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1

Safety and immunogenicity of tetanus diphtheria and acellular pertussis (tdap) immunization during pregnancy in mothers and infants: a randomized clinical trial.  

PubMed

IMPORTANCE Maternal immunization with tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine could prevent infant pertussis. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of Tdap immunization during pregnancy and its effect on infant responses to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Phase 1-2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial conducted from 2008 to 2012. Forty-eight pregnant women aged 18 to 45 years received Tdap (n?=?33) or placebo (n?=?15) at 30 to 32 weeks' gestation, with crossover immunization postpartum. INTERVENTIONS Tdap vaccination at 30 to 32 weeks' gestation or postpartum. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Primary outcomes were maternal and infant adverse events, pertussis illness, and infant growth and development until age 13 months. Secondary outcomes were antibody concentrations in pregnant women before and 4 weeks after Tdap immunization or placebo, at delivery and 2 months' postpartum, and in infants at birth, at 2 months, and after the third and fourth doses of DTaP. RESULTS No Tdap-associated serious adverse events occurred in women or infants. Injection site reactions after Tdap immunization were reported in 26 (78.8% [95% CI, 61.1%-91.0%]) and 12 (80% [95% CI, 51.9%-95.7%]) pregnant and postpartum women, respectively (P?>?.99). Systemic symptoms were reported in 12 (36.4% [ 95% CI, 20.4%-54.9%]) and 11 (73.3% [95% CI, 44.9%-92.2%]) pregnant and postpartum women, respectively (P?=?.03). Growth and development were similar in both infant groups. No cases of pertussis occurred. Significantly higher concentrations of pertussis antibodies were measured at delivery in women who received Tdap during pregnancy vs postpartum (eg, pertussis toxin antibodies: 51.0 EU/mL [95% CI, 37.1-70.1] and 9.1 EU/mL [95% CI, 4.6-17.8], respectively; P?infants at birth (68.8 EU/mL [95% CI, 52.1-90.8] and 14.0 EU/mL [95% CI, 7.3-26.9], respectively; P?infants born to women receiving Tdap during pregnancy were not different following the fourth dose of DTaP. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This preliminary assessment did not find an increased risk of adverse events among women who received Tdap vaccine during pregnancy or their infants. For secondary outcomes, maternal immunization with Tdap resulted in high concentrations of pertussis antibodies in infants during the first 2 months of life and did not substantially alter infant responses to DTaP. Further research is needed to provide definitive evidence of the safety and efficacy of Tdap immunization during pregnancy. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00707148. PMID:24794369

Munoz, Flor M; Bond, Nanette H; Maccato, Maurizio; Pinell, Phillip; Hammill, Hunter A; Swamy, Geeta K; Walter, Emmanuel B; Jackson, Lisa A; Englund, Janet A; Edwards, Morven S; Healy, C Mary; Petrie, Carey R; Ferreira, Jennifer; Goll, Johannes B; Baker, Carol J

2014-05-01

2

Tdap and Td vaccines  

MedlinePLUS

Tdap immunization; Td immunization; Diphtheria vaccination; Tetanus vaccination; Pertussis vaccination ... Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis are each caused by a bacterium. The Tdap and Td vaccines are made from dead (inactivated) bacteria. So the ...

3

Perceptions of Tetanus-diphteria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) Vaccination among Korean Women of Childbearing Age  

PubMed Central

Background The number of cases of pertussis reported has increased gradually in the last decade. Pertussis vaccination is the most effective strategy for the prevention of infection. Despite the fact that young infants are at the highest risk for pertussis, the rate of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination is presumed to be very low among women of childbearing age in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of women of childbearing age regarding Tdap vaccination in Korea. Materials and Methods Women of childbearing age, who visited the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at 3 University hospitals in the Seoul and Gyeonggi-do provinces of Korea, were surveyed. Individual questionnaires were administered from April to May 2012. Demographic data, Tdap vaccination history, general knowledge about pertussis, and information on factors associated with decision on vaccination were collected. Results Of the 500 reproductive-age women enrolled, only 4 (0.8%) had received the Tdap. The most common reason for non-vaccination was the lack of awareness of pertussis and information about the Tdap. Totally, 171 (34.2%) responded that they would receive a Tdap vaccination in the future. By multivariate analysis, general confidence in the effectiveness of the vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17 to 3.01) was indicated as an important factor for deciding whether to receive the Tdap vaccine (P < 0.01). Conclusions The coverage of Tdap vaccination of women of childbearing age, including pregnant women, is very low because of the lack of awareness of pertussis and the Tdap. Education of women of childbearing age about pertussis is very important to increase Tdap vaccination rates among these women, particularly during the perinatal period.

Kim, In Seon; Seo, Yu Bin; Hong, Kyung-Wook; Noh, Ji Yun; Choi, Won Suk; Song, Joon Young; Cho, Geum Joon; Oh, Min Jeong; Kim, Hai Joong; Hong, Soon Choul; Sohn, Jang Wook; Kim, Woo Joo

2013-01-01

4

Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis) Vaccine and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis) Vaccine and Pregnancy This sheet talks about the ... health care provider. What are tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis? Tetanus is a bacterial disease. It causes tightening ...

5

CDC update on pertussis surveillance and Tdap vaccine recommendations.  

PubMed

Pertussis is the most poorly controlled bacterial vaccine-preventable disease. Since the early 1980s there has been an increase in reported cases of pertussis. Multiple factors have likely contributed to the increase, including waning immunity, increased recognition, and changes in diagnostic testing and reporting. Of the four combination vaccines used to prevent diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, one dose of Tdap should be used to vaccinate preteens as well as teens and adults who have not yet received this booster dose. It is the position of NASN that immunizations, including the Tdap vaccine, are key to primary prevention of diseasefrom infancy through adulthood. The school nurse is in a critical position to create awareness and influence action-related national and state recommendations for the Tdap vaccine. PMID:23193719

Clark, Thomas A; Bobo, Nichole

2012-11-01

6

Carbondioxide gating in silk cocoon.  

PubMed

Silk is the generic name given to the fibrous proteins spun by a number of arthropods. During metamorphosis, the larva of the silk producing arthropods excrete silk-fiber from its mouth and spun it around the body to form a protective structure called cocoon. An adult moth emerges out from the cocoon after the dormant phase (pupal phase) varying from 2 weeks to 9 months. It is intriguing how CO(2)/O(2) and ambient temperature are regulated inside the cocoon during the development of the pupa. Here we show that the cocoon membrane is asymmetric, it allows preferential gating of CO(2) from inside to outside and it regulates a physiological temperature inside the cocoon irrespective of the surrounding environment temperature. We demonstrate that under simulating CO(2) rich external environment, the CO(2) does not diffuse inside the cocoon. Whereas, when CO(2) was injected inside the cocoon, it diffuses out in 20 s, indicating gating of CO(2) from inside to outside the membrane. Removal of the calcium oxalate hydrate crystals which are naturally present on the outer surface of the cocoon affected the complete blockade of CO(2) flow from outside to inside suggesting its role to trap most of the CO(2) as hydrogen bonded bicarbonate on the surface. The weaved silk of the cocoon worked as the second barrier to prevent residual CO(2) passage. Furthermore, we show that under two extreme natural temperature regime of 5 and 50 °C, a temperature of 25 and 34 °C respectively were maintained inside the cocoons. Our results demonstrate, how CO(2) gating and thermoregulation helps in maintaining an ambient atmosphere inside the cocoon for the growth of pupa. Such natural architectural control of gas and temperature regulation could be helpful in developing energy saving structures and gas filters. PMID:22791361

Roy, Manas; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Das, Mainak

2012-12-01

7

How Do Caterpillars Make Cocoons?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a Lexington, Kentucky, kindergarten science project that employed the Reggio Emilia approach of long-term open-ended projects steered by children's interests and group discussions. The children's investigation of how caterpillars make cocoons included direct observation of the metamorphosis process, construction of child-sized cocoons,…

Clark, Kay

1994-01-01

8

Oxygen cocoon for patients under intensive care  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cocoon is made from Teflon film. It includes full-length, pressure zipper on top side and bottom part is rigid pad constructed of burn-resistant material. Cocoon includes oxygen supply port with exhaust port at opposite end.

Maas, J. W.

1975-01-01

9

Improving adherence rates to a cocooning program: a pilot experience in Italy.  

PubMed

Cocoon is defined as a strategy to reduce the risk for transmission of pertussis to newborn infants by vaccinating household members including parents and siblings. Programmatic challenges make implementation of cocooning program complex. At the local health care unit "ASL Napoli 1 Centro," a one-year pilot project to evaluate the newborn contacts adherence to a cocoon strategy was started on May, 1st 2011. Healthcare providers (HCPs) offered for free a dTpa booster dose to newborns parents (mothers were immunized after delivery) and household contacts. Until June 30th, overall only 7 dTpa booster doses out of 261 newborns (2.6%) were administered for cocooning. Then, an improvement in communication strategy to the families was introduced by preparing specific information leaflets, increasing the HCPs devoted to the cocoon, and focusing the interaction with families during the visiting time at the maternity ward. Overall, 601 out of 762 (78,8%) contacted new mothers received dTpa booster. Cocoon high acceptance rates could be reached providing that proper communication tools and enough skilled HCPs were engaged in the interaction with the families. This report is, to our knowledge, the first to document successful implementation of pertussis cocooning in an Italian setting. PMID:23370334

Simonetti, Andrea; Martini, Ida; Bonomo, Gennaro; D'Avino, Raffaele; Puggina, Paolo; Vairo, Ugo; Piscopo, Pasquale; Marchetti, Federico

2013-05-01

10

Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis) vaccine - what you need to know  

MedlinePLUS

Why get vaccinated? Tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis can be very serious diseases, even for adolescents and adults. Tdap vaccine can protect us from these diseases. TETANUS (Lockjaw) causes painful ...

11

Cocoon drying through solar energy  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, silk cocoon drying operations through solar energy have been presented. Nearly no comprehensive work has been appeared in literature on this unusual application. General mechanism of solar drying methods are presented by some authors for instance, Roman and Jindal. This application seems vitally significant for silk cocoon producer countries like Turkey. The rate of production accelerates year by year and it is about 3000 tons per year presently in Turkey. In Turkey, by now and currently, a water vapour chamber is utilized in the killing process of silkworm. Vapour produced by burning of conventional fuels posses many drawbacks beside being very expensive and also non-renewable. Vapour effects the quality and quantity of silk thread negatively. For instance, the colour of silk cocoon tends to turn to pale instead of being gleamy. This is not tolerable. The length and mass of silk thread obtained per a typical cocoon sample is increased about 10.1 and 16.5 per cent respectively in the average by using solar energy.

Kulunk, M.

1983-12-01

12

Cost-Effectiveness of Tdap Vaccination of Adults Aged >=65 Years in the Prevention of Pertussis in the US: A Dynamic Model of Disease Transmission  

PubMed Central

Objectives In February 2012, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) advised that all adults aged ?65 years receive a single dose of reduced-antigen-content tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap), expanding on a 2010 recommendation for adults >65 that was limited to those with close contact with infants. We evaluated clinical and economic outcomes of adding Tdap booster of adults aged ?65 to “baseline” practice [full-strength DTaP administered from 2 months to 4–6 years, and one dose of Tdap at 11–64 years replacing decennial Td booster], using a dynamic model. Methods We constructed a population-level disease transmission model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of supplementing baseline practice by vaccinating 10% of eligible adults aged ?65 with Tdap replacing the decennial Td booster. US population effects, including indirect benefits accrued by unvaccinated persons, were estimated during a 1-year period after disease incidence reached a new steady state, with consequences of deaths and long-term pertussis sequelae projected over remaining lifetimes. Model outputs include: cases by severity, encephalopathy, deaths, costs (of vaccination and pertussis care) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) associated with each strategy. Results in terms of incremental cost/QALY gained are presented from payer and societal perspectives. Sensitivity analyses vary key parameters within plausible ranges. Results For the US population, the intervention is expected to prevent >97,000 cases (>4,000 severe and >5,000 among infants) of pertussis annually at steady state. Additional vaccination costs are $4.7 million. Net cost savings, including vaccination costs, are $47.7 million (societal perspective) and $44.8 million (payer perspective). From both perspectives, the intervention strategy is dominant (less costly, and more effective by >3,000 QALYs) versus baseline. Results are robust to sensitivity analyses and alternative scenarios. Conclusions Immunization of eligible adults aged ?65, consistent with the current ACIP recommendation, is cost saving from both payer and societal perspectives.

McGarry, Lisa J.; Krishnarajah, Girishanthy; Hill, Gregory; Masseria, Cristina; Skornicki, Michelle; Pruttivarasin, Narin; Arondekar, Bhakti; Roiz, Julie; Pelton, Stephen I.; Weinstein, Milton C.

2014-01-01

13

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Tdap in the Prevention of Pertussis in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Objectives Health benefits and costs of combined reduced-antigen-content tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) immunization among adults ?65 years have not been evaluated. In February 2012, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended expanding Tdap vaccination (one single dose) to include adults ?65 years not previously vaccinated with Tdap. Our study estimated the health and economic outcomes of one-time replacement of the decennial tetanus and diphtheria (Td) booster with Tdap in the 10% of individuals aged 65 years assumed eligible each year compared with a baseline scenario of continued Td vaccination. Methods We constructed a model evaluating the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating a cohort of adults aged 65 with Tdap, by calculating pertussis cases averted due to direct vaccine effects only. Results are presented from societal and payer perspectives for a range of pertussis incidences (25–200 cases per 100,000), due to the uncertainty in estimating true annual incidence. Cases averted were accrued throughout the patient 's lifetime, and a probability tree used to estimate the clinical outcomes and costs (US$ 2010) for each case. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) lost to acute disease were calculated by multiplying cases of mild/moderate/severe pertussis by the associated health-state disutility; QALY losses due to death and long-term sequelae were also considered. Incremental costs and QALYs were summed over the cohort to derive incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Scenario analyses evaluated the effect of alternative plausible parameter estimates on results. Results At incidence levels of 25, 100, 200 cases/100,000, vaccinating adults aged 65 years costs an additional $336,000, $63,000 and $17,000/QALY gained, respectively. Vaccination has a cost-effectiveness ratio less than $50,000/QALY if pertussis incidence is >116 cases/100,000 from societal and payer perspectives. Results were robust to scenario analyses. Conclusions Tdap immunization of adults aged 65 years according to current ACIP recommendations is a cost-effective health-care intervention at plausible incidence assumptions.

McGarry, Lisa J.; Krishnarajah, Girishanthy; Hill, Gregory; Skornicki, Michelle; Pruttivarasin, Narin; Masseria, Cristina; Arondekar, Bhakti; Pelton, Stephen I.; Weinstein, Milton C.

2013-01-01

14

Flavonoids from the cocoon of Rondotia menciana.  

PubMed

Two flavonol glycosides along with four known flavonoids were isolated from the cocoon of the mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae: Bombycinae), a closely related species of the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori, both of which feed on leaves of mulberry (Morus alba). The two glycosides were characterized as quercetin 3-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-d-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-d-galactopyranoside, based on spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. The flavonol galactosides found in the cocoon were not present in the host plant, nor in the cocoon of the silkworm, B. mori. Notably, flavonol glucosides, which are the main constituents of cocoon flavonoids in B. mori mori, were not found in the R. menciana cocoon. The present result strongly suggests that R. menciana is quite unique in that they predominantly use an UDP-galactosyltransferase for conjugation of dietary flavonoids, whereas UDP-glucosyltransferases are generally used for conjugation of plant phenolics and xenobiotics in other insects. PMID:23830693

Hirayama, Chikara; Ono, Hiroshi; Meng, Yan; Shimada, Toru; Daimon, Takaaki

2013-10-01

15

Silk cocoon drying in forced convection type solar dryer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thin layer silk cocoon drying was studied in a forced convection type solar dyer. The drying chamber was provided with several trays on which the cocoons loaded in thin layer. The hot air generated in the solar air heater was forced into drying chamber to avoid the direct exposure of sunlight and UV radiation on cocoons. The drying air

Panna Lal Singh

2011-01-01

16

Abdominal cocoon in an adolescent male.  

PubMed

Abdominal cocoon is an uncommon peritoneal condition characterized by partial or complete encasement of small bowel by a thick rind of fibrous tissue and adhesions. Only few cases of this disease have been reported in world literature. The etiology of this condition is unknown, and most often it is found in adolescent girls from tropical or subtropical countries, and usually diagnosed incidentally on exploration. Surgery (membrane dissection and extensive adhesiolysis) is the treatment of choice. Here, we report a case of abdominal cocoon in a 20-year-old male patient, with a brief review of the literature. PMID:23575060

Shakya, V C; Agrawal, C S; Rajbanshi, S K; Pradhan, A; Khaniya, S; Adhikary, S

2012-01-01

17

Demineralization enables reeling of wild silkmoth cocoons.  

PubMed

Wild Silkmoth cocoons are difficult or impossible to reel under conditions that work well for cocoons of the Mulberry silkmoth, Bombyx mori . Here we report evidence that this is caused by mineral reinforcement of Wild Silkmoth cocoons and that washing these minerals out allows for the reeling of commercial lengths of good quality fibers with implications for the development of the "Wild Silk" industry. We show that in the Lasiocampid silkmoth Gonometa postica , the mineral is whewellite (calcium oxalate monohydrate). Evidence is presented that its selective removal by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) leaves the gum substantially intact, preventing collapse and entanglement of the network of fibroin brins, enabling wet reeling. Therefore, this method clearly differs from the standard "degumming" and should be referred to as "demineralizing". Mechanical testing shows that such preparation results in reeled silks with markedly improved breaking load and extension to break by avoiding the damage produced by the rather harsh degumming, carding, or dry reeling methods currently in use, what may be important for the development of the silk industries not only in Asia but also in Africa and South America. PMID:21491856

Gheysens, Tom; Collins, Andrew; Raina, Suresh; Vollrath, Fritz; Knight, David P

2011-06-13

18

Cost-effectiveness of targeted vaccination to protect new-borns against pertussis: comparing neonatal, maternal, and cocooning vaccination strategies.  

PubMed

Pertussis (whooping cough) is a severe infectious disease in infants less than 6 months old. Mass vaccination programmes have been unable to halt transmission effectively. Strategies to protect new-borns against infection include vaccination of the neonate or the mother directly after birth (cocooning), or the mother during pregnancy (maternal). Here we investigate the cost-effectiveness of these three strategies in the Netherlands. Costs for health care utilization and productivity losses, as well as impact on quality of life were calculated for a 10-year vaccination programme, assuming that vaccine-induced immunity lasts 5 years. Cocooning was the most attractive option from a cost-effectiveness viewpoint (€89,000/QALY). However, both cocooning and maternal vaccination would reduce the disease burden in infants and mothers vaccinated (about 17-20 QALY/year). Specifically, with a persistent epidemic as seen in 2012, there is need for reconsidering the vaccination schedules against pertussis in order to increase protection of the vulnerable new-borns. PMID:24075918

Lugnér, Anna K; van der Maas, Nicoline; van Boven, Michiel; Mooi, Frits R; de Melker, Hester E

2013-11-01

19

Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites.  

PubMed

The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials. PMID:21230317

Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

2010-10-01

20

Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites  

SciTech Connect

The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

Chen Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz [Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS (United Kingdom)

2010-10-15

21

Electricity from the silk cocoon membrane.  

PubMed

Silk cocoon membrane (SCM) is an insect engineered structure. We studied the electrical properties of mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Tussar, Antheraea mylitta) SCM. When dry, SCM behaves like an insulator. On absorbing moisture, it generates electrical current, which is modulated by temperature. The current flowing across the SCM is possibly ionic and protonic in nature. We exploited the electrical properties of SCM to develop simple energy harvesting devices, which could operate low power electronic systems. Based on our findings, we propose that the temperature and humidity dependent electrical properties of the SCM could find applications in battery technology, bio-sensor, humidity sensor, steam engines and waste heat management. PMID:24961354

Tulachan, Brindan; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Mallick, Chandrakant; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Teotia, Arun Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Bhattacharya, Shantanu; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

2014-01-01

22

The Next Decade in Career Counseling: Cocoon Maintenance or Metamorphosis?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articulates the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, and future vision for career counseling using a cocoon maintenance or metamorphosis metaphor. Concludes with a vision for the future for the discipline and profession of career counseling. (Contains 40 references.) (GCP)

Parmer, Twinet; Rush, Lee Covington

2003-01-01

23

Depth of cocoon deposition by three earthworm species in mesocosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms were maintained in two types of soil-filled mesocosm. Type 1, designed for use in soil-inoculation studies, was only 0.15 m deep. Sampling revealed the position at which cocoons were deposited by earthworms in mono-species culture. Whilst adequate for shallow-working worms, larger species may have experienced restricted burrow formation and associated cocoon deposition. Therefore, Type 2 mesocosms (1.0 m deep) were also

Kevin R. Butt

2002-01-01

24

Cytotoxicity of Cricula triphenestrata Cocoon Extract on Human Fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Indonesian silkworm cocoon extract of Cricula triphenestrata on human fibroblasts. Methods and Materials. The cocoon shells of the silkworm Cricula triphenestrata were degumming. The shells were mixed with an aqueous solution of 0.3% Na2CO3 at 98°C for 1 hour. The solution was then dialyzed in cellulose membranes against deionized water for 3 days. The cocoon shells extract powder was collected via rotary evaporation and dried under freeze dryer. Cell culture medium was exposed to Cricula triphenestrata cocoon extract (0.01–100??g/mL) for 24 hours. The primary human gingival fibroblasts were exposed to the treated cell culture medium for 24 hours. Cytotoxicity evaluation was done by MTT method. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Result. The result revealed no significant cytotoxicity of Cricula triphenestrata cocoon extract against human fibroblasts at a concentration up to 100??g/mL (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Cricula triphenestrata cocoon extract was not cytotoxic on human gingival fibroblast cells.

Sunarintyas, Siti; Siswomihardjo, Widowati; Tontowi, Alva Edy

2012-01-01

25

Evolution of clouds in radio galaxy cocoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter presents a numerical study of the evolution of an emission line cloud of initial density 10 cm-3, temperature 104 K, and size 200 pc, being overtaken by a strong shock wave. Whereas previous simple models proposed that such a cloud would either be completely destroyed, or simply shrink in size, our results show a different and more complex behaviour: due to rapid cooling, the cloud breaks up into many small and dense fragments, which can survive for a long time. We show that such rapid cooling behaviour is expected for a wide range of cloud and shock properties. This process applies to the evolution of emission line clouds being overtaken by the cocoon of a radio jet. The resulting small clouds would be Jeans unstable, and form stars. Our results thus give theoretical credibility to the process of jet induced star formation, one of the explanations for the alignment of the optical/UV and radio axis observed in high redshift radio galaxies.

Mellema, G.; Kurk, J. D.; Röttgering, H. J. A.

2002-11-01

26

Infant Vomiting  

MedlinePLUS

... Teen: 12-18 yrs. Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult: 18-21 yrs. Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Safety & Prevention Immunizations Chickenpox Tdap Haemophilus Influenzae Type B ( ...

27

Abdominal Cocoon in Association with Adenomyosis and Leiomyomata of the Uterus and Endometriotic Cyst : Unusual Presentation  

PubMed Central

Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a rare condition. A 46 year old Malay woman with adenomyosis and leiomyomata of the uterus and ovarian endometriotic cyst in association with abdominal cocoon is reported.

Mohd. Noor, Nor Haznita; Zaki, Nik Mohamed; Kaur, Gurjeet; Naik, Venkatesh R.; Zakaria, Ahmad Zahari

2004-01-01

28

Immunogenicity and safety results from a randomized multicenter trial comparing a Tdap-IPV vaccine (REPEVAX®) and a tetanus monovalent vaccine in healthy adults: new considerations for the management of patients with tetanus-prone injuries.  

PubMed

In adults with a tetanus-prone injury, combined vaccines such as Tdap-IPV (REPEVAX®) can boost immunity against several diseases simultaneously. This Phase IIIb, parallel-group, open-label trial compared antibody responses to Tdap-IPV and tetanus monovalent vaccine (TMV; Vaccin Tétanique Pasteur® or Tetavax®) against tetanus toxoid 10 and 28 d post-vaccination. Between July and December 2009, four centers in France and five in Germany recruited healthy adults who had received a tetanus-containing vaccine 5-10 y previously. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive at the first visit a single dose (0.5 mL) of Tdap-IPV or TMV, with follow-up visits at Day 10 and Day 28. Outcomes: per protocol (PP) population immunogenicity at Day 10 (primary) and at Day 28 (secondary); safety throughout the study. Of 456 adults randomized, 223 received Tdap-IPV and 233 received TMV (PP population: 183 and 199 participants, respectively). All participants receiving Tdap-IPV and 99.0% receiving TMV had an anti-tetanus antibody concentration ? 0.1 IU/mL, confirming non-inferiority of Tdap-IPV to TMV (95% confidence interval of the difference: -1.2, 3.6). Number of adverse events reported was comparable in each group. Injection-site reactions were reported by 76.6% participants receiving Tdap-IPV and 74.6% receiving TMV. Systemic events (e.g., malaise, myalgia and headache) were reported in 47.7% and 39.7% of the Tdap-IPV and the TMV groups, respectively. Tdap-IPV is effective and well-tolerated for use in the management of tetanus-prone injuries in emergency settings in persons for whom a booster against diphtheria, pertussis and poliomyelitis is also needed. PMID:23032160

Laurichesse, Henri; Zimmermann, Ulrich; Galtier, Florence; Launay, Odile; Duval, Xavier; Richard, Patrick; Sadorge, Christine; Soubeyrand, Benoit

2012-12-01

29

A cross sectional survey of attitudes, awareness and uptake of the parental pertussis booster vaccine as part of a cocooning strategy, Victoria, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background The Victorian Government Department of Health funded a diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis vaccine for parents of infants from June 2009 to June 2012 as part of a cocooning strategy for the control of pertussis. The aim of this study was to assess parents’ attitudes and awareness of the vaccination program, and to estimate vaccine uptake. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 253 families with a child born in the first quarter of 2010 residing within five metropolitan and four rural local government areas in Victoria was conducted. Univariate analyses were performed to describe the relationship between demographic variables, knowledge and awareness of the disease, the vaccine program and vaccine uptake. Multivariate analyses examining predictors for awareness of the vaccine program and for the uptake of vaccination were also conducted. Results One hundred and five families were surveyed (response rate 43%). Of these, 93% indicated that they had heard of ‘pertussis’ or ‘whooping cough’ and 75% of mothers and 69% of fathers were aware the pertussis vaccine was available and funded for new parents. Overall, 70% of mothers and 53% of fathers were vaccinated following their child’s birth, with metropolitan fathers less likely to be vaccinated as rural fathers (RR?=?0.6, p?=?0.002). Being a younger mother (p?=?0.02) or father (p?=?0.047), and being an Australian-born father (RR?=?1.9, p?=?0.03) were found to predict uptake of the vaccine in parents. Conclusion Parents indicated a reasonable level of knowledge of pertussis and a willingness to be vaccinated to protect their child. However, vaccine uptake estimates indicated further opportunity for program improvement. Future cocooning strategies would benefit from specifically targeting fathers and metropolitan maternity hospitals to increase vaccine uptake. Wider promotion of the availability of vaccine providers may increase uptake to maximise the success of cocooning programs. Further investigation of the effectiveness of the cocooning strategy in decreasing infant morbidity and mortality is required.

2013-01-01

30

Perforated GIST in Jejunum - A Rare Cause of Abdominal Cocoon  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours [GISTs] are rare but they commonly arise in stomach, and small or large intestines. They are usually accompanied with gastrointestinal bleeding. We are reporting a case of GIST which occurred in a 52-year-old male,who presented with acute abdomen. On laparotomy, the entire segment of jejunum was found to be partially encased in fibrocollagenous tissue, which formed a cocoon. Moreover, the intestine showed diffuse thickening with multiple tumour masses, which is an uncommon gross finding in GIST. This case report highlights variable clinical and morphological manifestations of GIST. Awareness on its rare clinical manifestations, including abdominal cocoon, may help in making an early diagnosis and providing timely appropriate treatment.

M, Usha; Kumar, Vijay; R, Rau Aarathi; Kamath, Sulatha

2014-01-01

31

Quinone Tanning in the Cocoon-Shell of Dendrooelum lacteum  

Microsoft Academic Search

DR. C. H. BROWN, in her letter in Nature of February 17, suggests that the `winter egg case' (cocoon-shell) of planarians may be a tanned protein. Vialli1,2 has shown that the vitelline cells of Distomum hepaticum and Dendrooelum lacteum contain a substance in which there is a di-or poly-phenol. Later, Stevenson3 showed that the egg-shell of Distomum hepaticum is composed

F. R. Nurse

1950-01-01

32

Transgenic silkworms produce recombinant human type III procollagen in cocoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the generation of transgenic silkworms that produce cocoons containing recombinant human collagen. A fusion cDNA was constructed encoding a protein that incorporated a human type III procollagen mini-chain with C-propeptide deleted, a fibroin light chain (L-chain), and an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). This cDNA was ligated downstream of the fibroin L-chain promoter and inserted into a piggyBac

Masahiro Tomita; Hiroto Munetsuna; Tsutomu Sato; Takahiro Adachi; Rika Hino; Masahiro Hayashi; Katsuhiko Shimizu; Namiko Nakamura; Toshiki Tamura; Katsutoshi Yoshizato

2002-01-01

33

Utilization of silkworm cocoon waste as a sorbent for the removal of oil from water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate the utilization of silkworm cocoon waste, such as pierced or stained cocoons, as a sorbent material for the removal of motor and vegetable oils from water. The oil-sorption capacity, rate and reusability of the material were evaluated. The results show the high sorption capacity of the silkworm cocoon waste sorbent (42–52goil\\/gsorbent for

Hiroshi Moriwaki; Shiori Kitajima; Masahiro Kurashima; Ayaka Hagiwara; Kazuma Haraguchi; Koji Shirai; Rensuke Kanekatsu; Kenji Kiguchi

2009-01-01

34

Adult-larval interactions: Predictions, mussels and cocoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this investigation was to test two hypotheses regarding adultlarval interactions in dense assemblages of suspension feeders. Benthic communities outside and inside a dense population of the mussel Mytilus edulis were sampled at a New England soft-bottom intertidal flat. The hypothesis that recruitment of M. edulis is inhibited by the presence of densely packed adults was not supported. Mytilus edulis population size-class structure revealed no dominance of large individuals, indicating that older cohorts were not able to prevent subsequent mussel recruitment. The hypothesis that M. edulis has a negative effect on the recruitment of other infaunal species was not supported. Infaunal density was significantly higher inside the mussel bed than outside. Oligochaete worms were the most common organisms at the study site and had higher absolute and relative abundances inside the mussel bed. The production of cocoons and dispersal of non-larval benthic offspring may confer upon the oligochaetes relative immunity from M. edulis ingestion and suffocation in mussel feces and pseudofeces. These results may be extended to other infaunal species, including densely packed suspension feeders themselves, which form cocoons, fragment asexually, brood, or disperse as juveniles and adults.

Commito, John A.

1987-11-01

35

The cocoon of the fossorial frog Cyclorana australis functions primarily as a barrier to water exchange with the substrate.  

PubMed

Studies of evaporative water loss using streams of dry air in the laboratory have demonstrated reduced rates in various taxa of cocooned frogs. However, because the cocoon is formed in subterranean burrows with humid microclimates and no air flow, loss of water by evaporation is likely to be negligible. In contrast, although potentially important, the influence of the cocoon on water exchange with the soil surface has not been characterized. In dry soils, there is a sizable water potential gradient between the frog and the soil; hence, we hypothesized that cocoons would play a role in reducing liquid water loss to dry substrates. Individuals of the burrowing frog Cyclorana australis (Hylidae: Pelodryadinae) were induced to form cocoons in the laboratory. On semisolid agar-solute substrates across a range of water potentials, the hygroscopic cocoon absorbed small but similar amounts of moisture. With the cocoon removed, the frogs gained or lost water, depending on the direction of the frog-substrate water potential difference. Plasma osmolality of cocooned frogs was significantly higher than in hydrated frogs. Because cocooned frogs did not exchange significant amounts of water at either high (wet) or low (dry) substrate water potentials, we conclude that the cocoon of fossorial frogs acts as a physical barrier that breaks the continuity between frog and substrate. We contend that the primary function of the cocoon is to prevent liquid water loss to drying clay and loam soils, rather than to prevent subterranean evaporative water loss. PMID:20687829

Reynolds, Stephen J; Christian, Keith A; Tracy, Christopher R

2010-01-01

36

Treating Bronchiolitis in Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... Teen: 12-18 yrs. Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult: 18-21 yrs. Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Safety & Prevention Immunizations Chickenpox Tdap Haemophilus Influenzae Type B ( ...

37

Parenting Your Infant  

MedlinePLUS

... Teen: 12-18 yrs. Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult: 18-21 yrs. Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Safety & Prevention Immunizations Chickenpox Tdap Haemophilus Influenzae Type B ( ...

38

The relationship between a leaf-rolling moth (Dactylioglypha tonica) and fungi covering the cocoon.  

PubMed

To discover the relationship between a leaf-rolling moth and the fungi densely covering its cocoons, the rolled nest leaves were collected in two districts in Japan and antibacterial properties of the fungi were examined. Cocoons and fungi isolated from the nest were classified into 5 categories by the growth stages of the insects, and 7 categories based on taxonomic properties and pigment productivity, respectively. The dominant genus was Penicillium in each location. However, the composition of the fungal categories was different and seemed to depend on their circumstances. From all cocoons with larvae, the strains that belonged to the same fungal category and produced the same antibiotic (deoxyherqueinone) were isolated. From these results, the species-specific relationship between the insect and fungi or fungal products was considered to be not extremely tight, and it was suggested the period of the larval spinning of the cocoon is a key stage of this unique relationship. PMID:11676006

Imamura, N; Ishikawa, T; Takeda, K; Fukami, H; Konno, A; Nishida, R

2001-09-01

39

Mastrus ridibundus parasitoids eavesdrop on cocoon-spinning codling moth, Cydia pomonella, larvae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cocoon-spinning larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) employ a pheromone that attracts or arrests conspecifics seeking pupation sites. Such intraspecific communication signals are important cues for illicit receivers such as parasitoids to exploit. We tested the hypothesis that the prepupal C. pomonella parasitoid Mastrus ridibundus Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) exploits the larval aggregation pheromone to locate host prepupae. In laboratory olfactometer experiments, female M. ridibundus were attracted to 3-day-old cocoons containing C. pomonella larvae or prepupae. Older cocoons containing C. pomonella pupae, or larvae and prepupae excised from cocoons, were not attractive. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of bioactive Porapak Q extract of cocoon-derived airborne semiochemicals, ten compounds elicited responses from female M. ridibundus antennae. Comparative GC-mass spectrometry of authentic standards and cocoon-volatiles determined that these compounds were 3-carene, myrcene, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, sulcatone, and geranylacetone. A synthetic 11-component blend consisting of these ten EAD-active compounds plus EAD-inactive (+)-limonene (the most abundant cocoon-derived volatile) was as effective as Porapak Q cocoon extract in attracting both female M. ridibundus and C. pomonella larvae seeking pupation sites. Only three components could be deleted from the 11-component blend without diminishing its attractiveness to M. ridibundus, which underlines the complexity of information received and processed during foraging for hosts. Mastrus ridibundus obviously “eavesdrop” on the pheromonal communication signals of C. pomonella larvae that reliably indicate host presence.

Jumean, Zaid; Unruh, Tom; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

2005-01-01

40

Pertussis: a persistent cause of morbidity and mortality in young infants.  

PubMed

In 2012, a pertussis outbreak in Dallas County resulted in the deaths of 4 children (3, unvaccinated; 2, <60 days of age). Despite recommendations that include immunization of women preferably during the third trimester of pregnancy or postpartum, household contacts ("cocooning"), and infants as early as 42 days of age, challenges in pertussis prevention remain. PMID:24565424

Cantey, Joseph B; Sánchez, Pablo J; Tran, Judy; Chung, Wendy; Siegel, Jane D

2014-06-01

41

CPR - infant  

MedlinePLUS

Rescue breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... you. The newest techniques emphasize compression over rescue breathing and airway, reversing long-standing practice.

42

A Cocoon Found Inside the Black Widow's Web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory image of the mysterious "Black Widow" pulsar reveals the first direct evidence of an elongated cocoon of high-energy particles. This discovery shows that this billion-year-old rejuvenated pulsar is an extremely efficient generator of a high-speed flow of matter and antimatter particles. Known officially as pulsar B1957+20, the Black Widow received its nickname because it is emitting intense high-energy radiation that is destroying its companion through evaporation. B1957+20, which completes one rotation every 1.6-thousandths of a second, belongs to a class of extremely rapidly rotating neutron stars called millisecond pulsars. The motion of B1957+20 through the galaxy -- at a high speed of almost a million kilometers per hour -- creates a bow shock wave visible to optical telescopes. The Chandra observation shows what cannot be seen in visible light: a second shock wave. This secondary shock wave is created from pressure that sweeps the wind back from the pulsar to form the cocoon of high-energy particles, visible for the first time in the Chandra data. "This is the first detection of a double-shock structure around a pulsar," said Benjamin Stappers, of the Dutch Organization for Research in Astronomy (ASTRON), lead author on a paper describing the research that will appear in the Feb. 28, 2003, issue of Science magazine. "It should enable astronomers to test theories of the dynamics of pulsar winds and their interaction with their environment." B1957+20 X-ray-only image of B1957+20 Scientists believe millisecond pulsars are very old neutron stars that have been spun up by accreting material from their companions. The steady push of the infalling matter on the neutron star spins it up in much the same way as pushing on a merry-go-round makes it rotate faster. The result is an object about 1.5 times as massive as the Sun and ten miles in diameter that rotates hundreds of times per second. The advanced age, very rapid rotation rate and relatively low magnetic field of millisecond pulsars put them in a totally separate class from young pulsars observed in the remnants of supernova explosions. "This star has had an incredible journey. It was born in a supernova explosion as a young and energetic pulsar, but after a few million years grew old and slow and faded from view," said Bryan Gaensler of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., a coauthor of the paper. "Over the next few hundred million years, this dead pulsar had material dumped on it by its companion, and the pulsar's magnetic field has been dramatically reduced. B1957+20 B1957+20 Artist's illustrations of B1957+20 "This pulsar has been through hell, yet somehow it's still able to generate high-energy particles just like its younger brethren," continued Gaensler. The key is the rapid rotation of B1957+20. The Chandra result confirms the theory that even a relatively weakly magnetized neutron star can generate intense electromagnetic forces and accelerate particles to high energies to create a pulsar wind, if it is rotating rapidly enough. Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer observed B1957+20 for over 40,000 seconds on June 21, 2001. Other members of the research team include Victoria Kaspi (McGill University, Montreal), Michiel van der Klis (University of Amsterdam) and Walter Lewin (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program, and TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif., is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass., for the Office of Space Science at NASA Headquarters, Washington.

2003-02-01

43

Utilization of silkworm cocoon waste as a sorbent for the removal of oil from water.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate the utilization of silkworm cocoon waste, such as pierced or stained cocoons, as a sorbent material for the removal of motor and vegetable oils from water. The oil-sorption capacity, rate and reusability of the material were evaluated. The results show the high sorption capacity of the silkworm cocoon waste sorbent (42-52 g(oil)/g(sorbent) for motor oil and 37-60 g(oil)/g(sorbent) for vegetable oil). The oil sorbed onto the material could be recovered by squeezing the sorbent, and the squeezed material showed an oil-sorption capacity over 15 g(oil)/g(sorbent). We concluded that the material shows a high performance as a low cost and environmental friendly sorbent for the removal of oil from water. PMID:19008047

Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Shiori; Kurashima, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Ayaka; Haraguchi, Kazuma; Shirai, Koji; Kanekatsu, Rensuke; Kiguchi, Kenji

2009-06-15

44

Fluorescent silk cocoon creating fluorescent diatom using a “Water glass-fluorophore ferry”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorophores are ubiquitous in nature. Naturally occurring fluorophores are exceptionally stable and have high quantum yield. Several natural systems have acquired fluorescent signature due to the presence of these fluorophores. Systematic attempt to harvest these fluorophores from natural systems could reap rich commercial benefit to bio-imaging industry. Silk cocoon biomaterial is one such example of natural system, which has acquired a fluorescent signature. The objective of this study is to develop simple, rapid, commercially viable technique to isolate silk cocoon membrane fluorophores and exploring the possibility of using them as fluorescent dye in bio-imaging. Here, we report an innovative water glass (Na2SiO3) based strategy to isolate the silk cocoon fluorophores. Isolated fluorophore is majorly quercetin derivatives and exhibited remarkable photo- and heat stability. Fluorescence and mass spectrometric analysis confirmed presence of a quercetin derivative. We further used this fluorophore to successfully label the silicate shell of diatom species Nitzschia palea.

Kusurkar, Tejas S.; Tandon, Ishita; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

2013-11-01

45

Isolation, purification and characterization of silk protein sericin from cocoon peduncles of tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high molecular weight water-soluble glue protein, sericin was identified in the cocoon peduncle (a strong thread connecting the cocoons to the branches of the tree with a ring) of the tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta. The sericin was isolated by 8M urea containing 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate and ?-mercaptoethenol (2%) or by 1% sodium chloride. The protein was purified

Rupesh Dash; Soumen Mukherjee; S. C. Kundu

2006-01-01

46

Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characters of cocoons and silk from methoprene and fenoxycarb treated Bombyx mori (L) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

th instar B. mori treated with selected doses of methoprene and fenoxycarb, quantitative parameters like cocoon weight, shell weight, shell percentage, filament length and denier followed by qualitative characters of the silk like non-breakable filament length, reelability, winding capacity, tenacity, elongation percentage, cohesiveness, sericin and fibroin contents were determined. The cocoon from 1.0 ? ? ? ?g methoprene and 3.0

D. M. Mamatha; H. P. P. Cohly; A. H. H. Raju; M. Rajeswara Rao

47

Cocoon and epidermis of Australian Cyclorana frogs differ in composition of lipid classes that affect water loss.  

PubMed

For amphibians to survive in environments that experience annual droughts, they must minimize evaporative water loss. One genus of Australian hylid frogs, Cyclorana, prevents desiccation by burrowing in the soil and forming cocoons composed of alternating layers of shed epidermis and glandular secretions. Previous data are inconclusive about the role that lipids play in reducing evaporative water loss through skin (cutaneous water loss [CWL]) when Cyclorana spp. are within cocoons. In this study, we measured CWL and lipids in the epidermis and in cocoons of five species of Cyclorana. CWL was significantly lower in frogs within cocoons than in frogs without cocoons. Surface-area-specific CWL for the three small species was significantly higher than that of the two larger species of Cyclorana, but this difference was not apparent in frogs within cocoons. Although lipids were responsible for more of the dry mass of the epidermis (approximately 20%) than of the cocoons (approximately 7%) we found that cerebrosides and ceramides, two polar lipid classes, were almost exclusively found in cocoons. This suggests that these lipid classes are in the glandular secretions rather than in the epidermis. Because these polar lipids are the types that reduce water loss in birds (cerebrosides and ceramides) and mammals (ceramides), we conclude that they are important not only for holding together the shed layers of skin but also for contributing to the barrier against water loss. PMID:22237288

Sadowski-Fugitt, Leslie M; Tracy, Christopher R; Christian, Keith A; Williams, Joseph B

2012-01-01

48

Abdominal cocoon (sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis): a rare cause of intestinal obstruction.  

PubMed

A 24 years old lady presented with classical history of acute intestinal obstruction. There was a background history of chronic abdomen for 9 years. There was asymmetrical abdominal distension. On laparotomy, the entire small intestine was cocooned and enclosed in a yellowish white thick fibrotic membrane resulting in obstruction of the small intestine. When the membrane was carefully peeled off the small intestine, the underlying small gut was found to be absolutely healthy. The histopathology report was consistent with non-specific dense fibrosis. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of abdominal cocoon or sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis was made which is an extremely rare cause of small bowel obstruction. PMID:22414359

Malik, Saad Ahmed; Javed, Muhammad Asghar; Mian, Muhammad Amer

2012-03-01

49

Experimental investigation on phase constant and cutoff wavelength of a cocoon-section corrugated waveguide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with an experimental investigation of the phase constant and cut-off wavelength of a waveguide, whose cross section is shaped as a cocoon and whose side walls exhibit a sinusoidal helical corrugation along the longitudinal axis. The waveguide is well suited for use as an antenna feeder waveguide in 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-GHz band microwave communications systems.

K. Abe; A. Hashimoto

1979-01-01

50

An antibiotic from Penicillium sp. covering the cocoon of the leaf-rolling moth, Dactylioglypha tonica.  

PubMed

An antibiotic-producing Penicillium sp. strain was isolated from cocoons of the leaf-rolling moth, Dactylioglypha tonica. An antibacterial compound was isolated from the cultured broth, and the chemical structure of the principle was determined by spectroscopic data to be a derivative of isocoumarincarboxylate. PMID:11129597

Imamura, N; Ishikawa, T; Ohtsuka, T; Yamamoto, K; Dekura, M; Fukami, H; Nishida, R

2000-10-01

51

Solid state 13C NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy of the cocoon silk of two common spiders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of the silk from cocoons of two common spiders, Araneus diadematus (family Araneidae) and Achaearanea tepidariorum (family Theridiidae) was investigated by means of 13C solid state NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies. The combined use of these two techniques allowed us to highlight differences in the two samples. The cocoon silk of Achaearanea tepidariorum is essentially constituted by helical and ?-sheet structures, whereas that of Araneus diadematus shows a more complex structure, containing also ?-strands and ?-turns. Moreover, the former silk is essentially crystalline while the latter contains more mobile domains. The structural differences of the two cocoon silks are ascribed to the different habitat of the two species.

Bramanti, Emilia; Catalano, Donata; Forte, Claudia; Giovanneschi, Mario; Masetti, Massimo; Veracini, Carlo Alberto

2005-11-01

52

Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of silk cocoon (Abresham) on isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in rats.  

PubMed

Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate cardioprotective effect of silk cocoon (Abresham) Bombyx mori (B. mori) on isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction. This study deals with the cocoons, which is called Abresham in the Unani system of medicine. It is one of the 64 drugs which Avicenna has mentioned in Avicenna's tract on cardiac drugs and used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Abresham is a chief ingredient of the two very famous Unani formulation viz. Khamira Abresham Sada, and Khamira Abresham Hakim Arshad Wala. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of B. mori (Abresham) silk cocoons in the dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight was administered orally for 28 days before isoprenaline administration to test their cardioprotective effect. Isoprenaline (85 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously on days 29(th) and 30(th), respectively in order to induce myocardial infarction. Results: The parameters for evaluation of cardioprotective activity were the physical parameters and the biochemical estimations. The physical parameters were gross examination of heart, heart weight/body weight ratio and histopathology examination. In biochemical estimations, the activity of various cardiac enzymes such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, creatinine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and the gold marker troponin-I were determined. The levels altered by isoproterenol were restored significantly by the administration of the both doses of test extract especially at higher dose. Conclusion: The result of this study shows that alcoholic extract B. mori has significant cardioprotective activity against isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction. PMID:25050277

Srivastav, Ritesh Kumar; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Mahmood, Tarique; Ahsan, Farogh

2013-01-01

53

Developing a Web 2.0 telemedical education system: the AJAX-Cocoon portal.  

PubMed

Web 2.0 technologies such as wikis, podcasts/vodcasting, blogs and semantic portals could be quite effective tools in e-learning for health professionals. If effectively deployed, such tools can offer a way to enhance students', clinicians' and patients' learning experiences, and deepens levels of learners' engagement and collaboration within medical learning environments. However, Web 2.0 requires simplicity of use as well as integration with modern web technologies. This article presents a Web 2.0 telemedical portal, which provides a social community-learning paradigm from the desk of the physician, the student, the hospital administrator, or the insurer. The presented portal utilises RESTful web services and techniques like content syndication, mushups and Asynchronous JavaScript API and XML (AJAX). The designed portal is based on the Apache Cocoon RESTful framework for sharing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) medical case studies. Central to this article is the integration between Cocoon and AJAX. The proposed AJAX-Cocoon portal utilises a JSP portlet architecture, which manages the interaction dynamics and overcomes the shortcomings of the JSR 168 and WSRP 1.0 standards. PMID:18583294

Mohammed, S; Orabi, A; Fiaidhi, J; Orabi, M

2008-01-01

54

Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of silk cocoon (Abresham) on isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate cardioprotective effect of silk cocoon (Abresham) Bombyx mori (B. mori) on isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction. This study deals with the cocoons, which is called Abresham in the Unani system of medicine. It is one of the 64 drugs which Avicenna has mentioned in Avicenna’s tract on cardiac drugs and used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Abresham is a chief ingredient of the two very famous Unani formulation viz. Khamira Abresham Sada, and Khamira Abresham Hakim Arshad Wala. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of B. mori (Abresham) silk cocoons in the dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight was administered orally for 28 days before isoprenaline administration to test their cardioprotective effect. Isoprenaline (85 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously on days 29th and 30th, respectively in order to induce myocardial infarction. Results: The parameters for evaluation of cardioprotective activity were the physical parameters and the biochemical estimations. The physical parameters were gross examination of heart, heart weight/body weight ratio and histopathology examination. In biochemical estimations, the activity of various cardiac enzymes such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, creatinine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and the gold marker troponin-I were determined. The levels altered by isoproterenol were restored significantly by the administration of the both doses of test extract especially at higher dose. Conclusion: The result of this study shows that alcoholic extract B. mori has significant cardioprotective activity against isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction.

Srivastav, Ritesh Kumar; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Mahmood, Tarique; Ahsan, Farogh

2013-01-01

55

Water balance and arginine vasotocin in the cocooning frog Cyclorana platycephala (hylidae).  

PubMed

It is well established that forming a cocoon, for frog species capable of doing so, markedly reduces evaporative water loss; however, the capacity of cocooned frogs to maintain hydration during extended estivation is not well understood. The combined effects of long-term estivation and water loss were examined in the cocoon-forming species Cyclorana platycephala by assessing the hydration state of the frogs throughout a 15-mo estivation period. Frogs lost mass throughout the 15-mo period to a maximum of 36%+/-6.5% of their initial standard mass. Plasma osmolality reached maximal levels by the ninth month of estivation at 487 mOsm kg(-1) and then remained stable to the fifteenth month of estivation. Urine osmolality continued to increase to the fifteenth month of estivation, at which point plasma and urine concentrations were isosmotic. The use of bladder water to counter losses from circulation was indicated by the relatively slow rate of increase in plasma osmolality with mass loss and the progressive increase in urine osmolality. For estivating frogs, evidence was found for a possible threshold relationship between plasma osmolality and plasma arginine vasotocin (AVT) concentration. After estivation, plasma AVT concentrations decreased markedly after 15-mo estivators were placed in water for 2 h, suggesting that high levels of AVT may not be integral to rapid rehydration in this species. PMID:18040971

Cartledge, Victoria A; Withers, Philip C; Bradshaw, S Don

2008-01-01

56

Infant Constipation  

MedlinePLUS

... Diapers & Clothing > Infant Constipation Ages & Stages Listen Infant Constipation Article Body Parents also worry that their babies ... do that. Imagining it should be enough. For constipation concerns I always come back to the question ...

57

A cosmic ray cocoon along the X-ray jet of M87?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relativistic jets propagating through an ambient medium must produce some observational effects along their side boundaries because of interactions across the large velocity gradient. One possible effect of such an interaction would be a sheared magnetic field structure at the jet boundaries, leading to a characteristic radio polarization pattern. As proposed by Ostrowski, another effect can come from the generation of a high-energy cosmic ray component at the boundary, producing dynamic effects on the medium surrounding the jet and forming a cocoon dominated by cosmic rays with a decreased thermal gas emissivity. We selected this process for our first attempt to look for the effects of this type of interaction. We analysed the Chandra X-ray data for the radio galaxy M87 in order to verify if the expected regions of diminished emissivity may be present near the spectacular X-ray jet in this source. The detailed analysis of the data, merged from 42 separate observations, shows signatures of lower emissivity surrounding the jet. In particular we detect an intensity dip along the part of the jet, which would be approximately 1.5 × 0.15 kpc2 in size, if situated along the jet which is inclined towards us. Due to a highly non-uniform X-ray background in the central region, we are not able to claim the discovery of a cosmic ray cocoon around the M87 jet: we only have demonstrated that the data show morphological structures which could be accounted for if a cosmic ray cocoon exists.

Dainotti, M. G.; Ostrowski, M.; Harris, D.; Siemiginowska, A.; Siejkowski, H.

2012-10-01

58

AN UP-SCATTERED COCOON EMISSION MODEL OF GAMMA-RAY BURST HIGH-ENERGY LAGS  

SciTech Connect

The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope recently detected the most energetic gamma-ray burst so far, GRB 080916C, and reported its detailed temporal properties in an extremely broad spectral range: (1) the time-resolved spectra are well described by broken power-law forms over the energy range of 10 keV-10 GeV, (2) the high-energy emission (at epsilon>100 MeV) is delayed by approx5 s with respect to the epsilon approx< 1 MeV emission, and (3) the emission onset times shift toward later times in higher energy bands. We show that this behavior of the high-energy emission can be explained by a model in which the prompt emission consists of two components: one is the emission component peaking at epsilon approx 1 MeV due to the synchrotron-self-Compton radiation of electrons accelerated in the internal shock of the jet and the other is the component peaking at epsilon approx 100 MeV due to up-scattering of the photospheric X-ray emission of the expanding cocoon (i.e., the hot bubble produced by dissipation of the jet energy inside the progenitor star) off the same electrons in the jet. Based on this model, we derive some constraints on the radius of the progenitor star and the total energy and mass of the cocoon of this GRB, which may provide information on the structure of the progenitor star and the physical conditions of the jet propagating in the star. The up-scattered cocoon emission could be important for other Fermi GRBs as well. We discuss some predictions of this model, including a prompt bright optical emission and a soft X-ray excess.

Toma, Kenji; Wu Xuefeng; Meszaros, Peter, E-mail: toma@astro.psu.ed [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2009-12-20

59

Solid state (13)C NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy of the cocoon silk of two common spiders.  

PubMed

The structure of the silk from cocoons of two common spiders, Araneus diadematus (family Araneidae) and Achaearanea tepidariorum (family Theridiidae) was investigated by means of (13)C solid state NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies. The combined use of these two techniques allowed us to highlight differences in the two samples. The cocoon silk of Achaearanea tepidariorum is essentially constituted by helical and beta-sheet structures, whereas that of Araneus diadematus shows a more complex structure, containing also beta-strands and beta-turns. Moreover, the former silk is essentially crystalline while the latter contains more mobile domains. The structural differences of the two cocoon silks are ascribed to the different habitat of the two species. PMID:16257700

Bramanti, Emilia; Catalano, Donata; Forte, Claudia; Giovanneschi, Mario; Masetti, Massimo; Veracini, Carlo Alberto

2005-11-01

60

Diversity, host association, and cocoon variability of reared Indian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).  

PubMed

Nearly 3,500 specimens of microgastrine wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were reared during caterpillar surveys undertaken in 2010-2013 across India, covering 16 States and one Union Territory (Andaman & Nicobar islands), and deposited in the National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects, Bangalore, India. The caterpillar inventory recovered over two hundred morpho-species within 22 families of Lepidoptera and yielded 90+ morpho-species of microgastrine wasps distributed among 13 genera: Apanteles Förster, Buluka de Saeger, Cotesia Cameron, Diolcogaster Ashmead, Distatrix Mason, Dolichogenidea Viereck, Fornicia Brulle, Glyptapanteles Ashmead, Microgaster Latreille, Microplitis Förster, Neoclarkinella Rema & Narendran, Parapanteles Ashmead, and Protapanteles Ashmead. Records of hyperparasitoids are also included: Mokrzeckia menzeli Subba Rao (Pteromalidae), Pachyneuron groenlandicum (Holmgren) (Pteromalidae), Pediobius foveolatus (Crawford) (Eulophidae), Trichomalopsis thekkadiensis Sureshan & Narendran (Pteromalidae), Eurytoma sp., and Pediobius sp. (Eurytomidae). The present study adds eight new host records and provides illustrations of 40 species of wasps (including types). A comprehensive list of microgastrine genera, host caterpillar species, host plants, cocoon colour, structure and spinning pattern, and hyperparasitoids is provided. Numerous photographs of parasitized caterpillars, cocoons (number/arrangement), associated host plants, and adult wasps are also provided. The Indian species Deuterixys ruidus (Wilkinson, 1928) is transferred to the genus Cotesia based on the shape and sculpture of the first and second mediotergites: Cotesia ruidus (Wilkinson) comb. nov. Microgaster carinicollis Cameron is transferred to Microplitis, based on examination of first and second mediotergites, length of metatibia spurs, and size of metaxocoxa: Microplitis carinicollis (Cameron) stat. rev. PMID:24870869

Gupta, Ankita; Fernández-Triana, José L

2014-01-01

61

Combined effects of copper, desiccation, and frost on the viability of earthworm cocoons  

SciTech Connect

The effects of heavy metal pollution on earthworms have been extensively studied, but no studies have examined how earthworms react if they are simultaneously exposed to metal pollution and climatic stress. This question has been addressed in a laboratory study where cocoons of Aporrectodea caliginosa and Dendrobaena octaedra were initially exposed to copper in aqueous solutions of copper chloride and thereafter exposed to realistic degrees of either desiccation or frost. Earthworm embryos absorbed copper in amounts comparable to concentrations found in various tissues of earthworms from metal-polluted soils. Desiccation and copper exposure in combination had synergistic effects on survival rates for both species. For example, at full saturation, the NOEC (the highest tested concentration with no statistically significant effect) for copper of A. caliginosa was 12 mg/L, whereas at 97% relative humidity it was only 6 mg/L. Frost and copper exposure in combination also showed synergistic effects in some experiments. No cocoons of A. caliginosa exposed to 20 mg copper/L were viable after exposure to {minus}3 C but at 0 C viability was as high as 95%. The same tendency was seen in D. octaedra but not as clearly as in A/. caliginosa. A change of the environmental conditions (moisture, temperature) to increasing severity caused a shift in the statistically derived NOEC toward lower critical values of copper. The involvement of combination effects in ecotoxicological tests could therefore improve risk assessment of soil-polluting compounds.

Holmstrup, M. [National Environmental Research Inst., Silkeborg (Denmark). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology; Petersen, B.F. [National Environmental Research Inst., Silkeborg (Denmark). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology]|[Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark); Larsen, M.M. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Marine Ecology and Microbiology

1998-01-01

62

Preventing Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Among Adults: Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine: Recommendation of ACIP, Supported by the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC), for Use of Tdap Among Health-Care Personnel. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 55, No. RR-17, December 15, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On June 10, 2005, a tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) formulated for use in adults and adolescents was licensed in the United States for persons aged 11-64 years (ADACEL, manufactured by sanofi pasteur, Toron...

I. Ortega-Sanchez K. Kretsinger K. R. Broder M. M. Cortese M. P. Joyce

2006-01-01

63

Conformational changes of graphene nanosheets induced by metal: melting metal can spin a graphene cocoon to encapsulate itself.  

PubMed

Graphene nanosheets can be driven to change their conformation by melting metal and, finally, a cocoon coating can be constructed to encapsulate the metal sphere. Interaction beween metal and oxygenated defects plays a leading role in conformational changes of graphene nanosheets. PMID:24401945

Zhou, Jisheng; Song, Huaihe; Zhang, Xiaoting; Chen, Xiaohong

2014-02-21

64

A Cocoon of Freshly Accelerated Cosmic Rays Detected by Fermi in the Cygnus Superbubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of Galactic cosmic rays is a century-long puzzle. Indirect evidence points to their acceleration by supernova shockwaves, but we know little of their escape from the shock and their evolution through the turbulent medium surrounding massive stars. Gamma rays can probe their spreading through the ambient gas and radiation fields. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed the star-forming region of Cygnus X. The 1- to 100-gigaelectronvolt images reveal a 50-parsec-wide cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays that flood the cavities carved by the stellar winds and ionization fronts from young stellar clusters. It provides an example to study the youth of cosmic rays in a superbubble environment before they merge into the older Galactic population.

Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dumora, D.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hayashi, K.; Hays, E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Martin, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Parent, D.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pohl, M.; Prokhorov, D.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Parkinson, P. M. Saz; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spinelli, P.; Strong, A. W.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Zimmer, S.; Bontemps, S.

2011-11-01

65

A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by Fermi in the Cygnus superbubble.  

PubMed

The origin of Galactic cosmic rays is a century-long puzzle. Indirect evidence points to their acceleration by supernova shockwaves, but we know little of their escape from the shock and their evolution through the turbulent medium surrounding massive stars. Gamma rays can probe their spreading through the ambient gas and radiation fields. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed the star-forming region of Cygnus X. The 1- to 100-gigaelectronvolt images reveal a 50-parsec-wide cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays that flood the cavities carved by the stellar winds and ionization fronts from young stellar clusters. It provides an example to study the youth of cosmic rays in a superbubble environment before they merge into the older Galactic population. PMID:22116880

Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Belfiore, A; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bottacini, E; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; do Couto E Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dumora, D; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hayashi, K; Hays, E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lee, S-H; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Martin, P; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Naumann-Godo, M; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pesce-Rollins, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Pohl, M; Prokhorov, D; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Parkinson, P M Saz; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, P D; Spinelli, P; Strong, A W; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S; Bontemps, S

2011-11-25

66

Silk cocoon of Bombyx mori: proteins and posttranslational modifications--heavy phosphorylation and evidence for lysine-mediated cross links.  

PubMed

Although silk is used to produce textiles and serves as a valuable biomaterial in medicine, information on silk proteins of the cocoon is limited. Scanning electron microscopy was applied to morphologically characterise the sample and the solubility of cocoon in lithium thiocyanate and 2-DE was carried out with multi-enzyme in-gel digestion followed by MS identification of silk-peptides. High-sequence coverage of the silk cocoon proteins fibroin light and heavy chain, sericins and fibrohexamerins was revealed and PTMs as heavy phosphorylation of silk fibroin heavy chain; lysine hydroxylation and Lys->allysine formation have been observed providing evidence for lysine-mediated cross linking of silk as found in collagens, which has not been reported so far. Tyrosine oxidation verified the presence of di-tyrosine cross links. A high degree of sequence conflicts probably representing single-nucleotide polymorphisms was observed. PTM and sequence conflicts may be modulating structure and physicochemical properties of silk. PMID:20029844

Chen, Wei-Qiang; Priewalder, Helga; John, Julius Paul Pradeep; Lubec, Gert

2010-02-01

67

Biosynthesis and cocoon-export of a recombinant globular protein in transgenic silkworms.  

PubMed

A gene construct was made by fusing the coding sequence of the red fluorescent protein (DsRed) to the exon 2 of the fibrohexamerin gene (fhx), that encodes a subunit of fibroin, the major silk protein of the silkworm Bombyx mori. The fusion gene was inserted into a piggyBac vector to establish a series of transgenic lines. The expression of the transgene was monitored during the course of larval life and was found restricted to the posterior silk gland cells as the endogenous fhx gene, in all the selected transgenic lines. The exogenous polypeptide was secreted into the lumen of the posterior silk gland together with fibroin, and further exported with the silk proteins as a foreign constituent of the cocoon fiber. The capacity of DsRed to emit fluorescence in the air-dried silk thread led to show that the recombinant protein was distributed over the whole length of the fiber. A remarkable property of the system lies in the localization of the globular protein at the periphery of the silk thread, allowing its rapid and easy recovery in aqueous solutions, without dissolving fibroin. The procedure represents a novel and promising strategy for the production of massive recombinant proteins of biomedical and pharmaceutical interest, with reduced cost. PMID:16201412

Royer, Corinne; Jalabert, Audrey; Da Rocha, Martine; Grenier, Anne-Marie; Mauchamp, Bernard; Couble, Pierre; Chavancy, Gérard

2005-08-01

68

Pneumothorax - infants  

MedlinePLUS

Air leak syndrome ... an otherwise healthy baby can develop an air leak when he or she takes the first few ... Some air leaks will go away within a few days without treatment. Infants who are treated by removing the air with ...

69

Cocoon-in-Web-Like Superhydrophobic Aerogels from Hydrophilic Polyurea and Use in Environmental Remediation.  

PubMed

Polyurea (PUA) develops H-bonding with water and is inherently hydrophilic. The water contact angle on smooth dense PUA derived from an aliphatic triisocyanate and water was measured at ? = 69.1 ± 0.2°. Nevertheless, texture-related superhydrophobic PUA aerogels (?' = 150.2°) were prepared from the same monomer in one step with no additives, templates, or surfactants via sol-gel polymerization carried out in polar, weakly H-bonding acetonitrile. Those materials display a unique nanostructure consisting of micrometer-size spheres distributed randomly and trapped in a nanofiber web of the same polymer. Morphostructurally, as well as in terms of their hydrophobic properties, those PUA aerogels are analogous to well-studied electrospun fiber mats incorporating particle-like defects. PUA aerogels have the advantage of easily scalable synthesis and low cost of the raw materials. Despite large contact angles and small contact areas, water droplets (5 ?L) stick to the aerogels surface when the substrate is turned upside-down. That so-called Petal effect is traced to H-bonding at the points of contact between the water droplet and the apexes of the roughness of the aerogel surface. Monoliths are flexible and display oleophilicity in inverse order to their hydrophobicity; oil fills all the available open porosity (94% v/v) of cocoon-in-web like aerogels with bulk density ?b = 0.073 g cm(-3); that capacity for oil absorption is >10:1 w/w and translates into ?6:1 w/v relative to state-of-the-art materials (e.g., graphene-derived aerogels). Oil soaked monoliths float on water and can be harvested off. PMID:24758407

Leventis, Nicholas; Chidambareswarapattar, Chakkaravarthy; Bang, Abhishek; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia

2014-05-14

70

Materials for Infant Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, which discusses materials that promote infant growth and development, is part of an approach to working with low-income mothers and infants in their homes to increase the educability of the infants. There is a brief discussion of infant development and the Demonstration and Research Center for Early Education Infant Study (DARCEE)…

Forrester, Bettye J.; And Others

71

Synthesis and regular reflection property of cocoon-like poly(methyl methacrylate) particles by seeded suspension polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis and optical properties of cocoon-like poly(methyl methacrylate) (CPM) particles in the size range of D\\u000a \\u000a n\\u000a  = 3.0–6.5 ?m were studied. The synthesis of these anisotropic particles consists of two steps. The spherical poly(methyl\\u000a methacrylate) (PMA) particles (D\\u000a \\u000a n\\u000a  = 2.2–5.5 ?m) cross-linked by 0.2–0.8 wt% ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) were prepared by dispersion polymerization,\\u000a using a combination of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and

Naomi Ishii; Kenzo Inoue

2009-01-01

72

Peripheral intravenous line - infants  

MedlinePLUS

PIV - infants; Peripheral IV - infants; Peripheral line - infants ... A peripheral intravenous line (PIV) is a small, short plastic tube, called a catheter. It is placed through the skin into a vein, usually in ...

73

Infant - newborn development  

MedlinePLUS

... is normal and is not a sign of sudden infant death syndrome ( SIDS ). Some infants will vomit or spit ... has been shown to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Once a baby can roll over ...

74

Production of an active feline interferon in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms using the fibroin H-chain expression system  

SciTech Connect

We constructed the fibroin H-chain expression system to produce recombinant proteins in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms. Feline interferon (FeIFN) was used for production and to assess the quality of the product. Two types of FeIFN fusion protein, each with N- and C-terminal sequences of the fibroin H-chain, were designed to be secreted into the lumen of the posterior silk glands. The expression of the FeIFN/H-chain fusion gene was regulated by the fibroin H-chain promoter domain. The transgenic silkworms introduced these constructs with the piggyBac transposon-derived vector, which produced the normal sized cocoons containing each FeIFN/H-chain fusion protein. Although the native-protein produced by transgenic silkworms have almost no antiviral activity, the proteins after the treatment with PreScission protease to eliminate fibroin H-chain derived N- and C-terminal sequences from the products, had very high antiviral activity. This H-chain expression system, using transgenic silkworms, could be an alternative method to produce an active recombinant protein and silk-based biomaterials.

Kurihara, H. [Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories, 1111 Tebiro, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: Hiroyuki_Kurihara@nts.toray.co.jp; Sezutsu, H. [Transgenic Silkworm Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634 (Japan); Tamura, T. [Transgenic Silkworm Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634 (Japan); Yamada, K. [Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories, 1111 Tebiro, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan)

2007-04-20

75

Coexistence of abdominal cocoon, intestinal perforation and incarcerated Meckel's diverticulum in an inguinal hernia: A troublesome condition.  

PubMed

Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a rare disease entity, in which the small intestine becomes encased and mechanically obstructed by a dense, fibrotic membrane. The disorder is characterized as either primary (idiopathic) or secondary to other causes. The idiopathic cases of SEP, which lack any identifiable etiology according to clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, are also reported under the designation of abdominal cocoon syndrome. The most frequent presenting symptoms of all SEP cases are nausea, vomiting, abdominal distention and inability to defecate, all of which are associated with the underlying intestinal obstruction. Persistent untreated SEP may advance to intestinal perforation, representing a life-threatening condition. However, preoperative diagnosis remains a particular clinical challenge, and most diagnoses are confirmed only when the typical fibrous membrane encasing the small intestine is discovered by laparotomy. Here, we report the clinical presentation of an 87-year-old male with signs of intestinal obstruction and the ultimate diagnosis of concurrent abdominal cocoon, right incarcerated Meckel's diverticulum, and gastrointestinal perforation in laparotomy. PMID:24672651

Akbulut, Sami; Yagmur, Yusuf; Babur, Mehmet

2014-03-27

76

Chalkbrood transmission in the alfalfa leafcutting bee: the impact of disinfecting bee cocoons in loose cell management systems.  

PubMed

Understanding pathogen transmission could illuminate new methods for disease prevention. A case in point is chalkbrood in the alfalfa leafcutting bee [Megachile rotundata (F.)]. Propagation of this solitary bee is severely hampered by chalkbrood, a larval disease caused by Ascosphaera aggregata (Ascomycota). Alfalfa leafcutting bees nest in existing cavities in wood or hollow reeds and overwinter as larvae. In the early summer, emerging adults frequently must chew through dead, diseased siblings that block their exit, becoming contaminated with chalkbrood spores in the process. When alfalfa leafcutting bees are used as a commercial pollinator, the cocoons are removed from nesting boards to reduce chalkbrood transmission, but the disease is still common. To determine if these removed cocoons (called loose cells) are an important source of disease transmission, they were disinfected with a fungicide before bees were incubated, and released in the field. Chalkbrood prevalence among the progeny of the treated bees was reduced up to 50% in one field trial, but not significantly when tested in an on-farm trial. Thus, substantial disease transmission still occurred when the loose cells were disinfected, and even when clean nesting materials were used. In conclusion, pathogen transmission must still be occurring from another source that has yet to be identified. Another possible source of transmission could arise from bees that emerge midsummer in populations with a high percent of multivoltinism, but dirty nesting boards and feral bees also may be minor sources of transmission. PMID:22251678

James, R R

2011-08-01

77

[Infants in Day Care].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter theme issue looks at infant day care models including those emphasizing early intervention with special needs infants. The lead article, "Infants in Day Care: Reflections on Experiences, Expectations and Relationships," by Jeree H. Pawl, stresses the importance of understanding infants' and toddlers' capacities and needs in…

Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

1990-01-01

78

The silkworm Green b locus encodes a quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase that produces green cocoons with UV-shielding properties  

PubMed Central

In the silkworm Bombyx mori, dietary flavonoids are metabolized and accumulate in cocoons, thereby causing green coloration. Classical genetic studies suggest that more than seven independent loci are associated with this trait; however, because of the complex inheritance pattern, none of these loci have been characterized molecularly, and a plausible and comprehensive model for their action has not been proposed. Here, we report the identification of the gene responsible for the Green b (Gb) locus involving the green cocoon trait. In +Gb animals, glucosylation at the 5-O position of dietary quercetin did not occur, and the total amount of flavonoids in tissues and cocoons was dramatically reduced. We performed positional cloning of Gb and found a 38-kb deletion in a UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) gene cluster associated with the +Gb allele. RT-PCR and biochemical studies suggested that deletion of Bm-UGT10286 (UGT) is responsible for Gb and Bm-UGT10286 is virtually the sole source of UGT activity toward the 5-O position of quercetin. Our data show that the regiospecific glucosylation of flavonoids by the quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase can greatly affect the overall bioavailability of flavonoids in animals. Furthermore, we provide evidence that flavonoids increase the UV-shielding activity of cocoons and thus could confer an increased survival advantage to insects contained in these cocoons. This study will lead to greater understanding of mechanisms for metabolism, uptake, and transport of dietary flavonoids, which have a variety of biological activities in animals and beneficial effects on human health.

Daimon, Takaaki; Hirayama, Chikara; Kanai, Masatoshi; Ruike, Yoshinao; Kosegawa, Eiichi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

2010-01-01

79

[Infant psychiatry].  

PubMed

Infant psychiatry is a discipline concerned with diagnostic assessment, treatment, and prevention of mental health problems in infancy and early childhood. A new diagnostic framework: Zero to three (DC 0-3) has been designed to complement the ICD 10/DSM IV, including new diagnostic categories, and a multiaxial construct addressing developmental and relational aspects. Prevalence and outcome for mental retardation and pervasive developmental disorders are well known. Our knowledge of variations in attachment patterns, disorders of neurophysiological regulation, eating disorders, failure to thrive, emotional, affective, and behavioural problems, disorders of relating and communication, and eventually parent-child relationship disorders is still incomplete. It is recommended to use video and combine clinical evaluation with structured tests in assessment. Intervention may include guidance, psychoeducation, psychotherapy, as well as social and educational support. Parent-child relationship treatment seems effective. Evaluating intervention and treatment raises immense methodological problems. Future research should address how risk and resilience interacts in the psychopathological process and enhance our knowledge of effective intervention strategies. PMID:11242672

Bjørnholm, K I; Moszkowicz, M; Skovgaard, A M

2001-02-19

80

Green cocoons in silkworm Bombyx mori resulting from the quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase of UGT86, is an evolved response to dietary toxins.  

PubMed

The glycosylation of UDP-glucosyltransferases (UGTs) is of great importance in the control and elimination of both endogenous and exogenous toxins. Bm-UGT10286 (UGT86) is the sole provider of UGT activity against the 5-O position of quercetin and directly influences the formation of green pigment in the Bombyx cocoon. To evaluate whether cocoon coloration evolved for mimetic purposes, we concentrated on the expression pattern of Ugt86 and the activities of the enzyme substrates. The expression of Ugt86 was not only detected in the cocoon absorbing and accumulating tissues such as the digestive tube and silk glands, but also in quantity in the detoxification tissues of the malpighian tubes and fat body, as well as in the gonads. As in the green cocoon strains, Ugt86 was clearly expressed in the yellow and white cocoon strains. In vitro, the fusion protein of UGT86 showed quercetin metabolic activity. Nevertheless, Ugt86 expression of 5th instar larvae was not up-regulated in the silk gland by exogenous quercetin. However, it was significantly up-regulated in the digestive tube and gonads (P < 0.05). A similar result was observed in experiments where larvae were exposed to rutin, an insect resistance inducer and growth inhibitor typically found in plants, and to 20-hydroxylecdysone (20E), an insect endocrine and plant source hormone. On the contrary, up-regulated Ugt86 expression was almost nil in larvae exposed to juvenile hormone III (P > 0.05). The results of HPLC revealed that a new substance was formed by mixing 20E with the recombinant UGT86 protein in vitro, indicating that the effect of Ugt86 on 20E was similar to that on exogenous quercetin derived from plant food, and that the effect probably initiated the detoxification reaction against rutin. The conclusion is that the reaction of Ugt86 on the silkworm cocoon pigment quercetin is not the result of active mimetic ecogenesis, but derives from the detoxification of UGTs. PMID:23271130

Xu, Xu; Wang, Meng; Wang, Ying; Sima, Yanghu; Zhang, Dayan; Li, Juan; Yin, Weiming; Xu, Shiqing

2013-05-01

81

Infant CPR Video Demonstration  

MedlinePLUS

Infant CPR Video Demonstration Video demonstration of CPR instruction for infants. RETURN TO MAIN PAGE These Videos Are For Educational Use Only And Are Not Authorized for Commercial Use. © 1998 - 2011 ...

82

Mechanical ventilator - infants  

MedlinePLUS

Ventilator - infants; Respirator - infants ... WHY IS A MECHANICAL VENTILATOR USED? A ventilator is used to provide breathing support for ill or immature babies. Sick or premature babies are often ...

83

Premature Infant Refocus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research was designed to test the efficacy of temporally patterned kinesthetic and auditory stimulation for promoting improved development of infants born prior to term. Compared to infants experiencing regular hospital care, investigators expected in...

K. E. Barnard H. L. Bee

1981-01-01

84

Tracking Infants "At Risk."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reveals that infants in West Virginia judged at risk were not followed more closely by county health department nurses than infants judged not at risk. Negotiations are underway with divisions in the State Department of Health to identify high-risk infants routinely, notify local health departments, and conduct a screening in order to provide help…

Brown, Pamela; And Others

1985-01-01

85

Infant feeding in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study by questionnaire of 1,845 urban and 349 rural mothers in all regions of Nigeria is reported. Ninety?nine percent of all mothers commenced breast feeding their infants. In urban areas most continued for at least six months and in rural areas for at least 12 months. In urban areas, 77 % of the infants were given infant formula by

S. Orwell; D. Clayton; A. E. Dugdale

1984-01-01

86

Adult infant bonding garment  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An article of clothing such as a shirt or blouse which allows for Kangaroo Care by providing skin to skin contact between a person and infant which includes a pouch or pouches on the inside of the shirt centrally located thereon in which the infant may be placed. A larger pouch for a more developed infant may also be provided.

1999-09-07

87

Infant and Toddler Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on experiences gained at the Palo Alto Infant-Toddler Center, this book presents a model of infant and toddler child care. The purpose of the book is to offer caregivers and interested parents a repertoire of ways to respond to infants and toddlers that support individual development. Planned experiences and practical strategies for…

Hast, Fran; Hollyfield, Ann

88

Sleep and Infant Learning  

PubMed Central

Human neonates spend the majority of their time sleeping. Despite the limited waking hours available for environmental exploration, the first few months of life are a time of rapid learning about the environment. The organization of neonate sleep differs qualitatively from adult sleep, and the unique characteristics of neonatal sleep may promote learning. Sleep contributes to infant learning in multiple ways. First, sleep facilitates neural maturation, thereby preparing infants to process and explore the environment in increasingly sophisticated ways. Second, sleep plays a role in memory consolidation of material presented while the infant was awake. Finally, emerging evidence indicates that infants process sensory stimuli and learn about contingencies in their environment even while asleep. As infants make the transition from reflexive to cortically mediated control, learned responses to physiological challenges during sleep may be critical adaptations to promote infant survival.

Tarullo, Amanda R.; Balsam, Peter D.; Fifer, William P.

2010-01-01

89

Premature Infants: A Later Look  

MedlinePLUS

... infant to become overwhelmed. Typically, due to the overload, the infant is unable to soothe himself and restore a calm state. As a result of overload, the infant may (a) dissociate (tune out the ...

90

The Infant Development Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported are services provided to developmentally or behaviorally disturbed children (0-to-3-years-old) and their parents by the Infant Development Center (IDC) in Mission, Kansas. Outlined is information such as the IDC's primary activities (infant developmental stimulation and parental training and support), secondary activities (such as…

Birr, Jack

91

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

92

Immunisation of premature infants  

PubMed Central

Premature infants are at increased risk of vaccine preventable infections, but audits have shown that their vaccinations are often delayed. Early protection is desirable. While the evidence base for immunisation of preterm infants is limited, the available data support early immunisation without correction for gestational age. For a number of antigens the antibody response to initial doses may be lower than that of term infants, but protective concentrations are often achieved and memory successfully induced. A 2?3?4?month schedule may be preferable for immunisation of preterm infants in order to achieve protection as early as possible, but an additional dose may be required to achieve persistence of protection. This update focuses on the use of routine childhood vaccines in premature infants.

Bonhoeffer, J; Siegrist, C-A; Heath, P T

2006-01-01

93

Infant feeding in Nigeria.  

PubMed

A study by questionnaire of 1845 urban and 349 rural mothers in all regions of Nigeria is reported. 99% of all mothers commenced breastfeeding their infants. In urban areas most continued for at least 6 months and in rural areas for at least 12 months. In urban areas, 77% of the infants were given infant formula by the age of 3 months; in rural areas 40% were given infant formula. Cereals were also introduced early to many children. The reasons for and the effects of this pattern of infant feeding are not clear, but it presumably meets the overall needs of the population. Further investigation is needed before attempts are made to enforce change. PMID:12313442

Orwell, S; Clayton, D; Dugdale, A E

1984-01-01

94

Peritoneal dialysis in infants.  

PubMed

The need for maintenance dialysis for infants is rare, but peritoneal dialysis has been the modality of choice in cases of end-stage renal failure, for technical reasons. Problems include higher mortality rates and an inferior long-term outcome compared with that in older children. Also, no internationally accepted guidelines exist for dialysis in infants. Many children on maintenance peritoneal dialysis in Finland have congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type (NPHS1), and dialysis is started during infancy. In this commentary we discuss our practice of performing peritoneal dialysis in infants and experiences gathered from the literature. PMID:16583242

Rönnholm, Kai A R; Holmberg, Christer

2006-06-01

95

Antioxidant activities of two sericin proteins extracted from cocoon of silkworm (Bombyx mori) measured by DPPH, chemiluminescence, ORAC and ESR methods  

PubMed Central

Recent efforts have focused on the use of sericin proteins extracted from cocoons of silkworm as a healthy food source for human consumption. In this study, we focused on the antioxidative properties of sericin proteins. The antioxidative properties were measured in sericin proteins extracted from the shell of the cocoon, designated hereafter as white sericin protein and yellow-green sericin protein, as well as bread without sericin protein and bread to which white sericin powder had been added using four measurement methods: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), chemiluminescence, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and electron spin resonance (ESR). High antioxidative properties of sericin proteins were indicated by all four methods. A comparison of the two types of sericin proteins revealed that yellow-green sericin protein exhibited high antioxidative properties as indicated by the DPPH, chemiluminescence and ORAC methods. By contrast, a higher antioxidative property was determined in white sericin protein by the ESR method. Consequently, our findings confirmed that sericin proteins have antioxidative properties against multiple radicals. In addition, the antioxidative property of bread was enhanced by the addition of sericin powder to the bread. Therefore, findings of this study suggest that sericin proteins may be efficiently used as beneficial food for human health.

TAKECHI, TAYORI; WADA, RITSUKO; FUKUDA, TSUBASA; HARADA, KAZUKI; TAKAMURA, HITOSHI

2014-01-01

96

The Competent Infant  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion focuses on the development of experimental techniques which have revealed a competent infant, one who is both sensitive to his external environment and capable of modifying and being modified by that environment. (Author)

Friedman, Steven; Vietze, Peter M.

1972-01-01

97

Infant of diabetic mother  

MedlinePLUS

... infants may have periods of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) shortly after birth because of increased insulin levels ... diabetes should be tested for low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), even if they have no symptoms. If an ...

98

Infant Botulism (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... honey is a known source of the bacteria spores that cause botulism. For this reason, honey shouldn' ... Infant botulism can occur when a child ingests spores of Clostridium botulinum bacteria, which are found in ...

99

Infant and Newborn Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

Food provides the energy and nutrients that babies need to be healthy. For a baby, breast milk is best. It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose ...

100

Sudden infant death syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Crib death; SIDS ... However, SIDS is still a major cause of death in infants under one year old. Thousands of ... affects boys more often than girls. Most SIDS deaths occur in the winter. The following may increase ...

101

Sudden infant death syndrome  

PubMed Central

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) continues to be the most common cause of postneonatal infant death. SIDS is a complex, multifactorial disorder, the cause of which is still not fully understood. However, much is known now about environmental risk factors, some of which are modifiable. These include maternal and antenatal risk factors such as smoking during pregnancy, as well as infant-related risk factors such as non-supine sleeping position and soft bedding. Emerging evidence also substantiates an expanding number of genetic risk factors. Interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors may be of critical importance in determining an infant's actual risk of SIDS. Although no practical way exists to identify which infants will die of SIDS, nor is there a safe and proven prevention strategy even if identification were feasible, reducing exposure to modifiable risk factors has helped to lower the incidence of SIDS. Current challenges include wider dissemination of guidelines to all people who care for infants, dissemination of guidelines in culturally appropriate ways, and surveillance of SIDS trends and other outcomes associated with implementation of these guidelines.

Hunt, Carl E.; Hauck, Fern R.

2006-01-01

102

Feedback at the Working Surface: A Joint X-ray and Low-Frequency Radio Spectral Study of the Cocoon Shock in Cygnus A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on preliminary results from a joint spectral analysis of the cocoon shock region in Cygnus A using deep archival Chandra data and new low-frequency radio data from LOFAR. Being both bright in X-rays and the most powerful radio source in the local universe, the FRII radio galaxy Cygnus A represents an ideal opportunity to study the interaction between the jets produced by the central AGN and the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM) in which that AGN is embedded. Using the entire 235 ksec archival Chandra exposure, we have performed a spatially resolved, X-ray spectral analysis of the ICM in Cygnus A. By combining the resulting X-ray images and temperature maps with spectral index maps between 30-80 MHz and 120-180 MHz calculated from a recent, deep LOFAR observation, we can resolve the X-ray and radio emitting plasmas in any given region on spatial scales of 3-4 kpc over the central 100 kpc. We clearly resolve the cocoon shock surrounding Cygnus A and determine the Mach number of the shock as a function of position angle. Temperature jumps associated with this shock are detected over a large fraction of the total shock circumference. Significant non-thermal emission is also detected in the regions surrounding the SE and NW leading edges of the shock near the hotspots. In this talk, we will present a detailed analysis of the energetics of this interface region between the radio plasma inside the cocoon shock and the X-ray emitting gas outside the shock. Inside the shock, we will present constraints on the emission mechanisms in the jet, counter-jet, and hotspots based on the combined radio and X-ray spectra. Using maps of the spectral age derived from the LOFAR data and independent age estimates based on various cavity features seen in the X-ray image, we will present a picture of the evolution of the shock region in Cygnus A over the past 50 Myr. Finally, we will discuss the implications these observations have for AGN feedback models as well as the energy transfer mechanism itself.

Wise, Michael W.; Rafferty, D. A.; McKean, J. P.

2013-04-01

103

Iron intake of infants: the importance of infant cereals.  

PubMed Central

Since 1976 many baby foods have been reformulated and the iron used to fortify infant cereals has been changed to a more bioavailable form. Therefore, the dietary intake of iron by infants from 1 to 18 months of age was assessed in a longitudinal survey conducted in Toronto and Montreal between 1977 and 1979. Except in the 1st and 18th months the mean daily iron consumption of the infants was above that recommended in the Dietary Standard for Canada. The main source of this nutrient was infant cereals. Examination of the diets of the infants who did not have the recommended daily intake of iron showed that they did not consume sufficient amounts of infant cereals and other iron-rich foods. These results indicate that without such cereals it is difficult to provide infants with the amount of iron they need. Therefore, infants should receive these cereals during the first 2 years of life.

Yeung, D. L.; Pennell, M. D.; Leung, M.; Hall, J.; Anderson, G. H.

1981-01-01

104

[Sudden infant death].  

PubMed

Sudden infant death [SID] is defined as the "sudden death of an infant under one year of age that remains unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene and the review of the clinical history". This definition, given by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development in the USA. recognized SID as a diagnostic entity, however, SID remains a pathological diagnosis of exclusion. SID-cases are divided into three categories: group 1 in which autopsy does not reveal any cause of death, group 2 in which postmortem findings are not sufficient to be the cause of death; group 3 in which the death is adequately explained, is classified as "non-SID". The purpose of the study was to analyse the situation about SID over a 25-year period, from 1969 through 1993, looking for changes in frequency and developmental trends. The study includes 364 SID-infants which were examined according to a standard method. Histological, microbiological, virological and immunological studies were performed and data of the death scene investigation and of the clinical history were collected, 284 infants who had died due to clinical diseases served as one control group, a second group consisted of 6397 newborns of the city of Zürich. Of the SID-infants, almost every third infant [29%] was grouped in group 1, more than half of the infants [52%] with signs of mild infections in group 2, whereas almost every fifth child [19%] was grouped in group 3. With regard to epidemiological parameters the peak of mortality was found at about three months of age; the percentage of boys and twins, of third and later born infants was higher compared to the general population. SID probands were born twice as often in October as in March. The percentage of mothers of first, second and third born SID-infants at an age younger than 20, 22 and 24 years was higher compared to the general population. All these parameters were also found in group 3. The risk of familial recurrence in group 1 and group 2 was 0.8%. Between 1969 and 1993 the rate of SID deaths dropped from 1.1 to 0.9 per thousand live births, whereas SID as a percentage of postneonatal mortality increased to 34 per cent. PMID:9244999

Molz, G

1997-05-01

105

Infant-Directed Speech Is Modulated by Infant Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When mothers engage in infant-directed (ID) speech, their voices change in a number of characteristic ways, including adopting a higher overall pitch. Studies have examined these acoustical cues and have tested infants' preferences for ID speech. However, little is known about how these cues change with maternal sensitivity to infant feedback in…

Smith, Nicholas A.; Trainor, Laurel J.

2008-01-01

106

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Sudden Unexpected Infant Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Sudden infant death has haunted humanity since Biblical times, and many people are still confused about how to differentiate sudden infant death syn- drome from other causes of sudden infant death, such asmyocarditis or congenital heart disease. Because of the difficulty of diagnosis, the authors say that SIDS has become a “diagnostic dustbin,” but unnec- essarily so. They provide

Henry F. Krous; Roger W. Byard

107

An analysis of sudden infant death syndrome in Aboriginal infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this case-control study was to identify antenatal and perinatal risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in Aboriginal infants in Western Australia (WA). Gases were all Aboriginal infants born in WA from 1980 to 1990 inclusive and classified as dying from SIDS in WA. Controls consisted of a matched group and a random group both selected

L. M. Alessandri; A. W. Read; P. R. Burton; F. J. Stanley

1996-01-01

108

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)  

MedlinePLUS

... Trials Resources and Publications En Español Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): Condition Information Skip sharing on social ... Share this: Page Content SIDS is the sudden death of an infant younger than 1 year of ...

109

Growth of breastfed infants.  

PubMed

Understanding normal growth for the healthy breastfed infant is an important component of promoting and supporting child health in general and breastfeeding in particular. In this article, we summarize what is known regarding differences in growth between breastfed and formula-fed infants; we describe the development and use of infant growth references and growth standards; we introduce the new World Health Organization growth velocity standards for early infancy (which provide standards for gain in g/day during the first weeks of life); and, in closing, we present a snapshot of recent data from a cohort of breastfed newborns in Sacramento, CA, and examine how their early weight gain compares to the new growth velocity standards. PMID:19827923

Nommsen-Rivers, Laurie A; Dewey, Kathryn G

2009-10-01

110

Diminished Reactivity of Postmature Human Infants to Sucrose Compared with Term Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of healthy 39-week-old infants, so-called term infants, and chronically stressed 42-week-old infants, so-called postmature infants, showed that sucrose was extremely effective in calming term infants but less effective in calming postmature infants. Results supported the hypothesis that sucrose engages an opioid system in infants. (BG)

Smith, Barbara A.; And Others

1992-01-01

111

Reducing blood glucose levels in TIDM mice with an orally administered extract of sericin from hIGF-I-transgenic silkworm cocoons.  

PubMed

In previous studies, we reported that the blood glucose levels of mice with type I diabetes mellitus (TIDM) was reduced with orally administered silk gland powder from silkworms transgenic for human insulin-like growth factor-I (hIGF-I). However, potential safety hazards could not be eliminated because the transgenic silk gland powder contained heterologous DNA, including the green fluorescent protein (gfp) and neomycin resistance (neo) genes. These shortcomings might be overcome if the recombinant hIGF-I were secreted into the sericin layer of the cocoon. In this study, silkworm eggs were transfected with a novel piggyBac transposon vector, pigA3GFP-serHS-hIGF-I-neo, containing the neo, gfp, and hIGF-I genes controlled by the sericin-1 (ser-1) promoter with the signal peptide DNA sequence of the fibrin heavy chain (Fib-H) and a helper plasmid containing the piggyBac transposase sequence under the control of the Bombyx mori actin 3 (A3) promoter, using sperm-mediated gene transfer to generate the transformed silkworms. The hIGF-I content estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was approximately 162.7 ng/g. To estimate the biological activity of the expressed hIGF-I, streptozotocin-induced TIDM mice were orally administered sericin from the transgenic silkworm. The blood glucose levels of the mice were significantly reduced, suggesting that the extract from the transgenic hIGF-I silkworm cocoons can be used as an orally administered drug. PMID:24632065

Song, Zuowei; Zhang, Mengyao; Xue, Renyu; Cao, Guangli; Gong, Chengliang

2014-05-01

112

Quality Infant/Toddler Caregiving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Caregiver-infant interactions in the first years of a child's life provide models and shape patterns of responding that can have consequences throughout the life-span. Research and practice have produced knowledge about the sensitivity of outcomes to characteristics of the infant nurturing situation. Infant caregivers should accept babies' need…

Honig, Alice Sterling

113

Partnering to Improve Infant Immunizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arizona Partnership for Infant Immunization (TAPII) is a public-private partnership intended to achieve the year 2000 goal of 90% infant immunizations. Created in 1992 as a means to develop a statewide approach to improving infant immunization rates, TAPII is a broad-based partnership that includes public health departments, managed care plans, professional organizations, medical organizations, pharmaceutical companies, businesses, the faith

Douglas Hirano

1998-01-01

114

Infant Feeding: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for parents, health professionals and allied health workers, and others involved in caring for infants and young children, this annotated bibliography brings together in one selective listing a review of over 700 current publications related to infant feeding. Reflecting current knowledge in infant feeding, the bibliography has as its…

Crowhurst, Christine Marie, Comp.; Kumer, Bonnie Lee, Comp.

115

Tinea Capitis in Infants  

PubMed Central

Tinea capitis is a reasonably common infection among the pediatric population; however, it is still a relatively rare entity among infants less than one year of age. As such, a high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis among infants and an appropriate diagnostic work up should be employed in any case where a dermatophyte infection is suspected. Several methods are available for diagnosis. In addition, proper identification of the specific dermatophyte genera involved should be considered as treatment options may be altered based on the causative pathogen identified.

Michaels, Brent D.

2012-01-01

116

Recognizing the infant as subject in infant-parent psychotherapy.  

PubMed

Drawing on Winnicott's view of infants as subjects entitled to an intervention in their own right, infants as the referred patient have been seen in infant-parent psychotherapy for 20 years at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. This is a radically different view of infant symptomatology than viewing it as only expressing an aspect of the mother's unconscious. The clinical pathway differentiates the therapy from much parent-infant psychotherapy. The author describes the theoretical model of a twofold approach to understanding the infant's experience through interactive dialogue between therapist and infant, and sharing this understanding with the parents, and illustrates it with cases of failure-to-thrive infants. She discusses two criticisms: first, that infant-parent psychotherapy may undermine the parents and, second, that brief parent-infant psychotherapy does not alter parents' insecure attachment status. Videotaped sessions often show rapid improvement; parents generally feel relieved. This approach potentially shapes not only parents' and infants' representations, but also their implicit knowledge of relationships-partly, it is suggested, through activating the mirror neuron system to bring about implicit memory change. Change may therefore be longer lasting than psychoanalytic theory presently conceives. The approach is relevant in an outpatient setting: gains were maintained long term in 90% of out-patient cases. PMID:17681902

Salo, Frances Thomson

2007-08-01

117

Infant Discrimination of Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants in four age groups--three, six, nine and twelve months--were exposed to an experimental procedure designed to assess the extent to which such subjects were capable of discriminating between different orientations of the same form, and the extent to which they were capable of recognizing the identity between different orientations of the…

McGurk, Harry

118

Colic in infants  

PubMed Central

Introduction Colic in infants causes one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for colic in infants? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 27 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: advice to increase carrying, advice to reduce stimulation, casein hydrolysate milk, cranial osteopathy, crib vibrator device, focused counselling, gripe water, infant massage, low-lactose milk, simethicone, soya-based infant feeds, spinal manipulation, and whey hydrolysate milk.

2010-01-01

119

Infant Development: Recent Advances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that the last 30 years have seen enormous increases in the understanding of infancy, this book examines the current state of knowledge regarding infant development. The book's contents stem from meetings of the British Infancy Research Group. Although the book was intended for advanced undergraduates, it would also be useful for advanced…

Bremner, Gavin, Ed.; Slater, Alan, Ed.; Butterworth, George, Ed.

120

Intervention for Unsettled Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outcomes of a follow-up, preventive care program based on a self-regulation model of neonate and parent behavior were studied in a controlled experiment. Subjects included a preterm control group, preterm intervention group, and full-term control group, with each group consisting of 27 infants. The assessment, which used the Brazelton Neonatal…

Warren, Beulah; And Others

121

Infant Visual Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

2004-01-01

122

Infant Group Care Risks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children under 3 years of age who are in group care face special health risks. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control indicate the existence of a causal relationship between infant group day care and certain diseases that are spread through contact at day care centers. Children in group care who are still in diapers are especially vulnerable to…

Kendall, Earline D.

123

Supporting Fathering Through Infant Massage  

PubMed Central

Fathers may feel dissatisfied with their ability to form a close attachment with their infants in the early postpartum period, which, in turn, may increase their parent-related stress. Our study sought to determine if an infant massage intervention assisted fathers with decreasing stress and increasing bonding with their infants during this time. To address the complex father–infant relationship, we conducted a pilot study using a mixed methodology approach. Twelve infant–father dyads participated in the intervention, and 12 infant–father dyads populated a wait-list control group. Paternal stress was measured using the Parenting Stress Index at baseline and at postintervention. We found infant massage instruction significantly decreased paternal stress. Our findings were also supported by the qualitative data and suggest fathers may benefit from applied postnatal education.

Cheng, Carolynn Darrell; Volk, Anthony A.; Marini, Zopito A.

2011-01-01

124

Infant memory for musical experiences.  

PubMed

Recent findings suggest that infants can remember words from stories over 2 week delays (Jusczyk, P. W., & Hohne, E. A. (1997). Infants' memory for spoken words. Science, 277, 1984-1986). Because music, like language, presents infants with a massively complex auditory learning task, it is possible that infant memory for musical stimuli is equally powerful. Seven-month-old infants heard two Mozart sonata movements daily for 2 weeks. Following a 2 week retention interval, the infants were tested on passages of the familiarized music, and passages taken from similar but novel music. Results from two experiments suggest that the infants retained the familiarized music in long-term memory, and that their listening preferences were affected by the extent to which familiar passages were removed from the musical contexts within which they were originally learned. PMID:10980255

Saffran, J R; Loman, M M; Robertson, R R

2000-10-16

125

Infant responsivity to curvature.  

PubMed

The reactions of 112 10-month-old male infants to the property of curvature were examined using a habituation paradigm with lever pressing as an instrumental response. 4 levels of curvature (straightt line, minimal curve, moderate curve, large curve) each served as a standard (habituation) stimulus and as a transformation stimulus in 9 separate experimental conditions. Results revealed a greater initial dishabituation of reinforced instrumental responding in those conditions crossing the curved/straight boundary; furthermore, this initial dishabituation was sustained throughout the transformation phase of the experiment in those conditions which involved changes from straight to curved, but not curved to straight. Results are interpreted as implying a special attention-recruiting value for curvature in 10-month old infants. PMID:1001090

Hopkins, J R; Kagan, J; Brachfeld, S; Hans, S; Linn, S

1976-12-01

126

Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this…

Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.

2011-01-01

127

An infant with tachypnea.  

PubMed

The purpose of this case report is to illustrate the diagnostic difficulties of congestive heart failure in an infant. When presenting to the emergency department, these patients are often evaluated for sepsis, congenital heart disease, metabolic disorders, and myocarditis. We report a case of a 3(1/2)-month-old male who presented to the pediatric emergency department with congestive heart failure. He was found to have vitamin D deficiency rickets induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:17110866

Cramm, Kelly J; Cattaneo, Raymond A; Schremmer, Robert D

2006-11-01

128

Mercury Levels in Infants Receiving Routine Immunizations  

MedlinePLUS

... in Infants Receiving Routine Immunizations Study I: Infant Metabolism of Thimerosal versus Methyl Mercury NIAID-supported studies ... Lancet 360:1737-1741 (2002). Study II: Thimerosal Metabolism in Infants Receiving Routine Immunizations NIAID conducted a ...

129

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Facts for Caregivers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents risk factors and prevention measures related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Offers infant sleep recommendations and five discussion questions to test knowledge of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (DLH)

Texas Child Care, 2000

2000-01-01

130

Infant color vision: Prediction of infants’ spontaneous color preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants show spontaneous looking preferences among isoluminant chromatic stimuli [Adams, R. J. (1987). An evaluation of color preferences in early infancy. Infant Behavior and Development, 10, 143–150; Bornstein, M. H. (1975). Qualities of color vision in infancy. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19 (3), 401–419.]. These differences in preference have often been called “hue” or “color” preferences, and attributed to

Iris Zemach; Susan Chang; Davida Y. Teller

2007-01-01

131

Can the tight co-speciation between reed beetles (Col., Chrysomelidae, Donaciinae) and their bacterial endosymbionts, which provide cocoon material, clarify the deeper phylogeny of the hosts?  

PubMed

In most mutualistic symbioses of insects and intracellular bacteria, the endosymbionts provide additional nutrients to a host that feeds on an unbalanced diet. A strictly vertical transmission leads to co-speciation between the two partners. We have investigated an insect-bacteria relationship with a non-nutritional basis. The reed beetles (Donaciinae) harbor bacteria that produce a secretion used by the larvae for building a cocoon for pupation in mud underwater. The 16S rRNA of the bacteria and the cytochrome c oxidase I and elongation factor 1alpha of the beetles have been partially sequenced. The bacterial and the host phylogeny were highly congruent. Larger taxonomic units (genera) and host species groups/pairs have been recovered in the bacterial phylogeny. The symbiont data still cannot clarify the hitherto unresolved deeper phylogeny of the hosts, which is interpreted as a sign of rapid adaptive radiation of the reed beetles soon after their origin. The rate of sequence evolution among/within host species is discussed. PMID:19900566

Kölsch, Gregor; Pedersen, Bo V

2010-03-01

132

Individual and Maturational Differences in Infant Expressivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports that, even though young infants can discriminate among different facial expressions, there are individual differences in infants' expressivity and ability to produce and discriminate facial expressions. (PCB)

Field, Tiffany

1989-01-01

133

[Acute fever in infants].  

PubMed

The body temperature is influenced among other things by time of day or age and exhibits a Gaussian inter-individual distribution. If measured orally, normal values vary between 35.6 degrees C and 38.2 degrees C. Temperature exceeding the 99th percentile (> 37.7 degrees C) can therefore be interpreted as fever. Nevertheless, an universally accepted definition of fever does not exist. Viral infection is the most frequent cause of acute fever in infants, even in the absence of a source. Bacterial infections are by far a rarer reason. Nevertheless, below the age of 3 years, acute fever is a ticklish issue because of the higher risk for rapidly evolving life-threatening invasive bacterial infections. Following introduction of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae has advanced to the most frequent cause of invasive bacterial infections in infants. Fever is rarely seen in newborns (age 1-28 days), but when present, it is more frequently serious. Around 12% of these newborns show an invasive bacterial infection. Therefore, a full workup for sepsis is strongly indicated. This includes cultures of blood,urine and cerebrospinal fluid plus a chest radiography. In addition, immediate start of an empirical intravenous antibiotic therapy and monitoring in a hospital setting are necessary. Apart from this exception, primary antibiotic therapy is rarely necessary in fever without a detectable focus and source. Also, routine prescription of antipyretics is not indicated. Though paracetamol may improve well-being and drinking behavior of infants, it does neither shorten the duration of fever duration, nor prevent febrile seizures. PMID:17048185

Kahlert, Ch; Nadal, D

2006-10-01

134

Adults' Interpretation of Infants' Acts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The selection of acts from the stream of infant behavior is examined. Adults (140 mothers, fathers, and other men and women) viewed videotapes of 9-, 15-, and 21-month-old infants. One half noted meaningful acts; the other half noted intentionally communicative acts. Parents selected more meaningful acts than nonparents and agreed more about…

Adamson, Lauren B.; And Others

1987-01-01

135

Caring for Infants and Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "The Future of Children" focuses on the daily care of infants and toddlers in the United States, including shifting caregiving arrangement for children younger than 3 years, developmental needs of infants and toddlers, findings of recent child care studies, public opinion regarding child care, and recent innovations seeking to…

Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

2001-01-01

136

The hypotonic infant: Clinical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypotonia in infants can be a confusing clinical presentation leading to inaccurate evaluation and unnecessary investigations. Hypotonia can result from a variety of central or peripheral causes. Therefore, hypotonia is a phenotype of many clinical conditions with variable prognosis. It is important to recognize that hypotonia is not equivalent to weakness. Infants with central causes, such as Down syndrome, may

Mohammed M. S. Jan

137

Recovery of Habituation in Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Male infants habituated their fixation time over trials and differentiated between the novel and familiar stimuli when the posthabituation interval was 15 seconds, but neither male nor female infants did so when the interval was 5 minutes. This paper is based upon a thesis submitted by the first author in partial fulfillment of the requirements…

Pancratz, Charity N.; Cohen, Leslie B.

1970-01-01

138

Sudden infant death and infanticide.  

PubMed

The hypothesis, advanced by Asch (Mt Sinai J Med NY 35:214-220, 1968), that a majority of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases are actually infanticides, is addressed by examination of age comparable infant homicide rates (United States, 1950-1974) and consideration of current theory regarding SIDS pathogenesis. The analysis provides no support for the hypothesis. PMID:930919

Kukull, W A; Peterson, D R

1977-12-01

139

Infant Stimulation Curriculum. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is the Infant Stimulation Curriculum (developed by the Developmentally Delayed Infant Outreach Project) for parents and teachers to use with children who are developmentally between birth and 36 months of age. Published in a card format at a sixth grade readability level, the curriculum includes introductory cards providing information…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Herschel W. Nisonger Center.

140

Newborn Infants Orient to Sounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two experiments, the majority of 21 newborn infants who were maintained in an alert state consistently turned their heads toward a continuous sound source presented 90 degrees from midline. For most infants, this orientation response was rather slow, taking median latencies of 2.5 seconds to begin and 5.5 seconds to end. (JMB)

Muir, Darwin; Field, Jeffrey

1979-01-01

141

More Infant and Toddler Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on experiences gained at the Palo Alto Infant-Toddler Center and the view that quality child care for infants and toddlers depends upon nurturing, long-term connections with their caregivers, other children, and their families, this book presents strategies for interacting with young children that support the developing child as well as the…

Hast, Fran; Hollyfield, Ann

142

Communication Within Infant Social Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored infants' capability to request a partner's participation in social games. Nineteen infants who were 9, 12, 15, and 18 months old played games for 30 minutes in a laboratory setting with an adult partner. Children's nonverbal behavior and vocalizations after the adult discontinued play were compared with behavior during game-playing…

Ross, Hildy S.; Lollis, Susan P.

1987-01-01

143

Evaluating Infant-Family Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Compiling articles from participants of the Leadership Development Initiative Class of 2001-2002, this issue focuses on evaluation of…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

2003-01-01

144

Gaseous Metabolism in the Infant  

PubMed Central

Accurate oxygen consumption figures are desirable in quantitation of blood flow and shunts in infants with heart disease. Figures derived from normal infants fail to take into account effects of sedation or wakefulness. Oxygen consumption and ventilatory data were obtained in nine infants in natural sleep, in sedated sleep and in wakefulness. In sedated sleep oxygen consumption fell by a mean of 22% below the figure for natural sleep, and arterial carbondioxide tension rose by a mean of 7.04 mm. Hg. Infants who were awake but quiet (less than five limb movements per minute) showed an average increase in oxygen consumption of 28% as compared with data obtained during natural sleep. Direct measurement of oxygen consumption of infants is desirable in every instance where flow calculations are to be derived from the Fick equation. When the demands of urgency make this impractical, assumed oxygen consumptions should take into account the factor of sleep or wakefulness.

Lees, Martin H.

1964-01-01

145

Prevention of Pertussis, Tetanus, and Diptheria Among Pregnant and Postpartum Women and Their Infants. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 57, No. RR-4, May 30, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2005, two tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines were licensed and recommended for use in adults and adolescents in the United States: ADACEL (sanofi pasteur, Swiftwater, Pennsylvania), which is licensed for ...

2008-01-01

146

Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from powdered infant formula milk and infant rice cereal in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry infant foods are not sterile and could be contaminated with various bacteria including certain pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in infant foods and to characterize these strains. A total of 376 infant food samples, including 143 samples of powdered infant formula milk (PIF) and 224 samples of infant rice cereal

Xin Wang; Jianghong Meng; Jing Zhang; Ting Zhou; Yanming Zhang; Baowei Yang; Meili Xi; Xiaodong Xia

147

Gender Differences in the Relationship Between Mother-Infant Interaction and the Infant's Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between mother-infant behavior and the infant's performance on perceptual-cognitive tasks as a function of the infant's sex. A total of 189 12-week-old infants and their mothers were observed in their homes during 2 hours of infant awake time. In addition, the Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales…

Gallas, Howard B.; Lewis, Michael

148

Infant Gaze Following during Parent-Infant Coviewing of Baby Videos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 122 parent–infant dyads were observed as they watched a familiar or novel infant-directed video in a laboratory setting. Infants were between 12-15 and 18-21 months old. Infants were more likely to look toward the TV immediately following their parents' look toward the TV. This apparent social influence on infant looking at television…

Demers, Lindsay B.; Hanson, Katherine G.; Kirkorian, Heather L.; Pempek, Tiffany A.; Anderson, Daniel R.

2013-01-01

149

Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

2009-01-01

150

Infants Make Quantity Discriminations for Substances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants can track small groups of solid objects, and infants can respond when these quantities change. But earlier work is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 ("N" = 88) used a habituation paradigm to show infants can register changes in the size of piles of sand that they see poured…

Hespos, Susan J.; Dora, Begum; Rips, Lance J.; Christie, Stella

2012-01-01

151

Adults' perceptions of infant sex and cuteness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five experiments were conducted to investigate the relationship between infant sex and adults' perceptions of infant physical attractiveness. College students rated the cuteness and\\/or sex of male and female infants at each of six age levels: 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 months. The results indicated that (a) subjects had little difficulty assigning a sex label to infants, although

Katherine A. Hildebrandt; Hiram E. Fitzgerald

1979-01-01

152

Reference and Attitude in Infant Pointing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated two main components of infant declarative pointing, reference and attitude, in two experiments with a total of 106 preverbal infants at 1;0. When an experimenter (E) responded to the declarative pointing of these infants by attending to an incorrect referent (with positive attitude), infants repeated pointing within trials to…

Liszkowski, Ulf; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

2007-01-01

153

Infant-Directed Speech Facilitates Word Segmentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are reasons to believe that infant-directed (ID) speech may make language acquisition easier for infants. However, the effects of ID speech on infants' learning remain poorly understood. The experiments reported here assess whether ID speech facilitates word segmentation from fluent speech. One group of infants heard a set of nonsense…

Thiessen, Erik D.; Hill, Emily A.; Saffran, Jenny R.

2005-01-01

154

LONG-TERM PERITONEAL DIALYSIS IN INFANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the numbers of infants requiring dialysis are small, management of these patients presents many chal- lenges. Mortality is high in infants with comorbidities, com- plications of dialysis are common, and most of these infants need enteral feeding. However, the long-term outcome for otherwise healthy infants is comparable to that for older children.

Lesley Rees

155

Observed Infant Reactions during Live Interparental Conflict  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Associations between interparental conflict and infant reactions were examined. Infants' history of exposure to interparental conflict and infant reactive temperament were examined as moderators. A community sample of 74 infants, aged 6-14 months, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' marital conflict and…

Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; White, Clare R.; Fleischhauer, Emily A.; Fitzgerald, Kelly A.

2011-01-01

156

Metabolic rate of sleeping infants.  

PubMed Central

AIM: To measure the sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) of healthy infants in the first year of life. METHODS: The SMR was measured on 73 infants aged 1 to 12 months in a special nursery using indirect calorimetry. One hundred satisfactory observations were made. The room air and radiative temperatures, humidity, and amount of insulation were measured. Parents chose the clothing and bedding that they judged their infant needed. RESULTS: The mean (SD) SMR was 2.4 (0.4) watts (W)/kg or 45 (10) W/m2. The mean SMR of infants aged 1-2 months was 38 compared with 44 W/m2 in infants of 8-12 months; the difference was not significant. There were no obvious differences in SMR between boys and girls. But there were wide differences in SMR between apparently similar infants, range 1.4 to 3.5 W/kg. Most parents selected insulation between 1 and 3 togs, and this was weakly negatively correlated with air temperature. CONCLUSION: These wide variations in SMR mean that it is impossible to give specific guidelines on the amount of clothing and bedding a particular infant will need for thermal comfort in a given room temperature.

Hull, D; McArthur, A J; Pritchard, K; Goodall, M

1996-01-01

157

Massage therapy for infants and children.  

PubMed

Data are reviewed on the effects of massage therapy on infants and children with various medical conditions. The infants include: premature infants, cocaine-exposed infants, HIV-exposed infants, infants parented by depressed mothers, and full-term infants without medical problems. The childhood conditions include: abuse (sexual and physical), asthma, autism, burns, cancer, developmental delays, dermatitis (psoriasis), diabetes, eating disorders (bulimia), juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, posttraumatic stress disorder, and psychiatric problems. Generally, the massage therapy has resulted in lower anxiety and stress hormones and improved clinical course. Having grandparent volunteers and parents give the therapy enhances their own wellness and provides a cost-effective treatment for the children. PMID:7790516

Field, T

1995-04-01

158

Nonaccidental head trauma in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Nonaccidental head trauma in infants is the leading cause of infant death from injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results and discussion  Clinical features that suggest inflicted head trauma include the triad of the so-called shaken baby syndrome, consisting of\\u000a retinal hemorrhage, subdural, and\\/or subarachnoid hemorrhage in an infant with little signs of external trauma. Studies have\\u000a shown that, in general, the average short fall in

Paula Gerber; Kathryn Coffman

2007-01-01

159

[Infant botulism after honey exposure].  

PubMed

Infant botulism is a rare neuroparalytic disease caused by the neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum. Initial clinical features are constipation, poor feeding, descending hypotonia, drooling, irritability, weak crying and cranial nerve dysfunctions. We describe the clinical progression and the epidemiological investigation carried out in a 3-month-old infant. Better knowledge of the disease should allow faster diagnosis and adequate management. We emphasize the risks associated with honey exposure in children less than one year old and that honey should not be fed to infants under 12 months of age. PMID:24768073

Godart, V; Dan, B; Mascart, G; Fikri, Y; Dierick, K; Lepage, P

2014-06-01

160

New horizons: infant cardiac transplantation.  

PubMed

Cardiac transplantation has become firmly established as a modality of therapy for end-stage heart disease. Application of this procedure to the neonatal and infant age group is a relatively recent innovation. In this article we describe nursing experience with neonates and infants under 6 months of age who have undergone cardiac transplantation at one university-affiliated medical center. Preparation for infant cardiac transplantation, donor and recipient selection criteria, donor resources, and the transplant process are discussed. Issues in postoperative management are reviewed. PMID:2647678

Bailey, N A; Lay, P

1989-03-01

161

Infant rhythms versus parental time: promoting parent-infant synchrony.  

PubMed

Traditional psychoanalytic theories of early development have been put into question by developmental psychology, and particularly by attachment theory. Psychopathology appears to be more linked to interpersonal relationship problems rather than to intra-psychic conflict, as hypothesized in Freudian drive theory. Establishing synchrony between parent and infant is probably one of the major tasks of the first year of life. Attachment theory appears to be an effective paradigm to understand how caregiver responses to stressful infant situations give way to different regulatory strategies, which impact on the effectiveness of the stress buffer systems and its physiological impact on emotion and stress regulation. This paper underlines the importance of synchronization between infant and caregiver; it highlights the key concept of attachment disorganization and of its relationship with sustained social withdrawal as a defence mechanism and an alarm signal when synchronization fails, and underlines the importance of early interventions promoting parent-infant synchrony. PMID:21782020

Guedeney, Antoine; Guedeney, Nicole; Tereno, Susana; Dugravier, Romain; Greacen, Tim; Welniarz, Bertrand; Saias, Thomas; Tubach, Florence

2011-12-01

162

Infant Transport Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The photo sequence illustrates the movement of an ill infant to a special care hospital by means of a new Pediatric Monitoring and Transport System, in which NASA technology and technical assistance are being applied to an urgent medical problem. Development of the system is a collaborative effort involving several organizations, principally, NASA Ames Research Center and Children's Hospital Medical Center, Oakland, California. Key to the system's efficacy is a custom-designed ambulance-to-hospital and hospital-to-hospital communications network, including two-way voice capability and space-derived biotelemetry; it allows a specialist at the destination hospital to monitor continuously the vital signs of the patient during transit.

1978-01-01

163

Infant Moon: Moon Mix!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate the Moon's infancy and model how an ocean of molten rock (magma) helped shape the Moon that we see today. Learners create a simple model of this process by mixing household items of different densities in a bottle and allowing to them to settle into separate layers. Learners decide which materials make the best model for the infant Moon. Learners may examine a type of Earth rock (named anorthosite) that is also found on the Moon and that would have been shaped by the processes explored here. This activity station is part of a sequence of stations that can be set up to help learners trace the Moon's 4.5-billion-year history from "infancy" to the imagined future. Learners tie together major events in the Moon's geologic history as a series of comic panels in their Marvel Moon comic books.

Institute, Lunar A.

2010-01-01

164

Sudden infant death syndrome: links with infant care practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To investigate infant care practices in a small ethnic minority population within Britain that might suggest possible factors contributing to the low incidence of the sudden infant death syndrome in Asian populations. DESIGN--Ethnographic interviewing, a qualitative comparative method drawn from social anthropology. SETTING--Central Cardiff. SUBJECTS--Non-random sample of 60 mothers of Bangladeshi or Welsh ethnic origin and working or middle class

M Gantley; D P Davies; A Murcott

1993-01-01

165

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)  

MedlinePLUS

... therefore narrowing the airway and hampering breathing. Another theory is that stomach sleeping can increase an infant's ... the central nervous system, starting prenatally and continuing after birth, which could place the baby at increased ...

166

Incubation of very immature infants.  

PubMed Central

The range of thermal control and the thermoneutral range of preterm infants under 30 weeks' gestation was calculated by extrapolation of data from studies on more mature infants. Even assuming some thermoregulatory capacity, the range of control is less than 3 degrees C, the thermoneutral range is less than 0.5 degrees C, and both are greatly influenced by the rate of transepidermal water loss. Measurements of metabolic rate and effective thermal environment made on 6 infants under 30 weeks' gestation in the first week of life showed that the very preterm infant exerts little thermoregulatory control and that variations in transepidermal water loss are a major factor determining the appropriate thermal environment.

Wheldon, A E; Hull, D

1983-01-01

167

Infant Care Suggestions for Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... the Hospital Parent education should include explanation and demonstration of the procedures for holding, lifting, diapering, and general infant care. The return demonstration will ensure that the parents are comfortable with ...

168

Infant and Toddler Outdoor Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summer is the time to take full advantage of the myriad wonders of nature--and all the outdoor play spaces--with children and toddlers. In this article, the author presents several outdoor summer activities for infants and toddlers.

Honig, Alice Sterling

2005-01-01

169

Cystic fibrosis in premature infants  

PubMed Central

There are few reports of cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosed in premature infants. We describe the clinical course of three patients, from our neonatal intensive care units, who were diagnosed with CF, and discuss the existing literature and treatment considerations.

Lu, KD; Engmann, C; Moya, F; Muhlebach, M

2014-01-01

170

Tactile Recognition Memory in Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-five one-year-olds were administered two tasks (each of which consisted of a familiarization stage followed by a recognition stage) in order to determine whether infants can recognize the shapes of objects by touch alone. (CM)

Gottfried, Allen W.; Rose, Susan A.

1980-01-01

171

Stillbirth, Miscarriage, and Infant Death  

MedlinePLUS

... Card Contact Us Donate Stillbirth, Miscarriage, and Infant Death A baby’s death, whenever or however it occurs, is a profound ... of isolation –A need to talk about the death and the details of what happened –Feelings of ...

172

Predictors of Maternal Sensitivity to Infant Distress.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to examine the extent to which mothers' emotional (i.e., empathy, negative emotions) and cognitive (i.e., accurate detection of distress, goals about infant crying, and emotion efficacy) responses to infant distress are related to maternal sensitivity in tasks designed to elicit infant distress. Mothers' emotional and cognitive responses to distress were assessed both prenatally in response to unfamiliar infants and postnatally in response to own infant. The extent to which prenatal and postnatal measures correlated with one another and with sensitivity to distress was examined. DESIGN: One-hundred and one mothers were interviewed prenatally about their responses to videotapes of crying infants, then videotaped interacting with their own infants at 6-months postpartum in two emotionally arousing tasks during which maternal sensitivity and infant distress were rated, and participated in a video-recall interview about their thoughts and feelings during the emotionally arousing tasks. RESULTS: Mothers' prenatal and postnatal goals in relation to infant distress and emotional reactions to infant distress were the most consistent predictors of sensitivity, but prenatal accurate detection of infant distress also predicted sensitivity. Furthermore, mothers' goals, emotional reactions to crying, and accurate distress detection buffered maternal sensitivity from the negative effect of observed infant distress. That is, infant distress was less strongly negatively associated with sensitivity when mothers had more infant-oriented goals, reported fewer negative emotions in response to infant crying, or were skilled at detecting infant distress. CONCLUSIONS: Assessing mothers' emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress provides insights into the origins of sensitivity to infant distress. Methodological issues relevant to assessing mothers' emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress are raised. PMID:20824194

Leerkes, Esther M

2010-07-01

173

Social theory and infant feeding  

PubMed Central

Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories.

2011-01-01

174

Breastfeeding the late preterm infant.  

PubMed

Late preterm infants comprise the fastest growing segment of babies born prematurely. They arrive with disadvantages relative to feeding skills, stamina, and risk for conditions such as hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and slow weight gain. Breastfeeding these babies can be difficult and frustrating. Individualized feeding plans include special considerations to compensate for immature feeding skills and inadequate breast stimulation. Breastfeeding management guidelines are described that operate within the late preterm infant's special vulnerabilities. PMID:19012718

Walker, Marsha

2008-01-01

175

COMMUNICATION BETWEEN MOTHER AND INFANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnancy and birth form the beginning of and on-going interaction between mother and infant which involves intersubjective communication (Stern, 1985) and that evolves with the growing and interrelated perceptual, cognitive and motor capacities of the infant. The early post-natal development of most non-human primates occurs in an environment formed in large part by the mother's body. Closely attached to her,

Juan Carlos Garelli

176

Analgesia for infants' circumcision  

PubMed Central

Male circumcision (MC) is one of the oldest and most common operations performed all over the world. It can be performed at different ages, using different surgical techniques, for different religious, cultural and medical reasons. Our aim is to examine and compare the various methods of analgesia and different surgical procedures reported in literature that are applied in infant MC. We performed a PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane search in the papers published since 2000: 14 studies met the inclusion criteria, most of them showing that a combined pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention is the best analgesic option, in particular when the dorsal penile nerve block is combined with other treatments. The Mogen surgical procedure seems to be the less painful surgical intervention, when compared with Gomco clamp or PlastiBell device. Only 3 papers studied groups of at least 20 babies each with the use of validated pain scales. Data show a dramatic decrease of pain with dorsal penile nerve block, plus acetaminophen associated to oral sucrose or topic analgesic cream. However, no procedure has been found to definetively eliminate pain; the gold standard procedure to make MC totally painfree has not yet been established.

2013-01-01

177

Expectancy Learning from Probabilistic Input by Infants  

PubMed Central

Across the first few years of life, infants readily extract many kinds of regularities from their environment, and this ability is thought to be central to development in a number of domains. Numerous studies have documented infants’ ability to recognize deterministic sequential patterns. However, little is known about the processes infants use to build and update representations of structure in time, and how infants represent patterns that are not completely predictable. The present study investigated how infants’ expectations fora simple structure develope over time, and how infants update their representations with new information. We measured 12-month-old infants’ anticipatory eye movements to targets that appeared in one of two possible locations. During the initial phase of the experiment, infants either saw targets that appeared consistently in the same location (Deterministic condition) or probabilistically in either location, with one side more frequent than the other (Probabilistic condition). After this initial divergent experience, both groups saw the same sequence of trials for the rest of the experiment. The results show that infants readily learn from both deterministic and probabilistic input, with infants in both conditions reliably predicting the most likely target location by the end of the experiment. Local context had a large influence on behavior: infants adjusted their predictions to reflect changes in the target location on the previous trial. This flexibility was particularly evident in infants with more variable prior experience (the Probabilistic condition). The results provide some of the first data showing how infants learn in real time.

Romberg, Alexa R.; Saffran, Jenny R.

2013-01-01

178

Low birthweight in Hausa infants.  

PubMed

As infants with low birth weights (LBWs) constitute a group in need of specialized care, the problems of LBW among the Hausas of Nigeria were evaluated. The case records of all liveborn infants of Hausa parents, born at the Maternity Hospital in Katsina, Nigeria between January 1, 1974 and December 31, 1977, were selected for study. The LBW infants i.e., those weighing 2500 g or below were separated, their characteristics studied, and possible etiological factors identified. A comparison of this group was then made with those neonates who weighed more than 2500 g. The duration of gestation was determined from the menstrual history and by appropriate clinical examination before delivery. As data were not considered to be very reliable, no attempt was made to correlate the birth weights with duration of pregnancy. Infants born before the 37th week of pregnancy were labeled as premature. During the study period, 3890 live Hausa infants (2111 males and 1779 females) were born to 3780 mothers. Of these 3890 infants, 408 males and 420 females weighed 2500 g or less. These 828 infants were born to 774 mothers and included 91 sets of twins and 5 sets of triplets though the outcome of all multiple pregnancies were not live births. The maternal age ranged from 13-45 years. The parity ranged from 0-14 but there were more primigravida compared to other parities. All mothers belonged to lower and middle socioeconomic classes. 70% were urban and 30% were rural. The incidence of LBW was 213/1000 live births or 21.3%. 71.1% of these babies weighed between 2000 g and 2500 g; only 1.6% weighed less than 1000 g. The percentage of females among LBW infants was higher (50.7%) as compared to that of males (49.3%). The incidence of LBW was 19.3% among males and 23.6% among females. The monthly and seasonal incidence of LBW was uniform and no seasonal variation could be found. The incidence of LBW was 18.4% among urban women and 23.4% among rural women. The difference was highly significant. The highest percentage of deaths in the present study occurred among infants weighing less than 1000 g and the immediate neonatal death rate declined in each successive higher weight group, exhibiting a strong relationship between LBW and immediate neonatal mortality. Only 1 child died out of 589 who weighed between 2001-2500 g. PMID:12338583

Rehan, N E; Tafida, D S

1981-01-01

179

Language and the infant brain.  

PubMed

Three logically and empirically independent issues are often conflated in theory and research on brain and language: localization, innateness, and domain specificity. Research on adults and infants with focal brain injury support the following conclusions: (a) linguistic knowledge is not innate, and it is not localized in a clear and compact from in either the infant or adult brain; (b) the infant brain is not, however, a tabala rasa-it is already highly differentiated at birth, and certain regions are biased from the beginning toward modes of information processing that are particularly useful for language, leading (in the absence of local injury) to the standard form of brain organization for language; (c) the processing biases that lead to the "standard brain plan" are innate and localized, in both infants and adults, but they are not specific to language; and (d) the infant brain is highly plastic, permitting alternative "brain plans" for language to emerge if the standard situation does not hold. PMID:10466093

Bates, E

1999-01-01

180

The Evaluation of Infant Intelligence: Infant Intelligence Scores--True or False?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infant intelligence from birth until the age of two was measured to determine the usefulness of infant intelligence tests. Twenty infants were tested regularly over the two-year period. Results showed neither simplex nor other long-term patterns of interrelationship among the infant intelligence scores obtained. The study concludes that the…

Lewis, Michael; McGurk, Harry

181

Periodicity of Sleep States is Altered in Infants at Risk for the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The normal succession of sleep and waking states through a night is disturbed in infants at risk for the sudden infant death syndrome. Compared with normal infants, siblings of the sudden infant death syndrome victims have longer intervals between active sleep epochs at particular times during the night in the newborn period and a decreased tendency to enter short waking

R. M. Harper; B. Leake; H. Hoffman; D. O. Walter; T. Hoppenbrouwers; J. Hodgman; M. B. Sterman

1981-01-01

182

Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... urging consumers to carefully read the labels of liquid acetaminophen marketed for infants to avoid giving the ... less concentrated version for all children. Until now, liquid acetaminophen marketed for infants has only been available ...

183

Emotions and Emotional Communication in Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews important advances in the study of emotions in infants and the nature of emotional communication between infants and adults. Discusses the relationship of this communication system to children's development. (Author/BJV)

Tronick, Edward Z.

1989-01-01

184

Visual acuity screening of preterm infants.  

PubMed

Visual acuity was screened in 36 healthy infants born 4 or more weeks prior to term. Preterm infants tested at 8 and 12 weeks of postnatal age showed significantly poorer performances than those shown by 8- and 12-week-old full-term infants. However, no differences in performance were found when the scores of preterm infants tested at 4, 8, and 12 weeks of postterm age (i.e., 4, 8, and 12 weeks from due date) were compared with scores of 4-, 8-, and 12-week-old full-term infants. The results suggest that visual acuity is more closely correlated with age from conception than with age from birth and that visual acuity screening in preterm infants should be carried out with acuity gratings appropriate for the infant's postterm age rather than with acuity gratings appropriate for the infant's postnatal age. PMID:7440104

Dobson, V; Mayer, D L; Lee, C P

1980-12-01

185

Transplacental Hyponatremia in the Newborn Infant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four cases of hyponatremia in newborn infants secondary to maternal dilutional hyponatremia have been described. Lethargy, hypotonia, poor color, and seizure activity exhibited by some of these infants were attributed to the hyponatremia. It is suggested ...

L. B. Altstatt

1965-01-01

186

Crying in Newborn and Young Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the reasons that newborns and young infants cry, the communicative effect and perception of crying, crying in sick and healthy infants, the sound spectograph, and crying for the use of clinical diagnostics. (RJC)

Michelsson, Katarina

1988-01-01

187

Fathers' and mothers' speech to young infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fathers' and mothers' speech to infants was obtained during face-to-face interaction in a laboratory setting. Thirty-two father-infant pairs and 40 mother-infant pairs participated. Infants were divided equally by sex and among two age groups with mean ages of 3 and 9 months. Parental utterances were transcribed from videotapes. The utterances were analyzed in terms of their structure and content. There

Jan C. Kruper; Ina C. Užgiris

1987-01-01

188

What Do Infants Know about Continuous Quantity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated infants' sensitivity to amount of continuous quantity and to change in amount of continuous quantity. Using a habituation procedure, Experiment 1 examined whether 6-month-old infants can distinguish between different amounts of liquid in a container. Infants looked significantly longer at a novel quantity than at the familiar quantity. Using a violation-of-expectation paradigm, Experiment 2 examined whether 9-month-old infants

Fan Gao; Susan C. Levine; Janellen Huttenlocher

2000-01-01

189

Sensorimotor development in cocaine-exposed infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant sensorimotor development. One hundred and sixty-seven12-month-olds (74 cocaine-exposed and 93 unexposed) were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID). Ninety-seven had previously been evaluated on the Movement Assessment of Infants and the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants at age 4 months. On the BSID, the cocaine-exposed

Orphia Bass-Busdiecker; JoMarie Mascia; Jennifer Angelopoulos

1998-01-01

190

Infant Auditory Temporal Acuity: Gap Detection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed auditory temporal acuity among infants of 3, 6, and 12 months of age and adults. Gap detection thresholds were quite poor in infants. Effects of restricting the range of frequencies available for detecting gaps were qualitatively similar for infants and adults. (GLR)

Werner, Lynne A.; And Others

1992-01-01

191

Indirect Effects and Infants' Reaction to Strangers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether an infant's reaction to a stranger would be indirectly influenced by the infant observing a stranger-third party interaction. Subjects were 45 15-month-old infants. Results suggest indirect effects influence social interactions and show that significant others can play an important role in mediating these effects. (Author/RH)

Feiring, Candice; And Others

1984-01-01

192

Young Children's Interest in Unfamiliar Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of children's gender perceptions of infants as "like me" or "not like me" on their behavioral interest in infants were experimentally manipulated. Thirty-seven boys and 34 girls at two age levels were observed in 10-minute encounters with unfamiliar seven-month-old infants and their mothers. (Author/RH)

Melson, Gail F.; Fogel, Alan

1982-01-01

193

Predictors of Maternal Sensitivity to Infant Distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The present study was designed to examine the extent to which mothers' emotional (i.e., empathy, negative emotions) and cognitive (i.e., accurate detection of distress, goals about infant crying, and emotion efficacy) responses to infant distress are related to maternal sensitivity in tasks designed to elicit infant distress. The author assessed mothers' emotional and cognitive responses to distress both prenatally

Esther M. Leerkes

2010-01-01

194

How Infants Use Vision for Grasping Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments examined vision's role in infants' grasping of horizontally and vertically oriented rods. Found that infants differentially oriented their hand regardless of lighting and similar to control conditions where they could see rod and hand throughout reach. Findings suggest that infants may use current sight of object's orientation or…

McCarty, Michael E.; Clifton, Rachel K.; Ashmead, Daniel H.; Lee, Philip; Goubet, Nathalie

2001-01-01

195

Infant Special Education: Interactions with Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on object exploration by infants addresses milestones in the process by normally developing infants, including spontaneous manipulation strategies. Implications for developmentalists working with high-risk preterm infants are noted, including the need for direct assistance in manipulation and for selection of materials. (CL)

McCune, Lorraine; Ruff, Holly A.

1985-01-01

196

Infants' Ability to Parse Continuous Actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of 3 experiments, the authors examined 6- and 8-month-old infants' capacities to detect target actions in a continuous action sequence. In Experiment 1, infants were habituated to 2 different target actions and subsequently were presented with 2 continuous action sequences that either included or did not include the familiar target actions. Infants looked significantly longer at the

Susan J. Hespos; Megan M. Saylor; Stacy R. Grossman

2009-01-01

197

Infants' physical knowledge affects their change detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research suggests that infants attend to a variable in an event category when they have identified it as relevant for predicting outcomes in the category, and that the age at which infants identify a variable depends largely on the age at which they are exposed to appropriate observations. Thus, depending on age of exposure, infants may identify the same

Su-hua Wang; Renee Baillargeon

2006-01-01

198

Graspability and object processing in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review pursues the idea that a dual visual system approach is fruitful for interpreting work on infant cognition. We provide examples from the visual perception and cognition literature demonstrating that the potential graspability of stimuli typically used in infant studies influence how these stimuli are processed by the infant brain. Specifically, we argue that small, local, familiar and moving

Jordy Kaufman; Denis Mareschal; Mark H. Johnson

2003-01-01

199

Can Young Infants Add and Subtract?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments ( N 5 68), using Wynn's procedure, tested 5-month-old infants' looking time reactions to correct and incorrect results of simple addition and subtraction transformations. The aim was to investigate both the robustness and the parameters of infants' arithmetic competence. Experiments 1 and 2 ( N 5 44) were replications of Wynn's first two experiments in which infants were

Ann Wakeley; Susan Rivera; Jonas Langer

2000-01-01

200

Infants' Understanding of Object-Directed Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When and in what ways do infants recognize humans as intentional actors? An important aspect of this larger question concerns when infants recognize specific human actions (e.g. a reach) as object-directed (i.e. as acting toward goal-objects). In two studies using a visual habituation technique, 12-month-old infants were tested to assess their…

Phillips, Ann T.; Wellman, Henry M.

2005-01-01

201

NATIONAL MATERNAL AND INFANT HEALTH SURVEY (NMIHS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMIHS) provides data on maternal and infant health, including prenatal care, birth weight, fetal loss, and infant mortality. The objective of the NMIHS is to collect data needed by Federal, State, and private researchers to study fa...

202

Pattern Induction by Infant Language Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do infants learn the sound patterns of their native language? By the end of the 1st year, infants have acquired detailed aspects of the phonology and phonotactics of their input language. However, the structure of the learning mechanisms underlying this process is largely unknown. In this study, 9-month-old infants were given the opportunity to induce specific phonological patterns in

Jenny R. Saffran; Erik D. Thiessen

2003-01-01

203

Assessing Speech Discrimination in Individual Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessing speech discrimination skills in individual infants from clinical populations (e.g., infants with hearing impairment) has important diagnostic value. However, most infant speech discrimination paradigms have been designed to test group effects rather than individual differences. Other procedures suffer from high attrition rates. In this…

Houston, Derek M.; Horn, David L.; Qi, Rong; Ting, Jonathan Y.; Gao, Sujuan

2007-01-01

204

Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that…

Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

2012-01-01

205

Motor Development of Infants with Positional Plagiocephaly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concurrent with recommendations to place infants to sleep in supine, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of infants with positional plagiocephaly (PP). Recent evidence suggests that infants who have decreased exposure to prone position may have a higher incidence of PP and may be at risk for a delay in the acquisition of certain motor…

Kennedy, Eileen; Majnemer, Annette; Farmer, Jean-Pierre; Barr, Ronald G.; Platt, Robert W.

2009-01-01

206

Infant and Maternal Sensitivity to Interpersonal Timing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A perturbation paradigm was employed to assess 3- and 6-month-old infants' and their mothers' sensitivity to a 3-s temporal delay implemented in an ongoing televised interaction. At both ages, the temporal delay affected infant but not maternal behavior and only when implementing the temporal delay in maternal (Experiment 1, N = 64) but not infant

Henning, Anne; Striano, Tricia

2011-01-01

207

Nasal route for infant resuscitation by mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In infants under 6 months of age air normally enters the trachea by the nose because the tongue fills the oral cavity, and the oral route is open only when the infant is making muscular efforts such as crying or gasping. The present recommendation for infant resuscitation is for the resuscitator's mouth to cover the mouth and nose of the

S. L. Tonkin; S. L. Davis; T. R. Gunn

1995-01-01

208

Oxidative Stress in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex of victims of sudden infant death syndrome and of age-matched infants dying acutely of known causes (non-sudden infant death syndrome controls). Tissue sections were investigated for the presence of neurons expressing signs of elevated levels of free radical using immunohistochemical markers for superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Brain tissues displayed immunopositive neurons in

Stefanie Huggle; John C. Hunsaker; Carolyn M. Coyne; D. Larry Sparks

1996-01-01

209

Sudden infant death syndrome: a hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the strikingly low incidence of sudden infant death syndrome in Eastern countries revealed significant differences in infant handling thought to have an etiological bearing; therefore this writer suggested that adoption of certain Eastern methods of nursing may reduce the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome. A dramatic fall in incidence has resulted from implementing one of the

C. M. David

1997-01-01

210

Sudden infant deaths: stress, arousal and SIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has dropped in most countries following the development of education campaigns on the avoidance of preventable risk factors for SIDS. These include factors in the infant’s microenvironment, such as prenatal passive smoking, administration of sedative drugs, prone sleep, high ambient temperature or sleeping with the face covered. Sleep laboratory studies have

Andre Kahn; Jose Groswasser; Patricia Franco; Sonia Scaillet; Toshiko Sawaguchi; Igor Kelmanson; Bernard Dan

2004-01-01

211

Programme Planning for Infants and Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Caring for infants and toddlers has long been conceptualized in Western society as mothers' work, and consequently devalued. Alternative care for infants and toddlers has lacked a knowledge base like that undergirding preschool education. Factors impeding research on infant/toddler care include strong ideological opposition to nonmaternal care,…

Hutchins, Teresa; Sims, Margaret

212

The Youngest Vegetarians: Vegetarian Infants and Toddlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the popularity of vegetarian diets increases, practitioners are likely to encounter vegetarian infants and toddlers. Vegetarian and vegan diets can be developed to meet nutrient needs and support growth of infants and toddlers. Key nutrients whose adequacy should be monitored in vegetarian\\/vegan diets include vitamin B12, calcium, vitamin D, iron, omega-3 fatty acids, and zinc. As for all infants,

Reed Mangels; Julia Driggers

2012-01-01

213

Prediction of Neurodevelopmental Sequelae in VLBW Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined pre-, peri-, and neonatal factors in 271 British infants (weighing less than 1500 grams at birth), 188 of whom survived to 2 years. The study represented an attempt to define those factors which predict normal neurodevelopmental outcome in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Surviving infants were seen at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24…

Wolke, Dieter; And Others

214

Infants and Toddlers, 1999-2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is comprised of the four 1999-2000 issues of a quarterly journal for teachers and parents of children in Montessori infant and toddler programs. The May 1999 issue presents articles on eating in the prepared environment and meeting infants' basic needs for food. The August 1999 issue includes articles discussing infants' sensory…

Kroenke, Lillian DeVault, Ed.

2000-01-01

215

Look Into My Eyes: An Infant's View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes current research to determine if newborn infants can discern parents from strangers. An infrared detection technique has found that three to five week old infants focus on the edges of faces while older infants look more into the other person's eyes. Increased eye observation is beleived to be associated with parental identification. (CP)

Science News, 1977

1977-01-01

216

The Infant Caring Process among Cherokee Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify the social process of infant care among Cherokee mothers. Nineteen informants, who had an infant less than 2 years of age, were interviewed. The data were analyzed using the technique of constant comparative analysis. A social process of Indian infant care among Cherokee mothers was identified. Eight conceptsemerged from data analysis. The

Lee Anne Nichols

2004-01-01

217

Do Infants Show Generalized Imitation of Gestures?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments were conducted to investigate generalized imitation of manual gestures in 1- to 2-year-old infants. In Experiment 1, 6 infants were first trained four baseline matching relations (e.g., when instructed "Do this," to raise their arms after they saw the experimenter do so). Next, four novel gestures that the infants did not match in…

Horne, Pauline J.; Erjavec, Mihela

2007-01-01

218

Infants' Transitions toward Adult-Like Scanning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the visual scanning patterns of infants ages 6, 10, and 13 weeks who viewed static geometric figures. Measures of fixation dwell-times, saccade lengths, and the choices and sequences of saccadic targets revealed that, although younger infants demonstrated salience-guided scanning behavior, older infants increasingly utilized volitional…

Bronson, Gordon W.

1994-01-01

219

Clinical assessment of infant colour at delivery  

PubMed Central

Objective Use of video recordings of newborn infants to determine: (1) if clinicians agreed whether infants were pink; and (2) the pulse oximeter oxygen saturation (Spo2) at which infants first looked pink. Methods Selected clips from video recordings of infants taken immediately after delivery were shown to medical and nursing staff. The infants received varying degrees of resuscitation (including none) and were monitored with pulse oximetry. The oximeter readings were obscured to observers but known to the investigators. A timer was visible and the sound was inaudible. The observers were asked to indicate whether each infant was pink at the beginning, became pink during the clip, or was never pink. If adjudged to turn pink during the clip, observers recorded the time this occurred and the corresponding Spo2 was determined. Results 27 clinicians assessed videos of 20 infants (mean (SD) gestation 31(4) weeks). One infant (5%) was perceived to be pink by all observers. The number of clinicians who thought each of the remaining 19 infants were never pink varied from 1 (4%) to 22 (81%). Observers determined the 10 infants with a maximum Spo2 ?95% never pink on 17% (46/270) of occasions. The Spo2 at which individual infants were perceived to turn pink varied from 10% to 100%. Conclusion Among clinicians observing the same videos there was disagreement about whether newborn infants looked pink with wide variation in the Spo2 when they were considered to become pink.

O'Donnell, Colm P F; Kamlin, C Omar F; Davis, Peter G; Carlin, John B; Morley, Colin J

2007-01-01

220

The preterm infant with thrombosis.  

PubMed

In paediatrics, sick preterm infants are at highest risk of developing thrombotic complications. Haemostasis is in a fine balance in the neonatal period, despite age-related differences in coagulation proteins. However, both inherited and acquired risk factors can disrupt this balance and can lead to thrombosis. Important risk factors are sepsis, asphyxia, dehydration, central venous lines and inherited and acquired thrombophilia. Among various treatment modalities, anticoagulation is primarily used in the management of thrombosis. Different agents, dosages and durations of treatment in this age group are extrapolated from adult data. The article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment of thrombotic disorders in preterm infants. PMID:22562868

Bhat, Rukhmi; Monagle, Paul

2012-11-01

221

Infant-mother and infant-father synchrony: The coregulation of positive arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the coregulation of positive affect during mother-infant and father-infant in- teractions, 100 couples and their first-born child were videotaped in face-to-face interactions. Parents' and infant's affective states were coded in one-second frames, and synchrony was measured with time- series analysis. The orientation, intensity, and temporal pattern of infant positive arousal were assessed. Synchrony between same-gender parent-infant dyads was

Ruth Feldman

2003-01-01

222

Attentional processing of infant emotion during late pregnancy and mother–infant relations after birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mother–infant relationship has an important influence on maternal mental health and infant development. Evidence suggests\\u000a that this relationship is enhanced by a mother’s sensitive response towards her infant’s distress. We proposed that attentional\\u000a processing of infant distress may indicate individual differences in this response. Research also suggests that maternal responses\\u000a develop during pregnancy. We therefore hypothesised that more sensitive

Rebecca M. Pearson; Stafford L. Lightman; Jonathan Evans

2011-01-01

223

Used infant mattresses and sudden infant death syndrome in Scotland: case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To examine the proposition that a used infant mattress is associated with an increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome.Design:Case-control study.Setting: Scotland (population 5.1 million, with about 53 000 births a year).Participants: 131 infants who died of sudden infant death syndrome between 1 January 1996 and 31 May 2000 and 278 age, season, and obstetric unit matched control infants.Main

David Tappin; Hazel Brooke; Russell Ecob; Angus Gibson

2002-01-01

224

Infant massage improves mother–infant interaction for mothers with postnatal depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Postnatal depression can have long term adverse consequences for the mother–infant relationship and the infant’s development. Improving a mother’s depression per se has been found to have little impact on mother–infant interaction. The aims of this study were to determine whether attending regular massage classes could reduce maternal depression and also improve the quality of mother–infant interaction. Method: Thirty-four

Katsuno Onozawa; Vivette Glover; Diana Adams; Neena Modi; R. Channi Kumar

2001-01-01

225

Infant rhythms versus parental time: Promoting parent–infant synchrony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional psychoanalytic theories of early development have been put into question by developmental psychology, and particularly by attachment theory. Psychopathology appears to be more linked to interpersonal relationship problems rather than to intra-psychic conflict, as hypothesized in Freudian drive theory. Establishing synchrony between parent and infant is probably one of the major tasks of the first year of life. Attachment

Antoine Guedeney; Nicole Guedeney; Susana Tereno; Romain Dugravier; Tim Greacen; Bertrand Welniarz; Thomas Saias; Florence Tubach

226

Inflicted head injury in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is scant neuropathological information in the child abuse literature; even the best reviews include assumptions based on the findings of a few inadequate early studies. Our recent series of 53 fatal cases (Brain 124 (2001) 1290, 1299 [1,2]) demonstrated age-related patterns of brain injury and showed the substrate of severe encephalopathy in the infants to be hypoxic brain damage,

J. F. Geddes; H. L. Whitwell

2004-01-01

227

Infant Nurseries and Day Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In four brief pamphlets, background information concerning aspects of the provision of day care services for infants and young children is directed to (1) policy makers, (2) mass media specialists, (3) academic level workers and professionals, and (4) nurses, midwives, social workers, teachers, and parents. Topics discussed include child…

International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

228

Infants and Toddlers Exploring Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A good deal of research is beginning to support the idea of emergent mathematics and that, much as with reading, children begin to learn mathematics from the day they are born. Infants and toddlers begin to notice relationships as they interact with their parents or primary caregivers through songs, rocking, and other verbal and nonverbal…

Geist, Eugene

2009-01-01

229

Socioeconomic Differentials in Infant Mortality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was designed to measure and describe the association between infant mortality and socioeconomic status in three metropolitan centers of Ohio at two points in time (1959-61 and 1969-71) and in two metropolitan areas in Arizona for 1969-71. The sp...

E. G. Stockwell J. W. Wicks

1981-01-01

230

Some Thoughts about Infant Daycare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public concern about day care now focuses on infants and toddlers who began receiving out-of-home care before they had established attachments to their parents. In 1987, public conscience was inflamed by a series of reports in the popular media and the professional literature that underscored potential risks inherent in out-of-home care intiated…

Lamb, Michael E.; Sternberg, Kathleen J.

231

Infants Can Study Air Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

Ward, Alan

1983-01-01

232

Music Therapy with Premature Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

Standley, Jayne

2003-01-01

233

Survival in Infants with Anencephaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little available literature on survival data in the form of lifetables for babies born with anencephaly. These data would be valuable in advising parents, who often request very specific information on the length of time their child might survive. Survival is examined for a cohort of anencephalic infants in a well-defined population. Sex-specific survival tables are given, since

P. A. Baird; A. D. Sadovnick

1984-01-01

234

Infant Mortality: 1989 Research Accomplishments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collected in this document are reports of the National Institutes of Health's 1989 accomplishments in research on the problem of infant mortality. Reports are provided by the: (1) National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; (2) National Cancer Institute; (3) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; (4) National Institute of…

National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

235

[The Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles on the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), drawn from a southeastern regional symposium on the subject, summarizes much of what is known about the occurrence of SIDS, including current information about its causes. The background of state action in Florida is reviewed, with emphasis on the need for increased public and…

Florida's Health, 1976

1976-01-01

236

Invulnerable High Risk Preterm Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to look at factors moderating the negative effects of preterm low birthweight and perinatal illness, the study followed up (at 7 and 12 months of age) 50 preterm infants whose cumulative morbidity score was greater than 100 and/or who had a life threatening complication. Home visits provided ratings of maternal sensitivity, the…

Pederson, David R.; And Others

237

Infant Massage: Communicating through Touch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the benefits of infant massage, particularly for babies with deafness who have hearing parents. Steps for giving baby massages are provided, including placing a hand on the baby's stomach and making eye contact, starting with the legs, looking for cues, and communicating with the baby. (CR)

Stevens, Vivian

1998-01-01

238

Measurement and the Newborn Infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of newborn babies is widely regarded as being too inaccurate to justify its regular practice. It is common for infants to be weighed at birth and for no other measurements to be made. Although such assumptions are superficially correct, it is possible to train people to perform accurate measurements and for improved performance to be sustained. Accurate sequential measurements

Alan T. Gibson; Sally Carney; Neil P. Wright; Jeremy K. H. Wales

2003-01-01

239

[Cleft sternum in an infant].  

PubMed

The authors report the clinical case of a female black infant, one month 22 days old, with sternal malformation (complete sternal cleft). She didn't show other associated malformations. Early surgical repair was done with success. The relevant nomenclature of sternal defects is discussed. PMID:8991396

Mota, C R; Belo, E; Rego, A; Albino, A; Sousa, R; Alvares, S

1996-01-01

240

Breastfeeding the Late Preterm Infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late preterm infants comprise the fastest growing segment of babies born prematurely. They arrive with disadvan- tages relative to feeding skills, stamina, and risk for conditions such as hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and slow weight gain. Breastfeeding these babies can be difficult and frustrating. Individualized feeding plans include special considerations to compensate for immature feeding skills and inadequate breast stimulation. Breastfeeding man-

Marsha Walker

2008-01-01

241

FastStats: Infant Health  

MedlinePLUS

... of births that are preterm (less than 37 weeks gestation): 11.5% Source: Births: Final Data for 2012, tables 1, 18 [PDF - 2.2 MB] Mortality Number of infant deaths: 24,586 Deaths per 100,000 live births: 614. ...

242

Atypical Infant Development. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 13 chapters of this text focus on the complex development issues and interdisciplinary service needs of infants and young children at risk and their families. The text is organized into four sections on: developmental and intervention principles, identification and assessment, developmental issues, and early intervention. Chapter titles and…

Hanson, Marci J., Ed.

243

[Polycystic renal disease in infants].  

PubMed

In the light of the observation of 4 infants with polycystic renal disease the clinical manifestation, diagnosis (with stress laid on USG) and therapeutic management are discussed. Attention is called to the possibility of adult-type polycystic renal disease in neonatal period and infancy. This type of nephropathy is supposed by the authors to be in 2 living children. PMID:2631444

Zwoli?ska, D; Morawska, Z; Makulska, I; Wawro, A; Wawro, J; Berny, U

1989-06-01

244

Infant Mortality: The Shared Concern.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the causes for and implications of infant mortality. Besides the more immediate causes such as disease, nutrition, and lifestyle, there are the additional hurdles of government bureaucracy, lack of funds, and institutional attitudes that block access to prenatal care. Suggests structural solutions, including a consistent, individual,…

Heagarty, Margaret C.

1990-01-01

245

Infants Hierarchically Organize Memory Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout development, working memory is subject to capacity limits that severely constrain short-term storage. However, adults can massively expand the total amount of remembered information by grouping items into "chunks". Although infants also have been shown to chunk objects in memory, little is known regarding the limits of this…

Rosenberg, Rebecca D.; Feigenson, Lisa

2013-01-01

246

Infants' ability to parse continuous actions.  

PubMed

In a series of 3 experiments, the authors examined 6- and 8-month-old infants' capacities to detect target actions in a continuous action sequence. In Experiment 1, infants were habituated to 2 different target actions and subsequently were presented with 2 continuous action sequences that either included or did not include the familiar target actions. Infants looked significantly longer at the sequences that were novel. Experiment 2 presented the habituation and test trials in the reverse order. The results showed that infants habituated to the sequence still showed reliable evidence of recognizing the target action during the test trials. Experiment 3 was comparable to Experiment 2, except it tested whether infants could detect a different event segment, namely the transitions between events. The results showed that infants did not discriminate between test trials suggesting that transitions between events are not as easy for infants to recognize. PMID:19271840

Hespos, Susan J; Saylor, Megan M; Grossman, Stacy R

2009-03-01

247

Maternal Depression and Infant Temperament Characteristics  

PubMed Central

One hundred-thirty-nine women participated in this longitudinal study from the third trimester of pregnancy through 8-months postpartum. Women completed depression scales at several time points and rated their infant’s characteristics and childcare stress at 2- and 6-months postpartum. Mothers’ reports of infant temperament were significantly different for depressed and non-depressed mothers, with depressed mothers reporting more difficult infants at both measurement points. These differences remained after controlling for histories of maternal abuse or prenatal anxiety, which occurred more often in the depressed mothers. There were no significant differences in childcare stress or perceived support between the groups. Infant temperament and childcare stress did not change over time. Recommendations for practice include consistent ongoing evaluations of the “goodness of fit” within the dyad and exploring interventions for depressed mothers that provide guidance about interactions with their infants and the appropriateness of the infant behaviors.

McGrath, Jacqueline M.; Records, Kathie; Rice, Michael

2008-01-01

248

Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed, and children's saliva was sampled before, during, and after standardized procedures designed to elicit emotional arousal. Results revealed cocaine-exposed infants had a high amplitude trajectory of cortisol reactivity compared to non-cocaine-exposed infants. Infant gender and caregiving instability moderated this association. The findings support a dual hazard vulnerability model and have implications for evolutionary-developmental theories of individual differences in biological sensitivity to context.

Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

2009-01-01

249

The infant caring process among Cherokee mothers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify the social process of infant care among Cherokee mothers. Nineteen informants, who had an infant less than 2 years of age, were interviewed. The data were analyzed using the technique of constant comparative analysis. A social process of Indian infant care among Cherokee mothers was identified. Eight concepts emerged from data analysis. The first and principal concept, being a Cherokee mother, describes the functions of being an Indian mother in Cherokee society. The other seven concepts describe the patterns of cultural care the mothers provided to their infants. These included accommodating everyday infant care, accommodating health perspectives, building a care-providing consortium, living spiritually, merging the infant into Indian culture, using noncoercive discipline techniques, and vigilantly watching for the natural unfolding of the infant. Trustworthiness and credibility of the generated theory were evaluated through multiple measures. PMID:15296577

Nichols, Lee Anne

2004-09-01

250

Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking  

PubMed Central

In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants’ poor balance and wide stance. We show that walking is adversely affected by old-fashioned cloth diapers, and that even modern disposable diapers—habitually worn by most infants in the sample—incur a cost relative to walking naked. Infants displayed less mature gait patterns and more missteps and falls while wearing diapers. Thus, infants’ own diapers constitute an on-going biomechanical perturbation while learning to walk. Furthermore, shifts in diapering practices may have contributed to historical and cross-cultural differences in infant walking.

Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

2013-01-01

251

Infants' Learning of Phonological Status  

PubMed Central

There is a substantial literature describing how infants become more sensitive to differences between native phonemes (sounds that are both present and meaningful in the input) and less sensitive to differences between non-native phonemes (sounds that are neither present nor meaningful in the input) over the course of development. Here, we review an emergent strand of literature that gives a more nuanced notion of the problem of sound category learning. This research documents infants’ discovery of phonological status, signaled by a decrease in sensitivity to sounds that map onto the same phonemic category vs. different phonemic categories. The former phones are present in the input, but their difference does not cue meaning distinctions because they are tied to one and the same phoneme. For example, the diphthong I in I’m should map to the same underlying category as the diphthong in I’d, despite the fact that the first vowel is nasal and the second oral. Because such pairs of sounds are processed differently than those than map onto different phonemes by adult speakers, the learner has to come to treat them differently as well. Interestingly, there is some evidence that infants’ sensitivity to dimensions that are allophonic in the ambient language declines as early as 11?months. We lay out behavioral research, corpora analyses, and computational work which sheds light on how infants achieve this feat at such a young age. Collectively, this work suggests that the computation of complementary distribution and the calculation of phonetic similarity operate in concert to guide infants toward a functional interpretation of sounds that are present in the input, yet not lexically contrastive. In addition to reviewing this literature, we discuss broader implications for other fundamental theoretical and empirical questions.

Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina

2012-01-01

252

Distinguishing Mother-Infant Interaction from Stranger-Infant Interaction at 2, 4, and 6 Months of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Observers watched videotaped face-to-face mother-infant and stranger-infant interactions of 12 infants at 2, 4, or 6 months of age. Half of the observers saw each mother paired with her own infant and another infant of the same age (mother tapes) and half saw each infant paired with his or her mother and with a stranger (infant tapes). Observers…

Bigelow, Ann E.; Power, Michelle; Mcquaid, Nancy; Ward, Ashley; Rochat, Philippe

2008-01-01

253

Growth patterns of breastfed infants and the current status of growth charts for infants.  

PubMed

In summary, numerous studies have indicated that the pattern of growth during infancy is influenced by feeding mode. Compared to formula-fed infants, breastfed infants generally gain less weight, particularly after the first few months of life. This appears to be a normal pattern among healthy, thriving infants. Although true growth faltering can certainly occur among breastfed infants, it is difficult to evaluate using the NCHS growth chart, which is based on a sample of predominantly formula-fed infants. This situation has prompted WHO to begin the process of creating a new growth chart based on breastfed infants. PMID:9775837

Dewey, K G

1998-06-01

254

Toward understanding the connections between infant jaundice and infant feeding.  

PubMed

Parents face a paradox when they are told: Breast is best; bottle-feeding is hazardous to health. But breast-fed babies are more likely to become severely jaundiced than bottle-fed babies, and severe jaundice can lead to brain damage. This article will explore the natural physiology of jaundice with a focus on breast-feeding-associated jaundice, primary prevention of hyperbilirubinemia, and current evidence-based recommendations about feeding jaundice breast-fed infants. PMID:19026911

Alex, Marion; Gallant, Donna Pierrynowski

2008-12-01

255

Plasma 17-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations in ill newborn infants.  

PubMed Central

Plasma 17-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations were determined in 47 preterm and term infants who were ill from a variety of causes. The results were compared with those in 53 healthy term infants. Mean plasma 17-hydroxyprogesterone values were appreciably higher in ill term and healthy preterm infants compared with healthy term infants, but the highest values were found in ill preterm infants. None of the infants had adrenal disease but some very ill infants had plasma 17-hydroxyprogesterone values approaching those seen in untreated infants with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Interpretation of the results of plasma steroid measurements in newborn infants must take account of gestational age and the presence of stress related illness.

Murphy, J F; Joyce, B G; Dyas, J; Hughes, I A

1983-01-01

256

Ecology of passive smoking by young infants.  

PubMed

This study provides a detailed description of passive smoking by 433 infants (mean age 18 days) enrolled from a representative population of healthy neonates in central North Carolina during 1986 and 1987. Sixty-four percent (276) lived in households with smokers or had contact with nonhousehold smokers. During the week before data collection, two thirds (184) of these 276 infants reportedly had tobacco smoke produced in their presence. Seventy-five percent of smoking mothers smoked near their infants. The amount smoked by the mother near the infant correlated with the amount smoked near the infant by nonmaternal smokers. Cotinine, an indicator of smoke absorption, was found in the urine of 60% (258) of all study infants. The amount smoked in the infant's presence, as well as the amount smoked farther away from the infant, especially by the mother, were the most significant correlates of the urine cotinine concentration. The results of this study suggest that efforts to reduce passive smoking in young infants should emphasize the importance of the mother's smoking behavior, smoke produced anywhere in the home, and household social influences on smoking behavior near the infant. PMID:2715891

Greenberg, R A; Bauman, K E; Glover, L H; Strecher, V J; Kleinbaum, D G; Haley, N J; Stedman, H C; Fowler, M G; Loda, F A

1989-05-01

257

Distinguishing Sudden Infant Death Syndrome From Child Abuse Fatalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatal child abuse has been mistaken for sudden infant death syndrome. When a healthy infant younger than 1 year dies suddenly and unexpectedly, the cause of death may be certified as sudden infant death syndrome. Sudden infant death syndrome is more common than infanticide. Parents of sudden infant death syndrome victims typically are anxious to provide unlimited information to pro-

Kent P. Hymel

2010-01-01

258

Increased ALZ-50 Immunoreactivity in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuronal expression of the ALZ-50 epitope was investigated in hippocampus and medulla from infants dying of sudden infant death syndrome or known causes (controls). Hippocampal studies include data from 31 infants dying of known causes between 32 weeks' gestation and 16 months postpartum and 46 infants who died of sudden infant death syndrome. The medulla at the level of the

D. Larry Sparks; Daron G. Davis; Karim Rasheed; Teresa M. Landers; Huiachen Liu; Carolyn M. Coyne; John C. Hunsaker

1996-01-01

259

Late preterm infants: severe hyperbilirubinemia and postnatal glucose homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of late preterm infants as a high-risk group of infants has been an important public health breakthrough. These infants have suffered a relative ‘silent morbidity and mortality’ before the recognition that they have unique physiology and risks. These infants represent almost three-fourths of all premature births in the United States. Many of these infants, because of their birthweight

D H Adamkin

2009-01-01

260

Early Contact and Maternal Perceptions of Infant Temperament.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extra post-partum mother-infant contact in the first hour of life does not appear to enhance maternal perceptions of infant temperament at 8 months. Subjects of a study of the effects of mother-infant contact on infant temperament were healthy, white, first-born infants and their mothers. Mothers were randomly assigned to an experimental group in…

Campbell, Susan B. Goodman; And Others

261

[A newborn infant with hyperventilation].  

PubMed

Respiratory alkalosis is an early sign of urea cycle disorder. A high level of plasma ammonia will strengthen this suspicion. It is of great importance to transfer the infant as soon as possible to a unit capable of giving specific treatment with Na-benzoate, Na-phenylbutyrate, argininchloride and carglumic acid. The early treatment may also include haemodialysis, which is preferred over peritoneal dialysis or exchange transfusion. We here describe an infant with respiratory alkalosis within the first two days of life and a high plasma level of ammonia (> 700 micromol/L). He did not respond to conventional therapy and died 48 hours after birth in spite of specific treatment. DNA-analysis showed a gene defect in the OTC gene, c.67C >T (p.R23X), a known mutation leading to urea cycle disorder (OTC). It is important to detect carriers among older siblings and to inform the parents of the possibility of prenatal diagnostics. PMID:18604903

Lindemann, Rolf; Myhre, Mia C; Bakken, Mari; Fugelseth, Drude; Rustad, Cecilie F; Woldseth, Berit

2008-06-26

262

A History of Infant Feeding  

PubMed Central

The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity.

Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

2009-01-01

263

[Nutritional support in preterm infants].  

PubMed

Extrauterine growth restriction is much popular in China and it is still challenge job for pediatricians. This article described the benefits for PICC in route of PN choice. New fat emulsions were appeared recently years, however they are no strong evidence for using in premature infants and need do more clinical trial. Parenteral nutrition associated with liver damage still is a serious complication of TPN and we encourage early enteral feeding, appropriate calore intake, anti sepsis for prevention. PMID:25008868

Cai, Wei

2014-07-01

264

Social theory and infant feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the\\u000a last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant\\u000a feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework\\u000a helpful. In this editorial,

Lisa H Amir

2011-01-01

265

Superfund Cleanups and Infant Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are the first to examine the effect of Superfund cleanups on infant health rather than focusing on proximity to a site. We study singleton births to mothers residing within 5km of a Superfund site between 1989-2003 in five large states. Our “difference in differences” approach compares birth outcomes before and after a site clean-up for mothers who live within

Janet Currie; Michael Greenstone; Enrico Moretti

2011-01-01

266

Absorption of digoxin in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioavailability of digoxin in solution was studied in 4 newborn infants with heart failure. Serum digoxin concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay using125I. Bioavailability was estimated by comparison of the areas under the 8-h serum concentration curves (8-h AUC) after intravenous and oral administration of the glycoside. After oral administration of digoxin (1\\/4 of the digitalizing dose, 0.05 mg\\/kg bw),

G. Wettrell; K.-E. Andersson

1975-01-01

267

Orientational anisotropy in infant vision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infants prefer to look at horizontal and vertical gratings rather than at oblique gratings only when they are at or near threshold spatial frequencies, as would be expected if acuity for oblique edges is lower than that for horizontal and vertical edges. That such a bias exists as early as 6 weeks of age suggests that the orientational asymmetry of the visual system depends on endogeneous maturation rather than exposure to a carpentered world.

Cohen Leehey, S.; Moskowitz-Cook, A.; Brill, S.; Held, R.

1975-01-01

268

Effects of Maternal Depression on Mother-Infant Interaction During Feeding Episodes and Infant Attachment Classification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This secondary investigation analyzed previously videotaped feeding episodes of mothers and their 8 and 13 month old infants. The purpose of this study was to compare the interactive styles of depressed and non depressed mothers and their infants. Women w...

L. A. Foss

1995-01-01

269

Simultaneous sudden infant death syndrome.  

PubMed

The simultaneous sudden deaths of twins rarely occur and therefore it has received limited attention in the medical literature. When the deaths of the twins meet the defined criteria for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) independently and take place within the same 24 h range it can be called as simultaneous SIDS (SSIDS). The case(s): Twin girls (3.5-month-old) were found dead by their mother in their crib, both in supine position. The infants were identical twins and delivered at a hospital by cesarean section. Both infants were healthy and did not have any serious medical history. Two days prior to the incident, the twins had received the second dose of oral polio, DPT and the first dose of hepatitis B vaccines and they had fever on the first day of the vaccination and been given teaspoonful of acetaminophen. Death scene investigation, judicial investigation, parental assessment, macroscopic and microscopic autopsy findings and the toxicological analysis did not yield any specific cause of death. The case(s) were referred to a supreme board composed of multidisciplinary medical professionals at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Ministry of Justice, in Istanbul. The Board decided that the available data was consistent with SIDS. These SIDS case(s) are presented because twin SIDS are rare and this is the first time that a simultaneous twin SIDS have been reported in Turkey. Simultaneous SIDS cases have many implications regarding definition, diagnosis and medico-legal approach. PMID:17654772

Balci, Yasemin; Tok, Mehmet; Kocaturk, B Kenan; Yenilmez, Cinar; Yirulmaz, Co?kun

2007-02-01

270

A Comparison of Language Abilities between Groups of Premature Hispanic Infants and One Group of Full-Term Hispanic Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the language skills of low-birth-weight premature infants (N=11), higher birth-weight premature infants (N=14), and full-term infants (N=12) at 22 months corrected chronological age. Results suggest that low-birth-weight premature infants are at greater risk than higher birth-weight premature infants for speech and language…

Gonzales, Maria Diana; Montgomery, Gary; Fucci, Donald; Randolph, Elizabeth; Mata-Pistokache, Teri

1997-01-01

271

Observed and Reported Supportive Coparenting as Predictors of Infant-Mother and Infant-Father Attachment Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined associations between supportive coparenting and infant-mother and infant-father attachment security. Observed and parent-reported coparenting, and observed maternal and paternal sensitivity were assessed in a sample of 68 families with 3.5-month-old infants. Infant-mother and infant-father attachment security were assessed in…

Brown, Geoffrey L.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Neff, Cynthia

2010-01-01

272

How Infants Learn About the Visual World  

PubMed Central

The visual world of adults consists of objects at various distances, partly occluding one another, substantial and stable across space and time. The visual world of young infants, in contrast, is often fragmented and unstable, consisting not of coherent objects but rather surfaces that move in unpredictable ways. Evidence from computational modeling and from experiments with human infants highlights three kinds of learning that contribute to infants' knowledge of the visual world: learning via association, learning via active assembly, and learning via visual-manual exploration. Infants acquire knowledge by observing objects move in and out of sight, forming associations of these different views. In addition, the infant's own self-produced behavior—oculomotor patterns and manual experience, in particular—are important means by which infants discover and construct their visual world.

Johnson, Scott P.

2010-01-01

273

Attentional processing of infant emotion during late pregnancy and mother-infant relations after birth.  

PubMed

The mother-infant relationship has an important influence on maternal mental health and infant development. Evidence suggests that this relationship is enhanced by a mother's sensitive response towards her infant's distress. We proposed that attentional processing of infant distress may indicate individual differences in this response. Research also suggests that maternal responses develop during pregnancy. We therefore hypothesised that more sensitive attentional processing of distressed infant stimuli during late pregnancy will be associated with more successful mother-infant relationships. Healthy pregnant women were recruited through community midwives. An established computerised paradigm measured women's ability to disengage attention from distressed or non-distressed infant faces. From this paradigm, we derived an index of women's attentional bias towards infant distress. Mother-infant relationships were measured using the postpartum bonding questionnaire (PBQ). A complete case sample of 49 women completed the attentional paradigm during late pregnancy and the PBQ 3-6 months after birth. We found that women who showed greater attentional bias towards infant distress during late pregnancy reported more successful mother-infant relationships. For every 50-ms increase on our measure of attentional bias towards infant distress during late pregnancy, the odds ratio for reporting a higher PBQ score, indicative of a weaker relationship, was 0.43 (95% confidence intervals 0.23-0.81, p?=?0.01). The results suggest that women's basic attentional processing of infant emotion during pregnancy influences their relationships with their infant. In the future, women's attentional processing of infant emotion could inform early strategies to promote successful mother-infant relationships in vulnerable mothers to be. PMID:20859644

Pearson, Rebecca M; Lightman, Stafford L; Evans, Jonathan

2011-02-01

274

Infant room-sharing and prone sleep position in sudden infant death syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground There is evidence that the risk of sudden infant death syndrome is lower among ethnic groups in which parents generally share a room with the infant for sleeping. We investigated whether the presence of other family members in the infant's sleeping room affects the risk of the sudden infant death syndrome.Methods The case-control study covered a region with 78%

R. K. R Scragg; A. W Stewart; E. A Mitchell; J. M. D Thompson; B. J Taylor; S. M Williams; R. P. K Ford; I. B Hassall

1996-01-01

275

Breast-feeding of allergic infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Infants may have allergic disease even during exclusive breast-feeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether allergic infants should continue breast-feeding. Study design: We studied 100 infants who had atopic eczema during exclusive breast-feeding. The extent and severity of the eczema, allergic sensitization, and the patients’ growth and nutrition were assessed during and after cessation of breast-feeding.

Erika Isolauri; Annette Tahvanainen; Terttu Peltola; Taina Arvola

1999-01-01

276

Advances in nutritional modifications of infant formulas.  

PubMed

Modifications to infant formulas are continually being made as the components of human milk are characterized and as the nutrient needs of diverse groups of infants are identified. Formulas with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids added in amounts similar to those in human milk have recently become available in the United States; infants fed these formulas or human milk have higher tissue concentrations of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and reportedly have better visual acuity than do infants fed nonsupplemented formulas. Selenium, an important antioxidant, is present in higher concentrations in human milk than in non-fortified cow milk-based formula, and the selenium intakes of infants fed nonfortified formulas are reported to be at or below recommended levels. Blood selenium concentrations and plasma glutathione peroxidase activity are higher in infants fed selenium-supplemented formulas or human milk than in infants fed non-fortified formulas. Nucleotides and their related products play key roles in many biological processes. Although nucleotides can be synthesized endogenously, they are considered "conditionally essential." Nucleotide concentrations in human milk are higher than in unsupplemented cow milk-based formulas, and studies in animals and human infants suggest that dietary nucleotides play a role in the development of the gastrointestinal and immune systems. Formulas for preterm infants after hospital discharge are designed to meet the needs of a population in whom growth failure is common. Several studies have shown that preterm infants fed nutrient-enriched formulas after hospital discharge have higher rates of catch-up growth than do infants fed standard term-infant formulas. PMID:12812153

Carver, Jane D

2003-06-01

277

Considerations in planning vegan diets: Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Appropriately planned,vegan,diets can satisfy nutrient needs,of infants. The American,Dietetic Association and The American,Academy,of Pediatrics state that vegan,diets can promote,normal,infant growth. It is important,for parents,to provide appropriate foods for vegan infants, using guidelines like those in this article. Key considerations,when working with vegan families include composition,of breast milk from vegan women, appropriate breast milk substitutes, supple- ments, type and amount

Ann Reed Mangels; Fada Virginia Messina

278

Ultrasonically detectable cerebellar haemorrhage in preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine the frequency and pattern of cerebellar haemorrhage (CBH) on routine cranial ultrasound (cUS) imaging in infants of ?32 weeks gestation, and to investigate how extremely preterm infants with CBH differ from those with severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH).Methods672 infants of ?32 weeks gestation were prospectively examined for CBH on serial cUS imaging. In a separate case–control analysis, the clinical

L K McCarthy; V Donoghue; J F A Murphy

2011-01-01

279

The McGurk effect in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the McGurk effect, perceptual identification of auditory speech syllables is influenced by simultaneous presentation of discrepant visible speech syllables. While this effect has been shown in subjects of different ages and various native language backgrounds, no McGurk tests have been conducted with pre-linguistic infants. A series of experiments tested for the McGurk effect in 5- month-old English-exposed infants. Infants

Lawrence D. Rosenblum; Mark A. Schmuckler; Jennifer A. Johnson

1995-01-01

280

Mother-Infant Interaction and Cognitive Development in the 12-Week-Old Infant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the relationship between the mother-infant interaction and the concurrent perceptual-cognitive and intellectual status of the infant. One hundred and eight-nine 12-week-old infants were given a battery of perceptual-cognitive tasks, including the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales, the Corman-Escalona Scales…

Gallas, Howard B.; Lewis, Michael

281

Effect of Pediatric Well Child Care on the Mother-Infant Relationship and Infant Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper was to examine whether a pediatrician in well child care could promote mother-child interaction in the infant's first 6 months of life, and whether this intervention could affect the infant's cognitive development. Thirty-two mothers and their healthy, first born infants were followed by one pediatrician at 2, 4, 8, 15…

Casey, Patrick H.; Whitt, J. Kenneth

282

Do Infants Need Social Cognition to Act Socially? An Alternative Look at Infant Pointing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tomasello, Carpenter, and Liszkowski (2007) present a comprehensive review of the infant pointing literature. They conclude that infant pointing demonstrates communicative intent from its onset, at about 1 year of age. In this commentary, it is noted that for infants to understand communicative intent, they must have a concept of self and others…

D'Entremont, Barbara; Seamans, Elizabeth

2007-01-01

283

Infant Abuse, Neglect, and Failure-to-Thrive: Mother-Infant Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to investigate whether or not degree of child maltreatment is related in some meaningful way to the interactional characteristics of the mother/infant dyad and to the infant's developmental status. A group of 53 mother/infant dyads was divided into five diagnostic groups: nonaccidental trauma combined with…

Dietrich, Kim N.; And Others

284

Infant temperament characteristics related to sudden infant death syndrome and its risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three major components have been repeatedly implicated for the origin(s) of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): system, minor sickness and surroundings. All these factors also frame infant temperament, and therefore it seems logical to suppose that the babies who either succumb to or are at risk of SIDS may present with certain behavioural features. The infants who have died of

Igor A. Kelmanson

2006-01-01

285

Impact of Changes in Infant Death Classification on the Diagnosis of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the hypothesis that a decline in sudden infant death syndrome in Minnesota is associated with increases in other categories of sudden unexpected infant death. Matched birth and death certificates, autopsy reports, and home visit questionnaires were reviewed for 722 sudden unexpected infant deaths that occurred from January 1, 1996 through December 31, 2002. Descriptive data and cause

Brooke M. Moore; Kathleen L. Fernbach; Marsha J. Finkelstein; Patrick L. Carolan

2008-01-01

286

Apneas During Sleep in Infants: Possible Relationship with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several types of apnea are described in premature infants and in infants who have survived breathing-stoppage episodes which may be related to the sudden infant death syndrome. Upper airway apnea appears to induce the greatest changes: oxygen desaturation is more pronounced than in a central apnea of similar duration, and secondary cardiac changes are observed earlier and are more severe.

Christian Guilleminault; Rosa Peraita; Marianne Souquet; William C. Dement

1975-01-01

287

Mothers' Insightfulness Regarding Their Infants' Internal Experience: Relations with Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Attachment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined associations among mothers' insightfulness into their 12-month-olds' internal experience as assessed through interviews regarding mothers' videotaped interaction with their infant, mothers' sensitivity to infant's signals during laboratory and home play sessions, and infant's security of attachment to mothers in the Strange Situation.…

Koren-Karie, Nina; Oppenheim, David; Dolev, Smadar; Sher, Efrat; Etzion-Carasso, Ayelet

2002-01-01

288

Use of the Bayley Infant Behavior Record With Preterm and Full-Term Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the use of the Bayley Infant Behavior Record (IBR) with premature and full-term infants. Analysis of the two discriminant functions obtained from the discriminant analysis appear to substantiate the claim that the IBR is an index of cognitive test-taking behaviors, which can be used reliably with preterm and full-term infants.…

Meisels, Samuel J.; And Others

1987-01-01

289

Sex of Infant Differences in Mother-Infant Interaction: A Reinterpretation of Past Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the nature and consistency differences in mother-infant interaction affected by sex of infant, and reviews past interpretations. Offers an alternative interpretation, drawing on evidence from animal studies, studies of pregnant women, and work by epidemiologists and ethologists on sex ratio data that suggests mothers of male infants may…

Grant, Valerie J.

1994-01-01

290

The Infant Parent Training Institute: A Developmental Model for Training Infant Mental Health Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Infant Parent Training Institute (IPTI) at Jewish Family and Children's Service of Greater Boston offers integrated clinical and theoretical infant mental health training. The curriculum reflects the belief that nurturing and reflective relationships promote optimal learning and growth. A specialty in infant mental health requires knowledge…

Arons, Judith; Epstein, Ann; Sklan, Susan

2011-01-01

291

In and out of Synch: Infant Childcare Teachers' Adaptations to Infants' Developmental Changes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative multi-case study explored the social exchanges and responsive connections between infants and their infant childcare teachers within a group care context. Infants' naturally occurring behaviours were videotaped purposefully at two separate time points, near the end of their first year and approximately six months later. Findings…

Recchia, Susan L.; Shin, Minsun

2012-01-01

292

Infants as Others: Uncertainties, Difficulties and (Im)possibilities in Researching Infants' Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, researchers are trying to understand what daily life is like for infants in non-parental care from the perspectives of the infants themselves. In this article, we argue that it is profoundly difficult, if not impossible, to know how infants experience their worlds with any certainty and, indeed, whether they do or do not possess…

Elwick, Sheena; Bradley, Ben; Sumsion, Jennifer

2014-01-01

293

Touch and massage for medically fragile infants.  

PubMed

Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver-infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants. PMID:18955228

Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J; Gallardo, Constance C; Joseph, Michael H; Gold, Jeffrey I

2009-12-01

294

Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants  

PubMed Central

Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants’ safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver–infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants.

Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J.; Gallardo, Constance C.; Joseph, Michael H.

2009-01-01

295

Renal solute load in preterm infants.  

PubMed Central

We performed metabolic balance studies in 77 preterm infants fed on human milk or adapted formulas, to determine the renal solute load and compared it with the potential renal solute load estimated by the composition of the diet or the urine according to Ziegler's, Bergman's, and Shaw's calculations. The renal solute load found in preterm infants was lower than that observed in young full term infants. Although all calculations predicted the renal solute load well, the equation proposed by Ziegler and Fomon from dietary protein and electrolyte load appears to be the simplest to calculate renal solute load accurately in preterm infants.

De Curtis, M; Senterre, J; Rigo, J

1990-01-01

296

Infant crying among recent African immigrants.  

PubMed

Studies in non-Western cultures have shown that infants cry very little, probably because they are carried constantly by caregivers. Western literature suggests that the bouts of persistent crying found in infants at least in part result from Western caregiving practices. This study was conducted to describe crying patterns of a small sample (n = 8) of infants born to recent African immigrants to the United States. Audio-recorded interviews were analyzed using content analysis and descriptive statistics. Some infant crying occurred but less than for typical Western babies. Mothers provided reasons why increased crying occurred. Nursing implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:20526929

Bleah, Doris A; Ellett, Marsha L

2010-07-01

297

21 CFR 880.5130 - Infant radiant warmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Identification. The infant radiant warmer is a device consisting of an infrared heating element intended to be placed over an infant to maintain the infant's body temperature by means of radiant heat. The device may also contain a...

2013-04-01

298

Denmark: botulism in an infant or infant botulism?  

PubMed

A 4.5 months old, previously healthy Danish girl was admitted to a paediatric department after six days of passive behaviour and weak suck. Over the next days she became increasingly weak, developed bilateral ptosis, the muscle stretch reflexes were lost, and mydriasis with slow pupillary responses was noted. Botulism was suspected and confirmed by testing of patient serum in a bioassay. The condition of the patient improved following administration of botulism antiserum. The clinical picture was suggestive of intestinal (infant) botulism. However, botulism acquired from consumption of food with preformed neurotoxin could not be excluded. PMID:19094919

Paerregaard, A; Angen, O; Lisby, M; Mølbak, K; Clausen, M E; Christensen, J J

2008-12-18

299

Infant mortality statistics from the 2010 period linked birth/infant death data set.  

PubMed

Objectives-This report presents 2010 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth/infant death data set (linked file) by maternal and infant characteristics. The linked file differs from the mortality rate declined mortality file, which is based entirely on death certificate data. Methods-Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. Results-The U.S. infant mortality rate was 6.14 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2010, 4% lower than the rate of 6.39 in 2009. The number of infant deaths was 24,572 in 2010, a decline of 1,836 infant deaths from 2009. From 2009 to 2010, the infant mortality rate declined 8% for non-Hispanic black mothers to 11.46, and 3% for non-Hispanic white mothers to 5.18. Asian or Pacific Islander mothers had the lowest rate in 2010 (4.27). From 2009 to 2010, the neonatal mortality rate declined by 3% to 4.05 neonatal deaths per 1,000 live births, while the postneonatal mortality rate declined 5% to 2.10. In 2010, infants born at 37-38 weeks of gestation (early term) had infant mortality rates that were 62% higher than those born at 39-41 weeks of gestation. For multiple births, the infant mortality rate was 25.41, almost five times the rate of 5.45 for singleton births. The three leading causes of infant death-congenital malformations, low birthweight, and sudden infant death syndrome-accounted for 46% of all infant deaths. In 2010, 35.2% of infant deaths were preterm-related. PMID:24735562

Matthews, T J; Macdorman, Marian F

2013-12-01

300

Two-Month-Old Infants' Sensitivity to Social Contingency in Mother-Infant and Stranger-Infant Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two-month-old infants (N = 29) participated in face-to-face interactions with their mothers and with strangers. The contingent responsiveness for smiles and vocalizations, while attending to the partner, was assessed for each partner in both interactions. For smiles and for vocalizations, infants were less responsive to the stranger relative to…

Bigelow, Ann E.; Rochat, Philippe

2006-01-01

301

Hib vaccination in infants born prematurely  

PubMed Central

Aims: To document the immunogenicity and persistence of antibody to polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate (PRP) as well as the clinical protection against invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in premature infants immunised at the routine schedule. Methods: Blood was obtained at 2, 5, 12, and 64 months of age from a cohort of prematurely born infants (?32 weeks gestation). Anti-PRP antibody concentrations were compared with those of a control cohort of infants born at full term and vaccinated at the same schedule. Hib vaccine failures occurring between October 1992 and October 2000 were reported by paediatricians through an active, prospective, national survey in the UK and Republic of Ireland. The number of prematurely born children with vaccine failure was compared with the corresponding number born at term. Results: Twenty seven prematurely born infants were followed to 5 years of age. Compared with term infants they had a significantly lower geometric mean concentration of anti-PRP antibody and/or a significantly lower proportion above one or both of the conventional protective antibody concentrations (0.15 and 1.0 µg/ml) at all ages. A total of 165 cases of invasive Hib disease were identified over eight years of national surveillance. Eighteen were premature (<37 weeks); approximately 12 would be expected. The relative risk of UK premature infants developing disease compared with term infants was 1.5 (95% CI 0.9 to 2.6). Conclusions: Premature infants develop lower antibody concentrations than term infants following Hib conjugate vaccination. Premature infants may also have an increased risk of clinical vaccine failure, but interpretation is limited by the small number of premature infants developing invasive Hib disease over eight years of national surveillance. Overall, vaccination with Hib conjugate vaccines affords a high level of protection to premature babies.

Heath, P; Booy, R; McVernon, J; Bowen-Morris, J; Griffiths, H; Slack, M; Moloney, A; Ramsay, M; Moxon, E

2003-01-01

302

Do Infants Show Generalized Imitation of Gestures?  

PubMed Central

Two experiments were conducted to investigate generalized imitation of manual gestures in 1- to 2-year-old infants. In Experiment 1, 6 infants were first trained four baseline matching relations (e.g., when instructed “Do this,” to raise their arms after they saw the experimenter do so). Next, four novel gestures that the infants did not match in probe trials were selected as target behaviors during generalized imitation Test 1; models of these gestures were presented on unreinforced matching trials interspersed with intermittently reinforced baseline matching trials. None of the infants matched the target behaviors. To ensure that these behaviors were in the infants' motor skills repertoires, the infants were next trained to produce them, at least once, under stimulus control that did not include an antecedent model of the target behavior. In repeat generalized imitation trials (Test 2), the infants again failed to match the target behaviors. Five infants (3 from Experiment 1) participated in Experiment 2, which was identical to Experiment 1 except that, following generalized imitation Test 1, the motor-skills training was implemented to a higher criterion (21 responses per target behavior), and in a multiple-baseline, across-target-behaviors procedure. In the final generalized imitation test, 1 infant matched one, and another infant matched two target behaviors; the remaining 17 target behaviors still were not matched. The results did not provide convincing evidence of generalized imitation, even though baseline matching was well maintained and the target behaviors were in the infants' motor skills repertoires, raising the question of what are the conditions that reliably give rise to generalized imitation.

Horne, Pauline J; Erjavec, Mihela

2007-01-01

303

Teenage mothers and their infants.  

PubMed

The outcomes of the IS/MT pilot project and the expanded services program as well as program replications in other geographic areas suggest that efforts to support the teenage mother in the care of her firstborn infant can have a demonstrable effect. Completing school, securing employment, going off welfare, and acting on a decision to prevent subsequent unwanted pregnancies were all secondary effects of a 20-week postnatal mother-infant class program designed to positively influence infant development. Similar treatment effects have been reported by IS/MT replications in St. Louis and Genesee County, Michigan. Other program innovations, however, lacking the funds and/or the expertise to conduct adequate evaluations, are nonetheless significant because they provide a groundswell capable of establishing a climate for social change. At the community level, this is expressed in the creation of new service paradigms, as in Norfolk and Memphis, where individuals and agencies are transformed and experiment with new solutions to thorny problems. At the national level, it is expressed in coalitions and political alliances around a single issue, as with the Children's Defense Fund and adolescent and single-parent families. As one who has spent almost 20 years addressing the consequences of teenage parenthood, it is heartening to know that the time is near to address the prevention of the problem. Let us hope that the Children's Defense Fund agenda accurately reflects the beliefs and feelings of the majority of our citizenry and that our national priorities will change to include the reduction of teen pregnancy and teen parenthood. PMID:2410176

Badger, E

1985-06-01

304

Skin disinfection in preterm infants.  

PubMed Central

Greater care and a more thorough approach to intravenous catheter site disinfection may be important for the prevention of catheter related sepsis, especially with coagulase negative staphylocci in preterm infants. The efficacy of skin disinfection was evaluated in preterm infants using a skin swabbing technique after disinfectant exposure. In the first part of the study, 25 peripheral intravascular catheter sites were quantitatively sampled immediately after routine cannula insertion. Bacterial counts greater than 100 colony forming units/cm2 were observed from 10 (40%) sites. In the second part, sampling for bacterial colony counts was done after skin cleansing with various durations of exposure of chlorhexidine/alcohol swabs or povidone iodine. The overall mean reduction in bacterial colony counts after skin cleansing ranged from 90-99%. Skin sterilisation was achieved in 33-92% of cases. The use of two consecutive 10 second exposures resulted in a significantly improved reduction in colony counts compared with a single 10 second wipe. A longer 30 second exposure also resulted in a greater reduction of bacterial numbers compared with a shorter duration of 5 or 10 seconds. Repopulation of disinfected sites occurred within 48 hours. This effect was delayed by occluding the cleansed site with a semipermeable dressing. There were no significant differences between povidone iodine and the chlorhexidine swabs in reducing bacterial numbers. This study has demonstrated that a brief exposure with a premoistened disinfectant swab is not sufficient for complete elimination of resident skin flora of newborn infants. The use of two consecutive cleanings, or a longer duration of cleansing is recommended for more effective skin sterilisation. Images

Malathi, I; Millar, M R; Leeming, J P; Hedges, A; Marlow, N

1993-01-01

305

Breast feeding and infant growth.  

PubMed

Various studies demonstrate that the lactation potential of relatively undernourished mothers in developing countries equals that of women in developed countries. It can also sustain optimal growth as well as that of women in developed countries. Studies at the National Institute of Nutrition in Hyderabad, India, show that the average poor woman secrets 500 to 800 ml of breast milk/day for the first 6 months and that little difference in breast milk intakes at 3 months exists between these women and those from developed countries. Even though breast milk of women in developing countries has a lower fat content than that of women in developed countries, the protein levels correspond. Further, caloric content of breast milk from undernourished and well nourished women is basically similar. Moreover, food supplementation for undernourished women does not greatly improve the macronutrient or quantity composition of breast milk. On the other hand, breast milk of undernourished mothers has lower levels of fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins than that of well nourished women, revealing their vitamin deficiencies. Studies show that undernourished women in India can successfully begin breast feeding and breast feed for up to 24 months. Breast fed infants of undernourished mothers in India grow just as well as those of well nourished mothers during the first 6 months of life. The evidence in India indicates that, ideally, supplementary feeding should not begin before 6 months, and definitely, not before 4 months, to reduce the risk of infection (especially diarrheal disease) and delay the return to fertility. Industrialization and urbanization in India results in more and more women, especially those in urban slums, not having the option to exclusively breast feed their infants. This change adversely affects infant heath; so pediatricians, administrators, and policymakers must come up with initiatives to counter these effects. PMID:1459716

Gopalan, S; Puri, R K

1992-08-01

306

Chylothorax in infants and children.  

PubMed

Chylothorax, the accumulation of chyle in the pleural space, is a relatively rare cause of pleural effusion in children. It can cause significant respiratory morbidity, as well as lead to malnutrition and immunodeficiency. Thus, a chylothorax requires timely diagnosis and treatment. This review will first discuss the anatomy and physiology of the lymphatic system and discuss various causes that can lead to development of a chylothorax in infants and children. Then, methods of diagnosis and treatment will be reviewed. Finally, complications of chylothorax will be reviewed. PMID:24685960

Tutor, James D

2014-04-01

307

Nutritional care of premature infants: microminerals.  

PubMed

Microminerals, including iron, zinc, copper, selenium, manganese, iodine, chromium and molybdenum, are essential for a remarkable array of critical functions and need to be supplied in adequate amounts to preterm infants. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants carry a very high risk of developing iron deficiency which can adversely affect neurodevelopment. However, a too high iron supply in iron-replete VLBW infants may induce adverse effects such as increased infection risks and impaired growth. Iron needs are influenced by birth weight, growth rates, blood losses (phlebotomy) and blood transfusions. An enteral iron intake of 2 mg/kg/day for infants with a birth weight of 1,500-2,500 g and 2-3 mg/kg/day for VLBW infants is recommended. Higher doses up to 6 mg/kg/day are needed in infants receiving erythropoietin treatment. Regular monitoring of serum ferritin during the hospital stay is advisable. Routine provision of iron with parenteral nutrition for VLBW infants is not recommended. Less certainty exists for the advisable intakes of other microminerals. It appears prudent to provide enterally fed VLBW infants with daily amounts per kilogram body weight of 1.4-2.5 mg zinc, 100-230 ?g copper, 5-10 ?g selenium, 1-15 ?g manganese, 10-55 ?g iodine, 0.03-2.25 ?g chromium, and 0.3-5 ?g molybdenum. Future scientific findings may justify deviations from these suggested ranges. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24751625

Domellöf, Magnus

2014-01-01

308

Screening for Hearing Loss in Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses six criteria for justifying universal infant hearing screening, including: significant consequences must result when the disorder is not detected, programs must be available, accessible, and cost-effective, and birth-admission screening must result in an improved outcome. It concludes that universal detection of infant

Diefendorf, Allan O.

1997-01-01

309

Glucose kinetics in infants of diabetic mothers  

SciTech Connect

Glucose kinetic studies were performed to define the glucose turnover rate with 78% enriched D-(U-13C) glucose by the prime constant infusion technique at less than or equal to 6 hours of age in nine infants of diabetic mothers (four insulin-dependent and five chemical diabetic patients) at term. Five normal infants were studied as control subjects. All infants received 0.9% saline intravenously during the study with the tracer. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and glucose13/12C ratios were measured during the steady state, and the glucose turnover rate was derived. The average plasma glucose concentration was similar during the steady state in the infants of the diabetic mothers and in the control infants, and the glucose turnover rate was not significantly different among the groups: 2.3 +/- 0.6 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of insulin-dependent diabetic patients; 2.4 +/- 0.4 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of chemical diabetic patients; and 3.2 +/- 0.3 mg . kg-1 min-1 in the control subjects. Good control of maternal diabetes evidenced by the normal maternal hemoglobin A1c and plasma glucose concentration at delivery and cord plasma glucose concentration resulted in glucose kinetic values in the infants of diabetic mothers that were indistinguishable from those of control subjects. The data further support the importance of good control of the diabetic state in the pregnant woman to minimize or prevent neonatal hypoglycemia.

Cowett, R.M.; Susa, J.B.; Giletti, B.; Oh, W.; Schwartz, R.

1983-08-01

310

Stool microflora in extremely low birthweight infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo serially characterise aerobic and anaerobic stool microflora in extremely low birthweight infants and to correlate colonisation patterns with clinical risk factors.METHODSStool specimens from 29 infants of birthweight <1000 g were collected on days 10, 20, and 30 after birth. Quantitative aerobic and anaerobic cultures were performed.RESULTSBy day 30, predominant species were Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterbacter cloacae,

Ira H Gewolb; Richard S Schwalbe; Vicki L Taciak; Tracy S Harrison; Pinaki Panigrahi

1999-01-01

311

Preterm Infants' Manipulative Exploration of Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the manipulative exploration of objects of 30 nine-month-old preterm infants with that of 20 nine-month-old full-term infants. Although no difference between the preterms and the full terms was noted, a high-risk preterm subgroup manipulated objects less. A relationship was found between manipulative exploration at nine months and later…

Ruff, Holly A.; And Others

1984-01-01

312

The Distribution of Visual Attention in Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants were familiarized with geometric forms and were then tested with a novel form paired with the familiar one. Compared to infants who had longer looks at the display, those who had shorter looks demonstrated more broadly distributed looks, showed more looks and shifts, and inspected more stimulus areas; and their shifts included more…

Jankowski, Jeffery J.; Rose, Susan A.

1997-01-01

313

Phonotactic Acquisition in Healthy Preterm Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous work has shown that preterm infants are at higher risk for cognitive/language delays than full-term infants. Recent studies, focusing on prosody (i.e. rhythm, intonation), have suggested that prosodic perception development in preterms is indexed by maturational rather than postnatal/listening age. However, because prosody is heard…

Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

2012-01-01

314

Do Infants Have a Theory of Mind?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central question debated in current research on infant social cognition is "do infants have a theory of mind?" It is argued here that this question is understood and treated in radically different ways by different participants of the debate arguing either for (e.g., Onishi & Baillargeon, 2005) or against early competence in theory of mind…

Rakoczy, Hannes

2012-01-01

315

Infant Mortality: Priority for Social Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bemoans the failure of the social work profession to claim infant mortality as a professional priority in spite of evidence of the appropriateness of social work interventions. Stresses social work's role in the reduction of preventable infant deaths. (Author/KS)

Combs-Orme, Terri

1987-01-01

316

Infants' Ability to Parse Continuous Actions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a series of 3 experiments, the authors examined 6- and 8-month-old infants' capacities to detect target actions in a continuous action sequence. In Experiment 1, infants were habituated to 2 different target actions and subsequently were presented with 2 continuous action sequences that either included or did not include the familiar target…

Hespos, Susan J.; Saylor, Megan M.; Grossman, Stacy R.

2009-01-01

317

DIET OF INFANTS AND CHILDREN IN DISASTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plans are proposed for feeding infants and children in case of ; thermonuclear attack. Plans can be made on every level from the national down ; through the individual family, the family being a most important link in the ; chain. The goal would be to have the nutritional needs of the infant ; uninterrupted. It is mandatory that each

Bruton

1962-01-01

318

Infant perception of atypical speech signals.  

PubMed

The ability to decode atypical and degraded speech signals as intelligible is a hallmark of speech perception. Human adults can perceive sounds as speech even when they are generated by a variety of nonhuman sources including computers and parrots. We examined how infants perceive the speech-like vocalizations of a parrot. Further, we examined how visual context influences infant speech perception. Nine-month-olds heard speech and nonspeech sounds produced by either a human or a parrot, concurrently with 1 of 2 visual displays: a static checkerboard or a static image of a human face. Using an infant-controlled looking task, we examined infants' preferences for speech and nonspeech sounds. Infants listened equally to parrot speech and nonspeech when paired with a checkerboard. However, in the presence of faces, infants listened longer to parrot speech than to nonspeech sounds, such that their preference for parrot speech was similar to their preference for human speech sounds. These data are consistent with the possibility that infants treat parrot speech similarly to human speech relative to nonspeech vocalizations but only in some visual contexts. Like adults, infants may perceive a range of signals as speech. PMID:22709131

Vouloumanos, Athena; Gelfand, Hanna M

2013-05-01

319

Prenatal care and infant lead exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the relation between prenatal care of mothers and blood lead concentrations in their offspring in the first year of life.Methods: A retrospective survey was conducted of 200 predominantly black infants between the ages of 6 and 22 months (mean age, 13.4 months). The infants had been screened for the first time

Julie C. Recknor; J. Routt Reigart; Paul M. Darden; Robert A. Goyer; Kenneth Olden; Marlene C. Richardson

1997-01-01

320

Human Infants' Accommodation Responses to Dynamic Stimuli  

PubMed Central

Purpose A young infant’s environment routinely consists of moving objects. The dynamics of the infant accommodative system are almost unknown and yet have a large impact on habitual retinal image quality and visual experience. The goal of this study was to record infants’ dynamic accommodative responses to stimuli moving at a range of velocities. Methods Binocular accommodative responses were recorded at 25 Hz. Data from infants 8 to 20 weeks of age and pre-presbyopic adults were analyzed. A high-contrast image of a clown was moved between 20- and 50-cm viewing distances at four velocities (a step, 50 cm/s, 20 cm/s, and 5 cm/s). Results Most infants who had clear responses were able to initiate their response within a second of stimulus onset. The infants were able to discriminate the different stimulus velocities and to adjust their response velocities and durations in an appropriate fashion. Conclusions The data indicate that by the third postnatal month infants are able to respond with latencies within a factor of two of adults’ and that there is little immaturity in the motor capabilities of the accommodative system compared with the sensory visual system at the same age.

Tondel, Grazyna M.; Candy, T. Rowan

2009-01-01

321

Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…

Cohen, Libby

322

Infant Defensive Reactions to Visual Occlusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the initial organization of the infant's reaction to having his vision occluded by an opaque cloth; traces the development of this reaction over the first six months; and probes the role the occlusion of vision plays in provoking the reaction. Fifty videotaped sessions of infants during two conditions - eyes covered with an…

Adamson, Lauren; Tronick, Edward

323

Origins of joint visual attention in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined the origins of joint visual attention with a training procedure. In Experi- ment I, infants aged 6- 11 months were tested for a gaze-following (joint visual attention) response under feedback and no feedback conditions. In Experiment 2, infants 8-9 months received feedback for either following the experimenter's gaze (natural group) or looking to the opposite side (unnatural

Valerie Corkum; Chris Moore

1998-01-01

324

Origins of Individual Differences in Infant Shyness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored origins of individual differences in infant shyness by studying its relationship to parental shyness, sociability, and introversion-extraversion. Full adoption design examined role of both genetic and family environmental influences as possible etiological factors in development of infant shyness. Results indicate genetic influences and…

Daniels, Denise; Plomin, Robert

1985-01-01

325

Neck masses in infants and children.  

PubMed

Neck masses, both inflammatory and tumoral, are common in infants and children, and most are benign. This article examines the imaging characteristics of various neck masses in infants and children. Routine radiographs, ultrasound, CT scan, MR imaging, and nuclear scintigraphy are discussed. PMID:9374993

Swischuk, L E; John, S D

1997-11-01

326

Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Triadic Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background and method: The aim of this study was to examine whether a mother's sensitivity towards her one-year-old infant is related to the infant's propensity to engage in "triadic" relations--that is, to orientate to an adult's engagement with objects and events in the world, for example in sharing experiences with an adult. In order to…

Peter Hobson, R.; Patrick, Matthew P. H.; Crandell, Lisa E.; Garcia Perez, Rosa M.; Lee, Anthony

2004-01-01

327

Social Bundles: Thinking through the Infant Body  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on a UK research study on immunization, this article investigates parents' understandings of the relationship between themselves, their infants, other bodies, the state, and cultural practices--material and symbolic. The article argues that infant bodies are best thought of as always social bundles, rather than as biobundles made social…

Brownlie, Julie; Leith, Valerie M. Sheach

2011-01-01

328

[Follow up care of the preterm infant].  

PubMed

The birthrate of preterm infants in Switzerland has remained stable over the last few years with 7.3 % of all live births in 2011. Although outcome and survival have significantly improved in the last decades, morbidity and mortality of preterm infants are still challenging the health care system. Important sequelae especially of extreme preterm birth are bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), impaired growth and neurodevelopmental delay. Respiratory problems following discharge are more common among preterm infants and include an increased risk of cough, wheeze and airway hyperresponsiveness leading to a higher re-hospitalization rate in the first year of life compared to term infants. Routine vaccinations should be administered according to the chronological age. For very preterm infants an accelerated vaccination schedule is recommended. Respiratory-Syncytial-Virus (RSV) immunoglobulin is available for infants with moderate and severe BPD. Growth and neurodevelopment of preterm infants should be closely monitored. In the first 24 months of life, interpretation of the findings should take the preterm birth into account and gestational age should be corrected accordingly. Preterm infants are at risk for neurodevelopmental impairment including vision and hearing. Early detection of neurodevelopmental problems and implementation of appropriate interventions can improve outcome. PMID:24168798

Pramana, Isabelle A; Neumann, Roland P

2013-11-01

329

Immune Vulnerability of Infants to Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

One of the challenges faced by the infant immune system is learning to distinguish the myriad of foreign but nonthreatening antigens encountered from those expressed by true pathogens. This balance is reflected in the diminished production of proinflammatory cytokines by both innate and adaptive immune cells in the infant. A downside of this bias is that several factors critical for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection are significantly restricted in infants, including TNF, IL-1, and IL-12. Furthermore, infant T cells are inherently less capable of differentiating into IFN-?-producing T cells. As a result, infected infants are 5–10 times more likely than adults to develop active tuberculosis (TB) and have higher rates of severe disseminated disease, including miliary TB and meningitis. Infant TB is a fundamentally different disease than TB in immune competent adults. Immunotherapeutics, therefore, should be specifically evaluated in infants before they are routinely employed to treat TB in this age group. Modalities aimed at reducing inflammation, which may be beneficial for adjunctive therapy of some forms of TB in older children and adults, may be of no benefit or even harmful in infants who manifest much less inflammatory disease.

Vanden Driessche, Koen; Marais, Ben J.; Fink, Pamela J.; Urdahl, Kevin B.

2013-01-01

330

Nap-Dependent Learning in Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sleep has been shown to aid a variety of learning and memory processes in adults (Stickgold, 2005 ). Recently, we showed that infants' learning also benefits from subsequent sleep such that infants who nap are able to abstract the general grammatical pattern of a briefly presented artificial language (Gomez, Bootzin & Nadel, 2006 ). In the present…

Hupbach, Almut; Gomez, Rebecca L.; Bootzin, Richard R.; Nadel, Lynn

2009-01-01

331

A Developmental Model of Infant Visual Accommodation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the major findings and interprets the results of longitudinal and cross-sectional exPeriments concerning the development of visual accommodation in infants 1 to 3 months of age. The stimulus was a high-contrast, random checkerboard which was presented at three different distances from the infants (25, 50 or 100 cm). The physical…

Banks, Martin S.; Leitner, Edward F.

332

Parent Infant Program: Program Manager's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document consists of a program manager's manual for the Parent Infant Program (PIP), an early intervention program designed to foster effective parenting of infants with developmental disabilities and delays. Section 1 provides a program overview. Three program goals are: to build parental confidence as primary teachers/facilitators of their…

Wnek, Linda; And Others

333

Infant Botulism in Argentina, 1982––1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first cases of infant botulism in Argentina were described in 1982. From 1982 to 1997, 146 cases of infant botulism were diagnosed by the identification of botulinal toxin and Clostridium botulinum in feces. The cases were between 2 and 48 weeks of age: 90% were between 5 and 24 weeks old, and 49% were between 5 and 12 weeks

R. A. Fernández; A. S. Ciccarelli; O. N. P. de Centorbi; H. Centorbi; F. A. Rosetti; L. I. T. de Jong; N. Demo

1999-01-01

334

Infant and Toddler Program Quality Review Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program quality review instrument for California's infant and toddler programs focuses on seven functional program components. Components include: (1) philosophy, goals, and objectives; (2) administration; (3) maintenance of a developmental profile on each infant and toddler; (4) provision of a developmental program; (5) parent education and…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

335

The Onset of Working Memory in Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We used an optimized configuration of the delayed-response task to explore the ability of young infants to remember which of 2 locations was correct across 12 trials after a 1- to 2-sec delay. Performance improved with age, particularly after 5.5 months. These findings suggest an onset of appreciable working memory for many infants in the middle…

Reznick, J. Steven; Morrow, Judy D.; Goldman, Barbara Davis; Snyder, Jessica

2004-01-01

336

The epidemiology of sudden infant death syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-nine cases of sudden infant death syndrome were identified among 47 413 liveborn deliveries to Cardiff residents during the years 1965-73 and 1975-77. Nineteen predictive factors available on the Cardiff Birth Survey record were evaluated individually and jointly in terms of their power to identify risk of sudden and unexpected infant death.

J. F. Murphy; R. G. Newcombe; J. R. Sibert

1982-01-01

337

Dummies and the sudden infant death syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between dummy use and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) was investigated in 485 deaths due to SIDS in the postneonatal age group and compared with 1800 control infants. Parental interviews were completed in 87% of subjects. The prevalence of dummy use in New Zealand is low and varies within New Zealand. Dummy use in the two week period

E A Mitchell; B J Taylor; R P Ford; A W Stewart; D M Becroft; J M Thompson; R Scragg; I B Hassall; D M Barry; E M Allen

1993-01-01

338

Brain Weight and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased brain weights have been reported in the literature to occur among infants who have died from sudden infant death syndrome, suggesting that cerebral edema might play a role in the cause of death among these children. We have compared brain weights from children between the ages of 1 week and 1 year, autopsied between 1980 and 1992. One group

Geir Falck; Jovan Rajs

1995-01-01

339

Sudden infant deaths: stress, arousal and SIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) has dropped in most countries following the development of education campaigns on the avoidance of preventable risk factors for SIDS. These include factors in the infant's micro environment, such as prenatal passive smoking, administration of sedative drugs, prone sleep, high ambient temperature or sleeping with the face covered. Sleep laboratory studies

A Kahn; J Groswasser; P Franco; S Scaillet; T Sawaguchi; I Kelmanson; B Dan

2003-01-01

340

Reducing Infant Mortality. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the wide range of expertise that has been brought to bear on reducing infant mortality across the nation, the first year of life remains a time of considerable risk for many babies. Although the U.S. spends more on health care than any other country, its infant mortality rate remains higher than that of most other industrialized nations.…

Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

2009-01-01

341

Pupil Dilation and Object Permanence in Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the relative merits of looking time and pupil diameter measures in the study of early cognitive abilities of infants. Ten-month-old infants took part in a modified version of the classic drawbridge experiment used to study object permanence (Baillargeon, Spelke, & Wasserman, 1985). The study involved a factorial design where…

Sirois, Sylvain; Jackson, Iain R.

2012-01-01

342

Precision of Auditory Localization in Human Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study measures the precision of auditory localization in 26- to 30-week-old infants using the adult minimum audible angle test. Results show that infants discriminate sound displacements of about 19 degrees, considerably less accurate than adult values of one to two degrees. (Author/RWB)

Ashmead, Daniel H.; And Others

1987-01-01

343

Who's Vulnerable in Infant Child Care Centers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that infants and toddlers, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to a variety of infectious diseases from infant-toddler child care centers. These diseases include infectious diarrhea; rubella; cytomeglovirus; hepatitis A, and haemophilus influenza type B. Suggests ways to prevent the spread of such diseases. (BB)

Kendall, Earline D.; Moukaddem, Virginia E.

1992-01-01

344

Factors associated with infant and adolescent mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have described factors associated with infant and adoles- cent mortality since birth. We report here mortality during a 20-year period in a birth cohort from Ribeirão Preto in order to identify birth variables that influenced mortality among infants and children be- tween 10 and 19 years of age, the main causes of death, and the influence of social

Z. A. R. Oliveira; H. Bettiol; M. R. P. Gutierrez; A. A. M. Silva; M. A. Barbieri

2007-01-01

345

Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

2010-01-01

346

Infant Eyes: A Window on Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking "under the hood" if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants' gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous…

Aslin, Richard N.

2012-01-01

347

Phonotactic Constraints on Infant Word Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do infants use their knowledge of native language sound patterns when learning words? There is ample evidence of infants' precocious acquisition of native language sound structure during the first year of life, but much less evidence concerning how they apply this knowledge to the task of associating sounds with meanings in word learning. To…

Estes, Katharine Graf; Edwards, Jan; Saffran, Jenny R.

2011-01-01

348

Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

2010-01-01

349

Infant/Toddler Caregiving: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography provides references of practical use to those concerned with infant/toddler caregiving. While many of the works cited concern quality group care for infants and toddlers, some works cited deal specifically with parenting, the parent/child relationship, and activities parents may share with their very young children. In…

Honig, Alice Sterling; Wittmer, Donna Sasse

350

Infants Experience Perceptual Narrowing for Nonprimate Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceptual narrowing--a phenomenon in which perception is broad from birth, but narrows as a function of experience--has previously been tested with primate faces. In the first 6 months of life, infants can discriminate among individual human and monkey faces. Though the ability to discriminate monkey faces is lost after about 9 months, infants

Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Varga, Krisztina; Frick, Janet E.; Fragaszy, Dorothy

2011-01-01

351

Air Pollution and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Sudden infant death syn- drome (SIDS) affects 1 in 1000 live births and is the most common cause of infant death after the perinatal period. Objective. To determine the influence of air pollution on the incidence of SIDS. Methods. Time-series analyses were performed to compare the daily mortality rates for SIDS and the daily air pollution concentrations in each

Robert Dales; Richard T. Burnett; Marc Smith-Doiron; David M. Stieb; Jeffrey R. Brook

2009-01-01

352

Mother, infant, and household factors associated with the type of food infants receive in developing countries.  

PubMed

Objectives: We explore the complex factors associated with infant feeding by analyzing what mother, infant, and household factors are associated with the types of food given to infants. We seek to quantify associations in order to inform public health policy about the importance of target populations for infant feeding programs. Methods: We used data from the Demographic Health Survey in 20 developing countries for multiple years to examine mother, infant, and household factors associated with six types of food given to infants (exclusive breastfeeding, non-exclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods). We performed a seemingly unrelated regressions analysis with community-year fixed effects to account for correlation between food types and control for confounding factors associated with community resources, culture, time period, and geography in the pooled analysis. Results: We found that several mother, infant, and household characteristics were associated with each of the feeding types. Most notably, mother's education, working status, and weight are significantly associated with the type of food given to infants. We provide quantified estimates of the association of each of these variables with six types of food given to infants. Conclusion: By identifying maternal characteristics associated with infant feeding and quantifying those associations, we help public health policymakers generate priorities for targeting infant feeding programs to specific populations that are at greatest risk. Higher educated, working mothers are best to target with exclusive breastfeeding programs for young infants. Mothers with lower education are best to target with complementary feeding programs in infants older than 1?year. Finally, while maternal weight is associated with higher levels of exclusive breastfeeding the association is too weak to merit targeting of breastfeeding programs to low-weight mothers. PMID:24616887

Yarnoff, Benjamin; Allaire, Benjamin; Detzel, Patrick

2014-01-01

353

Infants make quantity discriminations for substances.  

PubMed

Infants can track small groups of solid objects, and infants can respond when these quantities change. But earlier work is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 (N = 88) used a habituation paradigm to show infants can register changes in the size of piles of sand that they see poured from a container when there is a 1-to-4 ratio. Experiment 2 (N = 82) tested whether infants could discriminate a 1-to-2 ratio. The results demonstrate that females could discriminate the difference but males could not. These findings constitute the youngest evidence of successful quantity discriminations for a noncohesive substance and begin to characterize the nature of the representation for noncohesive entities. PMID:22181851

Hespos, Susan J; Dora, Begum; Rips, Lance J; Christie, Stella

2012-01-01

354

Early neurodevelopment in infants with deformational plagiocephaly.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to characterize the early neurodevelopmental profile of Australian infants with deformational plagiocephaly (DP). Twenty-one infants with a confirmed diagnosis of DP (mean age, 7.9 months; SD, 2.0 months) were assessed on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition, before treatment. As a group, infants with DP showed significantly weaker motor skills compared with the normative population. Patients with DP did not significantly differ from normative population estimates with respect to cognitive abilities. Males with DP displayed significantly reduced motor abilities compared to females. These findings do not suggest that DP causes developmental problems, but DP could be a marker for risk of developmental problems. Screening for developmental concerns in infants with DP is therefore important. PMID:23851774

Knight, Sarah J; Anderson, Vicki A; Meara, John G; Da Costa, Annette C

2013-07-01

355

Inferences about infants' visual brain mechanisms.  

PubMed

We discuss hypotheses that link the measurements we can make with infants to inferences about their developing neural mechanisms. First, we examine evidence from the sensitivity to visual stimulus properties seen in infants' responses, using both electrophysiological measures (transient and steady-state recordings of visual evoked potentials/visual event-related potentials) and behavioral measures and compare this with the sensitivity of brain processes, known from data on mammalian neurophysiology and human neuroimaging. The evidence for multiple behavioral systems with different patterns of visual sensitivity is discussed. Second, we consider the analogies which can be made between infants' behavior and that of adults with identified brain damage, and extend these links to hypothesize about the brain basis of visual deficits in infants and children with developmental disorders. Last, we consider how these lines of data might allow us to form "inverse linking hypotheses" about infants' visual experience. PMID:24476965

Atkinson, Janette; Braddick, Oliver

2013-11-01

356

Shining light on infants' discovery of structure.  

PubMed

Learning and discovery seem often to begin with noting patterns. Human infants are skilled at pattern detection, even patterns only definable at an abstract level, which is key to their acquisition of complex knowledge systems such as language and music. However, research examining infants' abstract rule learning has generated inconsistent results. We propose that apparent domain differences in infants' abstract rule learning may be the result of extraneous stimulus variation and discrepancies in the methodologies employed across studies probing this skill. We discuss how a behavioral methodology indexing infants' online learning would be valuable in furthering understanding of infants' (as well as adults') abstract rule learning and its neurophysiological concomitants. We outline current research aimed at developing such an index, and we propose future research, pairing such techniques with neurophysiological methods, aimed at shining more light on human skill at discovering structure. PMID:24851348

Mendoza, Jennifer K; Baldwin, Dare

2014-01-01

357

Cefoperazone pharmacokinetics in preterm infants.  

PubMed Central

The elimination pharmacokinetics of cefoperazone, a new cephalosporin, were studied in 15 preterm infants ranging in gestational age from 32 to 36 weeks and in postnatal age from 1 to 6 days. The infants received a single dose of either 50 or 250 mg of cefoperazone per kg by intravenous infusion. Blood samples were collected at specified times after completion of the drug infusion and then assayed for cefoperazone. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental analysis. Mean values for plasma half-life, elimination rate constant, apparent steady-state volume of distribution, and total body clearance were 5.53 h, 0.15 h-1, 124 ml/kg, and 36 ml/h per kg, respectively, for the group receiving a 50-mg/kg dose and 5.76 h, 0.14 h-1, 111 ml/kg, and 35 ml/h per kg, respectively, for the group receiving a 250-mg/kg dose. Positive correlations between gestational age and clearance and elimination rate were detected. A 50-mg/kg dose every 12 h ensured adequate serum levels for most of the common neonatal pathogens. Other than a transient rise in eosinophils in four subjects, no adverse effects were noted.

Bosso, J A; Chan, G M; Matsen, J M

1983-01-01

358

Fluoride content of infant foods.  

PubMed

Excessive fluoride consumption during the first 2 years of life is associated with an increased risk of dental fluorosis. Estimates of fluoride intake from various sources may aid in determining a child's risk for developing fluorosis. This study sought to assess the fluoride content of commercially available foods for infants, and to guide dentists who are advising parents of young children about fluoride intake. Three samples each of 20 different foods (including fruits and vegetables, as well as chicken, turkey, beef/ham, and vegetarian dinners) from 3 manufacturers were analyzed (in duplicate) for their fluoride content. Among the 360 samples tested, fluoride concentration ranged from 0.007-4.13 ?g fluoride/g food. All foods tested had detectable amounts of fluoride. Chicken products had the highest mean levels of fluoride, followed by turkey products. Consuming >1 serving per day of the high fluoride concentration products in this study would place children over the recommended daily fluoride intake. Fluoride from infant foods should be taken into account when determining total daily fluoride intake. PMID:24598501

Steele, Jaime L; Martinez-Mier, E Angeles; Sanders, Brian J; Jones, James E; Jackson, Richard D; Soto-Rojas, Armando E; Tomlin, Angela M; Eckert, George J

2014-01-01

359

Mother-infant and father-infant attachment among alcoholic families  

PubMed Central

This study examined the association between fathers’ alcoholism and other risk factors such as parental depression, family conflict, infant temperament, and parent–infant attachment. The quality of parent–infant interactions was hypothesized to be a proximal mediator of the associations among alcoholism and other risk factors and attachment. The participants were 223 families (104 nonalcoholic families and 119 alcoholic families) with 12-month-old infants recruited through birth records. Infants in families with two parents with alcohol problem had significantly higher rates of insecure attachment with both parents. Structural Equations Modeling indicated that the fathers’ alcohol problem was associated with lower paternal sensitivity (higher negative affect, lower positive engagement, and lower sensitive responding) during father–infant play interactions, and this in turn was associated with higher risk for infant attachment insecurity with fathers. The association between the fathers’ alcohol problem and infant attachment security with the mother was mediated by maternal depression, and maternal alcohol problems and family conflict were associated with maternal sensitivity during play interactions. These results indicate that the fathers’ alcoholism is associated with higher family risk including the quality of the parent–infant relationship; infant attachment develops in a family context; and this context has a significant association with attachment security.

EIDEN, RINA DAS; EDWARDS, ELLEN PETERSON; LEONARD, KENNETH E.

2009-01-01

360

Rapid diagnosis of pertussis in young infants: comparison of culture, PCR, and infant's and mother's serology.  

PubMed Central

The contribution of maternal pertussis serology comparing prepartum serum to serum collected during the infant's disease to the diagnosis of pertussis in infants was evaluated for 28 pairs of young infants with pertussis syndrome and their mothers and was compared to those of culture and PCR. Infants had a nasopharyngeal aspiration tested by PCR, and acute and convalescent sera were collected during their disease. Mothers had a first acute serum collected concomitantly with the infant's acute serum, and both acute sera were compared to a prepartum serum. Sera were analyzed by immunoblotting for the detection of anti-pertussis toxin (PT) antibodies. Serological evidence of pertussis in infants was assessed as either an increase in anti-PT antibody levels between the mother's prepartum and acute sera or the presence of antibodies in the infant's acute serum and their absence in both the mother's acute and prepartum sera. Culture and PCR sensitivity were 43 and 89%, respectively. Most infants (18 of 24) had no pertussis antibody detectable in their acute sera, confirming a delayed immune response at this age. A comparison of infant's and mother's serology, using prepartum serum, rapidly confirmed the diagnosis in 57% of the cases. Although less sensitive than PCR, this serological method should be used for a rapid diagnosis of pertussis in young infants when culture and PCR are either not available or negative.

Grimprel, E; Njamkepo, E; Begue, P; Guiso, N

1997-01-01

361

NonNutritive Sucking Habits in Sleeping Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Pacifier use has been postulated to decrease the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The responsible mechanisms are, however, unclear. Objectives: Since little is known about the non-nutritive sucking (NNS) habits of infants during sleep, we investigated NNS patterns and changes of physiological parameters during NNS in sleeping infants. Methods: Polygraphic recordings were performed in 12 infants with

Marie Hanzer; Heinz Zotter; Werner Sauseng; Gerhard Pichler; Wilhelm Müller; Reinhold Kerbl

2010-01-01

362

Families, Not Parents, Differ: Development of Communication in Finnish Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study on Finnish families was conducted to identify developmental differences in family-level communication among mothers, fathers, and their infants during the second half of the infant's first year, and associations with infants' later language and communicative skills. We examined coregulated communication of parent-infant

Haapakoski, Maija; Silven, Maarit

2009-01-01

363

Sex differences, environmental complexity, and mother-infant relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential handling of male and female infants by their mothers and differential behavior of male and female infants independent of maternal behavior is a critical research issue with significant implications for understanding human development. This report describes mother-infant interaction in the squirrel monkey as a function of the infant's sex in a variety of laboratory environments. In a complex social

Leonard A. Rosenblum

1974-01-01

364

The Meaning of Infants' Looks: Information Seeking and Comfort Seeking?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two studies, the reason that infants in a novel situation look to adults was assessed. In Study 1, 10- and 13-month-old infants encountered a visual cliff that was deep (56 cm) or ambiguous (20 cm). Infants crossed the ambiguous cliff reliably faster than the deep cliff, and the first looks to mother of infants in the deep cliff condition were…

Striano, Tricia; Vaish, Amrisha; Benigno, Joann P.

2006-01-01

365

Relationships between Preterm Infants and Their Parents: Disruption and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The birth and hospitalization of a preterm infant have powerful effects on the emerging parent-infant relationship. Characteristics of parents, infant factors, and factors in the hospital and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) environments--in addition to the circumstances surrounding preterm birth--may disrupt parent-infant relationships.…

Talmi, Ayelet; Harmon, Robert J.

2003-01-01

366

International Child Care Practices Study: infant sleeping environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The International Child Care Practices Study (ICCPS) has collected descriptive data from 21 centres in 17 countries. In this report, data are presented on the infant sleeping environment with the main focus being sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) risk factors (bedsharing and infant using a pillow) and protective factors (infant sharing a room with adult) that are not yet

Alejandre Jenik; John Vance; Karen Walmsley; Katie Pollard; Michelle Freemantle; Dot Ewing; Christa Einspieler; Heidemarie Engele; Petra Ritter; G. Elske Hildes-Ripstein; Monica Arancibia; Xiaocheng Ji; Haiqi Li; E. A. S Nelson; Crystal Bedard; Karin Helweg-Larsen; Katrine Sidenius; Susan Karlqvist; Christian Poets; Eva Barko; Bernadette Kiberd; Mary McDonnell; Gianpaolo Donzelli; Raffaele Piumelli; Luca Landini; Arturo Giustardi; Hiroshi Nishida; Stephanie Fukui; Toshiko Sawaguchi; Masataka Ino; Takeshi Horiuchi; Koki Oguchi; Barry J Taylor; Sheila Williams; Yildiz Perk; David Tappin; Joseph Milerad; Maria Wennborg; N Aryayev; V Nepomyashchaya

2001-01-01

367

Relationships Between Neonatal Characteristics and Mother-Infant Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 51 mothers and their newborn infants were studied in order to evaluate the relationship between neonatal style and the early mother-infant relationship. The procedure included an infant assessment with the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale, a mother-infant interaction observation during feeding, and an interview concerning maternal…

Osofsky, Joy D.; Danzger, Barbara

368

Linguistic Significance of Babbling: Evidence from a Tracheostomized Infant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the phonetic patterns and linguistic development of an infant who was tracheostomized during the period that infants normally begin to produce syllabic vocalization. It was found that the infant had developed only a tenth of the canonical syllables expected in normally developing infants, a small inventory of consonant-like segments, and…

Locke, John L.; Pearson, Dawn M.

1990-01-01

369

Dress and care of infants in health and illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mothers of 199 infants (mean age 36.7 days) were interviewed to determine how the infant was dressed and wrapped, and how the mother would deal with illness. These data were related to measures of the infant's toe and underarm temperatures and demographic information about the family. The data did not support the hypothesis that infants with particular types of

C Eiser; C Town; J Tripp

1985-01-01

370

Temperamental precursors of infant attachment with mothers and fathers.  

PubMed

The degree to which parent sensitivity and infant temperament distinguish attachment classification was examined. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the effect of parent sensitivity and infant temperament on infant-mother and infant-father attachment. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, and their infants (N = 135) when the infant was 3-, 5-, 7-, 12-, and 14-months old. Temperament was measured using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003); parent sensitivity was coded during the Still Face Paradigm (Tronick, Als, Adamson, Wise, & Brazelton, 1978); attachment was coded using the Strange Situation (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978). Results indicate that mothers and fathers were less sensitive with insecure-avoidant infants. Whereas only one difference was found for infant-mother attachment groups and temperament, five significant differences emerged for infant-father attachment groups, with the majority involving insecure-ambivalent attachment. Infants classified as ambivalent with fathers were higher in perceptual sensitivity and cuddliness and these infants also showed a greater increase in low-intensity pleasure over time compared with other infants. Results indicate the importance of both parent sensitivity and infant temperament, though operating in somewhat different ways, in the development of the infant-mother and infant-father attachment relationship. PMID:24103401

Planalp, Elizabeth M; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M

2013-12-01

371

Peeking at the Relationship World of Infant Friends and Caregivers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study aimed to explore how infants share and experience friendships and examine the role of infant caregivers in social and friendship experiences among infants. The data were collected through classroom observation over a semester. Findings yielded complex and rich social relationships that both infant friends and caregivers…

Shin, Minsun

2010-01-01

372

Phonotactic constraints on infant word learning  

PubMed Central

How do infants use their knowledge of native language sound patterns when learning words? There is ample evidence of infants' precocious acquisition of native language sound structure during the first years of life, but much less evidence concerning how they apply this knowledge to the task of associating sounds with meanings in word learning. To address this question, 18-month-olds were presented with two phonotactically legal object labels (containing sound sequences that occur frequently in English) or two phonotactically illegal object labels (containing sound sequences that never occur in English), paired with novel objects. Infants were then tested using a looking-while-listening measure. The results revealed that infants looked at the correct objects after hearing the legal labels, but not the illegal labels. Furthermore, vocabulary size was related to performance. Infants with larger receptive vocabularies displayed greater differences between learning of legal and illegal labels than infants with smaller vocabularies. These findings provide evidence that infants' knowledge of native language sound patterns influences their word learning.

Graf Estes, Katharine; Edwards, Jan; Saffran, Jenny R.

2010-01-01

373

Mechanical analysis of infant carrying in hominoids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In all higher nonhuman primates, species survival depends upon safe carrying of infants clinging to body hair of adults. In this work, measurements of mechanical properties of ape hair (gibbon, orangutan, and gorilla) are presented, focusing on constraints for safe infant carrying. Results of hair tensile properties are shown to be species-dependent. Analysis of the mechanics of the mounting position, typical of heavier infant carrying among African apes, shows that both clinging and friction are necessary to carry heavy infants. As a consequence, a required relationship between infant weight, hair-hair friction coefficient, and body angle exists. The hair-hair friction coefficient is measured using natural ape skin samples, and dependence on load and humidity is analyzed. Numerical evaluation of the equilibrium constraint is in agreement with the knuckle-walking quadruped position of African apes. Bipedality is clearly incompatible with the usual clinging and mounting pattern of infant carrying, requiring a revision of models of hominization in relation to the divergence between apes and hominins. These results suggest that safe carrying of heavy infants justify the emergence of biped form of locomotion. Ways to test this possibility are foreseen here.

Amaral, Lia Q.

2008-04-01

374

Speech vs. singing: infants choose happier sounds.  

PubMed

Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants' attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech and singing. In Experiment 1, infants 4-13 months of age were exposed to happy-sounding infant-directed speech vs. hummed lullabies by the same woman. They listened significantly longer to the speech, which had considerably greater acoustic variability and expressiveness, than to the lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants of comparable age who heard the lyrics of a Turkish children's song spoken vs. sung in a joyful/happy manner did not exhibit differential listening. Infants in Experiment 3 heard the happily sung lyrics of the Turkish children's song vs. a version that was spoken in an adult-directed or affectively neutral manner. They listened significantly longer to the sung version. Overall, happy voice quality rather than vocal mode (speech or singing) was the principal contributor to infant attention, regardless of age. PMID:23805119

Corbeil, Marieve; Trehub, Sandra E; Peretz, Isabelle

2013-01-01

375

Mechanical analysis of infant carrying in hominoids  

PubMed Central

In all higher nonhuman primates, species survival depends upon safe carrying of infants clinging to body hair of adults. In this work, measurements of mechanical properties of ape hair (gibbon, orangutan, and gorilla) are presented, focusing on constraints for safe infant carrying. Results of hair tensile properties are shown to be species-dependent. Analysis of the mechanics of the mounting position, typical of heavier infant carrying among African apes, shows that both clinging and friction are necessary to carry heavy infants. As a consequence, a required relationship between infant weight, hair–hair friction coefficient, and body angle exists. The hair–hair friction coefficient is measured using natural ape skin samples, and dependence on load and humidity is analyzed. Numerical evaluation of the equilibrium constraint is in agreement with the knuckle-walking quadruped position of African apes. Bipedality is clearly incompatible with the usual clinging and mounting pattern of infant carrying, requiring a revision of models of hominization in relation to the divergence between apes and hominins. These results suggest that safe carrying of heavy infants justify the emergence of biped form of locomotion. Ways to test this possibility are foreseen here.

2007-01-01

376

Preterm infants--odontological aspects.  

PubMed

Preterm birth is associated with medical complications and treatments postnatally and disturbances in growth and development. Primary and permanent teeth develop during this postnatal period. The overall aim of the present thesis was to elucidate the effects of preterm birth and postnatal complications on oral health and the dentoalveolar development during adolescence, and to study the effects of preterm birth on caries during childhood, in a well-defined group of preterm infants. In the same group, explore the development of the primary and permanent teeth and compare the results with a matched control group and control teeth. The subjects consisted of 40 (45) of 56 surviving infants, born < 29 weeks of gestational age (GA), and matched healthy children born at term. The material consisted of 44 teeth from 14 of the preterm adolescents and 36 control teeth from healthy children. Clinical examinations and dental cast analysis were performed during adolescence and morbidity was noted. Retrospective information from medical and dental records was obtained. Dental enamel was analyzed in a polarized light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Further, chemical analyses of enamel and dentin were performed with X-ray microanalysis. The results showed that during adolescence, more preterms had plaque and gingival inflammation, lower salivary secretion, more S. mutans and severe hypomineralization. Retrospectively, less caries was noted at six years of age, but more children had hypomineralization in the primary dentition. Angle Class II malocclusion, large over-bite and deep bite associated with medical diagnoses were frequent. Furthermore, smaller dental arch perimeters in girls, at 16 years of age, and smaller tooth size in the incisors, canines and first molars were found. The morphological findings were confirmed in the XRMA analyses. In postnatal enamel, varying degrees of porosities > 5% and incremental lines were seen. Lower values of Ca and Ca/C ratio and higher values of C were found. Ca/P ratio in both enamel and dentine indicates normal hydroxyapatite in both groups. No single medical diagnosis, postnatal treatment or morbidity in adolescents could explain the findings. As a conclusion, there are indications for poor oral outcome in this group of preterm infants during adolescence, and disturbed mineralization in primary teeth. PMID:22755470

Rythén, Marianne

2012-01-01

377

Perchlorate exposure and dose estimates in infants  

PubMed Central

Perchlorate is a naturally occurring inorganic anion used as a component of solid rocket fuel, explosives, and pyrotechnics. Sufficiently high perchlorate intakes can modify thyroid function by competitively inhibiting iodide uptake in adults; however little is known about perchlorate exposure and health effects in infants. Food intake models predict that infants have higher perchlorate exposure doses than adults. For this reason, we measured perchlorate and related anions (nitrate, thiocyanate, and iodide) in 206 urine samples from 92 infants ages 1–377 days and calculated perchlorate intake dose for this population of infants. The median estimated exposure dose for this population of infants was 0.160 ?g/kg/day. Of the 205 individual dose estimates, 9% exceeded the reference dose of 0.7 ?g/kg/day; 6% of infants providing multiple samples had multiple perchlorate dose estimates above the reference dose. Estimated exposure dose differed by feeding method: breast-fed infants had a higher perchlorate exposure dose (geometric mean 0.220 ?g/kg/day) than infants consuming cow milk-based formula (geometric mean 0.103 ?g/kg/day, p<0.0001) or soy-based formula (geometric mean 0.027 ?g/kg/day, p<0.0001), consistent with dose estimates based on dietary intake data. The ability of perchlorate to block adequate iodide uptake by the thyroid may have been reduced by the iodine-sufficient status of the infants studied (median urinary iodide 125 ?g/L). Further research is needed to see whether these perchlorate intake doses lead to any health effects.

Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Blount, Benjamin C.; Otero-Santos, Samaret; Cao, Yang; Bernbaum, Judy C.; Rogan, Walter J.

2011-01-01

378

Preventing infant abductions: an infant security program transitioned into an interdisciplinary model.  

PubMed

Ensuring the safety of infants born in a hospital is a top priority and, therefore, requires a solid infant security plan. Using an interdisciplinary approach and a systematic change process, nursing leadership in collaboration with clinical nurses and security personnel analyzed the infant security program at this community hospital to identify vulnerabilities. By establishing an interdisciplinary approach to infant security, participants were able to unravel a complicated concept, systematically analyze the gaps, and agree to a plan of action. This resulted in improved communication and clarification of roles between the nursing and security divisions. Supply costs decreased by 17.4% after the first year of implementation. Most importantly, this project enhanced and strengthened the existing infant abduction prevention measures, hard wired the importance of infant security, and minimized vulnerabilities. PMID:22293642

Hiner, Jacqueline; Pyka, Jeanine; Burks, Colleen; Pisegna, Lily; Gador, Rachel Ann

2012-01-01

379

Young infants prefer prosocial to antisocial others  

PubMed Central

The current study replicates and extends the finding (Hamlin, Wynn & Bloom, 2007) that infants prefer individuals who act prosocially toward unrelated third parties over those who act antisocially. Using different stimuli from those used by Hamlin, Wynn & Bloom (2007), somewhat younger subjects, and 2 additional social scenarios, we replicated the findings that (a) infants prefer those who behave prosocially versus antisocially, and (b) these preferences are based on the social nature of the actions. The generality of infants’ responses across multiple examples of prosocial and antisocial actions supports the claim that social evaluation is fundamental to perceiving the world.

Hamlin, J. Kiley; Wynn, Karen

2010-01-01

380

The nasogastric tube syndrome in infants.  

PubMed

This series of three patients is the first description of the presentation, clinical course, and endoscopic findings of nasogastric tube-related airway distress, or nasogastric tube syndrome, in infants. We identify key differences in disease features from those described in adults, based on our literature review. Specifically, infant nasogastric tube syndrome presented as significant respiratory distress and postcricoid inflammation without vocal fold immobility. Symptoms resolved more quickly (mean±SD, 2±1 days) than reported in adults. We suggest that nasogastric tube syndrome should be considered in infants with otherwise unexplained respiratory distress, even in the absence of impaired vocal fold mobility. PMID:24725648

Harmon, Jeffrey; Balakrishnan, Karthik; de Alarcon, Alessandro; Hart, Catherine K

2014-05-01

381

Cranial sonography in extremely preterm infants.  

PubMed

Survival rates of extremely preterm infants have risen dramatically, paralleling improvements in prenatal and neonatal care. Cranial sonography is the primary imaging technique for the evaluation of brain injury in these patients. Extremely preterm infants have some unique features related to ongoing maturation, and associated findings on cranial sonography should be considered for accurate and early diagnosis. The aim of this pictorial essay is to illustrate normal anatomy, normal variants, and pitfalls that lead to misinterpretation of cranial sonography in extremely preterm infants. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 42:283-290, 2014. PMID:24585484

Pekcevik, Yeliz; Ozer, Esra Arun; Guleryuz, Handan

2014-06-01

382

Pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime in newborn infants.  

PubMed Central

The pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime were determined in newborn infants who were 1 to 7 days of age. Mean peak serum concentrations of 116 and 132 micrograms/ml were observed at completion of a 10-min intravenous infusion of 50 mg of cefotaxime per kg in low and average birth weight infants, respectively. The mean elimination half-lives were 4.6 and 3.4 h and rates of clearance from serum were 23 and 44 ml/min per 1.73 m2, respectively. A dosage schedule for cefotaxime in newborn infants is presented.

McCracken, G H; Threlkeld, N E; Thomas, M L

1982-01-01

383

Infant death due to CMV enterocolitis  

PubMed Central

An infant was admitted with symptoms of diarrhoea and vomiting. After initial improvement she unexpectedly died. Postmortem confirmed a diagnosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) enterocolitis. The authors report this case and review other published cases of immunocompetent infants who presented with this infection. Clinicians should consider stool CMV PCR test or referral for endoscopy and biopsy in young babies who present with profuse and prolonged episodes of diarrhoea. The value of ganciclovir in immunocompetent infants who suffer with CMV gastrointestinal involvement is still not clear.

Refai, Zafer; Nicholls, Stuart; Garg, Anil

2012-01-01

384

Temperament of Low Birth Weight Infants and Child-Rearing Stress: Comparison with Full-Term Healthy Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied infant temperament in low birth weight (LBW) and full-term (FT) healthy infants in relation to infant temperament and child-rearing stress. Found that although differences between child-rearing stress scores were not significant between mothers of LBW and FT infants, a higher proportion of child-rearing stress could be explained by the…

Honjo, Shuji; Mizuno, Rie; Jechiyama, Haya; Sasaki, Yasuko; Kaneko, Hitoshi; Nishide, Takonori; Nagata, Masako; Sobajima, Hisanori; Nagai, Yukiyo; Ando, Tsunesaburo; Nishide, Yumie

2002-01-01

385

An infant with caudal appendage  

PubMed Central

There are several human atavisms that reflect our common genetic heritage with other mammals. One of the most striking is the existence of the rare ‘true human tail’. It is a rare event with fewer than 40 cases reported in the literature. The authors report a case of an infant born with the true tail. A 3-month-old baby girl, presented with an 11 cm long tail, which was successfully surgically removed. Human embryos normally have a prenatal tail, which disappears in the course of embryogenesis by programmed cell death. Recent advances in genetic research reveal that ‘of those organs lost, in evolution, most species carry ‘genetic blue prints’. Thus, rarely the appearance of ancient organs like tail may be the result of re-expression of these switched off gene.

Shad, Jimmy; Biswas, Rakesh

2012-01-01

386

Sudden infant death syndrome in infants born to HIV-infected and opiate-using mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:This study was undertaken to determine the role of opiate use during pregnancy as a predisposing factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in infants born to HIV-infected mothers.Methods:In order to identify all infant deaths and their cause and association with maternal opiate use, the data of a nationwide prospective cohort study of HIV-infected mothers and their children were extracted

Christian Kahlert; Christoph Rudin; Christian Kind

2007-01-01

387

Costs and Infant Outcomes After Implementation of a Care Process Model for Febrile Infants  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Febrile infants in the first 90 days may have life-threatening serious bacterial infection (SBI). Well-appearing febrile infants with SBI cannot be distinguished from those without by examination alone. Variation in care resulting in both undertreatment and overtreatment is common. METHODS: We developed and implemented an evidence-based care process model (EB-CPM) for the management of well-appearing febrile infants in the Intermountain Healthcare System. We report an observational study describing changes in (1) care delivery, (2) outcomes of febrile infants, and (3) costs before and after implementation of the EB-CPM in a children’s hospital and in regional medical centers. RESULTS: From 2004 through 2009, 8044 infants had 8431 febrile episodes, resulting in medical evaluation. After implementation of the EB-CPM in 2008, infants in all facilities were more likely to receive evidence-based care including appropriate diagnostic testing, determination of risk for SBI, antibiotic selection, decreased antibiotic duration, and shorter hospital stays (P < .001 for all). In addition, more infants had a definitive diagnosis of urinary tract infection or viral illness (P < .001 for both). Infant outcomes improved with more admitted infants positive for SBI (P = .011), and infants at low risk for SBI were more often managed without antibiotics (P < .001). Although hospital admissions were shortened by 27%, there were no cases of missed SBI. Health Care costs were also reduced, with the mean cost per admitted infant decreasing from $7178 in 2007 to $5979 in 2009 (?17%, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The EB-CPM increased evidence-based care in all facilities. Infant outcomes improved and costs were reduced, substantially improving value.

Reynolds, Carolyn C.; Korgenski, Kent; Sheng, Xiaoming; Valentine, Karen J.; Nelson, Richard E.; Daly, Judy A.; Osguthorpe, Russell J.; James, Brent; Savitz, Lucy; Pavia, Andrew T.; Clark, Edward B.

2012-01-01

388

Pitch characteristics of infant-directed speech affect infants’ ability to discriminate vowels  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Baby talk” or speech directed to prelinguistic infants is high in pitch and has exaggerated pitch contours (up\\/down patterns\\u000a of pitch change) across languages and cultures. Using an acoustic model, we predicted that the large pitch contours of infant-directed\\u000a speech should improve infants’ ability to discriminate vowels. On the other hand, the same model predicted that high pitch\\u000a would not

Laurel J. Trainor; Renée N. Desjardins

2002-01-01

389

Infant preferences for infant-directed versus noninfant-directed playsongs and lullabies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each of 15 mothers was recorded singing a song of her choice to her 4- to 7-month-old and singing the same song alone. Adult raters were very accurate at distinguishing infant-directed from infant-absent versions, and the former were independently rated as more loving than the latter. Most of the songs were consistently classified as either playsongs or lullabies. The infant-directed

Laurel J. Trainor

1996-01-01

390

Principal Component Analyses of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development for a Sample of High-Risk Infants and Their Controls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 192 high-risk infants and 85 full-term healthy newborn infants were administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. A principal component analysis was performed separately for the high-risk and control infants. Results suggest that the high-risk infant is similar to the normal infant in behavioral development, especially when…

Lasky, Robert E.; And Others

1983-01-01

391

Differences and similarities between father-infant interaction and mother-infant interaction.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare father-infant interaction with mother-infant interaction, and explore differences and similarities between parents. Related factors for quality of father-infant interaction were also examined. Sixteen pairs of parents with infants aged 0 to 36 months were observed for play interaction between parents and their children. Results suggested no significant differences between parents, but children's interactions were significantly more contingent with fathers than mothers (p =.045). Significant correlations between parents were found in socialemotional growth fostering encouragement for children during interaction (? =.73, p =.001). Paternal depressive symptoms were significantly correlated to paternal sensitivity to child's cues (? =-.59, p =.017). PMID:24658960

Yago, Satoshi; Hirose, Taiko; Okamitsu, Motoko; Okabayashi, Yukiko; Hiroi, Kayoko; Nakagawa, Nozomi; Omori, Takahide

2014-01-01

392

Breast vs. bottle: differences in the growth of Croatian infants.  

PubMed

The aim of the paper was to compare the growth of rural Croatian infants with 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth standards and to evaluate the potential preventive influence of breastfeeding on the development of obesity in infancy. Two hundred three infant-mother pairs from Baranja, an Eastern region of Croatia, were enrolled into this study. Retrospective evaluation of infants' medical charts was used to obtain anthropometric data recorded at the birth, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age. Infant feeding mode was self-reported by mothers. Breastfed infants gained the least weight of all observed groups. Up to 6 months of age, formula fed infants had the highest weight gain and after 6 months of age, mixed milk fed infants had the highest weight gain. At 12 months of age, 6.4% of all study infants and 7.6% of mixed milk fed infants were at risk of overweight, while the same risk for the group of breastfed infants was 4%. Most of the study infants achieved higher values of body mass and length than the child growth standards. Exclusively breastfed infants, in comparison with other study groups (formula fed infants, mixed milk fed infants and cow's milk fed infants), had lower weight-for-length z-scores during the first year, which suggests that breastfeeding may have a preventive impact on obesity development. PMID:21108738

Mandi?, Zlatko; Piri?ki, Antonija Perl; Kenjeri?, Daniela; Hani?ar, Branka; Tanasi?, Igor

2011-10-01

393

Infant nutritional compositions for preventing obesity  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a method for preventing obesity later in life by administering a certain nutritional composition to an infant with the age between 0 and 36 months. The composition comprises linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid.

2012-02-21

394

Roundtable: Infant Care and Child Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an edited version of a panel discussion on infant care and child development. Reviews what is known about the effects of child care on human development and analyzes how well public policies mesh with science. (JRH)

Furstenberg, Frank; And Others

1997-01-01

395

Human milk for the premature infant  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply.

Underwood, Mark A.

2012-01-01

396

Infant Sleep Positioners Pose Suffocation Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... other caregivers not to put babies in sleep positioning products as two recent deaths underscore concerns about ... loose bedding. Advice for Consumers STOP using infant positioning products. Using this type of product to hold ...

397

Future Applications of Antioxidants in Premature Infants  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review This review will examine the unique susceptibility of premature infants to oxidative stress, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of common disorders of the preterm infant, and potential for therapeutic interventions using enzymatic and/or non-enzymatic antioxidants. Recent Findings Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of ROS and the ability to detoxify them with the help of antioxidants. The premature infant is especially susceptible to ROS-induced damage because of inadequate antioxidant stores at birth, as well as impaired upregulation in response to oxidant stress. Thus, the premature infant is at increased risk for the development of ROS-induced diseases of the newborn, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, and periventricular leukomalacia. Summary Potential therapies for ROS-induced disease include both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant preparations. More research is required to determine the beneficial effects of supplemental antioxidant therapy.

Lee, Jennifer W.; Davis, Jonathan M.

2012-01-01

398

Young infants have biological expectations about animals  

PubMed Central

What are the developmental origins of our concept of animal? There has long been controversy concerning this question. At issue is whether biological reasoning develops from earlier forms of reasoning, such as physical and psychological reasoning, or whether from a young age children endow animals with biological properties. Here we demonstrate that 8-mo-old infants already expect novel objects they identify as animals to have insides. Infants detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and agentive (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) was revealed to be hollow. Infants also detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and furry (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) either was shown to be hollow or rattled (when shaken) as although mostly hollow. Young infants’ expectations about animals’ insides may serve as a foundation for the development of more advanced biological knowledge.

Setoh, Peipei; Wu, Di; Baillargeon, Renee; Gelman, Rochel

2013-01-01

399

Do infants have a sense of fairness?  

PubMed Central

Two experiments examined infants’ expectations about how an experimenter should distribute resources and rewards to others. In Experiment 1, 19-month-olds expected an experimenter to divide two items equally, as opposed to unequally, between two individuals. Infants held no particular expectation when the individuals were replaced with inanimate objects, or when the experimenter simply removed covers in front of the individuals to reveal the items (instead of distributing them). In Experiment 2, 21-month-olds expected an experimenter to give a reward to each of two individuals when both had worked to complete an assigned chore, but not when one of the individuals had done all the work while the other played. Infants held this expectation only when the experimenter could determine through visual inspection who had worked and who had not. Together, these results provide converging evidence that infants in the second year of life already possess context sensitive-expectations relevant to fairness.

Sloane, Stephanie; Baillargeon, Renee; Premack, David

2012-01-01

400

Elimination Problems in Infants and Children  

MedlinePLUS

... inability to digest wheat (CELIAC DISEASE) or milk (LACTOSE INTOLERANCE) can cause these symptoms. Eliminate foods that make ... be an appropriate substitute for infants who have lactose intolerance. No 4. Does your child seem to have ...

401

Chronic boric acid poisoning in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report 7 infants suffering from seizures induced by chronic boric acid ingestion. The boric acid was given by dipping a soother in a proprietary borax and honey mixture. The babies have remained well since the mixture was withheld.

K OSullivan; M Taylor

1983-01-01

402

Plasma testosterone in preterm infants with cryptorchidism.  

PubMed Central

Cryptorchidism is common in infants born preterm, yet the mechanism for its occurrence is still debated. In a study of 21 premature babies with cryptorchidism at 18 months post-term and 21 case matched controls, cryptorchid preterm infants failed to show the normal rise in plasma testosterone in the first postnatal week. This rise is thought to relate to residual maternal human chorionic gonadotrophin in the neonatal circulation. Infants with cryptorchidism also failed to show the later testosterone surge in the second month which has been related to endogenous gonadotrophin release. We speculate that inadequate stimulation of testosterone release by human chorionic gonadotrophin in the fetus might contribute to the pathogenesis of cryptorchidism in preterm infants. Our findings have implications for the medical treatment or possible prophylaxis of undescended testes in premature babies.

Baker, B A; Morley, R; Lucas, A

1988-01-01

403

Infant Perception of Visually Presented Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A previously-reported experiment designed to determine if newborn infants can distinguish between an object and a picture of that object is flawed. The experimental design and an improved design are discussed. (BB)

Bower, T. G. R.; And Others

1979-01-01

404

Preparing the Children: Infants and Toddlers  

MedlinePLUS

PATIENT / FAMILY TEACHING SHEET Preparing the Children: Infants and Toddlers Adults sometimes feel that children are too fragile to face the ... t hesitate to ask for help. Other HPNA Teaching Sheets on are available at www.HPNA.org. ...

405

Supporting the Development of Mothers and Infants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ecological experiment to study how two aspects of the social context affect 40 low-income mothers and their infants (extended contact in the hospital and participation in a supportive education program) was designed. These two aspects:(1) differentiate...

L. P. Wandersman

1983-01-01

406

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and Vaccines  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety Review: Vaccination and Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy in 2003. The committee reviewed epidemiologic evidence focusing on SIDS, all sudden unexpected death in infancy, and neonatal death (infant death, whether sudden or ...

407

Feeding the Very Low Birth Weight Infant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Committee on Nutrition (CON) of AAP encourages efforts, based on sound nutrition principles, to provide human milk fortifiers for feeding of premature infants. This document discusses the scientific knowledge that is the basis for this stance. The sho...

1985-01-01

408

Fatal outcome of methemoglobinemia in an infant  

SciTech Connect

Cases of methemoglobinemia in infants and older members of farm families are probably more common than they realize. In a 1982 survey of 353 physicians in the ten-county Big Sioux region in eastern South Dakota, 29 physicians reported having treated about 80 cases of methemoglobinemia, of which 64 had occurred more than ten years earlier. This preventable, treatable intoxication continues to contribute to infant mortality today. A case history is presented.

Johnson, C.J.; Bonrud, P.A.; Dosch, T.L.; Kilness, A.W.; Senger, K.A.; Busch, D.C.; Meyer, M.R.

1987-05-01

409

Trisomy 13 in Two Infants with Cyclops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two infants with cyclops malformation were born at the University of Southern California Medical Center during the past three years. The karyotypes of both infants demonstrated an extra chromosome No. 13: one with 47,XX,+13 and one with 46,XX,-14,+t(13q14q). The physical findings, karyotypes with trypsin-Giemsa banding, and association of trisomy 13 syndrome with cyclops malformation are presented.

Atsuko Fujimoto; Allan J. Ebbin; Joseph W. Towner; Miriam G. Wilson

1973-01-01

410

Infant Smiling Dynamics and Perceived Positive Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand early positive emotional expression, automated software measurements of facial action were supplemented\\u000a with anatomically based manual coding. These convergent measurements were used to describe the dynamics of infant smiling\\u000a and predict perceived positive emotional intensity. Over the course of infant smiles, degree of smile strength varied with\\u000a degree of eye constriction (cheek raising, the Duchenne marker), which

Daniel S. Messinger; Tricia D. Cassel; Susan I. Acosta; Zara Ambadar; Jeffrey F. Cohn

2008-01-01

411

Lipid needs of preterm infants: updated recommendations.  

PubMed

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) are of nutritional interest because they are crucial for normal development of the central nervous system and have potential long-lasting effects that extend beyond the period of dietary insufficiency. Here we review the recent literature and current recommendations regarding LCPUFAs as they pertain to preterm infant nutrition. In particular, findings that relate to fetal accretion, LCPUFA absorption and metabolism, effects on development, and current practices and recommendations have been used to update recommendations for health care providers. The amounts of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) used in early studies were chosen to produce the same concentrations as in term breast milk. This might not be a wise approach for preterm infants, however, particularly for very and extremely preterm infants, whose requirements for LCPUFAs and other nutrients exceed what is normally provided in the small volumes that they are able to tolerate. Recent studies have reported outcome data in preterm infants fed milk with a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content 2-3 times higher than the current concentration in infant formulas. Overall, these studies show that providing larger amounts of DHA supplements, especially to the smallest infants, is associated with better neurologic outcomes in early life. We emphasize that current nutritional management might not provide sufficient amounts of preformed DHA during the parenteral and enteral nutrition periods and in very preterm/very low birth weight infants until their due date, and that greater amounts than used routinely likely will be needed to compensate for intestinal malabsorption, DHA oxidation, and early deficit. Research should continue to address the gaps in knowledge and further refine adequate intake for each group of preterm infants. PMID:23445847

Lapillonne, Alexandre; Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Gonzalez, Carlos H Lozano; Uauy, Ricardo

2013-03-01

412

Functional Neuroimaging of Speech Perception in Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human infants begin to acquire their native language in the first months of life. To determine which brain regions support language processing at this young age, we measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging the brain activity evoked by normal and reversed speech in awake and sleeping 3-month-old infants. Left-lateralized brain regions similar to those of adults, including the superior temporal

Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz; Stanislas Dehaene; Lucie Hertz-Pannier

2002-01-01

413

Predicting infant neurodevelopmental outcomes using the placenta?  

PubMed

Identifying those infants most at risk for poor neurodevelopmental outcomes is crucial to allow for targeted surveillance or preventative interventions to be instigated from birth. One intriguing possibility is to use the molecular characteristics of the placenta at birth as a 'molecular barometer' of the in utero experience to predict future infant neurodevelopmental outcomes. Here we highlight the recent advances in the field and discuss the possibilities for an integrated approach across the '-omics' categories. PMID:24794011

O'Keeffe, Gerard W; Kenny, Louise C

2014-06-01

414

Microbial Quality of Formulated Infant Milk Powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study was carried out to examine the microbiological quality of Infant formula milk powder. Total 60 of dried milk powders, 20 each of Group A (1-6), B (7-12) and C (13-18 months). Infant formula milk powders were purchased from Hyderabad, Sindh and evaluated for microbiological examination, like Total Viable Count (TVC), Enterobacteriaceae Count (EbC) and Yeasts and Moulds Count (YMC).

Imran Rashid Rajput; M. Khaskheli; S. Rao; S. A. Fazlani; Q. A. Shah; G. B. Khaskheli

2009-01-01

415

Baby Carriage: Infants Walking With Loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintaining balance is a central problem for new walkers. To examine how infants cope with the additional balance control problems induced by load carriage, 14-month-olds were loaded with 15% of their body weight in shoulder-packs. Both symmetrical and asymmetrical loads disrupted alternating gait patterns and caused less mature footfall patterns. Walking was most severely compromised by back loads. Infants with

Jessie S. Garciaguirre; Karen E. Adolph; Patrick E. Shrout

2007-01-01

416

Development of Newborn and Infant Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Vaccines for early-life immunization are a crucial biomedical intervention to reduce global morbidity and mortality, yet their developmental path has been largely ad hoc, empiric, and inconsistent. Immune responses of human newborns and infants are distinct and cannot be predicted from those of human adults or animal models. Therefore, understanding and modeling age-specific human immune responses will be vital to the rational design and development of safe and effective vaccines for newborns and infants.

Sanchez-Schmitz, Guzman; Levy, Ofer

2014-01-01

417

Imitation of televised models by infants.  

PubMed

Studies indicate that infants in our culture are exposed to significant amounts of TV, often as a baby-sitting strategy by busy caretakers. The question arises whether TV viewing merely presents infants with a salient collection of moving patterns or whether they will readily pick up information depicted in this 2-D representation and incorporate it into their own behavior. Can infants "understand" the content of television enough to govern their real-world behavior accordingly? One way to explore this question is to present a model via television for infants to imitate. Infants' ability to imitate TV models was explored at 2 ages, 14 and 24 months, under conditions of immediate and deferred imitation. In deferred imitation, infants were exposed to a TV depiction of an adult manipulating a novel toy in a particular way but were not presented with the real toy until the next day. The results showed significant imitation at both ages, and furthermore showed that even the youngest group imitated after the 24-hour delay. The finding of deferred imitation of TV models has social and policy implications, because it suggests that TV viewing in the home could potentially affect infant behavior and development more than heretofore contemplated. The results also add to a growing body of literature on prelinguistic representational capacities. They do so in the dual sense of showing that infants can relate 2-D representations to their own actions on real objects in 3-D space, and moreover that the information picked up through TV can be internally represented over lengthy delays before it is used to guide the real-world action. PMID:3168638

Meltzoff, A N

1988-10-01

418

Labels Facilitate Infants' Comparison of Action Goals  

PubMed Central

Understanding the actions of others depends on the insight that these actions are structured by intentional relations. In a number of conceptual domains, comparison with familiar instances has been shown to support children’s and adults’ ability to discern the relational structure of novel instances. Recent evidence suggests that this process supports infants’ analysis of others’ goal-directed actions (Gerson & Woodward, 2012). The current studies evaluated whether labeling, which has been shown to support relational learning in other domains, also supports infants’ sensitivity to the goal structure of others’ actions. Ten-month-old infants observed events in which a familiar action, grasping, was aligned (simultaneously presented) with a novel tool use action, and both actions were accompanied by a matched label. Following this training, infants responded systematically to the goal structure of the tool use actions in a goal imitation paradigm. In control conditions, when the aligned actions were accompanied by non-word vocalizations, or when labeling occurred without aligned actions, infants did not respond systematically to the tool use action. These findings indicate that labels supported infants’ comparison of the aligned actions, and this comparison facilitated their understanding of the novel action as goal-directed.

Gerson, Sarah A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

2013-01-01

419

Infants' Causal Representations of State Change Events  

PubMed Central

Five experiments extended studies of infants’ causal representations of Michottian launching events to 8-month-olds’ causal representations of physical state changes. Infants were habituated to events in which a potential causal agent moved behind a screen, after which a box partially visible on the other side of the screen underwent some change (motion or state change). After habituation the screen was removed, and infants observed full events in which the potential agent either did or did not contact the box (contact vs. gap events). Infants were credited with causal representations of the events if their attention was drawn both to gap events in which the effect nonetheless occurred and to events with contact in which the effect did not happen. The experiments varied the nature of the effect (motion vs. state change) and the nature of the possible causal agent (train, hand, novel intentional agent). Both the nature of the effect and the nature of the possible agent influenced the likelihood of causal attribution. The events involving motion of the patient replicated previous studies of infants’ representations of Michottian launching events: the toy train was taken as the source of the boxes motion. In contrast, infants attributed the cause of the box’s physical state change to a hand and novel self-moving entity with eyes, but not to a toy train. These data address early developing causal schemata, and bring new information to bear on theories of the origin of human causal cognition.

Muentener, Paul; Carey, Susan

2010-01-01

420

Language preference in monolingual and bilingual infants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research shows that infants being raised in single-language families have some basic language discrimination abilities at birth, that these skills improve over the first 6 months of life, and that infants are attending to the rhythmic properties of language to perform these skills. Research has also revealed that newborns and older babies from monolingual families prefer listening to their native language over an unfamiliar language. Data on language discrimination and preference in bilingual infants is very limited but is necessary to determine if the patterns and rate of bilingual language development parallel those of monolingual development, or if exposure to more than one language modifies developmental patterns. The present study addresses this issue by comparing language preference in monolingual English, monolingual French, and bilingual English-French infants between 3 and 10 months of age. Infant preference to listen to passages in three rhythmically different languages (English, French, Japanese) was assessed using a visual fixation procedure. Passages were produced by three female native speakers of each language. Findings will show how native language preference is affected by age and language experience in infants who experience monolingual and bilingual language exposure.

Valji, Ayasha; Polka, Linda

2001-05-01

421

Lutein-fortified infant formula fed to healthy term infants: evaluation of growth effects and safety  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives Breast milk contains lutein derived from the mother's diet. This carotenoid is currently not added to infant formula, which has a small and variable lutein content from innate ingredients. This study was conducted to compare the growth of infants fed lutein-fortified infant formula with that of infants fed infant formula without lutein fortification. Subjects/Methods This 16-week study was prospective, randomized, controlled, and double-blind with parallel groups of healthy term infants fed either control formula (Wyeth S-26 Gold, designated as Gold) or experimental formula (Wyeth S-26 Gold fortified with lutein at 200 mcg/l, designated as Gold + Lutein). Two hundred thirty-two (232) infants ? 14 days postnatal age were randomized and 220 (94.8%) completed the study. Weight (g), head circumference (cm), and length (cm) were measured at Weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16. The primary endpoint was weight gain (g/day) from baseline to Week 16. Safety was assessed through monitoring of study events (SEs) throughout the study and evaluation of selected blood chemistry tests performed at Week 16. Results Infants in both treatment groups demonstrated appropriate growth. No differences between treatment groups were found in any of the measures of growth at any of the measurement time points. Both study formulas were well tolerated. The mean values of all measured blood chemistry parameters fell within the modified normal ranges for infants, and the values for both groups for any measured parameter were similar. Conclusions Infants fed lutein-fortified S-26 Gold demonstrated growth equivalent to that of infants fed unfortified lutein formula.

2010-01-01

422

Marketing Breastfeeding--Reversing Corporate Influence on Infant Feeding Practices  

PubMed Central

Breast milk is the gold standard for infant nutrition and the only necessary food for the first 6 months of an infant’s life. Infant formula is deficient and inferior to breast milk in meeting infants’ nutritional needs. The infant formula industry has contributed to low rates of breastfeeding through various methods of marketing and advertising infant formula. Today, in New York City, although the majority of mothers initiate breastfeeding (~85%), a minority of infants is breastfed exclusively at 8 weeks postpartum (~25%). The article reviews the practices of the formula industry and the impact of these practices. It then presents the strategic approach taken by the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and its partners to change hospital practices and educate health care providers and the public on the benefits of breast milk, and provides lessons learned from these efforts to make breastfeeding the normative and usual method of infant feeding in New York City.

Graff, Kristina M.

2008-01-01

423

Mother–infant cosleeping, breastfeeding and sudden infant death syndrome: What biological anthropology has discovered about normal infant sleep and pediatric sleep medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty years ago a new area of inquiry was launched when anthropologists proposed that an ev- olutionary perspective on infancy could contribute to our understanding of unexplained infant deaths. Here we review two decades of research examining parent-infant sleep practices and the variability of maternal and infant sleep physiology and behavior in social and solitary sleeping environments. The results challenge

James J. McKenna; Helen L. Ball; Lee T. Gettler

2007-01-01

424

Sequence Learning in 4-Month-Old Infants: Do Infants Represent Ordinal Information?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated how 4-month-old infants represent sequences: Do they track the statistical relations among specific sequence elements (e.g., AB, BC) or do they encode abstract ordinal positions (i.e., B is second)? Infants were habituated to sequences of 4 moving and sounding elements--3 of the elements varied in their ordinal position…

Lewkowicz, David J.; Berent, Iris

2009-01-01

425

Mother-to-Infant and Father-to-Infant Initial Emotional Involvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While infant attachment has been largely studied, parental attachment is still relatively unknown, especially when referred to fathers. However, it is mainly recognised that parents' emotional involvement with the newborn contributes to the quality of the interaction and the care they provide. The aim of this study was to study mother-to-infant

Figueiredo, Barbara; Costa, Raquel; Pacheco, Alexandra; Pais, Alvaro

2007-01-01

426

Family-Infant Congruence: Routines and Rhythmicity in Family Adaptations to a Young Infant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the hypothesis that degree of match or congruence between behavioral characteristics of infants and their families may significantly influence the nature of their interactions and the success of their mutual adaptation. Conducted a cross-sectional study on infant-family congruence on the degree of rhythmicity (predictable regularity in…

Sprunger, Lewis W.; And Others

1985-01-01

427

Discrepancy between Parental Reports of Infants' Receptive Vocabulary and Infants' Behaviour in a Preferential Looking Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments are described which explore the relationship between parental reports of infants' receptive vocabularies at 1 ; 6 () or 1 ; 3, 1 ; 6 and 1 ; 9 () and the comprehension infants demonstrated in a preferential looking task. The instrument used was the Oxford CDI, a British English adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates CDI (Words &…

Houston-Price, Carmel; Mather, Emily; Sakkalou, Elena

2007-01-01

428

Infant Temperament Characteristics Related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Its Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three major components have been repeatedly implicated for the origin(s) of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): system, minor sickness and surroundings. All these factors also frame infant temperament, and therefore it seems logical to suppose that the babies who either succumb to or are at risk of SIDS may present with certain behavioral…

Kelmanson, Igor A.

2006-01-01

429

Parent-Infant Interaction in Infant Siblings at Risk of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent models of the early emergence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) propose an interaction between risk susceptibility and the infant's social environment, resulting in a progressively atypical developmental trajectory. The infant's early social environmental experience consists mostly of interaction with caregivers, yet there has been little…

Wan, Ming Wai; Green, Jonathan; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark; Charman, Tony; Plummer, Faye

2012-01-01

430

Assessment of compliance with home cardiorespiratory monitoring in infants at risk of sudden infant death syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Documented monitoring was used to evaluate prospectively (1) the level of compliance among infants in whom cardiorespiratory monitoring was clinically indicated and (2) factors that might influence compliance: diagnosis, socioeconomic status, maternal age and education, and alarms. Study design: Sixty-seven infants (51% female, 49% term) were sequentially enrolled, and monitoring was prescribed for the following indications: siblings of sudden

Jean M. Silvestri; David R. Hufford; Jane Durham; Sheilah M. Pearsall; Mary Ann Oess; Debra E. Weese-Mayer; Carl E. Hunt; Suzette M. Levenson; Michael J. Corwin

1995-01-01

431

Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: The Types of Foods Fed to Hispanic Infants and Toddlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the prevalence of breastfeeding and formula feeding, the age of introduction to specific foods, and the types of foods and beverages consumed by His- panic infants and toddlers compared with similarly aged non-Hispanic infants and toddlers living in the United States. Design Descriptive and comparative analysis of dietary recall data and responses to specific interview questions, which

JULIE A. MENNELLA; PAULA ZIEGLER; RONETTE BRIEFEL; TIMOTHY NOVAK

432

[Three Years of Infant Observation with Mrs. Bick, Founder of Infant Observation, Tavistock Clinic in London.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed from a psychoanalytic perspective are areas of special difficulty in the phases of a three-year training observation of an infant and his family under the supervision of a 79-year-old child psychoanalyst and teacher. Specific attention is given to the child in relation to his family, the role of the observer in containing mother/infant

Magagna, Jeanne

433

Rising Infant Formula Costs to the WIC Program: Recent Trends in Rebates and Wholesale Prices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides participating infants with free infant formula. This study estimated that between 57 and 68 percent of all infant formula sold in the United States was purchased th...

D. Smallwood E. Frazao V. Oliveira

2010-01-01

434

Young adults' reactions to infant crying.  

PubMed

An infant's optimal development is determined to a great extent by the adequate and sensitive responses of the caregiver. The adequacy and sensitivity of a reaction to an infant in distress (i.e. crying) will partly depend on the causal attributions of the crying and on the individual's sympathy for the infant. Being female, prior caring experiences, and multiparity have shown to be linked to more sympathetic, tolerant and less hostile emotional responses to crying. However, little is known about other factors explaining inexperienced future caregivers' reactions to infant crying. The present paper's goal is to shed more light on the subject by looking at how personality factors, caregiving interest, sex, promptness of the reaction, and gender identity are related to emotional reactions and causal attributions to crying in a population of young adults without children. One hundred and ninety-one childless university students participated (126 females; ages 18-35 years). The participants completed questionnaires on personality, gender identity and caregiving interest, and listened to an audio sample of an infant crying, reporting their emotions and their causal attributions to the crying. The results showed that experiencing anger was associated with more child-blaming attributions to the crying, while quickness of response and feelings of sympathy predicted more child-oriented attributions. The latter was stronger in males. Explicit care interest decreased child-blaming causal attributions more for men than for the women. Interestingly, solely in the females' personality factors neuroticism and conscientiousness played a role in child blaming attributions together with anger. These findings suggest that the motives that young adults attribute to a crying infant depend in males on the emotions triggered by the crying, responsiveness and care interest. While in females, emotions, responsiveness and personality affect the causal attribution to the crying. Future research is needed in order to determine whether these attributions are also linked to young adults' actual behaviour towards a crying infant. PMID:24463036

Cohen-Bendahan, C C C; van Doornen, L J P; de Weerth, C

2014-02-01

435

Iron requirements of infants and toddlers.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide and young children are a special risk group because their rapid growth leads to high iron requirements. Risk factors associated with a higher prevalence of ID anemia (IDA) include low birth weight, high cow's-milk intake, low intake of iron-rich complementary foods, low socioeconomic status, and immigrant status. The aim of this position paper was to review the field and provide recommendations regarding iron requirements in infants and toddlers, including those of moderately or marginally low birth weight. There is no evidence that iron supplementation of pregnant women improves iron status in their offspring in a European setting. Delayed cord clamping reduces the risk of ID. There is insufficient evidence to support general iron supplementation of healthy European infants and toddlers of normal birth weight. Formula-fed infants up to 6 months of age should receive iron-fortified infant formula, with an iron content of 4 to 8 mg/L (0.6-1.2 mg(-1) · kg(-1) · day(-1)). Marginally low-birth-weight infants (2000-2500 g) should receive iron supplements of 1-2 mg(-1) · kg(-1) · day(-1). Follow-on formulas should be iron-fortified; however, there is not enough evidence to determine the optimal iron concentration in follow-on formula. From the age of 6 months, all infants and toddlers should receive iron-rich (complementary) foods, including meat products and/or iron-fortified foods. Unmodified cow's milk should not be fed as the main milk drink to infants before the age of 12 months and intake should be limited to <500 mL/day in toddlers. It is important to ensure that this dietary advice reaches high-risk groups such as socioeconomically disadvantaged families and immigrant families. PMID:24135983

Domellöf, Magnus; Braegger, Christian; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie; Decsi, Tamas; Fewtrell, Mary; Hojsak, Iva; Mihatsch, Walter; Molgaard, Christian; Shamir, Raanan; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

2014-01-01

436

Generation of hybrid transgenic silkworms that express Bombyx mori prolyl-hydroxylase alpha-subunits and human collagens in posterior silk glands: Production of cocoons that contained collagens with hydroxylated proline residues.  

PubMed

Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H) is a heterotetramer enzyme consisting of alpha-subunits (P4Halpha) and beta-subunits (P4Hbeta), and is required for collagen biosynthesis. Previously, we generated transgenic silkworms that produced human type III collagen fragments (mini-collagens) in the posterior silk gland (PSG). However, prolyl 4-hydroxylation did not occur on the mini-collagens, because in spite of an abundant expression of P4Hbeta in PSGs, P4Halpha expression was quite low there, thus resulting in an insufficient activity of P4H. In this study we aimed at generating hybrid transgenic silkworms whose PSGs are capable of producing mini-collagens and enough P4H for their prolyl 4-hydroxylation. Isolated PSGs were bombarded with fibroin L-chain gene promoter-driven vectors containing Bombyx mori P4Halpha (BmP4Halpha) cDNAs and were transplanted into the hemolymphatic cavity. The P4H activity in the PSG cells significantly increased, indicating that the expressed BmP4Halpha formed active tetramers with endogenous BmP4Hbeta. Using germ-line transgenesis technology, silkworms were generated that synthesized BmP4Halpha in PSG cells. The P4H activity in the transgenic silkworms was 130-fold higher than that of wild-type counterparts. Finally, we generated hybrid transgenic silkworms that expressed cDNAs of both BmP4Halpha and mini-collagen in PSG cells. They spun cocoons that contained mini-collagens whose appropriate proline residues had been adequately hydroxylated. PMID:16766075

Adachi, Takahiro; Tomita, Masahiro; Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Ogawa, Shingo; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi

2006-11-01

437

Interactive Behaviors of Ethnic Minority Mothers and their Premature Infants  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the interactive behaviors of American Indian mothers and their premature infants with those of African American mothers and their premature infants. Design Descriptive, comparative study. Setting Three neonatal intensive care units and two pediatric clinics in the southeast. Participants Seventy-seven mother-infant dyads: 17 American Indian mother-infant dyads and 60 African American mother-infant dyads. Methods Videotapes of mother-infant interactions and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) were used to assess the interactions of the mothers and their premature infants at six months corrected age. Results American Indian mothers looked more, gestured more, and were more often the primary caregivers to their infants than the African American mothers. American Indian infants expressed more positive affect and gestured more to their mothers, whereas African American infants engaged in more non-negative vocalization toward their mothers. African American mothers scored higher on the HOME subscales of provision of appropriate play materials and parental involvement with the infant. American Indian mothers scored higher on the opportunities for variety in daily living subscale. Conclusion Although many of the interactive behaviors of American Indian and African American mother-infant dyads were similar, some differences did occur. Clinicians need to be aware of the cultural differences in mother-infant interactions. To optimize child developmental outcomes, nurses need to support mothers in their continuation or adoption of positive interactive behaviors.

Brooks, Jada L.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Landerman, Lawrence R.

2013-01-01

438

Preventive health services: Pregnancy and infant health.  

PubMed Central

From 1950 to 1977, infant mortality dropped from 30 to 14 deaths per 1,000 live births. The annual decline in infant mortality between 1965 and 1973 was 3.5 percent. The proportion of women receiving prenatal care during the first 3 months of pregnancy also increased-from 68 to 74 percent during the years 1969 to 1977. The factors underlying improvements in infant mortality are complex, but include increased access to prenatal services, increased availability of regionalized intensive care units, and improvements in maternal nutritional status. The principal threats to infant health are birth defects that can lead to lifelong handicapping conditions, and problems associated with low birth weight. Today, approximately seven percent of all babies are of low birth weight (2,500 grams or less). Unfortunately, many children are born to women with an increased risk of having a low birth weight infant, i.e., women making no prenatal visit during the first trimester, and teenagers. Further, in 1978 1 in 4 women giving birth made no prenatal visit during the first trimester and 1 in 20 made no prenatal visit during the first two trimesters.

1983-01-01

439

Stool microflora in extremely low birthweight infants  

PubMed Central

AIM—To serially characterise aerobic and anaerobic stool microflora in extremely low birthweight infants and to correlate colonisation patterns with clinical risk factors.?METHODS—Stool specimens from 29 infants of birthweight <1000 g were collected on days 10, 20, and 30 after birth. Quantitative aerobic and anaerobic cultures were performed.?RESULTS—By day 30, predominant species were Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterbacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria spp were identified in only one infant. In breast milk fed (but not in formula fed) infants, the total number of bacterial species/stool specimen increased significantly with time (2.50 (SE 0.34) on day 10; 3.13 (0.38) on day 20; 4.27 (0.45) on day 30) as did quantitative bacterial counts; Gram negative species accounted for most of the increase. On day 30, significant inverse correlations were found between days of previous antibiotic treatment and number of bacterial species (r=0.491) and total organisms/g of stool (r=0.482). Gestational age, birthweight, maternal antibiotic or steroid treatment, prolonged rupture of the membranes, and mode of delivery did not seem to affect colonisation patterns.?CONCLUSIONS—The gut of extremely low birthweight infants is colonised by a paucity of bacterial species. Breast milking and reduction of antibiotic exposure are critical to increasing fecal microbial diversity.??

Gewolb, I.; Schwalbe, R.; Taciak, V.; Harrison, T.; Panigrahi, P.

1999-01-01

440

Early discharge of low birthweight infants.  

PubMed Central

A study was conducted to see if the discharge weight of preterm infants born at less than or equal to 2000 g could safely be reduced. A study group (21 infants) was discharged 'early' at a mean weight of 2010 g (1890-2190) provided there were no medical problems, weight gain was adequate, temperature control in room air was stable, all feedings were by breast, and the mother was ready to have the baby home. A control group (17 infants) was discharged at a mean weight of 2261 g (2200-2400). The duration of time in hospital for the 'early' group was shortened by 11.6 days. At expected date of delivery the weight of infants in each group was similar (3095 +/- 403 compared with 3146 +/- 453 g); length, head circumference, and haemoglobin concentration in each group were similar too. There was no morbidity or mortality in either group. Early discharge did not affect mothering confidence. This study shows that low birthweight infants can be discharged early (at 2000 +/- 100 g) provided appropriate criteria are met, home conditions are adequate, and follow-up is available.

Lefebvre, F; Veilleux, A; Bard, H

1982-01-01

441

[Data mining and characteristics of infant mortality].  

PubMed

This study aims to identify patterns in maternal and fetal characteristics in the prediction of infant mortality by incorporating innovative techniques like data mining, with proven relevance for public health. A database was developed with infant deaths from 2000 to 2004 analyzed by the Committees for the Prevention of Infant Mortality, based on integration of the Information System on Live Births (SINASC), Mortality Information System, and Investigation of Infant Mortality in the State of Paraná. The data mining software was WEKA (open source). The data mining conducts a database search and provides rules to be analyzed to transform the data into useful information. After mining, 4,230 rules were selected: teenage pregnancy plus birth weight < 2,500 g, or post-term birth plus teenage mother with a previous child or intercurrent conditions increase the risk of neonatal death. The results highlight the need for greater attention to teenage mothers, newborns with birth weight < 2,500 g, post-term neonates, and infants of mothers with intercurrent conditions, thus corroborating other studies. PMID:20464072

Vianna, Rossana Cristina Xavier Ferreira; Moro, Claudia Maria Cabral de Barra; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Carvalho, Deborah; Nievola, Julio Cesar

2010-03-01

442

[Posttraumatic stress disorder in infants and toddlers].  

PubMed

While the occurrence ofposttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) in children and adolescents is undoubted, knowledge about the disorder in infants and toddlers is scarce. The lack of an accurate research base is mainly due to challenges in assessing PTSD in infants and toddlers. The development of an alternative set of diagnostic criteria, its empirical testing and the design of an examiner-based interview are recent and important steps. This article reviews the literature on PTSD in infants and toddlers. It defines the disorder and emphasizes its distinctive features in this age group. Demonstrating the development of an alternative set of diagnostic criteria and overviewing the existing assessment tools are central issues. A German version of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Semi-Structured Interview and Observational Record for Infants and Young Children (Scheeringa u. Zeanah, 2005) is presented for the first time. The state of research in prevalence and therapy of PTSD in infants and toddlers is described and recommendations for research and clinical practice are provided. PMID:18575054

Graf, Anna; Irblich, Dieter; Landolt, Markus A

2008-01-01

443

The male excess in sudden infant deaths.  

PubMed

The peak age at which sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) occurs corresponds to the developmental period in which infants are dependent on their innate responses to infection. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that dysregulation of inflammatory responses might contribute to the physiological changes leading to these sudden deaths. This study examined the effects of three important risk factors for SIDS on inflammatory responses: cigarette smoke, virus infection and male sex. Cytokine responses of peripheral monocytic blood cells of healthy, non-smoking males and females to endotoxin were measured. Surrogates for virus infection or cigarette smoke were assessed using IFN-? or water-soluble cigarette smoke extract (CSE). For most conditions, cells from males had lower pro-inflammatory cytokine responses than those of females. An opposite trend was observed for IL-10. Significantly lower levels of some cytokines were noted for cells from male donors exposed to CSE. In females, there were significant correlations between testosterone levels and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but none for males. Testosterone levels in females correspond to those among male infants in the age range at greatest risk of SIDS. The effects of the testosterone surge in male infants need to be examined in relation to changes in cortisol levels that occur during the same period of infant development. PMID:23608823

Moscovis, Sophia M; Hall, Sharron T; Burns, Christine J; Scott, Rodney J; Blackwell, C Caroline

2014-01-01

444

Maternal compared with infant vitamin D supplementation.  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D metabolites were studied in mother-infant pairs at delivery and eight and 15 weeks after that to evaluate the possibility of vitamin D supplementation of infant through the mother. Healthy mothers (n = 49) delivering in January received daily either 2000 IU (group 1), 1000 IU (group 2), or no (group 3) vitamin D. Their infants were exclusively breast fed, and those in group 3 received 400 IU of vitamin D a day. After eight weeks of lactation the infantile vitamin D concentrations were similar in groups 1 and 3 but significantly lower in group 2. The serum 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations were also lower in group 2. The mean mineral, parathyroid hormone, and alkaline phosphatase values showed no intergroup differences at any point. No infants showed any clinical or biochemical signs of rickets, and their growth was equal. In conclusion, a daily postpartum maternal supplementation with 2000 IU of vitamin D, but not with 1000 IU, seems to normalise the vitamin D metabolites of breast fed infants in winter. Maternal safety with such supplementation over prolonged periods, however, should be examined.

Ala-Houhala, M; Koskinen, T; Terho, A; Koivula, T; Visakorpi, J

1986-01-01

445

Immunological evidence for a bacterial toxin aetiology in sudden infant death syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxin-specific antibodies to clostridial, enterobacterial and staphylococcal toxins implicated in sudden infant death syndrome were studied in sera from sudden infant death syndrome infants and a comparison group of infants (babies with phenylketonuria). The results indicated a higher proportion of sera from sudden infant death syndrome infants contained IgA that bound to clostridial and enterobacterial toxins but a higher proportion

Steven Siarakas; Alissa Jane Brown; William G. Murrell

1999-01-01

446

WIC's promotion of infant formula in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background The United States' Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) distributes about half the infant formula used in the United States at no cost to the families. This is a matter of concern because it is known that feeding with infant formula results in worse health outcomes for infants than breastfeeding. Discussion The evidence that is available indicates that the WIC program has the effect of promoting the use of infant formula, thus placing infants at higher risk. Moreover, the program violates the widely accepted principles that have been set out in the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and in the human right to adequate food. Summary There is no good reason for an agency of government to distribute large quantities of free infant formula. It is recommended that the large-scale distribution of free infant formula by the WIC program should be phased out.

Kent, George

2006-01-01

447

Early Information Processing among Infants with and without Spina Bifida  

PubMed Central

This study focuses on the development of early visual information processing among infants with Spina Bifida (SB) compared to typically developing infants using the habituation-dishabituation paradigm. Analyses were conducted in two stages. First infants were evaluated to determine if 18 month old infants (SB = 47; Control =40) differed in their ability to shift attention and habituate to two female faces, as well as their responses to composite and novel stimuli. Second, relations between these variables and infant motor and mental functioning were evaluated. The results of the study indicated that difficulties with visual attention skills can be detected as early as 18 months-of-age among infants with SB. Infants with SB differed significantly from controls on attention getting. Although there were no differences found on habituation and composite tasks, infants with SB differed significantly from controls on their ability to dishabituate. Implications are discussed.

Taylor, Heather B.; Landry, Susan H.; Barnes, Marcia; Swank, Paul; Cohen, Leslie B.; Fletcher, Jack

2010-01-01

448

Infant Mortality Review: Project Abstracts, Meeting Proceedings, and Product Information.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Infant mortality review is a major component of the Federal Maternal and Child Health Bureau's (MCHB) infant mortality reduction initiative. Projects funded by the bureau have met annually since 1988 to share information and discuss common concerns. The p...

1991-01-01

449

Identifying, Preventing, and Treating Disturbances between Parents and Their Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Categorizes disturbances between parents and their infants as parent-originated, infant-originated and society-originated disturbances. Recommends counseling interventions for preventing and treating such disturbances. (Author/RC)

Bassoff, Evelyn Silten

1982-01-01

450

The Infant Crying Questionnaire: Initial Factor Structure and Validation  

PubMed Central

The current project reports on an initial investigation into the factor structure of the Infant Crying Questionnaire (ICQ), a measure designed to assess parental beliefs about infant crying, in a sample of 259 primiparous mothers. Exploratory factor analyses yielded evidence for a five-factor structure to the ICQ, with two factors that may be conceptually viewed as infant-oriented beliefs regarding infant crying (Attachment/Comfort and Crying as Communication) and three factors conceptually reflecting parent-oriented beliefs regarding infant crying (Minimization, Directive Control, and Spoiling). Each of the scales demonstrated strong internal consistency and was associated with concurrent measures of mothers’ causal attributions about emotional responses to infant crying. Predictive validity to observed maternal sensitivity at 6 months and mother-reported infant behavioral problems at one year was demonstrated. The importance of a questionnaire method to assess parents’ beliefs regarding infant crying in developmental research is discussed and future methodological directions are outlined.

Haltigan, John D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Burney, Regan V.; Brien, Marion O'; Supple, Andrew J.; Calkins, Susan D.

2012-01-01

451

WIC and the Retail Price of Infant Formula.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rebates from infant formula manufacturers to State agencies that administer the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) support over one-quarter of all WIC participants. However, concerns have been raised that WIC and...

D. Smallwood E. Frazao M. Prell V. Oliveira

2004-01-01

452

Poverty and Infant Mortality in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the theoretical and empirical relationship of income poverty to infant mortality differentials. Taken into consideration is the relative impact of a variety of biological, social, and economic factors upon the risk of infant death. (Author/EB)

Gortmaker, Steven L.

1979-01-01

453

77 FR 66703 - Safety Standard for Infant Swings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...3\\ Infant swing suppliers already must third party test their products to the lead and phthalate requirements. Therefore, these costs already exist and will not be affected by the final infant swings...

2012-11-07

454

Infant Temperament: Neonatal 5 Years in Rural Appalachia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a continuation of an earlier funded project on infant temperament. Two research questions were addressed in this study. First, what continuity exists between (1) certain temperament and mother-infant relationship qualities in infancy, and (2) both...

M. Fish

2001-01-01

455

Infant Attachment: Literature Review. Human Attachment: What We Know Now.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Theories about infant attachment state that a child's first relationship is a love relationship that will have longlasting effects on his subsequent development. The report reviews previous literature on infant attachment, describes the research gaps iden...

V. L. Colin M. L. Rife M. C. Kennedy

1991-01-01

456

Surgeon General's Workshop on: Maternal and Infant Health.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Surgeon General's Workshop on Maternal and Infant Health was held because of our abiding interest in improving the health of this Nation's children. We can take great satisfaction with the recent decline in infant mortality which has been substantial;...

1981-01-01

457

Cerebral Blood Flow Velocities in Hypotensive Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants and Normotensive Infants  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if hypotensive extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants have similar cerebral hemodynamics when compared with normotensive controls. We hypothesized that hypotensive and normotensive ELBW infants have similar cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity. Study design In this case–control study, CBF velocity (using Doppler ultrasound), PCO2, and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) were continuously monitored twice daily prior to intensive care procedures. If an infant became hypotensive (MABP ? gestational age in weeks), additional monitoring was performed for 10–20 minutes, prior to treatment with dopamine. Thirty ELBW infants were enrolled (637 ± 140 g, 24.2 ± 1.1 weeks); 15 were hypotensive and 15 were gestational age/birth weight-matched normotensive controls. CBF velocity was compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results The groups did not differ significantly in gestational age, birth weight, race, sex, PCO2, Apgar scores, or occurrence of severe intraventricular hemorrhage. There was no difference in mean CBF velocity (P = .934) in hypotensive infants (MABP: 23 [20–24.9] mm Hg) compared with normotensive infants (MABP: 32.6 [27.5–35.7] mm Hg). Conclusion Despite being hypotensive, ELBW infants (prior to treatment), had similar CBF velocity compared with normotensive controls. Based on these results, hypotension may not indicate decreased CBF.

Lightburn, Marla H.; Gauss, C. Heath; Williams, D. Keith; Kaiser, Jeffrey R.

2009-01-01

458

Infant Formula, Tea, and Water Supplementation of Latino Infants at 4-6 Weeks Postpartum  

PubMed Central

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months- of-age. The authors examined prevalence and risk factors for use of infant formulas, water, and teas at 4–6 weeks in Latino infants in the San Francisco Bay Area, a group at high risk for future obesity. They recruited a cohort of pregnant Latina women (N = 201). Infant dietary recall and postpartum depressive symptoms were assessed at 4–6 weeks. The authors found that 105 women (53.1%) were feeding infant formulas and 48 (25.4%) were supplementing with tea or water. Of those providing water or tea, 60.0% were providing daily supplementation. In multivariate analyses, risk for infant supplementation with water or tea was associated with postpartum depressive symptoms (relative risk, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–3.0), cesarean delivery (relative risk, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–2.9), and infant formula use (relative risk, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–1.6). Early supplementation with water or teas and infant formulas should be discouraged in Latinos, given the high frequency observed in this population. J Hum Lact. 27(2):122–130.

Wojcicki, Janet M.; Holbrook, Katherine; Lustig, Robert H.; Caughey, Aaron B.; Munoz, Ricardo F.; Heyman, Melvin B.

2011-01-01

459

Infant formula, tea, and water supplementation of latino infants at 4-6 weeks postpartum.  

PubMed

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months-of-age. The authors examined prevalence and risk factors for use of infant formulas, water, and teas at 4-6 weeks in Latino infants in the San Francisco Bay Area, a group at high risk for future obesity. They recruited a cohort of pregnant Latina women (N = 201). Infant dietary recall and postpartum depressive symptoms were assessed at 4-6 weeks. The authors found that 105 women (53.1%) were feeding infant formulas and 48 (25.4%) were supplementing with tea or water. Of those providing water or tea, 60.0% were providing daily supplementation. In multivariate analyses, risk for infant supplementation with water or tea was associated with postpartum depressive symptoms (relative risk, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.0), cesarean delivery (relative risk, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.9), and infant formula use (relative risk, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.6). Early supplementation with water or teas and infant formulas should be discouraged in Latinos, given the high frequency observed in this population. PMID:21527796

Wojcicki, Janet M; Holbrook, Katherine; Lustig, Robert H; Caughey, Aaron B; Muñoz, Ricardo F; Heyman, Melvin B

2011-05-01

460

Stridor in Asian Infants: Assessment and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Stridor is the main symptom of upper airway obstruction in infants. It can be congenital or acquired, acute or chronic. Pathologies can be located from the nose down to the trachea. Common causes include laryngomalacia, vocal cord palsy, subglottic stenosis, tracheal anomaly, laryngeal cleft, vascular and lymphatic malformation, laryngeal papillomas, craniofacial abnormalities and even head and neck tumours. In this paper, we will discuss our approach to infants with stridor including assessment with flexible and rigid endoscopy and treatments to various conditions in a tertiary centre. Causes of stridor in infants undergoing rigid laryngotracheobronchoscopy in Queen Mary Hospital, University of Hong Kong Medical Centre between 2005 and 2011 will be retrospectively reviewed. Treatments according to various conditions will be discussed. Successful management of these neonates requires accurate diagnosis, early intervention, and multidisciplinary care by ENT surgeons, paediatricians, and paediatric anaesthetists.

Yee-Hang, Wong Birgitta; Theresa, Hui; So-lun, Lee; Wai-Kuen, Ho; Ignace, Wei William

2012-01-01

461

Endocardial Pacemaker Implantation in Neonates and Infants  

PubMed Central

Transvenous pacemaker lead implantation is the preferred method of pacing in adult patients. Lead performance and longevity are superior and the implantation approach can be performed under local anaesthetic with a very low morbidity. In children, and especially in neonates and infants, the epicardial route was traditionally chosen until the advent of smaller generators and lead implantation techniques that allowed growth of the child without lead displacement. Endocardial implantation is not universally accepted, however, as there is an incidence of venous occlusion of the smaller veins of neonates and infants with concerns for loss of venous access in the future. Growing experience with lower profile leads, however, reveals that endocardial pacing too can be performed with low morbidity and good long-term results in neonates and infants.

Ayabakan, Canan; Rosenthal, Eric

2006-01-01

462

Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the relationship between air pollution, measured as concentration of suspended particulates in the atmosphere, and infant mortality due to pneumonia in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. Multiple linear regression (progressive or stepwise method) was used to analyze infant mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhea, and all causes in 1980, by geographic area, income level, and degree of contamination. While the variable proportion of families with income equivalent to more than two minimum wages was included in the regressions corresponding to the three types of infant mortality, the average contamination index had a statistically significant coefficient (b = 0.2208; t = 2.670; P = 0.0137) only in the case of mortality due to pneumonia. This would suggest a biological association, but, as in any ecological study, such conclusions should be viewed with caution. The authors believe that air quality indicators are essential to consider in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.

Penna, M.L.; Duchiade, M.P. (Instituto de Medicina Social, Universidad del Estado del Rio de Janeiro (Brasil))

1991-03-01

463

Managing Hypertension in the Newborn Infants  

PubMed Central

Hypertension in newborn infants, particularly those requiring intensive care, is becoming increasingly recognized, with prevalence of 0.2-3%. Recent studies have established normative tables for blood pressure (BP) in both term and pre-term infants based on the gestational age, postnatal age, gender, weight and height, identifying the neonates at increased risk for early-onset cardiovascular disease. Common causes of neonatal hypertension include thromboembolic complications secondary to umbilical artery catheterization, congenital renal structural malformation, renovascular disease, aortic coarctation, as well as acute kidney injury and certain medications. A careful diagnostic evaluation should lead to identification of the underlying cause of hypertension in most infants. Treatment options should be tailored to the severity; and underlying cause of hypertension, including intravenous and/or oral therapy. This review summarizes recent work in these areas, focusing on optimal BP measurement, definition, evaluation and management of hypertension as well as advances in drug therapy of neonatal hypertension.

Nickavar, Azar; Assadi, Farahnak

2014-01-01

464

Quantitative Linking Hypotheses for Infant Eye Movements  

PubMed Central

The study of cognitive development hinges, largely, on the analysis of infant looking. But analyses of eye gaze data require the adoption of linking hypotheses: assumptions about the relationship between observed eye movements and underlying cognitive processes. We develop a general framework for constructing, testing, and comparing these hypotheses, and thus for producing new insights into early cognitive development. We first introduce the general framework – applicable to any infant gaze experiment – and then demonstrate its utility by analyzing data from a set of experiments investigating the role of attentional cues in infant learning. The new analysis uncovers significantly more structure in these data, finding evidence of learning that was not found in standard analyses and showing an unexpected relationship between cue use and learning rate. Finally, we discuss general implications for the construction and testing of quantitative linking hypotheses. MATLAB code for sample linking hypotheses can be found on the first author's website.

Yurovsky, Daniel; Hidaka, Shohei; Wu, Rachel

2012-01-01

465

Quantitative linking hypotheses for infant eye movements.  

PubMed

The study of cognitive development hinges, largely, on the analysis of infant looking. But analyses of eye gaze data require the adoption of linking hypotheses: assumptions about the relationship between observed eye movements and underlying cognitive processes. We develop a general framework for constructing, testing, and comparing these hypotheses, and thus for producing new insights into early cognitive development. We first introduce the general framework--applicable to any infant gaze experiment--and then demonstrate its utility by analyzing data from a set of experiments investigating the role of attentional cues in infant learning. The new analysis uncovers significantly more structure in these data, finding evidence of learning that was not found in standard analyses and showing an unexpected relationship between cue use and learning rate. Finally, we discuss general implications for the construction and testing of quantitative linking hypotheses. MATLAB code for sample linking hypotheses can be found on the first author's website. PMID:23110071

Yurovsky, Daniel; Hidaka, Shohei; Wu, Rachel

2012-01-01

466

Cranial ultrasound findings in well newborn Ugandan infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere has been no study assessing cranial ultrasound (cUS) scans in newborn infants born in equatorial Africa.ObjectiveTo assess the cUS scans of apparently well newborn term Ugandan infants and to correlate the findings with perinatal data.MethodsAn observational study of apparently healthy postnatal ward term Ugandan infants at Mulago Hospital, Makerere University Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.ResultsData from 112 infants scanned at a

CF Hagmann; NJ Robertson; D. Acolet; D. Chan; S. Onda; N. Nyombi; M. Nakakeeto; FM Cowan

2010-01-01

467

Developmental consequences and biological significance of mother–infant bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mother–infant bonding is universal to all mammalian species. Here, we review how mutual communication between the mother and infant leads to mother–infant bonding in non-primate species. In rodents, mother–infant bond formation is reinforced by various pup stimuli, such as tactile stimuli and ultrasonic vocalizations. Evidence suggests that the oxytocin neural system plays a pivotal role in each aspect of the

Kazutaka Mogi; Miho Nagasawa; Takefumi Kikusui

2011-01-01

468

Early School-Age Outcomes of Late Preterm Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.Late preterm infants represent a significant portion of preterm deliveries. Until recently, these infants have received little attention because of assumptions that they carry minimal risk for long-term morbidities. The purpose of this study was to compare prekindergarten and kindergarten outcomes among healthy late preterm infants, 340?7 to 366?7 weeks' gestation at birth, and healthy term infants, 370?7 to 416?7

Steven Benjamin Morse; Hao Zheng; Yiwei Tang; Jeffrey Roth

2009-01-01

469

Late-preterm birth, maternal symptomatology, and infant negativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined infant negativity and maternal symptomatology by term status in a predominately low-income, rural sample of 132 infants (66 late-preterm) and their mothers. Late-preterm and term infants were group-matched by race, income, and maternal age. Maternal depression and anxiety symptoms were measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory 18 (BSI-18) when infants were 2 and 6 months of

Kristin M. Voegtline; Cynthia A. Stifter

2010-01-01

470

Maternal regulation of infant brain state.  

PubMed

Patterns of neural activity are critical for sculpting the immature brain, and disrupting this activity is believed to underlie neurodevelopmental disorders [1-3]. Neural circuits undergo extensive activity-dependent postnatal structural and functional changes [4-6]. The different forms of neural plasticity [7-9] underlying these changes have been linked to specific patterns of spatiotemporal activity. Since maternal behavior is the mammalian infant's major source of sensory-driven environmental stimulation and the quality of this care can dramatically affect neurobehavioral development [10], we explored, for the first time, whether infant cortical activity is influenced directly by interactions with the mother within the natural nest environment. We recorded spontaneous neocortical local field potentials in freely behaving infant rats during natural interactions with their mother on postnatal days ?12-19. We showed that maternal absence from the nest increased cortical desynchrony. Further isolating the pup by removing littermates induced further desynchronization. The mother's return to the nest reduced this desynchrony, and nipple attachment induced a further reduction but increased slow-wave activity. However, maternal simulation of pups (e.g., grooming and milk ejection) consistently produced rapid, transient cortical desynchrony. The magnitude of these maternal effects decreased with age. Finally, systemic blockade of noradrenergic beta receptors led to reduced maternal regulation of infant cortical activity. Our results demonstrate that during early development, mother-infant interactions can immediately affect infant brain activity, in part via a noradrenergic mechanism, suggesting a powerful influence of the maternal behavior and presence on circuit development. PMID:24980504

Sarro, Emma C; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

2014-07-21

471

Infant Botulism Acquired from Household Dust Presenting as Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Clostridium botulinum type B was detected by multiplex PCR in the intestinal contents of a suddenly deceased 11-week-old infant and in vacuum cleaner dust from the patient's household. C. botulinum was also isolated from the deceased infant's intestinal contents and from the household dust. The genetic similarity of the two isolates was demonstrated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, thereby confirming that dust may act as a vehicle for infant botulism that results in sudden death.

Nevas, Mari; Lindstrom, Miia; Virtanen, Antti; Hielm, Sebastian; Kuusi, Markku; Arnon, Stephen S.; Vuori, Erkki; Korkeala, Hannu

2005-01-01

472

Asymmetry in infants' selective attention to facial features during visual processing of infant-directed speech  

PubMed Central

Two experiments used eye tracking to examine how infant and adult observers distribute their eye gaze on videos of a mother producing infant- and adult-directed speech. Both groups showed greater attention to the eyes than to the nose and mouth, as well as an asymmetrical focus on the talker's right eye for infant-directed speech stimuli. Observers continued to look more at the talker's apparent right eye when the video stimuli were mirror flipped, suggesting that the asymmetry reflects a perceptual processing bias rather than a stimulus artifact, which may be related to cerebral lateralization of emotion processing.

Smith, Nicholas A.; Gibilisco, Colleen R.; Meisinger, Rachel E.; Hankey, Maren

2013-01-01

473

Perioperative Hypothermia in NICU Infants: Its Occurrence and Impact on Infant Outcomes.  

PubMed

Infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) often require surgical intervention and maintaining normothermia perioperatively is a major concern. In our preliminary study of 31 normothermic infants undergoing operative procedures in the operating room (OR), 58% (N = 18) returned hypothermic while all 5 undergoing procedures in the NICU remained normothermic (P = .001). To describe perioperative thermal instability (temperatures lower than 36.0°C) and frequency of associated adverse events, support interventions, and diagnostic tests in infants undergoing operative procedures in the OR and the NICU. This prospective, case-control study included 108 infants admitted to the NICU who were sequentially scheduled for an operative procedure in the OR (50.93%; N = 55) or the NICU (49.07%; N = 53). Existing data from the medical record were collected about temperatures and frequency of adverse cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic events, associated support interventions, and diagnostic tests during the perioperative period. Analyses examined the relative risks and proportional differences in rates of hypothermia between the OR group and the NICU group and associated adverse events, support interventions, and diagnostic tests between hypothermic and normothermic infants. Hypothermia developed in 40% (N = 43) of infants during the perioperative period. The OR group had a higher rate of perioperative hypothermia (65.45%, N = 36; P < .001) and were 7 times more likely to develop perioperative hypothermia (P = .008) than the NICU group (13.21%, N = 7). Likewise, infants in the OR group were 10 times more likely to develop hypothermia during the intra- and postoperative periods than those in the NICU group (P = .001). The hypothermic group had significantly more respiratory adverse events (P = .025), were 6 times more likely to require thermoregulatory interventions (P < .001), 5 times more likely to require cardiac support interventions (P < .006), and 3 times more likely to require respiratory interventions (P = .02) than normothermic infants. Although infants undergoing operative procedures in the OR experienced significantly higher rates of hypothermia than those undergoing procedures in the NICU, both groups experienced unacceptable rates of clinical hypothermia. Hypothermic infants experienced more adverse events and required more support interventions during the intra- and postoperative periods than normothermic infants, thereby demonstrating the negative sequelae associated with thermal instability. As a result, a translational team of key stakeholders has been created to explore multifaceted strategies based on translation science to implement, embed, and sustain perioperative thermoregulation best practices for the infant, regardless of the operative setting. PMID:24824300

Morehouse, Deborah; Williams, Lisa; Lloyd, Christina; McCoy, Dena S; Miller Walters, Elizabeth; Guzzetta, Cathie E; Baumgart, Stephen; Sill, Anne; Mueller-Burke, Dawn; Lou Short, Billie

2014-06-01

474

[Attention to nutrition and health of preterm infants: interpretation of The Global Consensus for Feeding the Preterm Infant].  

PubMed

The Global Consensus for Feeding the Preterm Infant was published in the Journal of Pediatrics 3 supplement, 2013. The content of the consensus includes recommended nutrient intake for different gestational age preterm infants, identifying appropriate growth curves, the use of breast milk, nutritional recommendations for the late-preterm infant and the preterm infant after hospital discharge, nutritional requirements and feeding recommendations for small gestation age infants, reconsideration of the importance of vitamin A and vitamin D for immature infants, recommendations for immunonutrients, and the association of feeding of preterm infants with later metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes. The main characteristics of the consensus: (1) aimed to improve prognosis; (2) individualized nutritional strategy based on gestational ages; (3) coexistence of consensus and controversy in feeding of preterm infants. PMID:25008869

Wang, Dan-Hua

2014-07-01

475

Therapeutic observation of an infant in foster care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a clinical research study of therapeutic observation of an infant in foster care. Infants and children under five represent more than half of all children entering care in the UK. The emotional needs of this population tend to be overlooked. This study aimed to find out about the experience of an infant or young child in care,

Jenifer Wakelyn

2011-01-01

476

Infant Vocabulary Development Assessed with a British Communicative Development Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs) were collected from 669 British Children aged between 1 and 2 years. Comprehension and production scores in each age group were calculated. This provides norming data for the British infant population. Data from British infants is compared to data from American infants. (Author/VWL)

Hamilton, Antonia; Plunkett, Kim; Schafer, Graham

2000-01-01

477

Children's and adults' sex-stereotyped perceptions of infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex-stereotyped perceptions of infants were examined in children (aged 5, 9, and 15 years), college students, and the children's mothers. The children and college students as a group rated labeled female infants as littler and as more beautiful, nice, and soft than labeled male infants, with no age changes in sex-stereotyped perceptions. The mothers as a group were not influenced

Dena Ann Vogel; Margaret A. Lake; Suzanne Evans; Katherine Hildebrandt Karraker

1991-01-01

478

Common Neural Basis for Phoneme Processing in Infants and Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigating the degree of similarity between infants' and adults' representation of speech is critical to our understanding of infants' ability to acquire language. Phoneme perception plays a crucial role in language processing, and numerous behavioral studies have demonstrated similar capacities in infants and adults, but are these subserved by the same neural substrates or networks? In this article, we review

G. Dehaene-Lambertz; T. Gliga

2004-01-01

479

7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...must require bidders that do not produce a soy-based infant formula to subcontract with another manufacturer to supply a soy-based infant formula under the contract...bidder pay the State agency a rebate on the soy-based infant formula supplied by...

2010-01-01

480

7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...must require bidders that do not produce a soy-based infant formula to subcontract with another manufacturer to supply a soy-based infant formula under the contract...bidder pay the State agency a rebate on the soy-based infant formula supplied by...

2009-01-01

481

Development of Face Recognition in Infant Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we assessed the developmental changes in face recognition by three infant chimpanzees aged 1-18 weeks, using preferential-looking procedures that measured the infants' eye- and head-tracking of moving stimuli. In Experiment 1, we prepared photographs of the mother of each infant and an ''average'' chimpanzee face using…

Myowa-Yamakoshi, M.; Yamaguchi, M.K.; Tomonaga, M.; Tanaka, M.; Matsuzawa, T.

2005-01-01

482

Limits on Infants' Ability to Dynamically Update Object Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like adults, infants use working memory to represent occluded objects and can update these memory representations to reflect changes to a scene that unfold over time. Here we tested the limits of infants' ability to update object representations in working memory. Eleven-month-old infants participated in a modified foraging task in which they saw…

Feigenson, Lisa; Yamaguchi, Mariko

2009-01-01

483

Pulmonary Surfactant Metabolism in Infants Lacking Surfactant Protein B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants with inherited deficiency of pulmonary surfactant protein (SP) B develop respiratory failure at birth and die without lung transplantation. We examined aspects of surfactant metabolism in lung tissue and la- vage fluid acquired at transplantation or postmortem from ten infants born at term with inherited defi- ciency of SP-B; comparison groups were infants with other forms of chronic lung

Michael F. Beers; Aaron Hamvas; Michael A. Moxley; Linda W. Gonzales; Susan H. Guttentag; Kola O. Solarin; William J. Longmore; Lawrence M. Nogee; Philip L. Ballard

2000-01-01

484

Infants' Contribution to the Achievement of Joint Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Labels for toys were taught to 64 infants. In follow-in labeling, the experimenter labeled a toy at which infants were looking; in discrepant labeling, one at which they were not looking. Results revealed that infants learned follow-in labels and made no mapping errors after discrepant labeling. (BC)

Baldwin, Dare A.

1991-01-01

485

Infant motor development and equipment use in the home.  

PubMed

Forty-three mother-infant dyads were recruited to determine the relationship between both total equipment use and the use of individual pieces of equipment and infant motor development. At 8 months of age, total and individual equipment use was determined by parental survey and infant motor development was assessed using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. Statistically significant correlations were found for the relationships between total equipment use and infant motor development (r = -0.50, P = 0.001) and individual pieces of equipment [exersaucer (r = -0.58, P = 0.001), highchair (r = -0.32, P = 0.04), and infant seat (r = -0.32, P = 0.03)] and infant motor development. These findings suggest that infants who have high equipment use tend to score lower on infant motor development or that infants who have low equipment use tend to score higher on infant motor development. Limitations of this cross-sectional study make it difficult to determine causality between these constructs. If equipment use is found to be causally related to infant motor development and predictive of later motor development in a future prospective study, parental education emphasizing the moderate use of equipment within the home environment might be warranted. PMID:11350456

Abbott, A L; Bartlett, D J

2001-05-01

486

Disturbed Surface Properties in Preterm Infants with Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital pneumonia in preterm infants is often associated with respiratory insufficiency requiring mechanical ventilation. This study was performed to show whether pneumonia in these infants is associated with an inhibition or deficiency of surfactant. The ratio of lecithin and sphingomyelin (L\\/S ratio) and minimal surface tension were determined in pharyngeal aspirat