looking at a carrot that should have but did not appear in a window after passing behind a screen. The results of this and several similar experiments indicated that 3.5-month-old infants are able to represent and reason about hidden objects. (BC)

  9. Pupil Dilation and Object Permanence in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirois, Sylvain; Jackson, Iain R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relative merits of looking time and pupil diameter measures in the study of early cognitive abilities of infants. Ten-month-old infants took part in a modified version of the classic drawbridge experiment used to study object permanence (Baillargeon, Spelke, & Wasserman, 1985). The study involved a factorial design where

  10. Update in Maternal and Infant Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Elizabeth M.

    1989-01-01

    This review emphasizes research that confirms or questions established practices regarding maternal and infant nutrition. Controversial issues include weight gain and use of vitamins and mineral supplements during pregnancy and the effects of second-hand smoke. Infant nutrition topics include use of unmodified cow's milk, level of fat, and…

  11. Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between…

  12. Infant Botulism and Raised Intraocular Pressure.

    PubMed

    Eberly, Matthew D; Uber, Ian; Kieling, Christopher R; Birdsong, Richard H

    2009-11-01

    Infant botulism is an exceedingly rare disease. Because confirmatory laboratory testing is not available for several days after time of presentation, infant botulism remains a clinical diagnosis. The authors demonstrate how raised intraocular pressure may provide an additional clinical clue to making the diagnosis. PMID:19873952

  13. Infants Learn Baby Signs from Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayanim, Shoshana; Namy, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    There is little evidence that infants learn from infant-oriented educational videos and television programming. This 4-week longitudinal experiment investigated 15-month-olds' (N=92) ability to learn American Sign Language signs (e.g., patting head for hat) from at-home viewing of instructional video, either with or without parent support,

  14. Development of Abstract Grammatical Categorization in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Marilyn; Shi, Rushen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined abstract syntactic categorization in infants, using the case of grammatical gender. Ninety-six French-learning 14-, 17-, 20-, and 30-month-olds completed the study. In a preferential looking procedure infants were tested on their generalized knowledge of grammatical gender involving pseudonouns and gender-marking determiners.…

  15. Maternal incarceration during pregnancy and infant birthweight.

    PubMed

    Howard, David L; Strobino, Donna; Sherman, Susan G; Crum, Rosa M

    2011-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine whether incarceration during pregnancy is associated with infant birthweight. Our second objective was to illustrate the sensitivity of the relationship between infant birthweight and exposure to prison during pregnancy to the method used to measure and model this exposure. The data consisted of delivery records of 360 infants born between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2004 to pregnant women incarcerated in Texas state prisons. Weighted linear regression, adjusting for potential confounders, was used to model infant birth weight as a function of: (1) the number of weeks of pregnancy spent incarcerated (Method A) and (2) the gestational age at admission to prison (Method B), respectively. These two exposure measures were modeled as continuous variables with and without linear spline transformation. The association between incarceration during pregnancy and infant birthweight appears strongest among infants born to women incarcerated during the first trimester and very weak to non-existent among infants born to women incarcerated after the first trimester. With Method A, but not Method B, linear spline transformation had a distinct effect on the shape of the relationship between exposure and outcome. The association between exposure to prison during pregnancy and infant birth weight appears to be positive only among women incarcerated during the first trimester of pregnancy and the relation is sensitive to the method used to measure and model exposure to prison during pregnancy. PMID:20422272

  16. Social Bundles: Thinking through the Infant Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlie, Julie; Leith, Valerie M. Sheach

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a UK research study on immunization, this article investigates parents' understandings of the relationship between themselves, their infants, other bodies, the state, and cultural practices--material and symbolic. The article argues that infant bodies are best thought of as always social bundles, rather than as biobundles made social…

  17. Nap-Dependent Learning in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hupbach, Almut; Gomez, Rebecca L.; Bootzin, Richard R.; Nadel, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Sleep has been shown to aid a variety of learning and memory processes in adults (Stickgold, 2005 ). Recently, we showed that infants' learning also benefits from subsequent sleep such that infants who nap are able to abstract the general grammatical pattern of a briefly presented artificial language (Gomez, Bootzin & Nadel, 2006 ). In the present…

  18. Nutrient requirements of term and preterm infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth of the healthy breast-fed term infant is the most widely accepted standard for growth from birth through 4-6 months of age. Thus, it is logical to assume that the amounts of each nutrient ingested by the breast-fed term infant during this period are adequate and the most recent dietary refer...

  19. Mother, Infant, and Household Factors Associated with the Type of Food Infants Receive in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Yarnoff, Benjamin; Allaire, Benjamin; Detzel, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We explore the complex factors associated with infant feeding by analyzing what mother, infant, and household factors are associated with the types of food given to infants. We seek to quantify associations in order to inform public health policy about the importance of target populations for infant feeding programs. Methods: We used data from the Demographic Health Survey in 20 developing countries for multiple years to examine mother, infant, and household factors associated with six types of food given to infants (exclusive breastfeeding, non-exclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods). We performed a seemingly unrelated regressions analysis with community-year fixed effects to account for correlation between food types and control for confounding factors associated with community resources, culture, time period, and geography in the pooled analysis. Results: We found that several mother, infant, and household characteristics were associated with each of the feeding types. Most notably, mothers education, working status, and weight are significantly associated with the type of food given to infants. We provide quantified estimates of the association of each of these variables with six types of food given to infants. Conclusion: By identifying maternal characteristics associated with infant feeding and quantifying those associations, we help public health policymakers generate priorities for targeting infant feeding programs to specific populations that are at greatest risk. Higher educated, working mothers are best to target with exclusive breastfeeding programs for young infants. Mothers with lower education are best to target with complementary feeding programs in infants older than 1?year. Finally, while maternal weight is associated with higher levels of exclusive breastfeeding the association is too weak to merit targeting of breastfeeding programs to low-weight mothers. PMID:24616887

  20. Shining light on infants' discovery of structure.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Jennifer K; Baldwin, Dare

    2014-01-01

    Learning and discovery seem often to begin with noting patterns. Human infants are skilled at pattern detection, even patterns only definable at an abstract level, which is key to their acquisition of complex knowledge systems such as language and music. However, research examining infants' abstract rule learning has generated inconsistent results. We propose that apparent domain differences in infants' abstract rule learning may be the result of extraneous stimulus variation and discrepancies in the methodologies employed across studies probing this skill. We discuss how a behavioral methodology indexing infants' online learning would be valuable in furthering understanding of infants' (as well as adults') abstract rule learning and its neurophysiological concomitants. We outline current research aimed at developing such an index, and we propose future research, pairing such techniques with neurophysiological methods, aimed at shining more light on human skill at discovering structure. PMID:24851348