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1

Safety and Immunogenicity of Tetanus Diphtheria and Acellular Pertussis (Tdap) Immunization During Pregnancy in Mothers and Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Importance Maternal immunization with tetanus toxoid and reduced diphtheria toxoid acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine could prevent infant pertussis. The effect of vaccine-induced maternal antibodies on infant responses to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids acellular pertussis (DTaP) immunization is unknown. Objective To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of Tdap immunization during pregnancy and its effect on infant responses to DTaP. Design, Setting and Participants Phase I, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in private (Houston) and academic (Durham, Seattle) obstetric practices from 2008 to 2012. Forty eight healthy 18–45 year-old pregnant women received Tdap (n=33) or placebo (n=15) at 30–32 weeks’ gestation with cross-over Tdap immunization postpartum. Interventions Tdap vaccination at 30–32 weeks’ gestation or post-partum. Outcome Measures Primary: Maternal and infant adverse events, pertussis illness and infant growth and development (Bayley-III screening test) until 13 months of age. Secondary: Antibody concentrations in pregnant women before and 4 weeks after Tdap immunization or placebo, at delivery and 2 months postpartum, and in infants at birth, 2 months, and after the third (7 months) and fourth (13 months) doses of DTaP. Results All participants delivered healthy newborns. No Tdap-associated serious adverse events occurred in women or infants. Injection site reactions after Tdap immunization were reported in 78.8% (95% CI: 61.1%, 91.0%) and 80% (CI: 51.9%, 95.7%) pregnant and postpartum women, respectively. Injection site pain was the predominant symptom. Systemic symptoms were reported in 36.4% (CI: 20.4%, 54.9%) and 73.3% (CI: 44.9%, 92.2%) pregnant and postpartum women, respectively. Malaise and myalgia were most common. Growth and development were similar in both infant groups. No cases of pertussis occurred. Significantly higher concentrations of pertussis antibodies were measured at delivery in women who received Tdap during pregnancy and in their infants at birth and at age 2 months when compared to infants of women immunized postpartum. Antibody responses in infants of Tdap recipients during pregnancy were modestly lower after 3 DTaP doses, but not different following the fourth dose. Conclusions and Relevance This preliminary safety assessment did not find an increased risk of adverse events among women who received Tdap vaccine at 30–32 weeks’ gestation or their infants. Maternal immunization with Tdap resulted in high concentrations of pertussis antibodies in infants during the first 2 months of life and did not substantially alter infant responses to DTaP. Further research is needed to provide definitive evidence of the safety and efficacy of Tdap vaccination during pregnancy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, study identifier: NCT00707148. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:24794369

Munoz, Flor M.; Bond, Nanette H.; Maccato, Maurizio; Pinell, Phillip; Hammill, Hunter A.; Swamy, Geeta K.; Walter, Emmanuel B.; Jackson, Lisa A.; Englund, Janet A.; Edwards, Morven S.; Healy, C. Mary; Petrie, Carey R.; Ferreira, Jennifer; Goll, Johannes B.; Baker, Carol J.

2015-01-01

2

A cocoon immunisation strategy against pertussis for infants: does it make sense for Ontario?  

PubMed

Pertussis deaths occur primarily among infants who have not been fully immunised. In Ontario, Canada, an adult booster dose was recently added to the publicly funded immunisation programme. We applied number-needed-to-treat analyses to estimate the number of adults that would need to be vaccinated (NNV) to prevent pertussis disease, hospitalisation and death among infants if a cocoon strategy were implemented. NNV=1/(P(M) X R) + 1/(P(F) X R), where P(M),P(F) (proportion of infants infected by mothers, fathers) were sourced from several studies. Rates of disease, hospitalisation or death (R) were derived from Ontario's reportable disease data and Discharge Abstract Database. After adjusting for under-reporting, the NNV to prevent one case, hospitalisation or death from pertussis was between 500-6,400, 12,000-63,000 and 1.1-12.8 million, respectively. Without adjustment, NNV increased to 5,000-60,000, 55,000-297,000 and 2.5-30.2 million, respectively. Rarer outcomes were associated with higher NNV. These analyses demonstrate the relative inefficiency of a cocoon strategy in Ontario, which has a well-established universal immunisation programme with relatively high coverage and low disease incidence. Other jurisdictions considering a cocoon programme should consider their local epidemiology. PMID:24524236

Lim, G H; Deeks, S L; Crowcroft, N S

2014-01-01

3

Parent "cocoon" immunization to prevent pertussis-related hospitalization in infants: the case of Piemonte in Italy.  

PubMed

Pertussis incidence in Piemonte (Italy) is now at the lowest level ever reached (0.85 per 100,000 in 2010) but the disease is still endemic in infants (54 per 100,000 in 2005-2010). Parental "cocoon" immunization has been proposed in some countries (i.e. United States, France) as a measure to protect newborns from serious pertussis outcomes. We assessed the number needed to vaccinate (NNV) to prevent hospital admissions in infants (<12 months) and the potential cost-effectiveness of this strategy in Piemonte. The NNV for parental immunization was at least 5000 to prevent one infant hospitalization in the latest epidemic cycle (2005-2010) at the cost of >€100,000. The "cocoon" programme leads to net costs from a National Health Service (NHS) perspective (ROI<1). In contexts of low incidence and without reliable data on a high parent-attributable infant risk, the parental "cocoon" programme is poorly efficient and very resource intensive in preventing pertussis in infants. PMID:23306370

Meregaglia, Michela; Ferrara, Lorenza; Melegaro, Alessia; Demicheli, Vittorio

2013-02-01

4

Silkworm cocoons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm larvae spin silk cocoons to live in while they go through metamorphosis. They change from silkworm larvae into white silk moths. The silk cocoons are valuable to humans and can be made into silk fabric.

Roman Neumüller (None; )

2006-07-05

5

Tdap Booster Requirements for Secondary Schools  

MedlinePLUS

... 12 Michigan Yes Tdap Gr 7‡ Jan 2010 Minnesota Yes Tdap Gr 7 † SY 2014?15 Mississippi ... University Avenue West • Suite 415 North • Saint Paul, Minnesota • 55114 tel 651-647-9009 • fax 651-647- ...

6

Tdap coverage in a military beneficiary population: room for improvement.  

PubMed

Pertussis has had a resurgence in recent years. Women of child-bearing age and adults with infant contact are important reservoirs of infection because of waning immunity. Recent infant deaths and outbreaks led to new tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine recommendations, but vaccination rates remain low. A performance improvement project was started at Walter Reed Army Medical Center to target women of child-bearing age. Women treated in Gynecology had their electronic medical record screened for Tdap during their vital signs assessment. Those eligible for vaccination were directed to the Immunization Clinic. The intervention was considered successful if the patient received the vaccine within 30 days of the visit. Data were compiled on vaccination rates 1 month before and 1 and 3 months after the start of the performance improvement project. Only 13.9% of all patients had a documented Tdap at any time. During the first month following the intervention, vaccination rates within 30 days of the appointment increased from 0.38% to 6.5% (p < 0.005). The effect waned at 3 months following intervention, with only 1.1% of patients vaccinated within 30 days of the appointment. Overall vaccination rates remain low, and future studies should focus on barriers to vaccination to prevent morbidity and mortality. PMID:24083928

Lam, Sherrell T; George, Susan; Dunlow, Susan; Nelson, Michael; Hartzell, Joshua D

2013-10-01

7

Hofstadter's Cocoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hofstadter showed that the energy levels of electrons on a lattice plotted as a function of magnetic field form an beautiful structure now referred to as "Hofstadter's butterfly". We study a non-Hermitian continuation of Hofstadter's model; as the non-Hermiticity parameter g increases past a sequence of critical values the eigenvalues successively go complex in a sequence of "double-pitchfork bifurcations" wherein pairs of real eigenvalues degenerate and then become complex conjugate pairs. The associated wavefunctions undergo a spontaneous symmetry breaking transition that we elucidate. Beyond the transition a plot of the real parts of the eigenvalues against magnetic field resembles the Hofstadter butterfly; a plot of the imaginary parts plotted against magnetic fields forms an intricate structure that we call the Hofstadter cocoon. The symmetries of the cocoon are described. Hatano and Nelson have studied a non-Hermitian continuation of the Anderson model of localization that has close parallels to the model studied here. The relationship of our work to that of Hatano and Nelson and to PT transitions studied in PT quantum mechanics is discussed.

Jones-Smith, Katherine; Wallace, Connor

2015-01-01

8

Hofstadter's Cocoon  

E-print Network

Hofstadter showed that the energy levels of electrons on a lattice plotted as a function of magnetic field form an beautiful structure now referred to as "Hofstadter's butterfly". We study a non-Hermitian continuation of Hofstadter's model; as the non-Hermiticity parameter $g$ increases past a sequence of critical values the eigenvalues successively go complex in a sequence of "double-pitchfork bifurcations" wherein pairs of real eigenvalues degenerate and then become complex conjugate pairs. The associated wavefunctions undergo a spontaneous symmetry breaking transition that we elucidate. Beyond the transition a plot of the real parts of the eigenvalues against magnetic field resembles the Hofstadter butterfly; a plot of the imaginary parts plotted against magnetic fields forms an intricate structure that we call the Hofstadter cocoon. The symmetries of the cocoon are described. Hatano and Nelson have studied a non-Hermitian continuation of the Anderson model of localization that has close parallels to the model studied here. The relationship of our work to that of Hatano and Nelson and to PT transitions studied in PT quantum mechanics is discussed.

Katherine Jones-Smith; Connor Wallace

2014-07-01

9

Neonatal pertussis, cocooning and maternal immunization.  

PubMed

The rising incidence of whooping cough, a highly contagious infection caused by Bordetella pertussis, is particularly significant for young infants who have the highest risk for morbidity and mortality. The pertussis resurgence has led to a shift in primary prevention relying on childhood vaccination to a cocooning strategy, that is, vaccination of close contacts of newborn infants (new mothers, fathers, grandparents, siblings, caretakers, etc.), thereby reducing pertussis exposure. Immunization of women during pregnancy rather than during the immediate postpartum period (the initial cocooning recommendation) appears to be a better approach by directly providing protection through transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies. This article describes neonatal pertussis, cocooning as a means of reducing neonatal exposure to pertussis and maternal immunization as a means of protecting young infants against pertussis infection. PMID:25075629

Swamy, Geeta K; Wheeler, Sarahn M

2014-09-01

10

Post trauma abdominal cocoon  

PubMed Central

Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing peritonitis refers to a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to formation of a membrane encasing the bowel. We report a case of abdominal cocoon post blunt trauma abdomen. The patient presented with a history of subacute intestinal obstruction and a mobile abdomen lump. Abdominal cocoon was diagnosed on computed tomography. He underwent adhesiolysis with excision of membrane. PMID:25590647

Kaur, Supreet; Doley, Rudra Prasad; Chabbhra, Mohinish; Kapoor, Rajeev; Wig, Jaidev

2014-01-01

11

Factors Associated with Intention to Receive Influenza and Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccines during Pregnancy: A Focus on Vaccine Hesitancy and Perceptions of Disease Severity and Vaccine Safety  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Improving influenza and tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine coverage among pregnant women is needed. PURPOSE: To assess factors associated with intention to receive influenza and/or Tdap vaccinations during pregnancy with a focus on perceptions of influenza and pertussis disease severity and influenza vaccine safety. METHODS: Participants were 325 pregnant women in Georgia recruited from December 2012 – April 2013 who had not yet received a 2012/2013 influenza vaccine or a Tdap vaccine while pregnant. Women completed a survey assessing influenza vaccination history, likelihood of receiving antenatal influenza and/or Tdap vaccines, and knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about influenza, pertussis, and their associated vaccines. RESULTS: Seventy-three percent and 81% of women believed influenza and pertussis, respectively, would be serious during pregnancy while 87% and 92% believed influenza and pertussis, respectively, would be serious to their infants. Perception of pertussis severity for their infant was strongly associated with an intention to receive a Tdap vaccine before delivery (p=0.004). Despite perceptions of disease severity for themselves and their infants, only 34% and 44% intended to receive antenatal influenza and Tdap vaccines, respectively. Forty-six percent had low perceptions of safety regarding the influenza vaccine during pregnancy, and compared to women who perceived the influenza vaccine as safe, women who perceived the vaccine as unsafe were less likely to intend to receive antenatal influenza (48% vs. 20%; p < 0.001) or Tdap (53% vs. 33%; p < 0.001) vaccinations. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this baseline survey suggest that while pregnant women who remain unvaccinated against influenza within the first three months of the putative influenza season may be aware of the risks influenza and pertussis pose to themselves and their infants, many remain reluctant to receive influenza and Tdap vaccines antenatally. To improve vaccine uptake in the obstetric setting, our findings support development of evidence-based vaccine promotion interventions which emphasize vaccine safety during pregnancy and mention disease severity in infancy.

Chamberlain, Allison T.; Seib, Katherine; Ault, Kevin A.; Orenstein, Walter A.; Frew, Paula M.; Malik, Fauzia; Cortés, Marielysse; Cota, Pat; Whitney, Ellen A. S.; Flowers, Lisa C.; Berkelman, Ruth L.; Omer, Saad B.

2015-01-01

12

Photoprotection by silk cocoons.  

PubMed

A silk cocoon protects a silkworm during its pupal stage from various threats. We systematically investigated the role of fiber, sericin, and embedded crystals in the UV protection of a silk cocoon. Diffuse reflectance and UV absorbance were measured and free radicals generated during exposure to UV radiation were quantified using photoinduced chemiluminescence (PICL). We identified the response to both UV-A and UV-B radiations by silk materials and found that sericin was primarily responsible for UV-A absorption. When sericin was removed, the photoinduced chemiluminescence intensity increased significantly, indicating higher UV-A-induced reactions of cocoons in the absence of sericin. There is progressively higher sericin content toward the outer part of the cocoon shell that allows an effective shield to pupae from UV radiation and resists photodegradation of silk fibers. The study will inspire development of advanced organic photoprotective materials and designing silk-based, free-radical-scavenging antioxidants. PMID:24000973

Kaur, Jasjeet; Rajkhowa, Rangam; Tsuzuki, Takuya; Millington, Keith; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Xungai

2013-10-14

13

The COCOON Object Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The COCOON model was intended to extend the concepts of relationaldatabase management systems (DBMSs) beyond nested relational to objectorientedones. Key characteristics of COCOON and its database languageCOOL are: generic, set-oriented query and update operators similar torelational algebra and SQL updates, respectively; object-preserving semanticsof query operators, which allows for the definition of updatable views;update operations that keep model-inherent integrity constraints...

M. h. Scholl; C. Laasch; C. Rich; H. j Schek; M. Tresch

1991-01-01

14

Standing Orderfor Tdap Vaccine OR Declination Consent and Administration of  

E-print Network

(whooping cough), I am at risk ofacquiring Pertussis, a serious disease and could potentially infect others and it covers Pertussis (\\\\!hooping cough). Tdap normally has a two year interval between a Td and this vaccine

Leistikow, Bruce N.

15

How Do Caterpillars Make Cocoons?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a Lexington, Kentucky, kindergarten science project that employed the Reggio Emilia approach of long-term open-ended projects steered by children's interests and group discussions. The children's investigation of how caterpillars make cocoons included direct observation of the metamorphosis process, construction of child-sized cocoons,…

Clark, Kay

1994-01-01

16

Protecting newborns from pertussis – the challenge of complete cocooning  

PubMed Central

Background An increase of pertussis cases, especially in young infants and adolescents, has been noted in various countries. Whooping cough is most serious in neonates and young infants in whom it may cause serious complications such as cyanosis, apnoea, pneumonia, encephalopathy and death. To protect newborns and infants too young to be fully immunized, immunization of close contact persons has been proposed (“cocoon strategy”) and implemented in several countries, including Switzerland in 2011. The goal of this study was to assess knowledge about pertussis among parents of newborns and acceptance, practicability and implementation of the recently recommended pertussis cocoon strategy in Switzerland. Methods We performed a cross sectional survey among all parents of newborns born between May and September 2012 and 2013 in Basel city and country. Regional statistical offices provided family addresses after approval by the ethical and data protection committees. A standardized questionnaire with detailed instructions was sent to all eligible families. For statistical analyses, independent proportions were compared by Pearson’s chi-squared test. Results Of 3546 eligible parents, 884 (25%) participated. All three questions exploring pertussis knowledge were answered correctly by 37% of parents; 25% gave two correct answers, 22% gave one correct answer and in the remaining 16% no answer was correct. Pertussis immunization as part of cocooning was recommended to 20% and 37% of mothers and 14% and 32% of fathers in the 2012 and 2013 study cohorts, respectively. Principal advisors for cocooning were pediatricians (66%) followed by gynecologists/obstetricians (12%) and general practitioners (5%). When recommended, 64% of mothers and 59% of fathers accepted pertussis immunization. The majority of vaccinations were administered in the perinatal period and within 2 months of the child’s birth. However, cocooning remained incomplete in 93% of families and in most families <50% of close contacts received pertussis vaccination. Conclusions Implementation of cocooning for protecting newborns from pertussis is challenging and usually remains incomplete. Pertussis immunization rates among close contacts of newborns need to be improved. Ideally, all healthcare providers involved in family planning, pregnancy and child birth should recommend cocooning. Pertussis immunization of pregnant women is an additional measure for optimal protection of newborns and should be promoted. PMID:25037057

2014-01-01

17

Cocoon drying through solar energy  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, silk cocoon drying operations through solar energy have been presented. Nearly no comprehensive work has been appeared in literature on this unusual application. General mechanism of solar drying methods are presented by some authors for instance, Roman and Jindal. This application seems vitally significant for silk cocoon producer countries like Turkey. The rate of production accelerates year by year and it is about 3000 tons per year presently in Turkey. In Turkey, by now and currently, a water vapour chamber is utilized in the killing process of silkworm. Vapour produced by burning of conventional fuels posses many drawbacks beside being very expensive and also non-renewable. Vapour effects the quality and quantity of silk thread negatively. For instance, the colour of silk cocoon tends to turn to pale instead of being gleamy. This is not tolerable. The length and mass of silk thread obtained per a typical cocoon sample is increased about 10.1 and 16.5 per cent respectively in the average by using solar energy.

Kulunk, M.

1983-12-01

18

Cost-Effectiveness of Tdap Vaccination of Adults Aged ?65 Years in the Prevention of Pertussis in the US: A Dynamic Model of Disease Transmission  

PubMed Central

Objectives In February 2012, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) advised that all adults aged ?65 years receive a single dose of reduced-antigen-content tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap), expanding on a 2010 recommendation for adults >65 that was limited to those with close contact with infants. We evaluated clinical and economic outcomes of adding Tdap booster of adults aged ?65 to “baseline” practice [full-strength DTaP administered from 2 months to 4–6 years, and one dose of Tdap at 11–64 years replacing decennial Td booster], using a dynamic model. Methods We constructed a population-level disease transmission model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of supplementing baseline practice by vaccinating 10% of eligible adults aged ?65 with Tdap replacing the decennial Td booster. US population effects, including indirect benefits accrued by unvaccinated persons, were estimated during a 1-year period after disease incidence reached a new steady state, with consequences of deaths and long-term pertussis sequelae projected over remaining lifetimes. Model outputs include: cases by severity, encephalopathy, deaths, costs (of vaccination and pertussis care) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) associated with each strategy. Results in terms of incremental cost/QALY gained are presented from payer and societal perspectives. Sensitivity analyses vary key parameters within plausible ranges. Results For the US population, the intervention is expected to prevent >97,000 cases (>4,000 severe and >5,000 among infants) of pertussis annually at steady state. Additional vaccination costs are $4.7 million. Net cost savings, including vaccination costs, are $47.7 million (societal perspective) and $44.8 million (payer perspective). From both perspectives, the intervention strategy is dominant (less costly, and more effective by >3,000 QALYs) versus baseline. Results are robust to sensitivity analyses and alternative scenarios. Conclusions Immunization of eligible adults aged ?65, consistent with the current ACIP recommendation, is cost saving from both payer and societal perspectives. PMID:24416118

McGarry, Lisa J.; Krishnarajah, Girishanthy; Hill, Gregory; Masseria, Cristina; Skornicki, Michelle; Pruttivarasin, Narin; Arondekar, Bhakti; Roiz, Julie; Pelton, Stephen I.; Weinstein, Milton C.

2014-01-01

19

Flavonoids from the cocoon of Rondotia menciana.  

PubMed

Two flavonol glycosides along with four known flavonoids were isolated from the cocoon of the mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae: Bombycinae), a closely related species of the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori, both of which feed on leaves of mulberry (Morus alba). The two glycosides were characterized as quercetin 3-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-d-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-d-galactopyranoside, based on spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. The flavonol galactosides found in the cocoon were not present in the host plant, nor in the cocoon of the silkworm, B. mori. Notably, flavonol glucosides, which are the main constituents of cocoon flavonoids in B. mori mori, were not found in the R. menciana cocoon. The present result strongly suggests that R. menciana is quite unique in that they predominantly use an UDP-galactosyltransferase for conjugation of dietary flavonoids, whereas UDP-glucosyltransferases are generally used for conjugation of plant phenolics and xenobiotics in other insects. PMID:23830693

Hirayama, Chikara; Ono, Hiroshi; Meng, Yan; Shimada, Toru; Daimon, Takaaki

2013-10-01

20

Electricity from the Silk Cocoon Membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silk cocoon membrane (SCM) is an insect engineered structure. We studied the electrical properties of mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Tussar, Antheraea mylitta) SCM. When dry, SCM behaves like an insulator. On absorbing moisture, it generates electrical current, which is modulated by temperature. The current flowing across the SCM is possibly ionic and protonic in nature. We exploited the electrical properties of SCM to develop simple energy harvesting devices, which could operate low power electronic systems. Based on our findings, we propose that the temperature and humidity dependent electrical properties of the SCM could find applications in battery technology, bio-sensor, humidity sensor, steam engines and waste heat management.

Tulachan, Brindan; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Mallick, Chandrakant; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Teotia, Arun Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Bhattacharya, Shantanu; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

2014-06-01

21

Protecting infants from pertussis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Question With the increased rate of pertussis in children, several families have asked me about ways to protect their young infants from pertussis infection. What should I recommend to these families? Answer Pertussis is a preventable disease that is endemic worldwide. In adults pertussis causes a mild coldlike illness followed by a persistent cough. In young infants it can cause apnea, seizures, encephalopathy, bronchopneumonia, and death. Infants younger than 4 months of age account for 86% of all deaths due to pertussis. Cocooning, the vaccination of adults in close contact with infants, is recommended by numerous global and national agencies but is likely to prevent only 20% of cases of pertussis in infants. Vaccination during pregnancy is more effective but not yet approved in Canada. Vaccination at birth has not been shown to be consistently effective and therefore is not recommended at this time. PMID:24522676

Gilley, Meghan; Goldman, Ran D.

2014-01-01

22

Preliminary study on the immunogenicity of a newly developed GCC Tdap vaccine and its protection efficacy against Bordetella pertussis in a murine intranasal challenge model  

PubMed Central

Purpose Active reduced dose tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination for adolescents and adults is necessary because waning immunity after primary diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination is related to the recent emergence of pertussis. This study was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and protection efficacy against Bordetella pertussis between a new GCC Tdap vaccine and a commercially available Tdap vaccine in a murine model. Materials and Methods BALB/c mice were immunized with two doses of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine for priming and a subsequent Tdap booster vaccination. According to the type of booster vaccine, mice were divided into four groups: commercially available Tdap vaccine in group 1 and GCC Tdap vaccines of different combinations of pertussis antigens in groups 2 to 4. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and protection efficacy using a murine intranasal challenge model after booster vaccination were compared among the four groups. Results Every group showed significant increases in antibody titers against pertussis antigens such as pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and pertactin after booster vaccination. Spleen cells showed both Th1 and Th2 cell-mediated immune responses stimulated by pertussis antigens in all groups without any significant difference. In the intranasal B. pertussis infection model, bacteria were eradicated in all groups five days after challenge infection. Conclusion This preliminary study did not show significantly different immunogenicity or protection efficacy of the new GCC Tdap vaccines compared to the commercially available Tdap vaccine, although a more extensive study is necessary to assess the differing efficacies of the new GCC Tdap vaccines. PMID:25649262

2015-01-01

23

The silkmoth cocoon as humidity trap and waterproof barrier.  

PubMed

To better understand how silkmoth cocoons maintain the correct internal moisture levels for successful pupation, we examined cocoons from the long-domesticated mulberry silkmoth Bombyx mori as well as from two wild silkmoth species, Antheraea pernyi and Philosamia cynthia ricini. We determined fluid-independent values for the porosity, tortuosity and permeability of the inner and outer surfaces of cocoons. Permeabilities were low and, with the exception of A. pernyi cocoons, inner surfaces were less permeable than outer surfaces. B. mori cocoons exhibited the highest permeability overall, but only at the outer surface, while A. pernyi cocoons appeared to show different patterns from the other species tested. We discuss our findings in light of the ecophysiology of the various species and propose a 'tortuous path' model to help explain our results. The model describes how the structure of the inner and outer layers of the cocoon allows it to function as both a humidity trap and a waterproof barrier, providing optimum conditions for the successful development of the pupa. PMID:23388210

Horrocks, Nicholas P C; Vollrath, Fritz; Dicko, Cedric

2013-04-01

24

Electricity from the Silk Cocoon Membrane  

PubMed Central

Silk cocoon membrane (SCM) is an insect engineered structure. We studied the electrical properties of mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Tussar, Antheraea mylitta) SCM. When dry, SCM behaves like an insulator. On absorbing moisture, it generates electrical current, which is modulated by temperature. The current flowing across the SCM is possibly ionic and protonic in nature. We exploited the electrical properties of SCM to develop simple energy harvesting devices, which could operate low power electronic systems. Based on our findings, we propose that the temperature and humidity dependent electrical properties of the SCM could find applications in battery technology, bio-sensor, humidity sensor, steam engines and waste heat management. PMID:24961354

Tulachan, Brindan; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Mallick, Chandrakant; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Teotia, Arun Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Bhattacharya, Shantanu; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

2014-01-01

25

Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

2010-10-01

26

Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites  

SciTech Connect

The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

Chen Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz [Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS (United Kingdom)

2010-10-15

27

Cytotoxicity of Cricula triphenestrata Cocoon Extract on Human Fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Indonesian silkworm cocoon extract of Cricula triphenestrata on human fibroblasts. Methods and Materials. The cocoon shells of the silkworm Cricula triphenestrata were degumming. The shells were mixed with an aqueous solution of 0.3% Na2CO3 at 98°C for 1 hour. The solution was then dialyzed in cellulose membranes against deionized water for 3 days. The cocoon shells extract powder was collected via rotary evaporation and dried under freeze dryer. Cell culture medium was exposed to Cricula triphenestrata cocoon extract (0.01–100??g/mL) for 24 hours. The primary human gingival fibroblasts were exposed to the treated cell culture medium for 24 hours. Cytotoxicity evaluation was done by MTT method. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Result. The result revealed no significant cytotoxicity of Cricula triphenestrata cocoon extract against human fibroblasts at a concentration up to 100??g/mL (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Cricula triphenestrata cocoon extract was not cytotoxic on human gingival fibroblast cells. PMID:22919391

Sunarintyas, Siti; Siswomihardjo, Widowati; Tontowi, Alva Edy

2012-01-01

28

An Unlikely Silk: The Composite Material of Green Lacewing Cocoons  

SciTech Connect

Spiders routinely produce multiple types of silk; however, common wisdom has held that insect species produce one type of silk each. This work reports that the green lacewing (Mallada signata, Neuroptera) produces two distinct classes of silk. We identified and sequenced the gene that encodes the major protein component of the larval lacewing cocoon silk and demonstrated that it is unrelated to the adult lacewing egg-stalk silk. The cocoon silk protein is 49 kDa in size and is alanine rich (>40%), and it contains an {alpha}-helical secondary structure. The final instar lacewing larvae spin protein fibers of {approx}2 {mu}m diameter to construct a loosely woven cocoon. In a second stage of cocoon construction, the insects lay down an inner wall of lipids that uses the fibers as a scaffold. We propose that the silk protein fibers provide the mechanical strength of the composite lacewing cocoon whereas the lipid layer provides a barrier to water loss during pupation.

Weisman, Sarah; Trueman, Holly E.; Mudie, Stephen T.; Church, Jeffrey S.; Sutherland, Tara D.; Haritos, Victoria S. (CSIRO/MSE); (CSIRO)

2009-01-15

29

Addition of arthropod cocoons to house wren nests is correlated with delayed pairing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males in the cavity-nesting house wren (Troglodytes aedon) frequently add arthropod cocoons to their nests during building, possibly as an ornamental cue for female choice. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the time to pairing for males that did and did not add cocoons to their nests and for males in whose nests we manipulated the number of cocoons prior

Kevin P. Eckerle; Charles F. Thompson

2005-01-01

30

A lepidopterous cocoon evidence for silk in the  

E-print Network

? A cocoonfrom Santorini offers new evidence. Elusive prehistorictrade In the consideration of trade deposits burying the Bronze Age settlement at Akrotiri on the Aegean island of Santorini [Thera. Context of the cocoon The volcanic island of Santorini in the south- ern Aegean is well known

Panagiotakopulu, Eva

31

A hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the unobservable predation rate on sawfly cocoons by small mammals  

PubMed Central

Predation by small mammals has been reported as an important mortality factor for the cocoons of sawfly species. However, it is difficult to provide an accurate estimate of newly spun cocoons and subsequent predation rates by small mammals for several reasons. First, all larvae do not spin cocoons at the same time. Second, cocoons are exposed to small mammal predation immediately after being spun. Third, the cocoons of the current generation are indistinguishable from those of the previous generation. We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate these values from annual one-time soil sampling datasets. To apply this model to an actual data set, field surveys were conducted in eight stands of larch plantations in central Hokkaido (Japan) from 2009 to 2012. Ten 0.04-m2 soil samples were annually collected from each site in mid-October. The abundance of unopened cocoons (I), cocoons emptied by small-mammal predation (M), and empty cocoons caused by something other than small-mammal predation (H) were determined. The abundance of newly spun cocoons, the predation rate by small mammals before and after cocoon sampling, and the annual rate of empty cocoons that remained were estimated. A posterior predictive check yielded Bayesian P-values of 0.54, 0.48, and 0.07 for I, M, and H, respectively. Estimated predation rates showed a significant positive correlation with the number of trap captures of small mammals. Estimates of the number of newly spun cocoons had a significant positive correlation with defoliation intensity. These results indicate that our model showed an acceptable fit, with reasonable estimates. Our model is expected to be widely applicable to all hymenopteran and lepidopteran insects that spin cocoons in soil. PMID:25691994

Pinkantayong, Panisara; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kubo, Mamoru; Muramoto, Ken-ichiro; Kamata, Naoto

2015-01-01

32

Comparative Proteome Analysis of Multi-Layer Cocoon of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Bombyx mori cocoon has a multi-layer structure that provides optimal protection for silkworm pupa. Research on the mechanical properties of the multi-layer structure revealed structure-property relationships of the cocoon. Here, we investigated the protein components of the B. mori cocoon in terms of its multi-layer structure. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified 286 proteins from the multiple cocoon layers. In addition to fibroins and sericins, we identified abundant protease inhibitors, seroins and proteins of unknown function. By comparing protein abundance across layers, we found that the outermost layer contained more sericin1 and protease inhibitors and the innermost layer had more seroin1. As many as 36 protease inhibitors were identified in cocoons, showing efficient inhibitory activities against a fungal protease. Thus, we propose that more abundant protease inhibitors in the outer cocoon layers may provide better protection for the cocoon. This study increases our understanding of the multi-layer mechanism of cocoons, and helps clarify the biological characteristics of cocoons. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001469. PMID:25860555

Dong, Zhaoming; Wang, Dandan; Guo, Pengchao; Guo, Xiaomeng; Song, Qianru; Zhang, Weiwei; Xia, Qingyou

2015-01-01

33

Mechanical properties of cocoons constructed consecutively by a single silkworm caterpillar, Bombyx mori  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most animals have the ability to adapt, to some extends and in different ways, the variation or disturbance of environment. In our experiments, we forced a silkworm caterpillar to spin two, three or four thin cocoons by taking it out from the cocoon being constructed. The mechanical properties of these cocoons were studied by static tensile tests and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. Though external disturbances may cause the decrease in the total weight of silk spun by the silkworm, a gradual enhancement was interestingly found in the mechanical properties of these thin cocoons. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the fractured specimens of the cocoons showed that there exist several different energy dissipation mechanisms occurred simultaneously at macro-, meso-, and micro-scales, yielding a superior capacity of cocoons to adsorb the energy of possible attacks from the outside and to protect efficiently its pupa against damage. Through evolution of millions of years, therefore, the silkworm Bombyx mori seems to have gained the ability to adapt external disturbances and to redesign a new cocoon with optimized protective function when its first cocoon has been damaged for some reasons.

Huang, S. Q.; Zhao, H. P.; Feng, X. Q.; Cui, W.; Lin, Z.; Xu, M. Q.

2008-04-01

34

Triassic leech cocoon from Antarctica contains fossil bell animal  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth is limited by the imperfection of the fossil record. One reason for this imperfect record is that organisms without hard parts, such as bones, shells, and wood, have a very low potential to enter the fossil record. Occasionally, however, exceptional fossil deposits that preserve soft-bodied organisms provide a rare glimpse of the true biodiversity during past periods of Earth history. We here present an extraordinary find of a fossil ciliate that is encased inside the wall layer of a more than 200 Ma leech cocoon from Antarctica. The microfossil consists of a helically contractile stalk that attaches to a main body with a peristomial feeding apparatus and a large C-shaped macronucleus. It agrees in every aspect with the living bell animals, such as Vorticella. Vorticellids and similar peritrichs are vital constituents of aquatic ecosystems worldwide, but so far have lacked any fossil record. This discovery offers a glimpse of ancient soft-bodied protozoan biotas, and also highlights the potential of clitellate cocoons as microscopic “conservation traps” comparable to amber. PMID:23213234

Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.; Moestrup, Øjvind; Taylor, Edith L.

2012-01-01

35

Cocoon of the silkworm Antheraea pernyi as an example of a thermally insulating biological interface.  

PubMed

Biological materials are hierarchically organized complex composites, which embrace multiple practical functionalities. As an example, the wild silkworm cocoon provides multiple protective functions against environmental and physical hazards, promoting the survival chance of moth pupae that resides inside. In the present investigation, the microstructure and thermal property of the Chinese tussah silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) cocoon in both warm and cold environments under windy conditions have been studied by experimental and numerical methods. A new computational fluid dynamics model has been developed according to the original fibrous structure of the Antheraea pernyi cocoon to simulate the unique heat transfer process through the cocoon wall. The structure of the Antheraea pernyi cocoon wall can promote the disorderness of the interior air, which increases the wind resistance by stopping most of the air flowing into the cocoon. The Antheraea pernyi cocoon is wind-proof due to the mineral crystals deposited on the outer layer surface and its hierarchical structure with low porosity and high tortuosity. The research findings have important implications to enhancing the thermal function of biomimetic protective textiles and clothing. PMID:25280854

Jin, Xing; Zhang, Jin; Gao, Weimin; Li, Jingliang; Wang, Xungai

2014-09-01

36

Infant formulas  

MedlinePLUS

Infant formulas are food products designed to provide for the nutritional needs of infants under 1 year old. ... months old who are not drinking breast milk. Infant formulas vary in nutrients, calorie count, taste, ability to ...

37

Hyperglycemia - infants  

MedlinePLUS

High blood sugar - infants; High blood glucose level - infants ... Hyperglycemia is abnormally high blood sugar. The medical term for blood sugar is blood glucose. This article discusses hyperglycemia in infants.

38

A Cocoon Found Inside the Black Widow's Web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory image of the mysterious "Black Widow" pulsar reveals the first direct evidence of an elongated cocoon of high-energy particles. This discovery shows that this billion-year-old rejuvenated pulsar is an extremely efficient generator of a high-speed flow of matter and antimatter particles. Known officially as pulsar B1957+20, the Black Widow received its nickname because it is emitting intense high-energy radiation that is destroying its companion through evaporation. B1957+20, which completes one rotation every 1.6-thousandths of a second, belongs to a class of extremely rapidly rotating neutron stars called millisecond pulsars. The motion of B1957+20 through the galaxy -- at a high speed of almost a million kilometers per hour -- creates a bow shock wave visible to optical telescopes. The Chandra observation shows what cannot be seen in visible light: a second shock wave. This secondary shock wave is created from pressure that sweeps the wind back from the pulsar to form the cocoon of high-energy particles, visible for the first time in the Chandra data. "This is the first detection of a double-shock structure around a pulsar," said Benjamin Stappers, of the Dutch Organization for Research in Astronomy (ASTRON), lead author on a paper describing the research that will appear in the Feb. 28, 2003, issue of Science magazine. "It should enable astronomers to test theories of the dynamics of pulsar winds and their interaction with their environment." B1957+20 X-ray-only image of B1957+20 Scientists believe millisecond pulsars are very old neutron stars that have been spun up by accreting material from their companions. The steady push of the infalling matter on the neutron star spins it up in much the same way as pushing on a merry-go-round makes it rotate faster. The result is an object about 1.5 times as massive as the Sun and ten miles in diameter that rotates hundreds of times per second. The advanced age, very rapid rotation rate and relatively low magnetic field of millisecond pulsars put them in a totally separate class from young pulsars observed in the remnants of supernova explosions. "This star has had an incredible journey. It was born in a supernova explosion as a young and energetic pulsar, but after a few million years grew old and slow and faded from view," said Bryan Gaensler of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., a coauthor of the paper. "Over the next few hundred million years, this dead pulsar had material dumped on it by its companion, and the pulsar's magnetic field has been dramatically reduced. B1957+20 B1957+20 Artist's illustrations of B1957+20 "This pulsar has been through hell, yet somehow it's still able to generate high-energy particles just like its younger brethren," continued Gaensler. The key is the rapid rotation of B1957+20. The Chandra result confirms the theory that even a relatively weakly magnetized neutron star can generate intense electromagnetic forces and accelerate particles to high energies to create a pulsar wind, if it is rotating rapidly enough. Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer observed B1957+20 for over 40,000 seconds on June 21, 2001. Other members of the research team include Victoria Kaspi (McGill University, Montreal), Michiel van der Klis (University of Amsterdam) and Walter Lewin (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program, and TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif., is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass., for the Office of Space Science at NASA Headquarters, Washington.

2003-02-01

39

Treating Bronchiolitis in Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... Abuse Young Adult: 18-21 yrs. Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Safety & Prevention Immunizations Chickenpox Tdap Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (Hib) Hepatitis A (HepA) Hepatitis B (HepB) Human Papillomavirus (HPV) ...

40

Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (abdominal cocoon) in adult male. A case report  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Abdominal cocoon (sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis) (SEP) is a rare condition, mostly affecting adolescent girls living in tropical/subtropical region. Its etiology is unknown. It may cause acute or sub-acute intestinal obstruction. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report here a 39 year old male who complained of long standing colicky abdominal pain, with significant weight loss. Abdomen CT scan showed clumping of ileal loops at the level of umbilicus, with a thin capsule surrounding it. Laparoscopy revealed abdominal cocoon, biopsy of which showed dense hypocellular fibro-collagenous tissue with no neoplastic or granulomatous process. Excision of fibrous tissue and release of adhesions was done. Patient was symptoms free after five months follow up. DISCUSSION Abdominal exploration is usually needed for the diagnosis and treatment of abdominal cocoon. A thick fibrotic peritoneal wrapping of the bowel is usually found. Complete recovery is the result in majority of cases after surgical removal of the wrap causing the cocoon. CONCLUSION Primary sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (cocoon abdomen) diagnosis needs a high index of suspicion, as signs and symptoms are nonspecific and imaging findings are not always conclusive. Careful excision of the accessory peritoneal sac and lysis of adhesions between bowels is the best treatment. Prognosis is generally good. PMID:25217877

Al Ani, Amer Hashim; Al Zayani, Najah; Najmeddine, Mohammad; Jacob, Sunitha; Nair, Sunil

2014-01-01

41

Fluorescent silk cocoon creating fluorescent diatom using a "Water glass-fluorophore ferry".  

PubMed

Fluorophores are ubiquitous in nature. Naturally occurring fluorophores are exceptionally stable and have high quantum yield. Several natural systems have acquired fluorescent signature due to the presence of these fluorophores. Systematic attempt to harvest these fluorophores from natural systems could reap rich commercial benefit to bio-imaging industry. Silk cocoon biomaterial is one such example of natural system, which has acquired a fluorescent signature. The objective of this study is to develop simple, rapid, commercially viable technique to isolate silk cocoon membrane fluorophores and exploring the possibility of using them as fluorescent dye in bio-imaging. Here, we report an innovative water glass (Na2SiO3) based strategy to isolate the silk cocoon fluorophores. Isolated fluorophore is majorly quercetin derivatives and exhibited remarkable photo- and heat stability. Fluorescence and mass spectrometric analysis confirmed presence of a quercetin derivative. We further used this fluorophore to successfully label the silicate shell of diatom species Nitzschia palea. PMID:24256845

Kusurkar, Tejas S; Tandon, Ishita; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

2013-01-01

42

Unusual occurrence of cocoons in population of Haplodiplosis marginata (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Belgium.  

PubMed

The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a phytophagous species that develops in saddle-shaped galls on stems of wheat Triticum vulgare, barley Hordeum sativum, rye Secale cereale, and some other species of Poaceae. Only one generation develops per year. Full-grown larvae leave galls and drop onto the soil where they remain up to the springtime of the following year. Larvae do not usually spin cocoons. However, formation of cocoons by larvae was observed in populations developing in western Europe: in England in 1954, in the Netherlands in the 1960s, and in Belgium in 2011. On the basis of our analysis, a part of the larval population forms cocoons as protection against unfavorable weather conditions, especially drought. PMID:25525104

Censier, F; Chavalle, S; Knor, S; De Proft, M; Bodson, B; Skuhravá, M

2014-01-01

43

Fluorescent silk cocoon creating fluorescent diatom using a “Water glass-fluorophore ferry”  

PubMed Central

Fluorophores are ubiquitous in nature. Naturally occurring fluorophores are exceptionally stable and have high quantum yield. Several natural systems have acquired fluorescent signature due to the presence of these fluorophores. Systematic attempt to harvest these fluorophores from natural systems could reap rich commercial benefit to bio-imaging industry. Silk cocoon biomaterial is one such example of natural system, which has acquired a fluorescent signature. The objective of this study is to develop simple, rapid, commercially viable technique to isolate silk cocoon membrane fluorophores and exploring the possibility of using them as fluorescent dye in bio-imaging. Here, we report an innovative water glass (Na2SiO3) based strategy to isolate the silk cocoon fluorophores. Isolated fluorophore is majorly quercetin derivatives and exhibited remarkable photo- and heat stability. Fluorescence and mass spectrometric analysis confirmed presence of a quercetin derivative. We further used this fluorophore to successfully label the silicate shell of diatom species Nitzschia palea. PMID:24256845

Kusurkar, Tejas S.; Tandon, Ishita; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

2013-01-01

44

Utilization of silkworm cocoon waste as a sorbent for the removal of oil from water.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate the utilization of silkworm cocoon waste, such as pierced or stained cocoons, as a sorbent material for the removal of motor and vegetable oils from water. The oil-sorption capacity, rate and reusability of the material were evaluated. The results show the high sorption capacity of the silkworm cocoon waste sorbent (42-52 g(oil)/g(sorbent) for motor oil and 37-60 g(oil)/g(sorbent) for vegetable oil). The oil sorbed onto the material could be recovered by squeezing the sorbent, and the squeezed material showed an oil-sorption capacity over 15 g(oil)/g(sorbent). We concluded that the material shows a high performance as a low cost and environmental friendly sorbent for the removal of oil from water. PMID:19008047

Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Shiori; Kurashima, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Ayaka; Haraguchi, Kazuma; Shirai, Koji; Kanekatsu, Rensuke; Kiguchi, Kenji

2009-06-15

45

Cell dynamics during cocoon secretion in the aquatic leech, Theromyzon tessulatum (Annelida: Clitellata: Glossiphoniidae).  

PubMed

One distinguishing feature of clitellate annelids is the presence of specialized segments comprising the clitellum, whose primary function is to secrete a cocoon. Using histological analyses, we have documented cell types (I-V) and cellular processes associated with cocoon secretion in the aquatic leech, Theromyzon tessulatum. Our data indicate that the bulk of the cocoon's biomass arises from precursor cells of a single type that hypertrophy and proliferate approximately 1 week prior to egg laying, and then differentiate into either of two cell types (i.e., Type II or Type III) depending on their position within the clitellum. Type II cells are concentrated along the lateral edges and venter of the clitellum and secrete alcian blue-staining granules that form opercula (i.e., glue-like material that seals both cocoon ends), while Type III cells populate the dorsal midline and secrete azocarmine-staining granules that build the cocoon wall. Both cell types occupy spaces between deep muscle layers and extend long-neck tubules to the surface epithelium as they fill with granules a few days prior to egg laying. Other cell types appear to make minor contributions to the cocoon (e.g., Type I, Type IV) or have supporting or signaling roles (e.g., Type V). Our observations suggest that post-translational modification (i.e., glycosylation) of the same core protein(s) distinguishes the granules of Type II/III cells, and that the default state of the Type II/III precursor may be evolutionarily linked to secretory cells in basal polychaetes. PMID:18775546

Sayers, C W; Coleman, J; Shain, D H

2009-02-01

46

Abdominal Cocoon Syndrome is a Rare Cause of Mechanical Intestinal Obstructions: A Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Case series Patient: Male, 30 • Male, 47 Final Diagnosis: Abdominal cocoon syndrome Symptoms: Abdominal pain • nausea • vomiting Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Operation Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Abdominal cocoon syndrome is also known in the literature as sclerosing peritonitis or sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. It is characterized by total or partial encapsulation of abdominal viscera by a fibrous membrane. It has been reported mainly in adolescent women and the majority of the cases are of unknown etiology. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult and is usually established during laparotomy. We present 2 cases of acute mechanical intestinal obstruction caused by sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. Case Report: Two male patients, ages 30 and 47, were admitted to our emergency department for mechanical intestinal obstruction. They were treated surgically and were diagnosed with abdominal cocoon syndrome. Conclusions: If abdominal cocoon syndrome is diagnosed pre-operatively and acute abdomen symptoms are not observed, surgery is unnecessary. If surgery is inevitable, membrane resection and bridotomy must be performed, as in our 2 cases. If resection is going to be performed, primary anastomosis is not recommended. Iatrogenic injuries that happened during the operation should not be immediately repaired, because creation of the stoma from the proximal part of the injury is recommended. PMID:25671606

Solmaz, Ali; Tokoçin, Merve; Ar?c?, Sinan; Yi?itba?, Hakan; Yavuz, Erkan; Gülçiçek, Osman Bilgin; Erçetin, Canda?; Çelebi, Fatih

2015-01-01

47

Infant botulism  

MedlinePLUS

... and certain foods (such as honey and some corn syrups). Infant botulism occurs mostly in young infants ... by preventing exposure to spores. Since honey and corn syrup are sources of Clostridium spores, they should ...

48

Potential mode of protection of silkworm pupae from environmental stress by harboring the bacterial biofilm on the surfaces of silk cocoons.  

PubMed

The silkworm forms cocoon to protect its pupa that survives for months inside the cocoon without being affected by various environmental stresses. To understand the possible mode of pupal survival within the cocoon encasement, we investigate the cause that protects the cocoon. During the end of the spinning process, we have isolated different bacterial species from the cocoon surface. These are identified using molecular techniques and checked for their abilities to form biofilm in vitro. The bacteria are able to form biofilm either individually or in consortia. Of which, Bacillus and Erwinia species are prominent biofilm formers. Interestingly, these bacteria have the ability to form biofilm on the cocoon mimetic surface of the silk protein Sericin Hope that contains only sericin. The origin and the behavior of the bacteria lead us to hypothesize the possible role of biofilm layer on the cocoon surface, which provides protection from adverse environmental conditions. PMID:25292249

Halder, Pranab K; Naskar, Deboki; Kumar, Akash; Yao, Juming; Kundu, Subhas C; Ghosh, Anindya S

2015-02-01

49

Total parenteral nutrition - infants  

MedlinePLUS

IV fluids - infants; TPN - infants; Intravenous fluids - infants; Hyperalimentation - infants ... method of feeding that bypasses the gastrointestinal tract. Fluids are given into a vein. This provides most ...

50

Universal GRB jets from jet-cocoon interaction in massive stars  

E-print Network

We consider the time-dependent evolution of a relativistic jet following its breakout through the surface of a massive compact star, as envisaged in the collapsar model of gamma-ray bursts. At breakout, the jet is tightly collimated by the pressure of its hot cocoon, which is created as the jet traverses the star. After breakout, the cocoon pressure drops and the jet expands toward its natural opening angle. We show that the evolving opening angle of the jet produces a stratification of the total energy with the off-axis angle, resulting in a universal morphology. The angular structure is largely independent of the initial beam pattern and depends only on the luminosity of the central engine. With the minimal assumption of a constant energy release we reproduce the theta^{-2} profile required to explain observations of afterglows.

Davide Lazzati; Mitchell Begelman

2005-04-11

51

Multiple Abdominal Cocoons: An Unusual Presentation of Intestinal Obstruction and a Diagnostic Dilemma  

PubMed Central

Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) or abdominal cocoon is a rare acquired condition with an unknown aetiology. It is characterized by encapsulation of the small bowel by a fibrous membrane and can lead to intestinal obstruction. We present the case of a 42-year-old gentleman with a history of hepatitis C, tuberculosis, and previous abdominal surgery, who presented with subacute intestinal obstruction. Surgical exploration of the abdomen revealed that the entire contents were enclosed into three distinct sacs by a dense fibrous membrane. Excision of the sacs was performed followed by adhesiolysis. This is believed to be the first reported case of multiple cocoons within the abdominal cavity. The case is discussed with reference to the literature.

Sohail, Mohammad Zain; Dala-Ali, Benan; Ali, Shahanoor; Hashmi, M. A.

2015-01-01

52

Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis (Cocoon Bowel) Presenting after Laparotomy for Splenic Abscess  

PubMed Central

Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, previously referred to as cocoon bowel, is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction that often results in obstruction due to the development of a fibrous enhancing membrane that encases multiple small bowel loops. We present a case of a patient who presented to our institution with abdominal distension and guarding. Computed tomography was obtained which revealed findings concerning for sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. Sonographic imaging was also obtained and provides correlative imaging. PMID:24421919

Caldwell, Jason; Dyer, Andrew

2013-01-01

53

The Cocoon Nebula and its ionizing star: do stellar and nebular abundances agree?  

E-print Network

(Abridged) Main sequence massive stars embedded in an HII region should have the same chemical abundances as the surrounding nebular gas+dust. The Cocoon nebula, a close-by Galactic HII region ionized by a narrow line B0.5 V single star (BD+46 3474), is an ideal target to perform a detailed comparison of nebular and stellar abundances in the same Galactic HII region. We investigate the chemical content of O, N and S in the Cocoon nebula from two different points of view: an empirical analysis of the nebular spectrum and a detailed spectroscopic analysis of its ionizing B-type star using state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere modeling. By comparing the stellar and nebular abundances, we aim to indirectly address the long-standing problem of the discrepancy found between abundances obtained from collisionally excited lines (CELs) and optical recombination lines in photoionized nebulae. We collect spatially resolved spectroscopy of the Cocoon nebula and a high resolution optical spectrum of its ionizing star. Stand...

García-Rojas, J; Esteban, C

2014-01-01

54

Fabrication of silk sericin nanofibers from a silk sericin-hope cocoon with electrospinning method.  

PubMed

In this study, silk sericin nanofibers from sericin hope-silkworm, whose cocoons consist almost exclusively of sericin were successfully prepared by electrospinning method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of the fibers. The effect of spinning conditions, including the concentration of sericin cocoon solution, acceleration voltage, spinning distance and flow rate on the fiber morphologies and the size distribution of sericin nanofibers were examined. The structure and physical properties were also observed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The optimum conditions for producing finely thinner fibrous sericin nanofibers without beads were the concentration of sericin solution above 6-8 wt%, acceleration voltage ranging from 25 to 32 kV, spinning distance above 9 cm, and flow rate above 0.06 cm min(-1). The mean diameter of as spun sericin fibers varied from 114 to 430 nm at the different spinning conditions. In the as-spun fibers, silk sericin was present in a random coil conformation, while after methanol treatment, the molecular structure of silk sericin was transformed into a ?-sheet containing structure. Sericin hope nanofiber demonstrated thermal degradation at lower temperature than the sericin hope cocoon, which probably due to the randomly coiled rich structure of the sericin hope nanofiber. PMID:22198656

Zhang, Xianhua; Khan, Md Majibur Rahman; Yamamoto, Toshio; Tsukada, Masuhiro; Morikawa, Hideaki

2012-03-01

55

The Cocoon nebula and its ionizing star: do stellar and nebular abundances agree?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Main-sequence massive stars embedded in an H ii region should have the same chemical abundances as the surrounding nebular gas+dust. The Cocoon nebula (IC 5146), a close-by Galactic H ii region ionized by a narrow line B0.5 V single star (BD+46 3474), is an ideal target to compare nebular and stellar abundances in detail in the same Galactic region. Aims: We investigate the chemical content of oxygen and other elements in the Cocoon nebula from two different points of view: an empirical analysis of the nebular spectrum, and a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the associated early B-type star using state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere modeling. By comparing the stellar and nebular abundances, we aim to indirectly address the long-standing problem of the discrepancy found between abundances obtained from collisionally excited lines and optical recombination lines in photoionized nebulae. Methods: We collected long-slit spatially resolved spectroscopy of the Cocoon nebula and a high-resolution optical spectrum of the ionizing star. Standard nebular techniques along with updated atomic data were used to compute the physical conditions and gaseous abundances of O, N, and S in eight apertures extracted across a semidiameter of the nebula. We performed a self-consistent spectroscopic abundance analysis of BD+46 3474 based on the atmosphere code FASTWIND to determine the stellar parameters and Si, O, and N abundances. Results: The Cocoon nebula and its ionizing star, located at a distance of 800±80 pc, have a chemical composition very similar to the Orion nebula and other B-type stars in the solar vicinity. This result agrees with the high degree of homogeneity of the present-day composition of the solar neighborhood (up to 1.5 Kpc from the Sun) as derived from the study of the local cold-gas interstellar medium. The comparison of stellar and nebular collisionally excited line abundances in the Cocoon nebula indicates that O and N gas+dust nebular values agree better with stellar values assuming small temperature fluctuations on the order of those found in the Orion nebula (t2 = 0.022). For S, the behaviour is somewhat puzzling, and different conclusions can be reached depending on the atomic data set used. Based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated by the Isaac Newton Group and with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association. Both telescopes are at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

García-Rojas, J.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Esteban, C.

2014-11-01

56

CPR - infant  

MedlinePLUS

... small or loose parts, sharp edges, points, loose batteries, and other hazards. Create a safe environment. Watch ... infants and small children cannot reach buttons, watch batteries, popcorn, coins, grapes, or nuts. Sit with an ...

57

Infant Constipation  

MedlinePLUS

... First Aid for Families (PedFACTs) Infant CPR Anytime® (English/Spanish) Pediatric First Aid for Caregivers and Teachers (PedFACTs) Teaching Package Pediatric First Aid for Caregivers and Teachers ( ...

58

Infant Mortality  

MedlinePLUS

... What is CDC Doing? Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Teen Pregnancy Unintended Pregnancy Contraception Contraceptive Guidance for Providers Medical ... Services Training for Providers US MEC US SPR Teen Pregnancy Prevention Women's Reproductive Health Common Reproductive Health Concerns ...

59

Infant reflexes  

MedlinePLUS

... Moro reflex Sucking reflex (sucks when area around mouth is touched). Startle reflex (pulling arms and legs in after hearing loud noise). Step reflex (stepping motions when sole of foot touches hard surface). Other infant reflexes include: Tonic ...

60

Isolation and bioactivities of a non-sericin component from cocoon shell silk sericin of the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The cocoon shell of the silkworm Bombyx mori consists of silk fibroin fiber (70%) surrounded by a sericin layer made up of sericin (25%) and non-sericin (5%) components. The non-sericin component which consists of carbohydrate, salt, wax, flavonoids and derivatives is often overlooked in applied research into sericin and its hydrolysate. Here, sericin and non-sericin compounds were obtained from the sericin layer of five types of cocoon shell by means of degumming in water followed by extraction and separation in ethanol. These ethanol extracts were found to mainly contain flavonoids and free amino acids possessing scavenging activities of the 2,2-diphenyl -1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and inhibiting activities of tyrosinase, which were much greater than the corresponding activities of the purified sericin proteins. The extracts also strongly inhibited ?-glucosidase while the sericins had no such activity. In particular, the inhibitory activities of the ethanol extract of Daizo cocoons were much greater than those of the other cocoons. The IC(50) values of the Daizo cocoons for DPPH free radicals, tyrosinase, and ?-glucosidase were 170, 27, and 110 ?g mL(-1), respectively. The bioactivities of the non-sericin component were much higher than the activity of sericin alone. In addition, the in vivo test showed preliminarily that the administration of the non-sericin component had effectively resistant activity against streptozocin (STZ) oxidation and that of the purified sericin could also evidently decrease the induction ratio of diabetic mice induced by STZ. Therefore, ethanol extract protocols of the sericin layer of cocoon shells provide a novel stock which, together with sericin protein, has potential uses in functional food, biotechnological and medical applications. PMID:22101964

Wang, Hai-Yan; Wang, Yuan-Jing; Zhou, Li-Xia; Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2012-02-01

61

Infant Botulism (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... the Flu Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Infant Botulism KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Infant ... to babies under 12 months of age. About Infant Botulism Infant botulism can occur when a child ...

62

INFLUENCE OF SUBSTITUTION OF COCOON MEAL (BOMBYX MORI L.) FOR MEAT MEAL IN FORAGE MIXTURES ON JAPANESE QUAILS GROWTH ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????????? ???????? (BOMBYX MORI L.) ????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????????  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is carried out with two groups of japanese quails in order to check the possibility to substitute cocoon meal (B.mori L.) for meat meal as well as to evaluate a growth potential in these conditions. The forage mixture of control group contains 7% meat meal. The experimental forage mixture contains 7% cocoon meal and has equal nutritive value.

ATANAS GENCHEV GENCHEV

63

Some implications of inverse-Compton scattering of hot cocoon radiation by relativistic jets in gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) relativistic jets are surrounded by hot cocoons which confine jets during their punch out from the progenitor star. These cocoons are copious sources of X-ray photons that can be and are inverse-Compton (IC) scattered to MeV-GeV energies by electrons in the relativistic jet. We provide detailed estimates for IC flux resulting from various interactions between X-ray photons and the relativistic jet, and describe what we can learn about GRBs jets and progenitor stars from the detection (or an upper limit) of these IC scattered photons.

Kumar, Pawan; Smoot, George F.

2014-11-01

64

Diversity, host association, and cocoon variability of reared Indian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).  

PubMed

Nearly 3,500 specimens of microgastrine wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were reared during caterpillar surveys undertaken in 2010-2013 across India, covering 16 States and one Union Territory (Andaman & Nicobar islands), and deposited in the National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects, Bangalore, India. The caterpillar inventory recovered over two hundred morpho-species within 22 families of Lepidoptera and yielded 90+ morpho-species of microgastrine wasps distributed among 13 genera: Apanteles Förster, Buluka de Saeger, Cotesia Cameron, Diolcogaster Ashmead, Distatrix Mason, Dolichogenidea Viereck, Fornicia Brulle, Glyptapanteles Ashmead, Microgaster Latreille, Microplitis Förster, Neoclarkinella Rema & Narendran, Parapanteles Ashmead, and Protapanteles Ashmead. Records of hyperparasitoids are also included: Mokrzeckia menzeli Subba Rao (Pteromalidae), Pachyneuron groenlandicum (Holmgren) (Pteromalidae), Pediobius foveolatus (Crawford) (Eulophidae), Trichomalopsis thekkadiensis Sureshan & Narendran (Pteromalidae), Eurytoma sp., and Pediobius sp. (Eurytomidae). The present study adds eight new host records and provides illustrations of 40 species of wasps (including types). A comprehensive list of microgastrine genera, host caterpillar species, host plants, cocoon colour, structure and spinning pattern, and hyperparasitoids is provided. Numerous photographs of parasitized caterpillars, cocoons (number/arrangement), associated host plants, and adult wasps are also provided. The Indian species Deuterixys ruidus (Wilkinson, 1928) is transferred to the genus Cotesia based on the shape and sculpture of the first and second mediotergites: Cotesia ruidus (Wilkinson) comb. nov. Microgaster carinicollis Cameron is transferred to Microplitis, based on examination of first and second mediotergites, length of metatibia spurs, and size of metaxocoxa: Microplitis carinicollis (Cameron) stat. rev. PMID:24870869

Gupta, Ankita; Fernández-Triana, José L

2014-01-01

65

Combined effects of copper, desiccation, and frost on the viability of earthworm cocoons  

SciTech Connect

The effects of heavy metal pollution on earthworms have been extensively studied, but no studies have examined how earthworms react if they are simultaneously exposed to metal pollution and climatic stress. This question has been addressed in a laboratory study where cocoons of Aporrectodea caliginosa and Dendrobaena octaedra were initially exposed to copper in aqueous solutions of copper chloride and thereafter exposed to realistic degrees of either desiccation or frost. Earthworm embryos absorbed copper in amounts comparable to concentrations found in various tissues of earthworms from metal-polluted soils. Desiccation and copper exposure in combination had synergistic effects on survival rates for both species. For example, at full saturation, the NOEC (the highest tested concentration with no statistically significant effect) for copper of A. caliginosa was 12 mg/L, whereas at 97% relative humidity it was only 6 mg/L. Frost and copper exposure in combination also showed synergistic effects in some experiments. No cocoons of A. caliginosa exposed to 20 mg copper/L were viable after exposure to {minus}3 C but at 0 C viability was as high as 95%. The same tendency was seen in D. octaedra but not as clearly as in A/. caliginosa. A change of the environmental conditions (moisture, temperature) to increasing severity caused a shift in the statistically derived NOEC toward lower critical values of copper. The involvement of combination effects in ecotoxicological tests could therefore improve risk assessment of soil-polluting compounds.

Holmstrup, M. [National Environmental Research Inst., Silkeborg (Denmark). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology; Petersen, B.F. [National Environmental Research Inst., Silkeborg (Denmark). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology]|[Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark); Larsen, M.M. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Marine Ecology and Microbiology

1998-01-01

66

Infant formula.  

PubMed

Although the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend breast milk for optimal infant nutrition, many parents still choose formula as an acceptable alternative. The wide variety of available formulas is confusing to parents and physicians, but formulas can be classified according to three basic criteria: caloric density, carbohydrate source, and protein composition. Most infants require a term formula with iron. There is insufficient evidence to recommend supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid or arachidonic acid. Soy formulas are indicated for congenital lactase deficiency and galactosemia, but are not recommended for colic because of insufficient evidence of benefit. Hypoallergenic formulas with extensively hydrolyzed protein are effective for the treatment of milk protein allergy and the prevention of atopic disease in high-risk infants. Antireflux formulas decrease emesis and regurgitation, but have not been shown to affect growth or development. Most infants with reflux require no treatment. Family physicians can use these guidelines to counsel parents about infant formula, countering consumer advertising that is not evidence-based. PMID:19378873

O'Connor, Nina R

2009-04-01

67

Identification of the TeV Gamma-Ray Source ARGO J2031+4157 with the Cygnus Cocoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extended TeV gamma-ray source ARGO J2031+4157 (or MGRO J2031+41) is positionally consistent with the Cygnus Cocoon discovered by Fermi-LAT at GeV energies in the Cygnus superbubble. Reanalyzing the ARGO-YBJ data collected from 2007 November to 2013 January, the angular extension and energy spectrum of ARGO J2031+4157 are evaluated. After subtracting the contribution of the overlapping TeV sources, the ARGO-YBJ excess map is fitted with a two-dimensional Gaussian function in a square region of 10° × 10°, finding a source extension ?ext= 1.°8 ± 0.°5. The observed differential energy spectrum is dN/dE = (2.5 ± 0.4) × 10-11(E/1 TeV)-2.6 ± 0.3 photons cm-2 s-1 TeV-1, in the energy range 0.2-10 TeV. The angular extension is consistent with that of the Cygnus Cocoon as measured by Fermi-LAT and the spectrum also shows a good connection with the one measured in the 1-100 GeV energy range. These features suggest to identify ARGO J2031+4157 as the counterpart of the Cygnus Cocoon at TeV energies. The Cygnus Cocoon, located in the star-forming region of Cygnus X, is interpreted as a cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays related to the Cygnus superbubble. The spectral similarity with supernova remnants (SNRs) indicates that the particle acceleration inside a superbubble is similar to that in an SNR. The spectral measurements from 1 GeV to 10 TeV allows for the first time to determine the possible spectrum slope of the underlying particle distribution. A hadronic model is adopted to explain the spectral energy distribution.

Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Camarri, P.; Cao, Z.; Cardarelli, R.; Catalanotti, S.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Amone, A.; Danzengluobu; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Liguori, G.; Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Panareo, M.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Ruggieri, F.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; Zizzi, G.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

2014-08-01

68

Luminescence properties of silk cocoon derived carbonaceous fluorescent nanoparticles/PVA hybrid film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonaceous fluorescent nanoparticles (CFNs) with broad particle distribution were synthesized by thermal-treatment using carbonation of silk cocoon as raw materials. The experimental results showed tunable emission wavelength of the nanoparticles. The quantum yield of the CFNs was calculated to be 23%. A CFNs/PVA hybrid thin film was prepared from a blend of the CFNs with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) showing interesting green afterglow which could be observed by naked eyes. The afterglow spectrum revealed that the CFNs/PVA thin film had a broad afterglow emission peak located at 520 nm. The afterglow intensity decay curve of the film showed visually recognizable period longer than 140 s. The PVA-PVA hydrogen bonding in the PVA matrix may play a key role for the afterglow.

Feng, Haobin; Zheng, Mingtao; Dong, Hanwu; Lei, Bingfu; Zhang, Haoran; Xiao, Yong; Liu, Yingliang

2014-09-01

69

A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by Fermi in the Cygnus superbubble.  

PubMed

The origin of Galactic cosmic rays is a century-long puzzle. Indirect evidence points to their acceleration by supernova shockwaves, but we know little of their escape from the shock and their evolution through the turbulent medium surrounding massive stars. Gamma rays can probe their spreading through the ambient gas and radiation fields. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed the star-forming region of Cygnus X. The 1- to 100-gigaelectronvolt images reveal a 50-parsec-wide cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays that flood the cavities carved by the stellar winds and ionization fronts from young stellar clusters. It provides an example to study the youth of cosmic rays in a superbubble environment before they merge into the older Galactic population. PMID:22116880

Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Belfiore, A; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bottacini, E; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; do Couto E Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dumora, D; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hayashi, K; Hays, E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lee, S-H; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Martin, P; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Naumann-Godo, M; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pesce-Rollins, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Pohl, M; Prokhorov, D; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Parkinson, P M Saz; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, P D; Spinelli, P; Strong, A W; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S; Bontemps, S

2011-11-25

70

Hierarchical, multilayered cell walls reinforced by recycled silk cocoons enhance the structural integrity of honeybee combs.  

PubMed

We reveal the sophisticated and hierarchical structure of honeybee combs and measure the elastic properties of fresh and old natural honeycombs at different scales by optical microscope, environmental scanning electron microscope, nano/microindentation, and by tension and shear tests. We demonstrate that the comb walls are continuously strengthened and stiffened without becoming fragile by the addition of thin wax layers reinforced by recycled silk cocoons reminiscent of modern fiber-reinforced composite laminates. This is done to increase its margin of safety against collapse due to a temperature increase. Artificial engineering honeycombs mimic only the macroscopic geometry of natural honeycombs, but have yet to achieve the microstructural sophistication of their natural counterparts. The natural honeycombs serve as a prototype of truly biomimetic cellular materials with hitherto unattainable improvement in stiffness, strength, toughness, and thermal stability. PMID:20439765

Zhang, Kai; Duan, Huiling; Karihaloo, Bhushan L; Wang, Jianxiang

2010-05-25

71

Hierarchical, multilayered cell walls reinforced by recycled silk cocoons enhance the structural integrity of honeybee combs  

PubMed Central

We reveal the sophisticated and hierarchical structure of honeybee combs and measure the elastic properties of fresh and old natural honeycombs at different scales by optical microscope, environmental scanning electron microscope, nano/microindentation, and by tension and shear tests. We demonstrate that the comb walls are continuously strengthened and stiffened without becoming fragile by the addition of thin wax layers reinforced by recycled silk cocoons reminiscent of modern fiber-reinforced composite laminates. This is done to increase its margin of safety against collapse due to a temperature increase. Artificial engineering honeycombs mimic only the macroscopic geometry of natural honeycombs, but have yet to achieve the microstructural sophistication of their natural counterparts. The natural honeycombs serve as a prototype of truly biomimetic cellular materials with hitherto unattainable improvement in stiffness, strength, toughness, and thermal stability. PMID:20439765

Zhang, Kai; Duan, Huiling; Karihaloo, Bhushan L.; Wang, Jianxiang

2010-01-01

72

Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

... the throat. It can lead to breathing problems, paralysis, heart failure, and death.PERTUSSIS (Whooping Cough) causes severe coughing spells, which can cause difficulty breathing, vomiting and disturbed sleep. It can also lead to weight loss, incontinence, ...

73

Osteopenia - premature infants  

MedlinePLUS

Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... that the baby's bones will grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of calcium ...

74

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant younger than one year old. Some people call ... boys, African Americans, and American Indian/Alaska Native infants have a higher risk of SIDS. Although health ...

75

Production of ring-like structure in the cocoon of Hercules A  

E-print Network

The radio lobes of the radio galaxy Hercules A contain intriguing ring-like structures concentric with the jet axis. To investigate the occurrence of such features, we have used hydrodynamic simulations of jets with a range of Mach numbers (from M=2 to 50) and densities (down to a ratio of 1E-4 relative to the background) to generate ray-traced images simulating synchrotron emission from the time-dependent shock structures. We compare these images with observations of Hercules A, and consider the physical nature and temporal evolution of the most plausible configurations. We find that the observed ring-like structures are well explained as nearly annular shocks propagating in the backflow surrounding the jet. We infer that the jet is oriented at between 30 and 70 degrees to the line of sight, consistent with radio depolarisation observations of Gizani & Leahy. The observational lack of hot-spots at the extremities of the radio lobes, and the possible presence of a buried hot-spot near the base of the western lobe, are explained in terms of the intrinsic brightness fluctuations and dynamics of the terminal shock of an ultra-light, low Mach number jet that surges along its axis due to intermittent pinching and obstruction by turbulent backflow in the cocoon. We conclude from the appearance of both sides of the Hercules A, that both jets are on the borderline of becoming fully turbulent.

Curtis J. Saxton; Geoffrey V. Bicknell; Ralph S. Sutherland

2002-06-28

76

Father-Infant Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares the face-to-face interaction of infants with fathers to their interaction with mothers and with strangers. Five infants were videotaped in individual interaction with their mothers, fathers, and unfamiliar adults at weekly intervals from the second week until the infants were 6 months old. Infants were seated in a laboratory…

Yogman, Michael W.; And Others

77

Cocoon-in-web-like superhydrophobic aerogels from hydrophilic polyurea and use in environmental remediation.  

PubMed

Polyurea (PUA) develops H-bonding with water and is inherently hydrophilic. The water contact angle on smooth dense PUA derived from an aliphatic triisocyanate and water was measured at ?=69.1±0.2°. Nevertheless, texture-related superhydrophobic PUA aerogels (?'=150.2°) were prepared from the same monomer in one step with no additives, templates, or surfactants via sol-gel polymerization carried out in polar, weakly H-bonding acetonitrile. Those materials display a unique nanostructure consisting of micrometer-size spheres distributed randomly and trapped in a nanofiber web of the same polymer. Morphostructurally, as well as in terms of their hydrophobic properties, those PUA aerogels are analogous to well-studied electrospun fiber mats incorporating particle-like defects. PUA aerogels have the advantage of easily scalable synthesis and low cost of the raw materials. Despite large contact angles and small contact areas, water droplets (5 ?L) stick to the aerogels surface when the substrate is turned upside-down. That so-called Petal effect is traced to H-bonding at the points of contact between the water droplet and the apexes of the roughness of the aerogel surface. Monoliths are flexible and display oleophilicity in inverse order to their hydrophobicity; oil fills all the available open porosity (94% v/v) of cocoon-in-web like aerogels with bulk density ?b=0.073 g cm(-3); that capacity for oil absorption is >10:1 w/w and translates into ?6:1 w/v relative to state-of-the-art materials (e.g., graphene-derived aerogels). Oil soaked monoliths float on water and can be harvested off. PMID:24758407

Leventis, Nicholas; Chidambareswarapattar, Chakkaravarthy; Bang, Abhishek; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia

2014-05-14

78

Percutaneously inserted central catheter - infants  

MedlinePLUS

PICC - infants; PQC - infants; Pic line - infants; Per-Q cath - infants ... A percutaneously inserted central catheter (PICC) is a long, very thin, soft plastic tube that is put into a small blood vessel. This article addresses PICCs in ...

79

Infant Mortality and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.3 times the infant mortality rate as non- ... Hispanic White mothers in 2005. At a glance – Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 ...

80

Infant CPR Video Demonstration  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Infant CPR Video Demonstration Video demonstration of CPR instruction for infants. RETURN TO MAIN PAGE These Videos Are For Educational Use Only And Are Not Authorized for Commercial Use. © 1998 - 2011 ...

81

Infant and Newborn Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and ...

82

Cow's milk - infants  

MedlinePLUS

... your baby only breast milk or iron-fortified formula during the first 12 months of life, not ... baby's diet. If breastfeeding is not possible, infant formulas provide a healthy diet for your infant Whether ...

83

INFANT BEHAVIOR AND DEVELOPMENT 19,83-92 (1996) Infant Preferences for Infant-Directed Versus  

E-print Network

INFANT BEHAVIOR AND DEVELOPMENT 19,83-92 (1996) Infant Preferences for Infant-Directed Versus raters were very accurate at distinguishing infant-directed from infant-absent versions, and the former classified as either playsongs or lullabies. The infant- directed playsongs were rated as relatively mote

Trainor, Laurel J.

84

Identification of the TeV Gamma-ray Source ARGO J2031+4157 with the Cygnus Cocoon  

E-print Network

The extended TeV gamma-ray source ARGO J2031+4157 (or MGRO J2031+41) is positionally consistent with the Cygnus Cocoon discovered by $Fermi$-LAT at GeV energies in the Cygnus superbubble. Reanalyzing the ARGO-YBJ data collected from November 2007 to January 2013, the angular extension and energy spectrum of ARGO J2031+4157 are evaluated. After subtracting the contribution of the overlapping TeV sources, the ARGO-YBJ excess map is fitted with a two-dimensional Gaussian function in a square region of $10^{\\circ}\\times 10^{\\circ}$, finding a source extension $\\sigma_{ext}$= 1$^{\\circ}$.8$\\pm$0$^{\\circ}$.5. The observed differential energy spectrum is $dN/dE =(2.5\\pm0.4) \\times 10^{-11}(E/1 TeV)^{-2.6\\pm0.3}$ photons cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ TeV$^{-1}$, in the energy range 0.2-10 TeV. The angular extension is consistent with that of the Cygnus Cocoon as measured by $Fermi$-LAT, and the spectrum also shows a good connection with the one measured in the 1-100 GeV energy range. These features suggest to identify ARGO J203...

:,; Bernardini, P; Bi, X J; Branchini, P; Budano, A; Camarri, P; Cao, Z; Cardarelli, R; Catalanotti, S; Chen, S Z; Chen, T L; Creti, P; Cui, S W; Dai, B Z; DAmone, A; Danzengluobu,; De Mitri, I; Piazzoli, B DEttorre; Di Girolamo, T; Di Sciascio, G; Feng, C F; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gou, Q B; Guo, Y Q; He, H H; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M; Iuppa, R; Jia, H Y; Labaciren,; Li, H J; Liguori, G; Liu, C; Liu, J; Liu, M Y; Lu, H; Ma, L L; Ma, X H; Mancarella, G; Mari, S M; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Mastroianni, S; Montini, P; Ning, C C; Panareo, M; Perrone, L; Pistilli, P; Ruggieri, F; Salvini, P; Santonico, R; Shen, P R; Sheng, X D; Shi, F; Surdo, A; Tan, Y H; Vallania, P; Vernetto, S; Vigorito, C; Wang, H; Wu, C Y; Wu, H R; Xue, L; Yang, Q Y; Yang, X C; Yao, Z G; Yuan, A F; Zha, M; Zhang, H M; Zhang, L; Zhang, P; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhao, J; Zhaxiciren,; Zhaxisangzhu,; Zhou, X X; Zhu, F R; Zhu, Q Q; Zizzi, G

2014-01-01

85

Suzaku Observation of the Fermi Cygnus Cocoon: Search for a Signature of Young Cosmic-Ray Electrons  

E-print Network

The origin of Galactic cosmic rays remains unconfirmed, but promising candidates for their sources are found in star-forming regions. We report a series of X-ray observations, with Suzaku, toward the nearby star-forming region of Cygnus X. They aim at comparing diffuse X-ray emissions on and off the $\\gamma$-ray cocoon of hard cosmic rays revealed by Fermi LAT. After excluding point sources and small-scale structures and subtracting the non-X-ray and cosmic X-ray backgrounds, the 2--10~keV X-ray intensity distribution is found to monotonically decrease with increasing Galactic latitude. This indicates that most of the extended emission detected by Suzaku originates from the Galactic ridge. In two observations, we derive upper limits of $3.4 \\times 10^{-8}~{\\rm erg~s^{-1}~cm^{-2}~sr^{-1}}$ and $1.3 \\times 10^{-8}~{\\rm erg~s^{-1}~cm^{-2}~sr^{-1}}$ to X-ray emission in the 2--10 keV range from the gamma-ray cocoon. These limits exclude the presence of cosmic-ray electrons with energies above about 50 TeV at a fl...

Mizuno, T; Takahashi, H; Hayashi, K; Yamazaki, R; Grenier, I; Tibaldo, L

2015-01-01

86

Infant feeding and HIV.  

PubMed

Mother-to-child HIV transmission is the main cause of HIV infection in children. About two thirds of children infected vertically are infected during pregnancy and around the time of delivery, while the remainder are infected during breast-feeding. Although breast-feeding tends to be the best way to feed infants, substituting breast-feeding can reduce the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission when mothers are HIV-seropositive. However, when breast milk substitutes are used, infants are 5 times more likely to have bacterial infections than are breast-fed infants, even in the context of good hygiene. Where hygiene is poor, artificially fed infants may be 20 times more likely to die from diarrhea than are breast-fed infants. HIV-positive women need information on the risks and benefits of breast-feeding and of the various alternatives, and support in deciding which method is best. Infant feeding options are discussed. PMID:12294837

1998-01-01

87

Heart-respiratory monitor - infants  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiorespiratory monitor - infants; Apnea monitor - infants; Heart rate monitor - infants ... A heart–respiratory monitor can measure a baby's or child's: Breathing rate Heart beat Oxygen level Caregivers can use ...

88

78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers and components thereof. The complaint names as respondent Atom Medical International, Inc. of Japan. The complainant requests that the Commission issue a limited exclusion order,...

2013-09-06

89

[Infant mortality in Peru].  

PubMed

Bolivia, Haiti, and Peru have infant mortality levels as high as those of the developed countries a century ago. The decline of general and especially infant mortality experienced in Latin America beginning in the 1940s was uneven throughout the continent. Cuba's infant mortality rate declined by 86% between 1940-80, but Peru's declined by only 48% despite its higher initial level. In 1984, 34% of all deaths in Peru were to children under 1 year and about 21% were to children 1-5 years old. Socioeconomic factors are the major explanation of Peru's poor infant mortality levels. Regional and social disparities in access to housing, food, urban infrastructure, and other vital goods and services are reflected in infant mortality statistics. Infant mortality has declined in both rural and urban areas, but the magnitude of the decline was much greater in urban areas. Between 1960-75, the infant mortality rate declined from 133 to 80/1000 live births in urban areas, but only from 180 to 150/1000 in rural areas. Investment in the infrastructure and services of the cities during the 1950s and 60s was not matched by any significant investment in rural infrastructure. Rural-urban mortality differentials are not as profound in countries which distribute public investment more evenly between rural and urban areas. Cuba's rural infant mortality rate is only 16% greater than its urban rate, while Peru's rural rate is 47% higher. The rural-urban differential in Peru hides a steep gap between the metropolitan zone of Lima-Callao, which has an infant mortality rate of 55/1000, and that of all cities, which have a rate 45% higher. Metropolitan Lima has the highest levels of living in Peru, including the highest incomes and best housing and service infrastructure. A majority of Peru's economic and industrial development has been concentrated in Lima. Peru's infant mortality differentials are also striking at the departmental level. The 5 departments with the highest infant mortality rats are all located in the southern sierra. The departments with higher infant mortality rates than the national average also have the least coverage of potable water and sewage systems in their housing. Between 1965-75, the infant mortality differential by maternal educational level actually increased, as children of more educated mothers made greater improvements. In 1975, the infant mortality rate was 158/1000 live births for children of illiterate mothers, 73 for children of mothers with 4-6 years of schooling, and 44 for those with 7 or more years. A regression analysis demonstrated that illiteracy of the mother was most highly correlated with the infant mortality rate, followed closely by rural residence. PMID:3603217

Ramos Padilla, M A

1987-01-01

90

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

91

Infant - newborn development  

MedlinePLUS

... around in the kitchen while adults or older siblings are cooking. Block the kitchen off with a gate or place the infant in a playpen, highchair, or crib while others cook. Do not drink or carry anything hot while holding the infant to avoid ...

92

Weaning of infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WHO 2001 global recommendation is a one size fits all approach to weaning, an approach which may not take sufficient account of the special needs of some infants and fails to allow for the different problems encountered in the industrialised nations compared with economically developing countries. For the healthy normal birth weight full term infant born in an industrialised

K D Foote; L D Marriott

2003-01-01

93

Cerebral Asymmetry in Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes two experiments conducted to replicate the reported findings (Entus, 1975) that infants demonstrate a right ear advantage in the perception of dichotically presented syllables. Using the non-nutritive sucking paradigm, 48 infants 1-3 months of age were presented with verbal stimuli contingent upon criterion level sucking.…

Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Corballis, Michael C.

94

Islam and infant feeding.  

PubMed

Few physicians in the United States receive formal education related to principles of infant care in Islamic families. Breastfeeding has a religious basis in Islam and it is recommended that the mother suckle her offspring for 2 years if possible. Weaning from the breast before that period is allowed if mutually decided on by both parents. The infant's father has an obligation to support his wife through any circumstances that may affect breastfeeding and, in case of divorce, provide shelter and financial support to the mother-infant dyad for as long as breastfeeding continues. By showing understanding and respect of Islamic beliefs related to infant feeding, clinicians can help support healthy early feeding of Muslim infants. PMID:17661593

Shaikh, Ulfat; Ahmed, Omar

2006-01-01

95

Crying in infants  

PubMed Central

Up to around a quarter of all infants cry excessively and unsoothably during their first months of life. This phenomenon has been termed “infant colic.” In most cases, physicians are unable to determine the cause of the colicky behavior. In a recent study, and by means of comprehensive and deep analyses of more than 1000 intestinal phylotypes, we found that infants with colic showed lower microbiota diversity and stability than control infants in the first weeks of life. Colic-control differences in the abundance of certain bacteria were also found at 2 weeks. These microbial signatures possibly explain the colic phenotype. In this addendum we discuss other recent publications on the subject and present previously unpublished analyses of our own. We address possible mechanisms behind the links between microbiota and crying, and present future directions that could further help elucidate the hypothesized relations between intestinal microbiota and infant colic. PMID:23941920

de Weerth, Carolina; Fuentes, Susana; de Vos, Willem M

2013-01-01

96

Infants and Peanut Exposure  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... right-hand corner of the player. Infants and Peanut Exposure HealthDay February 24, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages ... Food Allergy Transcript Does delaying the introduction of peanuts to children's diets help prevent peanut allergy later ...

97

Diarrhea in infants  

MedlinePLUS

When your infant has diarrhea; When your baby has diarrhea; BRAT diet; Diarrhea in children ... Children who have diarrhea may have less energy, dry eyes, or a dry, sticky mouth. They may also not wet their diaper as ...

98

Infant Mortality by  

E-print Network

All material appearing in thii report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copled wlthout pemdssh; cltatiori as to sourc-3, however, is appreciated. Prager K. Infant mortalky by birthweight and other characteristics: United

Birth Control I Kate Prager

99

Parenting Your Infant  

MedlinePLUS

... becoming interested in everything within reach, especially simple toys with bright colors and ones that make noise. ... Make sure that you never give infants a toy so small that it fits entirely in their ...

100

Milk Allergy in Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... switch to a hydrolyzed formula. Back Continue Unsafe Formulas "Partially hydrolyzed" formulas also are on the market, ... safe and are not recommended for infants. Switching Formulas Once you switch your baby to another formula, ...

101

Fatal Attraction: Interest in Infants and Infant Abuse in Rhesus Macaques  

E-print Network

Fatal Attraction: Interest in Infants and Infant Abuse in Rhesus Macaques DARIO MAESTRIPIERI maternal behavior; infant handling; infant maltreatment; competition; primates ABSTRACT This study investigated whether infant abuse by female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) is a phenomenon specific

Maestripieri, Dario

102

Probing the Physics of Narrow Line Regions in Active Galaxies III: Accretion and Cocoon Shocks in the LINER NGC1052  

E-print Network

We present Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS) integral field spectroscopy and HST FOS spectroscopy for the LINER galaxy NGC 1052. We infer the presence of a turbulent accretion flow forming a small-scale accretion disk. We find a large-scale outflow and ionisation cone along the minor axis of the galaxy. Part of this outflow region is photoionised by the AGN, and shares properties with the ENLR of Seyfert galaxies, but the inner ($R \\lesssim 1.0$~arcsec) accretion disk and the region around the radio jet appear shock excited. The emission line properties can be modelled by a "double shock" model in which the accretion flow first passes through an accretion shock in the presence of a hard X-ray radiation, and the accretion disk is then processed through a cocoon shock driven by the overpressure of the radio jets. This model explains the observation of two distinct densities ($\\sim10^4$ and $\\sim10^6$ cm$^{-3}$), and provides a good fit to the observed emission line spectrum. We derive estimates for the velocities...

Dopita, Michael A; Dressell, Linda L; Sutherland, Ralph; Kewley, Lisa; Davies, Rebecca; Hampton, Elise; Shastri, Prajval; Kharb, Preeti; Jose, Jessy; Bhatt, Harish; Ramya, S; Scharwächter, Julia; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; James, Bethan; Juneau, Stéphanie; Srivastava, Shweta

2015-01-01

103

Catheter closure of atrial septal defects using the Cocoon septal occluder: preliminary results of a European multicenter study.  

PubMed

Despite its simplicity, device closure of atrial septal defects is still associated with rare but potentially lethal complications. In this prospective non-randomized multicenter study we investigated the safety and efficacy of the Cocoon septal occluder (CSO) for closure of atrial septal defects (ASDs) in 92 patients. Median age of the patients was 10.5 years (range 3-61 years) and median weight was 25 kg (range 13-65 kg). The device is an improved new generation double disc design made of Nitinol wire mesh that is coated with platinum using NanoFusion technology. The discs are connected by a waist with diameter ranging from 6mm to 40 mm with 2mm increments. All patients completed a 3-month follow-up. Mean ASD diameter was 21 ± 7 mm (range 10-35 mm), while the mean device diameter was 24 ± 8 mm (range 14-40 mm). The CSO was permanently implanted in all 92 patients. Complete echocardiographic closure of the defect immediately after the procedure or at the one month follow-up, was observed in all 92 patients (100%). No device-related complications were observed during the procedure or at short-term follow-up (range 3-12 months). Our preliminary results indicate that CSO is a promising device for transcatheter closure of ASDs. Further studies are required to document its efficacy, safety and long-term results in a larger patient population. PMID:25305675

Thanopoulos, Basil D; Biasco, Luigi; Dardas, Petros; De Backer, Ole; Avraamides, Panayiotis; Deleanou, Dan; Ninios, Vlassis; Mavrommatis, Petros P; Soendergaard, Lars

2014-12-15

104

Subdural hematoma in term infants.  

PubMed

Subdural hematomas are uncommon in term infants. The study objectives were to evaluate risk factors for and clinical significance of small subdural hematomas observed on computerized tomography. During a 3-year period, 26 near-term and term nonasphyxiated infants were found to have a subdural hematoma on computed tomography. Clinical indications for computed tomography were respiratory symptoms in 15 infants and neurologic symptoms in 10 infants; one infant had a skull fracture. Subdural hematomas were less than 3-mm maximum transverse dimensions in all infants: location was infratentorial (n = 7), supratentorial (n = 7), and in both sites (n = 12). Four infants also had evidence of edema and hemorrhage within the anterior temporal lobe. Delivery was vaginal in 25 of 26 infants, and forceps were used in 13 (50%) infants. Twenty-five infants were managed expectantly; one infant underwent surgical elevation of a depressed skull fracture. No infant required surgical evacuation of the subdural hematoma. At discharge, nine infants with subdural hematoma exhibited an abnormal examination, i.e., mild hypotonia (n = 7) and Erb's palsy (n = 2). The clinical syndrome attributed to subdural hematoma was most often a subtle clinical problem. The presence of subdural hematoma documented by computed tomography is not necessarily always indicative of birth trauma and may occur as sequelae of an otherwise uncomplicated delivery. PMID:11992759

Chamnanvanakij, Sangkae; Rollins, Nancy; Perlman, Jeffrey M

2002-04-01

105

Pareidolia in Infants  

PubMed Central

Faces convey primal information for our social life. This information is so primal that we sometimes find faces in non-face objects. Such illusory perception is called pareidolia. In this study, using infants’ orientation behavior toward a sound source, we demonstrated that infants also perceive pareidolic faces. An image formed by four blobs and an outline was shown to infants with or without pure tones, and the time they spent looking at each blob was compared. Since the mouth is the unique sound source in a face and the literature has shown that infants older than 6 months already have sound-mouth association, increased looking time towards the bottom blob (pareidolic mouth area) during sound presentation indicated that they illusorily perceive a face in the image. Infants aged 10 and 12 months looked longer at the bottom blob under the upright-image condition, whereas no differences in looking time were observed for any blob under the inverted-image condition. However, 8-month-olds did not show any difference in looking time under both the upright and inverted conditions, suggesting that the perception of pareidolic faces, through sound association, comes to develop at around 8 to 10 months after birth. PMID:25689630

Kato, Masaharu; Mugitani, Ryoko

2015-01-01

106

Pareidolia in infants.  

PubMed

Faces convey primal information for our social life. This information is so primal that we sometimes find faces in non-face objects. Such illusory perception is called pareidolia. In this study, using infants' orientation behavior toward a sound source, we demonstrated that infants also perceive pareidolic faces. An image formed by four blobs and an outline was shown to infants with or without pure tones, and the time they spent looking at each blob was compared. Since the mouth is the unique sound source in a face and the literature has shown that infants older than 6 months already have sound-mouth association, increased looking time towards the bottom blob (pareidolic mouth area) during sound presentation indicated that they illusorily perceive a face in the image. Infants aged 10 and 12 months looked longer at the bottom blob under the upright-image condition, whereas no differences in looking time were observed for any blob under the inverted-image condition. However, 8-month-olds did not show any difference in looking time under both the upright and inverted conditions, suggesting that the perception of pareidolic faces, through sound association, comes to develop at around 8 to 10 months after birth. PMID:25689630

Kato, Masaharu; Mugitani, Ryoko

2015-01-01

107

Infant-Directed Speech Is Modulated by Infant Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When mothers engage in infant-directed (ID) speech, their voices change in a number of characteristic ways, including adopting a higher overall pitch. Studies have examined these acoustical cues and have tested infants' preferences for ID speech. However, little is known about how these cues change with maternal sensitivity to infant feedback in…

Smith, Nicholas A.; Trainor, Laurel J.

2008-01-01

108

Wheezing and Asthma in Infants  

MedlinePLUS

Wheezing and Asthma in Infants KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Asthma > Wheezing and Asthma in Infants Print A A A Text Size ... of asthma.) My Baby Is Wheezing. Is It Asthma? If your baby has a cold and is ...

109

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)  

MedlinePLUS

... Trials Resources and Publications En Español Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): Condition Information Skip sharing on social ... Share this: Page Content SIDS is the sudden death of an infant younger than 1 year of ...

110

Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)  

MedlinePLUS

... for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides Federal grants to States for supplemental foods, health care referrals, and nutrition education for low-income pregnant, breastfeeding, and non-breastfeeding postpartum women, and to infants ...

111

Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis) Vaccine and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... Canada, and many other countries. Pertussis (also called whooping cough) is a bacterial illness that usually begins with symptoms like those of the common cold. Severe coughing can develop over ... whooping sound when breathing in. Pertussis is most serious ...

112

Diminished Reactivity of Postmature Human Infants to Sucrose Compared with Term Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of healthy 39-week-old infants, so-called term infants, and chronically stressed 42-week-old infants, so-called postmature infants, showed that sucrose was extremely effective in calming term infants but less effective in calming postmature infants. Results supported the hypothesis that sucrose engages an opioid system in infants. (BG)

Smith, Barbara A.; And Others

1992-01-01

113

Skin Equivalent Tissue-Engineered Construct: Co-Cultured Fibroblasts/ Keratinocytes on 3D Matrices of Sericin Hope Cocoons  

PubMed Central

The development of effective and alternative tissue-engineered skin replacements to autografts, allografts and xenografts has became a clinical requirement due to the problems related to source of donor tissue and the perceived risk of disease transmission. In the present study 3D tissue engineered construct of sericin is developed using co-culture of keratinocytes on the upper surface of the fabricated matrices and with fibroblasts on lower surface. Sericin is obtained from “Sericin Hope” silkworm of Bombyx mori mutant and is extracted from cocoons by autoclave. Porous sericin matrices are prepared by freeze dried method using genipin as crosslinker. The matrices are characterized biochemically and biophysically. The cell proliferation and viability of co-cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes on matrices for at least 28 days are observed by live/dead assay, Alamar blue assay, and by dual fluorescent staining. The growth of the fibroblasts and keratinocytes in co-culture is correlated with the expression level of TGF-?, b-FGF and IL-8 in the cultured supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The histological analysis further demonstrates a multi-layered stratified epidermal layer of uninhibited keratinocytes in co-cultured constructs. Presence of involucrin, collagen IV and the fibroblast surface protein in immuno-histochemical stained sections of co-cultured matrices indicates the significance of paracrine signaling between keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the expression of extracellular matrix protein for dermal repair. No significant amount of pro inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1? and nitric oxide) production are evidenced when macrophages grown on the sericin matrices. The results all together depict the potentiality of sericin 3D matrices as skin equivalent tissue engineered construct in wound repair. PMID:24058626

Nayak, Sunita; Dey, Sancharika; Kundu, Subhas C.

2013-01-01

114

Skin equivalent tissue-engineered construct: co-cultured fibroblasts/ keratinocytes on 3D matrices of sericin hope cocoons.  

PubMed

The development of effective and alternative tissue-engineered skin replacements to autografts, allografts and xenografts has became a clinical requirement due to the problems related to source of donor tissue and the perceived risk of disease transmission. In the present study 3D tissue engineered construct of sericin is developed using co-culture of keratinocytes on the upper surface of the fabricated matrices and with fibroblasts on lower surface. Sericin is obtained from "Sericin Hope" silkworm of Bombyx mori mutant and is extracted from cocoons by autoclave. Porous sericin matrices are prepared by freeze dried method using genipin as crosslinker. The matrices are characterized biochemically and biophysically. The cell proliferation and viability of co-cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes on matrices for at least 28 days are observed by live/dead assay, Alamar blue assay, and by dual fluorescent staining. The growth of the fibroblasts and keratinocytes in co-culture is correlated with the expression level of TGF-?, b-FGF and IL-8 in the cultured supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The histological analysis further demonstrates a multi-layered stratified epidermal layer of uninhibited keratinocytes in co-cultured constructs. Presence of involucrin, collagen IV and the fibroblast surface protein in immuno-histochemical stained sections of co-cultured matrices indicates the significance of paracrine signaling between keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the expression of extracellular matrix protein for dermal repair. No significant amount of pro inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1? and nitric oxide) production are evidenced when macrophages grown on the sericin matrices. The results all together depict the potentiality of sericin 3D matrices as skin equivalent tissue engineered construct in wound repair. PMID:24058626

Nayak, Sunita; Dey, Sancharika; Kundu, Subhas C

2013-01-01

115

Innovations: Infant and Toddler Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides teachers of infants and toddlers with an in-depth guide to infant and toddler development, theories of growth and development, and best practices in early childhood education. The chapters are: (1) "Innovations: Infant and Toddler Development," looking at the underlying principles of developmental and interactional theory, and…

Albrecht, Kay; Miller, Linda G.

116

GLUCOSE EXTREMES IN NEWBORN INFANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most healthy term infants adapt rapidly to the metabolic demands of extrauterine life by activating their glycogenolytic and gluconeogenic pathways within a few hours after birth. Some infants, although born at term, have disturbed glucose metabolism and are at risk of hypoglycemia (e.g. infants wit...

117

Tinea Capitis in Infants  

PubMed Central

Tinea capitis is a reasonably common infection among the pediatric population; however, it is still a relatively rare entity among infants less than one year of age. As such, a high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis among infants and an appropriate diagnostic work up should be employed in any case where a dermatophyte infection is suspected. Several methods are available for diagnosis. In addition, proper identification of the specific dermatophyte genera involved should be considered as treatment options may be altered based on the causative pathogen identified. PMID:22468173

Michaels, Brent D.

2012-01-01

118

Infant feeding and vision  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

119

ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition, and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention, and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METH...

120

Urine collection - infants  

MedlinePLUS

... gave you. You will be given a special bag to collect the urine. It will be a plastic bag with a sticky strip on one end, made ... fit over your baby's genital area. Open this bag and place it on the infant. For males, ...

121

Infant Development: Recent Advances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that the last 30 years have seen enormous increases in the understanding of infancy, this book examines the current state of knowledge regarding infant development. The book's contents stem from meetings of the British Infancy Research Group. Although the book was intended for advanced undergraduates, it would also be useful for advanced…

Bremner, Gavin, Ed.; Slater, Alan, Ed.; Butterworth, George, Ed.

122

Infant Visual Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

2004-01-01

123

ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METHOD...

124

Genital Problems in Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... tight to pull back? Yes This condition is called PHIMOSIS. See your child's doctor. No 5. Is it difficult to tell the sex of your infant at birth or shortly after? AMBIGUOUS GENITALIA is a birth defect in which the genitals are not ...

125

Infant Phonotactic Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past several decades, researchers have been investigating the stages infants go through on their way to acquiring their native language. Research into the question of the order in which, and time when, various facets of phonology are acquired has resulted in a basic timeline of development. Exploration of a second question, namely what…

Thatte, Victoria Anne

2011-01-01

126

Neuroprotection in Preterm Infants  

PubMed Central

Preterm infants born before the 30th week of pregnancy are especially at risk of perinatal brain damage which is usually a result of cerebral ischemia or an ascending intrauterine infection. Prevention of preterm birth and early intervention given signs of imminent intrauterine infection can reduce the incidence of perinatal cerebral injury. It has been shown that administering magnesium intravenously to women at imminent risk of a preterm birth leads to a significant reduction in the likelihood of the infant developing cerebral palsy and motor skill dysfunction. It has also been demonstrated that delayed clamping of the umbilical cord after birth reduces the rate of brain hemorrhage among preterm infants by up to 50%. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells seem to have significant neuroprotective potential in animal experiments, as they increase the rate of regeneration of the damaged cerebral area. Clinical tests of these types of therapeutic intervention measures appear to be imminent. In the last trimester of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone increase significantly. Preterm infants are removed abruptly from this estradiol and progesterone rich environment. It has been demonstrated in animal experiments that estradiol and progesterone protect the immature brain from hypoxic-ischemic lesions. However, this neuroprotective strategy has unfortunately not yet been subject to sufficient clinical investigation. PMID:25650134

Berger, R.; Söder, S.

2015-01-01

127

ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF INFANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective: To estimate the energy requirements of infants from total energy expenditure and energy deposition during growth. Design: Energy requirements during infancy were estimated from total energy expenditure measured by the doubly labeled water method and energy deposition based on measured pr...

128

Supporting Fathering Through Infant Massage  

PubMed Central

Fathers may feel dissatisfied with their ability to form a close attachment with their infants in the early postpartum period, which, in turn, may increase their parent-related stress. Our study sought to determine if an infant massage intervention assisted fathers with decreasing stress and increasing bonding with their infants during this time. To address the complex father–infant relationship, we conducted a pilot study using a mixed methodology approach. Twelve infant–father dyads participated in the intervention, and 12 infant–father dyads populated a wait-list control group. Paternal stress was measured using the Parenting Stress Index at baseline and at postintervention. We found infant massage instruction significantly decreased paternal stress. Our findings were also supported by the qualitative data and suggest fathers may benefit from applied postnatal education. PMID:22942622

Cheng, Carolynn Darrell; Volk, Anthony A.; Marini, Zopito A.

2011-01-01

129

Relativistic AGN jets I. The delicate interplay between jet structure, cocoon morphology and jet-head propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrophysical jets reveal strong signs of radial structure. They suggest that the inner region of the jet, the jet spine, consists of a low-density, fast-moving gas, while the outer region of the jet consists of a more dense and slower moving gas, called the jet sheath. Moreover, if jets carry angular momentum, the resultant centrifugal forces lead to a radial stratification. Current observations are not able to fully resolve the radial structure, so little is known about its actual profile. We present three active galactic nuclei jet models in 2.5D of which two have been given a radial structure. The first model is a homogeneous jet, the only model that does not carry angular momentum; the second model is a spine-sheath jet with an isothermal equation of state; and the third jet model is a (piecewise) isochoric spine-sheath jet, with constant but different densities for jet spine and jet sheath. In this paper, we look at the effects of radial stratification on jet integrity, mixing between the different jet components and global morphology of the jet-head and surrounding cocoon. We consider steady jets that have been active for 23 Myr. All jets have developed the same number of strong internal shocks along their jet axis at the final time of simulation. These shocks arise when vortices are being shed by the jet-head. We find that all three jets maintain their stability all the way up to the jet-head. The isothermal jet maintains part of its structural integrity at the jet-head where the distinction between jet spine and jet sheath material can still be made. In this case, mixing between jet spine and jet sheath within the jet is fairly inefficient. The isochoric jet, on the other hand, loses its structural jet integrity fairly quickly after the jet is injected. At its jet-head, little structure is maintained and the central part of the jet predominantly consists of jet sheath material. In this case, jet spine and jet sheath material mix efficiently within the jet. We find that the propagation speed for all three models is less than expected from simple theoretical predictions. We propose this is due to an enlarged cross-section of the jet which impacts with the ambient medium. We show that in these models, the effective surface area is 16 times as large in the case of the homogeneous jet, 30 times as large in the case of the isochoric jet and can be up to 40 times as large in the case of the isothermal jet.

Walg, S.; Achterberg, A.; Markoff, S.; Keppens, R.; Meliani, Z.

2013-08-01

130

Adults' Interpretation of Meaningful Infant-Directed Facial Speech: Implications for Infants' Categorization Abilities  

E-print Network

Adults' Interpretation of Meaningful Infant-Directed Facial Speech: Implications for Infants by adults to modulate infants' affect, attention, and to facilitate language learning (Fernald, 1992 facial expressions when communicating with their infants (Chong et al., 2003). But, what were

O'Toole, Alice J.

131

Antioxidant activities of two sericin proteins extracted from cocoon of silkworm (Bombyx mori) measured by DPPH, chemiluminescence, ORAC and ESR methods.  

PubMed

Recent efforts have focused on the use of sericin proteins extracted from cocoons of silkworm as a healthy food source for human consumption. In this study, we focused on the antioxidative properties of sericin proteins. The antioxidative properties were measured in sericin proteins extracted from the shell of the cocoon, designated hereafter as white sericin protein and yellow-green sericin protein, as well as bread without sericin protein and bread to which white sericin powder had been added using four measurement methods: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), chemiluminescence, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and electron spin resonance (ESR). High antioxidative properties of sericin proteins were indicated by all four methods. A comparison of the two types of sericin proteins revealed that yellow-green sericin protein exhibited high antioxidative properties as indicated by the DPPH, chemiluminescence and ORAC methods. By contrast, a higher antioxidative property was determined in white sericin protein by the ESR method. Consequently, our findings confirmed that sericin proteins have antioxidative properties against multiple radicals. In addition, the antioxidative property of bread was enhanced by the addition of sericin powder to the bread. Therefore, findings of this study suggest that sericin proteins may be efficiently used as beneficial food for human health. PMID:24748975

Takechi, Tayori; Wada, Ritsuko; Fukuda, Tsubasa; Harada, Kazuki; Takamura, Hitoshi

2014-05-01

132

Antioxidant activities of two sericin proteins extracted from cocoon of silkworm (Bombyx mori) measured by DPPH, chemiluminescence, ORAC and ESR methods  

PubMed Central

Recent efforts have focused on the use of sericin proteins extracted from cocoons of silkworm as a healthy food source for human consumption. In this study, we focused on the antioxidative properties of sericin proteins. The antioxidative properties were measured in sericin proteins extracted from the shell of the cocoon, designated hereafter as white sericin protein and yellow-green sericin protein, as well as bread without sericin protein and bread to which white sericin powder had been added using four measurement methods: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), chemiluminescence, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and electron spin resonance (ESR). High antioxidative properties of sericin proteins were indicated by all four methods. A comparison of the two types of sericin proteins revealed that yellow-green sericin protein exhibited high antioxidative properties as indicated by the DPPH, chemiluminescence and ORAC methods. By contrast, a higher antioxidative property was determined in white sericin protein by the ESR method. Consequently, our findings confirmed that sericin proteins have antioxidative properties against multiple radicals. In addition, the antioxidative property of bread was enhanced by the addition of sericin powder to the bread. Therefore, findings of this study suggest that sericin proteins may be efficiently used as beneficial food for human health. PMID:24748975

TAKECHI, TAYORI; WADA, RITSUKO; FUKUDA, TSUBASA; HARADA, KAZUKI; TAKAMURA, HITOSHI

2014-01-01

133

Does Parental Marital Separation Affect Infants?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the development of 38 infants from separated or divorced families with that of 38 infants from married families in Britain to determine whether parental divorce or separation precipitates cognitive, social, or emotional difficulties in infants. Infants were 11 to 45 months old. Infant-mother attachment was measured using the…

Kier, Cheryl; Lewis, Charlie

134

Measuring Infant Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods to measure infant exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are needed to identify infants at highest risk for ETS-related health problems. The purpose of this study was to validate measures sensitive to changes in levels of infant exposure to ETS and to develop a predictive model of infant exposure to ETS. Fifteen infants of smoking mothers were followed from

Mary Beth Flanders Stepans; Sara G. Fuller

1999-01-01

135

Why Is It Important? What Is Infant Mental Health?2 What Is Infant Mental Health?  

E-print Network

What Is Why Is It Important? ? #12;What Is Infant Mental Health?2 What Is Infant Mental Health? What is infant mental health? Does the term "infant mental health" make you think of a baby on a couch telling his problems to a psychiatrist? So what is infant mental health? Infant mental health reflects

McQuade, D. Tyler

136

Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants Adena Schachner  

E-print Network

Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants Adena Schachner Harvard University Erin E. Hannon University of Nevada, Las Vegas Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult

Ahmad, Sajjad

137

Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this…

Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.

2011-01-01

138

Preference for infant-directed speech in preterm infants.  

PubMed

The current study explores the effects of exposure to maternal voice on infant sucking in preterm infants. Twenty-four preterm infants averaging 35 weeks gestational age were divided randomly into two groups. A contingency between high-amplitude sucking and presentation of maternal voice was instituted for one group while the other group served as a yoked control. No significant differences were observed in sucking of the two groups, but the degree of pitch modulation of the maternal voice predicted an increase in the rate of infant sucking. PMID:25009957

Butler, Samantha C; O'Sullivan, Laura P; Shah, Bhavesh L; Berthier, Neil E

2014-11-01

139

Infant Pulmonary Function Testing  

PubMed Central

Infant pulmonary function testing has evolved from a research technique into a diagnostic tool. As such, new current procedural terminology (CPT) codes have been created and are available for use as of January 1, 2010. The technology now available has a range of applications. Through a series of vignettes, this article illustrates the methodology of the tests, some of their applications, and how to code and bill for the procedures. PMID:21540218

Davis, Stephanie D.

2011-01-01

140

An infant with tachypnea.  

PubMed

The purpose of this case report is to illustrate the diagnostic difficulties of congestive heart failure in an infant. When presenting to the emergency department, these patients are often evaluated for sepsis, congenital heart disease, metabolic disorders, and myocarditis. We report a case of a 3(1/2)-month-old male who presented to the pediatric emergency department with congestive heart failure. He was found to have vitamin D deficiency rickets induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:17110866

Cramm, Kelly J; Cattaneo, Raymond A; Schremmer, Robert D

2006-11-01

141

Bone densitometry in infants  

SciTech Connect

Bone mineral mass and density can be measured noninvasively by various absorptiometric procedures. Two methods, dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) and quantitative computed tomography, have widespread application in adults but only limited use in children. One method, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), has been used extensively in adults and children and has been modified for use in infants. The radius shaft has been used for most research on infants. However, the difficulty of using older SPA methods on this small bone (4 to 7 mm width) has led a few investigators to measure the shaft of the humerus. The typical precision of measurement in a newborn is about 5% with the use of computerized rectilinear scanners for the radius; older linear scanners have a precision error of 5% to 10% on the humerus. Linear scanners cannot measure precisely the radius in individual neonates. The SPA scans typically take about 5 minutes. The DPA technique using /sup 153/Gd has been modified for use on smaller animals (5 to 10 kg monkeys and dogs), but it has not been used on infants because DPA scans take 20 minutes. New methods using x-ray absorptiometry allow rapid (1 minute), precise (1%) measurements in the perinate. The need for a soft tissue bolus is eliminated, and both the axial and peripheral skeletons can be measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Ultrasonic measurements do not yet offer adequate precision in the neonate, given the limited biologic range of values. 83 references.

Barden, H.S.; Mazess, R.B.

1988-07-01

142

Energy requirements in Chilean infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo evaluate the energy requirements of breast fed infants.METHODSThe study was conducted in 17 healthy exclusively breast fed infants of normal birth weight (mean (SD) 3332 (280) g). Energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method and milk intake by the dose to infant method were measured at 34 (4) days. A dose of 0.2 g\\/kg deuterium oxide (99.8%) and

G Salazar; F Vio; C García; E Aguirre; W A Coward

2000-01-01

143

Iron Therapy for Preterm Infants  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Preterm infants are at risk for both iron deficiency and iron overload. The role of iron in multiple organ functions suggests that iron supplementation is essential for the preterm infant. Conversely, the potential for iron overload and the poorly developed anti-oxidant measures in the preterm infant argues against indiscriminate iron supplementation in this population. The purpose of this article is to review the predisposing factors and consequences of iron deficiency and iron overload in the preterm infant, the current recommendation for iron supplementation and its appropriateness, and describe potential management strategies that strike a balance between iron deficiency and iron toxicity. PMID:19161863

Rao, Raghavendra; Georgieff, Michael K.

2009-01-01

144

Infant temperament contributes to early infant growth: A prospective cohort of African American infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prospective studies linking infant temperament, or behavioral style, to infant body composition are lacking. In this longitudinal study (3 to 18 months), we seek to examine the associations between two dimensions of infant temperament (distress to limitations and activity level) and two anthropometric indicators (weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) and skin fold (SF) measures) in a population at high risk of

Meghan M Slining; Linda Adair; Barbara Davis Goldman; Judith Borja; Margaret Bentley

2009-01-01

145

Infants' Behavioral and Physiological Profile and Mother-Infant Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to (a) identify and profile groups of infants according to their behavioral and physiological characteristics, considering their neurobehavioral organization, social withdrawal behavior, and endocrine reactivity to stress, and to (b) analyze group differences in the quality of mother-infant interaction. Ninety-seven 8-week-old…

Costa, Raquel; Figueiredo, Barbara

2012-01-01

146

Infant Neurosensory Development: Considerations for Infant Child Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infant brain development is a dynamic process dependent upon endogenous and exogenous stimulation and a supportive environment. A critical period of brain and neurosensory development occurs during the third trimester and into the "fourth" trimester (first three months of life). Disruption, damage, or deprivation in the infant's social and…

Marshall, Jennifer

2011-01-01

147

FastStats: Infant Health  

MedlinePLUS

... KB] Recent Declines in Infant Mortality in the United States, 2005–2011 Trends in Circumcision for Male Newborns in U.S. Hospitals: 1979–2010 Understanding Racial and Ethnic Disparities in U.S. Infant Mortality Rates [PDF - 531 KB] Related Links Birth Data Mortality ...

148

Facilitation of Infants' Recognition Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports four experiments in which infants' recognition memory (defined by novelty preferences) was found to be improved by providing five- to seven-month-old infants with discriminable but related targets during the familiarization period. Facilitation of recognition was found for both photographs of faces and abstract patterns. (JMB)

Fagan, Joseph F., III

1978-01-01

149

NUTRITIONAL INFLUENCES ON INFANT DEVELOPMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The nutritional requirements of infants and children reflect this population's unique needs for growth and developmental changes in organ function and body composition as well as their maintenance needs. Moreover, since the metabolic rate of infants and children is greater and the turnover of nutri...

150

Determinants of Infant Behaviour IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume consists of reports of individual studies and surveys of research work on mother-infant interactions. It is divided into two parts. The first section presents a wide range of studies on mother-infant relations as exhibited in the behavior of animals. The second part, concerning human behavior, includes studies on the natural history of…

Foss, B. M., Ed.

151

Infant health and mortality indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of infant mortality and health indicators to monitor health conditions in early infancy, and their broader use as indicators of the general level of socio-economic development are discussed from three points of view. These are: (i) the increasing impact of differences in legal definitions of live and stillbirths on the comparability of the infant mortality figures produced by

Godelieve Masuy-Stroobant; Catherine Gourbin

1995-01-01

152

What Is Infant Mental Health?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

2012-01-01

153

Infants' Recognition Memory for Hue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty 4-month-old infants were habituated to one wavelength of light and then tested for recognition with the original and two new spectral lights. After short- and long-term delays with different types of retroactive interference, the results indicated that the infants' recognition memory for hue was quite resilient to interference or delay. (JMB)

Bornstein, Marc H.

1976-01-01

154

Male Infant Circumcision Pain Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Society for Pain Management Nursing (ASPMN) holds the position that nurses and other healthcare professionals must provide optimal pain management throughout the circumcision process for male infants. Parents must be prepared for the procedure and educated about infant pain assessment. They must also be informed about pharmacologic and integrative pain management therapies.

Susan O'Conner-Von; Helen N. Turner

155

Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.  

PubMed

Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (p<0.01) indicates positive health status of the newborns verifies that prenatal meditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (p<0.05) at fifth month reflects the importance of prenatal meditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women. PMID:25063985

Chan, Ka Po

2014-11-01

156

Caring for Infants and Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "The Future of Children" focuses on the daily care of infants and toddlers in the United States, including shifting caregiving arrangement for children younger than 3 years, developmental needs of infants and toddlers, findings of recent child care studies, public opinion regarding child care, and recent innovations seeking to…

Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

2001-01-01

157

Evaluating Infant-Family Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Compiling articles from participants of the Leadership Development Initiative Class of 2001-2002, this issue focuses on evaluation of…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

2003-01-01

158

Infant feeding and allergy.  

PubMed Central

The effect of withholding cows' milk was examined in 487 infants at high risk of allergic disease. Before birth they were randomly allocated either to a control group, most of whom received cows' milk preparations, or to an intervention group, who were offered a soya based substitute. Eczema and wheezing occurred to a similar extent in the two groups during the first year of life, although napkin rash, diarrhoea, and oral thrush were commoner in the intervention group, especially during the first three months. Breast feeding for any length of time was associated with a reduced incidence of wheezing and diarrhoea. PMID:3365008

Miskelly, F G; Burr, M L; Vaughan-Williams, E; Fehily, A M; Butland, B K; Merrett, T G

1988-01-01

159

In press, Infancy. Infant Affect at 3 and 6 Months 1 Infant Affect During Parent-Infant Interaction  

E-print Network

. Parents' positive affect but not parent gender predicted infants' positive affect at 6 months. During away (Cohn & Tronick, 1987). If mothers become still-faced contingent upon infant smiling, infants or simulated maternal depression, infant smiles become markedly attenuated, and negative affect and looking

Cohn, Jeffrey F.

160

Maternal Responsiveness to Infant Crying, Perceived Infant Temperament and Infant-Mother Attachment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined longitudinally the origin of a prior finding that mothers who perceived their infant's temperament as either "easy" or "difficult" exhibited a differential psychophysiological response pattern. Additionally examined were the pattern's behavioral correlates and relation to infant-mother attachment. Participants were 57…

Frodi, Ann

161

Infant Gaze Following during Parent-Infant Coviewing of Baby Videos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 122 parent–infant dyads were observed as they watched a familiar or novel infant-directed video in a laboratory setting. Infants were between 12-15 and 18-21 months old. Infants were more likely to look toward the TV immediately following their parents' look toward the TV. This apparent social influence on infant looking at television…

Demers, Lindsay B.; Hanson, Katherine G.; Kirkorian, Heather L.; Pempek, Tiffany A.; Anderson, Daniel R.

2013-01-01

162

The role of infant soothability in the relation between infant negativity and maternal sensitivity  

E-print Network

Maternal perceptions of infant soothability moderated the relation between negative infant temperament and maternal sensitivity. Infant negative temperament and maternal sensitivity were significantly positively related when maternal perception of infant soothability was high and significantly negatively related when maternal perception of infant soothability was low. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Melissa M. Ghera A; Amie Ashley Hane A; Elizabeth E. Malesa B; Nathan A. Fox A

163

Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

2009-01-01

164

Nosocomial cutaneous abscesses in septic infants  

PubMed Central

Objective: To retrospectively study the epidemiology of nosocomial cutaneous abscesses in 46 consecutive septic infants. Results: Ten infants had one abscess or more. Surviving infants with abscesses had a longer duration of bacteraemia, which disappeared within 24 hours of drainage. Conclusion: Infants with persistent bacteraemia should be examined regularly for the presence of abscesses. PMID:14977903

Mandel, D; Littner, Y; Mimouni, F; Dollberg, S

2004-01-01

165

Applying Infant Massage Practices: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the dynamic interaction between a mother and her 11-month-old visually impaired infant before and after the mother was taught infant massage. After the mother learned infant massage, she had more appropriate physical contact with her infant, engaged with him within his field of vision, directly vocalized to him, and had a…

Lappin, Grace; Kretschmer, Robert E.

2005-01-01

166

Infants Make Quantity Discriminations for Substances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants can track small groups of solid objects, and infants can respond when these quantities change. But earlier work is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 ("N" = 88) used a habituation paradigm to show infants can register changes in the size of piles of sand that they see poured…

Hespos, Susan J.; Dora, Begum; Rips, Lance J.; Christie, Stella

2012-01-01

167

Tuned in Parenting and Infant Sleep Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on infant sleep behaviour that is of concern to mothers of young infants, and disruptive to families. It reports on the incidence of sleep problems in dyads that self-referred to a specialist clinic, and the relationship between the mother's sensitive responsiveness and infant sleep patterns in a sample of 65 Australian infants.…

Priddis, Lynn E.

2009-01-01

168

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and  

E-print Network

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and Other Sleep-Related Causes of Infant Death: Questionsand am pleased to provide this updated version of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and Other Sleep-Related Causes of Infant Death: Questions and Answers for Health Care Providers. This booklet lists the latest

Rau, Don C.

169

Categorization of Infant-Directed Speech: Development  

E-print Network

Categorization of Infant- Directed Speech: Development From 4 to 6 Months Melanie J. Spence Box a previous finding that 6-month-old infants categorized low-pass filtered infant-directed (ID) utterances, we examined a) 6-month-old infants' categorization of more naturalistic, unfiltered ID utterances and b

O'Toole, Alice J.

170

Observed Infant Reactions during Live Interparental Conflict  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Associations between interparental conflict and infant reactions were examined. Infants' history of exposure to interparental conflict and infant reactive temperament were examined as moderators. A community sample of 74 infants, aged 6-14 months, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' marital conflict and…

Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; White, Clare R.; Fleischhauer, Emily A.; Fitzgerald, Kelly A.

2011-01-01

171

Metabolic rate of sleeping infants.  

PubMed Central

AIM: To measure the sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) of healthy infants in the first year of life. METHODS: The SMR was measured on 73 infants aged 1 to 12 months in a special nursery using indirect calorimetry. One hundred satisfactory observations were made. The room air and radiative temperatures, humidity, and amount of insulation were measured. Parents chose the clothing and bedding that they judged their infant needed. RESULTS: The mean (SD) SMR was 2.4 (0.4) watts (W)/kg or 45 (10) W/m2. The mean SMR of infants aged 1-2 months was 38 compared with 44 W/m2 in infants of 8-12 months; the difference was not significant. There were no obvious differences in SMR between boys and girls. But there were wide differences in SMR between apparently similar infants, range 1.4 to 3.5 W/kg. Most parents selected insulation between 1 and 3 togs, and this was weakly negatively correlated with air temperature. CONCLUSION: These wide variations in SMR mean that it is impossible to give specific guidelines on the amount of clothing and bedding a particular infant will need for thermal comfort in a given room temperature. PMID:8984911

Hull, D; McArthur, A J; Pritchard, K; Goodall, M

1996-01-01

172

Fear of heights in infants?  

PubMed Central

Based largely on the famous “visual cliff” paradigm, conventional wisdom is that crawling infants avoid crossing the brink of a dangerous drop-off because they are afraid of heights. However, recent research suggests that the conventional wisdom is wrong. Avoidance and fear are conflated, and there is no compelling evidence to support fear of heights in human infants. Infants avoid crawling or walking over an impossibly high drop-off because they perceive affordances for locomotion—the relations between their own bodies and skills and the relevant properties of the environment that make an action such as descent possible or impossible. PMID:25267874

Adolph, Karen E.; Kretch, Kari S.; LoBue, Vanessa

2014-01-01

173

Breastfeeding infants with congenital torticollis.  

PubMed

Infants with unilateral sternocleidomastoid tension and associated craniofacial, spinal, and hip asymmetries may feed poorly. Anatomic and muscular asymmetry stress both biomechanics and state control, increasing the potential for difficulty latching and sucking. A combination of positioning modifications to allow the infant to maintain his or her comfortable head tilt and turn, supportive techniques to restore alignment of oral structures, and handling techniques to help activate the weak contralateral muscles have been effective in the author's practice. Lactation consultants can promote positioning and muscle activation strategies and encourage physical therapy referrals for infants who do not respond promptly to reduce the risk of craniofacial deformity and developmental problems. PMID:25616913

Genna, Catherine Watson

2015-05-01

174

Nonaccidental head trauma in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Nonaccidental head trauma in infants is the leading cause of infant death from injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results and discussion  Clinical features that suggest inflicted head trauma include the triad of the so-called shaken baby syndrome, consisting of\\u000a retinal hemorrhage, subdural, and\\/or subarachnoid hemorrhage in an infant with little signs of external trauma. Studies have\\u000a shown that, in general, the average short fall in

Paula Gerber; Kathryn Coffman

2007-01-01

175

New antibiotic dosing in infants.  

PubMed

To prevent the devastating consequences of infection, most infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit are exposed to antibiotics. However, dosing regimens are often extrapolated from data in adults and older children, increasing the risk for drug toxicity and lack of clinical efficacy because they fail to account for developmental changes in infant physiology. However, newer technologies are emerging with minimal-risk study designs, including ultra-low-volume assays, pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation, and opportunistic drug protocols. With minimal-risk study designs, pharmacokinetic data and dosing regimens for infants are now available for ampicillin, clindamycin, meropenem, metronidazole, and piperacillin/tazobactam. PMID:25678003

Pineda, Leslie C; Watt, Kevin M

2015-03-01

176

Maternal and infant factors influencing infant feeding – a longitudinal study   

E-print Network

Introduction: There has been a lack of longitudinal studies on maternal and infant factors associated with feeding difficulties. Feeding difficulties are common, cause much anxiety for parents, and are associated with a ...

Mills, Suzanne Barbara

2012-06-26

177

Infant Transport Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The photo sequence illustrates the movement of an ill infant to a special care hospital by means of a new Pediatric Monitoring and Transport System, in which NASA technology and technical assistance are being applied to an urgent medical problem. Development of the system is a collaborative effort involving several organizations, principally, NASA Ames Research Center and Children's Hospital Medical Center, Oakland, California. Key to the system's efficacy is a custom-designed ambulance-to-hospital and hospital-to-hospital communications network, including two-way voice capability and space-derived biotelemetry; it allows a specialist at the destination hospital to monitor continuously the vital signs of the patient during transit.

1978-01-01

178

Association of infant feeding practices in the general population with infant growth and stool characteristics  

PubMed Central

This was a prospective cohort study of 976 infants from birth to 12 months of age. Infants were fed breast milk, goat infant formula, cow infant formula, or a combination of formula and breast milk during the first 4 months of age. Data on type of milk feeding and infant growth (weight and height) were collected at birth and at 4, 8, and 12 months during routine clinical assessment. The number and consistency of bowel motions per day were recorded based on observational data supplied by the mothers. Infants fed breast milk or goat or cow infant formula during the first 4 months displayed similar growth outcomes. More of the infants fed cow infant formula had fewer and more well-formed bowel motions compared with breast-fed infants. The stool characteristics of infants fed goat formula resembled those of infants fed breast milk. PMID:21994525

Han, Youngshin; Chang, Eun-Young; Kim, Jihyun; Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Hye-Young; Hwang, Eun-Mi; Lowry, Dianne; Lee, Sang-Il

2011-01-01

179

Infant temperament contributes to early infant growth: A prospective cohort of African American infants  

PubMed Central

Background Prospective studies linking infant temperament, or behavioral style, to infant body composition are lacking. In this longitudinal study (3 to 18 months), we seek to examine the associations between two dimensions of infant temperament (distress to limitations and activity level) and two anthropometric indicators (weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) and skin fold (SF) measures) in a population at high risk of overweight. Methods Data are from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Project, a longitudinal study of North Carolina low income African American mother-infant dyads (n = 206). Two temperament dimensions were assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. A high distress to limitations score denotes an infant whose mother perceives that s/he often cries or fusses, and a high activity level score one who moves his/her limbs and squirms frequently. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using ordinary least squares regression. Fixed effects longitudinal models were used to estimate anthropometric outcomes as a function of time varying infant temperament. Results In longitudinal models, increased activity levels were associated with later decreased fatness and WLZ. In contrast, high levels of distress to limitations were associated with later increased fatness at all time points and later increased WLZ at 12 months. Conclusion Infant temperament dimensions contribute to our understanding of the role of behavior in the development of the risk of overweight in the formative months of life. Identification of modifiable risk factors early in life may help target strategies for establishing healthy lifestyles prior to the onset of overweight. PMID:19656377

Slining, Meghan M; Adair, Linda; Goldman, Barbara Davis; Borja, Judith; Bentley, Margaret

2009-01-01

180

Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis  

MedlinePLUS

... care professional to see. Recent evidence suggests that mixing powdered or liquid infant formula concentrate with fluoridated ... dental fluorosis. Those types of formula that require mixing with water—powdered or liquid concentrates—can be ...

181

Superfund Cleanups and Infant Health  

E-print Network

We are the first to examine the effect of Superfund cleanups on infant health rather than focusing on proximity to a site. We study singleton births to mothers residing within 5km of a Superfund site between 1989 and 2003 ...

Currie, Janet

2011-02-23

182

Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) in Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... humidity Abrasive clothing Tobacco smoke and chemicals Some soaps and detergents Who's At Risk Infants are more ... eczema. Moisturizing skin-care routines are essential. Non-soap cleansers, such as Cetaphil®, or moisturizing soaps, such ...

183

Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities  

MedlinePLUS

... Food Sensitivities Ages & Stages Listen Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities Article Body Human breast milk typically does ... tell your pediatrician about your family’s medical history. Food Sensitivities A few mothers notice minor reactions to ...

184

Tactile Recognition Memory in Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-five one-year-olds were administered two tasks (each of which consisted of a familiarization stage followed by a recognition stage) in order to determine whether infants can recognize the shapes of objects by touch alone. (CM)

Gottfried, Allen W.; Rose, Susan A.

1980-01-01

185

JAMA Patient Page: Premature Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... pounds. They require specialized intensive care in a neonatal intensive care unit ( NICU ). Doctors and nurses who ... PREMATURE INFANTS MIGHT FACE AS THEY GROW OLDER • Apnea (episodes of stopping breathing), which may require special ...

186

Social theory and infant feeding  

PubMed Central

Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

2011-01-01

187

Infant polysomnography: reliability and validity of infant arousal assessment.  

PubMed

Infant arousal scoring based on the Atlas Task Force definition of transient EEG arousal was evaluated to determine (1). whether transient arousals can be identified and assessed reliably in infants and (2). whether arousal and no-arousal epochs scored previously by trained raters can be validated reliably by independent sleep experts. Phase I for inter- and intrarater reliability scoring was based on two datasets of sleep epochs selected randomly from nocturnal polysomnograms of healthy full-term, preterm, idiopathic apparent life-threatening event cases, and siblings of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome infants of 35 to 64 weeks postconceptional age. After training, test set 1 reliability was assessed and discrepancies identified. After retraining, test set 2 was scored by the same raters to determine interrater reliability. Later, three raters from the trained group rescored test set 2 to assess inter- and intrarater reliabilities. Interrater and intrarater reliability kappa's, with 95% confidence intervals, ranged from substantial to almost perfect levels of agreement. Interrater reliabilities for spontaneous arousals were initially moderate and then substantial. During the validation phase, 315 previously scored epochs were presented to four sleep experts to rate as containing arousal or no-arousal events. Interrater expert agreements were diverse and considered as noninterpretable. Concordance in sleep experts' agreements, based on identification of the previously sampled arousal and no-arousal epochs, was used as a secondary evaluative technique. Results showed agreement by two or more experts on 86% of the Collaborative Home Infant Monitoring Evaluation Study arousal scored events. Conversely, only 1% of the Collaborative Home Infant Monitoring Evaluation Study-scored no-arousal epochs were rated as an arousal. In summary, this study presents an empirically tested model with procedures and criteria for attaining improved reliability in transient EEG arousal assessments in infants using the modified Atlas Task Force standards. With training based on specific criteria, substantial inter- and intrarater agreement in identifying infant arousals was demonstrated. Corroborative validation results were too disparate for meaningful interpretation. Alternate evaluation based on concordance agreements supports reliance on infant EEG criteria for assessment. Results mandate additional confirmatory validation studies with specific training on infant EEG arousal assessment criteria. PMID:12477992

Crowell, David H; Kulp, Thomas D; Kapuniai, Linda E; Hunt, Carl E; Brooks, Lee J; Weese-Mayer, Debra E; Silvestri, Jean; Ward, Sally Davidson; Corwin, Michael; Tinsley, Larry; Peucker, Mark

2002-10-01

188

Wearable sensor systems for infants.  

PubMed

Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant's body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future. PMID:25664432

Zhu, Zhihua; Liu, Tao; Li, Guangyi; Li, Tong; Inoue, Yoshio

2015-01-01

189

The epidemiology of infant cancers.  

PubMed Central

Cancers in infants represent less than 0.05% of all malignant neoplasms, but form a particularly interesting group for study. The ratio of solid tumours to leukaemias is 2:1 in children aged 1-14 but 5:1 in infants less than 1 year. The rate for neuroblastoma which is the most common malignancy in infants is four times higher in children aged under 1 year than in 1-14 year olds. Other embryonal tumours, e.g. Wilms', heptablastoma and retinoblastoma also show higher rates in infants. The ratios of incidence in males to females differed in a number of instances in the two age groups, e.g. in leukaemias and liver tumours the male to female ratio is greater than one in 1-14 year old children but less than one in infants. These observations suggest that many infant tumours may be aetiologically distinct. Their early onset and predominantly embryonal nature suggest a pre-natal origin and genetic factors may be important. PMID:1503921

Birch, J. M.; Blair, V.

1992-01-01

190

Ultrastructural study of the egg wall surrounding the developing miracidia of the digenean Prosotocus confusus (Looss, 1894) (Plagiorchiida: Pleurogenidae), with the description of a unique cocoon-like envelope.  

PubMed

Helminth eggs play a critical role in movement of the parasite from definitive to intermediate host. Eggs of the pleurogenid digenean trematode Prosotocus confusus (Looss, 1894), a parasite of naturally infected frogs Pelophylax lessonae (Amphibia: Ranidae) in Europe, are described here for the first time. Particular emphasis is placed on the ultrastructure on the egg wall and on the detailed description of a unique cocoon-like envelope. Each embryonating egg is composed of an early embryo surrounded by a four-layered egg wall: (1) an outer, anucleate layer external to the eggshell, which forms a thick cocoon; (2) the operculate eggshell; (3) not fully formed, a differentiating outer embryonic envelope containing large nuclei of macromeres; and (4) situated below, an undifferentiated layer of the future inner embryonic envelope containing mesomere nuclei. Layers enveloping the egg apparently play an important role in the protection, metabolism, and storage of nutritive reserves for the developing miracidium. The outer anucleate layer, or cocoon, is situated externally to the eggshell and composed of an electron-lucent substance with numerous electron-dense islands attached to its peripheral membrane. A cocoon envelope such as this has never been seen in previous TEM studies of the eggs of parasitic platyhelminths, with the exception of another pleurogenid Brandesia turgida. The origin, formation, functional ultrastructure, and chemical composition of this peculiar layer remain enigmatic, although its function appears to be protective. The thick, electron-dense eggshell resembles that of other trematodes, exhibiting a characteristic fissure zone around the operculum. Numerous lysosome-like structures observed in some eggs may be involved in the autolysis of both the embryonic envelopes (particularly the early degeneration of macromere nuclei of the outer envelope, characteristic for this species) and in the disintegration of several early micromeres. The inner envelope, which forms later from mesomeres, persists longer during embryogenesis. PMID:25320045

?widerski, Zdzis?aw; Miquel, Jordi; Torres, Jordi; Conn, David Bruce

2015-01-01

191

16 CFR 1223.2 - Requirements for infant swings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Requirements for infant swings. 1223.2 Section 1223.2 Commercial...SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR INFANT SWINGS § 1223.2 Requirements for infant swings. Each infant swing shall...

2014-01-01

192

16 CFR 1215.2 - Requirements for infant bath seats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Requirements for infant bath seats. 1215.2 Section 1215.2...SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR INFANT BATH SEATS § 1215.2 Requirements for infant bath seats. Each infant bath seat...

2013-01-01

193

Analgesia for infants' circumcision.  

PubMed

Male circumcision (MC) is one of the oldest and most common operations performed all over the world. It can be performed at different ages, using different surgical techniques, for different religious, cultural and medical reasons.Our aim is to examine and compare the various methods of analgesia and different surgical procedures reported in literature that are applied in infant MC. We performed a PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane search in the papers published since 2000: 14 studies met the inclusion criteria, most of them showing that a combined pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention is the best analgesic option, in particular when the dorsal penile nerve block is combined with other treatments. The Mogen surgical procedure seems to be the less painful surgical intervention, when compared with Gomco clamp or PlastiBell device. Only 3 papers studied groups of at least 20 babies each with the use of validated pain scales. Data show a dramatic decrease of pain with dorsal penile nerve block, plus acetaminophen associated to oral sucrose or topic analgesic cream. However, no procedure has been found to definetively eliminate pain; the gold standard procedure to make MC totally painfree has not yet been established. PMID:23759130

Bellieni, Carlo V; Alagna, Maria G; Buonocore, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

194

Analgesia for infants’ circumcision  

PubMed Central

Male circumcision (MC) is one of the oldest and most common operations performed all over the world. It can be performed at different ages, using different surgical techniques, for different religious, cultural and medical reasons. Our aim is to examine and compare the various methods of analgesia and different surgical procedures reported in literature that are applied in infant MC. We performed a PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane search in the papers published since 2000: 14 studies met the inclusion criteria, most of them showing that a combined pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention is the best analgesic option, in particular when the dorsal penile nerve block is combined with other treatments. The Mogen surgical procedure seems to be the less painful surgical intervention, when compared with Gomco clamp or PlastiBell device. Only 3 papers studied groups of at least 20 babies each with the use of validated pain scales. Data show a dramatic decrease of pain with dorsal penile nerve block, plus acetaminophen associated to oral sucrose or topic analgesic cream. However, no procedure has been found to definetively eliminate pain; the gold standard procedure to make MC totally painfree has not yet been established. PMID:23759130

2013-01-01

195

Expectancy Learning from Probabilistic Input by Infants  

PubMed Central

Across the first few years of life, infants readily extract many kinds of regularities from their environment, and this ability is thought to be central to development in a number of domains. Numerous studies have documented infants’ ability to recognize deterministic sequential patterns. However, little is known about the processes infants use to build and update representations of structure in time, and how infants represent patterns that are not completely predictable. The present study investigated how infants’ expectations fora simple structure develope over time, and how infants update their representations with new information. We measured 12-month-old infants’ anticipatory eye movements to targets that appeared in one of two possible locations. During the initial phase of the experiment, infants either saw targets that appeared consistently in the same location (Deterministic condition) or probabilistically in either location, with one side more frequent than the other (Probabilistic condition). After this initial divergent experience, both groups saw the same sequence of trials for the rest of the experiment. The results show that infants readily learn from both deterministic and probabilistic input, with infants in both conditions reliably predicting the most likely target location by the end of the experiment. Local context had a large influence on behavior: infants adjusted their predictions to reflect changes in the target location on the previous trial. This flexibility was particularly evident in infants with more variable prior experience (the Probabilistic condition). The results provide some of the first data showing how infants learn in real time. PMID:23439947

Romberg, Alexa R.; Saffran, Jenny R.

2013-01-01

196

Vocal Development of Infants with Very Low Birth Weight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the vocal development of infants born with very low birth weights (VLBW). Samples of vocalizations were recorded from three groups of infants when they were 8, 12 and 18 months of age: preterm VLBW infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), preterm VLBW infants without BPD, and healthy full-term infants. Infants with BPD…

Rvachew, Susan; Creighton, Dianne; Feldman, Naida; Sauve, Reg

2005-01-01

197

Mothers' Beliefs about Infant Size: Associations with Attitudes and Infant Feeding Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have examined maternal attitudes toward infant body size, but extant work suggests there might be less negativity toward overweight sizes and less positivity toward thin sizes for infants than older children. Fifty mothers of 12 to 25 month-old infants completed questionnaires examining attitudes toward infants', children's and their…

Holub, Shayla C.; Dolan, Elaine A.

2012-01-01

198

Do Young Infants Prefer an Infant-Directed Face or a Happy Face?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants' visual preference for infant-directed (ID) faces over adult-directed (AD) faces was examined in two experiments that introduced controls for emotion. Infants' eye movements were recorded as they viewed a series of side-by-side dynamic faces. When emotion was held constant, 6-month-old infants showed no preference for ID faces…

Kim, Hojin I.; Johnson, Scott P.

2013-01-01

199

Manipulation of Infant-Like Traits Affects Perceived Cuteness of Infant, Adult and Cat Faces  

E-print Network

Manipulation of Infant-Like Traits Affects Perceived Cuteness of Infant, Adult and Cat Faces that are characteristic of human infants are referred to as baby-schema, and the notion that these affect perception of cuteness and elicit care giving from adults has a long history. In this study, infant- similarity

Little, Tony

200

Infant Predictors of Preschool and Adult IQ: A Study of Infant Twins and Their Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures of infant cognitive development in 208 pairs of twins were evaluated at 7, 8, and 9 months of age. Measures included Fagan's Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII), visual expectation measures of reaction time and anticipation, selected items from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, variety of vocalizations, Bayley's Infant Behavior Record (IBR), and others. The midparent IQ scores were

Lisabeth F. DiLalla; L. A. Thompson; Robert Plomin; Kay Phillips; Joseph F. Fagan; Marshall M. Haith; Lisa H. Cyphers; David W. Fulker

1990-01-01

201

[Tracheobronchial dyskinesia of the newborn infant and infant].  

PubMed

Basing on 57 own observations the pathophysiology and clinical phenomenology of the different forms (tracheobronchial collaps, tracheobronchial prolaps) of tracheobronchial dyskinesia in newborn and infants are described. The tracheo bronchial collaps apparently prevails at this early age of life. Prognostically it is assessed most favourable. Contrarely to the tracheobronchial prolaps it generally does not need a thorough going treatment and disappears until the end of the second year of life nearly in all cases. Indications are given as the most rational therapeutical behaviour in both phenomenological forms of the tracheobronchial dyskinesia in newborn and infants. PMID:4091394

Minnigerode, B; Baillot, P

1985-01-01

202

Infant Development in Father-Absent Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Father role in infancy was examined through a comparison of the stimulus responses of 27 infants reared by their mothers in single-parent families with the stimulus responses of 28 infants in father-present families. (CM)

Pedersen, Frank A.; And Others

1979-01-01

203

21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than a dietary supplement of vitamins and/or minerals alone) purports to be or is represented for special dietary use for infants, the...

2014-04-01

204

21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than a dietary supplement of vitamins and/or minerals alone) purports to be or is represented for special dietary use for infants, the...

2013-04-01

205

21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than a dietary supplement of vitamins and/or minerals alone) purports to be or is represented for special dietary use for infants, the...

2010-04-01

206

21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than a dietary supplement of vitamins and/or minerals alone) purports to be or is represented for special dietary use for infants, the...

2011-04-01

207

21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than a dietary supplement of vitamins and/or minerals alone) purports to be or is represented for special dietary use for infants, the...

2012-04-01

208

Infants' Recognition of Invariant Features of Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of five experiments explore the 7-month-old infant's ability to discriminate among photos of faces. The infant's tendency to choose visual targets for inspection provides evidence of discrimination and recognition. (Author/JH)

Fagan, Joseph F. III

1976-01-01

209

Sociological investigation of infant overlaying death   

E-print Network

Overlaying was a common nineteenth century explanation of sudden infant death while bedsharing. This thesis shows that in many cases the term overlaying was a misnomer, and instead it identifies infant overlaying death ...

Sartain, Sheree

2012-11-28

210

Infants' Attentional Responses to Frequency Modulated Sweeps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on three experiments that assessed the attentional responses of 4-month-old infants to frequency-modulated sweeps corresponding to the frequency range of adult-to-infant and adult-to-adult intonational patterns. (HOD)

Colombo, John; Horowitz, Frances Degen

1986-01-01

211

Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children  

MedlinePLUS

... Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Vaccines Home Share Compartir Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children in Easy-to- ... Since Birth Spanish Version (en español) The recommended immunization schedule is designed to protect infants and children ...

212

Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children  

MedlinePLUS

... is your infant throwing up small amounts of formula after a feeding? Yes This is probably "SPITTING UP," a common occurrence for infants on formula. Less common is a LACTOSE INTOLERANCE or MILK ...

213

Breastmilk contaminants and infant behavior  

SciTech Connect

Recent work has shown that certain heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (p,p{prime}-DDE) can affect newborn behavior via transplacental exposure. In this study, a number of fluids were collected from a sample of mothers and infants, with gas liquid chromatography used to determine the levels of environmental contaminants in breastmilk obtained in the first postpartum week. Analysis of the first 15 cases revealed normal concentrations of metals, no detectable traces of PCBs, and detectable levels of heptachlor epoxide and p,p{prime}-DDE in breastmilk. No significant associations were found between metals and infant development, but p,p{prime}-DDE was inversely related to perceptual performance and motor scores at 2-1/2 years. These results suggest that contaminants in human milk may affect infant behavior beyond the newborn period, although prediction from other sources must also be considered.

Worobey, J.; Thomas, D.A.; Lewis, M. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick (United States))

1990-02-26

214

The feeding of infants and children  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The establishment of feeding practices that are comfortable and satisfying for both the parents and the infant is crucial not only for the emotional well-being of both but also for ensuring adequate nutrient intakes for the infant. Maternal feelings are readily transmitted to the infant and are a ma...

215

Fluids and powders: options for infant feeding.  

PubMed

This study involved collecting qualitative and quantitative data to investigate infant feeding practices in an urban low-income population of Central America, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Ethnographic information, the subject of the article, was collected over a 9-month period in 1981-1982 in a longitudinal study of 75 families with infants. A subsequent census of more than 5000 households strengthened the results of the ethnographic study. Taxonomy of milk fed to infants was the most useful analysis for understanding infant feeding practices at the household level in the low-income culture of Tegucigalpa. This paper presents a taxonomy of milks fed to infants and explores infant feeding behavior in light of those beliefs. 2 prenatal visits were usually made to each mother. Each participating family was assigned to a fieldworker. Periodic visits were also made following the birth of the infant. The data derived from the 9-month study consist of detailed case histories; comments and explorations of hypotheses by the fieldworkers; infant feeding histories; texts of interviews with mothers and other family members; morbidity, mortality, and growth records; and extensive observational descriptions by the fieldworkers of mothers, infants, and their families. In urban Honduras, the majority of the women combine breastfeeding with feeding a breastmilk substitute to their infants. Over 95% of mothers initiate breastfeeding. 1/2 of all infants are completely weaned from the breast midway through their 1st year. Bottlefeeding is associated with infant morbidity, especially diarrhea. Breastfeeding is associated with reduced morbidity and improved growth. PMID:3879730

O'Gara, C; Kendall, C

1985-01-01

216

Infant Stimulation Curriculum: Development and Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are a description and evaluation report of the Infant Stimulation Curriculum developed by the Developmentally Delayed Infant Education Outreach Project. The curriculum, for infants developmentally between birth and 36 months of age, is described in terms of characteristics (such as basis in the normal developmental pattern), rationale,…

Storm, Pat Purdy; And Others

217

Mothers' singing to infants and preschool children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mothers were recorded singing two versions of the same song, one to their infants and the other to their preschool children. In Experiment 1, naive adult listeners accurately identified the infant-directed versions from each pair of mothers' songs. Pitch was higher for the infant-directed versions but tempo and intensity did not differ across contexts. In Experiment 2, naive listeners judged

Tonya R. Bergeson; Sandra E. Trehub

1999-01-01

218

Infants' Developing Understanding of Social Gaze  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young infants are sensitive to self-directed social actions, but do they appreciate the intentional, target-directed nature of such behaviors? The authors addressed this question by investigating infants' understanding of social gaze in third-party interactions (N = 104). Ten-month-old infants discriminated between 2 people in mutual versus…

Beier, Jonathan S.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

2012-01-01

219

Look Into My Eyes: An Infant's View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes current research to determine if newborn infants can discern parents from strangers. An infrared detection technique has found that three to five week old infants focus on the edges of faces while older infants look more into the other person's eyes. Increased eye observation is beleived to be associated with parental identification. (CP)

Science News, 1977

1977-01-01

220

The Neural Substrates of Infant Speech Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants often pay special attention to speech sounds, and they appear to detect key features of these sounds. To investigate the neural foundation of speech perception in infants, we measured cortical activation using near-infrared spectroscopy. We presented the following three types of auditory stimuli while 3-month-old infants watched a silent…

Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro

2014-01-01

221

[Drug Exposed Infants and Their Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin issue addresses the theme of drug-exposed infants and the services required by these infants and their families. "Cocaine-Exposed Infants: Myths and Misunderstandings" (Barbara J. Myers and others) comments on the negative accounts of drug-exposed babies presented by mass media and reviews the mix of positive and negative findings…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

1992-01-01

222

The Power of Touch: Massage for Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The potential benefits of massage for infants are discussed, including the role of touch on attachment and bonding and implications of massage for special needs infants. Research results on the benefits of massage for the infant and caregiver are covered, including increased bonding and enhanced growth and development. Historical information on…

Schneider, Elaine Fogel

1996-01-01

223

Pattern Induction by Infant Language Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do infants learn the sound patterns of their native language? By the end of the 1st year, infants have acquired detailed aspects of the phonology and phonotactics of their input language. However, the structure of the learning mechanisms underlying this process is largely unknown. In this study, 9-month-old infants were given the opportunity to induce specific phonological patterns in

Jenny R. Saffran; Erik D. Thiessen

2003-01-01

224

Infants and Toddlers, 2001-2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is comprised of the 2001-2002 issues of a quarterly journal for teachers and parents of children in Montessori infant and toddler programs. The spring 2001 issue presents articles on the history of infant and toddler programs in Italy and how to fulfill infant needs in Montessori child care, and on learning activities in the kitchen…

Kroenke, Lillian DeVault, Ed.

2002-01-01

225

Preeclampsia, preterm delivery and infant cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the association between preeclampsia and cerebral palsy among preterm infants. Study design: A cohort study of 345 singleton preterm (24 to 33 weeks gestation) infants delivered at an institution where no mothers received magnesium sulphate. We investigated the relationship of preeclampsia to the development of infant cerebral palsy (spastic quadriplegia, hemiplegia or diplegia) at two years' corrected

Arsenio Spinillo; Ezio Capuzzo; Anna Cavallini; Mauro Stronati; Antonella De Santolo; Elisa Fazzi

1998-01-01

226

Social Information Guides Infants' Selection of Foods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments investigated the influence of socially conveyed emotions and speech on infants' choices among food. After watching films in which two unfamiliar actresses each spoke while eating a different kind of food, 12-month-old infants were allowed to choose between the two foods. In Experiment 1, infants selected a food endorsed by a…

Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; McKee, Caitlin B.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

2009-01-01

227

NATIONAL MATERNAL AND INFANT HEALTH SURVEY (NMIHS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMIHS) provides data on maternal and infant health, including prenatal care, birth weight, fetal loss, and infant mortality. The objective of the NMIHS is to collect data needed by Federal, State, and private researchers to study fa...

228

Enacting Caring Pedagogy in the Infant Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This single case study was undertaken to explore how an infant head teacher meets the needs of the infants, who express their desire to be cared for, in their caring encounters. Natural daily interactions between infants and the teacher were observed for approximately 10 weeks. Through the qualitative data analysis, the results of this study…

Shin, Minsun

2015-01-01

229

Infant Communicative Behaviors and Maternal Responsiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative…

DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.

2014-01-01

230

Infant and Maternal Sensitivity to Interpersonal Timing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A perturbation paradigm was employed to assess 3- and 6-month-old infants' and their mothers' sensitivity to a 3-s temporal delay implemented in an ongoing televised interaction. At both ages, the temporal delay affected infant but not maternal behavior and only when implementing the temporal delay in maternal (Experiment 1, N = 64) but not infant

Henning, Anne; Striano, Tricia

2011-01-01

231

Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that…

Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

2012-01-01

232

Prediction of Neurodevelopmental Sequelae in VLBW Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined pre-, peri-, and neonatal factors in 271 British infants (weighing less than 1500 grams at birth), 188 of whom survived to 2 years. The study represented an attempt to define those factors which predict normal neurodevelopmental outcome in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Surviving infants were seen at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24…

Wolke, Dieter; And Others

233

How Infants Use Vision for Grasping Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments examined vision's role in infants' grasping of horizontally and vertically oriented rods. Found that infants differentially oriented their hand regardless of lighting and similar to control conditions where they could see rod and hand throughout reach. Findings suggest that infants may use current sight of object's orientation or…

McCarty, Michael E.; Clifton, Rachel K.; Ashmead, Daniel H.; Lee, Philip; Goubet, Nathalie

2001-01-01

234

Programme Planning for Infants and Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Caring for infants and toddlers has long been conceptualized in Western society as mothers' work, and consequently devalued. Alternative care for infants and toddlers has lacked a knowledge base like that undergirding preschool education. Factors impeding research on infant/toddler care include strong ideological opposition to nonmaternal care,…

Hutchins, Teresa; Sims, Margaret

235

Infants with dilated cardiomyopathy and hypocalcemia.  

PubMed

Hypocalcemia is a rare reversible cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and congestive heart failure; however, there are few reported cases, especially in infants. We describe 12 infants presenting with DCM and congestive cardiac failure who were found to have hypocalcemia. Vitamin D deficiency was the cause of hypocalcemia in all cases. The infants improved on supplementation with vitamin D and calcium. PMID:24251165

Sanyal, Debmalya; Raychaudhuri, Moutusi

2013-10-01

236

Infants with dilated cardiomyopathy and hypocalcemia  

PubMed Central

Hypocalcemia is a rare reversible cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and congestive heart failure; however, there are few reported cases, especially in infants. We describe 12 infants presenting with DCM and congestive cardiac failure who were found to have hypocalcemia. Vitamin D deficiency was the cause of hypocalcemia in all cases. The infants improved on supplementation with vitamin D and calcium. PMID:24251165

Sanyal, Debmalya; Raychaudhuri, Moutusi

2013-01-01

237

Infants Attribute to Agents Goals and Dispositions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary article is to be published alongside: Hernik, M., & Southgate, V. (2012). What do infants know about agents' goals? The authors see this issue consisting of two closely related questions. First, what is an agent to infants? Second, how do infants attribute goals to agents? Hernik and Southgage (H&S) focused on the second question.…

Luo, Yuyan; Choi, You-jung

2012-01-01

238

The Goldilocks Effect in Infant Auditory Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants must learn about many cognitive domains (e.g., language, music) from auditory statistics, yet capacity limits on their cognitive resources restrict the quantity that they can encode. Previous research has established that infants can attend to only a subset of available acoustic input. Yet few previous studies have directly examined infant

Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Aslin, Richard N.

2014-01-01

239

Infant Developmental Outcomes: A Family Systems Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the current study was to examine whether parental mental health, parent-infant relationship, infant characteristics and couple's relationship factors were associated with the infant's development. Forty-two families took part at three time points. The first, at 3?months postpartum, involved a video recorded observation…

Parfitt, Ylva; Pike, Alison; Ayers, Susan

2014-01-01

240

Infant Vocal Development in a Dynamic Mother-Infant Communication System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is an investigation of the development of infant vocalization in a changing and dynamic mother-infant communication system. Thirteen infants and their moth- ers were observed weekly from 4 to 24 weeks of age in a face-to-face interaction situa- tion. Three patterns of mother-infant communication dynamics were classified: sym- metrical (mutual engagement by mother and infant), asymmetrical (mother active

Hui-Chin Hsu; Alan Fogel

241

Infants and Toddlers Exploring Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers examples of what infants and toddlers might do in early childhood settings, how these behaviors are related to mathematics, and what teachers can do to encourage the natural mathematical interests of this age group. Asserts that teachers' interactions with children are vitally important to children's understanding of early mathematics. (KB)

Geist, Eugene

2003-01-01

242

Infants Hierarchically Organize Memory Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout development, working memory is subject to capacity limits that severely constrain short-term storage. However, adults can massively expand the total amount of remembered information by grouping items into "chunks". Although infants also have been shown to chunk objects in memory, little is known regarding the limits of this…

Rosenberg, Rebecca D.; Feigenson, Lisa

2013-01-01

243

What Do Infants Really Eat?  

PubMed

This article compares the feeding practices of healthy infants reported by their mothers in studies spanning two decades. Nutrient intakes are largely adequate and feeding practices are changing to meet recommendations, but breast-feeding rates do not meet public health guidelines. PMID:11984433

Ryan, Claire; Dwyer, Johanna; Ziegler, Paula; Yang, Eunju; Moore, Linda; Song, Won O.

2002-01-01

244

Music Therapy with Premature Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

Standley, Jayne

2003-01-01

245

abnormalities in infants and toddlers  

E-print Network

Cerebellar abnormalities in infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome Wendy Jones* PhD, The Salk-mail: jones@crl.ucsd.edu One commonly observed neuroanatomical abnormality in adults with Williams syndrome children with Williams syndrome. Clinical brain MRI was examined in nine young children with Williams

Bellugi, Ursula

246

Measurement and the Newborn Infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of newborn babies is widely regarded as being too inaccurate to justify its regular practice. It is common for infants to be weighed at birth and for no other measurements to be made. Although such assumptions are superficially correct, it is possible to train people to perform accurate measurements and for improved performance to be sustained. Accurate sequential measurements

Alan T. Gibson; Sally Carney; Neil P. Wright; Jeremy K. H. Wales

2003-01-01

247

Infant feeding in risk society  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large percentage of British women, in common with women in other Western countries, feed their young babies formula milk. The paper reports some findings of a study of infant feeding that focussed on women's experiences of feeding their babies this way. Data about this issue were collected through detailed, qualitative face to face interviews with 33 mothers and through

Ellie J. Lee

2007-01-01

248

Nighttime Wakefulness Associated with Infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parent-infant cosleeping occurs in human and nonhuman primates, yet stud- ies on the impact of cosleeping on parental sleep patterns have been limited to human mothers. We examined the effects of cosleeping on the nighttime wake- fulness of a biparental New World primate, Wied's black tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix kuhlii). We compared the sleep patterns of marmoset parents caring for young

Jeffrey E. Fite; Jeffrey A. French; Kimberly J. Patera; Elizabeth C. Hopkins; Michael Rukstalis; Heather A. Jensen; Corinna N. Ross

249

Infant Massage: Communicating through Touch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the benefits of infant massage, particularly for babies with deafness who have hearing parents. Steps for giving baby massages are provided, including placing a hand on the baby's stomach and making eye contact, starting with the legs, looking for cues, and communicating with the baby. (CR)

Stevens, Vivian

1998-01-01

250

Superfund Cleanups and Infant Health  

E-print Network

We are the first to examine the effect of Superfund cleanups on infant health rather than focusing on proximity to a site. We study singleton births to mothers residing within 5km of a Superfund site between 1989-2003 in ...

Currie, Janet

251

Infant Mortality: 1989 Research Accomplishments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collected in this document are reports of the National Institutes of Health's 1989 accomplishments in research on the problem of infant mortality. Reports are provided by the: (1) National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; (2) National Cancer Institute; (3) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; (4) National Institute of…

National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

252

Infants Can Study Air Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

Ward, Alan

1983-01-01

253

Atypical Infant Development. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 13 chapters of this text focus on the complex development issues and interdisciplinary service needs of infants and young children at risk and their families. The text is organized into four sections on: developmental and intervention principles, identification and assessment, developmental issues, and early intervention. Chapter titles and…

Hanson, Marci J., Ed.

254

Infants and Toddlers Exploring Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A good deal of research is beginning to support the idea of emergent mathematics and that, much as with reading, children begin to learn mathematics from the day they are born. Infants and toddlers begin to notice relationships as they interact with their parents or primary caregivers through songs, rocking, and other verbal and nonverbal…

Geist, Eugene

2009-01-01

255

Fever in Infants and Children  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Fever in Infants and Children See complete list of charts. Because young children are not able to hold a thermometer in their ... two months of age or younger with a fever of 100.4° or higher? Yes This may ...

256

Generalization of word meanings during infant sleep  

PubMed Central

Sleep consolidates memory and promotes generalization in adults, but it is still unknown to what extent the rapidly growing infant memory benefits from sleep. Here we show that during sleep the infant brain reorganizes recent memories and creates semantic knowledge from individual episodic experiences. Infants aged between 9 and 16 months were given the opportunity to encode both objects as specific word meanings and categories as general word meanings. Event-related potentials indicate that, initially, infants acquire only the specific but not the general word meanings. About 1.5?h later, infants who napped during the retention period, but not infants who stayed awake, remember the specific word meanings and, moreover, successfully generalize words to novel category exemplars. Independently of age, the semantic generalization effect is correlated with sleep spindle activity during the nap, suggesting that sleep spindles are involved in infant sleep-dependent brain plasticity. PMID:25633407

Friedrich, Manuela; Wilhelm, Ines; Born, Jan; Friederici, Angela D.

2015-01-01

257

Generalization of word meanings during infant sleep.  

PubMed

Sleep consolidates memory and promotes generalization in adults, but it is still unknown to what extent the rapidly growing infant memory benefits from sleep. Here we show that during sleep the infant brain reorganizes recent memories and creates semantic knowledge from individual episodic experiences. Infants aged between 9 and 16 months were given the opportunity to encode both objects as specific word meanings and categories as general word meanings. Event-related potentials indicate that, initially, infants acquire only the specific but not the general word meanings. About 1.5?h later, infants who napped during the retention period, but not infants who stayed awake, remember the specific word meanings and, moreover, successfully generalize words to novel category exemplars. Independently of age, the semantic generalization effect is correlated with sleep spindle activity during the nap, suggesting that sleep spindles are involved in infant sleep-dependent brain plasticity. PMID:25633407

Friedrich, Manuela; Wilhelm, Ines; Born, Jan; Friederici, Angela D

2015-01-01

258

Infants of Postpartum Depressed Mothers: Temperament and Cognitive Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association of postpartum depression with specific infant characteristics. Twenty-five diagnosed depressed and 25 nondepressed mothers and their 2-month-old infants participated in the study. The mothers completed measures of infant temperament and difficulty associated with infant care, and the infants were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Group comparisons indicated that, compared with the infants

Valerie E. Whiffen; Ian H. Gotlib

1989-01-01

259

Do infants influence their quality of care? Infants' communicative gestures predict caregivers' responsiveness.  

PubMed

Infants' effects on adults are a little studied but important aspect of development. What do infants do that increases caregiver responsiveness in childcare environments? Infants' communicative behaviors (i.e. smiling, crying) affect mothers' responsiveness; and preschool children's language abilities affect teachers' responses in the classroom setting. However, the effects of infants' intentional communications on either parents' or non-parental caregivers' responsiveness have not been examined. Using longitudinal video data from an infant classroom where infant signing was used along with conventional gestures (i.e. pointing), this study examines whether infants' use of gestures and signs elicited greater responsiveness from caregivers during daily interactions. Controlling child age and individual child effects, infants' gestures and signs used specifically to respond to caregivers elicited more responsiveness from caregivers during routine interactions. Understanding the effects of infants' behaviors on caregivers is critical for helping caregivers understand and improve their own behavior towards children in their care. PMID:19560826

Vallotton, Claire D

2009-12-01

260

Coregulation in mother-infant dyads: links to infants' cardiac vagal tone.  

PubMed

This investigation explored links between mother-infant coregulated communication patterns and infants' emerging parasympathetic regulatory processes (cardiac vagal tone). Participants included 56 first-time mothers and their 6-mo.-old infants (31 girls, 25 boys). A 4-min. baseline EKG was gathered from the infant and an ensuing 15-min. mother-infant dyadic free-play episode was videotaped and coded using Fogel's 1994 Regional Coding System. This system was developed to describe variations in coregulated features of communication among dyads, ranging from symmetrical patterns to disruptive patterns of coregulation. Analysis suggests a positive link between infants' cardiac vagal tone and more symmetrical features of coregulated communication patterns in mother-infant dyads. Cardiac vagal tone was also negatively correlated with unilateral features of coregulation communication systems. These findings point toward the potential relation between emerging physiological regulatory abilities of infants and the more relational regulatory processes in mother-infant dyads. PMID:12674298

Porter, Christin L

2003-02-01

261

Probing the Physics of Narrow-Line Regions in Active Galaxies. III. Accretion and Cocoon Shocks in the Liner NGC 1052  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Wide Field Spectrograph integral field spectroscopy and Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph spectroscopy for the low-ionization nuclear emission line region (LINER) galaxy NGC 1052. We infer the presence of a turbulent accretion flow forming a small-scale accretion disk. We find a large-scale outflow and ionization cone along the minor axis of the galaxy. Part of this outflow region is photoionized by the active galactic nucleus and shares properties with the extended narrow-line region of Seyfert galaxies, but the inner (R? 1.0?) accretion disk and the region around the radio jet appear shock excited. The emission-line properties can be modeled by a “double-shock” model in which the accretion flow first passes through an accretion shock in the presence of a hard X-ray radiation, and the accretion disk is then processed through a cocoon shock driven by the overpressure of the radio jets. This model explains the observation of two distinct densities (?104 and ?106 cm?3) and provides a good fit to the observed emission-line spectrum. We derive estimates for the velocities of the two shock components and their mixing fractions, the black hole mass, and the accretion rate needed to sustain the LINER emission and derive an estimate for the jet power. Our emission-line model is remarkably robust against variation of input parameters and hence offers a generic explanation for the excitation of LINER galaxies, including those of spiral type such as NGC 3031 (M81).

Dopita, Michael A.; Ho, I.-Ting; Dressel, Linda L.; Sutherland, Ralph; Kewley, Lisa; Davies, Rebecca; Hampton, Elise; Shastri, Prajval; Kharb, Preeti; Jose, Jessy; Bhatt, Harish; Ramya, S.; Scharwächter, Julia; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; James, Bethan; Juneau, Stéphanie; Srivastava, Shweta

2015-03-01

262

Infants’ Learning of Phonological Status  

PubMed Central

There is a substantial literature describing how infants become more sensitive to differences between native phonemes (sounds that are both present and meaningful in the input) and less sensitive to differences between non-native phonemes (sounds that are neither present nor meaningful in the input) over the course of development. Here, we review an emergent strand of literature that gives a more nuanced notion of the problem of sound category learning. This research documents infants’ discovery of phonological status, signaled by a decrease in sensitivity to sounds that map onto the same phonemic category vs. different phonemic categories. The former phones are present in the input, but their difference does not cue meaning distinctions because they are tied to one and the same phoneme. For example, the diphthong I in I’m should map to the same underlying category as the diphthong in I’d, despite the fact that the first vowel is nasal and the second oral. Because such pairs of sounds are processed differently than those than map onto different phonemes by adult speakers, the learner has to come to treat them differently as well. Interestingly, there is some evidence that infants’ sensitivity to dimensions that are allophonic in the ambient language declines as early as 11?months. We lay out behavioral research, corpora analyses, and computational work which sheds light on how infants achieve this feat at such a young age. Collectively, this work suggests that the computation of complementary distribution and the calculation of phonetic similarity operate in concert to guide infants toward a functional interpretation of sounds that are present in the input, yet not lexically contrastive. In addition to reviewing this literature, we discuss broader implications for other fundamental theoretical and empirical questions. PMID:23130004

Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina

2012-01-01

263

Distinguishing Mother-Infant Interaction from Stranger-Infant Interaction at 2, 4, and 6 Months of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Observers watched videotaped face-to-face mother-infant and stranger-infant interactions of 12 infants at 2, 4, or 6 months of age. Half of the observers saw each mother paired with her own infant and another infant of the same age (mother tapes) and half saw each infant paired with his or her mother and with a stranger (infant tapes). Observers…

Bigelow, Ann E.; Power, Michelle; Mcquaid, Nancy; Ward, Ashley; Rochat, Philippe

2008-01-01

264

Array heterogeneity prevents catastrophic forgetting in infants.  

PubMed

Working memory is limited in adults and infants. But unlike adults, infants whose working memory capacity is exceeded often fail in a particularly striking way: they do not represent any of the presented objects, rather than simply remembering as many objects as they can and ignoring anything further (Feigenson & Carey, 2003, 2005). Here we explored the nature of this "catastrophic forgetting," asking whether stimuli themselves modulate the way in which infants' memory fails. We showed 13-month old infants object arrays that either were within or that exceeded working memory capacity--but, unlike previous experiments, presented objects with contrasting features. Although previous studies have repeatedly documented infants' failure to represent four identical hidden objects, in Experiments 1 and 2 we found that infants who saw four contrasting objects hidden, and then retrieved just two of the four, successfully continued searching for the missing objects. Perceptual contrast between objects sufficed to drive this success; infants succeeded regardless of whether the different objects were contrastively labeled, and regardless of whether the objects were semantically familiar or completely novel. In Experiment 3 we explored the nature of this surprising success, asking whether array heterogeneity actually expanded infants' working memory capacity or rather prevented catastrophic forgetting. We found that infants successfully continued searching after seeing four contrasting objects hidden and retrieving two of them, but not after retrieving three of them. This suggests that, like adults, infants were able to remember up to, but not beyond, the limits of their working memory capacity when representing heterogeneous arrays. PMID:25543889

Zosh, Jennifer M; Feigenson, Lisa

2015-03-01

265

Infant autonomic functioning and neonatal abstinence syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) expression is widely variable among affected infants and the reasons for this variability are largely unknown; mechanisms that predispose infants to NAS expression are not understood. It has been postulated that the regulatory problems of prenatally drug exposed infants are manifested in dysfunctional vagal regulation of autonomic processes. The current study examines whether cardiac vagal tone, an indicator of parasympathetic neuroregulation, provides a marker for autonomic dysregulation subsequently expressed as NAS in prenatally opioid-exposed newborns. Methods Heart period (HP) and cardiac vagal tone (V) were derived from electrocardiogram data collected from 64 methadone-exposed infants on postnatal days 1 and 3. The postpartum NAS course was assessed serially. Results Infants with lower V on day 1 had significantly higher NAS symptomatology on day 3. Boys had more severe NAS symptoms than girls through the first 4 days of life and, among infants receiving pharmacologic treatment for NAS, boys required longer treatment course and hospitalizations. Greater poly-drug exposure, detected through toxicology screening throughout pregnancy, and cocaine use in particular, were associated with lower V and shorter HP (faster heart rate) in newborns. Multiple regression models accounted for 25 to 35% of the variance in NAS symptoms and duration of hospitalization in methadone-exposed infants. Significant predictors included infant sex, SSRI/SNRI use, and cigarette smoking. Conclusions Results support the hypothesis of a biologic vulnerability of autonomic regulatory functioning in methadone-exposed infants and greater male infant vulnerability to maternal methadone use. PMID:20189732

Jansson, Lauren M.; DiPietro, Janet A.; Elko, Andrea; Velez, Martha

2010-01-01

266

Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2008 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set  

E-print Network

A reformatted, typeset version of this report will replace the current version. Objective: This report presents 2008 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth/infant death data set (linked file) by a variety of maternal and infant characteristics. The linked file differs from the mortality file which is based entirely on death certificate data. Methods- Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. Results- The U.S. infant mortality rate was 6.61 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2008, 2 percent lower than the rate of 6.75 in 2007. Infant mortality rates ranged from 4.51 per 1,000 live births for Asian or Pacific Islander mothers to 12.67 for non-Hispanic black mothers. The rate for non-Hispanic black women declined 5 percent from 2007 to 2008. Infant mortality was higher for male infants and infants born preterm or at low birthweight. Infant mortality rates were also higher for those infants who were born in multiple deliveries, to mothers who were unmarried, and for those whose mothers were born in the 50 States or the District of Columbia. From 2007 to 2008, the neonatal mortality rate (less than 28 days) declined by 3 percent to 4.29 neonatal deaths per 1,000 live births, while the postneonatal mortality rate (28 days to less than one year) remained essentially unchanged (2.32). Preterm and low birthweight infants had the highest infant mortality rates and contributed greatly to the overall US infant mortality. The three leading causes of infant death- Congenital malformations, low birthweight, and SIDS- accounted for 46 percent of all infant deaths. In 2008, 35.4 percent of infant deaths were “preterm-related”.

T. J. Mathews; Marian F. Macdorman, Ph.D.; Division Of Vital Statistics

267

Infant Sleep and Parental Sleep-Related Cognitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infant sleep is a major source of distress in many families. The purpose of this study was to assess infant sleep and parental sleep-related cognitions about infant sleep in clinical and control samples. The clinical sample consisted of 48 infants referred to a sleep clinic because of night-wakings problems. The control sample included 48 infants with no parental complaints about

Avi Sadeh; Eti Flint-Ofir; Tamar Tirosh; Liat Tikotzky

2007-01-01

268

Infant and Child Nutrition Navigating for Success Training Day Record  

E-print Network

UNIT 17: Infant and Child Nutrition Unit Tools #12;Navigating for Success Training Day Record Unit for Success Infant and Child Nutrition Task 1A- Puzzle #12;Navigating for Success Infant and Child Nutrition Task 1A- Puzzle #12;Navigating for Success Infant and Child Nutrition Task 1B, 2B-Infant and Toddler

269

BEHAVIORAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CORRELATES OF INFANT ABUSE IN GROUP-  

E-print Network

BEHAVIORAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CORRELATES OF INFANT ABUSE IN GROUP- LIVING PIGTAIL MACAQUES Dario of occurrence of infant abuse and the behavior of abusive mothers and their infants in pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina).Subjects were 8 abusive mothers with their infants and 8 control mother-infant pairs living in 3

Maestripieri, Dario

270

Grooming and Infant Handling Interchange in Macaca fascicularis: The Relationship  

E-print Network

Grooming and Infant Handling Interchange in Macaca fascicularis: The Relationship Between Infant Abstract Female long-tailed macaques are attracted to infants and frequently groom mothers bearing them. Such grooming often involves the groomer contacting the infant and may be a trade of grooming for infant

Wilkinson, Gerald S.

271

A History of Infant Feeding  

PubMed Central

The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

2009-01-01

272

Observed and Reported Supportive Coparenting as Predictors of Infant-Mother and Infant-Father Attachment Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined associations between supportive coparenting and infant-mother and infant-father attachment security. Observed and parent-reported coparenting, and observed maternal and paternal sensitivity were assessed in a sample of 68 families with 3.5-month-old infants. Infant-mother and infant-father attachment security were assessed in…

Brown, Geoffrey L.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Neff, Cynthia

2010-01-01

273

[Nutritional support in preterm infants].  

PubMed

Extrauterine growth restriction is much popular in China and it is still challenge job for pediatricians. This article described the benefits for PICC in route of PN choice. New fat emulsions were appeared recently years, however they are no strong evidence for using in premature infants and need do more clinical trial. Parenteral nutrition associated with liver damage still is a serious complication of TPN and we encourage early enteral feeding, appropriate calore intake, anti sepsis for prevention. PMID:25008868

Cai, Wei

2014-07-01

274

Socioeconomic inequalities in infant temperament  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  A low socioeconomic status (SES) has consistently been associated with behavioural problems during childhood. The studies\\u000a of SES and behaviour in infants used temperament as a behavioural measure. However, these studies in younger children yielded\\u000a inconsistent findings. Furthermore, they generally did not examine explanatory mechanisms underlying the association between\\u000a SES and temperament. We investigated the association between SES and temperament

Pauline W. Jansen; Hein Raat; Johan P. Mackenbach; Vincent W. V. Jaddoe; Albert Hofman; Frank C. Verhulst; Henning Tiemeier

2009-01-01

275

Orientational anisotropy in infant vision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infants prefer to look at horizontal and vertical gratings rather than at oblique gratings only when they are at or near threshold spatial frequencies, as would be expected if acuity for oblique edges is lower than that for horizontal and vertical edges. That such a bias exists as early as 6 weeks of age suggests that the orientational asymmetry of the visual system depends on endogeneous maturation rather than exposure to a carpentered world.

Cohen Leehey, S.; Moskowitz-Cook, A.; Brill, S.; Held, R.

1975-01-01

276

Mother's personality and infant temperament  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined if perfectionism and the perception of being an anxious person were associated with more negative infant temperament ratings by the mothers. 386 women (mean age=30.08; standard deviation=4.21) in their last trimester of pregnancy completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and an item about their perception of being or not an anxious person. The

A. Macedo; M. Marques; S. Bos; B. R. Maia; T. Pereira; M. J. Soares; J. Valente; A. A. Gomes; V. Nogueira; M. H. Azevedo

2011-01-01

277

How Infants Learn About the Visual World  

PubMed Central

The visual world of adults consists of objects at various distances, partly occluding one another, substantial and stable across space and time. The visual world of young infants, in contrast, is often fragmented and unstable, consisting not of coherent objects but rather surfaces that move in unpredictable ways. Evidence from computational modeling and from experiments with human infants highlights three kinds of learning that contribute to infants' knowledge of the visual world: learning via association, learning via active assembly, and learning via visual-manual exploration. Infants acquire knowledge by observing objects move in and out of sight, forming associations of these different views. In addition, the infant's own self-produced behavior—oculomotor patterns and manual experience, in particular—are important means by which infants discover and construct their visual world. PMID:21116440

Johnson, Scott P.

2010-01-01

278

Northern infant syndrome: a deficiency state?  

PubMed Central

A syndrome is described that affected 16 Indian and Inuit infants roughly 3 months old, most of whom were born in settlements in the Canadian Arctic. The infants presented with a clinical picture that included hepatitis, hemolytic anemia, rickets and respiratory distress, a combination that resembled a syndrome first described in malnourished infants at the turn of the century by von Jaksch and Luzet. The clinical course was self-limited, and all the infants survived without sequelae. The cause of the syndrome was not determined; no infectious agents were discovered. However, low levels of vitamins A, C, D and E were found in a few infants in whom assays were done. The implications of these findings and their relation to the possible cause of this "northern infant syndrome" are discussed. PMID:6547633

Godel, J C; Hart, A G

1984-01-01

279

Anatomy of the infant head  

SciTech Connect

This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ.

Bosma, J.F.

1986-01-01

280

Do infants detect indirect reciprocity?  

PubMed

In social interactions involving indirect reciprocity, agent A acts prosocially towards B and this prompts C to act prosocially towards A. This happens because A's actions enhanced its reputation in the eyes of third parties. Indirect reciprocity may have been of central importance in the evolution of morality as one of the major mechanisms leading to the selection of helping and fair attitudes. Here we show that 10-month-old infants expect third parties to act positively towards fair donors who have distributed attractive resources equally between two recipients, rather than toward unfair donors who made unequal distributions. Infants' responses were dependent on the reciprocator's perceptual exposure to previous relevant events: they expected the reciprocator to reward the fair donor only when it had seen the distributive actions performed by the donors. We propose that infants were able to generate evaluations of agents that were based on the fairness of their distributive actions and to generate expectations about the social preferences of informed third parties. PMID:23887149

Meristo, Marek; Surian, Luca

2013-10-01

281

Pertussis  

MedlinePLUS

... spread the disease to others. Infants younger than 18 months need constant supervision because their breathing may temporarily ... 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15 to 18 months, and 4 to 6 years. The Tdap vaccine ...

282

Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2001 Period Linked Birth\\/Infant Death Data Set  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives—This report presents 2001 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth\\/infant death data set (linked file) by a variety of maternal and infant characteristics. Methods—Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. Results—Infant mortality rates ranged from 3.2 per 1,000 live births for Chinese mothers to 13.3 for black mothers. Among Hispanics, rates ranged from 4.2 for Cuban mothers

T. J. Mathews; Fay Menacker; Marian F. MacDorman

2003-01-01

283

Considerations in planning vegan diets: Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Appropriately planned,vegan,diets can satisfy nutrient needs,of infants. The American,Dietetic Association and The American,Academy,of Pediatrics state that vegan,diets can promote,normal,infant growth. It is important,for parents,to provide appropriate foods for vegan infants, using guidelines like those in this article. Key considerations,when working with vegan families include composition,of breast milk from vegan women, appropriate breast milk substitutes, supple- ments, type and amount

Ann Reed Mangels; Fada Virginia Messina

284

Function of infant-directed speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between a biological process and a behavioral trait indicates a proximate mechanism by which natural selection\\u000a can act. In that context, examining an aspect of infant health is one method of investigating the adaptive significance of\\u000a infant-directed speech (ID speech), and it could help to explain the widespread use of this communication style. The correlation\\u000a between infant growth

Marilee Monnot

1999-01-01

285

Primary orbital mycosis in immunocompetent infants.  

PubMed

Fungal orbital infections are rare among children, especially in immunocompetent infants. Two infants presented to us with unilateral proptosis and swelling of the eyelids and periorbital area. Imaging showed an intraorbital mass causing proptosis and bony orbital expansion. There was no sinus, nasal, or intracranial involvement. Systemic evaluation did not reveal any evidence of a compromised immune system. A biopsy from the mass showed the presence of fungal infection. Both infants responded well to medical therapy with intravenous amphotericin B. PMID:21596302

Chawla, Bhavna; Sharma, Sanjay; Kashyap, Seema; Kabra, S K; Pushker, Neelam; Bajaj, Mandeep S

2011-04-01

286

In and out of Synch: Infant Childcare Teachers' Adaptations to Infants' Developmental Changes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative multi-case study explored the social exchanges and responsive connections between infants and their infant childcare teachers within a group care context. Infants' naturally occurring behaviours were videotaped purposefully at two separate time points, near the end of their first year and approximately six months later. Findings…

Recchia, Susan L.; Shin, Minsun

2012-01-01

287

The Infant Parent Training Institute: A Developmental Model for Training Infant Mental Health Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Infant Parent Training Institute (IPTI) at Jewish Family and Children's Service of Greater Boston offers integrated clinical and theoretical infant mental health training. The curriculum reflects the belief that nurturing and reflective relationships promote optimal learning and growth. A specialty in infant mental health requires knowledge…

Arons, Judith; Epstein, Ann; Sklan, Susan

2011-01-01

288

Infants as Others: Uncertainties, Difficulties and (Im)possibilities in Researching Infants' Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, researchers are trying to understand what daily life is like for infants in non-parental care from the perspectives of the infants themselves. In this article, we argue that it is profoundly difficult, if not impossible, to know how infants experience their worlds with any certainty and, indeed, whether they do or do not possess…

Elwick, Sheena; Bradley, Ben; Sumsion, Jennifer

2014-01-01

289

Infant Temperament, Maternal Personality, and Parenting Stress as Contributors to Infant Developmental Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined contributions of maternal personality and infant temperament to infant vocabulary and cognitive development both directly and indirectly through parental stress. Participants were recruited at birth and included 63 infant twin pairs and their mothers. Assessments were completed at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age and included…

Molfese, Victoria J.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Beswick, Jennifer L.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.; Ferguson, Melissa C.; White, Jamie M.

2010-01-01

290

77 FR 66703 - Safety Standard for Infant Swings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...American Baby Group (2006 Baby Products Tracking Study). About 79 percent of new mothers own at least one infant swing--61 percent own full-sized infant swings, and 33 percent own smaller travel infant swings. Approximately 31 percent of...

2012-11-07

291

16 CFR 1223.2 - Requirements for infant swings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Requirements for infant swings. 1223.2 Section 1223.2 Commercial...SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR INFANT SWINGS § 1223.2 Requirements for infant swings. (a) Except as provided in...

2013-01-01

292

Pharmacokinetic properties of mezlocillin in newborn infants.  

PubMed Central

The pharmacokinetic properties of mezlocillin were evaluated in newborn infants. Mean peak and trough concentrations of drug in plasma, after 75 mg of mezlocillin per kg given intravenously, were 252 and 72 micrograms/ml, respectively, in infants who were less than 38 weeks gestation and less than or equal to 7 days old, compared with 139 and 9 micrograms/ml, respectively, in infants greater than or equal to 38 weeks gestation and greater than 7 days old. The mean elimination half-life values were from 4.5 h in preterm infants who were less than or equal to 7 days old to 1.8 h in term infants greater than or equal to 7 days old. Median peak and trough bactericidal titers of drug in plasma from neonates treated with mezlocillin were 1:8 and 1:4, respectively, against a resistant (minimal bactericidal concentration, 512 micrograms/ml) Escherichia coli strain and 1:64 and 1:32, respectively, against a susceptible (minimal bactericidal concentration, 2 micrograms/ml) E. coli strain. We propose a dosage schedule of 75 mg of mezlocillin per kg administered every 12 h to preterm (gestational age less than 38 weeks) infants less than or equal to 7 days old, every 8 h to preterm infants greater than 7 days old or term infants less than or equal to 7 days old, and every 6 h to term infants greater than 7 days old. PMID:6563875

Odio, C; Threlkeld, N; Thomas, M L; McCraken, G H

1984-01-01

293

Touch and massage for medically fragile infants.  

PubMed

Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver-infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants. PMID:18955228

Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J; Gallardo, Constance C; Joseph, Michael H; Gold, Jeffrey I

2009-12-01

294

Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants  

PubMed Central

Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants’ safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver–infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants. PMID:18955228

Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J.; Gallardo, Constance C.; Joseph, Michael H.

2009-01-01

295

Infant Safe Sleep Checklist Purpose: The goal of creating a safe sleep environment for infants is to reduce the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and other  

E-print Network

Infant Safe Sleep Checklist Purpose: The goal of creating a safe sleep environment for infants is to reduce the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and other sleep-related deaths such as accidental with a method for reviewing the infant's sleep environment. This checklist can serve as a basis for providing

Garfunkel, Eric

296

ACOG Committee Opinion No. 566: Update on immunization and pregnancy: tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccination.  

PubMed

In the face of dramatic and persistent increases in pertussis disease in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has updated its guidelines for the use of the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) for pregnant women. The new guidance was issued based on an imperative to minimize the significant burden of pertussis disease in vulnerable newborns, the reassuring safety data on the use of Tdap in adults, and the evolving immunogenicity data that demonstrate considerable waning of immunity after immunization. The revised Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices guidelines recommend that health care personnel administer a dose of Tdap during each pregnancy, irrespective of the patient's prior history of receiving Tdap. To maximize the maternal antibody response and passive antibody transfer and levels in the newborn, optimal timing for Tdap administration is between 27 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation, although Tdap may be given at any time during pregnancy. However, there may be compelling reasons to vaccinate earlier in pregnancy. There is no evidence of adverse fetal effects from vaccinating pregnant women with an inactivated virus or bacterial vaccines or toxoids, and a growing body of robust data demonstrates safety of such use. For women who previously have not received Tdap, if Tdap was not administered during pregnancy it should be administered immediately postpartum to the mother in order to reduce the risk of transmission to the newborn. Additionally, other family members and planned direct caregivers also should receive Tdap as previously recommended (sustained efforts at cocooning). Given the rapid evolution of data surrounding this topic, immunization guidelines are likely to change over time and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists will continue to issue updates accordingly. PMID:23812487

2013-06-01

297

Two-Month-Old Infants' Sensitivity to Social Contingency in Mother-Infant and Stranger-Infant Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two-month-old infants (N = 29) participated in face-to-face interactions with their mothers and with strangers. The contingent responsiveness for smiles and vocalizations, while attending to the partner, was assessed for each partner in both interactions. For smiles and for vocalizations, infants were less responsive to the stranger relative to…

Bigelow, Ann E.; Rochat, Philippe

2006-01-01

298

Developing a standard approach to examine infant mortality: findings from the State Infant Mortality Collaborative (SIMC).  

PubMed

States can improve pregnancy outcomes by using a standard approach to assess infant mortality. The State Infant Mortality Collaborative (SIMC) developed a series of analyses to describe infant mortality in states, identify contributing factors to infant death, and develop the evidence base for implementing new or modifying existing programs and policies addressing infant mortality. The SIMC was conducted between 2004 and 2006 among five states: Delaware, Hawaii, Louisiana, Missouri, and North Carolina. States used analytic strategies in an iterative process to investigate contributors to infant mortality. Analyses were conducted within three domains: data reporting (quality, reporting, definitional criteria, and timeliness), cause and timing of infant death (classification of cause and fetal, neonatal, and postneonatal timing), and maturity and weight at birth/maturity and birth weight-specific mortality. All states identified the SIMC analyses as useful for examining infant mortality trends. In each of the three domains, SIMC results were used to identify important direct contributors to infant mortality including disparities, design or implement interventions to reduce infant death, and identify foci for additional analyses. While each state has unique structural, political, and programmatic circumstances, the SIMC model provides a systematic approach to investigating increasing or static infant mortality rates that can be easily replicated in all other states and allows for cross-state comparison of results. PMID:23108735

Stampfel, Caroline; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Dudgeon, Matthew; Goodman, David; Ramos, Lauren Raskin; Barfield, Wanda D

2012-12-01

299

Studies of the free faecal amines of infants with gastroenteritis and of healthy infants.  

PubMed Central

The free primary amines present in the faeces of 44 infants (1-18 months) with gastroenteritis have been examined by field desorption mass spectrometry of the lactone form of their fluorescamine derivatives without their prior separation. p-Tyramine, 2-phenylethylamine, the diamines, putrescine and cadaverine and several of their acyl derivatives were common constituents, but a number of other amines were also characterised. Using thin layer chromatography and field desorption mass spectrometry of the amine dansyl derivatives a comparative study was made of the faecal amines of 13 selected infants with gastroenteritis (diarrhoea) and of 13 healthy infants. p-Tyramine, the most abundant amine, was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in the sick infants. The overall presence of p-tyramine was more significantly related to the diet of the infants. Faecal tyramine was low in breast fed infants but significantly higher (p = 0.01) in infants fed cow's milk. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3781330

Murray, K E; Adams, R F; Earl, J W; Shaw, K J

1986-01-01

300

Infants Segment Continuous Events Using Transitional Probabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout their 1st year, infants adeptly detect statistical structure in their environment. However, little is known about whether statistical learning is a primary mechanism for event segmentation. This study directly tests whether statistical learning alone is sufficient to segment continuous events. Twenty-eight 7- to 9-month-old infants

Stahl, Aimee E.; Romberg, Alexa R.; Roseberry, Sarah; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn

2014-01-01

301

Social Bundles: Thinking through the Infant Body  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on a UK research study on immunization, this article investigates parents' understandings of the relationship between themselves, their infants, other bodies, the state, and cultural practices--material and symbolic. The article argues that infant bodies are best thought of as always social bundles, rather than as biobundles made social…

Brownlie, Julie; Leith, Valerie M. Sheach

2011-01-01

302

Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…

Cohen, Libby

303

Father-Infant Interaction and Sex Role.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An investigation was made of the relationship between sex-role orientation (as measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory) and responsiveness in infant care (as determined by observations on the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale). Subjects participating in the study consisted of 44 father/infant dyads. It was hypothesized that androgynous fathers…

Campbell, Nayna D.

304

Optimizing Infant Development: Strategies for Day Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide for infant day care providers examines the importance of early experience for brain development and strategies for providing optimal infant care. The introduction discusses the current devaluation of day care and idealization of maternal care and identifies benefits of quality day care experience for intellectual development, sleep…

Chambliss, Catherine

305

Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between…

Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

2009-01-01

306

Phonotactic Acquisition in Healthy Preterm Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous work has shown that preterm infants are at higher risk for cognitive/language delays than full-term infants. Recent studies, focusing on prosody (i.e. rhythm, intonation), have suggested that prosodic perception development in preterms is indexed by maturational rather than postnatal/listening age. However, because prosody is heard…

Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

2012-01-01

307

Motor Acquisition Rate in Brazilian Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) with the aim of characterizing motor acquisition rate in 70 healthy 0-6-month-old Brazilian infants, as well as comparing both emergence (initial age) and establishment (final age) of each skill between the study sample and the AIMS normative data. New motor skills were continuously acquired…

Lopes, Virlaine Bardella; de Lima, Carolina Daniel; Tudella, Eloisa

2009-01-01

308

Glucose kinetics in infants of diabetic mothers  

SciTech Connect

Glucose kinetic studies were performed to define the glucose turnover rate with 78% enriched D-(U-13C) glucose by the prime constant infusion technique at less than or equal to 6 hours of age in nine infants of diabetic mothers (four insulin-dependent and five chemical diabetic patients) at term. Five normal infants were studied as control subjects. All infants received 0.9% saline intravenously during the study with the tracer. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and glucose13/12C ratios were measured during the steady state, and the glucose turnover rate was derived. The average plasma glucose concentration was similar during the steady state in the infants of the diabetic mothers and in the control infants, and the glucose turnover rate was not significantly different among the groups: 2.3 +/- 0.6 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of insulin-dependent diabetic patients; 2.4 +/- 0.4 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of chemical diabetic patients; and 3.2 +/- 0.3 mg . kg-1 min-1 in the control subjects. Good control of maternal diabetes evidenced by the normal maternal hemoglobin A1c and plasma glucose concentration at delivery and cord plasma glucose concentration resulted in glucose kinetic values in the infants of diabetic mothers that were indistinguishable from those of control subjects. The data further support the importance of good control of the diabetic state in the pregnant woman to minimize or prevent neonatal hypoglycemia.

Cowett, R.M.; Susa, J.B.; Giletti, B.; Oh, W.; Schwartz, R.

1983-08-01

309

Parents' Responses to Normal and Premature Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses a series of three studies investigating the influence of infants' characteristics and signaling behavior on parents. Videotapes of either smiling/cooing/gurgling or crying infants were used to elicit parents' physiological and affective responses. Measured physiological responses included skin conductance, heart rate, and…

Frodi, Ann; Willie, Diana

310

Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

2010-01-01

311

Maternal incarceration during pregnancy and infant birthweight.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this study was to examine whether incarceration during pregnancy is associated with infant birthweight. Our second objective was to illustrate the sensitivity of the relationship between infant birthweight and exposure to prison during pregnancy to the method used to measure and model this exposure. The data consisted of delivery records of 360 infants born between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2004 to pregnant women incarcerated in Texas state prisons. Weighted linear regression, adjusting for potential confounders, was used to model infant birth weight as a function of: (1) the number of weeks of pregnancy spent incarcerated (Method A) and (2) the gestational age at admission to prison (Method B), respectively. These two exposure measures were modeled as continuous variables with and without linear spline transformation. The association between incarceration during pregnancy and infant birthweight appears strongest among infants born to women incarcerated during the first trimester and very weak to non-existent among infants born to women incarcerated after the first trimester. With Method A, but not Method B, linear spline transformation had a distinct effect on the shape of the relationship between exposure and outcome. The association between exposure to prison during pregnancy and infant birth weight appears to be positive only among women incarcerated during the first trimester of pregnancy and the relation is sensitive to the method used to measure and model exposure to prison during pregnancy. PMID:20422272

Howard, David L; Strobino, Donna; Sherman, Susan G; Crum, Rosa M

2011-05-01

312

Infant Eyes: A Window on Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking "under the hood" if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants' gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous…

Aslin, Richard N.

2012-01-01

313

Do Infants Have a Theory of Mind?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central question debated in current research on infant social cognition is "do infants have a theory of mind?" It is argued here that this question is understood and treated in radically different ways by different participants of the debate arguing either for (e.g., Onishi & Baillargeon, 2005) or against early competence in theory of mind…

Rakoczy, Hannes

2012-01-01

314

Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…

Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

2014-01-01

315

Art and the Infant-Toddler Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stages in the development of art expression in infants and toddlers are briefly described and illustrated in this paper. Following this overview, suggestions are made about ways to introduce infants and toddlers to various developmentally appropriate media and how to support the artistic efforts of very young children. Materials recommended…

Lamb, Marilyn

316

Reducing Infant Mortality. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the wide range of expertise that has been brought to bear on reducing infant mortality across the nation, the first year of life remains a time of considerable risk for many babies. Although the U.S. spends more on health care than any other country, its infant mortality rate remains higher than that of most other industrialized nations.…

Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

2009-01-01

317

Employment Decisions Made by Mothers of Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed how individual characteristics and perceptions of infant needs are associated with decisions about employment. Comparisons and findings about decisions to work or stay home are interpreted in light of maternal demographic and personality attributes and maternal perceptions of infant needs and characteristics. (Author/BL)

Hock, Ellen; And Others

1985-01-01

318

Who's Vulnerable in Infant Child Care Centers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that infants and toddlers, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to a variety of infectious diseases from infant-toddler child care centers. These diseases include infectious diarrhea; rubella; cytomeglovirus; hepatitis A, and haemophilus influenza type B. Suggests ways to prevent the spread of such diseases. (BB)

Kendall, Earline D.; Moukaddem, Virginia E.

1992-01-01

319

Infant Carrying by Male Chacma Baboons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male chacma baboons, Papio ursinus, carry their offspring during confrontations with higher ranking immigrant males, who are a threat to the infants' lives. The infants sometimes initiate these confrontations by approaching and provoking immigrant males when protective males are close by. Mothers rarely interfere during these interactions.

Curt Busse; William J. Hamilton

1981-01-01

320

Update in Maternal and Infant Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review emphasizes research that confirms or questions established practices regarding maternal and infant nutrition. Controversial issues include weight gain and use of vitamins and mineral supplements during pregnancy and the effects of second-hand smoke. Infant nutrition topics include use of unmodified cow's milk, level of fat, and…

Johnston, Elizabeth M.

1989-01-01

321

Undernutrition malnutrition in infants in developing countries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We commend Dr. Humphrey on an insightful and well-written editorial on infant underweight malnutrition and thank her for her interest in our study on this topic. In our trial, provision of fortified spread, a novel lipid-based nutrient supplement, to Malawian infants was associated with a markedly ...

322

Nutrient requirements of term and preterm infants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Growth of the healthy breast-fed term infant is the most widely accepted standard for growth from birth through 4-6 months of age. Thus, it is logical to assume that the amounts of each nutrient ingested by the breast-fed term infant during this period are adequate and the most recent dietary refer...

323

Treatment of an infant with Candida cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sirs, There is very little information in the literature about the treatment of yeast infections of the lower urinary tract in children. We have recently successfully treated a 2-monthold Hispanic infant boy with Candida cystitis by irrigation of the bladder with amphotericin B. The infant was first noted to have bilateral hydronephrosis on prenatal ultrasound examination. Delivery was by elective

Susan B. Conley; Miguel O'Ryan; E. Stephen Buescher; Ronald J. Portman; Jacques M. Lemire; Joseph N. Corriere

1991-01-01

324

Maternal smoking effects on infant growth.  

PubMed

The influence of maternal smoking the nutrient content of breastmilk and impact on infant longitudinal growth rate is unknown. From birth, 23 smoking (S), (7.1 +/- 4.4 cigarettes/day) and 23 non-smoking (NS) mother-infant pairs were followed. The breastmilk volume by deuterium dilution, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) in breastmilk and hair by atomic absorption (AAS) and cotinine levels by radio-immuno-analysis (RIA) were evaluated. Birthweight was similar in contrast to height, and infants grew normally. Height and height-for-age (ZHA) were significantly lower in S infants and weight-for-height (ZWH) was higher in S infants in the third month, caused by slower height growth. Cotinine was 19 times greater in the S mothers and six times higher in their infants, as compared to NS group. Breastmilk volume was 743 +/- 119 g/day (S) and 742 +/- 111 g/day (NS), with no difference in zinc, copper, iron contents, except for cadmium (Cd). In infant's hair, all minerals were higher in the S group. Smoking affected infant's height during breastfeeding, attributed to an eventual impaired bioavailability of essential nutrients. PMID:12362783

Berlanga, María del Rocio; Salazar, Gabriela; Garcia, Carola; Hernandez, Jimmy

2002-09-01

325

Phonotactic Constraints on Infant Word Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do infants use their knowledge of native language sound patterns when learning words? There is ample evidence of infants' precocious acquisition of native language sound structure during the first year of life, but much less evidence concerning how they apply this knowledge to the task of associating sounds with meanings in word learning. To…

Estes, Katharine Graf; Edwards, Jan; Saffran, Jenny R.

2011-01-01

326

Infants Experience Perceptual Narrowing for Nonprimate Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceptual narrowing--a phenomenon in which perception is broad from birth, but narrows as a function of experience--has previously been tested with primate faces. In the first 6 months of life, infants can discriminate among individual human and monkey faces. Though the ability to discriminate monkey faces is lost after about 9 months, infants

Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Varga, Krisztina; Frick, Janet E.; Fragaszy, Dorothy

2011-01-01

327

Immune Vulnerability of Infants to Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

One of the challenges faced by the infant immune system is learning to distinguish the myriad of foreign but nonthreatening antigens encountered from those expressed by true pathogens. This balance is reflected in the diminished production of proinflammatory cytokines by both innate and adaptive immune cells in the infant. A downside of this bias is that several factors critical for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection are significantly restricted in infants, including TNF, IL-1, and IL-12. Furthermore, infant T cells are inherently less capable of differentiating into IFN-?-producing T cells. As a result, infected infants are 5–10 times more likely than adults to develop active tuberculosis (TB) and have higher rates of severe disseminated disease, including miliary TB and meningitis. Infant TB is a fundamentally different disease than TB in immune competent adults. Immunotherapeutics, therefore, should be specifically evaluated in infants before they are routinely employed to treat TB in this age group. Modalities aimed at reducing inflammation, which may be beneficial for adjunctive therapy of some forms of TB in older children and adults, may be of no benefit or even harmful in infants who manifest much less inflammatory disease. PMID:23762096

Vanden Driessche, Koen; Marais, Ben J.; Fink, Pamela J.; Urdahl, Kevin B.

2013-01-01

328

Nap-Dependent Learning in Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sleep has been shown to aid a variety of learning and memory processes in adults (Stickgold, 2005 ). Recently, we showed that infants' learning also benefits from subsequent sleep such that infants who nap are able to abstract the general grammatical pattern of a briefly presented artificial language (Gomez, Bootzin & Nadel, 2006 ). In the present…

Hupbach, Almut; Gomez, Rebecca L.; Bootzin, Richard R.; Nadel, Lynn

2009-01-01

329

Development of Abstract Grammatical Categorization in Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined abstract syntactic categorization in infants, using the case of grammatical gender. Ninety-six French-learning 14-, 17-, 20-, and 30-month-olds completed the study. In a preferential looking procedure infants were tested on their generalized knowledge of grammatical gender involving pseudonouns and gender-marking determiners.…

Cyr, Marilyn; Shi, Rushen

2013-01-01

330

Development of Categorical Exclusivity in Young Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has shown that 3- to 4-month-old infants form a global categorical representation for cats that includes female lions, whereas 6- to 7-month-old infants differentiate between cats and lions. Three experiments using familiarization-novelty preference procedures attempted to determine whether the differentiation of a global…

Eimas, Peter D.; And Others

331

The Creative Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stemming from the core idea that infant and toddler care should be based on building relationships, this curriculum provides a foundation for staff development. Section 1, "Why a Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers?" examines key quality indicators; discusses curriculum components; describes how to use it to make decisions throughout a typical…

Dombro, Amy Laura; And Others

332

Takayasu arteritis in an infant  

PubMed Central

Takayasu arteritis (TA), a chronic inflammatory arteritis affecting the aorta and its main branches, is a rare condition mainly affecting young women in the second and third decades of life. Occurrence of TA in infants is extremely rare, with only less than 10 cases reported all over the world until date. We report a case of a 2-year-old girl who presented with hypertension and was diagnosed to have TA with bilateral renal artery stenosis and this is probably the youngest case reported from India. PMID:25097343

Sandeep, S.; Unni, V. N.; Sreekumar, K. P.; Mathew, A.; Nair, R. R.; Kurian, G.

2014-01-01

333

Mother, Infant, and Household Factors Associated with the Type of Food Infants Receive in Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

Objectives: We explore the complex factors associated with infant feeding by analyzing what mother, infant, and household factors are associated with the types of food given to infants. We seek to quantify associations in order to inform public health policy about the importance of target populations for infant feeding programs. Methods: We used data from the Demographic Health Survey in 20 developing countries for multiple years to examine mother, infant, and household factors associated with six types of food given to infants (exclusive breastfeeding, non-exclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods). We performed a seemingly unrelated regressions analysis with community-year fixed effects to account for correlation between food types and control for confounding factors associated with community resources, culture, time period, and geography in the pooled analysis. Results: We found that several mother, infant, and household characteristics were associated with each of the feeding types. Most notably, mother’s education, working status, and weight are significantly associated with the type of food given to infants. We provide quantified estimates of the association of each of these variables with six types of food given to infants. Conclusion: By identifying maternal characteristics associated with infant feeding and quantifying those associations, we help public health policymakers generate priorities for targeting infant feeding programs to specific populations that are at greatest risk. Higher educated, working mothers are best to target with exclusive breastfeeding programs for young infants. Mothers with lower education are best to target with complementary feeding programs in infants older than 1?year. Finally, while maternal weight is associated with higher levels of exclusive breastfeeding the association is too weak to merit targeting of breastfeeding programs to low-weight mothers. PMID:24616887

Yarnoff, Benjamin; Allaire, Benjamin; Detzel, Patrick

2014-01-01

334

Shining light on infants' discovery of structure.  

PubMed

Learning and discovery seem often to begin with noting patterns. Human infants are skilled at pattern detection, even patterns only definable at an abstract level, which is key to their acquisition of complex knowledge systems such as language and music. However, research examining infants' abstract rule learning has generated inconsistent results. We propose that apparent domain differences in infants' abstract rule learning may be the result of extraneous stimulus variation and discrepancies in the methodologies employed across studies probing this skill. We discuss how a behavioral methodology indexing infants' online learning would be valuable in furthering understanding of infants' (as well as adults') abstract rule learning and its neurophysiological concomitants. We outline current research aimed at developing such an index, and we propose future research, pairing such techniques with neurophysiological methods, aimed at shining more light on human skill at discovering structure. PMID:24851348

Mendoza, Jennifer K; Baldwin, Dare

2014-01-01

335

The low-birth-weight infant  

PubMed Central

Low-birth-weight (LBW) infants have special nutritional requirements arising from their rapid growth rate and developmental immaturity. LBW infants are of many kinds; for example, the nutritional needs and functional capabilities of a small-for-gestational-age full-term infant are not the same as those of a very LBW premature infant. Ideal criteria for evaluating the nutritional management of these infants have not been established, and thus the recommended intakes given here do not represent proven physiological requirements. They nevertheless provide a basis from which more refined recommendations may be made. Although this chapter is not intended as such to be a discussion of applicable feeding techniques, it would be difficult and artificial to divorce two such closely intertwined aspects of the distinctive needs of this highly vulnerable group. Feeding techniques have to be carefully assessed in the light of specific environments and the expertise available, and none is entirely risk-free in any setting. Thus, it is essential to compensate for the immaturity of the infants and to avoid compromising the airway or risking aspiration of gastric contents. The choice between using breast milk or proprietary formulas in feeding LBW infants is complex on both nutritional and immunological grounds as well as for practical reasons. Given that the preponderance (>90%) of LBW infants are born in developing countries, the use of an infant's own mother's fresh milk may be the only realistic option. However, irrespective of the health care facilities, level of technology or alternative formulas that might be available, studies show that there is much to recommend feeding LBW infants their own mothers' milk in any environment. PMID:20604471

1989-01-01

336

MOTHER-INFANT INTERACTION IMPROVES WITH A DEVELOPMENTAL INTERVENTION FOR MOTHER-PRETERM INFANT DYADS  

PubMed Central

While premature infants have a high need for positive interactions, both infants and their mothers are challenged by the infant‘s biological immaturity. This randomized clinical trial of 198 premature infants born at 29–34 weeks gestation and their mothers examined the impact of the H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant’s Environment) intervention on mother-premature infant interaction patterns at 6-weeks corrected age (CA). Mothers had at least 2 social environmental risk factors such as minority status or less than high school education. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the H-HOPE intervention group or an attention Control group. H-HOPE is an integrated intervention that included (1) twice-daily infant stimulation using the ATVV (auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular-rocking stimulation) and (2) four maternal participatory guidance sessions plus two telephone calls by a nurse-community advocate team. Mother-infant interaction was assessed at 6-weeks CA using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training–Feeding Scale (NCAST, 76 items) and the Dyadic Mutuality Code (DMC, 6-item contingency scale during a 5-minute play session). NCAST and DMC scores for the Control and H-HOPE groups were compared using t-tests, chi-square tests and multivariable analysis. Compared with the Control group (n = 76), the H-HOPE group (n = 66) had higher overall NCAST scores and higher maternal Social-Emotional Growth Fostering Subscale scores. The H-HOPE group also had significantly higher scores for the overall infant subscale and the Infant Clarity of Cues Subscale (p < 0.05). H-HOPE dyads were also more likely to have high responsiveness during play as measured by the DMC (67.6% versus 58.1% of controls). After adjustment for significant maternal and infant characteristics, H-HOPE dyads had marginally higher scores during feeding on overall mother-infant interaction (? = 2.03, p = .06) and significantly higher scores on the infant subscale (? = 0.75, p = .05) when compared to controls. In the adjusted analysis, H-HOPE dyads had increased odds of high versus low mutual responsiveness during play (OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 0.97, 5.80). Intervening with both mother and infant is a promising approach to help premature infants achieve the social interaction patterns essential for optimal development. PMID:23962543

White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen F.; Fabiyi, Camille; Rankin, Kristin M.; Li, Zhyouing; Liu, Li

2013-01-01

337

November 30, 2010 OSHA Mandate for Tdap Vaccine  

E-print Network

Tetanus (Lockjaw), Diptheria and Pertussis (Whooping Cough). Employee Health's roving flu clinic cart present as a mild, but chronic infectious cough. It's when an infected adult unsuspectingly infects

Leistikow, Bruce N.

338

Birth timing and the mother-infant relationship predict variation in infant behavior and physiology.  

PubMed

The current study explored whether birth timing, known to influence the mother-infant relationship, also affected infant physiology up to 9 months later and infant behavior at weaning. Infant blood samples were collected at 5.75 and 8.75 months of age to assess functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as well as the antibody response to a Cholera vaccination. Path analysis indicated infants born late in the birth season had less Relaxed relationships with their mothers. A less-Relaxed relationship was associated with greater infant Positive Engagement and Distress, which were negatively correlated, suggesting infants may have different strategies of coping with this type of relationship. Low Relaxed scores were also associated with higher infant cortisol concentrations at 5.75 months, which was associated with a reduced immune response to a vaccination 3 months later. Together these results indicate that the influence of birth timing on the mother-infant relationship may have consequences for infant development. PMID:22886319

Vandeleest, Jessica J; Mendoza, Sally P; Capitanio, John P

2013-12-01

339

The impact of infant crying on the parent-infant relationship.  

PubMed

Infant crying is distressing for parents, evoking a range of difficult feelings. Infants who cry often maybe perceived as difficult by their parents, with negative effects on bonding and attachment. Infant crying as a stimulus for child-abuse is also highlighted, as parents' feelings of frustration may provoke harmful responses towards the child. A non-exhaustive literature review was conducted, exploring the impact of infant crying on parents, using CASP tools to support the analysis of twenty qualitative and quantitative studies, published between 2003 and 2013. This paper reports the findings of the review, with a specific focus on the effects of infant crying on the parent-infant relationship. The findings suggest parents may experience anxiety, depression, helplessness, anger and frustration in response to infant crying. Negative effects on bonding and parental perception of the baby are identified. Parents may also experience thoughts of harming their baby, and subsequent feelings of guilt and shame. Universal interventions to help parents prepare for parenthood, and to respond positively to crying are strongly recommended. Opportunities for parents to discuss their feelings towards their infant should be maximised, reducing the impact of infant crying on bonding and attachment. Parents should be empowered to develop strategies and sources of support to help them cope. Early identification of parents experiencing difficulties in coping with infant crying is essential, and risk in relation to potential abuse must be assessed. Health visitors have a key role in providing such support. PMID:25812239

Oldbury, Sarah; Adams, Karen

2015-03-01

340

Young Infants Match Facial and Vocal Emotional Expressions of Other Infants  

PubMed Central

Research has demonstrated that infants recognize emotional expressions of adults in the first half-year of life. We extended this research to a new domain, infant perception of the expressions of other infants. In an intermodal matching procedure, 3.5- and 5-month-old infants heard a series of infant vocal expressions (positive and negative affect) along with side-by-side dynamic videos in which one infant conveyed positive facial affect and another infant conveyed negative facial affect. Results demonstrated that 5-month-olds matched the vocal expressions with the affectively congruent facial expressions, whereas 3.5-month-olds showed no evidence of matching. These findings indicate that by 5 months of age, infants detect, discriminate, and match the facial and vocal affective displays of other infants. Further, because the facial and vocal expressions were portrayed by different infants and shared no face-voice synchrony, temporal or intensity patterning, matching was likely based on detection of a more general affective valence common to the face and voice. PMID:24302853

Vaillant-Molina, Mariana; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Flom, Ross

2013-01-01

341

Rapid diagnosis of pertussis in young infants: comparison of culture, PCR, and infant's and mother's serology.  

PubMed Central

The contribution of maternal pertussis serology comparing prepartum serum to serum collected during the infant's disease to the diagnosis of pertussis in infants was evaluated for 28 pairs of young infants with pertussis syndrome and their mothers and was compared to those of culture and PCR. Infants had a nasopharyngeal aspiration tested by PCR, and acute and convalescent sera were collected during their disease. Mothers had a first acute serum collected concomitantly with the infant's acute serum, and both acute sera were compared to a prepartum serum. Sera were analyzed by immunoblotting for the detection of anti-pertussis toxin (PT) antibodies. Serological evidence of pertussis in infants was assessed as either an increase in anti-PT antibody levels between the mother's prepartum and acute sera or the presence of antibodies in the infant's acute serum and their absence in both the mother's acute and prepartum sera. Culture and PCR sensitivity were 43 and 89%, respectively. Most infants (18 of 24) had no pertussis antibody detectable in their acute sera, confirming a delayed immune response at this age. A comparison of infant's and mother's serology, using prepartum serum, rapidly confirmed the diagnosis in 57% of the cases. Although less sensitive than PCR, this serological method should be used for a rapid diagnosis of pertussis in young infants when culture and PCR are either not available or negative. PMID:9384297

Grimprel, E; Njamkepo, E; Bégué, P; Guiso, N

1997-01-01

342

Temperamental precursors of infant attachment with mothers and fathers.  

PubMed

The degree to which parent sensitivity and infant temperament distinguish attachment classification was examined. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the effect of parent sensitivity and infant temperament on infant-mother and infant-father attachment. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, and their infants (N = 135) when the infant was 3-, 5-, 7-, 12-, and 14-months old. Temperament was measured using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003); parent sensitivity was coded during the Still Face Paradigm (Tronick, Als, Adamson, Wise, & Brazelton, 1978); attachment was coded using the Strange Situation (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978). Results indicate that mothers and fathers were less sensitive with insecure-avoidant infants. Whereas only one difference was found for infant-mother attachment groups and temperament, five significant differences emerged for infant-father attachment groups, with the majority involving insecure-ambivalent attachment. Infants classified as ambivalent with fathers were higher in perceptual sensitivity and cuddliness and these infants also showed a greater increase in low-intensity pleasure over time compared with other infants. Results indicate the importance of both parent sensitivity and infant temperament, though operating in somewhat different ways, in the development of the infant-mother and infant-father attachment relationship. PMID:24103401

Planalp, Elizabeth M; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M

2013-12-01

343

Massive Subaponeurotic Haemorrhage in Infants Born by Vacuum Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine out of 232 infants on whom the vacuum extractor was employed developed subaponeurotic haemorrhage and two of these infants died. In a further 78 infants born by vacuum extraction, all of whom received intramuscular vitamin K1, four sustained subaponeurotic haemorrhage and one died. This type of haemorrhage was not encountered in over 12,000 infants born by other methods. Its

G. L. Ahuja; M. L. N. Willoughby; Margaret M. Kerr; J. H. Hutchison

1969-01-01

344

Preserved Visual Representations despite Change Blindness in Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combining theoretical hypotheses of infant cognition and adult perception, we present evidence that infants can maintain visual representations despite their failure to detect a change. Infants under 12 months typically fail to notice a change to an object's height in a covering event. The present experiments demonstrated that 11-month-old infants

Wang, Su-hua; Mitroff, Stephen R.

2009-01-01

345

Linguistic Significance of Babbling: Evidence from a Tracheostomized Infant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the phonetic patterns and linguistic development of an infant who was tracheostomized during the period that infants normally begin to produce syllabic vocalization. It was found that the infant had developed only a tenth of the canonical syllables expected in normally developing infants, a small inventory of consonant-like segments, and…

Locke, John L.; Pearson, Dawn M.

1990-01-01

346

Vestibular Stimulation and Development of the Small Premature Infant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to explore the effects of vestibular stimulation on the developmental behavior, respiratory functioning, weight and length gains, and morbidity and mortality rates of premature infants. A total of 20 infants participated in this study in 4 groups of 5 infants each. Group A infants were placed in a motorized hammock within…

Neal, Mary V.

347

Penetrating Brain Injuries from a Dog Bite in an Infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain lesions due to dog bites are not frequent and mainly concern infants in the first years of their life because they are short in height, the size of the infant’s head is relatively large compared to the body and the skull bones are thin. We report the case of an infant with bilateral skin, skull and brain injuries secondary

A. Iannelli; G. Lupi

2005-01-01

348

When Do Infants Begin to Follow a Point?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants' understanding of a pointing gesture represents a major milestone in their communicative development. The current consensus is that infants are not capable of following a pointing gesture until 9-12 months of age. In this article, we present evidence from 4- and 6-month-old infants challenging this conclusion. Infants were tested with…

Bertenthal, Bennett I.; Boyer, Ty W.; Harding, Samuel

2014-01-01

349

Attachment Security in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared 34 infants of very low birth weight (VLBW) and 40 full-term infants, using Ainsworth's Strange Situation procedure and Waters' Attachment Q-Set. Found that, at 14 months, VLBW infants were more likely than full-term infants to be insecurely attached when rated using the Q-Set but not when using the Strange Situation. (MDM)

Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; And Others

1996-01-01

350

Unsupervised learning of vowel categories from infant-directed speech  

E-print Network

Unsupervised learning of vowel categories from infant-directed speech Gautam K. Vallabha*, James LClelland, June 16, 2007 (sent for review January 29, 2007) Infants rapidly learn the sound categories that this learning is due to infants' sensitivity to the distribution of speech sounds and that infant- directed

Pratt, Vaughan

351

Peeking at the Relationship World of Infant Friends and Caregivers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study aimed to explore how infants share and experience friendships and examine the role of infant caregivers in social and friendship experiences among infants. The data were collected through classroom observation over a semester. Findings yielded complex and rich social relationships that both infant friends and caregivers…

Shin, Minsun

2010-01-01

352

Object permanence in five-month-old infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method was devised to test object permanence in young infants. Five- month-old infants were habituated to a screen that moved back and forth through a 180-degree arc, in the manner of a drawbridge. After infants reached habituation, a box was centered behind the screen. Infants were shown two test events: a possible event and an impossible event. In

RENCE BAILLARGEON; ELIZABETH S. SPELKE; STANLEY WASSERMAN

1985-01-01

353

Infant and Child Nutrition Participant Materials for Notebook  

E-print Network

UNIT 17: Infant and Child Nutrition Participant Materials for Notebook #12;Navigating for Success Infant and Child Nutrition p 1 Infant and Child Nutrition Nutrition participants are often parents or grandparents who make decisions regarding food choices for infants, toddlers, and children. Nutrition educators

354

Infant and Child Nutrition Unit Preparation Materials and  

E-print Network

UNIT 17: Infant and Child Nutrition Unit Preparation Materials and Facilitator Guide #12; #12;Navigating for Success Infant and Child Nutrition f i Seven Steps of Planning - Infant and Child Nutrition decisions regarding food choice for infants and children. Nutrition educators will need to be well

355

Infant and Child Development Inf. Child Dev. 17: 4353 (2008)  

E-print Network

Infant and Child Development Inf. Child Dev. 17: 43­53 (2008) Published online in Wiley Inter of Imitation Skills in Infants and Robots Yiannis Demirisa, * and Andrew Meltzoffb a Department of Electrical progression of infant imitation skills, because imitation underlies the infant's ability to under- stand

Meeden, Lisa A.

356

WIC's promotion of infant formula in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The United States' Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) distributes about half the infant formula used in the United States at no cost to the families. This is a matter of concern because it is known that feeding with infant formula results in worse health outcomes for infants than breastfeeding. DISCUSSION: The evidence that is

George Kent

2006-01-01

357

Testing a Model of the Nursing Assessment of Infant Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to test whether elements of an infant pain assessment model interacted as postulated by the model. The elements are the infant’s response to comfort measures and the principle of consolability. Four different scenarios for each of 16 videotaped infants were prepared. Each scenario represented one of four different combinations of likelihood of pain and

Barbara F. Fuller; Madalynn Neu; Maureen Smith; Carol P. Vojir

1999-01-01

358

The Meaning of Infants' Looks: Information Seeking and Comfort Seeking?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two studies, the reason that infants in a novel situation look to adults was assessed. In Study 1, 10- and 13-month-old infants encountered a visual cliff that was deep (56 cm) or ambiguous (20 cm). Infants crossed the ambiguous cliff reliably faster than the deep cliff, and the first looks to mother of infants in the deep cliff condition were…

Striano, Tricia; Vaish, Amrisha; Benigno, Joann P.

2006-01-01

359

[Coxitis in the newborn infant and infant. Diagnosis and therapy].  

PubMed

From 198 o 1996 (12 years) we saw 24 neonates and small infants with septic arthritis of the hip joint. A minority of these infants was simultaneously affected by osteomyelitis of the femoral neck or the acetabulum. Clinical signs are a painful leg, pseudoparalysis, uneasiness and refusal to drink. Quantitative measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP) are more reliable then leucocyte count and sedimentation rate. Ultrasound images yield early information about capsular swelling and septic effusion; in late cases US can visualize femoral neck necrosis. Emergency arthrotomy to relieve the joint from septic effusion, bacteriological specimens and capsular biopsy are mandatory. Intravenous application of a second-generation cephalosporin as antibiotic has proven effective. We have been using cefuroxim for the past 10 years, changed if necessary according to the antibiogram. Parenteral antibiotic treatment is continued for an average of 3 weeks, followed by oral treatment for another 3 weeks. CRP normalisation monitors the cure from the disease. Our 24 cases included 7 with group B streptococci 2 with Staphylococcus aureus, 2 with Staphylococcus epidermidis and 2 with Escherichia coli. In 8 cases no germs could be cultured; 6 of them had outside antibiotic treatment before being transferred. If treatment was initiated within 3 days, healing without residuals was the rule. In 18 cases with early and sufficient treatment no sequelae were observed. With delay of treatment for several days, moderate osteomyelitic changes of the neck and the acetabulum were observed. In a case with delay of surgical treatment for 5 weeks, complete destruction of the hip joint occurred, causing a poor final result. PMID:9446091

Parsch, K; Savvidis, E

1997-10-01

360

Mechanical analysis of infant carrying in hominoids  

PubMed Central

In all higher nonhuman primates, species survival depends upon safe carrying of infants clinging to body hair of adults. In this work, measurements of mechanical properties of ape hair (gibbon, orangutan, and gorilla) are presented, focusing on constraints for safe infant carrying. Results of hair tensile properties are shown to be species-dependent. Analysis of the mechanics of the mounting position, typical of heavier infant carrying among African apes, shows that both clinging and friction are necessary to carry heavy infants. As a consequence, a required relationship between infant weight, hair–hair friction coefficient, and body angle exists. The hair–hair friction coefficient is measured using natural ape skin samples, and dependence on load and humidity is analyzed. Numerical evaluation of the equilibrium constraint is in agreement with the knuckle-walking quadruped position of African apes. Bipedality is clearly incompatible with the usual clinging and mounting pattern of infant carrying, requiring a revision of models of hominization in relation to the divergence between apes and hominins. These results suggest that safe carrying of heavy infants justify the emergence of biped form of locomotion. Ways to test this possibility are foreseen here. PMID:18030438

2007-01-01

361

Speech vs. singing: infants choose happier sounds  

PubMed Central

Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants' attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech and singing. In Experiment 1, infants 4–13 months of age were exposed to happy-sounding infant-directed speech vs. hummed lullabies by the same woman. They listened significantly longer to the speech, which had considerably greater acoustic variability and expressiveness, than to the lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants of comparable age who heard the lyrics of a Turkish children's song spoken vs. sung in a joyful/happy manner did not exhibit differential listening. Infants in Experiment 3 heard the happily sung lyrics of the Turkish children's song vs. a version that was spoken in an adult-directed or affectively neutral manner. They listened significantly longer to the sung version. Overall, happy voice quality rather than vocal mode (speech or singing) was the principal contributor to infant attention, regardless of age. PMID:23805119

Corbeil, Marieve; Trehub, Sandra E.; Peretz, Isabelle

2013-01-01

362

Core-periphery differences in infant mortality.  

PubMed

The study aims to describe the development of core-periphery differences in infant mortality trends in Finland from 1950 to 1984. The infant mortality trends in core and in periphery are described at three levels of spatial hierarchy: (1) nation, (2) province and (3) local hospital region. The main findings are: (1) at the national level: (a) the differences between core and periphery in infant mortality trends disappear by the mid 1960s, mainly due to the equalization of postneonatal mortality and (b) the diminishing of postneonatal mortality stops and the diminishing of especially the first-day mortality begins about the middle of 1960s, both in core and periphery; (2) in the province of Uundenmaan lääni there are no differences in infant mortality trends between the metropolitan area of Helsinki (core) and the rest of this province (periphery); (3) in the two local hospital regions the diminishing of infant mortality is significantly slower in periphery than in core. At present there is scarcely any core-periphery variation in the trends of different components of infant mortality. This is a very remarkable fact when the achievements of the health and social policy of Finland are assessed. Several possible methodological, socio-economic, demographic and health care factors that may explain the differences in infant mortality trends between core and periphery at different levels of spatial hierarchy are discussed. PMID:3603088

Vuorinen, H S

1987-01-01

363

Identification of hearing disorder by multi-band entropy cepstrum extraction from infant's cry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infant's cry is a multimodal behavior that contains a lot of information about the infant, particularly, information about the health of the infant. In this paper a new feature in infant cry analysis is presented for recognition two groups: infants with hearing disorder and normal infants, by Mel frequency multi-band entropy cepstrum extraction from infant's cry. Signal processing stage is

Mahmoud Mansouri Jam; Hamed Sadjedi

2009-01-01

364

The medically complex premature infant in primary care.  

PubMed

The survival rate of the smallest and youngest of premature infants has continued to improve as medical technology has progressed. The current edge of viability is represented by infants born at 23 to 25 weeks' gestation. Neonatal survival of infants at 23 weeks' gestation ranges from 11% to 30%. Survival to hospital discharge for infants ranging from 23 to 26 weeks' gestation is about 70%; 30% to 50% of these infants have moderate to severe disability. Nurse practitioners and physicians will be meeting these young infants in primary care offices after they have been discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit. This article is Part III in a series addressing issues related to the premature infant. This installment focuses on medically complex premature infants and their health issues after discharge. Part I addressed issues common to all premature infants. Part II looked at the healthy premature infant and their management in primary care. PMID:17071367

Kelly, Michelle M

2006-01-01

365

Thiamine deficiency in tachypnoeic Cambodian infants.  

PubMed

Background: Beriberi is endemic in South-east Asia. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings, but correlation of clinical features with blood thiamine concentrations is uncertain. Objectives: To investigate in tachypnoeic Cambodian infants the correlation between whole blood thiamine diphosphate (TDP) concentrations, clinical findings and blood TDP levels after therapy. Methods: Infants hospitalised with tachypnoea were enrolled from October 2011 to January 2012. Initial clinical features, diagnostic test results and final diagnoses were recorded. Blood for TDP determination was collected prior to treatment and at discharge. Matched infants from the general outpatient clinic with minor complaints were enrolled as controls. Thiamine was administered at the discretion of the treating paediatrician. Results: Of the 47 tachypnoeic and 47 control infants, median initial blood TDP concentrations were 83 and 93 nmol/L, respectively (P?=?0·69), and were below the estimated limit of normal (<70 nmol/L) in 43% vs 34% (P?=?0·40). Median initial TDP levels were 72 and 91 nmol/L in tachypnoeic infants who did or did not receive thiamine, respectively (P?=?0·56); at hospital discharge, median TDP concentration had increased by 107 and 3·5 nmol/L in these two subgroups (P<0·001). Classical findings of beriberi such as dysphonia, tachycardia and hepatomegaly did not correlate with low initial TDP concentrations, but infant age, Tiger Balm use, absence of wheezing and low blood CRP levels were associated with low initial TDP levels. Use of infant formula was associated with higher initial TDP levels. Conclusions: Thiamine deficiency is common in tachypnoeic Cambodian infants, but routine clinical assessments do not accurately identify those with low blood TDP concentrations. Parenteral thiamine administration markedly increases TDP levels. Empirical thiamine treatment should be considered for tachypnoeic infants in regions with endemic thiamine deficiency. PMID:25348055

Keating, Elizabeth M; Nget, Phot; Kea, Sreng; Kuong, Suy; Daly, Leng; Phearom, Seng; Enders, Felicity; Cheryk, Lynn A; Topazian, Mark; Fischer, Philip R; Kumar, Varun

2014-10-27

366

Perchlorate exposure and dose estimates in infants  

PubMed Central

Perchlorate is a naturally occurring inorganic anion used as a component of solid rocket fuel, explosives, and pyrotechnics. Sufficiently high perchlorate intakes can modify thyroid function by competitively inhibiting iodide uptake in adults; however little is known about perchlorate exposure and health effects in infants. Food intake models predict that infants have higher perchlorate exposure doses than adults. For this reason, we measured perchlorate and related anions (nitrate, thiocyanate, and iodide) in 206 urine samples from 92 infants ages 1–377 days and calculated perchlorate intake dose for this population of infants. The median estimated exposure dose for this population of infants was 0.160 ?g/kg/day. Of the 205 individual dose estimates, 9% exceeded the reference dose of 0.7 ?g/kg/day; 6% of infants providing multiple samples had multiple perchlorate dose estimates above the reference dose. Estimated exposure dose differed by feeding method: breast-fed infants had a higher perchlorate exposure dose (geometric mean 0.220 ?g/kg/day) than infants consuming cow milk-based formula (geometric mean 0.103 ?g/kg/day, p<0.0001) or soy-based formula (geometric mean 0.027 ?g/kg/day, p<0.0001), consistent with dose estimates based on dietary intake data. The ability of perchlorate to block adequate iodide uptake by the thyroid may have been reduced by the iodine-sufficient status of the infants studied (median urinary iodide 125 ?g/L). Further research is needed to see whether these perchlorate intake doses lead to any health effects. PMID:21449579

Valentín-Blasini, Liza; Blount, Benjamin C.; Otero-Santos, Samaret; Cao, Yang; Bernbaum, Judy C.; Rogan, Walter J.

2011-01-01

367

Perchlorate exposure and dose estimates in infants.  

PubMed

Perchlorate is a naturally occurring inorganic anion used as a component of solid rocket fuel, explosives, and pyrotechnics. Sufficiently high perchlorate intakes can modify thyroid function by competitively inhibiting iodide uptake in adults; however, little is known about perchlorate exposure and health effects in infants. Food intake models predict that infants have higher perchlorate exposure doses than adults. For this reason, we measured perchlorate and related anions (nitrate, thiocyanate, and iodide) in 206 urine samples from 92 infants ages 1-377 days and calculated perchlorate intake dose for this sample of infants. The median estimated exposure dose for this sample of infants was 0.160 ?g/kg/day. Of the 205 individual dose estimates, 9% exceeded the reference dose of 0.7 ?g/kg/day; 6% of infants providing multiple samples had multiple perchlorate dose estimates above the reference dose. Estimated exposure dose differed by feeding method: breast-fed infants had a higher perchlorate exposure dose (geometric mean 0.220 ?g/kg/day) than infants consuming cow milk-based formula (geometric mean 0.103 ?g/kg/day, p < 0.0001) or soy-based formula (geometric mean 0.027 ?g/kg/day, p < 0.0001), consistent with dose estimates based on dietary intake data. The ability of perchlorate to block adequate iodide uptake by the thyroid may have been reduced by the iodine-sufficient status of the infants studied (median urinary iodide 125 ?g/L). Further research is needed to see whether these perchlorate intake doses lead to any health effects. PMID:21449579

Valentín-Blasini, Liza; Blount, Benjamin C; Otero-Santos, Samaret; Cao, Yang; Bernbaum, Judy C; Rogan, Walter J

2011-05-01

368

Milk from Mothers of Both Premature and Full-Term Infants Provides Better Antioxidant Protection than Does Infant Formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized that premature (PT) infants' mother's milk may provide antioxidant advantages compared with milk from mothers of full-term (FT) infants, and human milk may provide antioxidant properties not seen in infant formulas. We designed three experiments to test these hypotheses. Experiment 1 as- sessed resistance to oxidative stress of human milk and formulas designed for FT and PT infants.

JAMES K. FRIEL; SEAN M. MARTIN; MATTHEW LANGDON; GARRY R. BUETTNER

2002-01-01

369

Challenges to breastfeeding infants with phenylketonuria.  

PubMed

Breastfeeding duration for infants with phenylketonuria (PKU) is less than other full-term infants. However, no study has examined the challenges encountered by mothers' breastfeeding infants with PKU. In 75 mothers of a child with PKU, three categories of breastfeeding challenges were identified: common breastfeeding issues, breastfeeding and PKU, and no challenges. The common breastfeeding issues can be identified in the literature but for these mothers, the issues are heightened due to frequent phenylalanine (Phe) monitoring. Even so, many mothers adapt breastfeeding to maintain desired Phe levels. A few mothers had no issues and were the exception, not the norm. PMID:24952998

Banta-Wright, Sandra A; Kodadek, Sheila M; Steiner, Robert D; Houck, Gail M

2015-01-01

370

Lead content of milk and infant formula  

SciTech Connect

Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's milk, and human milk were 0.135 g/ml, 0.03 g/ml, 0.01 g/ml, 0.53 g/ml, and 0.02 g/ml respectively. (2 references, 2 tables)

Walker, B.

1980-03-01

371

Five early milestones in premature infants.  

PubMed

The onset of five early milestones was studied in premature and full-term infants. The milestones are: recognition of mother's voice and face, 3-month smile, following through 180 degrees, and two hand-eye coordination. It was hypothesized that premature infants would show delay in acquiring milestones related to time separated from mother. Compared to full-term infants, the prematures had a significant difference in the means only for the onset of smiling, and no effect related to maternal separation. PMID:598258

Sugar, M

1977-01-01

372

Mother-Infant synchrony: A dynamical systems approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the dynamics of mother-infant synchrony. Ninety-four mother-infant dyads were videotaped over a 90-second play pe- riod when the infants were 4-months old. Infant affect (facial + vocal) and maternal stimulation (vocal + tactile) were coded second-by-second. Dynamical systems modeling allows us to explain mother and infant regulation as well as the relationship

Shannon R. Zentall; Steven M. Boker; Julia M. Braungart-Rieker

373

Detecting "Infant-Directedness" in Face and Voice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five- and 3-month-old infants' perception of infant-directed (ID) faces and the role of speech in perceiving faces were examined. Infants' eye movements were recorded as they viewed a series of two side-by-side talking faces, one infant-directed and one adult-directed (AD), while listening to ID speech, AD speech, or in silence. Infants

Kim, Hojin I.; Johnson, Scott P.

2014-01-01

374

Mother?to?infant and father?to?infant initial emotional involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

While infant attachment has been largely studied, parental attachment is still relatively unknown, especially when referred to fathers. However, it is mainly recognised that parents’ emotional involvement with the newborn contributes to the quality of the interaction and the care they provide. The aim of this study was to study mother?to?infant and father?to?infant initial emotional involvement; namely, differences between mothers

Bárbara Figueiredo; Raquel Costa; Alexandra Pacheco; Alvaro Pais

2007-01-01

375

Maternal and infant complications in high and normal weight infants by method of delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To estimate the population risks of maternal and infant complications with the birth of macrosomic (at least 4000 g) compared with normal weight infants.Methods: Term, singleton infants were identified from the state of Washington’s birth event records database for 1990. Diagnosis codes from the Internal Classification of Diseases (9th revision) were used to identify delivery method and previously defined

KimberlyD Gregory; OliviaA Henry; Emily Ramicone; LindaS Chan; LawrenceD Platt

1998-01-01

376

Costs and Infant Outcomes After Implementation of a Care Process Model for Febrile Infants  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Febrile infants in the first 90 days may have life-threatening serious bacterial infection (SBI). Well-appearing febrile infants with SBI cannot be distinguished from those without by examination alone. Variation in care resulting in both undertreatment and overtreatment is common. METHODS: We developed and implemented an evidence-based care process model (EB-CPM) for the management of well-appearing febrile infants in the Intermountain Healthcare System. We report an observational study describing changes in (1) care delivery, (2) outcomes of febrile infants, and (3) costs before and after implementation of the EB-CPM in a children’s hospital and in regional medical centers. RESULTS: From 2004 through 2009, 8044 infants had 8431 febrile episodes, resulting in medical evaluation. After implementation of the EB-CPM in 2008, infants in all facilities were more likely to receive evidence-based care including appropriate diagnostic testing, determination of risk for SBI, antibiotic selection, decreased antibiotic duration, and shorter hospital stays (P < .001 for all). In addition, more infants had a definitive diagnosis of urinary tract infection or viral illness (P < .001 for both). Infant outcomes improved with more admitted infants positive for SBI (P = .011), and infants at low risk for SBI were more often managed without antibiotics (P < .001). Although hospital admissions were shortened by 27%, there were no cases of missed SBI. Health Care costs were also reduced, with the mean cost per admitted infant decreasing from $7178 in 2007 to $5979 in 2009 (?17%, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The EB-CPM increased evidence-based care in all facilities. Infant outcomes improved and costs were reduced, substantially improving value. PMID:22732178

Reynolds, Carolyn C.; Korgenski, Kent; Sheng, Xiaoming; Valentine, Karen J.; Nelson, Richard E.; Daly, Judy A.; Osguthorpe, Russell J.; James, Brent; Savitz, Lucy; Pavia, Andrew T.; Clark, Edward B.

2012-01-01

377

Stimulus control and the growth of the infant’s effective visual field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size of the infant’s effective visual field was studied weekly in infants starting at 2 weeks of age until they were 10\\u000a weeks old, The field was initially quite small, 15 deg to either side of their line of regard. Over the 2-month period of\\u000a the study, it more than doubled for stimulus conditions in which the peripheral event

Edward Tronick

1972-01-01

378

Pitch characteristics of infant-directed speech affect infants’ ability to discriminate vowels  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Baby talk” or speech directed to prelinguistic infants is high in pitch and has exaggerated pitch contours (up\\/down patterns\\u000a of pitch change) across languages and cultures. Using an acoustic model, we predicted that the large pitch contours of infant-directed\\u000a speech should improve infants’ ability to discriminate vowels. On the other hand, the same model predicted that high pitch\\u000a would not

Laurel J. Trainor; Renée N. Desjardins

2002-01-01

379

Disposable diapers and infant skin.  

PubMed

In an experiment on skin rash caused by diapers, adult skin was used to compare the effects of disposable diapers (A; Pampers), conventional disposable diapers (B), and cotton diapers. Pieces of each type of diaper measuring 2 X 2 cm and containing 0.2 ml saline solution were pasted on forearm skin for 5 h. Water content of the corneum was measured with an impedance meter 1 h after the pieces were removed. Results were excellent for diapers A and B: there were no significant differences observed in water content of the corneum when A and B were compared with conventional cotton diapers. The advantages of disposable diapers were confirmed in infants. PMID:3601825

Ueda, H; Takase, M

1987-01-01

380

Contextual basis of maternal perceptions of infant temperament  

E-print Network

To elucidate the differential saliency of infant emotions to mothers across interactive contexts, the authors examined the moderating role of observed infant affect during interactions with mother in the relation between maternal and laboratory-based ratings of infant temperament. Fifty-nine developmentally healthy 9-month-old infants were judged for degree of infant positive, infant negative, and mother–infant mutually positive affect during the course of object-focused and routine home-based activities with mother. Mothers completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire (M. K. Rothbart, 1981), and infants underwent the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (H. H. Goldsmith & M. K. Rothbart, 1999). Results revealed that maternal and observer ratings of infant negativity converged when infants manifested high degrees of negative affect during routine home-based activities. Maternal and observer ratings of infant positivity converged when infants experienced low mutually positive affect during play. These findings support the hypothesis that maternal perceptions are based on mothers ’ experiences with their infants but that the salience of infant temperamental characteristics to mothers varies across emotion and interactive context.

Amie Ashley Hane; Nathan A. Fox; Cindy Polak-toste; Melissa M. Ghera; Bella M. Guner

2006-01-01

381

Mother-infant interaction improves with a developmental intervention for mother-preterm infant dyads.  

PubMed

While premature infants have a high need for positive interactions, both infants and their mothers are challenged by the infant's biological immaturity. This randomized clinical trial of 198 premature infants born at 29-34 weeks gestation and their mothers examined the impact of the H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant's Environment) intervention on mother-premature infant interaction patterns at 6-weeks corrected age (CA). Mothers had at least 2 social environmental risk factors such as minority status or less than high school education. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the H-HOPE intervention group or an attention control group. H-HOPE is an integrated intervention that included (1) twice-daily infant stimulation using the ATVV (auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular-rocking stimulation) and (2) four maternal participatory guidance sessions plus two telephone calls by a nurse-community advocate team. Mother-infant interaction was assessed at 6-weeks CA using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training-Feeding Scale (NCAST, 76 items) and the Dyadic Mutuality Code (DMC, 6-item contingency scale during a 5-min play session). NCAST and DMC scores for the Control and H-HOPE groups were compared using t-tests, chi-square tests and multivariable analysis. Compared with the Control group (n = 76), the H-HOPE group (n = 66) had higher overall NCAST scores and higher maternal Social-Emotional Growth Fostering Subscale scores. The H-HOPE group also had significantly higher scores for the overall infant subscale and the Infant Clarity of Cues Subscale (p < 0.05). H-HOPE dyads were also more likely to have high responsiveness during play as measured by the DMC (67.6% versus 58.1% of controls). After adjustment for significant maternal and infant characteristics, H-HOPE dyads had marginally higher scores during feeding on overall mother-infant interaction (? = 2.03, p = 0.06) and significantly higher scores on the infant subscale (? = 0.75, p = 0.05) when compared to controls. In the adjusted analysis, H-HOPE dyads had increased odds of high versus low mutual responsiveness during play (OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 0.97, 5.80). Intervening with both mother and infant is a promising approach to help premature infants achieve the social interaction patterns essential for optimal development. PMID:23962543

White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen F; Fabiyi, Camille; Rankin, Kristin M; Li, Zhyouing; Liu, Li

2013-12-01

382

75 FR 23777 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula Requirements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...collection regarding the manufacture of infant formula, including infant formula labeling, quality control procedures,...

2010-05-04

383

78 FR 28854 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula Requirements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...information collection provisions of our infant formula regulations, including infant formula labeling, quality control procedures,...

2013-05-16

384

Infant development in father-absent families.  

PubMed

In a sample of 55 black infants (age 5-6 months) living in the inner city in lower socioeconomic circumstances, 27 infants were being reared by their mothers in single-parent families. Male infants who had experienced minimal interaction with their fathers were significantly lower on the Bayley Mental Developmental Index and in measures of social responsiveness, secondary circular reactions, and preferences for novel stimuli. Female infants in this sample appeared unaffected by the father's presence or absence. After weighing alternative interpretations of the findings, we conclude that the father is a significant component in the early environment and that both observational studies and conceptual development of the role of the father in infancy are needed. PMID:512643

Pedersen, F A; Rubenstein, J L; Yarrow, L J

1979-09-01

385

Elimination Problems in Infants and Children  

MedlinePLUS

... information about changes in an infant or child's bowel movements. SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS SELF-CARE Begin Here 1. Does your child have frequent, watery bowel movements? Yes DIARRHEA is often caused by a gastrointestinal ...

386

Infants and Young Children: Animal Safety Tips  

MedlinePLUS

... Young Children Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Animal Safety Tips Infants and children less than 5 ... and young children from getting sick while handling animals Children younger than 5 years old should be ...

387

Mercury Levels in Infants Receiving Routine Immunizations  

MedlinePLUS

... a follow-up of the Rochester study in Argentina with 216 newborns and infants. The purpose of ... Routine Immunizations NIAID conducted an additional study in Argentina that focused on 72 premature (32 to 37 ...

388

[Infant nutrition in a historical perspective].  

PubMed

Throughout history man, with few exceptions, has meant that breast feeding is best for the infant. In poor countries with bad hygiene this can still be a question of life or death. However, during several millennia up to the end of the 19th century, there have been many periods and cultures when the upper classes have preferred to have wet nurses for their babies. Artificial feeding is known from the Roman empire from the time around the birth of Christ. For centuries, many misconceptions have had an influence on infant feeding, often with serious consequences for the baby and the mother. Since the latter half of the 19th century infant feeding based on scientific observations has gradually emerged, and further progress is expected in the coming years. Recent research has shown that the infant's diet is more important than it was thought to be ten years ago. PMID:8278959

Seip, M

1993-12-10

389

Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function  

PubMed Central

Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). A group of 5-month-olds (n = 201) were classified as short or long lookers. At 24, 36, and 48 months of age, children completed age-appropriate EF tasks. Infant short lookers (i.e., more efficient information processors) exhibited higher EF throughout early childhood as compared to infant long lookers, even after controlling for verbal ability (a potential indicator of intelligence). These findings are discussed in relation to the emergence of executive attention. PMID:23711103

Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

2013-01-01

390

Development of Infants With Idiopathic External Hydrocephalus.  

PubMed

External hydrocephalus in an infant is a condition in which the rate of growth of head circumference exceeds the expectations of the Nellhouse curve together with increased size of the subarachnoid spaces. Developmental milestones of 20 infants (aged 0-16 months) with external hydrocephalus were studied by the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. The areas of development that were studied were visual reception, fine motor, expressive language, receptive language, and total Mullen score. There were no significant differences between the study group and the general population in all 5 scores. The only prominent feature of our external hydrocephalus patients was hypotonia (transient in 9 [45%] and persistent in 2 [10%]). Although the term external hydrocephalus describes a roentgenographic presentation, the term benign enlargement of subarachnoid space is preferred in infants similar to our group by better describing the benign nature of the phenomenon in appropriately selected infants. PMID:25348416

Halevy, Ayelet; Cohen, Rony; Viner, Ilana; Diamond, Gary; Shuper, Avinoam

2014-10-27

391

Safe sleep practices for hospitalized infants.  

PubMed

Guidelines were established over 10 years ago by professional and government agencies that have dramatically changed the practice of infant sleep positioning. Although these guidelines mainly focus care on the newborn and infant in their home by a parent, guardian or caregiver, hospital staff need to examine their compliance with these guidelines.The most controversial aspect of the "Back to Sleep" guidelines for the hospital setting is the parent and infant sharing a bed. Although parents may choose to sleep with their infant at home, the need for monitoring, ongoing assessment and care as well as the risk of entrapment or injury should be a priority in the delivery of optimal patient care in the hospital setting. The need for a policy was identified and developed by a multidisciplinary task force focusing on the physiological, behavioral and cultural aspects of cosleeping. PMID:16295155

Thompson, Debbie Gearner

2005-01-01

392

Infants track the reliability of potential informants.  

PubMed

Across two eye-tracking experiments, we showed that infants are sensitive to the statistical reliability of informative cues and selective in their use of information generated by such cues. We familiarized 8-month-olds with faces (Experiment 1) or arrows (Experiment 2) that cued the locations of animated animals with different degrees of reliability. The reliable cue always cued a box containing an animation, whereas the unreliable cue cued a box that contained an animation only 25% of the time. At test, infants searched longer in the boxes that were reliably cued, but did not search longer in the boxes that were unreliably cued. At generalization, when boxes were cued that never contained animations before, only infants in the face experiment followed the reliable cue. These results provide the first evidence that even young infants can track the reliability of potential informants and use this information judiciously to modify their future behavior. PMID:25022277

Tummeltshammer, Kristen Swan; Wu, Rachel; Sobel, David M; Kirkham, Natasha Z

2014-09-01

393

Choking: What to Do for an Infant  

MedlinePLUS

... Prevention Travel & Motor Vehicle Safety En Español Childhood Student Emergencies Choking: What to Do for an Infant ... Related links Choking (Heimlich Maneuver) CPR 101 Childhood Student Emergencies Symptoms of Childhood Emergencies When Your Child ...

394

Maintaining Optimal Oxygen Saturation in Premature Infants  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Advances in technology have resulted in increasing survival rates for premature infants. Oxygen therapy is commonly used in neonatal units as part of respiratory support. The number of premature infants in our institution surviving with severe (stage ?3) retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) prompted a review of oxygen therapy as a contributing factor. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of oxygen may cause irreversible damage to the eyes of very-low-birth-weight preterm infants and is a potential cause of blindness. Objective: We developed strategies to reduce incidence of severe ROP requiring laser surgery in premature infants. Methods: We studied 37 preterm infants who were born at a gestational age of <32 weeks, with a birth weight of <1500 g, receiving supplemental oxygen, and had been admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit. Infants received oxygen via mechanical ventilator, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), or intranasal (I/N) and titration of oxygen was based on each infant's measured oxygen saturation (Spo2). For each infant, we monitored the Spo2 trend, Spo2 alarm limit, and the percentage of time that the alarm limit was set incorrectly. We implemented a Spo2 targeting protocol and developed an algorithm for titrating fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2). Results: After phase 1 of implementation, the percentage of time that Spo2 readings were >95% was reduced to between 20% and 50%. However, our findings raised concern regarding the wide fluctuation of Spo2 readings because of inconsistency in Fio2 titration, which can contribute to deviation from the optimal target range. Accordingly, we developed an algorithm for titrating Fio2 aimed at maintaining each infant's Spo2 within the optimal target range. After phase 2 of implementation, the percentage of Spo2 readings >95% was markedly reduced to between 0% and 15%. The incidence of infants with severe ROP requiring laser surgery decreased from 5 to 1. Conclusions: A change in clinical practice aimed at maintaining oxygen within the target range to avoid a high Spo2 was associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of both severe ROP and the need for laser surgery, thus reducing hospital costs and length of hospital stays for premature infants. PMID:21892344

Lau, Yoke Yen; Tay, Yih Yann; Shah, Varsha Atul; Chang, Pisun; Loh, Khuan Tai

2011-01-01

395

Developmental care of low birth weight infants.  

PubMed

Nurses are the key to the implementation of developmentally focused care for LBW infants. There seems to be a sufficient research base to support reduced lighting in the hospital setting and consideration of cycled lighting. Face-to-face visual stimulation would seem sufficient for infants less than 40 weeks old until further research is done. In regard to sound, it seems clear that failure to reduce noise created by personnel, faculty equipment, radios, and so on represents negligence. Talking to infants who are in states other than sleep is to be encouraged, and planned interventions such as taped music and vocal selections need continued exploration. There seems to be a sufficient research base to support handling and caretaking that considers the state of the infant and aims to disrupt sleep as little as possible. Similarly, there appears to be ample support for placing infants in ways that promote a balance of flexion and extension or in the prone position whenever possible. NNS should be used during feeding and to reduce stress. Attention to reducing pain should be as much a part of the care of LBW infants as it is for adults. The potential negative effects of drugs on the developing brain must be considered and studied. Finally, the family, including siblings, should be encouraged to participate in the infant's plan of care as much as possible and prepared for discharge well in advance of the actual date. A note of caution should be entertained for stimulation programs not based on sufficient research. It is possible, perhaps even probable, that excessive sensory input at critical times can do harm. Interventions may be recommended with great enthusiasm but without research support. Thus, until the relative merits and possible adverse effects of various interventions are known, they should be approached with caution. Perhaps remembering that the first consideration in giving care is to "Do not harm" should facilitate our care of LBW infants. PMID:8516174

Oehler, J M

1993-06-01

396

Fatal "crack" cocaine ingestion in an infant.  

PubMed

This report describes a 10-month-old infant girl who died of cocaine poisoning. The infant was found apneic and in ventricular fibrillation after the parents summoned rescue personnel and claimed she had ingested rat poison. The parents later admitted that 2 hours before calling for assistance, the infant's 2-year-old brother was found eating "crack" cocaine and also feeding it to the infant. Investigators found "crack" cocaine throughout the house and in the infant's crib. At autopsy, the infant had two pieces of "crack" cocaine in the duodenum. The brain exhibited a markedly thinned corpus callosum. Toxicologic examination showed high concentrations of cocaine in the blood and in other specimens. The manner of death was classified as homicide because the infant was willfully placed in a hazardous environment with an easily accessible toxic substance, medical attention was deliberately delayed for 2 hours, and medical personnel were deceived when they were falsely told she had ingested rat poison. These features were thought to constitute neglect. The toxicologic characteristics of this case are unique. There are numerous reports of passive cocaine inhalation in infants and children less than 5 years of age, but ingestion of cocaine in this age group has rarely been documented. This age group also has no reported deaths due to cocaine ingestion and no cases of "crack" cocaine ingestion. The high concentrations of cocaine seen in this case, combined with the "crack" cocaine found in the duodenum, indicate ingestion as the route of exposure. The thinned corpus callosum in this case may be a consequence of intrauterine cocaine exposure. PMID:10990285

Havlik, D M; Nolte, K B

2000-09-01

397

Baby Carriage: Infants Walking With Loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintaining balance is a central problem for new walkers. To examine how infants cope with the additional balance control problems induced by load carriage, 14-month-olds were loaded with 15% of their body weight in shoulder-packs. Both symmetrical and asymmetrical loads disrupted alternating gait patterns and caused less mature footfall patterns. Walking was most severely compromised by back loads. Infants with

Jessie S. Garciaguirre; Karen E. Adolph; Patrick E. Shrout

2007-01-01

398

Nutrition, The Infant and the Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The human newborn possesses a functional but immature immune system in order to provide defense against a world teeming with\\u000a microorganisms. Breast milk contains a number of biological active compounds which support the infant’s immune system. These\\u000a include secretory IgAs, which confer specific protection against enteric pathogens, as well as many other immunological active\\u000a ingredients. A number of these ingredients

Ger T. Rijkers; Laetitia Niers; Marianne Stasse-Wolthuis; Frans M. Rombouts

399

Infants' discrimination of happy and sad music.  

PubMed

Infants can detect information specifying affect in infant- and adult-directed speech, familiar and unfamiliar facial expressions, and in point-light displays of facial expressions. We examined 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds' discrimination of musical excerpts judged by adults and preschoolers as happy and sad. In Experiment 1, using an infant-controlled habituation procedure, 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds heard three musical excerpts that were rated as either happy or sad. Following habituation, infants were presented with two new musical excerpts from the other affect group. Nine-month-olds discriminated the musical excerpts rated as affectively different. Five- and seven-month-olds discriminated the happy and sad excerpts when they were habituated to sad excerpts but not when they were habituated to happy excerpts. Three-month-olds showed no evidence of discriminating the sad and happy excerpts. In Experiment 2, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds were presented with two new musical excerpts from the same affective group as the habituation excerpts. At no age did infants discriminate these novel, yet affectively similar, musical excerpts. In Experiment 3, we examined 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds' discrimination of individual excerpts rated as affectively similar. Only the 9-month-olds discriminated the affectively similar individual excerpts. Results are discussed in terms of infants' ability to discriminate affect across a variety of events and its relevance for later social-communicative development. PMID:18502515

Flom, Ross; Gentile, Douglas A; Pick, Anne D

2008-12-01

400

Pharmacokinetics of melatonin in preterm infants  

PubMed Central

Aims Preterm infants are deprived of the normal intra-uterine exposure to maternal melatonin and may benefit from replacement therapy. We conducted a pharmacokinetic study to guide potential therapeutic trials. Methods Melatonin was administered to 18 preterm infants in doses ranging from 0.04–0.6 ?g kg?1 over 0.5–6 h. Pharmacokinetic profiles were analyzed individually and by population methods. Results Baseline melatonin was largely undetectable. Infants receiving melatonin at 0.1 ?g kg?1 h?1 for 2 h showed a median half-life of 15.82 h and median maximum plasma concentration of 203.3 pg ml?1. On population pharmacokinetics, clearance was 0.045 l h?1, volume of distribution 1.098 l and elimination half-life 16.91 h with gender (P = 0.047) and race (P < 0.0001) as significant covariates. Conclusions A 2 h infusion of 0.1 ?g kg?1 h?1 increased blood melatonin from undetectable to approximately peak adult concentrations. Slow clearance makes replacement of a typical maternal circadian rhythm problematic. The pharmacokinetic profile of melatonin in preterm infants differs from that of adults so dosage of melatonin for preterm infants cannot be extrapolated from adult studies. Data from this study can be used to guide therapeutic clinical trials of melatonin in preterm infants. PMID:23432339

Merchant, Nazakat M; Azzopardi, Denis V; Hawwa, Ahmed F; McElnay, James C; Middleton, Benita; Arendt, J; Arichi, Tomoki; Gressens, Pierre; Edwards, A David

2013-01-01

401

Outcomes of heart transplantation using donor hearts from infants with sudden infant death syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Uncertainty exists whether hearts from infants who have died of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are acceptable for transplantation because the mechanism of death in SIDS remains unclear. We analyzed post-transplant outcomes in infants who received a heart from a donor where SIDS was the primary cause of brain death. Methods This retrospective multicenter cohort study used data from the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (OPTN). All infants aged <12 months undergoing heart transplant between 1994 and 2008 were included. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine whether donor SIDS was independently associated with post-transplant graft loss (death or retransplant). Results During the study period, 66 of 1033 infants (6.4%) who underwent heart transplant received an allograft from a SIDS donor. These infants were similar to the remaining infants with respect to age, diagnosis, blood type, and invasive support. In multivariable analysis, graft loss was associated with congenital heart disease (hazard ratio [HR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–2.1), ventilator (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1–1.9), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 2.2–4.3), but not donor SIDS (HR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.6–1.5), suggesting graft survival in SIDS-donor heart recipients was similar to the remaining infants. Primary causes of post-transplant death in infants receiving SIDS-donor hearts and the remaining infants were similar. Conclusions Graft survival was similar in infants who received SIDS-donor hearts compared with those who received hearts from donors who died of other causes. There was no increase in incidence of non-rejection-related cardiac deaths after transplant in these children. PMID:20691612

Silva, Jennifer N.A.; Canter, Charles E.; Singh, Tajinder P.; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Piercey, Gary E.; Berul, Charles I.; Smoot, Leslie B.; Blume, Elizabeth D.; Fynn-Thompson, Francis; Almond, Christopher S.

2014-01-01

402

Female parity, maternal kinship, infant age and sex influence natal attraction and infant handling in a wild colobine (Colobus vellerosus).  

PubMed

Primate females often inspect, touch and groom others' infants (natal attraction) and they may hold and carry these infants in a manner resembling maternal care (infant handling). While natal attraction and infant handling occur in most wild colobines, little is known about the factors influencing the expression of these behaviors. We examined the effects of female parity, kinship, and dominance rank, as well as infant age and sex in wild Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana. We collected data via focal sampling of females in 2008 and 2009 (N?=?61) and of infants in 2010 (N?=?12). Accounting for the individuals who interacted with our focal subjects, this study includes 74 females and 66 infants in 8 groups. We recorded female agonistic interactions ad libitum to determine dominance ranks. We used partial pedigree information and genotypes at 17 short tandem repeat loci to determine kinship. We knew female parity, infant age and sex from demographic records. Nulliparous females showed more natal attraction and infant handling than parous females, which may suggest that interactions with infants are more adaptive for nulliparous females because they learn mothering skills through these behaviors. Compared to non-kin, maternal kin were more likely to handle infants. Maternal kin may be permitted greater access to infants because mothers are most familiar with them. Handlers may incur inclusive fitness benefits from infant handling. Dominance rank did not affect female interactions with infants. The youngest infants received the most natal attraction and infant handling, and male infants were handled more than female infants. The potential benefits of learning to mother and inclusive fitness, in combination with the relatively low costs of natal attraction and infant handling, may explain the high rates of these behaviors in many colobines. Am. J. Primatol. 77:376-387, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25399677

B?descu, Iulia; Sicotte, Pascale; Ting, Nelson; Wikberg, Eva C

2015-04-01

403

Management of inguinal hernia in premature infants: 10-year experience  

PubMed Central

Aim: Debatable issues in the management of inguinal hernia in premature infants remain unresolved. This study reviews our experience in the management of inguinal hernia in premature infants. Materials and Methods: Retrospective chart review of premature infants with inguinal hernia from 1999 to 2009. Infants were grouped into 2: Group 1 had repair (HR) just before discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and Group 2 after discharge. Results: Eighty four premature infants were identified. None of 23 infants in Group 1 developed incarcerated hernia while waiting for repair. Of the 61 infants in Group 2, 47 (77%) underwent day surgery repair and 14 were admitted for repair. At repair mean postconceptional age (PCA) in Group1 was 39.5 ± 3.05 weeks. Mean PCA in Group 2 was 66.5 ± 42.73 weeks for day surgery infants and 47.03 ± 8.87 weeks for admitted infants. None of the 84 infants had an episode of postoperative apnea. Five (5.9%) infants presented subsequently with metachronous contralateral hernia and the same number of infants had hernia recurrence. Conclusions: Delaying HR in premature infants until ready for discharge from the NICU allows for repair closer to term without increasing the risk of incarceration. Because of low occurrence of metachronous hernia contralateral inguinal exploration is not justified. Day surgery HR can be performed in former premature infant if PCA is >47 weeks without increasing postoperative complications. PMID:25552826

Crankson, Stanley John; Al Tawil, Khalil; Al Namshan, Mohammad; Al Jadaan, Saud; Baylon, Beverly Jane; Gieballa, Mutaz; Ahmed, Ibrahim Hakim

2015-01-01

404

A Proposed Tactile Vision-Substitution System for Infants Who Are Blind Tested on Sighted Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes the attraction of stimulation produced by a visuotactile sensory substitution device, which was designed to provide optical information to infants who are blind via a tactile modality. The device was first tested on sighted infants, to demonstrate that this type of stimulation on the abdomen is pleasant and rewarding in…

Segond, Herve; Weiss, Deborah; Sampaio, Eliana

2007-01-01

405

Sequence Learning in 4-Month-Old Infants: Do Infants Represent Ordinal Information?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated how 4-month-old infants represent sequences: Do they track the statistical relations among specific sequence elements (e.g., AB, BC) or do they encode abstract ordinal positions (i.e., B is second)? Infants were habituated to sequences of 4 moving and sounding elements--3 of the elements varied in their ordinal position…

Lewkowicz, David J.; Berent, Iris

2009-01-01

406

Early infant diet and ERP Correlates of Speech Stimuli Discrimination in 9 month old infants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Processing and discrimination of speech stimuli were examined during the initial period of weaning in infants enrolled in a longitudinal study of infant diet and development (the Beginnings Study). Event-related potential measures (ERP; 128 sites) were used to compare the processing of speech stimul...

407

Parent-Infant Interaction in Infant Siblings at Risk of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent models of the early emergence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) propose an interaction between risk susceptibility and the infant's social environment, resulting in a progressively atypical developmental trajectory. The infant's early social environmental experience consists mostly of interaction with caregivers, yet there has been little…

Wan, Ming Wai; Green, Jonathan; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark; Charman, Tony; Plummer, Faye

2012-01-01

408

Infant Sleep Position Placing infants to sleep on their backs reduces the risk of  

E-print Network

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) – one of the leading causes of death to infants. 46 In Oregon, SIDS is the number one cause of death to older infants (between 28 days and up to 1 year), accounting for nearly 30 percent of all deaths in this age group during 2002-2004. 47 The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that healthy infants younger than 6 months of age be placed to sleep on their back. 48 • In 2004, Oregon mothers were significantly more likely than other U.S. 49 mothers to place their infants to sleep on their backs – 74.7 versus 65.1 percent, respectively. Furthermore, Oregon achieved the Healthy People 2010 target of having at least 70 percent of infants put to sleep on their backs. • Although Oregon mothers were more likely to place their infants to sleep on their backs than any other position, more than a quarter (25.3 percent) of Oregon infants were put to sleep in the higher risk

unknown authors

409

Infants in Multirisk Families. Case Studies in Preventive Intervention. Clinical Infants Reports Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Work conducted by the Clinical Infant Development Program (CIDP) of the National Institute of Mental Health, involving 47 multirisk families and their infants over a period of several years, is described. Part I contains four detailed case studies by Delise Williams, Euthymia Hibbs, Serena Wieder and others, providing data for comprehensive…

Greenspan, Stanley I., Ed.; And Others

410

Bone mineral content (BMC) and serum vitamin D concentrations of infants fed partially hydrolyzed infant formulas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of the study was to compare the bone status of healthy, term infants fed partially hydrolyzed whey formulas during the first 3 mo of life. Between 0 and 8 d of age, 89 infants were randomized to Good Start Supreme (GSS) or an experimental whey-based formula (EF) to 84 d of age. BMC was a...

411

Exploring Factors of Readiness to Learn about Infant Feeding in Mothers of NICU Infants  

E-print Network

Abstract Teaching the postpartum mother who has an infant in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) about infant feeding may be delayed if the nurse does not determine readiness to learn (RTL) and confidence to feed (CTF) and/or makes assumptions...

Hadsell, Christine Ann

2013-08-31

412

Infants' vagal regulation in the still-face paradigm is related to dyadic coordination of mother-infant interaction.  

PubMed

The authors investigated relations between mother-infant dyadic coordination and infants' physiological responses. Mothers (N=73) and 3-month-old male and female infants were observed in the still-face paradigm, and mothers' and infants' affective states were coded at 1-s intervals. Synchrony and levels of matching between mother-infant affective states were computed, and infants' heart rate and vagal tone were measured. Infants showed increased negative affect and heart rate and decreased vagal tone during mothers' still-face, indicating physiological regulation of distress. Infants who did not suppress vagal tone during the still-face (nonsuppressors) showed less positive affect, higher reactivity and vagal suppression in normal play and reunion episodes, and lower synchrony in normal play with mothers. The results indicate that infants' physiological regulation in social interaction differs in relation to dyadic coordination of affective behaviors. PMID:15535757

Moore, Ginger A; Calkins, Susan D

2004-11-01

413

Mother Infant Interactions in Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): Spatial Relationships, Communication, and Opportunities  

E-print Network

Mother Infant Interactions in Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): Spatial This study investigated mother infant interactions in lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla conducive to infant social learning. Eleven gorilla mother infant dyads were focally observed in weekly 1-hr

Maestripieri, Dario

414

21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant...

2012-04-01

415

21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant...

2014-04-01

416

21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant...

2010-04-01

417

21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant...

2011-04-01

418

21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant...

2013-04-01

419

Immediate and selective maternal brain responses to own infant faces.  

PubMed

Infant faces elicit caregiving in adults. In previous research on brain responses to images of infant faces, the faces were unknown to participants. This study investigated EEG in primiparous mothers of 3- to 6-month-old infants viewing their own infant's face compared to an unfamiliar but appearance-matched infant's face. Spectral power was calculated and compared, and power at three EEG bands (delta, theta, and gamma) was found to differ between faces. Brain responses among primiparous mothers distinguish images of their own versus unfamiliar infants. PMID:25242285

Esposito, G; Valenzi, S; Islam, T; Mash, C; Bornstein, M H

2014-09-19

420

Caregivers provide more labeling responses to infants' pointing than to infants' object-directed vocalizations.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Existing studies have observed a robust relationship between infants' pointing gestures and language outcomes. By contrast, infants' overall vocal production is not related to language outcomes. One possible explanation for the association between pointing and language is that pointing gestures, as compared to vocalizations, may elicit more verbal responses from social partners that are facilitative for language learning. To test this, we observed forty-seven infants aged 1;0 during free play with their mothers and fathers separately to compare parents' verbal responses to infants' pointing gestures and object-directed vocalizations. Results showed that, compared to object-directed vocalizations, infants' pointing elicited more verbal responses from parents, particularly object labels. Moreover, mothers were more likely than fathers to provide labels. These results may help explain why pointing is associated with indices of language acquisition, but the production of vocalizations is not. PMID:24923871

Wu, Zhen; Gros-Louis, Julie

2014-06-13

421

How Does Microanalysis of Mother-Infant Communication Inform Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Attachment?  

PubMed Central

Microanalysis research on 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication operates like a “social microscope” and identifies aspects of maternal sensitivity and the origins of attachment with a more detailed lens. We hope to enhance a dialogue between these two paradigms, microanalysis of mother-infant communication and maternal sensitivity and emerging working models of attachment. The prediction of infant attachment from microanalytic approaches and their contribution to concepts of maternal sensitivity are described. We summarize aspects of one microanalytic study by Beebe and colleagues (2010) that documents new communication patterns between mothers and infants at 4 months that predict future disorganized (vs. secure) attachment. The microanalysis approach opens up a new window on the details of the micro-processes of face-to-face communication. It provides a new, rich set of behaviors with which to extend our understanding of the origins of infant attachment and of maternal sensitivity. PMID:24299136

Beebe, Beatrice; Steele, Miriam

2013-01-01

422

Young adults' reactions to infant crying.  

PubMed

An infant's optimal development is determined to a great extent by the adequate and sensitive responses of the caregiver. The adequacy and sensitivity of a reaction to an infant in distress (i.e. crying) will partly depend on the causal attributions of the crying and on the individual's sympathy for the infant. Being female, prior caring experiences, and multiparity have shown to be linked to more sympathetic, tolerant and less hostile emotional responses to crying. However, little is known about other factors explaining inexperienced future caregivers' reactions to infant crying. The present paper's goal is to shed more light on the subject by looking at how personality factors, caregiving interest, sex, promptness of the reaction, and gender identity are related to emotional reactions and causal attributions to crying in a population of young adults without children. One hundred and ninety-one childless university students participated (126 females; ages 18-35 years). The participants completed questionnaires on personality, gender identity and caregiving interest, and listened to an audio sample of an infant crying, reporting their emotions and their causal attributions to the crying. The results showed that experiencing anger was associated with more child-blaming attributions to the crying, while quickness of response and feelings of sympathy predicted more child-oriented attributions. The latter was stronger in males. Explicit care interest decreased child-blaming causal attributions more for men than for the women. Interestingly, solely in the females' personality factors neuroticism and conscientiousness played a role in child blaming attributions together with anger. These findings suggest that the motives that young adults attribute to a crying infant depend in males on the emotions triggered by the crying, responsiveness and care interest. While in females, emotions, responsiveness and personality affect the causal attribution to the crying. Future research is needed in order to determine whether these attributions are also linked to young adults' actual behaviour towards a crying infant. PMID:24463036

Cohen-Bendahan, C C C; van Doornen, L J P; de Weerth, C

2014-02-01

423

Interactive Behaviors of Ethnic Minority Mothers and their Premature Infants  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the interactive behaviors of American Indian mothers and their premature infants with those of African American mothers and their premature infants. Design Descriptive, comparative study. Setting Three neonatal intensive care units and two pediatric clinics in the southeast. Participants Seventy-seven mother-infant dyads: 17 American Indian mother-infant dyads and 60 African American mother-infant dyads. Methods Videotapes of mother-infant interactions and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) were used to assess the interactions of the mothers and their premature infants at six months corrected age. Results American Indian mothers looked more, gestured more, and were more often the primary caregivers to their infants than the African American mothers. American Indian infants expressed more positive affect and gestured more to their mothers, whereas African American infants engaged in more non-negative vocalization toward their mothers. African American mothers scored higher on the HOME subscales of provision of appropriate play materials and parental involvement with the infant. American Indian mothers scored higher on the opportunities for variety in daily living subscale. Conclusion Although many of the interactive behaviors of American Indian and African American mother-infant dyads were similar, some differences did occur. Clinicians need to be aware of the cultural differences in mother-infant interactions. To optimize child developmental outcomes, nurses need to support mothers in their continuation or adoption of positive interactive behaviors. PMID:23682698

Brooks, Jada L.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Landerman, Lawrence R.

2013-01-01

424

Ethnicity and infant mortality in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Malaysian infant mortality differentials are a worthwhile subject for study, because socioeconomic development has very clearly had a differential impact by ethnic group. The Chinese rates of infant mortality are significantly lower than the Malay or Indian rates. Instead of examining the obvious access to care issues, this study considered factors related to the culture of infant care. Practices include the Chinese confinement of the mother in the first month after childbirth ("pe'i yue") and Pillsbury's 12 normative rules for Malaysian Chinese care. Malay practices vary widely by region and history. Indian mothers are restricted by diet. Data-recording flaws do not permit analysis of Sarawak or Sabah. The general assumption that Western medicine favors better health for mothers and infants is substantiated among peninsular communities, however, there are also negative impacts which affect infant mortality. The complex interaction of factors impacting on infant mortality reported in seven previous studies is discussed. A review of these studies reveals that immediate causes are infections, injuries, and dehydration. Indirect causes are birth weight or social and behavioral factors such as household income or maternal education. Indirect factors, which are amenable to planned change and influence the biological proximate determinants of infant mortality, are identified as birth weight, maternal age at birth, short pregnancy intervals or prior reproductive loss, sex of the child, birth order, duration of breast feeding and conditions of supplementation, types of household water and sanitation, year of child's birth, maternal education, household income and composition, institution of birth, ethnicity, and rural residence. Nine factors are identified empirically as not significant: maternal hours of work in the child's first year, maternal occupation, distance from home to workplace, presence of other children or servants, incidence of epidemics in the child's first year of life, community types of sanitation, prices and availability of infant foods, and access to various types of medical care. Future empirical study should consider factors such as class differences, place of residence, or extent of illiteracy as underlying or related to ethnicity. Policy-makers should be aware that future decline in infant mortality rates may depend on the blending of traditional with modern practices. PMID:12287522

Dixon, G

1993-06-01

425

Infant handling and mortality in yellow baboons ( Papio cynocephalus ): evidence for female reproductive competition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines negative and positive infant handling behavior in 24 free-ranging yellow baboon infants ( Papio cynocephalus) studied over a 5-year period in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania. We test predictions of the female reproductive competition hypothesis to explain patterns of infant handling behavior by adult females (excluding the infant’s mother) in relation to observed cases of infant mortality by

S. Kleindorfer; S. K. Wasser

2004-01-01

426

Poverty, underdevelopment and infant mental health.  

PubMed

Very great advances have occurred in disciplinary and professional knowledge of infant development and its influence on subsequent development. This expertise includes the ways in which early experiences affect the capacity of mature individuals for social adjustment and productive competence, and promising methods of intervention to promote infant mental health and prevent adverse sequelae of risk conditions. However, very little of this knowledge has been applied in work among infants and children living in conditions of poverty and underdevelopment. This lack of application continues despite the enormous threats to the well-being of infants and young children brought about by the combined effects of poverty and the AIDS pandemic, especially in southern Africa. Protein-energy malnutrition, maternal depression, and institutional care of infants and small children are cited as illustrative of areas in which interventions, and their evaluation, are desperately needed in resource-poor countries. An argument is made for the critical importance of considering and addressing psychological factors in care givers and children in conditions of extreme material need. An example is provided of a simple intervention model based on sound developmental principles that can be implemented by trained non-professionals in conditions of poverty and underdevelopment. PMID:12755927

Richter, L M

2003-01-01

427

Neural Mechanisms of Body Awareness in Infants.  

PubMed

The ability to differentiate one's body from others is a fundamental aspect of social perception and has been shown to involve the integration of sense modalities attributable to the self. Though behavioral studies in infancy have investigated infants' discrimination of body-related multisensory stimuli, whether they attribute this information as belonging to the self is still unknown. In human adults, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the recruitment of a specific set of brain regions in response to body-related multisensory integration. To test whether the infant brain integrates this information similarly to adults, in a first functional near-infrared spectroscopy study we investigated the role of visual-proprioceptive feedback when temporal cues are manipulated by showing 5-month-old infants an online video of their own face while the infant was performing movements. To explore the role of body-related contingency further, in a second study we investigated whether cortical activation in response to self-initiated movements and external tactile stimulation was similar to that found in the first study. Our results indicate that infants' specialized cortical activation in response to body-related contingencies is similar to brain activation seen in response to body awareness in adults. PMID:25404469

Filippetti, M L; Lloyd-Fox, S; Longo, M R; Farroni, T; Johnson, M H

2014-11-17

428

Intravenous Lipids for Preterm Infants: A Review  

PubMed Central

Extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW) are born at a time when the fetus is undergoing rapid intrauterine brain and body growth. Continuation of this growth in the first several weeks postnatally during the time these infants are on ventilator support and receiving critical care is often a challenge. These infants are usually highly stressed and at risk for catabolism. Parenteral nutrition is needed in these infants because most cannot meet the majority of their nutritional needs using the enteral route. Despite adoption of a more aggressive approach with amino acid infusions, there still appears to be a reluctance to use early intravenous lipids. This is based on several dogmas that suggest that lipid infusions may be associated with the development or exacerbation of lung disease, displace bilirubin from albumin, exacerbate sepsis, and cause CNS injury and thrombocytopena. Several recent reviews have focused on intravenous nutrition for premature neonate, but very little exists that provides a comprehensive review of intravenous lipid for very low birth and other critically ill neonates. Here, we would like to provide a brief basic overview, of lipid biochemistry and metabolism of lipids, especially as they pertain to the preterm infant, discuss the origin of some of the current clinical practices, and provide a review of the literature, that can be used as a basis for revising clinical care, and provide some clarity in this controversial area, where clinical care is often based more on tradition and dogma than science. PMID:25698888

Salama, Ghassan SA; Kaabneh, Mahmmoud AF; Almasaeed, Mai N; Alquran, Mohammad IA

2015-01-01

429

Infant health of mothers with multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Controversy surrounds whether mothers with multiple sclerosis (MS) who wish to breast-feed their infants should forego breast-feeding in order to resume immunomodulating therapy following birth even though breast-feeding has not been shown to have deleterious effects on these mothers. Knowledge of potential health benefits to infants through breast-feeding could influence health care providers to encourage mothers with MS who wish to breast-feed to do so. This study of 140 breast-feeding and 35 non-breast-feeding mothers with MS identifies the type and prevalence of illnesses experienced by their infants during the first 6 postpartum months and at 9 months and 12 months. Significantly more non-breast-fed than breast-fed infants experienced otitis media, lower respiratory illness, constipation, milk intolerance, and allergy during the 1st year. Study results support the need to encourage mothers with MS who wish to breast-feed their infants to do so and to delay immunomodulating therapy until breast-feeding cessation. PMID:15359075

Gulick, Elsie E; Johnson, Shanda

2004-10-01

430

Infants Generalize Representations of Statistically Segmented Words  

PubMed Central

The acoustic variation in language presents learners with a substantial challenge. To learn by tracking statistical regularities in speech, infants must recognize words across tokens that differ based on characteristics such as the speaker’s voice, affect, or the sentence context. Previous statistical learning studies have not investigated how these types of non-phonemic surface form variation affect learning. The present experiments used tasks tailored to two distinct developmental levels to investigate the robustness of statistical learning to variation. Experiment 1 examined statistical word segmentation in 11-month-olds and found that infants can recognize statistically segmented words across a change in the speaker’s voice from segmentation to testing. The direction of infants’ preferences suggests that recognizing words across a voice change is more difficult than recognizing them in a consistent voice. Experiment 2 tested whether 17-month-olds can generalize the output of statistical learning across variation to support word learning. The infants were successful in their generalization; they associated referents with statistically defined words despite a change in voice from segmentation to label learning. Infants’ learning patterns also indicate that they formed representations of across word syllable sequences during segmentation. Thus, low probability sequences can act as object labels in some conditions. The findings of these experiments suggest that the units that emerge during statistical learning are not perceptually constrained, but rather are robust to naturalistic acoustic variation. PMID:23112788

Graf Estes, Katharine

2012-01-01

431

Is Infant Immunity Actively Suppressed or Immature?  

PubMed Central

Almost 7 million children under the age 5 die each year, and most of these deaths are attributable to vaccine-preventable infections. Young infants respond poorly to infections and vaccines. In particular, dendritic cells secrete less IL-12 and IL-18, CD8pos T cells and NK cells have defective cytolysis and cytokine production, and CD4pos T cell responses tend to bias towards a Th2 phenotype and promotion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). The basis for these differences is not well understood and may be in part explained by epigenetic differences, as well as immaturity of the infant’s immune system. Here we present a third possibility, which involves active suppression by immune regulatory cells and place in context the immune suppressive pathways of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), CD5pos B cells, and Tregs. The immune pathways that these immune regulatory cells inhibit are similar to those that are defective in the infant. Therefore, the immune deficiencies seen in infants could be explained, in part, by active suppressive cells, indicating potential new avenues for intervention. PMID:25429207

Gervassi, Ana L; Horton, Helen

2014-01-01

432

Arousal from sleep mechanisms in infants.  

PubMed

Arousals from sleep allow sleep to continue in the face of stimuli that normally elicit responses during wakefulness and also permit awakening. Such an adaptive mechanism implies that any malfunction may have clinical importance. Inadequate control of arousal in infants and children is associated with a variety of sleep-related problems. An excessive propensity to arouse from sleep favors the development of repeated sleep disruptions and insomnia, with impairment of daytime alertness and performance. A lack of an adequate arousal response to a noxious nocturnal stimulus reduces an infant's chances of autoresuscitation, and thus survival, increasing the risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The study of arousability is complicated by many factors including the definition of an arousal; the scoring methodology; the techniques used (spontaneous arousability versus arousal responses to endogenous or exogenous stimuli); and the confounding factors that complicate the determination of arousal thresholds by changing the sleeper's responses to a given stimulus such as prenatal drug, alcohol, or cigarette use. Infant age and previous sleep deprivation also modify thresholds. Other confounding factors include time of night, sleep stages, the sleeper's body position, and sleeping conditions. In this paper, we will review these different aspects for the study of arousals in infants and also report the importance of these studies for the understanding of the pathophysiology of some clinical conditions, particularly SIDS. PMID:20630799

Franco, Patricia; Kato, Ineko; Richardson, Heidi L; Yang, Joel S C; Montemitro, Enza; Horne, Rosemary S C

2010-08-01

433

Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... Healthy Baby Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants If you’re a pregnant ... if possible. Rest often. If you are a parent with a young infant who has been evacuated ...

434

Using Inflatables with Severely Motorically Involved Infants and Preschoolers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inflatable swim rings are inexpensive, familiar, compact, and facilitate appropriate positioning for the educational programing of severely motorically involved infants and preschoolers. Case studies of two infants illustrate use of the inflatables. (DB)

Kasari, Connie; Filler, John W., Jr.

1981-01-01

435

Percentage of Infants Born at a Low Birth Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... Out Percentage of Infants Born at a Low Birth Weight Low birth weight is a risk factor for poor lifetime ... Vital Statistics System (NVSS) Metrics Calculation Percent low birth weight equals the percentage of all infants delivered ...

436

Duodenal perforation in an infant with rotavirus gastroenteritis  

PubMed Central

We describe for the first time a case of an infant with rotavirus gastroenteritis complicated by a duodenal perforation. Awareness of the perforation risk may prevent severe or lethal outcomes in this common infection among infants and children. PMID:23592811

Stabell, Niklas; Klingenberg, Claus; Rushfeldt, Christian

2013-01-01

437

What Are the DGAs for Moms and Infants?  

MedlinePLUS

... En Español What are the DGAs for Moms & Infants? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... other characteristics. [top] How many calories does my infant need? The estimated energy requirements (in calories per ...

438

Vaccination Can Cut Rates of Common Infection in Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Vaccination Can Cut Rates of Common Infection in Infants ... Tuesday, January 13, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Childhood Immunization Infant and Newborn Care Rotavirus Infections TUESDAY, Jan. ...

439

WIC's promotion of infant formula in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background The United States' Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) distributes about half the infant formula used in the United States at no cost to the families. This is a matter of concern because it is known that feeding with infant formula results in worse health outcomes for infants than breastfeeding. Discussion The evidence that is available indicates that the WIC program has the effect of promoting the use of infant formula, thus placing infants at higher risk. Moreover, the program violates the widely accepted principles that have been set out in the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and in the human right to adequate food. Summary There is no good reason for an agency of government to distribute large quantities of free infant formula. It is recommended that the large-scale distribution of free infant formula by the WIC program should be phased out. PMID:16722534

Kent, George

2006-01-01

440

Infant Formula, Tea, and Water Supplementation of Latino Infants at 4–6 Weeks Postpartum  

PubMed Central

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months- of-age. The authors examined prevalence and risk factors for use of infant formulas, water, and teas at 4–6 weeks in Latino infants in the San Francisco Bay Area, a group at high risk for future obesity. They recruited a cohort of pregnant Latina women (N = 201). Infant dietary recall and postpartum depressive symptoms were assessed at 4–6 weeks. The authors found that 105 women (53.1%) were feeding infant formulas and 48 (25.4%) were supplementing with tea or water. Of those providing water or tea, 60.0% were providing daily supplementation. In multivariate analyses, risk for infant supplementation with water or tea was associated with postpartum depressive symptoms (relative risk, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–3.0), cesarean delivery (relative risk, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–2.9), and infant formula use (relative risk, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–1.6). Early supplementation with water or teas and infant formulas should be discouraged in Latinos, given the high frequency observed in this population. J Hum Lact. 27(2):122–130. PMID:21527796

Wojcicki, Janet M.; Holbrook, Katherine; Lustig, Robert H.; Caughey, Aaron B.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Heyman, Melvin B.

2011-01-01

441

Maternal anxiety, mother-infant interactions, and infants' response to challenge.  

PubMed

Children of anxious mothers are at risk for social-emotional difficulties and disturbed, early interactions with their mother may account for some of the risk. This study evaluated the association between maternal anxiety, features of mother-infant interactions, and infants' emotion regulation during stressful situations (still-face, play with a stranger). Thirty-four anxiety-disordered mothers of 6-month-old infants and 59 typical dyads comprised the sample. Dyads were filmed during free play, teaching, care giving, and face-to-face play; and monadic (e.g., maternal sensitivity, infant affect) and dyadic measures (e.g., synchrony) were derived by global or time-event coding of the films. Results indicate that, compared to controls, more anxious mothers showed exaggerated behavior with their infant during free play and teaching, and infants of anxious mothers were less likely to show negative affect during the still-face and stranger challenges. We conclude that anxious maternal behavior reflects the hyperarousal that is characteristic of most anxiety disorders; and infants of anxious mothers and controls show differences in the manner in which they cope with social challenges. PMID:20116860

Kaitz, Marsha; Maytal, Hilla Rubin; Devor, Noa; Bergman, Liat; Mankuta, David

2010-04-01

442

Melatonin concentrations in the sudden infant death syndrome  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The melatonin levels in various body fluids of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants are compared with those of infants of comparable age who died of other causes to examine a possible relationship between pineal function and SIDS. After adjusting for age differences, cerebrospinal fluid melatonin levels are found to be significantly lower in the SIDS infants. It is suggested that diminished melatonin production may be characteristic of SIDS and could represent an impairment in the maturation of physiologic circadian organization.

Sturner, W. Q.; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M. H.; Gleason, R. E.; Wurtman, R. J.

1990-01-01

443

Infant Feeding Practices in Barbados Predict Later Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This longitudinal study was,designed,to examine,reciprocal relationships between,feeding practices and infant growth,over the first 6 mo,of life. The following three hypotheses,were,tested: 1) early feeding practices predict later infant growth; 2) early infant growth,predicts,later feeding practices; and,3) these relationships,occur after controlling for related background variables. The sample included 226 healthy, well-nourished infants born at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Bridgetown, Barbados. Assessments

Janina R. Galler; Frank C. Ramsey; Robert H. Harrison; Rechele Brooks; Sally Weiskopf-bock

444

Contributions of infant word learning to language development  

PubMed Central

Infants learn the forms of words by listening to the speech they hear. Though little is known about the degree to which these forms are meaningful for young infants, the words still play a role in early language development. Words guide the infant to his or her first syntactic intuitions, aid in the development of the lexicon, and, it is proposed, may help infants learn phonetic categories. PMID:19933136

Swingley, Daniel

2009-01-01

445

Themeaningof infants'looks: Information seeking and comfort seeking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In twostudies, the reason that infants in a novel situation look to adults was assessed. In Study 1, 10- and 13-month-old infants encountered a visual cliff that was deep (56cm) or ambiguous (20cm). Infants crossed the ambiguous cliff reliably faster than the deep cliff, and the first looks to mother of infants in the deep cliff condition were longer than

Tricia Striano; Amrisha Vaish; Joann P. Benigno

2006-01-01

446

Infant visual attentiveness in relation to birth condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

28 preterm infants tested at 40 wks conceptional age showed significantly longer periods of attention to 2-dimensional stimuli than did 28 full-term infants of the same conceptional age (Exp I). To determine whether attentiveness of the full-term infants was diminished by transient birth effects, visual attentiveness was measured in a group of 15 full-term infants in the 1st 2 days

Marian Sigman; Claire B. Kopp; Bruce Littman; Arthur H. Parmlee

1977-01-01

447

The recent trend in milk feeding among WIC infants.  

PubMed Central

The type of milk fed infants from birth to six months of age was ascertained by quarterly surveys of a national sample of births. WIC (Women, Infants and Children Program) participants were identified from this sample, and trend data indicate that an increased percentage of WIC mothers ae choosing to breastfeed their infants. Infant formula use has declined in the early months of life, but increased at the expense of cow's milk toward the middle of the first year. PMID:7053626

Martinez, G A; Stahle, D A

1982-01-01

448

Infant Regulatory Disorders: Temperamental, Physiological, and Behavioral Features  

PubMed Central

Successful development during the first year of life is dependent on the infant’s ability to regulate behavioral and physiological state in response to unpredictable environmental challenges. While most infants develop skills to self-soothe and regulate behavior, a subset lacks these skills and develops regulatory disorders (RD). Objectives To evaluate the component features of RD by determining if infants with RD differ from typically developing infants on measures of temperament, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, heart rate, and mother-infant interactions. Methods Parents of 50 9-month old infants completed behavioral questionnaires that provided information necessary to complete the Regulatory Disorders Checklist, which evaluates for difficulties in self-regulation and hypersensitivities. Infants with difficulties in both domains were assigned to the RD group. Mothers and their infants were videotaped interacting for 10 minutes. Infant heart rate was monitored before and during the mental development test. Results The RD group (n=10) was more temperamentally difficult and exhibited atypical physiological regulation relative to infants with difficulties in either self-regulation or hypersensitivity (n=25) or infants with no difficulties (n=15). During the mother-infant interactions, the RD group exhibited more high-level withdrawal behaviors, including verbal and physical protests, although there were no differences in the quantity and quality of the maternal approaches. Conclusion Infants with RD have both temperamental and physiological regulation difficulties, and may be in a physiologically state that makes it difficult to moderate behavior in response to social demands. Mothers of RD infants might be taught to modify their behavior to help their infants regulate behavioral and physiological state. PMID:21057324

Dale, Lourdes P.; O‘Hara, Emily A.; Keen, Julie; Porges, Stephen W.

2010-01-01

449

Challenges to Bonnet Monkey (Macaca radiata) Social Groups: Mother–Infant Dyad and Infant Social Interactions  

PubMed Central

The mother-infant dyad is crucial to early development in a variety of species. The complexity of social groupings in nonhuman primates makes this relationship resilient as well as susceptible to early challenges associated with environmental chaos. Quantitative behavior observations of bonnet monkey mother-infant interactions were collected from 28 mother-infant dyads between one and twelve months of age. Social groups were subjected to several prenatal and/or postnatal housing relocations within a single year resulting in two study groups. One group experienced relocations (ATYPICAL, n = 14) and the second group (TYPICAL, n = 14) was conceived and reared in the same location. Behaviors in the ethogram included mother-infant interactions and infant social interactions with other members of the group. Observations between ages of two to four months were analyzed by a mixed model analysis of variance including fixed effects of per and postnatal history (TYPICAL, ATYPICAL), age, and history by age interaction and random effects of mother and infant nested within mother. A significant effect of relocation history was noted on a number of infant behaviors. ATYPICAL infants were out of direct contact with their mother at an earlier age but remained in her proximity. Control of proximity shifted to offsrping in the ATYPICAL group compared to the TYPICAL group. Furthermore, greater social interactions between two and four months of age with other members of the social group as well as the ir mother were observed in the ATYPICAL group. It is suggested that continuous challenge associated with relocation may affect the infant at later developmental ages due to these early differences in ways that are yet unclear. PMID:20583143

Laudenslager, Mark L.; Natvig, C.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, S.M.; Blevins, M.; Corcoran, C.; Pierre, P.J.; Bennett, A.J.

2015-01-01

450

Oral feeding readiness assessment in premature infants.  

PubMed

Oral feeding readiness is a complex concept. More evidence is needed on how to approach beginning oral feedings in premature hospitalized infants. This article provides a review of literature related to oral feeding readiness in the premature infant and strategies for promoting safe and efficient progression to full oral intake. Oral feeding readiness assessment tools, clinical pathways, and feeding advancement protocols have been developed to assist with oral feeding initiation and progression. Recognition and support of oral feeding readiness may decrease length of hospital stay and have a positive impact on reducing healthcare costs. Supporting effective cue-based oral feeding through use of rigorous assessment or evidence-based care guidelines can also optimize the hospital experience for infants and caregivers, which, in turn, can promote attachment and parent satisfaction. PMID:25494013

Gennattasio, Annmarie; Perri, Elizabeth A; Baranek, Donna; Rohan, Annie

2015-01-01

451

Late preterm infants and risk for RSV.  

PubMed

Late preterm infants, born between 34 and 36 6/7 weeks gestation, are physiologically immature and at risk for a variety of complications including infection caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). RSV infection that spreads to the lower respiratory tract results in hospitalization of these high-risk infants, where nurses provide nursing care focusing on suctioning, maintaining fluid balance, temperature control, and oxygenation. This article describes the risk and incidence of RSV infection in late preterm infants and the necessary subsequent hospital, home, and clinic care. Prevention, including prophylaxis with palivizumab therapy, as well as clinical practice guidelines for medical care are described, as well as resources where current guidelines can be accessed. PMID:19901700

Coffman, Sherrilyn

2009-01-01

452

Sudden infant death syndrome: a cybernetic etiology.  

PubMed

The brain's processes, by hypothesis, involve information processing by an extraordinarily complex, highly sophisticated, self-organizing cybernetic system embedded in the central nervous system. This cybernetic system generates itself in successive stages. Breathing is, by default, an autonomous function, but breath control is learned. If there is not a smooth transfer of function at the time when a successor system (one that enables autonomous breathing to be overridden by voluntary control) takes over, breathing may cease, without any overt cause being detectable, even with a thorough postmortem examination. If conditions are such that, at that point, the infant's body lacks the strength to resume breathing again under autonomic control, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome may result. The theory explains why infants are at greater risk if they sleep face down. PMID:14592795

ben-Aaron, M

2003-01-01

453

Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the relationship between air pollution, measured as concentration of suspended particulates in the atmosphere, and infant mortality due to pneumonia in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. Multiple linear regression (progressive or stepwise method) was used to analyze infant mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhea, and all causes in 1980, by geographic area, income level, and degree of contamination. While the variable proportion of families with income equivalent to more than two minimum wages was included in the regressions corresponding to the three types of infant mortality, the average contamination index had a statistically significant coefficient (b = 0.2208; t = 2.670; P = 0.0137) only in the case of mortality due to pneumonia. This would suggest a biological association, but, as in any ecological study, such conclusions should be viewed with caution. The authors believe that air quality indicators are essential to consider in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.

Penna, M.L.; Duchiade, M.P. (Instituto de Medicina Social, Universidad del Estado del Rio de Janeiro (Brasil))

1991-03-01

454

Iron availability from infant food supplements.  

PubMed

Radioiron absorption tests are performed in human volunteer subjects to measure iron absorption from five infant food supplements. These products included corn-soya-milk, corn-soy blend, wheat-soy blend, wheat protein concentrate blend, and whey-soy drink mix. In iron replete adult males, mean percentage absorption ranged from 0.6 to 1.4%. By relating these results to absorption from a reference dose of inorganic iron, it was estimated that iron-deficient infants would absorb between 1.7 and 4.1% of the iron contained in the infant foods. These results indicate that this fortification iron is poorly absorbed, and probably supplies only about half of the daily iron requirement for iron deficient children between 6 months and 3 yr of age. PMID:7198375

Morck, T A; Lynch, S R; Skikne, B S; Cook, J D

1981-12-01

455

Managing Hypertension in the Newborn Infants  

PubMed Central

Hypertension in newborn infants, particularly those requiring intensive care, is becoming increasingly recognized, with prevalence of 0.2-3%. Recent studies have established normative tables for blood pressure (BP) in both term and pre-term infants based on the gestational age, postnatal age, gender, weight and height, identifying the neonates at increased risk for early-onset cardiovascular disease. Common causes of neonatal hypertension include thromboembolic complications secondary to umbilical artery catheterization, congenital renal structural malformation, renovascular disease, aortic coarctation, as well as acute kidney injury and certain medications. A careful diagnostic evaluation should lead to identification of the underlying cause of hypertension in most infants. Treatment options should be tailored to the severity; and underlying cause of hypertension, including intravenous and/or oral therapy. This review summarizes recent work in these areas, focusing on optimal BP measurement, definition, evaluation and management of hypertension as well as advances in drug therapy of neonatal hypertension. PMID:24791189

Nickavar, Azar; Assadi, Farahnak

2014-01-01

456

Infant word recognition: Insights from TRACE simulations?  

PubMed Central

The TRACE model of speech perception (McClelland & Elman, 1986) is used to simulate results from the infant word recognition literature, to provide a unified, theoretical framework for interpreting these findings. In a first set of simulations, we demonstrate how TRACE can reconcile apparently conflicting findings suggesting, on the one hand, that consonants play a pre-eminent role in lexical acquisition (Nespor, Peña & Mehler, 2003; Nazzi, 2005), and on the other, that there is a symmetry in infant sensitivity to vowel and consonant mispronunciations of familiar words (Mani & Plunkett, 2007). In a second series of simulations, we use TRACE to simulate infants’ graded sensitivity to mispronunciations of familiar words as reported by White and Morgan (2008). An unexpected outcome is that TRACE fails to demonstrate graded sensitivity for White and Morgan’s stimuli unless the inhibitory parameters in TRACE are substantially reduced. We explore the ramifications of this finding for theories of lexical development. Finally, TRACE mimics the impact of phonological neighbourhoods on early word learning reported by Swingley and Aslin (2007). TRACE offers an alternative explanation of these findings in terms of mispronunciations of lexical items rather than imputing word learning to infants. Together these simulations provide an evaluation of Developmental (Jusczyk, 1993) and Familiarity (Metsala, 1999) accounts of word recognition by infants and young children. The findings point to a role for both theoretical approaches whereby vocabulary structure and content constrain infant word recognition in an experience-dependent fashion, and highlight the continuity in the processes and representations involved in lexical development during the second year of life. PMID:24493907

Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

2014-01-01

457

The relationship between neonatal characteristics and three-month mother-infant interaction in high-risk infants.  

PubMed

The behavior of 4 groups of infants--healthy term, healthy preterm, sick preterm, and sick full-term--was assessed in the neonatal period using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). At 3 months postterm, infants and their mothers were observed and videotaped in a free-play session. Both the NBAS and mother-infant interaction data were analyzed to assess the effects of maturity (term vs. preterm), illness (sick vs. healthy), and their interaction. Results revealed that illness of the infant affected both NBAS performance and maternal behavior during the interaction at 3 moths. Infants who were ill performed poorly on the NBAS orientation dimension; this dimension was found to be significantly associated with maternal and infant behaviors at 3 months. These data demonstrate an association between early infant characteristics and subsequent mother and child interactive behaviors. They also identify postnatal illness as an important influence on the development of the mother-infant dyad. PMID:6354634

Greene, J G; Fox, N A; Lewis, M

1983-10-01

458

[Attention to nutrition and health of preterm infants: interpretation of The Global Consensus for Feeding the Preterm Infant].  

PubMed

The Global Consensus for Feeding the Preterm Infant was published in the Journal of Pediatrics 3 supplement, 2013. The content of the consensus includes recommended nutrient intake for different gestational age preterm infants, identifying appropriate growth curves, the use of breast milk, nutritional recommendations for the late-preterm infant and the preterm infant after hospital discharge, nutritional requirements and feeding recommendations for small gestation age infants, reconsideration of the importance of vitamin A and vitamin D for immature infants, recommendations for immunonutrients, and the association of feeding of preterm infants with later metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes. The main characteristics of the consensus: (1) aimed to improve prognosis; (2) individualized nutritional strategy based on gestational ages; (3) coexistence of consensus and controversy in feeding of preterm infants. PMID:25008869

Wang, Dan-Hua

2014-07-01

459

Emotional Eavesdropping: Infants Selectively Respond to Indirect Emotional Signals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined whether 18-month-olds learn from emotions directed to a third party. Infants watched an adult perform actions on objects, and an Emoter expressed Anger or Neutral affect toward the adult in response to her actions. The Emoter then became neutral and infants were given access to the objects. Infants' actions were influenced…

Repacholi, Betty M.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

2007-01-01

460

Stress, severity of illness, and outcome in ventilated preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To determine physiological and hormonal stress responses in ventilated preterm infants. METHODS: Physiological and hormonal stress responses were studied in 47 ventilated preterm infants who were judged clinically to require sedation. The correlation between the stress response and severity of illness was examined, and responses were compared between infants with different clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Stress hormone concentrations were significantly

D P Barker; N Rutter

1996-01-01

461

Infant Vocalization When Alone: Possibility of Early Sound Playing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five-month-old infants' vocalization when alone was investigated. Several researchers have reported observing that young infants vocalize in comfortable states without any response from others. As is implied by episodic reports in previous studies, it is possible that infants vocalize to play with their own vocal sound. Producing and listening to…

Shimada, Yohko M.

2012-01-01

462

Developments in Young Infants' Reasoning about Occluded Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight experiments were conducted to examine 3- and 3.5-month-old infants' responses to occlusion events. The results revealed two developments, one in infants' knowledge of when objects should and should not be occluded and the other in infants' ability to posit additional objects to make sense of events that would otherwise violate their…

Aguiar, Andrea; Baillargeon, Renee

2002-01-01

463

Infants' Visual Localization of Visual and Auditory Targets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an investigation of 2-month-old infants' abilities to visually localize visual and auditory peripheral stimuli. Each subject (N=40) was presented with 50 trials; 25 of these visual and 25 auditory. The infant was placed in a semi-upright infant seat positioned 122 cm from the center speaker of an arc formed by five loudspeakers. At…

Bechtold, A. Gordon; And Others

464

Beyond Baby Doe: Does Infant Transplantation Justify Euthanasia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines ethical issues in the transplantation of organs from infants with anencephaly into infants with severe heart and kidney disease. It argues that active euthanasia of infants with anencephaly should be prohibited to safeguard the rights of all persons with severe neurological disabilities. (Author/DB)

Coulter, David L.

1988-01-01

465

Infants' Discrimination of Female Singing Voices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There's extensive research on infant's discrimination of speaking voices but few studies have focused on infant's discrimination of singing voices. Most investigations on infants' perception of timbre in music have been based on instrumental sounds. We completed an experiment with 7-and 13-month-olds (n = 16 and n = 17…

Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Davila, Yvonne

2014-01-01

466

Physical Activity and Walking Onset in Infants with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants with Down syndrome (DS) are described as being less active and they also experience significant delays in motor development. It is hypothesized that early infant physical activity may be influential for the acquisition of independent walking. Physical activity was monitored longitudinally in 30 infants with DS starting at an average age of…

Lloyd, Meghann; Burghardt, Amy; Ulrich, Dale A.; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa

2010-01-01

467

Social Regulatory Effects of Infant Nondistress Vocalization on Maternal Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the social regulatory function of infant nondistress vocalization in modulating maternal response. Thirteen infants and their mothers were observed weekly in a face-to-face interaction situation from 4 to 24 weeks. After the occurrences and the speech quality of infant nondistress vocalization were identified, maternal contingent responses to these vocalizations were also coded. Each responsive action was further

Hui-Chin Hsu; Alan Fogel

2003-01-01

468

Father-Infant Interactions Are Enhanced by Massage Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the impact of fathers giving massages to their infants, ages 3 to 14 months, for 15 minutes prior to their daily bedtime for 1 month. Found that fathers who had massaged their infants were more expressive and showed more enjoyment and more warmth during floor-play interactions with their infants than did fathers in the wait-list control…

Cullen, Christy; Field, Tiffany; Escalona, Angelica; Hartshorn, Kristin

2000-01-01

469

Partnerships for Quality Infant-Toddler Child Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that some communities are managing to establish and sustain good-quality infant-toddler care and to make it accessible…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

2003-01-01

470

Infant formula increases bone turnover favoring bone formation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the first year of life, the major infant food choices have traditionally been breast milk (BM), cow's milk formula (MF), or soy formula (SF). Studies examining the effects of infant formula on early life skeletal development are extremely limited. We have enrolled 120 healthy 6-month-old infants ...

471

Agents of Change in Foster Care for Infants and Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Conceived by the Zero to Three Child Welfare Task Force, this issue focuses on agents of change for infants and toddlers in foster…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

2002-01-01

472

Preparing Infant-Family Practitioners: A Work in Progress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores what it takes to prepare practitioners to work effectively in the infant-family field and describes efforts to meet training needs. A multifaceted effort to prepare and support practitioners who work with infants, toddlers, and families has been central to the growth of the infant-family field. Part C of IDEA and Early Head…

Eggbeer, Linda; Mann, Tammy; Gilkerson, Linda

2003-01-01

473

Language acquisition in premature and full-term infants  

E-print Network

. This ability is attained 4 months after birth in healthy full-term infants. We measured the induced gamma rhythmic class. Other studies have established that it is only after 4 months that full-term infants and duration of expo- sure to broadcast speech. We found that both full-term and preterm infants only display

Mehler, Jacques

474

Trauma Symptoms among Infants Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine whether infants have a traumatic response to intimate partner violence (male violence toward their female partner; IPV) experienced by their mothers, two questions were explored: (1) Is the number of infant trauma symptoms related to the infant's temperament and the mother's mental health? (2) Does severity of violence…

Bogat, G. Anne; DeJonghe, Erika; Levendosky, Alytia A.; Davidson, William S.; von Eye, Alexander

2006-01-01

475

Development of infant baboons' responses to graded bark variants  

E-print Network

Development of infant baboons' responses to graded bark variants Julia Fischer1* , Dorothy L of Pennsylvania, 3815 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA We studied the development of infant baboons to attach the appropriate meaning to alarm and contact barks. Keywords: baboon; infant; playback

Seyfarth, Robert

476

Probable Congenital Babesiosis in Infant, New Jersey, USA  

PubMed Central

Only 2 neonates with transplacentally or perinatally acquired (congenital) babesiosis have been reported. We describe a probable third congenital case of babesiosis in a 26-day-old infant; transmission was determined on the basis of a blood smear from the infant (15% parasitemia) and serologic results from the infant and mother. PMID:19402971

Sethi, Sonia; Alcid, David; Kesarwala, Hemant

2009-01-01

477

Infant word segmentation: a basic review Morgan Sonderegger  

E-print Network

Infant word segmentation: a basic review Morgan Sonderegger 4/23/08 1 Introduction The abstract is at least as hard as that described above, yet infants routinely solve it early in language acquisition. Segmentation is easy enough for humans that many written languages do not include spaces.1 How do infants learn

Stephens, Matthew

478

Caution, drivers! Children present. Traffic, pollution, and infant health  

E-print Network

Caution, drivers! Children present. Traffic, pollution, and infant health Christopher R. Knittel air pollution levels on infant health? Our setting is California (with a focus on the Central Valley that ambi- ent pollution levels, specifically particulate matter, still have large impacts on weekly infant

Rothman, Daniel

479

21 CFR 201.19 - Drugs; use of term “infant”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Provisions § 201.19 Drugs; use of term “infant”. The regulations affecting special...105.3(e) of this chapter) define an infant as a child not more than 12 months...established any definition of the term infant. Some question has arisen...

2010-04-01

480

Device helps with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome detection  

E-print Network

Device helps with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome detection University of Texas at Arlington detection of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Electrical Engineering professor J.-C. Chiao, doctoral candidate exhaled by babies as they sleep. But more importantly, the sensors know when infants are not expelling

Chiao, Jung-Chih

481

21 CFR 201.19 - Drugs; use of term “infant”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Provisions § 201.19 Drugs; use of term “infant”. The regulations affecting special...105.3(e) of this chapter) define an infant as a child not more than 12 months...established any definition of the term infant. Some question has arisen...

2011-04-01

482

Baby, It's in Your Smile: Infant Emotional Expressions Show  

E-print Network

Baby, It's in Your Smile: Infant Emotional Expressions Show Right Hemiface Bias, Specific to Lower Face* Catherine T. Bestt and Heidi F. Queentt The novel finding is reported that infants' emotional were minimized by restricting judgments to the configuration of eyes/brows, mouth and nose, the infants

483

Vision Research 41 (2001) 10491056 Infant direction discrimination thresholds  

E-print Network

Vision Research 41 (2001) 1049­1056 Infant direction discrimination thresholds Tom Banton a direction differences as small as 1 arc degree, the ability of infants to discriminate direction of motion is less clear. This study measures the precision with which 6-, 12-, and 18-week-old infants discriminate

Dobkins, Karen R.

484

Reinforcement of Infant Vocalizations through Contingent Vocal Imitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the…

Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

2011-01-01

485

An Arousal-Based Neural Model of Infant David Cittern  

E-print Network

An Arousal-Based Neural Model of Infant Attachment David Cittern Imperial College London Email--We develop an arousal-based neural model of infant attachment using a deep learning architecture. We show how in psychology, aims to explain the dynamics of the relationship between an infant and a primary caregiver (often

Edalat, Abbas

486

21 CFR 201.19 - Drugs; use of term “infant”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Provisions § 201.19 Drugs; use of term “infant”. The regulations affecting special...105.3(e) of this chapter) define an infant as a child not more than 12 months...established any definition of the term infant. Some question has arisen...

2012-04-01

487

21 CFR 201.19 - Drugs; use of term “infant”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Provisions § 201.19 Drugs; use of term “infant”. The regulations affecting special...105.3(e) of this chapter) define an infant as a child not more than 12 months...established any definition of the term infant. Some question has arisen...

2014-04-01

488

Reference and attitude in infant pointing* ULF LISZKOWSKI, MALINDA CARPENTER  

E-print Network

Reference and attitude in infant pointing* ULF LISZKOWSKI, MALINDA CARPENTER A N D MICHAEL two main components of infant declarative pointing, reference and attitude, in two experiments with a total of 106 preverbal infants at 1;0. When an experimenter (E) responded to the declarative pointing

Carpenter, M.alinda

489

Common Mechanisms in Infant and Adult Category Learning  

E-print Network

Common Mechanisms in Infant and Adult Category Learning Todd M. Gureckis and Bradley C. Love Department of Psychology University of Texas at Austin Computational models of infant categorization often fail to elaborate the transitional mechanisms that allow infants to achieve adult performance

Love, Bradley C.

490

The Syntax of Human Infant Neil E. Berthier  

E-print Network

The Syntax of Human Infant Reaching Neil E. Berthier University of Massachusetts Amherst berthier@psych.umass.edu Early infant reaching is composed of multiple hand accelerations representing a sequence of corrective submovements. At the developmental onset of reaching, infants appear to "wrestle" their hands to a target

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

491

75 FR 51177 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1215 Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats; Correction AGENCY: Consumer...The document established a standard for infant bath seats by incorporating by reference...final rule establishing a standard for infant bath seats by incorporating by...

2010-08-19

492

The Infant & Toddler Assessment Clinic When: Please call for appointment.  

E-print Network

The Infant & Toddler Assessment Clinic When: Please call for appointment. Evaluation is about 2 hrs 541.346.0738 Parents and caregivers of infants/toddlers who have an older sibling with autism and the Child Development and Rehabilitation Center of Oregon Health Science University The Eugene CDRC Infant

493

Caregivers' Playfulness and Infants' Emotional Stress during Transitional Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to explore the playfulness of the teachers of infants and its relations to infants' emotional distress during the transitional time at a child care centre. The study used a qualitative case study. Two infant caregivers in a university-based child care centre participated in this study. For the three-month research…

Jung, Jeesun

2011-01-01

494

Infant and Under-Five Mortality Child Malnutrition  

E-print Network

Inside: »Infant and Under-Five Mortality »Child Malnutrition »Safe Drinking Water »Sanitation ­ 1990 to 2000 #12;Goal Between 1990 and the year 2000, reduction of infant and under-five child-five mortality. Infant and Under-Five Mortality » WHERE MOST UNDER-FIVES DIE Under-five deaths by region, 2000

de Groen, Pieter

495

A morphological approach for infant brain segmentation in MRI data  

E-print Network

A morphological approach for infant brain segmentation in MRI data Michele Peporte and Dana E. Ilea a skull stripping method for premature infant data. Skull stripping involves the extraction of brain premature infants Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data. In this study we focus on a significant step

Whelan, Paul F.

496

Toward Teaching a Robot "Infant" using Emotive Communication Acts  

E-print Network

Toward Teaching a Robot "Infant" using Emotive Communication Acts Cynthia Breazeal (Ferrell. The mode of social interaction is that of a caretaker­infant pair where a human acts as the caretaker to that of a developing infant. In doing so, this approach attempts to take advantage of this special sort of environment

497

Infant Dyschezia: Looking out for Number Two Pediatric and Adolescent  

E-print Network

Infant Dyschezia: Looking out for Number Two Pediatric and Adolescent Gastrointestinal Motility, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana Introduction Infant dyschezia during the infant's first 2 to 3 months of life complaining that their child is "constipated". When asked

498

Feeling the Beat: Movement Influences Infant Rhythm Perception  

E-print Network

Feeling the Beat: Movement Influences Infant Rhythm Perception Jessica Phillips-Silver and Laurel J to the rhythms of music, whether drumming, sing- ing, dancing, or rocking an infant (1). Body movement involves pat- terns in human infants. In experiment 1, we trained 7-month-olds by having them listen to a 2-min

Trainor, Laurel J.

499

21 CFR 201.19 - Drugs; use of term “infant”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Provisions § 201.19 Drugs; use of term “infant”. The regulations affecting special...105.3(e) of this chapter) define an infant as a child not more than 12 months...established any definition of the term infant. Some question has arisen...

2013-04-01

500

Babies at Double Jeopardy: Medically Fragile Infants and Child Neglect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medically fragile infants, those born prematurely or with other complex medical or genetic problems, are at risk of long-term health and developmental problems. When a medically fragile infant comes home to a family with significant social problems such as domestic violence, mental illness, or substance abuse, the infant is at double jeopardy--at…

Fullar, Suzanne A.

2008-01-01