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1

Safety and Immunogenicity of Tetanus Diphtheria and Acellular Pertussis (Tdap) Immunization During Pregnancy in Mothers and Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Importance Maternal immunization with tetanus toxoid and reduced diphtheria toxoid acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine could prevent infant pertussis. The effect of vaccine-induced maternal antibodies on infant responses to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids acellular pertussis (DTaP) immunization is unknown. Objective To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of Tdap immunization during pregnancy and its effect on infant responses to DTaP. Design, Setting and Participants Phase I, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in private (Houston) and academic (Durham, Seattle) obstetric practices from 2008 to 2012. Forty eight healthy 18–45 year-old pregnant women received Tdap (n=33) or placebo (n=15) at 30–32 weeks’ gestation with cross-over Tdap immunization postpartum. Interventions Tdap vaccination at 30–32 weeks’ gestation or post-partum. Outcome Measures Primary: Maternal and infant adverse events, pertussis illness and infant growth and development (Bayley-III screening test) until 13 months of age. Secondary: Antibody concentrations in pregnant women before and 4 weeks after Tdap immunization or placebo, at delivery and 2 months postpartum, and in infants at birth, 2 months, and after the third (7 months) and fourth (13 months) doses of DTaP. Results All participants delivered healthy newborns. No Tdap-associated serious adverse events occurred in women or infants. Injection site reactions after Tdap immunization were reported in 78.8% (95% CI: 61.1%, 91.0%) and 80% (CI: 51.9%, 95.7%) pregnant and postpartum women, respectively. Injection site pain was the predominant symptom. Systemic symptoms were reported in 36.4% (CI: 20.4%, 54.9%) and 73.3% (CI: 44.9%, 92.2%) pregnant and postpartum women, respectively. Malaise and myalgia were most common. Growth and development were similar in both infant groups. No cases of pertussis occurred. Significantly higher concentrations of pertussis antibodies were measured at delivery in women who received Tdap during pregnancy and in their infants at birth and at age 2 months when compared to infants of women immunized postpartum. Antibody responses in infants of Tdap recipients during pregnancy were modestly lower after 3 DTaP doses, but not different following the fourth dose. Conclusions and Relevance This preliminary safety assessment did not find an increased risk of adverse events among women who received Tdap vaccine at 30–32 weeks’ gestation or their infants. Maternal immunization with Tdap resulted in high concentrations of pertussis antibodies in infants during the first 2 months of life and did not substantially alter infant responses to DTaP. Further research is needed to provide definitive evidence of the safety and efficacy of Tdap vaccination during pregnancy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, study identifier: NCT00707148. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:24794369

Munoz, Flor M.; Bond, Nanette H.; Maccato, Maurizio; Pinell, Phillip; Hammill, Hunter A.; Swamy, Geeta K.; Walter, Emmanuel B.; Jackson, Lisa A.; Englund, Janet A.; Edwards, Morven S.; Healy, C. Mary; Petrie, Carey R.; Ferreira, Jennifer; Goll, Johannes B.; Baker, Carol J.

2015-01-01

2

Silkworm cocoons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm larvae spin silk cocoons to live in while they go through metamorphosis. They change from silkworm larvae into white silk moths. The silk cocoons are valuable to humans and can be made into silk fabric.

Roman Neumüller (None;)

2006-07-05

3

Hofstadter's Cocoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hofstadter showed that the energy levels of electrons on a lattice plotted as a function of magnetic field form an beautiful structure now referred to as "Hofstadter's butterfly". We study a non-Hermitian continuation of Hofstadter's model; as the non-Hermiticity parameter g increases past a sequence of critical values the eigenvalues successively go complex in a sequence of "double-pitchfork bifurcations" wherein pairs of real eigenvalues degenerate and then become complex conjugate pairs. The associated wavefunctions undergo a spontaneous symmetry breaking transition that we elucidate. Beyond the transition a plot of the real parts of the eigenvalues against magnetic field resembles the Hofstadter butterfly; a plot of the imaginary parts plotted against magnetic fields forms an intricate structure that we call the Hofstadter cocoon. The symmetries of the cocoon are described. Hatano and Nelson have studied a non-Hermitian continuation of the Anderson model of localization that has close parallels to the model studied here. The relationship of our work to that of Hatano and Nelson and to PT transitions studied in PT quantum mechanics is discussed.

Jones-Smith, Katherine; Wallace, Connor

2015-01-01

4

Hofstadter's Cocoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hofstadter showed that the energy levels of electrons on a lattice plotted as a function of magnetic field form an beautiful structure now referred to as "Hofstadter's butterfly". We study a non-Hermitian continuation of Hofstadter's model; as the non-Hermiticity parameter g increases past a sequence of critical values the eigenvalues successively go complex in a sequence of "double-pitchfork bifurcations" wherein pairs of real eigenvalues degenerate and then become complex conjugate pairs. The associated wavefunctions undergo a spontaneous symmetry breaking transition that we elucidate. Beyond the transition a plot of the real parts of the eigenvalues against magnetic field resembles the Hofstadter butterfly; a plot of the imaginary parts plotted against magnetic fields forms an intricate structure that we call the Hofstadter cocoon. The symmetries of the cocoon are described. Hatano and Nelson have studied a non-Hermitian continuation of the Anderson model of localization that has close parallels to the model studied here. The relationship of our work to that of Hatano and Nelson and to PT transitions studied in PT quantum mechanics is discussed.

Jones-Smith, Katherine; Wallace, Connor

2014-06-01

5

Neonatal pertussis, cocooning and maternal immunization.  

PubMed

The rising incidence of whooping cough, a highly contagious infection caused by Bordetella pertussis, is particularly significant for young infants who have the highest risk for morbidity and mortality. The pertussis resurgence has led to a shift in primary prevention relying on childhood vaccination to a cocooning strategy, that is, vaccination of close contacts of newborn infants (new mothers, fathers, grandparents, siblings, caretakers, etc.), thereby reducing pertussis exposure. Immunization of women during pregnancy rather than during the immediate postpartum period (the initial cocooning recommendation) appears to be a better approach by directly providing protection through transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies. This article describes neonatal pertussis, cocooning as a means of reducing neonatal exposure to pertussis and maternal immunization as a means of protecting young infants against pertussis infection. PMID:25075629

Swamy, Geeta K; Wheeler, Sarahn M

2014-09-01

6

Standing Orderfor Tdap Vaccine OR Declination Consent and Administration of  

E-print Network

(whooping cough), I am at risk ofacquiring Pertussis, a serious disease and could potentially infect others and it covers Pertussis (\\\\!hooping cough). Tdap normally has a two year interval between a Td and this vaccine

Leistikow, Bruce N.

7

Protecting newborns from pertussis – the challenge of complete cocooning  

PubMed Central

Background An increase of pertussis cases, especially in young infants and adolescents, has been noted in various countries. Whooping cough is most serious in neonates and young infants in whom it may cause serious complications such as cyanosis, apnoea, pneumonia, encephalopathy and death. To protect newborns and infants too young to be fully immunized, immunization of close contact persons has been proposed (“cocoon strategy”) and implemented in several countries, including Switzerland in 2011. The goal of this study was to assess knowledge about pertussis among parents of newborns and acceptance, practicability and implementation of the recently recommended pertussis cocoon strategy in Switzerland. Methods We performed a cross sectional survey among all parents of newborns born between May and September 2012 and 2013 in Basel city and country. Regional statistical offices provided family addresses after approval by the ethical and data protection committees. A standardized questionnaire with detailed instructions was sent to all eligible families. For statistical analyses, independent proportions were compared by Pearson’s chi-squared test. Results Of 3546 eligible parents, 884 (25%) participated. All three questions exploring pertussis knowledge were answered correctly by 37% of parents; 25% gave two correct answers, 22% gave one correct answer and in the remaining 16% no answer was correct. Pertussis immunization as part of cocooning was recommended to 20% and 37% of mothers and 14% and 32% of fathers in the 2012 and 2013 study cohorts, respectively. Principal advisors for cocooning were pediatricians (66%) followed by gynecologists/obstetricians (12%) and general practitioners (5%). When recommended, 64% of mothers and 59% of fathers accepted pertussis immunization. The majority of vaccinations were administered in the perinatal period and within 2 months of the child’s birth. However, cocooning remained incomplete in 93% of families and in most families <50% of close contacts received pertussis vaccination. Conclusions Implementation of cocooning for protecting newborns from pertussis is challenging and usually remains incomplete. Pertussis immunization rates among close contacts of newborns need to be improved. Ideally, all healthcare providers involved in family planning, pregnancy and child birth should recommend cocooning. Pertussis immunization of pregnant women is an additional measure for optimal protection of newborns and should be promoted. PMID:25037057

2014-01-01

8

Oxygen cocoon for patients under intensive care  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cocoon is made from Teflon film. It includes full-length, pressure zipper on top side and bottom part is rigid pad constructed of burn-resistant material. Cocoon includes oxygen supply port with exhaust port at opposite end.

Maas, J. W.

1975-01-01

9

Cocoon drying through solar energy  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, silk cocoon drying operations through solar energy have been presented. Nearly no comprehensive work has been appeared in literature on this unusual application. General mechanism of solar drying methods are presented by some authors for instance, Roman and Jindal. This application seems vitally significant for silk cocoon producer countries like Turkey. The rate of production accelerates year by year and it is about 3000 tons per year presently in Turkey. In Turkey, by now and currently, a water vapour chamber is utilized in the killing process of silkworm. Vapour produced by burning of conventional fuels posses many drawbacks beside being very expensive and also non-renewable. Vapour effects the quality and quantity of silk thread negatively. For instance, the colour of silk cocoon tends to turn to pale instead of being gleamy. This is not tolerable. The length and mass of silk thread obtained per a typical cocoon sample is increased about 10.1 and 16.5 per cent respectively in the average by using solar energy.

Kulunk, M.

1983-12-01

10

Gastro retention using polymer cocoons.  

PubMed

Abstract A gastro-retentive capsule has been prepared which is retained in the stomach for a period of 24h, providing a vehicle for the controlled delivery to the upper intestines. These "gastro cocoons" can resist passage through the sphincter of the stomach, and can retain a high drug payload (30%). They are made from oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and can swell to twice their initial volume. They are strong and also can resist 550 N of compressive force. They are based on filled pharmaceutical capsules which are visible to X-rays. Using ambroxol hydrochloride as a model drug linear, zero-order, release curves were obtained. PMID:25078789

Arnold, Julien; Hunkeler, David

2015-02-01

11

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Tdap in the Prevention of Pertussis in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Objectives Health benefits and costs of combined reduced-antigen-content tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) immunization among adults ?65 years have not been evaluated. In February 2012, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended expanding Tdap vaccination (one single dose) to include adults ?65 years not previously vaccinated with Tdap. Our study estimated the health and economic outcomes of one-time replacement of the decennial tetanus and diphtheria (Td) booster with Tdap in the 10% of individuals aged 65 years assumed eligible each year compared with a baseline scenario of continued Td vaccination. Methods We constructed a model evaluating the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating a cohort of adults aged 65 with Tdap, by calculating pertussis cases averted due to direct vaccine effects only. Results are presented from societal and payer perspectives for a range of pertussis incidences (25–200 cases per 100,000), due to the uncertainty in estimating true annual incidence. Cases averted were accrued throughout the patient 's lifetime, and a probability tree used to estimate the clinical outcomes and costs (US$ 2010) for each case. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) lost to acute disease were calculated by multiplying cases of mild/moderate/severe pertussis by the associated health-state disutility; QALY losses due to death and long-term sequelae were also considered. Incremental costs and QALYs were summed over the cohort to derive incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Scenario analyses evaluated the effect of alternative plausible parameter estimates on results. Results At incidence levels of 25, 100, 200 cases/100,000, vaccinating adults aged 65 years costs an additional $336,000, $63,000 and $17,000/QALY gained, respectively. Vaccination has a cost-effectiveness ratio less than $50,000/QALY if pertussis incidence is >116 cases/100,000 from societal and payer perspectives. Results were robust to scenario analyses. Conclusions Tdap immunization of adults aged 65 years according to current ACIP recommendations is a cost-effective health-care intervention at plausible incidence assumptions. PMID:24019859

McGarry, Lisa J.; Krishnarajah, Girishanthy; Hill, Gregory; Skornicki, Michelle; Pruttivarasin, Narin; Masseria, Cristina; Arondekar, Bhakti; Pelton, Stephen I.; Weinstein, Milton C.

2013-01-01

12

Structure and physical properties of silkworm cocoons  

PubMed Central

Silkworm cocoons have evolved a wide range of different structures and combinations of physical and chemical properties in order to cope with different threats and environmental conditions. We present our observations and measurements on 25 diverse types of cocoons in a first attempt to correlate physical properties with the structure and morphology of the cocoons. These two architectural parameters appear to be far more important than the material properties of the silk fibres themselves. We consider tensile and compressive mechanical properties and gas permeation of the cocoon walls, and in each case identify mechanisms or models that relate these properties to cocoon structure, usually based upon non-woven fibre composites. These properties are of relevance also for synthetic non-woven composite materials and our studies will help formulate bio-inspired design principles for new materials. PMID:22552916

Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

2012-01-01

13

Structure and physical properties of silkworm cocoons.  

PubMed

Silkworm cocoons have evolved a wide range of different structures and combinations of physical and chemical properties in order to cope with different threats and environmental conditions. We present our observations and measurements on 25 diverse types of cocoons in a first attempt to correlate physical properties with the structure and morphology of the cocoons. These two architectural parameters appear to be far more important than the material properties of the silk fibres themselves. We consider tensile and compressive mechanical properties and gas permeation of the cocoon walls, and in each case identify mechanisms or models that relate these properties to cocoon structure, usually based upon non-woven fibre composites. These properties are of relevance also for synthetic non-woven composite materials and our studies will help formulate bio-inspired design principles for new materials. PMID:22552916

Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

2012-09-01

14

Expandable coating cocoon leak detection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of system and materials for detecting leaks in cocoon protective coatings are discussed. Method of applying materials for leak determination is presented. Pressurization of system following application of materials will cause formation of bubble if leak exists.

Hauser, R. L.; Kochansky, M. C.

1972-01-01

15

Preliminary study on the immunogenicity of a newly developed GCC Tdap vaccine and its protection efficacy against Bordetella pertussis in a murine intranasal challenge model  

PubMed Central

Purpose Active reduced dose tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination for adolescents and adults is necessary because waning immunity after primary diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination is related to the recent emergence of pertussis. This study was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and protection efficacy against Bordetella pertussis between a new GCC Tdap vaccine and a commercially available Tdap vaccine in a murine model. Materials and Methods BALB/c mice were immunized with two doses of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine for priming and a subsequent Tdap booster vaccination. According to the type of booster vaccine, mice were divided into four groups: commercially available Tdap vaccine in group 1 and GCC Tdap vaccines of different combinations of pertussis antigens in groups 2 to 4. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and protection efficacy using a murine intranasal challenge model after booster vaccination were compared among the four groups. Results Every group showed significant increases in antibody titers against pertussis antigens such as pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and pertactin after booster vaccination. Spleen cells showed both Th1 and Th2 cell-mediated immune responses stimulated by pertussis antigens in all groups without any significant difference. In the intranasal B. pertussis infection model, bacteria were eradicated in all groups five days after challenge infection. Conclusion This preliminary study did not show significantly different immunogenicity or protection efficacy of the new GCC Tdap vaccines compared to the commercially available Tdap vaccine, although a more extensive study is necessary to assess the differing efficacies of the new GCC Tdap vaccines. PMID:25649262

2015-01-01

16

The evolution of cocoons surrounding light, extragalactic jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If the mass density of supersonic, collimated material is less than that of the surrounding medium, a so-called light jet will be enveloped by a cocoon of overpressured shocked gas. Hydrodynamical simulations are used to understand the evolution of the cocoon. The cocoon's evolution is also compared to a simple analytic theory. To reconcile the theory with the simulations, the growth of the jet head must be taken into account. The overpressured cocoon stage exists for a relatively short astronomical time, after which only the region of the cocoon near the jet head remains overpressured. The spatial distribution of the optical emission often observed in distant extragalactic jet systems can be explained with this improved understanding of cocoon evolution.

Cioffi, Denis F.; Blondin, John M.

1992-01-01

17

Electricity from the Silk Cocoon Membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silk cocoon membrane (SCM) is an insect engineered structure. We studied the electrical properties of mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Tussar, Antheraea mylitta) SCM. When dry, SCM behaves like an insulator. On absorbing moisture, it generates electrical current, which is modulated by temperature. The current flowing across the SCM is possibly ionic and protonic in nature. We exploited the electrical properties of SCM to develop simple energy harvesting devices, which could operate low power electronic systems. Based on our findings, we propose that the temperature and humidity dependent electrical properties of the SCM could find applications in battery technology, bio-sensor, humidity sensor, steam engines and waste heat management.

Tulachan, Brindan; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Mallick, Chandrakant; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Teotia, Arun Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Bhattacharya, Shantanu; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

2014-06-01

18

A lepidopterous cocoon evidence for silk in the  

E-print Network

A lepidopterous cocoon evidence for silk in the Age from Thera and Aegean Bronze E. PANAGIOTAKOPULU of silk?And if silk, where did the stuff, or knowledge of cultivating the silk-worms, come from):420-29 #12;A LEPIDOPTEROUS COCOON FROM THERA & EVIDENCE FOR SILK IN THE AEGEAN BRONZE AGE 421

Panagiotakopulu, Eva

19

Vaccine safety implications of Ontario, Canada's switch from DTaP-IPV to Tdap-IPV for the pre-school booster.  

PubMed

Ontario, Canada, replaced the 4-6 year old diphtheria (D, d), tetanus (T), acellular pertussis (aP, ap) and polio (IPV) booster from DTaP-IPV to Tdap-IPV in May 2012. We assessed the impact of this replacement on the rate and types of reported adverse events following immunization (AEFIs). We used AEFIs reported among 4-6 years olds, through the provincial surveillance system, following administration of DTaP-IPV or Tdap-IPV from 2009 to 2013. Reporting rates per 100,000 doses distributed were calculated using publicly funded doses distributed as the denominator. A total of 204 AEFIs were reported (DTaP-IPV, n=182; Tdap-IPV, n=22). AEFI reporting rates were 33.1 and 6.3 per 100,000 doses distributed for DTaP-IPV and Tdap-IPV, respectively. Injection site reaction rate was lower for Tdap-IPV compared with DTaP-IPV (1.7 vs 20.6 per 100,000 doses). The replacement resulted in a decline in the number of reports and AEFI reporting rates, most notably a substantial decrease in injection site reactions. PMID:25252195

Klar, Salman; Harris, Tara; Wong, Kenny; Fediurek, Jill; Deeks, Shelley L

2014-11-12

20

Presence of Culturable Bacteria in Cocoons of the Earthworm Eisenia fetida†  

PubMed Central

Viable bacteria were found to coexist with developing embryos in egg capsules (cocoons) of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Earthworms were reared under standardized conditions, and bacterial densities were measured in distinct batches of cocoons collected weekly for 10 weeks. Cocoons weighing 12 mg contained a mean viable bacterial population of approximately 108 CFU/g of cocoons. No difference was found in viable counts obtained from cocoons incubated at 15°C and cocoons incubated at 24°C. Viable bacterial numbers increased with cocoon age, while acridine orange direct counts of microbial cells were stable at approximately 109 cells per g of cocoons. Bacteria isolated from cocoons were used to develop antisera in rabbits for the production of strain-specific fluorescent antibodies. Fluorescent antibody and selective plating techniques were used to monitor populations of these bacteria in earthworm bedding and to determine whether cocoons acquire bacteria from the environment in which they are formed. Cocoon isolates were readily recovered from cocoons formed in inoculated bedding at densities of 108 CFU/g of cocoons. Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 and UMR 161 added to bedding were also recovered from cocoons, but at lower densities than cocoon isolates. Escherichia coli K-12(pJP4) inoculum was recovered from bedding but not from cocoons. The bacterial complement of Eisenia fetida cocoons is affected by inoculation of selected bacterial isolates in the worm growth environment. PMID:16348968

Zachmann, Joseph E.; Molina, J. A. E.

1993-01-01

21

Electricity from the Silk Cocoon Membrane  

PubMed Central

Silk cocoon membrane (SCM) is an insect engineered structure. We studied the electrical properties of mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Tussar, Antheraea mylitta) SCM. When dry, SCM behaves like an insulator. On absorbing moisture, it generates electrical current, which is modulated by temperature. The current flowing across the SCM is possibly ionic and protonic in nature. We exploited the electrical properties of SCM to develop simple energy harvesting devices, which could operate low power electronic systems. Based on our findings, we propose that the temperature and humidity dependent electrical properties of the SCM could find applications in battery technology, bio-sensor, humidity sensor, steam engines and waste heat management. PMID:24961354

Tulachan, Brindan; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Mallick, Chandrakant; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Teotia, Arun Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Bhattacharya, Shantanu; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

2014-01-01

22

Electricity from the silk cocoon membrane.  

PubMed

Silk cocoon membrane (SCM) is an insect engineered structure. We studied the electrical properties of mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Tussar, Antheraea mylitta) SCM. When dry, SCM behaves like an insulator. On absorbing moisture, it generates electrical current, which is modulated by temperature. The current flowing across the SCM is possibly ionic and protonic in nature. We exploited the electrical properties of SCM to develop simple energy harvesting devices, which could operate low power electronic systems. Based on our findings, we propose that the temperature and humidity dependent electrical properties of the SCM could find applications in battery technology, bio-sensor, humidity sensor, steam engines and waste heat management. PMID:24961354

Tulachan, Brindan; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Mallick, Chandrakant; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Teotia, Arun Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Bhattacharya, Shantanu; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

2014-01-01

23

Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites  

SciTech Connect

The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

Chen Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz [Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS (United Kingdom)

2010-10-15

24

Cytotoxicity of Cricula triphenestrata Cocoon Extract on Human Fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Indonesian silkworm cocoon extract of Cricula triphenestrata on human fibroblasts. Methods and Materials. The cocoon shells of the silkworm Cricula triphenestrata were degumming. The shells were mixed with an aqueous solution of 0.3% Na2CO3 at 98°C for 1 hour. The solution was then dialyzed in cellulose membranes against deionized water for 3 days. The cocoon shells extract powder was collected via rotary evaporation and dried under freeze dryer. Cell culture medium was exposed to Cricula triphenestrata cocoon extract (0.01–100??g/mL) for 24 hours. The primary human gingival fibroblasts were exposed to the treated cell culture medium for 24 hours. Cytotoxicity evaluation was done by MTT method. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Result. The result revealed no significant cytotoxicity of Cricula triphenestrata cocoon extract against human fibroblasts at a concentration up to 100??g/mL (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Cricula triphenestrata cocoon extract was not cytotoxic on human gingival fibroblast cells. PMID:22919391

Sunarintyas, Siti; Siswomihardjo, Widowati; Tontowi, Alva Edy

2012-01-01

25

An Unlikely Silk: The Composite Material of Green Lacewing Cocoons  

SciTech Connect

Spiders routinely produce multiple types of silk; however, common wisdom has held that insect species produce one type of silk each. This work reports that the green lacewing (Mallada signata, Neuroptera) produces two distinct classes of silk. We identified and sequenced the gene that encodes the major protein component of the larval lacewing cocoon silk and demonstrated that it is unrelated to the adult lacewing egg-stalk silk. The cocoon silk protein is 49 kDa in size and is alanine rich (>40%), and it contains an {alpha}-helical secondary structure. The final instar lacewing larvae spin protein fibers of {approx}2 {mu}m diameter to construct a loosely woven cocoon. In a second stage of cocoon construction, the insects lay down an inner wall of lipids that uses the fibers as a scaffold. We propose that the silk protein fibers provide the mechanical strength of the composite lacewing cocoon whereas the lipid layer provides a barrier to water loss during pupation.

Weisman, Sarah; Trueman, Holly E.; Mudie, Stephen T.; Church, Jeffrey S.; Sutherland, Tara D.; Haritos, Victoria S. (CSIRO/MSE); (CSIRO)

2009-01-15

26

Infant Pertussis and Household Transmission in Korea  

PubMed Central

A recent resurgence of pertussis has raised public health concerns even in developed countries with high vaccination coverage. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of infant pertussis, and to determine the relative importance of household transmission in Korea. The multicenter study was prospectively conducted from January 2009 to September 2011. We identified the demographic and clinical data from these patients and performed the diagnostic tests for pertussis in their household contacts. Twenty-one patients with confirmed pertussis were included in the analysis. All infections occurred in infants younger than 6 months of age (mean age, 2.5 months) who had not completed the primary DTaP vaccination except for one patient. Infants without immunization history had a significant higher lymphocytosis and longer duration of hospital stay compared to those with immunization. All were diagnosed with PCR (100%), however, culture tests showed the lowest sensitivity (42.9%). Presumed source of infection in household contacts was documented in 85.7%, mainly parents (52.6%). Pertussis had a major morbidity in young infants who were not fully immunized. Household members were responsible for pertussis transmission of infants in whom a source could be identified. The control of pertussis through booster vaccination with Tdap in family who is taking care of young infants is necessary in Korea. PMID:23255856

Kwon, Hyo Jin; Yum, Sook Kyung; Choi, Ui Yoon; Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Jong Hyun

2012-01-01

27

Addition of arthropod cocoons to house wren nests is correlated with delayed pairing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males in the cavity-nesting house wren (Troglodytes aedon) frequently add arthropod cocoons to their nests during building, possibly as an ornamental cue for female choice. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the time to pairing for males that did and did not add cocoons to their nests and for males in whose nests we manipulated the number of cocoons prior

Kevin P. Eckerle; Charles F. Thompson

2005-01-01

28

A hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the unobservable predation rate on sawfly cocoons by small mammals.  

PubMed

Predation by small mammals has been reported as an important mortality factor for the cocoons of sawfly species. However, it is difficult to provide an accurate estimate of newly spun cocoons and subsequent predation rates by small mammals for several reasons. First, all larvae do not spin cocoons at the same time. Second, cocoons are exposed to small mammal predation immediately after being spun. Third, the cocoons of the current generation are indistinguishable from those of the previous generation. We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate these values from annual one-time soil sampling datasets. To apply this model to an actual data set, field surveys were conducted in eight stands of larch plantations in central Hokkaido (Japan) from 2009 to 2012. Ten 0.04-m(2) soil samples were annually collected from each site in mid-October. The abundance of unopened cocoons (I), cocoons emptied by small-mammal predation (M), and empty cocoons caused by something other than small-mammal predation (H) were determined. The abundance of newly spun cocoons, the predation rate by small mammals before and after cocoon sampling, and the annual rate of empty cocoons that remained were estimated. A posterior predictive check yielded Bayesian P-values of 0.54, 0.48, and 0.07 for I, M, and H, respectively. Estimated predation rates showed a significant positive correlation with the number of trap captures of small mammals. Estimates of the number of newly spun cocoons had a significant positive correlation with defoliation intensity. These results indicate that our model showed an acceptable fit, with reasonable estimates. Our model is expected to be widely applicable to all hymenopteran and lepidopteran insects that spin cocoons in soil. PMID:25691994

Pinkantayong, Panisara; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kubo, Mamoru; Muramoto, Ken-Ichiro; Kamata, Naoto

2015-02-01

29

A hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the unobservable predation rate on sawfly cocoons by small mammals  

PubMed Central

Predation by small mammals has been reported as an important mortality factor for the cocoons of sawfly species. However, it is difficult to provide an accurate estimate of newly spun cocoons and subsequent predation rates by small mammals for several reasons. First, all larvae do not spin cocoons at the same time. Second, cocoons are exposed to small mammal predation immediately after being spun. Third, the cocoons of the current generation are indistinguishable from those of the previous generation. We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate these values from annual one-time soil sampling datasets. To apply this model to an actual data set, field surveys were conducted in eight stands of larch plantations in central Hokkaido (Japan) from 2009 to 2012. Ten 0.04-m2 soil samples were annually collected from each site in mid-October. The abundance of unopened cocoons (I), cocoons emptied by small-mammal predation (M), and empty cocoons caused by something other than small-mammal predation (H) were determined. The abundance of newly spun cocoons, the predation rate by small mammals before and after cocoon sampling, and the annual rate of empty cocoons that remained were estimated. A posterior predictive check yielded Bayesian P-values of 0.54, 0.48, and 0.07 for I, M, and H, respectively. Estimated predation rates showed a significant positive correlation with the number of trap captures of small mammals. Estimates of the number of newly spun cocoons had a significant positive correlation with defoliation intensity. These results indicate that our model showed an acceptable fit, with reasonable estimates. Our model is expected to be widely applicable to all hymenopteran and lepidopteran insects that spin cocoons in soil.

Pinkantayong, Panisara; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kubo, Mamoru; Muramoto, Ken-ichiro; Kamata, Naoto

2015-01-01

30

Action of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on cocoon spinning in Ceraeochrysa claveri (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).  

PubMed

Neem oil is a biopesticide that disturbs the endocrine and neuroendocrine systems of pests and may interfere with molting, metamorphosis and cocoon spinning. The cocoon serves protective functions for the pupa during metamorphosis, and these functions are dependent on cocoon structure. To assess the changes in cocoon spinning caused by neem oil ingestion, Ceraeochrysa claveri larvae, a common polyphagous predator, were fed with neem oil throughout the larval period. When treated with neem oil, changes were observed on the outer and inner surfaces of the C. claveri cocoon, such as decreased wall thickness and impaired ability to attach to a substrate. These negative effects may reduce the effectiveness of the mechanical and protective functions of cocoons during pupation, which makes the specimen more vulnerable to natural enemies and environmental factors. PMID:23993219

Scudeler, Elton Luiz; Garcia, Ana Silvia Gimenes; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Santos, Daniela Carvalho

2013-11-01

31

Rare etiology of mechanical intestinal obstruction: Abdominal cocoon syndrome  

PubMed Central

Abdominal cocoon syndrome is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction with unknown etiology. Diagnosis of this syndrome, which can be summarized as the small intestine being surrounded by a fibrous capsule not containing the mesothelium, is difficult in the preoperative period. A 47-year-old male patient was referred to the emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting for two days. The abdominal computed tomography examination detected dilated small intestinal loops containing air-fluid levels clustered in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen and surrounded by a thick, saclike, contrast-enhanced membrane. During exploratory surgery, a capsular structure was identified in the upper left quadrant with a regular surface that was solid-fibrous in nature. Abdominal cocoon syndrome is a rarely seen condition, for which the preoperative diagnosis is difficult. The combination of physical examination and radiological signs, and the knowledge of “recurrent characteristics of the complaints” that can be learned by a careful history, may be helpful in diagnosis. PMID:25405199

Uzunoglu, Yener; Altintoprak, Fatih; Yalkin, Omer; Gunduz, Yasemin; Cakmak, Guner; Ozkan, Orhan V; Celebi, Fehmi

2014-01-01

32

Rare etiology of mechanical intestinal obstruction: Abdominal cocoon syndrome.  

PubMed

Abdominal cocoon syndrome is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction with unknown etiology. Diagnosis of this syndrome, which can be summarized as the small intestine being surrounded by a fibrous capsule not containing the mesothelium, is difficult in the preoperative period. A 47-year-old male patient was referred to the emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting for two days. The abdominal computed tomography examination detected dilated small intestinal loops containing air-fluid levels clustered in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen and surrounded by a thick, saclike, contrast-enhanced membrane. During exploratory surgery, a capsular structure was identified in the upper left quadrant with a regular surface that was solid-fibrous in nature. Abdominal cocoon syndrome is a rarely seen condition, for which the preoperative diagnosis is difficult. The combination of physical examination and radiological signs, and the knowledge of "recurrent characteristics of the complaints" that can be learned by a careful history, may be helpful in diagnosis. PMID:25405199

Uzunoglu, Yener; Altintoprak, Fatih; Yalkin, Omer; Gunduz, Yasemin; Cakmak, Guner; Ozkan, Orhan V; Celebi, Fehmi

2014-11-16

33

Triassic leech cocoon from Antarctica contains fossil bell animal  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth is limited by the imperfection of the fossil record. One reason for this imperfect record is that organisms without hard parts, such as bones, shells, and wood, have a very low potential to enter the fossil record. Occasionally, however, exceptional fossil deposits that preserve soft-bodied organisms provide a rare glimpse of the true biodiversity during past periods of Earth history. We here present an extraordinary find of a fossil ciliate that is encased inside the wall layer of a more than 200 Ma leech cocoon from Antarctica. The microfossil consists of a helically contractile stalk that attaches to a main body with a peristomial feeding apparatus and a large C-shaped macronucleus. It agrees in every aspect with the living bell animals, such as Vorticella. Vorticellids and similar peritrichs are vital constituents of aquatic ecosystems worldwide, but so far have lacked any fossil record. This discovery offers a glimpse of ancient soft-bodied protozoan biotas, and also highlights the potential of clitellate cocoons as microscopic “conservation traps” comparable to amber. PMID:23213234

Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.; Moestrup, Øjvind; Taylor, Edith L.

2012-01-01

34

Simulations of multi-phase turbulence in jet cocoons  

E-print Network

The interaction of optically emitting clouds with warm X-ray gas and hot, tenuous radio plasma in radio jet cocoons is modelled by 2D compressible hydrodynamic simulations. The initial setup is the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at a contact surface of density contrast 10,000. The denser medium contains clouds of higher density. Optically thin radiation is realised via a cooling source term. The cool phase effectively extracts energy from the other gas which is both, radiated away and used for acceleration of the cold phase. This increases the system's cooling rate substantially and leads to a massively amplified cold mass dropout. We show that it is feasible, given small seed clouds of order 100 solar masses, that all of the optically emitting gas in a radio jet cocoon may be produced by this mechanism on the propagation timescale of the jet. The mass is generally distributed as T^-1/2 with temperature, with a prominent peak at 14,000 K. This peak is likely to be related to the counteracting effects of shock heating and a strong rise in the cooling function. The volume filling factor of cold gas in this peak is of the order 10^-5 to 10^-3 and generally increases during the simulation time. The simulations tend towards an isotropic scale free Kolmogorov-type energy spectrum over the simulation timescale. We find the same Mach-number density relation as Kritsuk & Norman (2004) and show that this relation may explain the velocity widths of emission lines associated with high redshift radio galaxies, if the environmental temperature is lower, or the jet-ambient density ratio is less extreme than in their low redshift counterparts.

Martin Krause; Paul Alexander

2006-12-13

35

Mastrus ridibundus parasitoids eavesdrop on cocoon-spinning codling moth, Cydia pomonella, larvae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cocoon-spinning larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) employ a pheromone that attracts or arrests conspecifics seeking pupation sites. Such intraspecific communication signals are important cues for illicit receivers such as parasitoids to exploit. We tested the hypothesis that the prepupal C. pomonella parasitoid Mastrus ridibundus Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) exploits the larval aggregation pheromone to locate host prepupae. In laboratory olfactometer experiments, female M. ridibundus were attracted to 3-day-old cocoons containing C. pomonella larvae or prepupae. Older cocoons containing C. pomonella pupae, or larvae and prepupae excised from cocoons, were not attractive. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of bioactive Porapak Q extract of cocoon-derived airborne semiochemicals, ten compounds elicited responses from female M. ridibundus antennae. Comparative GC-mass spectrometry of authentic standards and cocoon-volatiles determined that these compounds were 3-carene, myrcene, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, sulcatone, and geranylacetone. A synthetic 11-component blend consisting of these ten EAD-active compounds plus EAD-inactive (+)-limonene (the most abundant cocoon-derived volatile) was as effective as Porapak Q cocoon extract in attracting both female M. ridibundus and C. pomonella larvae seeking pupation sites. Only three components could be deleted from the 11-component blend without diminishing its attractiveness to M. ridibundus, which underlines the complexity of information received and processed during foraging for hosts. Mastrus ridibundus obviously “eavesdrop” on the pheromonal communication signals of C. pomonella larvae that reliably indicate host presence.

Jumean, Zaid; Unruh, Tom; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

2005-01-01

36

Premature infant  

MedlinePLUS

... enterocolitis) A premature infant will have a lower birth weight than a full-term infant. Common signs of ... more premature an infant and the smaller the birth weight, the greater the risk of complications. However, it ...

37

Infant Constipation  

MedlinePLUS

... Baby > Diapers & Clothing > Infant Constipation Ages & Stages Listen Infant Constipation Article Body Parents also worry that their ... movement at least once most days. For breastfed infants it depends on age. During the first month ...

38

X-ray microtomography for imaging of developing spiders inside egg cocoons.  

PubMed

Embryogenesis is especially sensitive to external factors. The changes in its course are often used as biomarkers of environmental impact. Since spider embryogenesis takes place inside cocoons, it is crucial to find a reliable tool to analyze this developmental phase with no intrusion into the cocoons. The aim of this study was to verify the efficacy of X-ray microtomography for non-invasive analysis of embryonic morphology and egg quantity in the cocoons of Xerolycosa nemoralis and Agelena labyrinthica from polluted and reference sites. X-ray microtomography slice images as well as 3D images and animations obtained from digital visualization of those slides were used to study the morphology of embryos and egg arrangement in the cocoons. Any disorders in embryogenesis or malformation of embryos in relation to site of origin have not been found, but inside an egg cocoon of X. nemoralis from the polluted site embryos differing form each other by one developmental stage were identified. Egg calculation revealed a K- reproductive strategy of X. nemoralis from polluted sites. Finally, future prospects and benefits, and weaknessess of this method for the study of spider cocoons have presented. PMID:25242058

Babczy?ska, Agnieszka; Binkowski, Marcin; Bednarek, Agata; Ogierman, Sylwia; Cibura, Dorota; Migula, Pawe?; Wilczek, Gra?yna; Szuli?ska, El?bieta

2014-11-01

39

Infant Care and Infant Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications En Español Infant Care and Infant Health: Overview Skip sharing on social media links ... Page Content Since the NICHD's founding in 1962, infant death rates in the United States have dropped ...

40

Infant botulism  

MedlinePLUS

... and certain foods (such as honey and some corn syrups). Infant botulism occurs mostly in young infants between ... by preventing exposure to spores. Since honey and corn syrup are sources of Clostridium spores, they should not ...

41

CPR - infant  

MedlinePLUS

... infant unattended on a bed, table, or other surface from which the infant could roll off. Always ... a safe environment. Watch children carefully, particularly around water and near furniture. Keep toxic chemicals and cleaning ...

42

Potential mode of protection of silkworm pupae from environmental stress by harboring the bacterial biofilm on the surfaces of silk cocoons.  

PubMed

The silkworm forms cocoon to protect its pupa that survives for months inside the cocoon without being affected by various environmental stresses. To understand the possible mode of pupal survival within the cocoon encasement, we investigate the cause that protects the cocoon. During the end of the spinning process, we have isolated different bacterial species from the cocoon surface. These are identified using molecular techniques and checked for their abilities to form biofilm in vitro. The bacteria are able to form biofilm either individually or in consortia. Of which, Bacillus and Erwinia species are prominent biofilm formers. Interestingly, these bacteria have the ability to form biofilm on the cocoon mimetic surface of the silk protein Sericin Hope that contains only sericin. The origin and the behavior of the bacteria lead us to hypothesize the possible role of biofilm layer on the cocoon surface, which provides protection from adverse environmental conditions. PMID:25292249

Halder, Pranab K; Naskar, Deboki; Kumar, Akash; Yao, Juming; Kundu, Subhas C; Ghosh, Anindya S

2015-02-01

43

Solid state 13C NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy of the cocoon silk of two common spiders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of the silk from cocoons of two common spiders, Araneus diadematus (family Araneidae) and Achaearanea tepidariorum (family Theridiidae) was investigated by means of 13C solid state NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies. The combined use of these two techniques allowed us to highlight differences in the two samples. The cocoon silk of Achaearanea tepidariorum is essentially constituted by helical and ?-sheet structures, whereas that of Araneus diadematus shows a more complex structure, containing also ?-strands and ?-turns. Moreover, the former silk is essentially crystalline while the latter contains more mobile domains. The structural differences of the two cocoon silks are ascribed to the different habitat of the two species.

Bramanti, Emilia; Catalano, Donata; Forte, Claudia; Giovanneschi, Mario; Masetti, Massimo; Veracini, Carlo Alberto

2005-11-01

44

Forecasting outbreaks of the douglas-fir tussock moth from lower crown cocoon samples. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

A predictive technique using a simple linear regression was developed to forecast the midcrown density of small tussock moth larvae from estimates of cocoon density in the previous generation. The regression estimator was derived from field samples of cocoons and larvae taken from a wide range of nonoutbreak tussock moth populations. The accuracy of the predictions was demonstrated on an operational basis in an independent tussock moth outbreak.

Mason, R.R.; Scott, D.W.; Paul, H.G.

1993-03-01

45

Dynamical and radiative properties of astrophysical supersonic jets I. Cocoon morphologies  

E-print Network

We present the results of a numerical analysis of the propagation and interaction of a supersonic jet with the external medium. We discuss the motion of the head of the jet into the ambient in different physical conditions, carrying out calculations with different Mach numbers and density ratios of the jet to the exteriors. Performing the calculation in a reference frame in motion with the jet head, we can follow in detail its long term dynamics. This numerical scheme allows us also to study the morphology of the cocoon for different physical parameters. We find that the propagation velocity of the jet head into the ambient medium strongly influences the morphology of the cocoon, and this result can be relevant in connection to the origin and structure of lobes in extragalactic radiosources.

S. Massaglia; G. Bodo; A. Ferrari

1995-06-30

46

Energetic Impact of Jet-Inflated Cocoons in Relaxed Galaxy Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jets from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the cores of galaxy clusters have the potential to be a major contributor to the energy budget of the intracluster medium (ICM). To study the dependence of the interaction between the AGN jets and the ICM on the parameters of the jets themselves, we present a parameter survey of two-dimensional (axisymmetric) ideal hydrodynamic models of back-to-back jets injected into a cluster atmosphere (with varying Mach numbers and kinetic luminosities). We follow the passive evolution of the resulting structures for several times longer than the active lifetime of the jet. The simulations fall into roughly two classes, cocoon-bounded and non-cocoon bounded sources. We suggest a correspondence between these two classes and the Faranoff-Riley types. We find that the cocoon-bounded sources inject significantly more entropy into the core regions of the ICM atmosphere, even though the efficiency with which energy is thermalized is independent of the morphological class. In all cases, a large fraction (50%-80%) of the energy injected by the jet ends up as gravitational potential energy due to the expansion of the atmosphere.

Vernaleo, John C.; Reynolds, Christopher S.

2007-12-01

47

Developing a Web 2.0 telemedical education system: the AJAX-Cocoon portal.  

PubMed

Web 2.0 technologies such as wikis, podcasts/vodcasting, blogs and semantic portals could be quite effective tools in e-learning for health professionals. If effectively deployed, such tools can offer a way to enhance students', clinicians' and patients' learning experiences, and deepens levels of learners' engagement and collaboration within medical learning environments. However, Web 2.0 requires simplicity of use as well as integration with modern web technologies. This article presents a Web 2.0 telemedical portal, which provides a social community-learning paradigm from the desk of the physician, the student, the hospital administrator, or the insurer. The presented portal utilises RESTful web services and techniques like content syndication, mushups and Asynchronous JavaScript API and XML (AJAX). The designed portal is based on the Apache Cocoon RESTful framework for sharing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) medical case studies. Central to this article is the integration between Cocoon and AJAX. The proposed AJAX-Cocoon portal utilises a JSP portlet architecture, which manages the interaction dynamics and overcomes the shortcomings of the JSR 168 and WSRP 1.0 standards. PMID:18583294

Mohammed, S; Orabi, A; Fiaidhi, J; Orabi, M

2008-01-01

48

The Cocoon nebula and its ionizing star: do stellar and nebular abundances agree?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Main-sequence massive stars embedded in an H ii region should have the same chemical abundances as the surrounding nebular gas+dust. The Cocoon nebula (IC 5146), a close-by Galactic H ii region ionized by a narrow line B0.5 V single star (BD+46 3474), is an ideal target to compare nebular and stellar abundances in detail in the same Galactic region. Aims: We investigate the chemical content of oxygen and other elements in the Cocoon nebula from two different points of view: an empirical analysis of the nebular spectrum, and a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the associated early B-type star using state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere modeling. By comparing the stellar and nebular abundances, we aim to indirectly address the long-standing problem of the discrepancy found between abundances obtained from collisionally excited lines and optical recombination lines in photoionized nebulae. Methods: We collected long-slit spatially resolved spectroscopy of the Cocoon nebula and a high-resolution optical spectrum of the ionizing star. Standard nebular techniques along with updated atomic data were used to compute the physical conditions and gaseous abundances of O, N, and S in eight apertures extracted across a semidiameter of the nebula. We performed a self-consistent spectroscopic abundance analysis of BD+46 3474 based on the atmosphere code FASTWIND to determine the stellar parameters and Si, O, and N abundances. Results: The Cocoon nebula and its ionizing star, located at a distance of 800±80 pc, have a chemical composition very similar to the Orion nebula and other B-type stars in the solar vicinity. This result agrees with the high degree of homogeneity of the present-day composition of the solar neighborhood (up to 1.5 Kpc from the Sun) as derived from the study of the local cold-gas interstellar medium. The comparison of stellar and nebular collisionally excited line abundances in the Cocoon nebula indicates that O and N gas+dust nebular values agree better with stellar values assuming small temperature fluctuations on the order of those found in the Orion nebula (t2 = 0.022). For S, the behaviour is somewhat puzzling, and different conclusions can be reached depending on the atomic data set used. Based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated by the Isaac Newton Group and with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association. Both telescopes are at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

García-Rojas, J.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Esteban, C.

2014-11-01

49

Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

... or behavior changes.Signs of a severe allergic reaction can include hives, swelling of the face and throat, difficulty breathing, a fast heartbeat, dizziness, and weakness. These would start a ...

50

Pneumothorax - infants  

MedlinePLUS

Pulmonary air leak ... become overinflated and burst. This causes air to leak into the space between the lung and chest ... an otherwise healthy infant can develop an air leak when he or she takes the first few ...

51

Infant Botulism  

PubMed Central

Infant botulism is a rare condition caused by intestinal colonization with Clostridium botulinum. The enteric toxin causes intestinal immobility and progressive descending paralysis due to the effect on acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction and other cholinergic nerve terminals, particularly in the gut. Herein, we report an infant with infantile botulism because of rare clinically entity, with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment recover no squeal.

Cagan, Eren; Peker, Erdal; Dogan, Murat; Caksen, Huseyin

2010-01-01

52

Solid state (13)C NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy of the cocoon silk of two common spiders.  

PubMed

The structure of the silk from cocoons of two common spiders, Araneus diadematus (family Araneidae) and Achaearanea tepidariorum (family Theridiidae) was investigated by means of (13)C solid state NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies. The combined use of these two techniques allowed us to highlight differences in the two samples. The cocoon silk of Achaearanea tepidariorum is essentially constituted by helical and beta-sheet structures, whereas that of Araneus diadematus shows a more complex structure, containing also beta-strands and beta-turns. Moreover, the former silk is essentially crystalline while the latter contains more mobile domains. The structural differences of the two cocoon silks are ascribed to the different habitat of the two species. PMID:16257700

Bramanti, Emilia; Catalano, Donata; Forte, Claudia; Giovanneschi, Mario; Masetti, Massimo; Veracini, Carlo Alberto

2005-11-01

53

Combined effects of copper, desiccation, and frost on the viability of earthworm cocoons  

SciTech Connect

The effects of heavy metal pollution on earthworms have been extensively studied, but no studies have examined how earthworms react if they are simultaneously exposed to metal pollution and climatic stress. This question has been addressed in a laboratory study where cocoons of Aporrectodea caliginosa and Dendrobaena octaedra were initially exposed to copper in aqueous solutions of copper chloride and thereafter exposed to realistic degrees of either desiccation or frost. Earthworm embryos absorbed copper in amounts comparable to concentrations found in various tissues of earthworms from metal-polluted soils. Desiccation and copper exposure in combination had synergistic effects on survival rates for both species. For example, at full saturation, the NOEC (the highest tested concentration with no statistically significant effect) for copper of A. caliginosa was 12 mg/L, whereas at 97% relative humidity it was only 6 mg/L. Frost and copper exposure in combination also showed synergistic effects in some experiments. No cocoons of A. caliginosa exposed to 20 mg copper/L were viable after exposure to {minus}3 C but at 0 C viability was as high as 95%. The same tendency was seen in D. octaedra but not as clearly as in A/. caliginosa. A change of the environmental conditions (moisture, temperature) to increasing severity caused a shift in the statistically derived NOEC toward lower critical values of copper. The involvement of combination effects in ecotoxicological tests could therefore improve risk assessment of soil-polluting compounds.

Holmstrup, M. [National Environmental Research Inst., Silkeborg (Denmark). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology; Petersen, B.F. [National Environmental Research Inst., Silkeborg (Denmark). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology]|[Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark); Larsen, M.M. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Marine Ecology and Microbiology

1998-01-01

54

Infant Mortality  

MedlinePLUS

... the social, behavioral, and health risk factors that affect birth outcomes. Learn more about CDC’s research, programs, and efforts to better understand and reduce infant mortality. Read More >> 1. Source: National Center for Health Statistics. National Vital Statistics Reports (NVSR). Deaths: Final ...

55

Osteopenia - premature infants  

MedlinePLUS

Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... that the baby's bones will grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of calcium ...

56

Infant Bedding Dangers  

MedlinePLUS

... 1993 to 2010 using data from the National Infant Sleep Position study. They found that more than half ... and loose bedding not be placed in an infant’s sleep environment. The study team says understanding trends associated ...

57

Sudden infant death syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Infant Deaths: Expansion of Recommendations for a Safe Infant Sleeping Environment. Pediatrics. 2011. 128(5):e1341-e1367. Hauck FR, ...

58

Feeding tube - infants  

MedlinePLUS

Gavage tube - infants; OG - infants; NG - infants ... small, soft, plastic tube placed through the nose (NG) or mouth (OG) into the stomach. These tubes are used to provide feedings and medications into ...

59

A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by Fermi in the Cygnus superbubble.  

PubMed

The origin of Galactic cosmic rays is a century-long puzzle. Indirect evidence points to their acceleration by supernova shockwaves, but we know little of their escape from the shock and their evolution through the turbulent medium surrounding massive stars. Gamma rays can probe their spreading through the ambient gas and radiation fields. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed the star-forming region of Cygnus X. The 1- to 100-gigaelectronvolt images reveal a 50-parsec-wide cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays that flood the cavities carved by the stellar winds and ionization fronts from young stellar clusters. It provides an example to study the youth of cosmic rays in a superbubble environment before they merge into the older Galactic population. PMID:22116880

Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Belfiore, A; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bottacini, E; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; do Couto E Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dumora, D; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hayashi, K; Hays, E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lee, S-H; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Martin, P; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Naumann-Godo, M; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pesce-Rollins, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Pohl, M; Prokhorov, D; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Parkinson, P M Saz; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, P D; Spinelli, P; Strong, A W; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S; Bontemps, S

2011-11-25

60

Luminescence properties of silk cocoon derived carbonaceous fluorescent nanoparticles/PVA hybrid film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonaceous fluorescent nanoparticles (CFNs) with broad particle distribution were synthesized by thermal-treatment using carbonation of silk cocoon as raw materials. The experimental results showed tunable emission wavelength of the nanoparticles. The quantum yield of the CFNs was calculated to be 23%. A CFNs/PVA hybrid thin film was prepared from a blend of the CFNs with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) showing interesting green afterglow which could be observed by naked eyes. The afterglow spectrum revealed that the CFNs/PVA thin film had a broad afterglow emission peak located at 520 nm. The afterglow intensity decay curve of the film showed visually recognizable period longer than 140 s. The PVA-PVA hydrogen bonding in the PVA matrix may play a key role for the afterglow.

Feng, Haobin; Zheng, Mingtao; Dong, Hanwu; Lei, Bingfu; Zhang, Haoran; Xiao, Yong; Liu, Yingliang

2014-09-01

61

Hierarchical, multilayered cell walls reinforced by recycled silk cocoons enhance the structural integrity of honeybee combs  

PubMed Central

We reveal the sophisticated and hierarchical structure of honeybee combs and measure the elastic properties of fresh and old natural honeycombs at different scales by optical microscope, environmental scanning electron microscope, nano/microindentation, and by tension and shear tests. We demonstrate that the comb walls are continuously strengthened and stiffened without becoming fragile by the addition of thin wax layers reinforced by recycled silk cocoons reminiscent of modern fiber-reinforced composite laminates. This is done to increase its margin of safety against collapse due to a temperature increase. Artificial engineering honeycombs mimic only the macroscopic geometry of natural honeycombs, but have yet to achieve the microstructural sophistication of their natural counterparts. The natural honeycombs serve as a prototype of truly biomimetic cellular materials with hitherto unattainable improvement in stiffness, strength, toughness, and thermal stability. PMID:20439765

Zhang, Kai; Duan, Huiling; Karihaloo, Bhushan L.; Wang, Jianxiang

2010-01-01

62

Hierarchical, multilayered cell walls reinforced by recycled silk cocoons enhance the structural integrity of honeybee combs.  

PubMed

We reveal the sophisticated and hierarchical structure of honeybee combs and measure the elastic properties of fresh and old natural honeycombs at different scales by optical microscope, environmental scanning electron microscope, nano/microindentation, and by tension and shear tests. We demonstrate that the comb walls are continuously strengthened and stiffened without becoming fragile by the addition of thin wax layers reinforced by recycled silk cocoons reminiscent of modern fiber-reinforced composite laminates. This is done to increase its margin of safety against collapse due to a temperature increase. Artificial engineering honeycombs mimic only the macroscopic geometry of natural honeycombs, but have yet to achieve the microstructural sophistication of their natural counterparts. The natural honeycombs serve as a prototype of truly biomimetic cellular materials with hitherto unattainable improvement in stiffness, strength, toughness, and thermal stability. PMID:20439765

Zhang, Kai; Duan, Huiling; Karihaloo, Bhushan L; Wang, Jianxiang

2010-05-25

63

[Trend in the emergence of flea imagoes from cocoons in the nests of a mountain gopher (Spermophilus musicus) in the central Caucasian highland natural focus of plague].  

PubMed

The results of observations of a trend in the emergence of flea imagoes from cocoons in the nests of mountain gopher (Spermophilus musicus) (Elbrus region) confirm that the dominant species: Citellophilus tesquorum elbrusensis and Ctenophthalmus golovi golovi have two generations. Emergence of first-generation imagoes from cocoons is recorded in July-August in the nests where the grophers constantly inhabit in May-June. These are brood-rearing and other summer nests and, to a lesser degree, former wintering ones. Hatching of the bulk of second-generation flea imagoes is observed in the nests constantly inhabited by grophers in July-August (these are nests made from summer holes and renovable wintering nests). The onset of emergence of second-generation imagoes from cocoons in both flea species is noted in September; some specimens hibernate in the cocoons, by emerging from them next April. PMID:23437722

Beliavtseva, L I

2012-01-01

64

Identification and Analysis of the Pigment Composition and Sources in the Colored Cocoon of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, by HPLC-DAD  

PubMed Central

This study used the larval tissues and colored cocoons of silkworms, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), that were fed leaves of cultivated mulberry, Husang 32, as experimental material. The pigment composition and content in colored cocoons and tissues of the 5th instar larvae and the mulberry leaves were rapidly detected using organic solvent extraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. It was found that the mulberry leaf mainly contained four types of pigment: lutein (30.86%), ?-carotene (26.3%), chlorophyll a (24.62%), and chlorophyll b (18.21%). The silk glands, blood, and cocoon shells of six yellow-red cocoons were used as the experimental materials. The results showed that there were generally two kinds of carotenoids (lutein and ?-carotene) in the silk gland and cocoon shell, a little violaxanthin was detected in silk gland, and the pigment found in the blood was mainly lutein in all varieties of silkworm tested. Chlorophyll a and b had not been digested and utilized in the yellow-red series of silkworm. The method used to detect visible pigments reported here could be used to breed new colors of cocoons and to develop and utilize the pigments found in mulberry. PMID:25373178

Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

65

Identification and analysis of the pigment composition and sources in the colored cocoon of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, by HPLC-DAD.  

PubMed

This study used the larval tissues and colored cocoons of silkworms, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), that were fed leaves of cultivated mulberry, Husang 32, as experimental material. The pigment composition and content in colored cocoons and tissues of the 5th instar larvae and the mulberry leaves were rapidly detected using organic solvent extraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. It was found that the mulberry leaf mainly contained four types of pigment: lutein (30.86%), ?-carotene (26.3%), chlorophyll a (24.62%), and chlorophyll b (18.21%). The silk glands, blood, and cocoon shells of six yellow-red cocoons were used as the experimental materials. The results showed that there were generally two kinds of carotenoids (lutein and ?-carotene) in the silk gland and cocoon shell, a little violaxanthin was detected in silk gland, and the pigment found in the blood was mainly lutein in all varieties of silkworm tested. Chlorophyll a and b had not been digested and utilized in the yellow-red series of silkworm. The method used to detect visible pigments reported here could be used to breed new colors of cocoons and to develop and utilize the pigments found in mulberry. PMID:25373178

Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

66

Mechanical ventilator - infants  

MedlinePLUS

Ventilator - infants; Respirator - infants ... WHY IS A MECHANICAL VENTILATOR USED? A ventilator is used to provide breathing support for ill or immature babies. Sick or premature babies are often ...

67

Treating Bronchiolitis in Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Issues > Conditions > Chest & Lungs > Treating Bronchiolitis in Infants Health Issues Listen Treating Bronchiolitis in Infants Article Body ... been associated with Reye syndrome , a disease that affects the liver and brain. Check with your child's ...

68

Infant and Newborn Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and ...

69

Infant - newborn development  

MedlinePLUS

... swipes at objects to bring them closer Increased vision allows the infant to tell objects apart from ... taste, smell -- mature at birth; prefers sweet taste. Vision -- the newborn infant can see within a range ...

70

Gastroesophageal reflux in infants  

MedlinePLUS

... Raise the head of the crib. However, your infant should still sleep on the back, unless your healthcare provider suggests otherwise. When the infant begins to eat solid food, feeding thickened foods ...

71

Cocoon-in-web-like superhydrophobic aerogels from hydrophilic polyurea and use in environmental remediation.  

PubMed

Polyurea (PUA) develops H-bonding with water and is inherently hydrophilic. The water contact angle on smooth dense PUA derived from an aliphatic triisocyanate and water was measured at ?=69.1±0.2°. Nevertheless, texture-related superhydrophobic PUA aerogels (?'=150.2°) were prepared from the same monomer in one step with no additives, templates, or surfactants via sol-gel polymerization carried out in polar, weakly H-bonding acetonitrile. Those materials display a unique nanostructure consisting of micrometer-size spheres distributed randomly and trapped in a nanofiber web of the same polymer. Morphostructurally, as well as in terms of their hydrophobic properties, those PUA aerogels are analogous to well-studied electrospun fiber mats incorporating particle-like defects. PUA aerogels have the advantage of easily scalable synthesis and low cost of the raw materials. Despite large contact angles and small contact areas, water droplets (5 ?L) stick to the aerogels surface when the substrate is turned upside-down. That so-called Petal effect is traced to H-bonding at the points of contact between the water droplet and the apexes of the roughness of the aerogel surface. Monoliths are flexible and display oleophilicity in inverse order to their hydrophobicity; oil fills all the available open porosity (94% v/v) of cocoon-in-web like aerogels with bulk density ?b=0.073 g cm(-3); that capacity for oil absorption is >10:1 w/w and translates into ?6:1 w/v relative to state-of-the-art materials (e.g., graphene-derived aerogels). Oil soaked monoliths float on water and can be harvested off. PMID:24758407

Leventis, Nicholas; Chidambareswarapattar, Chakkaravarthy; Bang, Abhishek; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia

2014-05-14

72

Infant sleep disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians are commonly consulted by the parents of infants aged 6–24 months who are distressed by their infant's sleep disturbance. Infant sleep disturbance (ISD) presents as frequent night awakening, delays in sleep onset and co-sleeping that is not of the parents’ choice. Conflicting advice leaves parents unsure regarding management. Recent research has described treatment approaches as well as models describing

Karyn G France; Neville M Blampied; Jacqueline M. T Henderson

2003-01-01

73

Tracking Infants "At Risk."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reveals that infants in West Virginia judged at risk were not followed more closely by county health department nurses than infants judged not at risk. Negotiations are underway with divisions in the State Department of Health to identify high-risk infants routinely, notify local health departments, and conduct a screening in order to provide help…

Brown, Pamela; And Others

1985-01-01

74

Suzaku Observation of the Fermi Cygnus Cocoon: Search for a Signature of Young Cosmic-Ray Electrons  

E-print Network

The origin of Galactic cosmic rays remains unconfirmed, but promising candidates for their sources are found in star-forming regions. We report a series of X-ray observations, with Suzaku, toward the nearby star-forming region of Cygnus X. They aim at comparing diffuse X-ray emissions on and off the $\\gamma$-ray cocoon of hard cosmic rays revealed by Fermi LAT. After excluding point sources and small-scale structures and subtracting the non-X-ray and cosmic X-ray backgrounds, the 2--10~keV X-ray intensity distribution is found to monotonically decrease with increasing Galactic latitude. This indicates that most of the extended emission detected by Suzaku originates from the Galactic ridge. In two observations, we derive upper limits of $3.4 \\times 10^{-8}~{\\rm erg~s^{-1}~cm^{-2}~sr^{-1}}$ and $1.3 \\times 10^{-8}~{\\rm erg~s^{-1}~cm^{-2}~sr^{-1}}$ to X-ray emission in the 2--10 keV range from the gamma-ray cocoon. These limits exclude the presence of cosmic-ray electrons with energies above about 50 TeV at a fl...

Mizuno, T; Takahashi, H; Hayashi, K; Yamazaki, R; Grenier, I; Tibaldo, L

2015-01-01

75

Production of an active feline interferon in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms using the fibroin H-chain expression system  

SciTech Connect

We constructed the fibroin H-chain expression system to produce recombinant proteins in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms. Feline interferon (FeIFN) was used for production and to assess the quality of the product. Two types of FeIFN fusion protein, each with N- and C-terminal sequences of the fibroin H-chain, were designed to be secreted into the lumen of the posterior silk glands. The expression of the FeIFN/H-chain fusion gene was regulated by the fibroin H-chain promoter domain. The transgenic silkworms introduced these constructs with the piggyBac transposon-derived vector, which produced the normal sized cocoons containing each FeIFN/H-chain fusion protein. Although the native-protein produced by transgenic silkworms have almost no antiviral activity, the proteins after the treatment with PreScission protease to eliminate fibroin H-chain derived N- and C-terminal sequences from the products, had very high antiviral activity. This H-chain expression system, using transgenic silkworms, could be an alternative method to produce an active recombinant protein and silk-based biomaterials.

Kurihara, H. [Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories, 1111 Tebiro, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: Hiroyuki_Kurihara@nts.toray.co.jp; Sezutsu, H. [Transgenic Silkworm Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634 (Japan); Tamura, T. [Transgenic Silkworm Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634 (Japan); Yamada, K. [Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories, 1111 Tebiro, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan)

2007-04-20

76

Heart-respiratory monitor - infants  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiorespiratory monitor - infants; Apnea monitor - infants; Heart rate monitor - infants ... A heart–respiratory monitor can measure a baby's or child's: Breathing rate Heart beat Oxygen level Caregivers can use ...

77

Infants in cocktail parties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most work on listeners' ability to separate streams of speech has focused on adults. Yet infants also find themselves in noisy environments. In order to learn from their caregivers' speech in these settings, they must first separate it from background noise such as that from television shows and siblings. Previous work has found that 7.5-month-old infants can separate streams of speech when the target voice is more intense than the distractor voice (Newman and Jusczyk, 1996), when the target voice is known to the infant (Barker and Newman, 2000) or when infants are presented with an audiovisual (rather than auditory-only) signal (Hollich, Jusczyk, and Newman, 2001). Unfortunately, the paradigm in these studies can only be used on infants at least 7.5 months of age, limiting the ability to investigate how stream segregation develops over time. The present work uses a new paradigm to explore younger infants' ability to separate streams of speech. Infants aged 4.5 months heard a female talker repeat either their own name or another infants' name, while several other voices spoke fluently in the background. We present data on infants' ability to recognize their own name in this cocktail party situation. [Work supported by NSF and NICHD.

Newman, Rochelle S.

2003-04-01

78

Tdap Booster Requirements for Secondary Schools  

MedlinePLUS

... Smallpox Meningococcal Tetanus Mumps View All Talking about Vaccines Adjuvants Mitochondrial Disorders Alternative Medicine Multiple Injections Autism Religious Concerns Dr. Sears' Schedule Talking with Parents ...

79

78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers and components thereof. The complaint...the complainant in this investigation would affect the public health and welfare in the United States,...

2013-09-06

80

Cerebral Asymmetry in Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes two experiments conducted to replicate the reported findings (Entus, 1975) that infants demonstrate a right ear advantage in the perception of dichotically presented syllables. Using the non-nutritive sucking paradigm, 48 infants 1-3 months of age were presented with verbal stimuli contingent upon criterion level sucking.…

Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Corballis, Michael C.

81

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

82

Infant--Toddler Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Georgia Parent Infant Network for Educational Services (PINES) is a home intervention program currently serving over 300 hearing impaired, visually impaired, and multihandicapped sensory impaired (MHSI) preschoolers. The infant-toddler evaluation component is described, with sections on screening and diagnosis, parent education concerning…

Funderburg, Ruth Seth; Forney, Paula

83

A CD36-related Transmembrane Protein Is Coordinated with an Intracellular Lipid-binding Protein in Selective Carotenoid Transport for Cocoon Coloration*  

PubMed Central

The transport pathway of specific dietary carotenoids from the midgut lumen to the silk gland in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a model system for selective carotenoid transport because several genetic mutants with defects in parts of this pathway have been identified that manifest altered cocoon pigmentation. In the wild-type silkworm, which has both genes, Yellow blood (Y) and Yellow cocoon (C), lutein is transferred selectively from the hemolymph lipoprotein to the silk gland cells where it is accumulated into the cocoon. The Y gene encodes an intracellular carotenoid-binding protein (CBP) containing a lipid-binding domain known as the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid transfer domain. Positional cloning and transgenic rescue experiments revealed that the C gene encodes Cameo2, a transmembrane protein gene belonging to the CD36 family genes, some of which, such as the mammalian SR-BI and the fruit fly ninaD, are reported as lipoprotein receptors or implicated in carotenoid transport for visual system. In C mutant larvae, Cameo2 expression was strongly repressed in the silk gland in a specific manner, resulting in colorless silk glands and white cocoons. The developmental profile of Cameo2 expression, CBP expression, and lutein pigmentation in the silk gland of the yellow cocoon strain were correlated. We hypothesize that selective delivery of lutein to specific tissue requires the combination of two components: 1) CBP as a carotenoid transporter in cytosol and 2) Cameo2 as a transmembrane receptor on the surface of the cells. PMID:20053988

Sakudoh, Takashi; Iizuka, Tetsuya; Narukawa, Junko; Sezutsu, Hideki; Kobayashi, Isao; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Banno, Yutaka; Kitamura, Akitoshi; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Takada, Naoko; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Mita, Kazuei; Tamura, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Tsuchida, Kozo

2010-01-01

84

Benefits of infant massage.  

PubMed

After spending three months as a clinical midwifery tutor at a remote hospital in Zambia, where I helped to train student midwives and other students, my interest in infant massage was ignited, having witnessed the benefits of massage to both mother and baby. Once back in the UK, I trained and qualified as a massage instructor with an international infant massage training organisation, which has led me to work extensively with parents and babies, offering one-to-one and group courses. It has been a privilege to be able to teach parents the valuable skill of infant massage, and consequently pass on the benefits both physiological and psychosocial. PMID:24873112

Day, Jane

2014-05-01

85

Milk Allergy in Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... a Milk Allergy Unsafe Formulas Switching Formulas About Milk Allergy Almost all infants are fussy at times. ... older kids and adults. Continue Symptoms of a Milk Allergy Symptoms of cow's milk protein allergy will ...

86

Infant of diabetic mother  

MedlinePLUS

... than a week before the due date. Carefully monitoring the infant in the first hours after birth may prevent complications due to low blood sugar. Monitoring and treatment in the first few days may ...

87

High blood pressure - infants  

MedlinePLUS

... these numbers can be too high. Several factors affect blood pressure, including: Hormones The health of the heart and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or heart disease ...

88

Birth Weight and Infant Growth: Optimal Infant Weight Gain versus Optimal Infant Weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Infant growth assessment often focuses on “optimal” infant weights and lengths at specific ages, while de-emphasizing infant\\u000a weight gain. Objective of this study was to examine infant growth patterns by measuring infant weight gain relative to birth\\u000a weight. Methods: We conducted this study based on data collected in a prospective cohort study including 3,302 births with follow up examinations

Xu Xiong; Joan Wightkin; Jeanette H. Magnus; Gabriella Pridjian; Juan M. Acuna; Pierre Buekens

2007-01-01

89

Impacting infant head shapes.  

PubMed

Infant sleep position impacts the development of head shape. Changes in infant sleep position, specifically the movement toward supine sleep, have led to a redefinition of normal head shape for infants in the United States. Historically, a dolichocephalic (elongated) head shape was the norm. Currently the norm has changed to a more brachycephalic (shorter and broader) shape. Since the American Academy of Pediatrics' Back to Sleep Campaign, the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased dramatically with a concurrent rise in the incidence of torticollis. Infants who require newborn intensive care, particularly premature infants, are more prone to positional plagiocephaly and dolichocephaly. Both can be prevented or minimized by proper positioning. The infant with an abnormal head shape requires careful evaluation; treatment varies according to the etiology. Craniosynostosis, a less common but pathological etiology for plagiocephaly, should be considered in the diagnostic process. Successful treatment of positional plagiocephaly and dolichocephaly includes systematic positioning changes to overcome the mechanical forces of repetitive positioning, physical and/or occupational therapy to treat underlying muscle or developmental challenges, and in some cases, molding helmet therapy. PMID:16338671

Hummel, Pat; Fortado, Dana

2005-12-01

90

Sudden infant death syndrome  

PubMed Central

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) continues to be the most common cause of postneonatal infant death. SIDS is a complex, multifactorial disorder, the cause of which is still not fully understood. However, much is known now about environmental risk factors, some of which are modifiable. These include maternal and antenatal risk factors such as smoking during pregnancy, as well as infant-related risk factors such as non-supine sleeping position and soft bedding. Emerging evidence also substantiates an expanding number of genetic risk factors. Interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors may be of critical importance in determining an infant's actual risk of SIDS. Although no practical way exists to identify which infants will die of SIDS, nor is there a safe and proven prevention strategy even if identification were feasible, reducing exposure to modifiable risk factors has helped to lower the incidence of SIDS. Current challenges include wider dissemination of guidelines to all people who care for infants, dissemination of guidelines in culturally appropriate ways, and surveillance of SIDS trends and other outcomes associated with implementation of these guidelines. PMID:16785462

Hunt, Carl E.; Hauck, Fern R.

2006-01-01

91

Behavioral Response of the Parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus(Forst) (Hymenoptera:Pteromalidae) to Extracts from Cocoons of Lasioderma serricorneFab. (Coleoptera Anobiidae) and Their Effects on Subsequent Oviposition Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antennation and oviposition responses of the parasitoidLariophagus distinguendus(Forst) females to water and organic solvent extracts from cocoons ofLasioderma serricorneFab. were studied in the laboratory. A combination of water and methylene chloride extracts elicited the strongest antennation and probing responses. Responses increased with extract dose. Oviposition onto beetle pupae through artificial cocoons made from cellulose domes was studied as a function

Sergio Jiménez Ambriz; Michael R. Strand; Wendell E. Burkholder

1996-01-01

92

Catheter closure of atrial septal defects using the Cocoon septal occluder: Preliminary results of a European multicenter study.  

PubMed

Despite its simplicity, device closure of atrial septal defects is still associated with rare but potentially lethal complications. In this prospective non-randomized multicenter study we investigated the safety and efficacy of the Cocoon septal occluder (CSO) for closure of atrial septal defects (ASDs) in 92 patients. Median age of the patients was 10.5years (range 3-61years) and median weight was 25kg (range 13-65kg). The device is an improved new generation double disc design made of Nitinol wire mesh that is coated with platinum using NanoFusion technology. The discs are connected by a waist with diameter ranging from 6mm to 40mm with 2mm increments. All patients completed a 3-month follow-up. Mean ASD diameter was 21±7mm (range 10-35mm), while the mean device diameter was 24±8mm (range 14-40mm). The CSO was permanently implanted in all 92 patients. Complete echocardiographic closure of the defect immediately after the procedure or at the one month follow-up, was observed in all 92 patients (100%). No device-related complications were observed during the procedure or at short-term follow-up (range 3-12months). Our preliminary results indicate that CSO is a promising device for transcatheter closure of ASDs. Further studies are required to document its efficacy, safety and long-term results in a larger patient population. PMID:25305675

Thanopoulos, Basil D; Biasco, Luigi; Dardas, Petros; De Backer, Ole; Avraamides, Panayiotis; Deleanou, Dan; Ninios, Vlassis; Mavrommatis, Petros P; Soendergaard, Lars

2014-12-15

93

Massage therapy facilitates mother–infant interaction in premature infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preterm infants (n=51) received massage therapy in the NICU by their mothers or a female researcher, or no massage (controls). At 3 months, mothers of massaged infants were less intrusive, interactions were more reciprocal, and treated infants were more socially involved compared to controls.

Sari Goldstein Ferber; Ruth Feldman; David Kohelet; Jacob Kuint; Shaul Dollberg; Eliana Arbel; Aron Weller

2005-01-01

94

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)  

MedlinePLUS

... News and Spotlights Nearly 55 percent of U.S. infants sleep with potentially unsafe bedding Brain abnormality found in group of SIDS cases 20 Years of Protecting Infants During Sleep All related news Home Accessibility Contact Disclaimer Privacy ...

95

Wheezing and Asthma in Infants  

MedlinePLUS

Wheezing and Asthma in Infants KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Asthma > Wheezing and Asthma in Infants Print A A A Text Size ... of asthma.) My Baby Is Wheezing. Is It Asthma? If your baby has a cold and is ...

96

[Historical journey to infant feeding].  

PubMed

The article provides an overview of the available literature on problems of infant nutrition, and shows the historical development of the principles of infant feeding. It discusses in greater detail the use of goat milk as a basis for infant nutrition. It notes the need for a comparative analysis of breast milk substitutes, and for clinical studies evaluating the value of goat milk in infant nutrition. PMID:25059072

Skidan, I N; Guliaev, A E; Zelenkin, I V; Skidan, T N

2014-01-01

97

Infant Visual Habituation  

PubMed Central

The use of visual habituation in the study of infant cognition and learning is reviewed. This article traces the history of the technique, underlying theory, and procedural variation in its measurement. In addition, we review empirical findings with respect to the cognitive processes that presumably contribute to habituation, studies of developmental course and long-term prediction, as well as recent attempts to address or explain the phenomenon of visual habituation through the use of mathematical or quantitative models. The review ends with an appeal for a return to the study of habituation per se as a valid measure of infant learning, rather than relegating the phenomenon to its use as a technique for familiarizing infants in procedures testing for discrimination or recognition. PMID:18620070

Colombo, John; Mitchell, D. Wayne

2009-01-01

98

FastStats: Infant Health  

MedlinePLUS

... from the 2010 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set [PDF - 524 KB] Recent Declines in Infant Mortality in the United States, 2005–2011 Trends in Circumcision for Male Newborns in U.S. Hospitals: ... Data Mortality Data Linked Birth and Infant Death Data ...

99

Infant Care Suggestions for Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... fragile infants. They can help parents learn the skills and gain confidence necessary to care for their fragile. The infant who has osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) has some special characteristics. The infant may have an unusually soft skull, startle very easily, have bone deformity and ...

100

Perspectives on Infant Day Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings of the first annual SACUS workshop on infant day care contain the papers presented at the conference, plus an appendix--Developmental Objectives for Infants and Toddlers. The papers are: "Infant Day Care--Fads, Facts, and Fancies" by Bettye M. Caldwell; "Family Day Care""A Broad Perspective" by Malcolm S. Host; "Getting…

Elardo, Richard, E.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

101

Tinea Capitis in Infants  

PubMed Central

Tinea capitis is a reasonably common infection among the pediatric population; however, it is still a relatively rare entity among infants less than one year of age. As such, a high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis among infants and an appropriate diagnostic work up should be employed in any case where a dermatophyte infection is suspected. Several methods are available for diagnosis. In addition, proper identification of the specific dermatophyte genera involved should be considered as treatment options may be altered based on the causative pathogen identified. PMID:22468173

Michaels, Brent D.

2012-01-01

102

Infant Group Care Risks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children under 3 years of age who are in group care face special health risks. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control indicate the existence of a causal relationship between infant group day care and certain diseases that are spread through contact at day care centers. Children in group care who are still in diapers are especially vulnerable to…

Kendall, Earline D.

103

Infants are Trichromats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments were conducted to demonstrate that human infants 3 months of age perceive color in a normal, trichromatic manner. Results from these studies of the neutral zone and hue discrimination evidence trichromatic vision in infancy and are discussed in the context of their clinical, social, and intellectual implications. (Author/SB)

Bornstein, Marc H.

1976-01-01

104

ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition, and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention, and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METH...

105

Neuroprotection in Preterm Infants  

PubMed Central

Preterm infants born before the 30th week of pregnancy are especially at risk of perinatal brain damage which is usually a result of cerebral ischemia or an ascending intrauterine infection. Prevention of preterm birth and early intervention given signs of imminent intrauterine infection can reduce the incidence of perinatal cerebral injury. It has been shown that administering magnesium intravenously to women at imminent risk of a preterm birth leads to a significant reduction in the likelihood of the infant developing cerebral palsy and motor skill dysfunction. It has also been demonstrated that delayed clamping of the umbilical cord after birth reduces the rate of brain hemorrhage among preterm infants by up to 50%. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells seem to have significant neuroprotective potential in animal experiments, as they increase the rate of regeneration of the damaged cerebral area. Clinical tests of these types of therapeutic intervention measures appear to be imminent. In the last trimester of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone increase significantly. Preterm infants are removed abruptly from this estradiol and progesterone rich environment. It has been demonstrated in animal experiments that estradiol and progesterone protect the immature brain from hypoxic-ischemic lesions. However, this neuroprotective strategy has unfortunately not yet been subject to sufficient clinical investigation. PMID:25650134

Berger, R.; Söder, S.

2015-01-01

106

Melatonin production in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationships of the excretion of the melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, to prenatal, natal, and postnatal variables and its possible relation to psychomotor development. nocturnal urinary excretion of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin was studied over a 13-hour period in 355 term infants at 8 weeks of age (n = 320) and 16 weeks of age (n = 96). data on a

Riva Tauman; Nava Zisapel; Moshe Laudon; Haim Nehama; Yakov Sivan

2002-01-01

107

Urine collection - infants  

MedlinePLUS

... gave you. You will be given a special bag to collect the urine. It will be a plastic bag with a sticky strip on one end, made ... fit over your baby's genital area. Open this bag and place it on the infant. For males, ...

108

Infant Development: Recent Advances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that the last 30 years have seen enormous increases in the understanding of infancy, this book examines the current state of knowledge regarding infant development. The book's contents stem from meetings of the British Infancy Research Group. Although the book was intended for advanced undergraduates, it would also be useful for advanced…

Bremner, Gavin, Ed.; Slater, Alan, Ed.; Butterworth, George, Ed.

109

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... boys, African Americans, and American Indian/Alaska Native infants have a higher risk of SIDS. Although health care professionals don't know what causes SIDS, they do know ways to reduce the risk. These include Placing babies on their backs to sleep, even for short naps. "Tummy time" is for ...

110

Renal transplantation in infants.  

PubMed Central

The timing of renal transplantation in infants is controversial. Between 1965 and 1989, 79 transplants in 75 infants less than 2 years old were performed: 23 who were 12 months or younger, 52 who were older than 12 months; 63 donors were living related, 1 was living unrelated, and 15 were cadaver donors; 75 were primary transplants and 4 were retransplants. Infants were considered for transplantation when they were on, or about to begin, dialysis. All had intra-abdominal transplants with arterial anastomosis to the distal aorta. Sixty-four per cent are alive with functioning grafts. The most frequent etiologies of renal failure were hypoplasia (32%) and obstructive uropathy (20%); oxalosis was the etiology in 11%. Since 1983 patient survival has been 95% and 91% at 1 and 5 years; graft survival has been 86% and 73% at 1 and 5 years. For cyclosporine immunosuppressed patients, patient survival is 100% at 1 and 5 years; graft survival is 96% and 82% at 1 and 5 years. There was no difference in outcome between infants who were 12 months or younger versus those who were aged 12 to 24 months; similarly there was no difference between infants and older children. Sixteen (21%) patients died: 5 after operation from coagulopathy (1) and infection (4); and 11 late from postsplenectomy sepsis (4), recurrent oxalosis (3), infection (2), and other causes (2). Routine splenectomy is no longer done. There has not been a death from infection in patients transplanted since 1983. Rejection was the most common cause of graft loss (in 15 patients); other causes included death (with function) (7), recurrent oxalosis (3), and technical complications (3). Overall 52% of patients have not had a rejection episode; mean creatinine level in patients with functioning grafts is 0.8 +/- 0.2 mg/dL. Common postoperative problems include fever, atelectasis, and ileus. At the time of their transplants, the infants were small for age; but with a successful transplant, their growth, head circumference, and development have improved. Transplantation in infants requires an intensive multidisciplinary approach but yields excellent short- and long-term survival rates that are no different from those seen in older children or adults. Living donors should be used whenever possible. Patients with a successful transplantation experience improved growth and development, with excellent rehabilitation. PMID:2396887

Najarian, J S; Frey, D J; Matas, A J; Gillingham, K J; So, S S; Cook, M; Chavers, B; Mauer, S M; Nevins, T E

1990-01-01

111

Infant Neurobehavioral Development  

PubMed Central

The trend toward single-room neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) is increasing; however scientific evidence is, at this point, mostly anecdotal. This is a critical time to assess the impact of the single-room NICU on improving medical and neurobehavioral outcomes of the preterm infant. We have developed a theoretical model that may be useful in studying how the change from an open-bay NICU to a single-room NICU could affect infant medical and neurobehavioral outcome. The model identifies mediating factors that are likely to accompany the change to a single-room NICU. These mediating factors include family centered care, developmental care, parenting and family factors, staff behavior and attitudes, and medical practices. Medical outcomes that plan to be measured are sepsis, length of stay, gestational age at discharge, weight gain, illness severity, gestational age at enteral feeding, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Neurobehavioral outcomes include the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) scores, sleep state organization and sleep physiology, infant mother feeding interaction scores, and pain scores. Preliminary findings on the sample of 150 patients in the open-bay NICU showed a “baseline” of effects of family centered care, developmental care, parent satisfaction, maternal depression, and parenting stress on the neurobehavioral outcomes of the newborn. The single-room NICU has the potential to improve the neurobehavioral status of the infant at discharge. Neurobehavioral assessment can assist with early detection and therefore preventative intervention to maximize developmental outcome. We also present an epigenetic model of the potential effects of maternal care on improving infant neurobehavioral status. PMID:21255702

Lester, Barry M.; Miller, Robin J.; Hawes, Katheleen; Salisbury, Amy; Bigsby, Rosemarie; Sullivan, Mary C.; Padbury, James F.

2011-01-01

112

Measuring Infant Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods to measure infant exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are needed to identify infants at highest risk for ETS-related health problems. The purpose of this study was to validate measures sensitive to changes in levels of infant exposure to ETS and to develop a predictive model of infant exposure to ETS. Fifteen infants of smoking mothers were followed from

Mary Beth Flanders Stepans; Sara G. Fuller

1999-01-01

113

The Development of Peripheral Vision in Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the extent of infant peripheral vision, specifically the extent of infants' constricted field, or tunnel vision. Thirteen infants, 2 to 5 months old, were tested using a psychophysical procedure to obtain contrast sensitivity thresholds at four retinal loci (-40, -15, +15, +40 deg.). Infants were placed in an infant bed in…

Guez, Jean R.

114

Why Is It Important? What Is Infant Mental Health?2 What Is Infant Mental Health?  

E-print Network

What Is Why Is It Important? ? #12;What Is Infant Mental Health?2 What Is Infant Mental Health? What is infant mental health? Does the term "infant mental health" make you think of a baby on a couch telling his problems to a psychiatrist? So what is infant mental health? Infant mental health reflects

McQuade, D. Tyler

115

Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this…

Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.

2011-01-01

116

Lactation and infant nutrition.  

PubMed

Lactation is of great importance to infant nutritional needs. It is difficult to generalize about infant growth expectations since there are variations among communities and since there may be some modification of infant feeding practices. The choice of an appropriate standard is even more difficult to estimate since they are interdependent on energy intakes. However, the balance between energy and protein content in breastmilk appears to be fairly constant through lactation and among communities. It is likely that for normally growing children exclusive breastfeeding is not likely to result in a serious mineral or nutrient deficiency. Discussion is included about measurement of breastmilk output and the various means to do so in order to calculate energy and nutrient requirements. Currently, controversy surrounds the timing of milk supplements for those infants being breastfed. A general guideline seems to be that weaning should be avoided before age 4 months in industrialized countries. The various problems which are reiterated are: growth targets, nutritional requirements, optimization of lactation, and the weanling dilemma. A rational public health target should be normal growth and the maintenance of a normal nutritional status. Nutritional requirements must be sensibly set because if the target is too high it will be dismissed as impractical; if it is too low, it will fail to meet the needs of a substantial portion of the population. It seems wise to concentrate on achieving an optimal start to lactation in the early weeks when it appears likely that the breastfeeding potential is being determined. Since normal growth in infancy is an appropriate health goal, breastfeeding should perhaps be utilized to the maximum and be backed by systematic supplementation at a time when growth would likely falter. More attention must be directed toward prevalent weaning strategies. PMID:7020870

Rowland, M G; Paul, A A; Whitehead, R G

1981-01-01

117

Infant Pulmonary Function Testing  

PubMed Central

Infant pulmonary function testing has evolved from a research technique into a diagnostic tool. As such, new current procedural terminology (CPT) codes have been created and are available for use as of January 1, 2010. The technology now available has a range of applications. Through a series of vignettes, this article illustrates the methodology of the tests, some of their applications, and how to code and bill for the procedures. PMID:21540218

Davis, Stephanie D.

2011-01-01

118

Sudden Infant Death and Sofa Sleeping  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... right-hand corner of the player. Sudden Infant Death and Sofa Sleeping HealthDay October 13, 2014 Related ... Child Safety Infant and Newborn Care Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Transcript An important warning today about sudden ...

119

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Facts for Caregivers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents risk factors and prevention measures related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Offers infant sleep recommendations and five discussion questions to test knowledge of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (DLH)

Texas Child Care, 2000

2000-01-01

120

Infants hierarchically organize memory representations.  

PubMed

Throughout development, working memory is subject to capacity limits that severely constrain short-term storage. However, adults can massively expand the total amount of remembered information by grouping items into chunks. Although infants also have been shown to chunk objects in memory, little is known regarding the limits of this ability. In particular, it remains unknown whether infants can create more complex memory hierarchies, binding representations of chunks into still larger chunks in recursive fashion. Here we tested the limits of early chunking, first measuring the number of items infants can bind into a single chunk and the number of chunks infants can maintain concurrently, and then, critically, whether infants can embed chunked representations into larger units. We tested 14-month-old infants' memory for hidden objects using a manual search task in which we manipulated memory load (the number of objects infants saw hidden) and the chunking cues provided. We found that infants are limited in the number of items they can chunk and in the number of chunks they can remember. However, we also found that infants can bind representations of chunks into 'superchunks'. These results suggest that hierarchically organizing information strongly affects working memory, starting in infancy. PMID:23786478

Rosenberg, Rebecca D; Feigenson, Lisa

2013-07-01

121

Iron Therapy for Preterm Infants  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Preterm infants are at risk for both iron deficiency and iron overload. The role of iron in multiple organ functions suggests that iron supplementation is essential for the preterm infant. Conversely, the potential for iron overload and the poorly developed anti-oxidant measures in the preterm infant argues against indiscriminate iron supplementation in this population. The purpose of this article is to review the predisposing factors and consequences of iron deficiency and iron overload in the preterm infant, the current recommendation for iron supplementation and its appropriateness, and describe potential management strategies that strike a balance between iron deficiency and iron toxicity. PMID:19161863

Rao, Raghavendra; Georgieff, Michael K.

2009-01-01

122

Antioxidant activities of two sericin proteins extracted from cocoon of silkworm (Bombyx mori) measured by DPPH, chemiluminescence, ORAC and ESR methods.  

PubMed

Recent efforts have focused on the use of sericin proteins extracted from cocoons of silkworm as a healthy food source for human consumption. In this study, we focused on the antioxidative properties of sericin proteins. The antioxidative properties were measured in sericin proteins extracted from the shell of the cocoon, designated hereafter as white sericin protein and yellow-green sericin protein, as well as bread without sericin protein and bread to which white sericin powder had been added using four measurement methods: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), chemiluminescence, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and electron spin resonance (ESR). High antioxidative properties of sericin proteins were indicated by all four methods. A comparison of the two types of sericin proteins revealed that yellow-green sericin protein exhibited high antioxidative properties as indicated by the DPPH, chemiluminescence and ORAC methods. By contrast, a higher antioxidative property was determined in white sericin protein by the ESR method. Consequently, our findings confirmed that sericin proteins have antioxidative properties against multiple radicals. In addition, the antioxidative property of bread was enhanced by the addition of sericin powder to the bread. Therefore, findings of this study suggest that sericin proteins may be efficiently used as beneficial food for human health. PMID:24748975

Takechi, Tayori; Wada, Ritsuko; Fukuda, Tsubasa; Harada, Kazuki; Takamura, Hitoshi

2014-05-01

123

Antioxidant activities of two sericin proteins extracted from cocoon of silkworm (Bombyx mori) measured by DPPH, chemiluminescence, ORAC and ESR methods  

PubMed Central

Recent efforts have focused on the use of sericin proteins extracted from cocoons of silkworm as a healthy food source for human consumption. In this study, we focused on the antioxidative properties of sericin proteins. The antioxidative properties were measured in sericin proteins extracted from the shell of the cocoon, designated hereafter as white sericin protein and yellow-green sericin protein, as well as bread without sericin protein and bread to which white sericin powder had been added using four measurement methods: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), chemiluminescence, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and electron spin resonance (ESR). High antioxidative properties of sericin proteins were indicated by all four methods. A comparison of the two types of sericin proteins revealed that yellow-green sericin protein exhibited high antioxidative properties as indicated by the DPPH, chemiluminescence and ORAC methods. By contrast, a higher antioxidative property was determined in white sericin protein by the ESR method. Consequently, our findings confirmed that sericin proteins have antioxidative properties against multiple radicals. In addition, the antioxidative property of bread was enhanced by the addition of sericin powder to the bread. Therefore, findings of this study suggest that sericin proteins may be efficiently used as beneficial food for human health. PMID:24748975

TAKECHI, TAYORI; WADA, RITSUKO; FUKUDA, TSUBASA; HARADA, KAZUKI; TAKAMURA, HITOSHI

2014-01-01

124

Infants' Behavioral and Physiological Profile and Mother-Infant Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to (a) identify and profile groups of infants according to their behavioral and physiological characteristics, considering their neurobehavioral organization, social withdrawal behavior, and endocrine reactivity to stress, and to (b) analyze group differences in the quality of mother-infant interaction. Ninety-seven 8-week-old…

Costa, Raquel; Figueiredo, Barbara

2012-01-01

125

Individual and Maturational Differences in Infant Expressivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports that, even though young infants can discriminate among different facial expressions, there are individual differences in infants' expressivity and ability to produce and discriminate facial expressions. (PCB)

Field, Tiffany

1989-01-01

126

Infants' Recognition Memory for Hue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty 4-month-old infants were habituated to one wavelength of light and then tested for recognition with the original and two new spectral lights. After short- and long-term delays with different types of retroactive interference, the results indicated that the infants' recognition memory for hue was quite resilient to interference or delay. (JMB)

Bornstein, Marc H.

1976-01-01

127

What Is Infant Mental Health?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

2012-01-01

128

Infants Infer Intentions from Prosody  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies were conducted to examine infants' ability to discern intentions from lexical and prosodic cues. Two groups of 14-18-month-olds participated in these studies. In both studies, infants watched an adult perform a sequence of two-step actions on novel toys that produced an end-result. In the first study actions were marked intentionally…

Sakkalou, Elena; Gattis, Merideth

2012-01-01

129

Caring for Infants and Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "The Future of Children" focuses on the daily care of infants and toddlers in the United States, including shifting caregiving arrangement for children younger than 3 years, developmental needs of infants and toddlers, findings of recent child care studies, public opinion regarding child care, and recent innovations seeking to…

Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

2001-01-01

130

Selectivity in Infant Social Referencing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In laboratory studies of social referencing, infants as young as 12 months have been reported to prefer looking at the experimenter over the caregiver for clarifying information. From an expertise perspective, such behavior could be interpreted as if the infant seeks information from others and can discriminate between persons who have or do not…

Stenberg, Gunilla

2009-01-01

131

Determinants of Infant Behaviour IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume consists of reports of individual studies and surveys of research work on mother-infant interactions. It is divided into two parts. The first section presents a wide range of studies on mother-infant relations as exhibited in the behavior of animals. The second part, concerning human behavior, includes studies on the natural history of…

Foss, B. M., Ed.

132

Trends in infant abductions (2005).  

PubMed

Infant kidnapping in healthcare facilities has been sharply reduced since the 1990s when educational programs and tagging systems were introduced. However, infant abductors in recent years have changed their methods of operation to meet improved nursery safeguards. In this updated report, the author warns of some new dangers posed by the Internet. PMID:16535955

Nahirny, Cathy

2005-01-01

133

Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.  

PubMed

Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (p<0.01) indicates positive health status of the newborns verifies that prenatal meditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (p<0.05) at fifth month reflects the importance of prenatal meditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women. PMID:25063985

Chan, Ka Po

2014-11-01

134

Evaluating Infant-Family Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Compiling articles from participants of the Leadership Development Initiative Class of 2001-2002, this issue focuses on evaluation of…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

2003-01-01

135

[Infant and Toddler Communication Disorders].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter issue contains four articles all addressing aspects of intervention with infants and toddlers having communication disorders. The first, "Assessing the Communication of Infants and Toddlers: Integrating a Socioemotional Perspective" (Barry M. Prizant and Amy M. Wetherby) describes a new instrument, the Communication and Symbolic…

Pawl, Jeree, Ed.

1990-01-01

136

Mothers' attitudes to preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mothers' attitudes to their preterm and term children were examined and compared using the Semantic-Differential and an interview related to the experiences of mothers during pregnancy and after birth. It was postulated that mothers would show more concern for their preterm infant than their term infant, but this hypothesis was not supported by the results. The attitudes of mothers were

R. T. Bidder; E. A. Crowe; O. P. Gray

1974-01-01

137

NUTRITIONAL INFLUENCES ON INFANT DEVELOPMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The nutritional requirements of infants and children reflect this population's unique needs for growth and developmental changes in organ function and body composition as well as their maintenance needs. Moreover, since the metabolic rate of infants and children is greater and the turnover of nutri...

138

[Recurrent obstructive bronchitis in infants].  

PubMed

The study comprised 458 infants complaining of recurrent obstructive bronchitis from the clinical, chest X-rays and gastroesophageal reflux investigation view points. Spontaneous radiological reflux was found in 49.1% of the patients, although a history of vomiting was present only in 26.6%. In infants with positive radiological reflux, manometrics showed a shorter gastroesophageal sphincter and with lesser pressures than a group of normal infants. With medical treatment of the reflux, remission of the respiratory symptoms was seen in 63.5% of the patients. In a group of infants treated, control X-rays, and manometrics were practiced at the end of the medical treatment showing significant improvement of pressure and length of the gastroesophageal sphincter. The long-term follow-up in infants showing failure of the medical treatment, bronchial asthma appeared in 56.6%. PMID:572685

Casar, C; Díaz, A; Ceruti, E; Danus, O; Vildosola, C

1979-01-01

139

Infant Gaze Following during Parent-Infant Coviewing of Baby Videos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 122 parent–infant dyads were observed as they watched a familiar or novel infant-directed video in a laboratory setting. Infants were between 12-15 and 18-21 months old. Infants were more likely to look toward the TV immediately following their parents' look toward the TV. This apparent social influence on infant looking at television…

Demers, Lindsay B.; Hanson, Katherine G.; Kirkorian, Heather L.; Pempek, Tiffany A.; Anderson, Daniel R.

2013-01-01

140

Gender Differences in the Relationship Between Mother-Infant Interaction and the Infant's Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between mother-infant behavior and the infant's performance on perceptual-cognitive tasks as a function of the infant's sex. A total of 189 12-week-old infants and their mothers were observed in their homes during 2 hours of infant awake time. In addition, the Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales…

Gallas, Howard B.; Lewis, Michael

141

Manipulation of Infant-Like Traits Affects Perceived Cuteness of Infant, Adult and Cat Faces  

E-print Network

Manipulation of Infant-Like Traits Affects Perceived Cuteness of Infant, Adult and Cat Faces was experimentally manipulated using the difference between adult and infant faces. Human infant, human adult and cat faces were manipulated to look more (human) infant-like or adult-like. The results from the current

Little, Tony

142

Observed Infant Reactions during Live Interparental Conflict  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Associations between interparental conflict and infant reactions were examined. Infants' history of exposure to interparental conflict and infant reactive temperament were examined as moderators. A community sample of 74 infants, aged 6-14 months, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' marital conflict and…

Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; White, Clare R.; Fleischhauer, Emily A.; Fitzgerald, Kelly A.

2011-01-01

143

Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

2009-01-01

144

Infant Development in Lower Class American Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to observe the effects of social class on the interaction of mothers and their 12-week-old infants. Data on the infants' cognitive and attentive behavior was also obtained. Each of 32 white and black infants from five different levels of social class was observed at home for two full hours of waking time. Observed infant

Lewis, Michael; Wilson, Cornelia D.

145

Tuned in Parenting and Infant Sleep Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on infant sleep behaviour that is of concern to mothers of young infants, and disruptive to families. It reports on the incidence of sleep problems in dyads that self-referred to a specialist clinic, and the relationship between the mother's sensitive responsiveness and infant sleep patterns in a sample of 65 Australian infants.…

Priddis, Lynn E.

2009-01-01

146

Energy requirements in Chilean infants  

PubMed Central

AIM—To evaluate the energy requirements of breast fed infants.?METHODS—The study was conducted in 17 healthy exclusively breast fed infants of normal birth weight (mean (SD) 3332 (280) g). Energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method and milk intake by the dose to infant method were measured at 34 (4) days. A dose of 0.2 g/kg deuterium oxide (99.8%) and 2.0 g/kg 10% 18O labelled water was given to the infants, and urine samples were collected for seven consecutive days after dosing.?RESULTS—The mean (SD) weight of the infants during the period of evaluation was 4617 (343) g and weight gain 34.0 (7.5) g/day. Daily milk intake was 728 (101) g and its metabolisable energy content 2.71 kJ/g. The energy expenditure of the infants was 1205 (312) kJ/day and energy required for growth was 607 (130) kJ/day. When combined this produced an energy requirement of 391 kJ/kg/day for these infants.?CONCLUSION—These data agree with those from other studies in the United Kingdom and the United States and suggest that adequate growth can be achieved with 19.4% less energy than recommended by FAO/WHO/UNU.?? PMID:10952706

Salazar, G; Vio, F; Garcia, C; Aguirre, E; Coward, W

2000-01-01

147

Postpartum home visits: infant outcomes.  

PubMed

Early postpartum discharge of mothers and infants has increased as health care providers and payers attempt to control health care cost. Questions regarding patient safety have been raised. Literature supports the safety of early discharge when providers adhere to strict discharge guidelines and when clients comply with home follow-up. Previous studies calculated hospital readmission rates, but few examined other outcomes or characteristics. The purposes of this descriptive study were to examine outcome data for infant participants in a postpartum home visit program and to explore factors that may influence hospital readmissions for infants. Using an audit tool with established reliability and validity, a convenience sample of 199 infant medical records was reviewed for demographic information, characteristics, and outcomes. The hospital readmission rate for all infants within 3 weeks of discharge was comparable to other studies; however, the rate for only early discharge infants was higher than the rate reported in other studies. The study of postdelivery outcomes for infants provides additional insight into the issue of early discharge and may reflect the significance of postpartum follow-up care and education. PMID:10091473

Frank-Hanssen, M A; Hanson, K S; Anderson, M A

1999-01-01

148

Maternal-infant interaction and autonomic function in healthy infants and infants with transposition of the great arteries.  

PubMed

The quality of maternal-infant interaction is a critical factor in the development of infants' autonomic function and social engagement skills. In this secondary data analysis, relationships among infant and maternal affect and behavior and quality of dyadic interaction, as measured by the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment, and infant autonomic function, as measured by heart rate variability, were examined during feeding at 2 weeks and 2 months of age in 16 healthy infants and in 15 infants with transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Contrary to previous research, at 2 weeks infant age, mothers of infants with TGA had significantly higher scores in affect and behavior than did mothers of healthy infants. The affect and behavior and quality of dyadic interaction of infants with TGA also did not differ from that of healthy infants. Although infants' social engagement skills did not differ by health condition (TGA or healthy), these skills did differ by parasympathetic nervous system function: infants better able to suppress vagal activity with challenge had more positive and less dysregulated affect and behavior, regardless of health status. These findings suggest that maternal-infant interactions for some cardiac disease subgroups may not differ from healthy dyads. Additional research is required to identify both healthy and ill infants with delayed autonomic maturation and to develop and test interventions to enhance critical interactive functions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25352237

Harrison, Tondi M; Ferree, Allison

2014-12-01

149

Hypoxia in the newborn infant.  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia in newborn infants is becoming much easier to prevent, detect and treat. Nevertheless the successful management of potentially hypoxic fetuses and newborn infants remains the major challenge to all physicians concerned with perinatal care. What is at stake is not only that sick infants should survive, but equally or more importantly that the survivors should be normal children. Recent follow-up studies show that this aim can, with few exceptions, now be achieved (Stewart and Reynolds, 1974; Davies and Stewart, 1975; Durbin et al, 1976). PMID:269116

Reynolds, E O

1977-01-01

150

Infant rhythms versus parental time: promoting parent-infant synchrony.  

PubMed

Traditional psychoanalytic theories of early development have been put into question by developmental psychology, and particularly by attachment theory. Psychopathology appears to be more linked to interpersonal relationship problems rather than to intra-psychic conflict, as hypothesized in Freudian drive theory. Establishing synchrony between parent and infant is probably one of the major tasks of the first year of life. Attachment theory appears to be an effective paradigm to understand how caregiver responses to stressful infant situations give way to different regulatory strategies, which impact on the effectiveness of the stress buffer systems and its physiological impact on emotion and stress regulation. This paper underlines the importance of synchronization between infant and caregiver; it highlights the key concept of attachment disorganization and of its relationship with sustained social withdrawal as a defence mechanism and an alarm signal when synchronization fails, and underlines the importance of early interventions promoting parent-infant synchrony. PMID:21782020

Guedeney, Antoine; Guedeney, Nicole; Tereno, Susana; Dugravier, Romain; Greacen, Tim; Welniarz, Bertrand; Saias, Thomas; Tubach, Florence

2011-12-01

151

Infant Transport Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The photo sequence illustrates the movement of an ill infant to a special care hospital by means of a new Pediatric Monitoring and Transport System, in which NASA technology and technical assistance are being applied to an urgent medical problem. Development of the system is a collaborative effort involving several organizations, principally, NASA Ames Research Center and Children's Hospital Medical Center, Oakland, California. Key to the system's efficacy is a custom-designed ambulance-to-hospital and hospital-to-hospital communications network, including two-way voice capability and space-derived biotelemetry; it allows a specialist at the destination hospital to monitor continuously the vital signs of the patient during transit.

1978-01-01

152

Infant Moon: Moon Mix!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate the Moon's infancy and model how an ocean of molten rock (magma) helped shape the Moon that we see today. Learners create a simple model of this process by mixing household items of different densities in a bottle and allowing to them to settle into separate layers. Learners decide which materials make the best model for the infant Moon. Learners may examine a type of Earth rock (named anorthosite) that is also found on the Moon and that would have been shaped by the processes explored here. This activity station is part of a sequence of stations that can be set up to help learners trace the Moon's 4.5-billion-year history from "infancy" to the imagined future. Learners tie together major events in the Moon's geologic history as a series of comic panels in their Marvel Moon comic books.

Institute, Lunar A.

2010-01-01

153

Infant Oral Health Care  

PubMed Central

The family physician/pediatrician who sees a child from birth as part of the well-baby visit program is in the best position to identify early dental problems and to educate the family about early oral preventive health care. Since children under three years of age are not seen routinely by dentists, they are at risk of developing dental disease. This paper briefly covers the areas of infant oral pathology, early preventive care, teething, suckling habits, and dental trauma in the toddler. The physician will then be in a better position to recommend to parents when they should seek dental advice and treatment for their young children. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21253204

Sigal, Michael J.; Levine, Norman

1988-01-01

154

Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Additives Dental Fluorosis Private Well Water and Fluoride Bottled Water and Fluoride Dental Sealants Infection Control Journal Articles ... lessen this chance, parents can use low-fluoride bottled water some of the time to mix infant formula; ...

155

Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities  

MedlinePLUS

... Sensitivities Ages & Stages Listen Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities Article Body Human breast milk typically does not ... your pediatrician about your family’s medical history. Food Sensitivities A few mothers notice minor reactions to other ...

156

Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) in Infants  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A This image displays symmetric scaling, red, slightly elevated lesions typical of atopic dermatitis (eczema). Overview ...

157

Social theory and infant feeding  

PubMed Central

Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

2011-01-01

158

Transcathater percutaneous device closure of a large PDA closed in a 3 kg infant.  

PubMed

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is common congenital heart disease which may require treatment as transcatheter percutaneous device closure (PDA device closure) or surgical ligation in symptomatic full-term patients. Surgical ligation is an invasive procedure and has more complications especially in the neonates. Problems in PDA device closure are difficult vascular access, manipulation of catheters and sheath, residual shunts, residual obstruction of major arteries etc and these complications increase in low birth weight babies, but it is a less invasive procedure and has fewer complications than surgery, so should be tried in low birth weight patients also. We are presenting a case of 3 kg infant with large PDA (8 mm) presented with failure to thrive, lower respiratory tract infection and heart failure. He successfully underwent PDA device closure with 10 × 12 mm Cocoon PDA device. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of the use of such a large device in a 3 kg child with good results. PMID:25634411

Bansal, N O; Prabhu, Sandesh; Ware, Dhananjay; Shivapuje, Sanjaykumar K

2014-01-01

159

Sleep and Attachment in Preterm Infants  

PubMed Central

Infants born preterm are at elevated risk for social emotional difficulties. However, factors contributing to this risk are largely understudied. Within the present study, we explored infant sleep as a biosocial factor that may play a role in infant social emotional development. Within a prospective longitudinal design, we examined parent-reported sleep patterns and observed parenting quality as predictors of infant-mother attachment in 171 infants born preterm. Using structural equation modeling, we examined main effect and moderator models linking infant sleep patterns and parenting with attachment security. Sleep patterns characterized by more daytime sleep and positive/responsive parenting predicted infant attachment security. Parent-reported nighttime sleep patterns were unrelated to attachment in this sample of infants born preterm. These results indicate that daytime sleep and parenting quality may be important for emerging attachment relationships in infants born preterm. PMID:23482430

Schwichtenberg, A.J.; Shah, Prachi E.; Poehlmann, Julie

2012-01-01

160

Analgesia for infants' circumcision.  

PubMed

Male circumcision (MC) is one of the oldest and most common operations performed all over the world. It can be performed at different ages, using different surgical techniques, for different religious, cultural and medical reasons.Our aim is to examine and compare the various methods of analgesia and different surgical procedures reported in literature that are applied in infant MC. We performed a PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane search in the papers published since 2000: 14 studies met the inclusion criteria, most of them showing that a combined pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention is the best analgesic option, in particular when the dorsal penile nerve block is combined with other treatments. The Mogen surgical procedure seems to be the less painful surgical intervention, when compared with Gomco clamp or PlastiBell device. Only 3 papers studied groups of at least 20 babies each with the use of validated pain scales. Data show a dramatic decrease of pain with dorsal penile nerve block, plus acetaminophen associated to oral sucrose or topic analgesic cream. However, no procedure has been found to definetively eliminate pain; the gold standard procedure to make MC totally painfree has not yet been established. PMID:23759130

Bellieni, Carlo V; Alagna, Maria G; Buonocore, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

161

Indonesia lowers infant mortality.  

PubMed

Indonesia's success in reaching World Health Organization (WHO) universal immunization coverage standards is described as the result of a strong national program with timely, targeted donor support. USAID/Indonesia's Expanded Program for Immunization (EPI) and other USAID bilateral cooperation helped the government of Indonesia in its goal to immunize children against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, and measles by age 1. The initial project was to identify target areas and deliver vaccines against the diseases, strengthen the national immunization organization and infrastructure, and develop the Ministry of Health's capacity to conduct studies and development activities. This EPI project spanned the period 1979-90, and set the stage for continued expansion of Indonesia's immunization program to comply with the full international schedule and range of immunizations of 3 DPT, 3 polio, 1 BCG, and 1 measles inoculation. The number of immunization sites has increased from 55 to include over 5,000 health centers in all provinces, with additional services provided by visiting vaccinators and nurses in most of the 215,000 community-supported integrated health posts. While other contributory factors were at play, program success is at least partially responsible for the 1990 infant mortality rate of 58/1,000 live births compared to 72/1,000 in 1985. Strong national leadership, dedicated health workers and volunteers, and cooperation and funding from UNICEF, the World Bank, Rotary International, and WHO also played crucially positive roles in improving immunization practice in Indonesia. PMID:12317022

Bain, S

1991-11-01

162

Expectancy Learning from Probabilistic Input by Infants  

PubMed Central

Across the first few years of life, infants readily extract many kinds of regularities from their environment, and this ability is thought to be central to development in a number of domains. Numerous studies have documented infants’ ability to recognize deterministic sequential patterns. However, little is known about the processes infants use to build and update representations of structure in time, and how infants represent patterns that are not completely predictable. The present study investigated how infants’ expectations fora simple structure develope over time, and how infants update their representations with new information. We measured 12-month-old infants’ anticipatory eye movements to targets that appeared in one of two possible locations. During the initial phase of the experiment, infants either saw targets that appeared consistently in the same location (Deterministic condition) or probabilistically in either location, with one side more frequent than the other (Probabilistic condition). After this initial divergent experience, both groups saw the same sequence of trials for the rest of the experiment. The results show that infants readily learn from both deterministic and probabilistic input, with infants in both conditions reliably predicting the most likely target location by the end of the experiment. Local context had a large influence on behavior: infants adjusted their predictions to reflect changes in the target location on the previous trial. This flexibility was particularly evident in infants with more variable prior experience (the Probabilistic condition). The results provide some of the first data showing how infants learn in real time. PMID:23439947

Romberg, Alexa R.; Saffran, Jenny R.

2013-01-01

163

Developmental Differences in Infant Attention to the Spectral Properties of Infant-Directed Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined infants' tendency, from a few days to nine months of age, to prefer infant-directed over adult-directed speech. Results suggest that exaggerated pitch contours that characterize infant-directed speech may become salient communicative signals for infants through language-rich, interactive experiences with caretakers and increased…

Cooper, Robin Panneton; Aslin, Richard N.

1994-01-01

164

Understanding Infants: Characteristics of Early Childhood Practitioners' Interpretations of Infants and Their Behaviours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research explored the nature of early childhood practitioners' interpretations of infants in their programs on the basis that such interpretations guide practitioner-infant interactions and curriculum decision-making processes. Twenty-four infant practitioners were asked to describe a nominated infant in their program and to interpret video…

Degotardi, Sheila; Davis, Belinda

2008-01-01

165

Mothers' Beliefs about Infant Size: Associations with Attitudes and Infant Feeding Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have examined maternal attitudes toward infant body size, but extant work suggests there might be less negativity toward overweight sizes and less positivity toward thin sizes for infants than older children. Fifty mothers of 12 to 25 month-old infants completed questionnaires examining attitudes toward infants', children's and their…

Holub, Shayla C.; Dolan, Elaine A.

2012-01-01

166

Serum zinc concentration in exclusively breast-fed infants and in infants fed an adapted formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum zinc concentrations have been determined in 28 healthy full-term Italian infants of both sexes at birth, as well as at 3 and at 5 months of age. Fourteen exclusively breast-fed infants who served as a control group were compared with 14 infants fed a cow's milk based adapted infant formula. No significant differences in serum zinc concentration between the

V. Vigi; R. Chierici; L. Osti; F. Fagioli; R. Reseazzi

1984-01-01

167

[The determination of the species classification of Baikal planarian cocoons found in the stomach of the black grayling (Thymallus arcticus baicalensis) by a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene].  

PubMed

Comparative analysis of nucleotide sequences of gene 18S of ribosome RNA was carried out. The results show that the genetic sequences of the given locus could be used as a molecular marker to identify the species of planaria irrespective of ontogenetic stage. The articles deals with problem of specific determination of cocoons of Baikal planaria from the stomach of Baikal black grayling using comparative analysis of nucleotide sequences of ribosome RNA fragments with known sequences determined earlier for Baikal planaria. The cocoons belong to two species of Rimacephalus. The authors discuss also the importance of feeding relationships of planaria and benthophage fish to investigate the biotic factors that influence the evolution of Baikal planaria. PMID:10520297

Kuznedelov, K D; Dziuba, E V

1999-01-01

168

Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders  

MedlinePLUS

... from the 2009 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table A. http://www. ... from the 2009 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table 5. http://www. ...

169

Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children  

MedlinePLUS

... Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Vaccines Home Share Compartir Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children in Easy-to- ... Skipped Vaccines Spanish Version (en español) The recommended immunization schedule is designed to protect infants and children ...

170

Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children  

MedlinePLUS

... is your infant throwing up small amounts of formula after a feeding? Yes This is probably "SPITTING UP," a common occurrence for infants on formula. Less common is a LACTOSE INTOLERANCE or MILK ...

171

Infant Sleep Positioners Pose Suffocation Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Infant Sleep Positioners Pose Suffocation Risk Search the Consumer Updates Section See more images of Infant Sleep Positioners on Flickr. Please share copies of this ...

172

Ultrastructural study of the egg wall surrounding the developing miracidia of the digenean Prosotocus confusus (Looss, 1894) (Plagiorchiida: Pleurogenidae), with the description of a unique cocoon-like envelope.  

PubMed

Helminth eggs play a critical role in movement of the parasite from definitive to intermediate host. Eggs of the pleurogenid digenean trematode Prosotocus confusus (Looss, 1894), a parasite of naturally infected frogs Pelophylax lessonae (Amphibia: Ranidae) in Europe, are described here for the first time. Particular emphasis is placed on the ultrastructure on the egg wall and on the detailed description of a unique cocoon-like envelope. Each embryonating egg is composed of an early embryo surrounded by a four-layered egg wall: (1) an outer, anucleate layer external to the eggshell, which forms a thick cocoon; (2) the operculate eggshell; (3) not fully formed, a differentiating outer embryonic envelope containing large nuclei of macromeres; and (4) situated below, an undifferentiated layer of the future inner embryonic envelope containing mesomere nuclei. Layers enveloping the egg apparently play an important role in the protection, metabolism, and storage of nutritive reserves for the developing miracidium. The outer anucleate layer, or cocoon, is situated externally to the eggshell and composed of an electron-lucent substance with numerous electron-dense islands attached to its peripheral membrane. A cocoon envelope such as this has never been seen in previous TEM studies of the eggs of parasitic platyhelminths, with the exception of another pleurogenid Brandesia turgida. The origin, formation, functional ultrastructure, and chemical composition of this peculiar layer remain enigmatic, although its function appears to be protective. The thick, electron-dense eggshell resembles that of other trematodes, exhibiting a characteristic fissure zone around the operculum. Numerous lysosome-like structures observed in some eggs may be involved in the autolysis of both the embryonic envelopes (particularly the early degeneration of macromere nuclei of the outer envelope, characteristic for this species) and in the disintegration of several early micromeres. The inner envelope, which forms later from mesomeres, persists longer during embryogenesis. PMID:25320045

?widerski, Zdzis?aw; Miquel, Jordi; Torres, Jordi; Conn, David Bruce

2015-01-01

173

Pattern Induction by Infant Language Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do infants learn the sound patterns of their native language? By the end of the 1st year, infants have acquired detailed aspects of the phonology and phonotactics of their input language. However, the structure of the learning mechanisms underlying this process is largely unknown. In this study, 9-month-old infants were given the opportunity to induce specific phonological patterns in

Jenny R. Saffran; Erik D. Thiessen

2003-01-01

174

Infant Developmental Outcomes: A Family Systems Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the current study was to examine whether parental mental health, parent-infant relationship, infant characteristics and couple's relationship factors were associated with the infant's development. Forty-two families took part at three time points. The first, at 3?months postpartum, involved a video recorded observation…

Parfitt, Ylva; Pike, Alison; Ayers, Susan

2014-01-01

175

The Neural Substrates of Infant Speech Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants often pay special attention to speech sounds, and they appear to detect key features of these sounds. To investigate the neural foundation of speech perception in infants, we measured cortical activation using near-infrared spectroscopy. We presented the following three types of auditory stimuli while 3-month-old infants watched a silent…

Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro

2014-01-01

176

Locomotor Expertise Predicts Infants' Perseverative Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined the development of inhibition in a locomotor context. In a within-subjects design, infants received high- and low-demand locomotor A-not-B tasks. In Experiment 1, walking 13-month-old infants followed an indirect path to a goal. In a control condition, infants took a direct route. In Experiment 2, crawling and walking…

Berger, Sarah E.

2010-01-01

177

The feeding of infants and children  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The establishment of feeding practices that are comfortable and satisfying for both the mother and the infant is crucial for the emotional well being of both and for assuring adequate nutrient intakes for the infant. Maternal feelings are readily transmitted to the infant and are a major determinan...

178

The Goldilocks Effect in Infant Auditory Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants must learn about many cognitive domains (e.g., language, music) from auditory statistics, yet capacity limits on their cognitive resources restrict the quantity that they can encode. Previous research has established that infants can attend to only a subset of available acoustic input. Yet few previous studies have directly examined infant

Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Aslin, Richard N.

2014-01-01

179

NATIONAL MATERNAL AND INFANT HEALTH SURVEY (NMIHS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMIHS) provides data on maternal and infant health, including prenatal care, birth weight, fetal loss, and infant mortality. The objective of the NMIHS is to collect data needed by Federal, State, and private researchers to study fa...

180

Faces Attract Infants' Attention in Complex Displays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infant's face preferences have previously been assessed in displays containing 1 or 2 faces. Here we present 6-month-old infants with a complex visual array containing faces among multiple visual objects. Despite the competing objects, infants direct their first saccade toward faces more frequently than expected by chance (Experiment 1). The…

Gliga, Teodora; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Andravizou, Athina; Johnson, Mark

2009-01-01

181

Function of Infant Crying in Stranger Situations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated infant crying as a form of communication, with fear considered only one of many possible motivating emotions. Crying, along with fretting and withdrawal, are the major ways infants have to indicate that they desire to change the present situation. Subjects were 91 white, middle class infants whose mothers wete their primary…

Rand, Colleen S. W.; Jennings, Kay D.

182

Infants Attribute to Agents Goals and Dispositions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary article is to be published alongside: Hernik, M., & Southgate, V. (2012). What do infants know about agents' goals? The authors see this issue consisting of two closely related questions. First, what is an agent to infants? Second, how do infants attribute goals to agents? Hernik and Southgage (H&S) focused on the second question.…

Luo, Yuyan; Choi, You-jung

2012-01-01

183

Infant Communicative Behaviors and Maternal Responsiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative…

DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.

2014-01-01

184

Prediction of Neurodevelopmental Sequelae in VLBW Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined pre-, peri-, and neonatal factors in 271 British infants (weighing less than 1500 grams at birth), 188 of whom survived to 2 years. The study represented an attempt to define those factors which predict normal neurodevelopmental outcome in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Surviving infants were seen at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24…

Wolke, Dieter; And Others

185

Look Into My Eyes: An Infant's View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes current research to determine if newborn infants can discern parents from strangers. An infrared detection technique has found that three to five week old infants focus on the edges of faces while older infants look more into the other person's eyes. Increased eye observation is beleived to be associated with parental identification. (CP)

Science News, 1977

1977-01-01

186

[Drug Exposed Infants and Their Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin issue addresses the theme of drug-exposed infants and the services required by these infants and their families. "Cocaine-Exposed Infants: Myths and Misunderstandings" (Barbara J. Myers and others) comments on the negative accounts of drug-exposed babies presented by mass media and reviews the mix of positive and negative findings…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

1992-01-01

187

Infant Social Attention Predicts Preschool Social Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research examining infants' understanding of intentional action claims to be studying the early origins or precursors of children's later theories of mind. If these infant understandings are continuous with later preschool achievements, there should be empirical connections between the two. We provide initial evidence that infants' social…

Wellman, Henry M.; Phillips, Ann T.; Dunphy-Lelii, Sarah; LaLonde, Nicole

2004-01-01

188

Infant Stimulation Curriculum: Development and Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are a description and evaluation report of the Infant Stimulation Curriculum developed by the Developmentally Delayed Infant Education Outreach Project. The curriculum, for infants developmentally between birth and 36 months of age, is described in terms of characteristics (such as basis in the normal developmental pattern), rationale,…

Storm, Pat Purdy; And Others

189

Acoustic Packaging of Action Sequences by Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether acoustic input, in the form of infant-directed speech, influenced infants' segmenting of action sequences. Thirty-two 7.5- to 11.5-month-old infants were familiarized with video sequences made up of short action clips. Narration coincided with portions of the action stream to package certain pairs of clips together.…

Brand, Rebecca J.; Tapscott, Stephanie

2007-01-01

190

The feeding of infants and children  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The establishment of feeding practices that are comfortable and satisfying for both the parents and the infant is crucial not only for the emotional well-being of both but also for ensuring adequate nutrient intakes for the infant. Maternal feelings are readily transmitted to the infant and are a ma...

191

Motor Development of Infants with Positional Plagiocephaly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concurrent with recommendations to place infants to sleep in supine, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of infants with positional plagiocephaly (PP). Recent evidence suggests that infants who have decreased exposure to prone position may have a higher incidence of PP and may be at risk for a delay in the acquisition of certain motor…

Kennedy, Eileen; Majnemer, Annette; Farmer, Jean-Pierre; Barr, Ronald G.; Platt, Robert W.

2009-01-01

192

Infant-mother and infant-father synchrony: The coregulation of positive arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the coregulation of positive affect during mother-infant and father-infant in- teractions, 100 couples and their first-born child were videotaped in face-to-face interactions. Parents' and infant's affective states were coded in one-second frames, and synchrony was measured with time- series analysis. The orientation, intensity, and temporal pattern of infant positive arousal were assessed. Synchrony between same-gender parent-infant dyads was

Ruth Feldman

2003-01-01

193

Used infant mattresses and sudden infant death syndrome in Scotland: case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To examine the proposition that a used infant mattress is associated with an increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome.Design:Case-control study.Setting: Scotland (population 5.1 million, with about 53 000 births a year).Participants: 131 infants who died of sudden infant death syndrome between 1 January 1996 and 31 May 2000 and 278 age, season, and obstetric unit matched control infants.Main

David Tappin; Hazel Brooke; Russell Ecob; Angus Gibson

2002-01-01

194

Infant rhythms versus parental time: Promoting parent–infant synchrony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional psychoanalytic theories of early development have been put into question by developmental psychology, and particularly by attachment theory. Psychopathology appears to be more linked to interpersonal relationship problems rather than to intra-psychic conflict, as hypothesized in Freudian drive theory. Establishing synchrony between parent and infant is probably one of the major tasks of the first year of life. Attachment

Antoine Guedeney; Nicole Guedeney; Susana Tereno; Romain Dugravier; Tim Greacen; Bertrand Welniarz; Thomas Saias; Florence Tubach

195

Fever in Infants and Children  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Fever in Infants and Children See complete list of charts. Because young children are not able to hold a thermometer in their ... two months of age or younger with a fever of 100.4° or higher? Yes This may ...

196

Reflections on Quality Infant Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines some of the basic issues involved in creating a warm and safe day-care environment for infants and toddlers, one that supports and promotes development and learning. Describing policies that were generated from everyday classroom experience, discusses the issues of security and trust, separation anxiety, group size, exploration and…

Reinsberg, Judy

1995-01-01

197

Infants Hierarchically Organize Memory Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout development, working memory is subject to capacity limits that severely constrain short-term storage. However, adults can massively expand the total amount of remembered information by grouping items into "chunks". Although infants also have been shown to chunk objects in memory, little is known regarding the limits of this…

Rosenberg, Rebecca D.; Feigenson, Lisa

2013-01-01

198

Infants' Memory for Musical Performances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluated 6- and 7-month-olds' preference and memory for expressive recordings of sung lullabies. In Experiment 1, both age groups preferred lower-pitched to higher-pitched renditions of unfamiliar lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants were tested after 2 weeks of daily exposure to a lullaby at one pitch level. Seven-month-olds listened…

Volkova, Anna; Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn

2006-01-01

199

Infants' Recognition of Their Mothers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability of infants to recognize their mothers as distinct from others was investigated by presenting 6 boys and 6 girls at two age levels (5 weeks and 13 weeks) with the following six sequential stimulus conditions: (1) mother's face (MO); (2) stranger's face (SO); (3) mother's face with stranger's voice (MS); (4) stranger's face with mother's…

Bigelow, Ann

200

Superfund Cleanups and Infant Health  

E-print Network

We are the first to examine the effect of Superfund cleanups on infant health rather than focusing on proximity to a site. We study singleton births to mothers residing within 5km of a Superfund site between 1989-2003 in ...

Currie, Janet

201

Infant Massage: Communicating through Touch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the benefits of infant massage, particularly for babies with deafness who have hearing parents. Steps for giving baby massages are provided, including placing a hand on the baby's stomach and making eye contact, starting with the legs, looking for cues, and communicating with the baby. (CR)

Stevens, Vivian

1998-01-01

202

Infants Can Study Air Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

Ward, Alan

1983-01-01

203

Infant and Preschool Reinforcement Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An empirically developed infant and preschool reinforcement survey was completed by 35 parents and 21 children. Test-retest coefficients were computed on these data after a one-week interval. The development of the survey, as well as its usefulness for school psychologists, is described. Survey is appended. (Author)

Fox, Robert; Wise, Paula Sachs

1981-01-01

204

abnormalities in infants and toddlers  

E-print Network

, Akshoomoff 2000). Similarly, patients with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) have decreased cerebellar volumesCerebellar abnormalities in infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome Wendy Jones* PhD, The Salk-mail: jones@crl.ucsd.edu One commonly observed neuroanatomical abnormality in adults with Williams syndrome

Bellugi, Ursula

205

November 30, 2010 OSHA Mandate for Tdap Vaccine  

E-print Network

Tetanus (Lockjaw), Diptheria and Pertussis (Whooping Cough). Employee Health's roving flu clinic cart present as a mild, but chronic infectious cough. It's when an infected adult unsuspectingly infects

Leistikow, Bruce N.

206

Infant psychiatry viewed from a world perspective.  

PubMed

Infant psychiatry, a relatively new and growing field, recognizing that clinically relevant problems can be identified in infants and young children. Infant mental health emphasizes the importance of both preventive intervention and treatment approaches. The World Association for Infant Mental Health is an interdisciplinary and international organization devoted to furthering our understanding of infant psychiatry with the following goals: (i) to promote education, research and study of the effects of emotional development during infancy on later normal and pathological development; (ii) to promote research and study of the mental health of parents, families, and other caregivers of infants; (iii) to promote the development of scientifically based programs of care, intervention, and prevention of mental impairment in infancy; and (iv) to facilitate international cooperation among individuals concerned with promoting optimal development of individuals. In this paper, I will present current work on major areas of concern for infant psychiatry and relate them to psychoanalytic perspectives in this area. PMID:9895147

Osofsky, J D

1998-12-01

207

Generalization of word meanings during infant sleep  

PubMed Central

Sleep consolidates memory and promotes generalization in adults, but it is still unknown to what extent the rapidly growing infant memory benefits from sleep. Here we show that during sleep the infant brain reorganizes recent memories and creates semantic knowledge from individual episodic experiences. Infants aged between 9 and 16 months were given the opportunity to encode both objects as specific word meanings and categories as general word meanings. Event-related potentials indicate that, initially, infants acquire only the specific but not the general word meanings. About 1.5?h later, infants who napped during the retention period, but not infants who stayed awake, remember the specific word meanings and, moreover, successfully generalize words to novel category exemplars. Independently of age, the semantic generalization effect is correlated with sleep spindle activity during the nap, suggesting that sleep spindles are involved in infant sleep-dependent brain plasticity. PMID:25633407

Friedrich, Manuela; Wilhelm, Ines; Born, Jan; Friederici, Angela D.

2015-01-01

208

The Goldilocks effect in infant auditory attention.  

PubMed

Infants must learn about many cognitive domains (e.g., language, music) from auditory statistics, yet capacity limits on their cognitive resources restrict the quantity that they can encode. Previous research has established that infants can attend to only a subset of available acoustic input. Yet few previous studies have directly examined infant auditory attention, and none have directly tested theorized mechanisms of attentional selection based on stimulus complexity. This work utilizes model-based behavioral methods that were recently developed to examine visual attention in infants (e.g., Kidd, Piantadosi, & Aslin, 2012). The present results demonstrate that 7- to 8-month-old infants selectively attend to nonsocial auditory stimuli that are intermediately predictable/complex with respect to their current implicit beliefs and expectations. These findings provide evidence of a broad principle of infant attention across modalities and suggest that sound-to-sound transitional statistics heavily influence the allocation of auditory attention in human infants. PMID:24990627

Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T; Aslin, Richard N

2014-01-01

209

Generalization of word meanings during infant sleep.  

PubMed

Sleep consolidates memory and promotes generalization in adults, but it is still unknown to what extent the rapidly growing infant memory benefits from sleep. Here we show that during sleep the infant brain reorganizes recent memories and creates semantic knowledge from individual episodic experiences. Infants aged between 9 and 16 months were given the opportunity to encode both objects as specific word meanings and categories as general word meanings. Event-related potentials indicate that, initially, infants acquire only the specific but not the general word meanings. About 1.5?h later, infants who napped during the retention period, but not infants who stayed awake, remember the specific word meanings and, moreover, successfully generalize words to novel category exemplars. Independently of age, the semantic generalization effect is correlated with sleep spindle activity during the nap, suggesting that sleep spindles are involved in infant sleep-dependent brain plasticity. PMID:25633407

Friedrich, Manuela; Wilhelm, Ines; Born, Jan; Friederici, Angela D

2015-01-01

210

Infants of Postpartum Depressed Mothers: Temperament and Cognitive Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association of postpartum depression with specific infant characteristics. Twenty-five diagnosed depressed and 25 nondepressed mothers and their 2-month-old infants participated in the study. The mothers completed measures of infant temperament and difficulty associated with infant care, and the infants were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Group comparisons indicated that, compared with the infants

Valerie E. Whiffen; Ian H. Gotlib

1989-01-01

211

Distinguishing Mother-Infant Interaction from Stranger-Infant Interaction at 2, 4, and 6 Months of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Observers watched videotaped face-to-face mother-infant and stranger-infant interactions of 12 infants at 2, 4, or 6 months of age. Half of the observers saw each mother paired with her own infant and another infant of the same age (mother tapes) and half saw each infant paired with his or her mother and with a stranger (infant tapes). Observers…

Bigelow, Ann E.; Power, Michelle; Mcquaid, Nancy; Ward, Ashley; Rochat, Philippe

2008-01-01

212

Infant Mortality Trends and Differences Between American Indian/Alaska Native Infants and White Infants in the United States, 1989–1991 and 1998–2000  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To describe changes in infant mortality rates, including birthweight-specific rates and rates by age at death and cause. Methods. We analyzed US linked birth/infant-death data for 1989–1991 and 1998–2000 for American Indians/Alaska Native (AIAN) and White singleton infants at ?20 weeks’ gestation born to US residents. We calculated birthweight-specific infant mortality rates (deaths in each birthweight category per 1000 live births in that category), and overall and cause-specific infant mortality rates (deaths per 100000 live births) in infancy (0–364 days) and in the neonatal (0–27 days) and postneonatal (28–364 days) periods. Results. Birthweight-specific infant mortality rates declined among AIAN and White infants across all birthweight categories, but AIAN infants generally had higher birthweight-specific infant mortality rates. Infant mortality rates declined for both groups, yet in 1998–2000, AIAN infants were still 1.7 times more likely to die than White infants. Most of the disparity was because of elevated post-neonatal mortality, especially from sudden infant death syndrome, accidents, and pneumonia and influenza. Conclusions. Although birthweight-specific infant mortality rates and infant mortality rates declined among both AIAN and White infants, disparities in infant mortality persist. Preventable causes of infant mortality identified in this analysis should be targeted to reduce excess deaths among AIAN communities. PMID:17077400

Tomashek, Kay M.; Qin, Cheng; Hsia, Jason; Iyasu, Solomon; Barfield, Wanda D.; Flowers, Lisa M.

2006-01-01

213

Infants' tracking of objects and collections.  

PubMed

Recent research suggests that infants' understanding of the physical world is more complex and adult-like than previously believed. One of the most impressive discoveries has been infants' ability to reason about medium-sized, material objects. They are able to individuate objects in a scene, and to enumerate and reason about them. This article reports a series of experiments investigating 8-month-old infants' ability to reason about collections of objects. Experiment 1 shows a sharp contrast between infants' understanding of single objects versus collections. While infants detected the discontinuous ('Magical') disappearance of a single object, they did not detect the Magical Disappearance of a non-cohesive pile of objects. Experiments 2-4 found that infants' difficulty remained even when the distinct identity of each object in the collection was emphasized, but could be overcome if infants (a) first saw the individual objects clearly separated from each other prior to their being placed together in a pile, or (b) had prior experience with the objects making up the collection. Our findings suggest that infants' expectations about object behavior are highly specific regarding the entities they are applied to. They do not automatically apply to any and all portions of matter within the visual field. Both the behavior of an entity, and infants' prior experience play roles in determining whether infants will treat that entity as an object. PMID:11018508

Chiang, W C; Wynn, K

2000-12-15

214

Array heterogeneity prevents catastrophic forgetting in infants.  

PubMed

Working memory is limited in adults and infants. But unlike adults, infants whose working memory capacity is exceeded often fail in a particularly striking way: they do not represent any of the presented objects, rather than simply remembering as many objects as they can and ignoring anything further (Feigenson & Carey, 2003, 2005). Here we explored the nature of this "catastrophic forgetting," asking whether stimuli themselves modulate the way in which infants' memory fails. We showed 13-month old infants object arrays that either were within or that exceeded working memory capacity-but, unlike previous experiments, presented objects with contrasting features. Although previous studies have repeatedly documented infants' failure to represent four identical hidden objects, in Experiments 1 and 2 we found that infants who saw four contrasting objects hidden, and then retrieved just two of the four, successfully continued searching for the missing objects. Perceptual contrast between objects sufficed to drive this success; infants succeeded regardless of whether the different objects were contrastively labeled, and regardless of whether the objects were semantically familiar or completely novel. In Experiment 3 we explored the nature of this surprising success, asking whether array heterogeneity actually expanded infants' working memory capacity or rather prevented catastrophic forgetting. We found that infants successfully continued searching after seeing four contrasting objects hidden and retrieving two of them, but not after retrieving three of them. This suggests that, like adults, infants were able to remember up to, but not beyond, the limits of their working memory capacity when representing heterogeneous arrays. PMID:25543889

Zosh, Jennifer M; Feigenson, Lisa

2015-03-01

215

Plasma 17-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations in ill newborn infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma 17-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations were determined in 47 preterm and term infants who were ill from a variety of causes. The results were compared with those in 53 healthy term infants. Mean plasma 17-hydroxyprogesterone values were appreciably higher in ill term and healthy preterm infants compared with healthy term infants, but the highest values were found in ill preterm infants. None

J F Murphy; B G Joyce; J Dyas; I A Hughes

1983-01-01

216

Parental Differences in Infant-Directed Emotional Communication  

E-print Network

the emotional intensity, duration and frequency of eye contact, and duration of emotional expression are effected by their infant’s sex and the emotion expressed and correlated with the infant’s attachment to their primary caregiver. 25 parents of infants...

Goodman, Lynnel 1990-

2012-04-30

217

BEHAVIORAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CORRELATES OF INFANT ABUSE IN GROUP-  

E-print Network

BEHAVIORAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CORRELATES OF INFANT ABUSE IN GROUP- LIVING PIGTAIL MACAQUES Dario of occurrence of infant abuse and the behavior of abusive mothers and their infants in pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina).Subjects were 8 abusive mothers with their infants and 8 control mother-infant pairs living in 3

Maestripieri, Dario

218

Risk of sudden infant death syndrome among infants with in utero exposure to cocaine.  

PubMed

To determine whether the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) among infants exposed to cocaine in utero may be elevated, we assessed the risk for SIDS in a large, well-described, prospective cohort of infants whose mothers had or had not used cocaine during pregnancy. Of 996 women consecutively enrolled while registering for prenatal care, 175 used cocaine during pregnancy. Only one infant of the mothers who used cocaine died of SIDS, a risk of 5.6 in 1000, compared with four infants among the 821 nonexposed infants, a risk of 4.9 in 1000. The relative risk for SIDS among infants whose mothers used cocaine during pregnancy compared with those whose mothers did not use cocaine was 1.17 (95% confidence interval 0.13, 10.43), suggesting that there is no increased risk of SIDS among infants exposed in utero to cocaine. PMID:3183836

Bauchner, H; Zuckerman, B; McClain, M; Frank, D; Fried, L E; Kayne, H

1988-11-01

219

Observed and Reported Supportive Coparenting as Predictors of Infant-Mother and Infant-Father Attachment Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined associations between supportive coparenting and infant-mother and infant-father attachment security. Observed and parent-reported coparenting, and observed maternal and paternal sensitivity were assessed in a sample of 68 families with 3.5-month-old infants. Infant-mother and infant-father attachment security were assessed in…

Brown, Geoffrey L.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Neff, Cynthia

2010-01-01

220

Orientational anisotropy in infant vision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infants prefer to look at horizontal and vertical gratings rather than at oblique gratings only when they are at or near threshold spatial frequencies, as would be expected if acuity for oblique edges is lower than that for horizontal and vertical edges. That such a bias exists as early as 6 weeks of age suggests that the orientational asymmetry of the visual system depends on endogeneous maturation rather than exposure to a carpentered world.

Cohen Leehey, S.; Moskowitz-Cook, A.; Brill, S.; Held, R.

1975-01-01

221

Using Language to Navigate the Infant Mind  

PubMed Central

How do infants represent objects, actions, and relations in events? In this review, we discuss an approach to studying this question that begins with linguistic theory—specifically, semantic structures in language. On the basis of recent research exploring infant cognition and prominent linguistic analyses, we examine whether infants' representations of motion events are articulated in terms of the components proposed by Talmy (1985; e.g., path, manner) and whether infants' event representations are defined in terms of broad semantic roles (agent, patient, source, goal) as proposed by Jackendoff (1990) and Dowty (1991). We show how recent findings in infant cognition are consistent with the idea that the infant's representation of events is a close reflection of the linguistic categories. We especially highlight research that is explicitly guided by linguistic categories likely to have correlates in nonlinguistic cognition to illustrate the usefulness of using language to pose questions about early conceptual representations. PMID:20161142

Wagner, Laura; Lakusta, Laura

2009-01-01

222

How Infants Learn About the Visual World  

PubMed Central

The visual world of adults consists of objects at various distances, partly occluding one another, substantial and stable across space and time. The visual world of young infants, in contrast, is often fragmented and unstable, consisting not of coherent objects but rather surfaces that move in unpredictable ways. Evidence from computational modeling and from experiments with human infants highlights three kinds of learning that contribute to infants' knowledge of the visual world: learning via association, learning via active assembly, and learning via visual-manual exploration. Infants acquire knowledge by observing objects move in and out of sight, forming associations of these different views. In addition, the infant's own self-produced behavior—oculomotor patterns and manual experience, in particular—are important means by which infants discover and construct their visual world. PMID:21116440

Johnson, Scott P.

2010-01-01

223

SENSORIMOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN COCAINE-EXPOSED INFANTS  

PubMed Central

This study investigated effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant sensorimotor development. One hundred and sixty-seven 12-month-olds (74 cocaine-exposed and 93 unexposed) were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID). Ninety-seven had previously been evaluated on the Movement Assessment of Infants and the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants at age 4 months. On the BSID, the cocaine-exposed infants performed less well on the Mental portion and were more frequently rated as behaviorally suspect. Cocaine-exposed infants also performed less well at four months on the motor and sensory measures. Early motor performance predicted 12 month BSID mental, motor and behavioral outcomes. Cocaine exposure had an effect independent from confounders on general cognitive and specific motor and behavioral outcomes.

Arendt, Robert; Singer, Lynn; Angelopoulos, Jennifer; Bass-Busdiecker, Orphia; Mascia, JoMarie

2014-01-01

224

Preclinical assessment of infant formula.  

PubMed

Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome. PMID:22699767

Lönnerdal, Bo

2012-01-01

225

Perinatal information on infant crying.  

PubMed

Research and postnatal service developments have begun to draw attention to the frequency with which mothers encounter difficulties in the management of infant crying. Such difficulties may have unfavourable long-term consequences for the mother-infant relationship. This study investigated the effect of providing first-time mothers with information and advice specific to cry management, during the in-stay period. A sample of 70 mothers was recruited antenatally and subjects allocated to an intervention or non-intervention group. All mothers were asked to complete a range of measures at 2 days postpartum and again 1 month after birth. A post-intervention comparison of groups indicated interesting evidence of a selective intervention effect. Results indicated that certain mothers in the non-intervention group were significantly more likely than intervention group mothers to experience higher levels of negative emotional arousal in response to crying. They were also more likely to adopt a passive response strategy to infant crying and to report generally higher levels of present state anxiety. The significance of the findings is discussed. PMID:2335015

Downey, J; Bidder, R T

1990-01-01

226

A movement approach to the study of infant\\/caregiver communication during infant psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infant psychotherapy (also known as infant initiated activity), embodying a theory and technique which may enhance the quality\\u000a of infant\\/caregiver interaction, is described. Case studies, employing effort\\/shape notation of infant\\/caregiver movement\\u000a patterns to evaluate the presence of synchrony during activity sessions, are discussed. Implications for dance therapy research\\u000a and clinical work are presented.

Karen Sivia Ostrov

1981-01-01

227

Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2001 Period Linked Birth\\/Infant Death Data Set  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives—This report presents 2001 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth\\/infant death data set (linked file) by a variety of maternal and infant characteristics. Methods—Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. Results—Infant mortality rates ranged from 3.2 per 1,000 live births for Chinese mothers to 13.3 for black mothers. Among Hispanics, rates ranged from 4.2 for Cuban mothers

T. J. Mathews; Fay Menacker; Marian F. MacDorman

2003-01-01

228

Fatal methadone intoxication in an infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented are the case history and toxicological findings of an infant fatality involving methadone. A mother found her 10-month-old infant unresponsive in a crib. The infant was taken to a hospital; however, she was cold and stiff on arrival and was pronounced dead. Few details regarding the case history were known at the time, and the autopsy findings were unremarkable.Specimens

Fiona J. Couper; Kiran Chopra; Marie Lydie Y. Pierre-Louis

2005-01-01

229

Infants Discriminate between Adult Directed and Infant Directed Talk in Both Males and Females.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 60 infants of 7 weeks of age were tested in a habituation-dishabituation looking procedure to determine if they could discriminate between infant-directed talk (IDT) and adult-directed talk (ADT) uttered by the same speaker. One group of 12 infants was habituated to a female speaker's ADT and dishabituated to the same speaker's IDT,…

Pegg, Judith E.; And Others

230

Infant temperament and feeding history predict infants' responses to novel foods.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether infant temperament and previous feeding history were associated with infants' acceptance and rejection of a novel food at 12 months of age. Mother-infant dyads (n?=?89) were video-recorded during a novel food (hummus, cottage cheese) feeding task. Infants' reactions (acceptance and rejection behaviors) and maternal responsiveness and affect during the interaction were coded from the recordings by teams of coders. Mothers reported on their infants' temperamental approach via the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R) and their infants' feeding history (previous exposure to solid foods and exclusive breastfeeding). Regression analyses revealed that infants rated lower on approach showed less acceptance of the first offer of novel food than infants rated higher on approach. Additionally, low approach infants who were previously exposed to a greater number of solid foods showed fewer rejection behaviors in response to the later offers of food. Exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months did not appear to have an effect on acceptance or rejection. Finally, greater maternal responsiveness was related to the infants' acceptance of the new food whereas lower maternal responsiveness was associated with rejection of the novel food. These results suggest that the acceptance and rejection of new foods by infants is dependent upon their temperament and previous exposure to solid foods, as well as the manner in which mothers present the novel food. PMID:25173062

Moding, Kameron J; Birch, Leann L; Stifter, Cynthia A

2014-12-01

231

The Infant Parent Training Institute: A Developmental Model for Training Infant Mental Health Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Infant Parent Training Institute (IPTI) at Jewish Family and Children's Service of Greater Boston offers integrated clinical and theoretical infant mental health training. The curriculum reflects the belief that nurturing and reflective relationships promote optimal learning and growth. A specialty in infant mental health requires knowledge…

Arons, Judith; Epstein, Ann; Sklan, Susan

2011-01-01

232

In and out of Synch: Infant Childcare Teachers' Adaptations to Infants' Developmental Changes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative multi-case study explored the social exchanges and responsive connections between infants and their infant childcare teachers within a group care context. Infants' naturally occurring behaviours were videotaped purposefully at two separate time points, near the end of their first year and approximately six months later. Findings…

Recchia, Susan L.; Shin, Minsun

2012-01-01

233

Infant Temperament, Maternal Personality, and Parenting Stress as Contributors to Infant Developmental Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined contributions of maternal personality and infant temperament to infant vocabulary and cognitive development both directly and indirectly through parental stress. Participants were recruited at birth and included 63 infant twin pairs and their mothers. Assessments were completed at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age and included…

Molfese, Victoria J.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Beswick, Jennifer L.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.; Ferguson, Melissa C.; White, Jamie M.

2010-01-01

234

Facial Diversity and Infant Preferences for Attractive Faces.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies examined infant preferences for attractive faces of White males, White females, Black females, and infants. Infants viewed pairs of faces rated for attractiveness by adults. Preferences for attractive faces were found for all facial types. (BC)

Langlois, Judith H.; And Others

1991-01-01

235

21 CFR 880.5130 - Infant radiant warmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...infant to maintain the infant's body temperature by means of radiant heat. The device may also contain a temperature monitoring sensor, a heat output control mechanism, and an alarm system (infant temperature, manual mode if present, and...

2010-04-01

236

Infants and Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children  

MedlinePLUS

... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Infants & Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children Share ... Developmental Milestones Fruits & Vegetables Hand Washing Hearing Screening Infant & Toddler Health Maternal and Infant Health Newborn Screening ...

237

An Ecological Model for Premature Infant Feeding  

PubMed Central

Premature infants are at increased risk for poor health, feeding difficulties, and impaired mother-infant interaction leading to developmental delay. Social-environmental risks, such as poverty or minority status, compound these biologic risks, placing premature infants in double jeopardy. Guided by an ecological model, the Hospital-Home Transition: Optimizing Prematures’ Environment (H-HOPE) intervention combines the Auditory, Tactile, Visual, and Vestibular intervention with participatory guidance provided by a nurse and community advocate to address the impact of multiple risk factors on premature infants’ development. PMID:19614884

White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen

2013-01-01

238

Disposition to recognize goals in infant chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Do nonhuman primates attribute goals to others? Traditional studies with chimpanzees provide equivocal evidence for "mind reading" in nonhuman primates. Here we adopt looking time, a methodology commonly used with human infants to test infant chimpanzees. In this experiment, four infant chimpanzees saw computer-generated stimuli that mimicked a goal-directed behavior. The baby chimps performed as well as human infants, namely, they were sensitive to the trajectories of the objects, thus suggesting that chimpanzees may be endowed with a disposition to understand goal-directed behaviors. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:14685823

Uller, Claudia

2004-07-01

239

Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants  

PubMed Central

Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants’ safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver–infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants. PMID:18955228

Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J.; Gallardo, Constance C.; Joseph, Michael H.

2009-01-01

240

Micronutrient requirements of high-risk infants.  

PubMed

Micronutrient requirements are well-established for healthy full-term infants. However, few such recommendations exist for high-risk infants, including full-term infants with a variety of medical disorders or very preterm infants. Key micronutrients considered in this review are calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, and zinc. The ongoing unresolved shortages, especially of intravenous forms of these minerals, remain a major problem. Considered are some aspects of how the nutrient shortages may be managed, recognizing the complexity and changing nature of the supply. PMID:24873837

Abrams, Steven A; Hawthorne, Keli M; Placencia, Jennifer L; Dinh, Kimberly L

2014-06-01

241

Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

2010-01-01

242

Adult perception of infant appearance: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research is reviewed which deals with adult perception of variations in specific features of infant apperance. While there is relative consensus as to the general features which compose the “babyishness” ideal type, there is less work examining the representative variation of these specific features as a function of gestational age or infant population. An important distinction is made between

C. F. Zachariah Boukydis

1981-01-01

243

Infant Mental Health: Making a Difference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practicing psychologists are increasingly identifying serious problems in behavior, emotional development, and regulation in infants and very young children that result in impaired family functioning and relationships. Often these child challenges are in combination with a range of parental concerns including addictions, homelessness, teen parenthood, and unresolved feelings from the past. Infant mental health (IMH) is a broad field encompassing

Angela M. Tomlin; Stephan A. Viehweg

2003-01-01

244

Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

2010-01-01

245

Pupil Dilation and Object Permanence in Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the relative merits of looking time and pupil diameter measures in the study of early cognitive abilities of infants. Ten-month-old infants took part in a modified version of the classic drawbridge experiment used to study object permanence (Baillargeon, Spelke, & Wasserman, 1985). The study involved a factorial design where…

Sirois, Sylvain; Jackson, Iain R.

2012-01-01

246

Social Bundles: Thinking through the Infant Body  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on a UK research study on immunization, this article investigates parents' understandings of the relationship between themselves, their infants, other bodies, the state, and cultural practices--material and symbolic. The article argues that infant bodies are best thought of as always social bundles, rather than as biobundles made social…

Brownlie, Julie; Leith, Valerie M. Sheach

2011-01-01

247

Factors associated with infant and adolescent mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have described factors associated with infant and adoles- cent mortality since birth. We report here mortality during a 20-year period in a birth cohort from Ribeirão Preto in order to identify birth variables that influenced mortality among infants and children be- tween 10 and 19 years of age, the main causes of death, and the influence of social

Z. A. R. Oliveira; H. Bettiol; M. R. P. Gutierrez; A. A. M. Silva; M. A. Barbieri

2007-01-01

248

Infant Carrying by Male Chacma Baboons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male chacma baboons, Papio ursinus, carry their offspring during confrontations with higher ranking immigrant males, who are a threat to the infants' lives. The infants sometimes initiate these confrontations by approaching and provoking immigrant males when protective males are close by. Mothers rarely interfere during these interactions.

Curt Busse; William J. Hamilton

1981-01-01

249

The premature infant home intervention program.  

PubMed

The Premature Infant Home Intervention Program, a collaborative effort of the Visiting Nurse Association of Cleveland and Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital of Cleveland, is designed to provide family support and medical surveillance for high-risk premature infants, to ensure post-discharge wellbeing, and improve survival outcome during the first years of life. PMID:10108595

Jones, S; Struk, C; Hack, M; Friedman, H

1990-12-01

250

Do Infants Have a Theory of Mind?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central question debated in current research on infant social cognition is "do infants have a theory of mind?" It is argued here that this question is understood and treated in radically different ways by different participants of the debate arguing either for (e.g., Onishi & Baillargeon, 2005) or against early competence in theory of mind…

Rakoczy, Hannes

2012-01-01

251

Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between…

Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

2009-01-01

252

Nutrient requirements of term and preterm infants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Growth of the healthy breast-fed term infant is the most widely accepted standard for growth from birth through 4-6 months of age. Thus, it is logical to assume that the amounts of each nutrient ingested by the breast-fed term infant during this period are adequate and the most recent dietary refer...

253

Human Infants’ Accommodation Responses to Dynamic Stimuli  

PubMed Central

Purpose A young infant’s environment routinely consists of moving objects. The dynamics of the infant accommodative system are almost unknown and yet have a large impact on habitual retinal image quality and visual experience. The goal of this study was to record infants’ dynamic accommodative responses to stimuli moving at a range of velocities. Methods Binocular accommodative responses were recorded at 25 Hz. Data from infants 8 to 20 weeks of age and pre-presbyopic adults were analyzed. A high-contrast image of a clown was moved between 20- and 50-cm viewing distances at four velocities (a step, 50 cm/s, 20 cm/s, and 5 cm/s). Results Most infants who had clear responses were able to initiate their response within a second of stimulus onset. The infants were able to discriminate the different stimulus velocities and to adjust their response velocities and durations in an appropriate fashion. Conclusions The data indicate that by the third postnatal month infants are able to respond with latencies within a factor of two of adults’ and that there is little immaturity in the motor capabilities of the accommodative system compared with the sensory visual system at the same age. PMID:17251499

Tondel, Grazyna M.; Candy, T. Rowan

2009-01-01

254

Infants Experience Perceptual Narrowing for Nonprimate Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceptual narrowing--a phenomenon in which perception is broad from birth, but narrows as a function of experience--has previously been tested with primate faces. In the first 6 months of life, infants can discriminate among individual human and monkey faces. Though the ability to discriminate monkey faces is lost after about 9 months, infants

Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Varga, Krisztina; Frick, Janet E.; Fragaszy, Dorothy

2011-01-01

255

Infant Eyes: A Window on Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking "under the hood" if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants' gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous…

Aslin, Richard N.

2012-01-01

256

Cebocephaly in an infant with trisomy 18  

Microsoft Academic Search

An infant who died in the perinatal period with the unusual association of trisomy 18 and cebocephaly is described. It is suggested that this association may be more common than is generally recognised because the majority of such infants are stillborn or live only briefly and often do not have chromosome studies performed.

A G Hunter; M Ray; C Langston

1977-01-01

257

Reactivation: Priming Forgotten Memories in Human Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was designed to determine whether a reactivation procedure (consisting of the experimenter's manipulation of a previously experienced overhead crib mobile) would alleviate infant's poor retention after a 14-day interval. It is concluded that forgetting by young infants may result from failures in retrieval, and not failures in…

Sullivan, Margaret Wolan

1982-01-01

258

Mental health of parents caring for infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary ¶The postpartum period is a sensitive time due to the presence and demands of the developing infant. The care provided by a mother to her infant during this period may be compromised if she is suffering from postnatal depression or postpartum psychosis. Evidence has been emerging which suggests that postnatal depression and postpartum psychoses have adverse effects on the

L. Murray; P. Cooper; A. Hipwell

2003-01-01

259

Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…

Cohen, Libby

260

Infants' Individuation of Agents and Inert Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the violation-of-expectancy method, we investigated 10-month-old infants' ability to rely on dynamic features in object individuation processes. Infants were first familiarized to events in which two different objects repeatedly appeared and disappeared, one at a time from behind a screen; at test, the screen was removed, revealing either…

Surian, Luca; Caldi, Stefania

2010-01-01

261

Reducing Infant Mortality. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the wide range of expertise that has been brought to bear on reducing infant mortality across the nation, the first year of life remains a time of considerable risk for many babies. Although the U.S. spends more on health care than any other country, its infant mortality rate remains higher than that of most other industrialized nations.…

Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

2009-01-01

262

The Teachable Moment and the Handicapped Infant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report examines, from a cognitive developmental view, research on the teachable moment or critical learning period in handicapped infants. The author explains that developmental gaps are produced by a mismatch between the infant's readiness and opportunity to learn. Characteristics and educational implications of specific handicapping…

Langley, M. Beth

263

Gasless laparoscopy in infants: The rabbit model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laparoscopic operations can be performed in neonates and infants, but carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum may be more dangerous than in adults. Therefore the concept of gasless laparoscopy is especially attractive for small children. The authors have developed an animal training model of gasless infant laparoscopy using the rabbit. Eleven New Zealand white rabbits (mean weight, 2.2 kg) were premedicated with fentanyl

François I. Luks; Koen H. E. Peers; Jan A. Deprest; Toni E. Lerut

1995-01-01

264

Neighborhood linguistic diversity predicts infants' social learning.  

PubMed

Infants' direct interactions with caregivers have been shown to powerfully influence social and cognitive development. In contrast, little is known about the cognitive influence of social contexts beyond the infant's immediate interactions with others, for example, the communities in which infants live. The current study addressed this issue by asking whether neighborhood linguistic diversity predicts infants' propensity to learn from diverse social partners. Data were taken from a series of experiments in which 19-month-old infants from monolingual, English-speaking homes were tested in paradigms that assessed their tendency to imitate the actions of an adult who spoke either English or Spanish. Infants who lived in more linguistically diverse neighborhoods imitated more of the Spanish speaker's actions. This relation was observed in two separate datasets and found to be independent from variation in infants' general imitative abilities, age, median family income and population density. These results provide novel evidence suggesting that infants' social learning is predicted by the diversity of the communities in which they live. PMID:25156630

Howard, Lauren H; Carrazza, Cristina; Woodward, Amanda L

2014-11-01

265

Optimizing Infant Development: Strategies for Day Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide for infant day care providers examines the importance of early experience for brain development and strategies for providing optimal infant care. The introduction discusses the current devaluation of day care and idealization of maternal care and identifies benefits of quality day care experience for intellectual development, sleep…

Chambliss, Catherine

266

Nap-Dependent Learning in Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sleep has been shown to aid a variety of learning and memory processes in adults (Stickgold, 2005 ). Recently, we showed that infants' learning also benefits from subsequent sleep such that infants who nap are able to abstract the general grammatical pattern of a briefly presented artificial language (Gomez, Bootzin & Nadel, 2006 ). In the present…

Hupbach, Almut; Gomez, Rebecca L.; Bootzin, Richard R.; Nadel, Lynn

2009-01-01

267

Who's Vulnerable in Infant Child Care Centers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that infants and toddlers, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to a variety of infectious diseases from infant-toddler child care centers. These diseases include infectious diarrhea; rubella; cytomeglovirus; hepatitis A, and haemophilus influenza type B. Suggests ways to prevent the spread of such diseases. (BB)

Kendall, Earline D.; Moukaddem, Virginia E.

1992-01-01

268

Infant-Mother Relationship and Object Concept.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this study were: (1) to specify who the infant-mother relationship evolves, and (2) to demonstrate how the development of object concept affects the evolution of that relationship. Subjects were 19 male and 17 female Caucasian infants from 4 to 12 months of age. The development of an interpersonal relationship was assessed through the…

Serafica, Felicisima C.; Uzgiris, Ina C.

269

SUPERFUND CLEANUPS AND INFANT HEALTH  

PubMed Central

We are the first to examine the effect of Superfund cleanups on infant health rather than focusing on proximity to a site. We study singleton births to mothers residing within 5km of a Superfund site between 1989–2003 in five large states. Our “difference in differences” approach compares birth outcomes before and after a site clean-up for mothers who live within 2,000 meters of the site and those who live between 2,000– 5,000 meters of a site. We find that proximity to a Superfund site before cleanup is associated with a 20 to 25% increase in the risk of congenital anomalies. PMID:25152535

Currie, Janet; Greenstone, Michael; Moretti, Enrico

2013-01-01

270

Giant thymolipoma in an infant.  

PubMed

Thymolipomas are benign neoplasms that usually occur in adults and are rarely described in children. They are usually detected incidentally but can be of massive size and lead to respiratory compromise. A 6-month-old boy presented with respiratory distress and an anterior mediastinal mass which proved to be a thymolipoma. He underwent surgical resection and remains well on follow-up. Although rare, thymolipomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis even in infants presenting with an anterior mediastinum mass. PMID:24621238

Parakh, Ankit; Singh, Varinder; Subramaniam, R; Narula, Mahender Kaur; Agarwala, Surendra Kumar; Shukla, Shailaja

2014-08-01

271

Recognition of maternal axillary odors by infants.  

PubMed

A series of 5 experiments was conducted to determine whether neonates, at approximately 2 weeks of age, can recognize their parents through axillary odors alone. Breast-feeding infants discriminated between their mother's axillary odor and odors produced by either nonparturient or unfamiliar lactating females. In contrast, breast-feeding infants displayed no evidence of recognizing the axillary odors of their father. Likewise, bottle-feeding infants appeared unable to recognize the odor of their mother when presented along with odors from a nonparturient female or an unfamiliar bottle-feeding female. Several hypotheses were presented in an attempt to account for the differential reactions to maternal odors by breast-feeding versus bottle-feeding infants. It was tentatively concluded that, while breast-feeding, infants are exposed to salient maternal odors and thereby rapidly become familiarized with their mother's unique olfactory signature. PMID:4075877

Cernoch, J M; Porter, R H

1985-12-01

272

The low-birth-weight infant  

PubMed Central

Low-birth-weight (LBW) infants have special nutritional requirements arising from their rapid growth rate and developmental immaturity. LBW infants are of many kinds; for example, the nutritional needs and functional capabilities of a small-for-gestational-age full-term infant are not the same as those of a very LBW premature infant. Ideal criteria for evaluating the nutritional management of these infants have not been established, and thus the recommended intakes given here do not represent proven physiological requirements. They nevertheless provide a basis from which more refined recommendations may be made. Although this chapter is not intended as such to be a discussion of applicable feeding techniques, it would be difficult and artificial to divorce two such closely intertwined aspects of the distinctive needs of this highly vulnerable group. Feeding techniques have to be carefully assessed in the light of specific environments and the expertise available, and none is entirely risk-free in any setting. Thus, it is essential to compensate for the immaturity of the infants and to avoid compromising the airway or risking aspiration of gastric contents. The choice between using breast milk or proprietary formulas in feeding LBW infants is complex on both nutritional and immunological grounds as well as for practical reasons. Given that the preponderance (>90%) of LBW infants are born in developing countries, the use of an infant's own mother's fresh milk may be the only realistic option. However, irrespective of the health care facilities, level of technology or alternative formulas that might be available, studies show that there is much to recommend feeding LBW infants their own mothers' milk in any environment. PMID:20604471

1989-01-01

273

MOTHER-INFANT INTERACTION IMPROVES WITH A DEVELOPMENTAL INTERVENTION FOR MOTHER-PRETERM INFANT DYADS  

PubMed Central

While premature infants have a high need for positive interactions, both infants and their mothers are challenged by the infant‘s biological immaturity. This randomized clinical trial of 198 premature infants born at 29–34 weeks gestation and their mothers examined the impact of the H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant’s Environment) intervention on mother-premature infant interaction patterns at 6-weeks corrected age (CA). Mothers had at least 2 social environmental risk factors such as minority status or less than high school education. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the H-HOPE intervention group or an attention Control group. H-HOPE is an integrated intervention that included (1) twice-daily infant stimulation using the ATVV (auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular-rocking stimulation) and (2) four maternal participatory guidance sessions plus two telephone calls by a nurse-community advocate team. Mother-infant interaction was assessed at 6-weeks CA using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training–Feeding Scale (NCAST, 76 items) and the Dyadic Mutuality Code (DMC, 6-item contingency scale during a 5-minute play session). NCAST and DMC scores for the Control and H-HOPE groups were compared using t-tests, chi-square tests and multivariable analysis. Compared with the Control group (n = 76), the H-HOPE group (n = 66) had higher overall NCAST scores and higher maternal Social-Emotional Growth Fostering Subscale scores. The H-HOPE group also had significantly higher scores for the overall infant subscale and the Infant Clarity of Cues Subscale (p < 0.05). H-HOPE dyads were also more likely to have high responsiveness during play as measured by the DMC (67.6% versus 58.1% of controls). After adjustment for significant maternal and infant characteristics, H-HOPE dyads had marginally higher scores during feeding on overall mother-infant interaction (? = 2.03, p = .06) and significantly higher scores on the infant subscale (? = 0.75, p = .05) when compared to controls. In the adjusted analysis, H-HOPE dyads had increased odds of high versus low mutual responsiveness during play (OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 0.97, 5.80). Intervening with both mother and infant is a promising approach to help premature infants achieve the social interaction patterns essential for optimal development. PMID:23962543

White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen F.; Fabiyi, Camille; Rankin, Kristin M.; Li, Zhyouing; Liu, Li

2013-01-01

274

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) risk reduction and infant sleep location - moving the discussion forward.  

PubMed

The notion that infant sleep environments are 'good' or 'bad' and that parents who receive appropriate instruction will modify their infant-care habits has been fundamental to SIDS reduction campaigns. However infant sleep location recommendations have failed to emulate the previously successful infant sleep position campaigns that dramatically reduced infant deaths. In this paper we discuss the conflict between 'safeguarding' and 'well-being', contradictory messages, and rejected advice regarding infant sleep location. Following a summary of the relevant background literature we argue that bed-sharing is not a modifiable infant-care practice that can be influenced by risk-education and simple recommendations. We propose that differentiation between infant-care practices, parental behaviors, and cultural beliefs would assist in the development of risk-reduction interventions. Failure to recognize the importance of infant sleep location to ethnic and sub-cultural identity, has led to inappropriate and ineffective risk-reduction messages that are rejected by their target populations. Furthermore transfer of recommendations from one geographic or cultural setting to another without evaluation of variation within and between the origin and destination populations has led to inappropriate targeting of groups or behaviors. We present examples of how more detailed research and culturally-embedded interventions could reorient discussion around infant sleep location. PMID:22571891

Ball, Helen L; Volpe, Lane E

2013-02-01

275

Who's Talking Now? Infants' Perception of Vowels With Infant Vocal Properties.  

PubMed

Little is known about infants' abilities to perceive and categorize their own speech sounds or vocalizations produced by other infants. In the present study, prebabbling infants were habituated to /i/ ("ee") or /a/ ("ah") vowels synthesized to simulate men, women, and children, and then were presented with new instances of the habituation vowel and a contrasting vowel on different trials, with all vowels simulating infant talkers. Infants showed greater recovery of interest to the contrasting vowel than to the habituation vowel, which demonstrates recognition of the habituation-vowel category when it was produced by an infant. A second experiment showed that encoding the vowel category and detecting the novel vowel required additional processing when infant vowels were included in the habituation set. Despite these added cognitive demands, infants demonstrated the ability to track vowel categories in a multitalker array that included infant talkers. These findings raise the possibility that young infants can categorize their own vocalizations, which has important implications for early vocal learning. PMID:24890498

Polka, Linda; Masapollo, Matthew; Ménard, Lucie

2014-06-01

276

Relationships Between Neonatal Characteristics and Mother-Infant Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 51 mothers and their newborn infants were studied in order to evaluate the relationship between neonatal style and the early mother-infant relationship. The procedure included an infant assessment with the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale, a mother-infant interaction observation during feeding, and an interview concerning maternal…

Osofsky, Joy D.; Danzger, Barbara

277

Depressive Symptoms among Rural Bangladeshi Mothers: Implications for Infant Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine how maternal depressive symptoms are related to infant development among low-income infants in rural Bangladesh and to examine how the relationship is affected by maternal perceptions of infant irritability and observations of caregiving practices. Methods: Development was measured among 221 infants at 6 and 12 months with…

Black, Maureen M.; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Zaman, K.; McNary, Scot W.; Le, Katherine; El Arifeen, Shams; Hamadani, Jena D.; Parveen, Monowara; Yunus, Md.; Black, Robert E.

2007-01-01

278

Preserved Visual Representations despite Change Blindness in Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combining theoretical hypotheses of infant cognition and adult perception, we present evidence that infants can maintain visual representations despite their failure to detect a change. Infants under 12 months typically fail to notice a change to an object's height in a covering event. The present experiments demonstrated that 11-month-old infants

Wang, Su-hua; Mitroff, Stephen R.

2009-01-01

279

Infant and Child Nutrition Participant Materials for Notebook  

E-print Network

UNIT 17: Infant and Child Nutrition Participant Materials for Notebook #12;Navigating for Success Infant and Child Nutrition p 1 Infant and Child Nutrition Nutrition participants are often parents or grandparents who make decisions regarding food choices for infants, toddlers, and children. Nutrition educators

280

Prevention of respiratory syncytial viral infections in late preterm infants.  

PubMed

RSV prophylaxis is not routine in infant born 33 to 35 weeks gestation. Risk scoring tool can be utilized to identify infants that have significant chance for hospitalization. Premature birth is a leading cause of infant mortality and chronic pulmonary morbidity, therefore prevention of RSV hospitalization though immune prophylaxis in late preterm infants appears attractive. PMID:23607943

Sankaran, Koravangattu; Kalappurackal, Mila; Tan, Ben

2013-04-01

281

Role of Gut Microbiota in Early Infant Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract is crucial for the overall health of the infant, and establishment and maintenance of non-pathogenic intestinal microbiota may reduce several neonatal infl ammatory conditions. Much effort has therefore been devoted to manipulation of the composition of the microbiota through 1) the role of early infant nutrition, particularly breast milk, and supplementation of infant

R Wall; R. P Ross; C. A Ryan; S Hussey; B Murphy; G. F Fitzgerald; C Stanton

2009-01-01

282

Peeking at the Relationship World of Infant Friends and Caregivers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study aimed to explore how infants share and experience friendships and examine the role of infant caregivers in social and friendship experiences among infants. The data were collected through classroom observation over a semester. Findings yielded complex and rich social relationships that both infant friends and caregivers…

Shin, Minsun

2010-01-01

283

International Child Care Practices Study: infant sleeping environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The International Child Care Practices Study (ICCPS) has collected descriptive data from 21 centres in 17 countries. In this report, data are presented on the infant sleeping environment with the main focus being sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) risk factors (bedsharing and infant using a pillow) and protective factors (infant sharing a room with adult) that are not yet

Alejandre Jenik; John Vance; Karen Walmsley; Katie Pollard; Michelle Freemantle; Dot Ewing; Christa Einspieler; Heidemarie Engele; Petra Ritter; G. Elske Hildes-Ripstein; Monica Arancibia; Xiaocheng Ji; Haiqi Li; E. A. S Nelson; Crystal Bedard; Karin Helweg-Larsen; Katrine Sidenius; Susan Karlqvist; Christian Poets; Eva Barko; Bernadette Kiberd; Mary McDonnell; Gianpaolo Donzelli; Raffaele Piumelli; Luca Landini; Arturo Giustardi; Hiroshi Nishida; Stephanie Fukui; Toshiko Sawaguchi; Masataka Ino; Takeshi Horiuchi; Koki Oguchi; Barry J Taylor; Sheila Williams; Yildiz Perk; David Tappin; Joseph Milerad; Maria Wennborg; N Aryayev; V Nepomyashchaya

2001-01-01

284

Breastfeeding and the Mother-Infant Relationship--A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A positive effect of breastfeeding on the mother-infant relationship is often assumed in the scientific literature, but this has not been systematically reviewed. This review aims to clarify the role of breastfeeding in the mother-infant relationship, which is conceptualized as the maternal bond toward the infant and infant attachment toward the…

Jansen, Jarno; de Weerth, Carolina; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne

2008-01-01

285

Contextual Basis of Maternal Perceptions of Infant Temperament  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To elucidate the differential saliency of infant emotions to mothers across interactive contexts, the authors examined the moderating role of observed infant affect during interactions with mother in the relation between maternal and laboratory-based ratings of infant temperament. Fifty-nine developmentally healthy 9-month-old infants were…

Hane, Amie Ashley; Fox, Nathan A.; Polak-Toste, Cindy; Ghera, Melissa M.; Guner, Bella M.

2006-01-01

286

Speech vs. singing: infants choose happier sounds  

PubMed Central

Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants' attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech and singing. In Experiment 1, infants 4–13 months of age were exposed to happy-sounding infant-directed speech vs. hummed lullabies by the same woman. They listened significantly longer to the speech, which had considerably greater acoustic variability and expressiveness, than to the lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants of comparable age who heard the lyrics of a Turkish children's song spoken vs. sung in a joyful/happy manner did not exhibit differential listening. Infants in Experiment 3 heard the happily sung lyrics of the Turkish children's song vs. a version that was spoken in an adult-directed or affectively neutral manner. They listened significantly longer to the sung version. Overall, happy voice quality rather than vocal mode (speech or singing) was the principal contributor to infant attention, regardless of age. PMID:23805119

Corbeil, Marieve; Trehub, Sandra E.; Peretz, Isabelle

2013-01-01

287

Thiamine deficiency in tachypnoeic Cambodian infants.  

PubMed

Background: Beriberi is endemic in South-east Asia. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings, but correlation of clinical features with blood thiamine concentrations is uncertain. Objectives: To investigate in tachypnoeic Cambodian infants the correlation between whole blood thiamine diphosphate (TDP) concentrations, clinical findings and blood TDP levels after therapy. Methods: Infants hospitalised with tachypnoea were enrolled from October 2011 to January 2012. Initial clinical features, diagnostic test results and final diagnoses were recorded. Blood for TDP determination was collected prior to treatment and at discharge. Matched infants from the general outpatient clinic with minor complaints were enrolled as controls. Thiamine was administered at the discretion of the treating paediatrician. Results: Of the 47 tachypnoeic and 47 control infants, median initial blood TDP concentrations were 83 and 93 nmol/L, respectively (P?=?0·69), and were below the estimated limit of normal (<70 nmol/L) in 43% vs 34% (P?=?0·40). Median initial TDP levels were 72 and 91 nmol/L in tachypnoeic infants who did or did not receive thiamine, respectively (P?=?0·56); at hospital discharge, median TDP concentration had increased by 107 and 3·5 nmol/L in these two subgroups (P<0·001). Classical findings of beriberi such as dysphonia, tachycardia and hepatomegaly did not correlate with low initial TDP concentrations, but infant age, Tiger Balm use, absence of wheezing and low blood CRP levels were associated with low initial TDP levels. Use of infant formula was associated with higher initial TDP levels. Conclusions: Thiamine deficiency is common in tachypnoeic Cambodian infants, but routine clinical assessments do not accurately identify those with low blood TDP concentrations. Parenteral thiamine administration markedly increases TDP levels. Empirical thiamine treatment should be considered for tachypnoeic infants in regions with endemic thiamine deficiency. PMID:25348055

Keating, Elizabeth M; Nget, Phot; Kea, Sreng; Kuong, Suy; Daly, Leng; Phearom, Seng; Enders, Felicity; Cheryk, Lynn A; Topazian, Mark; Fischer, Philip R; Kumar, Varun

2014-10-27

288

Preventing infant abductions: an infant security program transitioned into an interdisciplinary model.  

PubMed

Ensuring the safety of infants born in a hospital is a top priority and, therefore, requires a solid infant security plan. Using an interdisciplinary approach and a systematic change process, nursing leadership in collaboration with clinical nurses and security personnel analyzed the infant security program at this community hospital to identify vulnerabilities. By establishing an interdisciplinary approach to infant security, participants were able to unravel a complicated concept, systematically analyze the gaps, and agree to a plan of action. This resulted in improved communication and clarification of roles between the nursing and security divisions. Supply costs decreased by 17.4% after the first year of implementation. Most importantly, this project enhanced and strengthened the existing infant abduction prevention measures, hard wired the importance of infant security, and minimized vulnerabilities. PMID:22293642

Hiner, Jacqueline; Pyka, Jeanine; Burks, Colleen; Pisegna, Lily; Gador, Rachel Ann

2012-01-01

289

Temperament of Low Birth Weight Infants and Child-Rearing Stress: Comparison with Full-Term Healthy Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied infant temperament in low birth weight (LBW) and full-term (FT) healthy infants in relation to infant temperament and child-rearing stress. Found that although differences between child-rearing stress scores were not significant between mothers of LBW and FT infants, a higher proportion of child-rearing stress could be explained by the…

Honjo, Shuji; Mizuno, Rie; Jechiyama, Haya; Sasaki, Yasuko; Kaneko, Hitoshi; Nishide, Takonori; Nagata, Masako; Sobajima, Hisanori; Nagai, Yukiyo; Ando, Tsunesaburo; Nishide, Yumie

2002-01-01

290

Neuroimaging and neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants.  

PubMed

Imaging of the preterm infant brain has advanced dramatically beyond the earliest era of transillumination. Computed tomography (CT), a crucial innovation during the early 1970s, allowed noninvasive visualization of intracerebral lesions, particularly hemorrhage. The capability to document brain injury in the preterm infant led to better clarification of links to developmental outcomes. With the development of cranial ultrasound (CUS), and more recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), CT is used rarely for imaging the brain of preterm infants. Despite extensive experience with neonatal neuroimaging, significant questions still remain. Substantial controversies exist pertaining to when and how neuroimaging should be performed and how images should be interpreted. PMID:18249235

Hintz, Susan R; O'Shea, Michael

2008-02-01

291

Lead content of milk and infant formula  

SciTech Connect

Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's milk, and human milk were 0.135 g/ml, 0.03 g/ml, 0.01 g/ml, 0.53 g/ml, and 0.02 g/ml respectively. (2 references, 2 tables)

Walker, B.

1980-03-01

292

Brain vein disorders in newborn infants.  

PubMed

The brain veins of infants are in a complex phase of remodelling in the perinatal period. Magnetic resonance venography and susceptibility-weighted imaging, together with high-resolution Doppler ultrasound, have provided new tools to aid study of venous developmental anatomy and disease. This review aims to provide a comprehensive background of vein development and perinatal venous lesions in preterm and term-born infants, and to encourage further research in both the fetus and the newborn infant, with the aim of preventing or mitigating parenchymal injury related to diseases involving veins. PMID:25212961

Raets, Marlou; Dudink, Jeroen; Raybaud, Charles; Ramenghi, Luca; Lequin, Maarten; Govaert, Paul

2015-03-01

293

Young infants prefer prosocial to antisocial others  

PubMed Central

The current study replicates and extends the finding (Hamlin, Wynn & Bloom, 2007) that infants prefer individuals who act prosocially toward unrelated third parties over those who act antisocially. Using different stimuli from those used by Hamlin, Wynn & Bloom (2007), somewhat younger subjects, and 2 additional social scenarios, we replicated the findings that (a) infants prefer those who behave prosocially versus antisocially, and (b) these preferences are based on the social nature of the actions. The generality of infants’ responses across multiple examples of prosocial and antisocial actions supports the claim that social evaluation is fundamental to perceiving the world. PMID:21499550

Hamlin, J. Kiley; Wynn, Karen

2010-01-01

294

Challenges to breastfeeding infants with phenylketonuria.  

PubMed

Breastfeeding duration for infants with phenylketonuria (PKU) is less than other full-term infants. However, no study has examined the challenges encountered by mothers' breastfeeding infants with PKU. In 75 mothers of a child with PKU, three categories of breastfeeding challenges were identified: common breastfeeding issues, breastfeeding and PKU, and no challenges. The common breastfeeding issues can be identified in the literature but for these mothers, the issues are heightened due to frequent phenylalanine (Phe) monitoring. Even so, many mothers adapt breastfeeding to maintain desired Phe levels. A few mothers had no issues and were the exception, not the norm. PMID:24952998

Banta-Wright, Sandra A; Kodadek, Sheila M; Steiner, Robert D; Houck, Gail M

2015-01-01

295

Parent-infant bed-sharing behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evolutionarily informed perspective on parent-infant sleep contact challenges recommendations regarding appropriate parent-infant\\u000a sleep practices based on large epidemiological studies. In this study regularly bed-sharing parents and infants participated\\u000a in an in-home video study of bed-sharing behavior. Ten formula-feeding and ten breast-feeding families were filmed for 3 nights\\u000a (adjustment, dyadic, and triadic nights) for 8 hours per night. For breast-fed

Helen Ball

2006-01-01

296

Detecting "Infant-Directedness" in Face and Voice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five- and 3-month-old infants' perception of infant-directed (ID) faces and the role of speech in perceiving faces were examined. Infants' eye movements were recorded as they viewed a series of two side-by-side talking faces, one infant-directed and one adult-directed (AD), while listening to ID speech, AD speech, or in silence. Infants

Kim, Hojin I.; Johnson, Scott P.

2014-01-01

297

Nanoparticle delivery in infant lungs  

PubMed Central

The lung surface is an ideal pathway to the bloodstream for nanoparticle-based drug delivery. Thus far, research has focused on the lungs of adults, and little is known about nanoparticle behavior in the immature lungs of infants. Here, using nonlinear dynamical systems analysis and in vivo experimentation in developing animals, we show that nanoparticle deposition in postnatally developing lungs peaks at the end of bulk alveolation. This finding suggests a unique paradigm, consistent with the emerging theory that as alveoli form through secondary septation, alveolar flow becomes chaotic and chaotic mixing kicks in, significantly enhancing particle deposition. This finding has significant implications for the application of nanoparticle-based inhalation therapeutics in young children with immature lungs from birth to ˜2 y of age. PMID:22411799

Semmler-Behnke, Manuela; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Schulz, Holger; Takenaka, Shinji; Butler, James P.; Henry, Frank S.; Tsuda, Akira

2012-01-01

298

An infant with biliary ascites.  

PubMed

Biliary ascites in children due to perforation of bile duct is a rare entity. The exact pathogenesis is not known but there are proposed mechanisms including congenital weakness of ductal wall, pancreaticobiliary malunion, tuberculosis, necrotizing enterocolitis and rupture of choledochal cyst. Presentation may be acute or sub-acute. Progressive insidious course is the common presentation in children with jaundice, clay colored stool, abdominal distension with slightly elevated liver enzymes but well documented cholestasis. Clinical suspicion with ultrasound, CT, MRCP and ascitic tap provides clue to the diagnosis. Both conservative and surgical interventions are in practice for managing these children. We report a 7 months old infant with biliary ascites due to perforation of bile duct. PMID:25518792

Saeed, Anjum; Mouzan, Mohammed El; Assiri, Asaad; Alsarkhy, Ahmed; Majeed, Kashif

2014-11-01

299

Maternal and infant complications in high and normal weight infants by method of delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To estimate the population risks of maternal and infant complications with the birth of macrosomic (at least 4000 g) compared with normal weight infants.Methods: Term, singleton infants were identified from the state of Washington’s birth event records database for 1990. Diagnosis codes from the Internal Classification of Diseases (9th revision) were used to identify delivery method and previously defined

KimberlyD Gregory; OliviaA Henry; Emily Ramicone; LindaS Chan; LawrenceD Platt

1998-01-01

300

Mother-infant interaction improves with a developmental intervention for mother-preterm infant dyads.  

PubMed

While premature infants have a high need for positive interactions, both infants and their mothers are challenged by the infant's biological immaturity. This randomized clinical trial of 198 premature infants born at 29-34 weeks gestation and their mothers examined the impact of the H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant's Environment) intervention on mother-premature infant interaction patterns at 6-weeks corrected age (CA). Mothers had at least 2 social environmental risk factors such as minority status or less than high school education. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the H-HOPE intervention group or an attention control group. H-HOPE is an integrated intervention that included (1) twice-daily infant stimulation using the ATVV (auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular-rocking stimulation) and (2) four maternal participatory guidance sessions plus two telephone calls by a nurse-community advocate team. Mother-infant interaction was assessed at 6-weeks CA using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training-Feeding Scale (NCAST, 76 items) and the Dyadic Mutuality Code (DMC, 6-item contingency scale during a 5-min play session). NCAST and DMC scores for the Control and H-HOPE groups were compared using t-tests, chi-square tests and multivariable analysis. Compared with the Control group (n = 76), the H-HOPE group (n = 66) had higher overall NCAST scores and higher maternal Social-Emotional Growth Fostering Subscale scores. The H-HOPE group also had significantly higher scores for the overall infant subscale and the Infant Clarity of Cues Subscale (p < 0.05). H-HOPE dyads were also more likely to have high responsiveness during play as measured by the DMC (67.6% versus 58.1% of controls). After adjustment for significant maternal and infant characteristics, H-HOPE dyads had marginally higher scores during feeding on overall mother-infant interaction (? = 2.03, p = 0.06) and significantly higher scores on the infant subscale (? = 0.75, p = 0.05) when compared to controls. In the adjusted analysis, H-HOPE dyads had increased odds of high versus low mutual responsiveness during play (OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 0.97, 5.80). Intervening with both mother and infant is a promising approach to help premature infants achieve the social interaction patterns essential for optimal development. PMID:23962543

White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen F; Fabiyi, Camille; Rankin, Kristin M; Li, Zhyouing; Liu, Li

2013-12-01

301

75 FR 23777 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula Requirements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...information collection regarding the manufacture of infant formula, including infant formula labeling, quality control...

2010-05-04

302

Appropriate infant feeding practices result in better growth of infants and young children in rural Bangladesh1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The World Health Organization and the United Na- tionsInternationalChildren'sEmergencyFundrecommendaglobal strategy for feeding infants and young children for proper nutrition and health. Objective: We evaluated the effects of following current infant feeding recommendations on the growth of infants and young chil- dren in rural Bangladesh. Design: The prospective cohort study involved 1343 infants with monthly measurements on infant feeding practices

Kuntal K Saha; Edward A Frongillo; Dewan S Alam; Shams E Arifeen; Lars Åke Persson; Kathleen M Rasmussen

303

Human milk for the premature infant  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065

Underwood, Mark A.

2012-01-01

304

Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... very careful when you’re giving your infant acetaminophen” says Carol Holquist, director of FDA’s Division of Medical Error Prevention and Analysis. Here’s what the agency wants parents and caregivers ...

305

Feeding Vegetarian and Vegan Infants and Toddlers  

MedlinePLUS

... vegan infants with soymilk fortified with calcium and vitamins B12 and D. For toddlers, rice milk should not ... children, pay close attention to the following nutrients: Vitamin B12: Vegetarians can get plenty of B12 from milk ...

306

Mercury Levels in Infants Receiving Routine Immunizations  

MedlinePLUS

... Study III: Thimerosal Metabolism in Premature and Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Routine Immunizations NIAID conducted an additional ... 32 to 37 weeks gestational age) and low birth weight (2,000 to more than 3,000 grams) ...

307

Choking: What to Do for an Infant  

MedlinePLUS

... Childhood Student Emergencies Choking: What to Do for an Infant Few sounds are more alarming than that ... Symptoms of Childhood Emergencies When Your Child Has an Emergency Toy Safety Tips Safety at School Children ...

308

Automated behavioral procedures for infant monkeys.  

PubMed

A method is described for testing infant monkeys on a variety of operant tasks as soon as they can self-feed, typically within the first week of life. Each infant was housed during the 16-21-hour experimental session in a cage to which operant behavioral equipment was attached. Computer control of the experimental contingencies and data acquisition allowed a relatively large number of monkeys to be tested simultaneously, as well as detailed analysis of response parameters. Infant monkeys are capable of learning a number of tasks that assess learning and memory, including visual discrimination and reversal, simultaneous discrimination, and spatial and nonspatial matching to sample. Infant monkeys also perform like older animals on intermittent schedules of reinforcement. The long experimental sessions allowed determination of feeding pattern over the course of the night. Analyses of these variables have proved sensitive to the effects of developmental exposure to neurotoxicants such as lead and caffeine. PMID:2247029

Rice, D C; Gilbert, S G

1990-01-01

309

Lactoferrin and iron absorption in newborn infants.  

PubMed

Results from experiments in this laboratory using 59Fe suggest that bovine lactoferrin (Lf) has no effect on iron absorption in rats. A study was therefore carried out in newborn infants to measure the effects of Lf on iron retention. Bovine Lf was labeled with the stable isotope 58Fe and fed to 7-day-old infants in a standard milk formula. Iron retention was estimated by measuring the unabsorbed 58Fe excreted in the feces during the following 3 days using neutron activation analysis. The results were compared with those obtained from a group of infants fed a similar level of iron as ferric chloride, labeled with 58Fe, together with 30 mg ascorbic acid. There was a very wide variation in percent iron retention amongst the infants but no overall difference between the Lf and ferric chloride groups. This confirms the previous findings in rats that Lf does not influence the availability of nonheme iron. PMID:3431946

Fairweather-Tait, S J; Balmer, S E; Scott, P H; Minski, M J

1987-12-01

310

Young infants have biological expectations about animals.  

PubMed

What are the developmental origins of our concept of animal? There has long been controversy concerning this question. At issue is whether biological reasoning develops from earlier forms of reasoning, such as physical and psychological reasoning, or whether from a young age children endow animals with biological properties. Here we demonstrate that 8-mo-old infants already expect novel objects they identify as animals to have insides. Infants detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and agentive (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) was revealed to be hollow. Infants also detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and furry (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) either was shown to be hollow or rattled (when shaken) as although mostly hollow. Young infants' expectations about animals' insides may serve as a foundation for the development of more advanced biological knowledge. PMID:24003134

Setoh, Peipei; Wu, Di; Baillargeon, Renée; Gelman, Rochel

2013-10-01

311

Hemodynamic correlates of cognition in human infants.  

PubMed

Over the past 20 years, the field of cognitive neuroscience has relied heavily on hemodynamic measures of blood oxygenation in local regions of the brain to make inferences about underlying cognitive processes. These same functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) techniques have recently been adapted for use with human infants. We review the advantages and disadvantages of these two neuroimaging methods for studies of infant cognition, with a particular emphasis on their technical limitations and the linking hypotheses that are used to draw conclusions from correlational data. In addition to summarizing key findings in several domains of infant cognition, we highlight the prospects of improving the quality of fNIRS data from infants to address in a more sophisticated way how cognitive development is mediated by changes in underlying neural mechanisms. PMID:25251480

Aslin, Richard N; Shukla, Mohinish; Emberson, Lauren L

2015-01-01

312

Infants track the reliability of potential informants.  

PubMed

Across two eye-tracking experiments, we showed that infants are sensitive to the statistical reliability of informative cues and selective in their use of information generated by such cues. We familiarized 8-month-olds with faces (Experiment 1) or arrows (Experiment 2) that cued the locations of animated animals with different degrees of reliability. The reliable cue always cued a box containing an animation, whereas the unreliable cue cued a box that contained an animation only 25% of the time. At test, infants searched longer in the boxes that were reliably cued, but did not search longer in the boxes that were unreliably cued. At generalization, when boxes were cued that never contained animations before, only infants in the face experiment followed the reliable cue. These results provide the first evidence that even young infants can track the reliability of potential informants and use this information judiciously to modify their future behavior. PMID:25022277

Tummeltshammer, Kristen Swan; Wu, Rachel; Sobel, David M; Kirkham, Natasha Z

2014-09-01

313

Young infants have biological expectations about animals  

PubMed Central

What are the developmental origins of our concept of animal? There has long been controversy concerning this question. At issue is whether biological reasoning develops from earlier forms of reasoning, such as physical and psychological reasoning, or whether from a young age children endow animals with biological properties. Here we demonstrate that 8-mo-old infants already expect novel objects they identify as animals to have insides. Infants detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and agentive (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) was revealed to be hollow. Infants also detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and furry (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) either was shown to be hollow or rattled (when shaken) as although mostly hollow. Young infants’ expectations about animals’ insides may serve as a foundation for the development of more advanced biological knowledge. PMID:24003134

Setoh, Peipei; Wu, Di; Baillargeon, Renée; Gelman, Rochel

2013-01-01

314

Nutrition, The Infant and the Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The human newborn possesses a functional but immature immune system in order to provide defense against a world teeming with\\u000a microorganisms. Breast milk contains a number of biological active compounds which support the infant’s immune system. These\\u000a include secretory IgAs, which confer specific protection against enteric pathogens, as well as many other immunological active\\u000a ingredients. A number of these ingredients

Ger T. Rijkers; Laetitia Niers; Marianne Stasse-Wolthuis; Frans M. Rombouts

315

Development of Newborn and Infant Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Vaccines for early-life immunization are a crucial biomedical intervention to reduce global morbidity and mortality, yet their developmental path has been largely ad hoc, empiric, and inconsistent. Immune responses of human newborns and infants are distinct and cannot be predicted from those of human adults or animal models. Therefore, understanding and modeling age-specific human immune responses will be vital to the rational design and development of safe and effective vaccines for newborns and infants. PMID:21734174

Sanchez-Schmitz, Guzman; Levy, Ofer

2014-01-01

316

Infant Smiling Dynamics and Perceived Positive Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand early positive emotional expression, automated software measurements of facial action were supplemented\\u000a with anatomically based manual coding. These convergent measurements were used to describe the dynamics of infant smiling\\u000a and predict perceived positive emotional intensity. Over the course of infant smiles, degree of smile strength varied with\\u000a degree of eye constriction (cheek raising, the Duchenne marker), which

Daniel S. Messinger; Tricia D. Cassel; Susan I. Acosta; Zara Ambadar; Jeffrey F. Cohn

2008-01-01

317

Erythema multiforme following vaccination in an infant.  

PubMed

Erythema multiforme is a cutaneous reaction pattern precipitated by varied agents, notably herpes simplex and drugs. It predominantly occurs in adolescents and young adults but may be seen at other ages also. While vaccination is rarely a precipitating factor for erythema multiforme, it may occasionally be seen in infants and children. We report here a case of a two month-old infant with lesions of erythema multiforme minor appearing after two weeks following vaccination for DPT, Hepatitis B and influenza. PMID:18583795

Kaur, Sarvjit; Handa, Sanjeev

2008-01-01

318

Outcomes of heart transplantation using donor hearts from infants with sudden infant death syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Uncertainty exists whether hearts from infants who have died of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are acceptable for transplantation because the mechanism of death in SIDS remains unclear. We analyzed post-transplant outcomes in infants who received a heart from a donor where SIDS was the primary cause of brain death. Methods This retrospective multicenter cohort study used data from the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (OPTN). All infants aged <12 months undergoing heart transplant between 1994 and 2008 were included. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine whether donor SIDS was independently associated with post-transplant graft loss (death or retransplant). Results During the study period, 66 of 1033 infants (6.4%) who underwent heart transplant received an allograft from a SIDS donor. These infants were similar to the remaining infants with respect to age, diagnosis, blood type, and invasive support. In multivariable analysis, graft loss was associated with congenital heart disease (hazard ratio [HR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–2.1), ventilator (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1–1.9), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 2.2–4.3), but not donor SIDS (HR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.6–1.5), suggesting graft survival in SIDS-donor heart recipients was similar to the remaining infants. Primary causes of post-transplant death in infants receiving SIDS-donor hearts and the remaining infants were similar. Conclusions Graft survival was similar in infants who received SIDS-donor hearts compared with those who received hearts from donors who died of other causes. There was no increase in incidence of non-rejection-related cardiac deaths after transplant in these children. PMID:20691612

Silva, Jennifer N.A.; Canter, Charles E.; Singh, Tajinder P.; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Piercey, Gary E.; Berul, Charles I.; Smoot, Leslie B.; Blume, Elizabeth D.; Fynn-Thompson, Francis; Almond, Christopher S.

2014-01-01

319

Marketing Breastfeeding—Reversing Corporate Influence on Infant Feeding Practices  

PubMed Central

Breast milk is the gold standard for infant nutrition and the only necessary food for the first 6 months of an infant’s life. Infant formula is deficient and inferior to breast milk in meeting infants’ nutritional needs. The infant formula industry has contributed to low rates of breastfeeding through various methods of marketing and advertising infant formula. Today, in New York City, although the majority of mothers initiate breastfeeding (~85%), a minority of infants is breastfed exclusively at 8 weeks postpartum (~25%). The article reviews the practices of the formula industry and the impact of these practices. It then presents the strategic approach taken by the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and its partners to change hospital practices and educate health care providers and the public on the benefits of breast milk, and provides lessons learned from these efforts to make breastfeeding the normative and usual method of infant feeding in New York City. PMID:18463985

Graff, Kristina M.

2008-01-01

320

Management of inguinal hernia in premature infants: 10-year experience  

PubMed Central

Aim: Debatable issues in the management of inguinal hernia in premature infants remain unresolved. This study reviews our experience in the management of inguinal hernia in premature infants. Materials and Methods: Retrospective chart review of premature infants with inguinal hernia from 1999 to 2009. Infants were grouped into 2: Group 1 had repair (HR) just before discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and Group 2 after discharge. Results: Eighty four premature infants were identified. None of 23 infants in Group 1 developed incarcerated hernia while waiting for repair. Of the 61 infants in Group 2, 47 (77%) underwent day surgery repair and 14 were admitted for repair. At repair mean postconceptional age (PCA) in Group1 was 39.5 ± 3.05 weeks. Mean PCA in Group 2 was 66.5 ± 42.73 weeks for day surgery infants and 47.03 ± 8.87 weeks for admitted infants. None of the 84 infants had an episode of postoperative apnea. Five (5.9%) infants presented subsequently with metachronous contralateral hernia and the same number of infants had hernia recurrence. Conclusions: Delaying HR in premature infants until ready for discharge from the NICU allows for repair closer to term without increasing the risk of incarceration. Because of low occurrence of metachronous hernia contralateral inguinal exploration is not justified. Day surgery HR can be performed in former premature infant if PCA is >47 weeks without increasing postoperative complications. PMID:25552826

Crankson, Stanley John; Al Tawil, Khalil; Al Namshan, Mohammad; Al Jadaan, Saud; Baylon, Beverly Jane; Gieballa, Mutaz; Ahmed, Ibrahim Hakim

2015-01-01

321

Mother–infant cosleeping, breastfeeding and sudden infant death syndrome: What biological anthropology has discovered about normal infant sleep and pediatric sleep medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty years ago a new area of inquiry was launched when anthropologists proposed that an ev- olutionary perspective on infancy could contribute to our understanding of unexplained infant deaths. Here we review two decades of research examining parent-infant sleep practices and the variability of maternal and infant sleep physiology and behavior in social and solitary sleeping environments. The results challenge

James J. McKenna; Helen L. Ball; Lee T. Gettler

2007-01-01

322

From the father's point of view: How father's representations of the infant impact on father-infant interaction and infant development.  

PubMed

Despite the knowledge that fathers uniquely contribute to the development of their infants, relatively few studies have focused on the father-infant relationship during early infancy. In the present longitudinal study we included 189 fathers and examined whether their early attachment representations of the infant predicted future quality of father-infant interaction. We also investigated whether these representations were related to the infant's development. Paternal attachment representations were assessed by the Working Model of Child Interview (WMCI) at 6months post-partum and classified fathers' representations as 'balanced' or 'unbalanced' (disengaged or distorted). At 24months, father-infant interaction was videotaped and analyzed by the NICHD coding scales. Further, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III) was administered to evaluate the infant's verbal development. Results revealed that fathers' early attachment representations of the infant predict the quality of future father-infant interaction, with balanced representations more strongly associated with more favorable behaviors in fathers and infants. In addition, paternal interactive behavior appears an important mechanism through which paternal representations influence the development of the infant. These results underline the importance of early identification of fathers with unbalanced attachment representations, and we therefore recommend that more attention should be directed to the quality of the early father-infant relationship in clinical settings. PMID:25463835

Hall, R A S; De Waard, I E M; Tooten, A; Hoffenkamp, H N; Vingerhoets, A J J M; van Bakel, H J A

2014-10-21

323

Infants in Multirisk Families. Case Studies in Preventive Intervention. Clinical Infants Reports Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Work conducted by the Clinical Infant Development Program (CIDP) of the National Institute of Mental Health, involving 47 multirisk families and their infants over a period of several years, is described. Part I contains four detailed case studies by Delise Williams, Euthymia Hibbs, Serena Wieder and others, providing data for comprehensive…

Greenspan, Stanley I., Ed.; And Others

324

Six-month-old Infants' Scanning of Meaningfully Distinct Infant-Directed Faces: Effects of Valence  

E-print Network

: "Good girl!", rising-falling pitch, higher F0 Comforting ID speech: "Don't cry, baby.", falling pitch direct to their infants. Infant and Child Development, 12, 211-232. Eisenbarth, H., & Alpers, G. W. (2011? Child Development, 60, 1497-1510. Jansari, A., Rodway, P., & Goncalves, S. (2011). Identifying facial

O'Toole, Alice J.

325

Sequence Learning in 4-Month-Old Infants: Do Infants Represent Ordinal Information?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated how 4-month-old infants represent sequences: Do they track the statistical relations among specific sequence elements (e.g., AB, BC) or do they encode abstract ordinal positions (i.e., B is second)? Infants were habituated to sequences of 4 moving and sounding elements--3 of the elements varied in their ordinal position…

Lewkowicz, David J.; Berent, Iris

2009-01-01

326

A Proposed Tactile Vision-Substitution System for Infants Who Are Blind Tested on Sighted Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes the attraction of stimulation produced by a visuotactile sensory substitution device, which was designed to provide optical information to infants who are blind via a tactile modality. The device was first tested on sighted infants, to demonstrate that this type of stimulation on the abdomen is pleasant and rewarding in…

Segond, Herve; Weiss, Deborah; Sampaio, Eliana

2007-01-01

327

The Mother-Infant Relationship and Infant Development: The Effect of Pediatric Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty-two mother/infant dyads were randomly assigned to groups provided with routine well-child care and to discussions of either infant social development (intervention treatment) or accident prevention and nutrition (control). Findings revealed more sensitivity, cooperativeness, appropriateness of interaction, and appropriateness of play in the…

Whitt, J. Kenneth; Casey, Patrick H.

1982-01-01

328

Parent-Infant Interaction in Infant Siblings at Risk of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent models of the early emergence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) propose an interaction between risk susceptibility and the infant's social environment, resulting in a progressively atypical developmental trajectory. The infant's early social environmental experience consists mostly of interaction with caregivers, yet there has been little…

Wan, Ming Wai; Green, Jonathan; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark; Charman, Tony; Plummer, Faye

2012-01-01

329

Modifications of Systematic Ignoring in the Management of Infant Sleep Disturbance: Efficacy and Infant Distress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Systematic ignoring and two modifications of it (systematic ignoring with minimal parental check and systematic ignoring with parental presence) were evaluated for treatment of Infant Sleep Disturbance (ISD). Fifteen infants (6-15 months of age) participated in a study utilising a multiple-baseline design across the three treatment programs.…

France, Karyn G.; Blampied, Neville

2005-01-01

330

Infant Temperament Characteristics Related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Its Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three major components have been repeatedly implicated for the origin(s) of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): system, minor sickness and surroundings. All these factors also frame infant temperament, and therefore it seems logical to suppose that the babies who either succumb to or are at risk of SIDS may present with certain behavioral…

Kelmanson, Igor A.

2006-01-01

331

Discrepancy between Parental Reports of Infants' Receptive Vocabulary and Infants' Behaviour in a Preferential Looking Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments are described which explore the relationship between parental reports of infants' receptive vocabularies at 1 ; 6 () or 1 ; 3, 1 ; 6 and 1 ; 9 () and the comprehension infants demonstrated in a preferential looking task. The instrument used was the Oxford CDI, a British English adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates CDI (Words &…

Houston-Price, Carmel; Mather, Emily; Sakkalou, Elena

2007-01-01

332

Mother Infant Interactions in Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): Spatial Relationships, Communication, and Opportunities  

E-print Network

Mother Infant Interactions in Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): Spatial This study investigated mother infant interactions in lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla conducive to infant social learning. Eleven gorilla mother infant dyads were focally observed in weekly 1-hr

Maestripieri, Dario

333

21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant...

2011-04-01

334

21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant...

2012-04-01

335

21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant...

2013-04-01

336

Infant dreaming and fetal memory: a possible explanation of sudden infant death syndrome.  

PubMed

During rapid-eye-movement sleep, when we dream, the brain is thought to be processing stored memory. The memory of a newborn infant is dominated by its fetal experience, and the infant is likely to dream about its life in the womb. Research with lucid (or conscious) dreaming has shown that dream images are supported by the corresponding body actions, using those muscles which remain active during rapid-eye-movement sleep. We suggest that sudden infant death syndrome or cot death may be a result of an infant dreaming about its life (or memory) as a fetus. In the course of that dream, since a fetus does not breathe (in the usual sense) the infant may cease to breathe and may die. This simple hypothesis is consistent with all of the known facts about sudden infant death syndrome (pathological and epidemiological), such as the age at death curve (the observed exponential decay and possibly the peak at 2-3 months), the higher risk with the prone sleeping position (but not excluding the supine position), and the observed climatic variation (seasonal and regional) in the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome. Many of these well-established facts have no other known explanation and other theories can generally only account for a few of the known facts about sudden infant death syndrome. Our hypothesis is also supported by recent findings that, as a group, sudden infant death syndrome infants have a higher proportion of rapid-eye-movement sleep, and also that they have an average higher heart rate (corresponding to possible fetal dreams) but only during rapid-eye-movement sleep.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7666822

Christos, G A

1995-04-01

337

Examining infants' preferences for tempo in lullabies and playsongs.  

PubMed

Caregivers around the world sing to their infants. Infants not only prefer to listen to infant-directed singing over adult-directed singing, but infant-directed singing also serves a function, communicating affective information to preverbal infants to aid in adjusting arousal levels. Pitch variation has previously been identified as one performance feature that may help to convey the message. Earlier research has indicated that infants' pitch preferences are context dependent, suggesting that infants are tuned in to the communicative intent of infant-directed singing. However, there are several other performance-based features present in infant-directed singing that may also contribute to the affective message. The current study examined the role of context on infants' tempo preferences in sung playsongs and lullabies. Using a head-turn preference procedure, we measured 24 preverbal infants' natural preferences for foreign language playsongs and lullabies as a function of tempo. Infants showed a preference for fast over slow tempo playsongs, but no such context dependent preference was found within lullabies. Results partially support the role of tempo as a communicative feature of infant directed singing. PMID:21639609

Conrad, Nicole J; Walsh, Jennifer; Allen, Jennifer M; Tsang, Christine D

2011-09-01

338

Interactive Behaviors of Ethnic Minority Mothers and their Premature Infants  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the interactive behaviors of American Indian mothers and their premature infants with those of African American mothers and their premature infants. Design Descriptive, comparative study. Setting Three neonatal intensive care units and two pediatric clinics in the southeast. Participants Seventy-seven mother-infant dyads: 17 American Indian mother-infant dyads and 60 African American mother-infant dyads. Methods Videotapes of mother-infant interactions and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) were used to assess the interactions of the mothers and their premature infants at six months corrected age. Results American Indian mothers looked more, gestured more, and were more often the primary caregivers to their infants than the African American mothers. American Indian infants expressed more positive affect and gestured more to their mothers, whereas African American infants engaged in more non-negative vocalization toward their mothers. African American mothers scored higher on the HOME subscales of provision of appropriate play materials and parental involvement with the infant. American Indian mothers scored higher on the opportunities for variety in daily living subscale. Conclusion Although many of the interactive behaviors of American Indian and African American mother-infant dyads were similar, some differences did occur. Clinicians need to be aware of the cultural differences in mother-infant interactions. To optimize child developmental outcomes, nurses need to support mothers in their continuation or adoption of positive interactive behaviors. PMID:23682698

Brooks, Jada L.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Landerman, Lawrence R.

2013-01-01

339

Ethnicity and infant mortality in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Malaysian infant mortality differentials are a worthwhile subject for study, because socioeconomic development has very clearly had a differential impact by ethnic group. The Chinese rates of infant mortality are significantly lower than the Malay or Indian rates. Instead of examining the obvious access to care issues, this study considered factors related to the culture of infant care. Practices include the Chinese confinement of the mother in the first month after childbirth ("pe'i yue") and Pillsbury's 12 normative rules for Malaysian Chinese care. Malay practices vary widely by region and history. Indian mothers are restricted by diet. Data-recording flaws do not permit analysis of Sarawak or Sabah. The general assumption that Western medicine favors better health for mothers and infants is substantiated among peninsular communities, however, there are also negative impacts which affect infant mortality. The complex interaction of factors impacting on infant mortality reported in seven previous studies is discussed. A review of these studies reveals that immediate causes are infections, injuries, and dehydration. Indirect causes are birth weight or social and behavioral factors such as household income or maternal education. Indirect factors, which are amenable to planned change and influence the biological proximate determinants of infant mortality, are identified as birth weight, maternal age at birth, short pregnancy intervals or prior reproductive loss, sex of the child, birth order, duration of breast feeding and conditions of supplementation, types of household water and sanitation, year of child's birth, maternal education, household income and composition, institution of birth, ethnicity, and rural residence. Nine factors are identified empirically as not significant: maternal hours of work in the child's first year, maternal occupation, distance from home to workplace, presence of other children or servants, incidence of epidemics in the child's first year of life, community types of sanitation, prices and availability of infant foods, and access to various types of medical care. Future empirical study should consider factors such as class differences, place of residence, or extent of illiteracy as underlying or related to ethnicity. Policy-makers should be aware that future decline in infant mortality rates may depend on the blending of traditional with modern practices. PMID:12287522

Dixon, G

1993-06-01

340

[Data mining and characteristics of infant mortality].  

PubMed

This study aims to identify patterns in maternal and fetal characteristics in the prediction of infant mortality by incorporating innovative techniques like data mining, with proven relevance for public health. A database was developed with infant deaths from 2000 to 2004 analyzed by the Committees for the Prevention of Infant Mortality, based on integration of the Information System on Live Births (SINASC), Mortality Information System, and Investigation of Infant Mortality in the State of Paraná. The data mining software was WEKA (open source). The data mining conducts a database search and provides rules to be analyzed to transform the data into useful information. After mining, 4,230 rules were selected: teenage pregnancy plus birth weight < 2,500 g, or post-term birth plus teenage mother with a previous child or intercurrent conditions increase the risk of neonatal death. The results highlight the need for greater attention to teenage mothers, newborns with birth weight < 2,500 g, post-term neonates, and infants of mothers with intercurrent conditions, thus corroborating other studies. PMID:20464072

Vianna, Rossana Cristina Xavier Ferreira; Moro, Claudia Maria Cabral de Barra; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Carvalho, Deborah; Nievola, Julio Cesar

2010-03-01

341

Neural Mechanisms of Body Awareness in Infants.  

PubMed

The ability to differentiate one's body from others is a fundamental aspect of social perception and has been shown to involve the integration of sense modalities attributable to the self. Though behavioral studies in infancy have investigated infants' discrimination of body-related multisensory stimuli, whether they attribute this information as belonging to the self is still unknown. In human adults, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the recruitment of a specific set of brain regions in response to body-related multisensory integration. To test whether the infant brain integrates this information similarly to adults, in a first functional near-infrared spectroscopy study we investigated the role of visual-proprioceptive feedback when temporal cues are manipulated by showing 5-month-old infants an online video of their own face while the infant was performing movements. To explore the role of body-related contingency further, in a second study we investigated whether cortical activation in response to self-initiated movements and external tactile stimulation was similar to that found in the first study. Our results indicate that infants' specialized cortical activation in response to body-related contingencies is similar to brain activation seen in response to body awareness in adults. PMID:25404469

Filippetti, M L; Lloyd-Fox, S; Longo, M R; Farroni, T; Johnson, M H

2014-11-17

342

Interpersonal synchrony increases prosocial behavior in infants.  

PubMed

Adults who move together to a shared musical beat synchronously as opposed to asynchronously are subsequently more likely to display prosocial behaviors toward each other. The development of musical behaviors during infancy has been described previously, but the social implications of such behaviors in infancy have been little studied. In Experiment 1, each of 48 14-month-old infants was held by an assistant and gently bounced to music while facing the experimenter, who bounced either in-synchrony or out-of-synchrony with the way the infant was bounced. The infants were then placed in a situation in which they had the opportunity to help the experimenter by handing objects to her that she had ‘accidently’ dropped. We found that 14-month-old infants were more likely to engage in altruistic behavior and help the experimenter after having been bounced to music in synchrony with her, compared to infants who were bounced to music asynchronously with her. The results of Experiment 2, using anti-phase bouncing, suggest that this is due to the contingency of the synchronous movements as opposed to movement symmetry. These findings support the hypothesis that interpersonal motor synchrony might be one key component of musical engagement that encourages social bonds among group members, and suggest that this motor synchrony to music may promote the very early development of altruistic behavior. PMID:25513669

Cirelli, Laura K; Einarson, Kathleen M; Trainor, Laurel J

2014-11-01

343

Intravenous Lipids for Preterm Infants: A Review  

PubMed Central

Extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW) are born at a time when the fetus is undergoing rapid intrauterine brain and body growth. Continuation of this growth in the first several weeks postnatally during the time these infants are on ventilator support and receiving critical care is often a challenge. These infants are usually highly stressed and at risk for catabolism. Parenteral nutrition is needed in these infants because most cannot meet the majority of their nutritional needs using the enteral route. Despite adoption of a more aggressive approach with amino acid infusions, there still appears to be a reluctance to use early intravenous lipids. This is based on several dogmas that suggest that lipid infusions may be associated with the development or exacerbation of lung disease, displace bilirubin from albumin, exacerbate sepsis, and cause CNS injury and thrombocytopena. Several recent reviews have focused on intravenous nutrition for premature neonate, but very little exists that provides a comprehensive review of intravenous lipid for very low birth and other critically ill neonates. Here, we would like to provide a brief basic overview, of lipid biochemistry and metabolism of lipids, especially as they pertain to the preterm infant, discuss the origin of some of the current clinical practices, and provide a review of the literature, that can be used as a basis for revising clinical care, and provide some clarity in this controversial area, where clinical care is often based more on tradition and dogma than science.

Salama, Ghassan SA; Kaabneh, Mahmmoud AF; Almasaeed, Mai N; Alquran, Mohammad IA

2015-01-01

344

The male excess in sudden infant deaths.  

PubMed

The peak age at which sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) occurs corresponds to the developmental period in which infants are dependent on their innate responses to infection. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that dysregulation of inflammatory responses might contribute to the physiological changes leading to these sudden deaths. This study examined the effects of three important risk factors for SIDS on inflammatory responses: cigarette smoke, virus infection and male sex. Cytokine responses of peripheral monocytic blood cells of healthy, non-smoking males and females to endotoxin were measured. Surrogates for virus infection or cigarette smoke were assessed using IFN-? or water-soluble cigarette smoke extract (CSE). For most conditions, cells from males had lower pro-inflammatory cytokine responses than those of females. An opposite trend was observed for IL-10. Significantly lower levels of some cytokines were noted for cells from male donors exposed to CSE. In females, there were significant correlations between testosterone levels and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but none for males. Testosterone levels in females correspond to those among male infants in the age range at greatest risk of SIDS. The effects of the testosterone surge in male infants need to be examined in relation to changes in cortisol levels that occur during the same period of infant development. PMID:23608823

Moscovis, Sophia M; Hall, Sharron T; Burns, Christine J; Scott, Rodney J; Blackwell, C Caroline

2014-01-01

345

Infants Generalize Representations of Statistically Segmented Words  

PubMed Central

The acoustic variation in language presents learners with a substantial challenge. To learn by tracking statistical regularities in speech, infants must recognize words across tokens that differ based on characteristics such as the speaker’s voice, affect, or the sentence context. Previous statistical learning studies have not investigated how these types of non-phonemic surface form variation affect learning. The present experiments used tasks tailored to two distinct developmental levels to investigate the robustness of statistical learning to variation. Experiment 1 examined statistical word segmentation in 11-month-olds and found that infants can recognize statistically segmented words across a change in the speaker’s voice from segmentation to testing. The direction of infants’ preferences suggests that recognizing words across a voice change is more difficult than recognizing them in a consistent voice. Experiment 2 tested whether 17-month-olds can generalize the output of statistical learning across variation to support word learning. The infants were successful in their generalization; they associated referents with statistically defined words despite a change in voice from segmentation to label learning. Infants’ learning patterns also indicate that they formed representations of across word syllable sequences during segmentation. Thus, low probability sequences can act as object labels in some conditions. The findings of these experiments suggest that the units that emerge during statistical learning are not perceptually constrained, but rather are robust to naturalistic acoustic variation. PMID:23112788

Graf Estes, Katharine

2012-01-01

346

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Sleep, and Seizures.  

PubMed

Working hypothesis: benign febrile seizures seen in 7% of infants before 6 months play a role in the terminal pathway in a subset of sudden infant death syndrome victims. Supporting evidence: (1) lack of 5-hydroxitryptamine, one consistent finding in sudden infant death syndrome that Kinney et al coined a developmental serotonopathy, is consistent with risk for seizures. (2) Non-rapid eye movement sleep increasing during the age of highest risk for sudden infant death syndrome facilitates some seizures (seizure gate). (3) Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy is associated with severe hypoxemia and hypercapnia during postictal generalized electroencephalographic (EEG) suppression. In toddlers, sudden unexplained deaths are associated with hippocampal abnormalities and some seizures. (4) The sudden nature of both deaths warrants an exploration of similarities in the terminal pathway. Moreover, sudden infant death syndrome, febrile seizures, sudden unexplained death in childhood, and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy share some of the following risk factors: prone sleeping, infections, hyperthermia, preterm birth, male gender, maternal smoking, and mutations in genes that regulate sodium channels. State-of-the-art molecular studies can be exploited to test this hypothesis. PMID:25300988

Hoppenbrouwers, Toke

2014-10-01

347

75 FR 51178 - Safety Standard for Infant Walkers; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...CFR Part 1216 Safety Standard for Infant Walkers; Correction AGENCY: Consumer Product...document established a standard for infant walkers. The Commission is correcting a typographical...provision concerning warning statements on walkers with parking brakes. DATES:...

2010-08-19

348

What Are the DGAs for Moms and Infants?  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Opportunities Nearly 55 percent of U.S. infants sleep with potentially unsafe bedding 20 Years of Protecting Infants During Sleep All related news Home Accessibility Contact Disclaimer Privacy ...

349

Inflammatory bowel disease in exclusively breast-fed infants.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease is uncommon in infants. We present the clinical, endoscopic and pathologic findings for two exclusively breast-fed infants with a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. We emphasize that although inflammatory bowel disease is rare in infants, chronic bloody diarrhea must be a sufficiently alarming symptom to consider a differential diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease in young infants is considered, even when they are exclusively breast-fed. PMID:17060132

Kulo?lu, Zarife; Kansu, Aydan; Kirsaçlio?lu, Ceyda; Ince, Erdal; Ensari, Arzu; Girgin, Nurten

2006-11-01

350

Melatonin concentrations in the sudden infant death syndrome  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The melatonin levels in various body fluids of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants are compared with those of infants of comparable age who died of other causes to examine a possible relationship between pineal function and SIDS. After adjusting for age differences, cerebrospinal fluid melatonin levels are found to be significantly lower in the SIDS infants. It is suggested that diminished melatonin production may be characteristic of SIDS and could represent an impairment in the maturation of physiologic circadian organization.

Sturner, W. Q.; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M. H.; Gleason, R. E.; Wurtman, R. J.

1990-01-01

351

Infant Regulatory Disorders: Temperamental, Physiological, and Behavioral Features  

PubMed Central

Successful development during the first year of life is dependent on the infant’s ability to regulate behavioral and physiological state in response to unpredictable environmental challenges. While most infants develop skills to self-soothe and regulate behavior, a subset lacks these skills and develops regulatory disorders (RD). Objectives To evaluate the component features of RD by determining if infants with RD differ from typically developing infants on measures of temperament, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, heart rate, and mother-infant interactions. Methods Parents of 50 9-month old infants completed behavioral questionnaires that provided information necessary to complete the Regulatory Disorders Checklist, which evaluates for difficulties in self-regulation and hypersensitivities. Infants with difficulties in both domains were assigned to the RD group. Mothers and their infants were videotaped interacting for 10 minutes. Infant heart rate was monitored before and during the mental development test. Results The RD group (n=10) was more temperamentally difficult and exhibited atypical physiological regulation relative to infants with difficulties in either self-regulation or hypersensitivity (n=25) or infants with no difficulties (n=15). During the mother-infant interactions, the RD group exhibited more high-level withdrawal behaviors, including verbal and physical protests, although there were no differences in the quantity and quality of the maternal approaches. Conclusion Infants with RD have both temperamental and physiological regulation difficulties, and may be in a physiologically state that makes it difficult to moderate behavior in response to social demands. Mothers of RD infants might be taught to modify their behavior to help their infants regulate behavioral and physiological state. PMID:21057324

Dale, Lourdes P.; O‘Hara, Emily A.; Keen, Julie; Porges, Stephen W.

2010-01-01

352

Acoustic cry characteristics of infants exposed to methadone during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Infant cry characteristics reflect the neurological and medical status of the infant. This study compared the acoustic cry characteristics of infants born to mothers maintained on methadone during pregnancy with those of infants not exposed to methadone during pregnancy. Methods: At 42 weeks of post-menstrual age, 89 crying episodes ranging in duration from 1.15 to 1.97 sec were collected

Zoe L Quick; Michael P Robb; Lianne J Woodward

2009-01-01

353

Amino acid contents of infant foods.  

PubMed

The protein quality of three milk-cereal-based infant foods (paps) was evaluated by determining their amino acid contents and calculating the amino acid score. Proteins were subjected to acid hydrolysis, prior to which cysteine and methionine were oxidized with performic acid. Amino acids were determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection with a prior derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate. Tryptophan was determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection after basic hydrolysis. Glutamic acid, proline and leucine were the most abundant amino acids, whereas tryptophan and cysteine had the lowest contents. Tryptophan was the limiting amino acid in the analyzed infant foods. A pap serving (250 ml) contributes significantly to fulfillment of the recommended dietary allowances of essential and semi-essential amino acids for infants (7-12 months old) and young children (1-3 years old). PMID:17127472

Bosch, Lourdes; Alegría, Amparo; Farré, Rosaura

2006-01-01

354

Iron availability from infant food supplements.  

PubMed

Radioiron absorption tests are performed in human volunteer subjects to measure iron absorption from five infant food supplements. These products included corn-soya-milk, corn-soy blend, wheat-soy blend, wheat protein concentrate blend, and whey-soy drink mix. In iron replete adult males, mean percentage absorption ranged from 0.6 to 1.4%. By relating these results to absorption from a reference dose of inorganic iron, it was estimated that iron-deficient infants would absorb between 1.7 and 4.1% of the iron contained in the infant foods. These results indicate that this fortification iron is poorly absorbed, and probably supplies only about half of the daily iron requirement for iron deficient children between 6 months and 3 yr of age. PMID:7198375

Morck, T A; Lynch, S R; Skikne, B S; Cook, J D

1981-12-01

355

Managing hypertension in the newborn infants.  

PubMed

Hypertension in newborn infants, particularly those requiring intensive care, is becoming increasingly recognized, with prevalence of 0.2-3%. Recent studies have established normative tables for blood pressure (BP) in both term and pre-term infants based on the gestational age, postnatal age, gender, weight and height, identifying the neonates at increased risk for early-onset cardiovascular disease. Common causes of neonatal hypertension include thromboembolic complications secondary to umbilical artery catheterization, congenital renal structural malformation, renovascular disease, aortic coarctation, as well as acute kidney injury and certain medications. A careful diagnostic evaluation should lead to identification of the underlying cause of hypertension in most infants. Treatment options should be tailored to the severity; and underlying cause of hypertension, including intravenous and/or oral therapy. This review summarizes recent work in these areas, focusing on optimal BP measurement, definition, evaluation and management of hypertension as well as advances in drug therapy of neonatal hypertension. PMID:24791189

Nickavar, Azar; Assadi, Farahnak

2014-03-01

356

Managing Hypertension in the Newborn Infants  

PubMed Central

Hypertension in newborn infants, particularly those requiring intensive care, is becoming increasingly recognized, with prevalence of 0.2-3%. Recent studies have established normative tables for blood pressure (BP) in both term and pre-term infants based on the gestational age, postnatal age, gender, weight and height, identifying the neonates at increased risk for early-onset cardiovascular disease. Common causes of neonatal hypertension include thromboembolic complications secondary to umbilical artery catheterization, congenital renal structural malformation, renovascular disease, aortic coarctation, as well as acute kidney injury and certain medications. A careful diagnostic evaluation should lead to identification of the underlying cause of hypertension in most infants. Treatment options should be tailored to the severity; and underlying cause of hypertension, including intravenous and/or oral therapy. This review summarizes recent work in these areas, focusing on optimal BP measurement, definition, evaluation and management of hypertension as well as advances in drug therapy of neonatal hypertension. PMID:24791189

Nickavar, Azar; Assadi, Farahnak

2014-01-01

357

Decreasing dangerous infant behaviors through parent instruction.  

PubMed

One adult and three adolescent mothers with 1-year-old infants were taught to reduce their infants' potential for injury in the home. After being taught to increase their positive interactions with their infants, the mothers were taught to child-proof the home, to use playpen time-out for potentially dangerous behaviors, and to give positive attention for safe behaviors. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used to evaluate functional control. Potentially dangerous behaviors, observed during 10 min of free play, decreased from variable and, at times, high rates during baseline to stable near-zero rates after treatment. These target behaviors remained low at a 7-month follow-up assessment. PMID:3610895

Mathews, J R; Friman, P C; Barone, V J; Ross, L V; Christophersen, E R

1987-01-01

358

Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the relationship between air pollution, measured as concentration of suspended particulates in the atmosphere, and infant mortality due to pneumonia in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. Multiple linear regression (progressive or stepwise method) was used to analyze infant mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhea, and all causes in 1980, by geographic area, income level, and degree of contamination. While the variable proportion of families with income equivalent to more than two minimum wages was included in the regressions corresponding to the three types of infant mortality, the average contamination index had a statistically significant coefficient (b = 0.2208; t = 2.670; P = 0.0137) only in the case of mortality due to pneumonia. This would suggest a biological association, but, as in any ecological study, such conclusions should be viewed with caution. The authors believe that air quality indicators are essential to consider in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.

Penna, M.L.; Duchiade, M.P. (Instituto de Medicina Social, Universidad del Estado del Rio de Janeiro (Brasil))

1991-03-01

359

Assessment and management of pain in infants  

PubMed Central

Infants, including newborn babies, experience pain similarly and probably more intensely than older children and adults. They are also at risk of adverse long term effects on behaviour and development, through inadequate attention towards pain relief in early life. However, the issue of analgesia in young babies has been largely neglected in most clinical settings, despite subjecting them to painful diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Several therapeutic and preventive strategies, including systemic and local pharmacological and non-pharamacological interventions, are reported to be effective in relieving pain in infants. A judicious application of these interventions, backed by awareness and sensitivity to pain perception, on the part of the caregivers is likely to yield the best results. This article is a review of the mechanisms of pain perception, objective assessment, and management strategies of pain in infants. PMID:12954954

Mathew, P; Mathew, J

2003-01-01

360

Stridor in Asian Infants: Assessment and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Stridor is the main symptom of upper airway obstruction in infants. It can be congenital or acquired, acute or chronic. Pathologies can be located from the nose down to the trachea. Common causes include laryngomalacia, vocal cord palsy, subglottic stenosis, tracheal anomaly, laryngeal cleft, vascular and lymphatic malformation, laryngeal papillomas, craniofacial abnormalities and even head and neck tumours. In this paper, we will discuss our approach to infants with stridor including assessment with flexible and rigid endoscopy and treatments to various conditions in a tertiary centre. Causes of stridor in infants undergoing rigid laryngotracheobronchoscopy in Queen Mary Hospital, University of Hong Kong Medical Centre between 2005 and 2011 will be retrospectively reviewed. Treatments according to various conditions will be discussed. Successful management of these neonates requires accurate diagnosis, early intervention, and multidisciplinary care by ENT surgeons, paediatricians, and paediatric anaesthetists. PMID:23724274

Yee-Hang, Wong Birgitta; Theresa, Hui; So-lun, Lee; Wai-Kuen, Ho; Ignace, Wei William

2012-01-01

361

Clinical safety assessment of infant nutrition.  

PubMed

Data on clinical safety and efficacy are ideally collected in a randomized clinical trial or, failing this, an observational study. Suitable outcomes vary depending on the intervention and population group, and certain outcomes such as growth may test both efficacy and safety. The use of growth as an important safety outcome has some limitations since it is currently not clear what represents an 'optimal' growth pattern. Several issues currently make the conduct and interpretation of infant nutrition trials challenging. These include difficulties in recruiting exclusively formula-fed infants, particularly given the emotive nature of infant feeding; the involvement of industry leading to real or perceived conflicts of interest; increased regulation and bureaucracy; and particular issues with long-term follow-up studies, notably cohort attrition. This paper addresses the implications of these issues and some potential solutions. PMID:22699768

Fewtrell, M S

2012-01-01

362

The evolving ethics of infant dialysis  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we review ethical issues that arise when families and doctors face clinical decisions about renal replacement therapy for an infant with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Over the last twenty years, many centers have begun to routinely offer renal replacement therapy. However, doctors and nurses both continue to view such therapy as optional, rather than mandatory. We speculate that the burdens of therapy on the family, and the uncertainties about satisfactory outcomes have led to a situation in which renal replacement therapy remains desirable but non-obligatory. We discuss the reasons why this is likely to remain so, and the ways in which renal replacement therapy for infants with ESRD is similar to, or different from, other clinical situations in pediatrics. Finally, we propose a research agenda to answer questions that are crucial to making good ethical decisions about infant dialysis. PMID:23131864

Lantos, John D; Warady, Bradley A

2012-01-01

363

[Regulatory peptides and psychomotor development in infants].  

PubMed

Regulatory peptides (RP) are an important homeostatic factor. The maternal organism and placenta are substantial sources of RP for fetus during the prenatal period. Not only endogenous, but also exogenous RP play an important role during early postnatal period. In this study, the concentration of exogenous RP (casomorphins-7) and the activity of peptidases (enkephalinases) in the serum of breastfed and bottle-fed infants were estimated. Possible interrelation between these two parameters and the psychomotor development (PMD) of infants were evaluated. Using specially developed RIA, the investigators estimated the presence of human and bovine casomorphins immunoreactivity (CMir) in the serum of breastfed and bottle-fed infants. A distinct correlation of CMir with PMD was demonstrated. The activity of RP-degrading serum enzymes also correlated with PMD level. The role of endo- and exogenous peptides in normal PMD process and in the pathogenesis of early child autism is discussed in the article. PMID:17500212

Sokolov, O Iu; Kost, N V; Kurasova, O B; Dmitriev, A D; Gabaeva, M V; Zolotarev, Iu A; Mikheeva, I G; Zozulia, A A

2007-01-01

364

Infant word recognition: Insights from TRACE simulations?  

PubMed Central

The TRACE model of speech perception (McClelland & Elman, 1986) is used to simulate results from the infant word recognition literature, to provide a unified, theoretical framework for interpreting these findings. In a first set of simulations, we demonstrate how TRACE can reconcile apparently conflicting findings suggesting, on the one hand, that consonants play a pre-eminent role in lexical acquisition (Nespor, Peña & Mehler, 2003; Nazzi, 2005), and on the other, that there is a symmetry in infant sensitivity to vowel and consonant mispronunciations of familiar words (Mani & Plunkett, 2007). In a second series of simulations, we use TRACE to simulate infants’ graded sensitivity to mispronunciations of familiar words as reported by White and Morgan (2008). An unexpected outcome is that TRACE fails to demonstrate graded sensitivity for White and Morgan’s stimuli unless the inhibitory parameters in TRACE are substantially reduced. We explore the ramifications of this finding for theories of lexical development. Finally, TRACE mimics the impact of phonological neighbourhoods on early word learning reported by Swingley and Aslin (2007). TRACE offers an alternative explanation of these findings in terms of mispronunciations of lexical items rather than imputing word learning to infants. Together these simulations provide an evaluation of Developmental (Jusczyk, 1993) and Familiarity (Metsala, 1999) accounts of word recognition by infants and young children. The findings point to a role for both theoretical approaches whereby vocabulary structure and content constrain infant word recognition in an experience-dependent fashion, and highlight the continuity in the processes and representations involved in lexical development during the second year of life. PMID:24493907

Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

2014-01-01

365

Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than\\u000a infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed\\u000a infants.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim of the study  To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A

Jodi Bettler; J. Paul Zimmer; Martha Neuringer; Patricia A. DeRusso

2010-01-01

366

Perioperative hypothermia in NICU infants: its occurrence and impact on infant outcomes.  

PubMed

Infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) often require surgical intervention and maintaining normothermia perioperatively is a major concern. In our preliminary study of 31 normothermic infants undergoing operative procedures in the operating room (OR), 58% (N = 18) returned hypothermic while all 5 undergoing procedures in the NICU remained normothermic (P = .001). To describe perioperative thermal instability (temperatures lower than 36.0°C) and frequency of associated adverse events, support interventions, and diagnostic tests in infants undergoing operative procedures in the OR and the NICU. This prospective, case-control study included 108 infants admitted to the NICU who were sequentially scheduled for an operative procedure in the OR (50.93%; N = 55) or the NICU (49.07%; N = 53). Existing data from the medical record were collected about temperatures and frequency of adverse cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic events, associated support interventions, and diagnostic tests during the perioperative period. Analyses examined the relative risks and proportional differences in rates of hypothermia between the OR group and the NICU group and associated adverse events, support interventions, and diagnostic tests between hypothermic and normothermic infants. Hypothermia developed in 40% (N = 43) of infants during the perioperative period. The OR group had a higher rate of perioperative hypothermia (65.45%, N = 36; P < .001) and were 7 times more likely to develop perioperative hypothermia (P = .008) than the NICU group (13.21%, N = 7). Likewise, infants in the OR group were 10 times more likely to develop hypothermia during the intra- and postoperative periods than those in the NICU group (P = .001). The hypothermic group had significantly more respiratory adverse events (P = .025), were 6 times more likely to require thermoregulatory interventions (P < .001), 5 times more likely to require cardiac support interventions (P < .006), and 3 times more likely to require respiratory interventions (P = .02) than normothermic infants. Although infants undergoing operative procedures in the OR experienced significantly higher rates of hypothermia than those undergoing procedures in the NICU, both groups experienced unacceptable rates of clinical hypothermia. Hypothermic infants experienced more adverse events and required more support interventions during the intra- and postoperative periods than normothermic infants, thereby demonstrating the negative sequelae associated with thermal instability. As a result, a translational team of key stakeholders has been created to explore multifaceted strategies based on translation science to implement, embed, and sustain perioperative thermoregulation best practices for the infant, regardless of the operative setting. PMID:24824300

Morehouse, Deborah; Williams, Lisa; Lloyd, Christina; McCoy, Dena S; Miller Walters, Elizabeth; Guzzetta, Cathie E; Baumgart, Stephen; Sill, Anne; Mueller-Burke, Dawn; Short, Billie Lou

2014-06-01

367

Physical Activity and Walking Onset in Infants with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants with Down syndrome (DS) are described as being less active and they also experience significant delays in motor development. It is hypothesized that early infant physical activity may be influential for the acquisition of independent walking. Physical activity was monitored longitudinally in 30 infants with DS starting at an average age of…

Lloyd, Meghann; Burghardt, Amy; Ulrich, Dale A.; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa

2010-01-01

368

United States Air Force Child Care Center Infant Care Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to guide Air Force infant caregivers in providing high quality group care for infants 6 weeks to 6 months of age, this infant care guide must be used in conjunction with other Air Force regulations on day care, such as AFR 215-1, Volume VI (to be renumbered AFR 215-27). After a brief introductory chapter (Chapter I), Chapter II indicates…

Craig, Ardyn; And Others

369

Therapeutic Observation of an Infant in Foster Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes a clinical research study of therapeutic observation of an infant in foster care. Infants and children under five represent more than half of all children entering care in the UK. The emotional needs of this population tend to be overlooked. This study aimed to find out about the experience of an infant or young child in care,…

Wakelyn, Jenifer

2011-01-01

370

Visual Processing and Infant Ocular Latencies in the Overlap Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young infants have repeatedly been shown to be slower than older infants to shift fixation from a midline stimulus to a peripheral stimulus. This is generally thought to reflect maturation of the neural substrates that mediate the disengagement of attention, but this developmental difference may also be attributable to young infants' slower…

Blaga, Otilia M.; Colombo, John

2006-01-01

371

Observation and Initiation of Joint Action in Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants imitate others' individual actions, but do they also replicate others' joint activities? To examine whether observing joint action influences infants' initiation of joint action, forty-eight 18-month-old infants observed object demonstrations by 2 models acting together (joint action), 2 models acting individually (individual action), or 1…

Fawcett, Christine; Liszkowski, Ulf

2012-01-01

372

Neonatal Characteristics and Directional Effects in Mother-Infant Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of 134 mothers and their newborn infants evaluated the relationships between neonatal style and mother-infant interaction. The procedure included a newborn assessment with the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale and two mother-infant interaction observations, one carried out during feeding and the other during a semi-structured…

Osofsky, Joy D.

373

Development of infant baboons' responses to graded bark variants  

E-print Network

Development of infant baboons' responses to graded bark variants Julia Fischer1* , Dorothy L of Pennsylvania, 3815 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA We studied the development of infant baboons to attach the appropriate meaning to alarm and contact barks. Keywords: baboon; infant; playback

Seyfarth, Robert

374

Brain injury in the premature infant – from pathogenesis to prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain injury in the premature infant is an extremely important problem, in part because of the large absolute number of infants affected yearly. The two principal brain lesions that underlie the neurological manifestations subsequently observed in premature infants are periventricular hemorrhagic infarction and periventricular leukomalacia. The emphases of this article are the neurology, neuropathology and pathogenesis of these two lesions.

Joseph J Volpe

1997-01-01

375

Developments in Young Infants' Reasoning about Occluded Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight experiments were conducted to examine 3- and 3.5-month-old infants' responses to occlusion events. The results revealed two developments, one in infants' knowledge of when objects should and should not be occluded and the other in infants' ability to posit additional objects to make sense of events that would otherwise violate their…

Aguiar, Andrea; Baillargeon, Renee

2002-01-01

376

Perceptual and Motor Development in Infants and Children. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motor behavior, motor performance, and motor learning are discussed at length within the context of infant and child development. Individual chapters focus on the following: the sensory-motor behavior of infants; analysis of selected perceptual-motor programs; beginnings of movement in infants; gross motor attributes in early childhood; visual…

Cratty, Bryant J.

377

Trauma Symptoms among Infants Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine whether infants have a traumatic response to intimate partner violence (male violence toward their female partner; IPV) experienced by their mothers, two questions were explored: (1) Is the number of infant trauma symptoms related to the infant's temperament and the mother's mental health? (2) Does severity of violence…

Bogat, G. Anne; DeJonghe, Erika; Levendosky, Alytia A.; Davidson, William S.; von Eye, Alexander

2006-01-01

378

Partnerships for Quality Infant-Toddler Child Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that some communities are managing to establish and sustain good-quality infant-toddler care and to make it accessible…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

2003-01-01

379

Preparing Infant-Family Practitioners: A Work in Progress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores what it takes to prepare practitioners to work effectively in the infant-family field and describes efforts to meet training needs. A multifaceted effort to prepare and support practitioners who work with infants, toddlers, and families has been central to the growth of the infant-family field. Part C of IDEA and Early Head…

Eggbeer, Linda; Mann, Tammy; Gilkerson, Linda

2003-01-01

380

Limits on Infants' Ability to Dynamically Update Object Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like adults, infants use working memory to represent occluded objects and can update these memory representations to reflect changes to a scene that unfold over time. Here we tested the limits of infants' ability to update object representations in working memory. Eleven-month-old infants participated in a modified foraging task in which they saw…

Feigenson, Lisa; Yamaguchi, Mariko

2009-01-01

381

Infants' Forgetting of Correlated Attributes and Object Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies, involving 72 3-month-old infants, demonstrated that infants remembered some of the original feature combinations of a mobile they had been trained to activate for up to 3 days but forgot all of them after 4 days. Even after 4 days, however, infants remembered the individual features that had entered into the original combinations.…

Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

1996-01-01

382

Laboratory assessment of nutritional metabolic bone disease in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: There are numerous laboratory investigations available for the assessment of an infant with suspected metabolic bone disease (MBD); thus, comprehensive laboratory investigations on every aspect of MBD would impose unnecessary stress to the infant and the costs involved would be prohibitive. An overview of the assessment of an infant with suspected MBD, in particular, nutrition-related bone disease, is presented.

Winston W. K. Koo

1996-01-01

383

Development of Face Recognition in Infant Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we assessed the developmental changes in face recognition by three infant chimpanzees aged 1-18 weeks, using preferential-looking procedures that measured the infants' eye- and head-tracking of moving stimuli. In Experiment 1, we prepared photographs of the mother of each infant and an ''average'' chimpanzee face using…

Myowa-Yamakoshi, M.; Yamaguchi, M.K.; Tomonaga, M.; Tanaka, M.; Matsuzawa, T.

2005-01-01

384

Direct Gaze Modulates Face Recognition in Young Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From birth, infants prefer to look at faces that engage them in direct eye contact. In adults, direct gaze is known to modulate the processing of faces, including the recognition of individuals. In the present study, we investigate whether direction of gaze has any effect on face recognition in four-month-old infants. Four-month infants were shown…

Farroni, Teresa; Massaccesi, Stefano; Menon, Enrica; Johnson, Mark H.

2007-01-01

385

Effects of Mother and Stranger Distance on Infants' Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study measured infant responses to mother and stranger as a function of mother and stranger distance. A group of 10-month-old infants were pretested for level of object permanence and person permanence, and 18 males and 18 females were chosen as study participants. The infants were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1)…

Rinkoff, Robert F.

386

Infant Mortality and the Health of Societies. Worldwatch Paper 47.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demographic data are used in this report to present information about infant mortality in more- and less-developed countries. One chapter is devoted to rising infant mortality rates in developed countries, which defy the typical post-World War II pattern. Severe economic conditions are linked to this increase. Direct causes of infant deaths are…

Newland, Kathleen

387

Infant Vocalization When Alone: Possibility of Early Sound Playing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five-month-old infants' vocalization when alone was investigated. Several researchers have reported observing that young infants vocalize in comfortable states without any response from others. As is implied by episodic reports in previous studies, it is possible that infants vocalize to play with their own vocal sound. Producing and listening to…

Shimada, Yohko M.

2012-01-01

388

Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…

Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael

2008-01-01

389

Device helps with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome detection  

E-print Network

Device helps with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome detection University of Texas at Arlington detection of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Electrical Engineering professor J.-C. Chiao, doctoral candidate reduces false alarms that desensitize parents or caregivers.” SIDS typically occurs in infants under

Chiao, Jung-Chih

390

Babies at Double Jeopardy: Medically Fragile Infants and Child Neglect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medically fragile infants, those born prematurely or with other complex medical or genetic problems, are at risk of long-term health and developmental problems. When a medically fragile infant comes home to a family with significant social problems such as domestic violence, mental illness, or substance abuse, the infant is at double jeopardy--at…

Fullar, Suzanne A.

2008-01-01

391

Caregivers' Playfulness and Infants' Emotional Stress during Transitional Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to explore the playfulness of the teachers of infants and its relations to infants' emotional distress during the transitional time at a child care centre. The study used a qualitative case study. Two infant caregivers in a university-based child care centre participated in this study. For the three-month research…

Jung, Jeesun

2011-01-01

392

Reinforcement of Infant Vocalizations through Contingent Vocal Imitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the…

Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

2011-01-01

393

21 CFR 201.19 - Drugs; use of term “infant”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Provisions § 201.19 Drugs; use of term “infant”. The regulations affecting special...105.3(e) of this chapter) define an infant as a child not more than 12 months...established any definition of the term infant. Some question has arisen...

2010-04-01

394

Agents of Change in Foster Care for Infants and Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Conceived by the Zero to Three Child Welfare Task Force, this issue focuses on agents of change for infants and toddlers in foster…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

2002-01-01

395

Emotional Eavesdropping: Infants Selectively Respond to Indirect Emotional Signals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined whether 18-month-olds learn from emotions directed to a third party. Infants watched an adult perform actions on objects, and an Emoter expressed Anger or Neutral affect toward the adult in response to her actions. The Emoter then became neutral and infants were given access to the objects. Infants' actions were influenced…

Repacholi, Betty M.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

2007-01-01

396

Infants, Toddlers, and Terror: Supporting Parents, Helping Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Responding to family needs in the wake of September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, this issue focuses on infants, toddlers, and terror. Articles…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

2002-01-01

397

Infants' Discrimination of Female Singing Voices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There's extensive research on infant's discrimination of speaking voices but few studies have focused on infant's discrimination of singing voices. Most investigations on infants' perception of timbre in music have been based on instrumental sounds. We completed an experiment with 7-and 13-month-olds (n = 16 and n = 17…

Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Davila, Yvonne

2014-01-01

398

A Double-Dissociation in Infants' Representations of Object Arrays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies show that infants can compute either the total continuous extent (e.g. Clearfield, M.W., & Mix, K.S. (1999). Number versus contour length in infants' discrimination of small visual sets. Psychological Science, 10(5), 408-411; Feigenson, L., & Carey, S. (2003). Tracking individuals via object-files: evidence from infants' manual…

Feigenson, L.

2005-01-01

399

Infant Killing and Cannibalism in Free-Living Chimpanzees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male chimpanzees at the Gombe National Park were twice seen to attack ‘stranger’ females and seize their infants. One infant was then killed and partially eaten: the other was ‘rescued’ and carried by three different males. Once several males were found eating a freshly killed ‘stranger’ infant. A similar event was observed in Uganda by Dr. Suzuki, and Dr. Nishida

Jane Goodall

1977-01-01

400

Father-Infant Interactions Are Enhanced by Massage Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the impact of fathers giving massages to their infants, ages 3 to 14 months, for 15 minutes prior to their daily bedtime for 1 month. Found that fathers who had massaged their infants were more expressive and showed more enjoyment and more warmth during floor-play interactions with their infants than did fathers in the wait-list control…

Cullen, Christy; Field, Tiffany; Escalona, Angelica; Hartshorn, Kristin

2000-01-01

401

Father?infant Interactions are Enhanced by Massage Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants were given massages by their fathers for 15 minutes prior to their daily bedtime for one month. By the end of the study, the fathers who massaged their infants were more expressive and showed more enjoyment and more warmth during floor?play interactions with their infants.

Christy Cullen; Tiffany Field; Angelica Escalona; Kristin Hartshorn

2000-01-01

402

Maternal mental state talk and infants' early gestural communication*  

E-print Network

Maternal mental state talk and infants' early gestural communication* VIRGINIA SLAUGHTER A N D for maternal talk about mental states. Results revealed that the earlier infants produced imperative gestures desires and intentions is linked to their infants' early developing communicative competence. Mental state

Carpenter, M.alinda

403

Changes in Infant Directed Speech in the First Six Months  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mother-Infant Phonetic Interaction model (MIPhI) predicts that, compared with adult directed speech (ADS), in infant directed speech (IDS) vowels will be overspecified and consonants underspecified during the infants' first 6 months. In a longitudinal natural study, six mothers' ADS and IDS were recorded on 10 occasions during the first 6…

Englund, Kjellrun; Behne, Dawn

2006-01-01

404

Beyond Baby Doe: Does Infant Transplantation Justify Euthanasia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines ethical issues in the transplantation of organs from infants with anencephaly into infants with severe heart and kidney disease. It argues that active euthanasia of infants with anencephaly should be prohibited to safeguard the rights of all persons with severe neurological disabilities. (Author/DB)

Coulter, David L.

1988-01-01

405

Exploring the associations of maternal red blood cell fatty acids, infant body composition, and quality of infant growth  

E-print Network

, and eliadic acid (18:1n-9t, the primary industrial trans fatty acid in the diet) early in pregnancy in 3,704 women. After adjusting for confounding variables, they found n-3s and DGLA to be positively related to infant birth weight while AA was negatively...………………………………………………………………………...6 Maternal influence on infant health……………………………………………………….6 Health of developing fetus and growing infant……………………………………………7 Maternal diet and infant health……………………………………………………………8 Fatty acids and fetal growth and development...

Newbold, Emily A.

2014-05-31

406

Ethnic Differences in Mother-Infant Language and Gestural Communications Are Associated with Specific Skills in Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined gestural and verbal interactions in 226 mother-infant pairs from Mexican, Dominican, and African American backgrounds when infants were 14 months and 2 years of age, and related these interactions to infants' emerging skills. At both ages, dyads were video-recorded as they shared a wordless number book, a wordless emotion book, and…

Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Song, Lulu; Leavell, Ashley Smith; Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

2012-01-01

407

Linking Infant-Directed Speech and Face Preferences to Language Outcomes in Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to examine whether biases for infant-directed (ID) speech and faces differ between infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (SIBS-A) and infant siblings of typically developing children (SIBS-TD), and whether speech and face biases predict language outcomes and risk group membership.…

Droucker, Danielle; Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

2013-01-01

408

Broadening the Study of Infant Security of Attachment: Maternal Autonomy-Support in the Context of Infant Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although security of attachment is conceptualised as a balance between infants' attachment and exploratory behaviours, parental behaviours pertaining to infant exploration have received relatively little empirical attention. Drawing from self-determination theory, this study seeks to improve the prediction of infant attachment by assessing…

Whipple, Natasha; Bernier, Annie; Mageau, Genevieve A.

2011-01-01

409

The Effect of the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program on Mother-Infant Interaction after Very Preterm Birth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Prematurity and perinatal insults lead to increased developmental vulnerability. The home-based Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) was designed to improve development of preterm infants. In a multicenter randomized controlled trial the effect of IBAIP on mother-infant interaction was studied as a secondary…

Meijssen, Dominique; Wolf, Marie-Jeanne; Koldewijn, Karen; Houtzager, Bregje A.; Van Wassenaer, Aleid; Tronick, Ed; Kok, Joke; Van Baar, Anneloes

2010-01-01

410

CLASS-Infant: An Observational Measure for Assessing Teacher-Infant Interactions in Center-Based Child Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: The growing body of literature demonstrating the importance of quality interactions with caregivers to infant development coupled with the increasing number of infants spending time in classroom settings highlights the need for a measure of interpersonal relationships between infants and caregivers. This article introduces a new…

Jamison, Kristen Roorbach; Cabell, Sonia Q.; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Hamre, Bridget K.; Pianta, Robert C.

2014-01-01

411

Infants' Evolving Representations of Object Motion during Occlusion: A Longitudinal Study of 6- to 12-Month-Old Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants' ability to track temporarily occluded objects that moved on circular trajectories was investigated in 20 infants using a longitudinal design. They were first seen at 6 months and then every 2nd month until the end of their 1st year. Infants were presented with occlusion events covering 20% of the target's trajectory (effective occlusion…

Gredeback, Gustaf; von Hofsten, Claes

2004-01-01

412

GI Symptoms in Infants Are a Potential Target for Fermented Infant Milk Formulae: A Review  

PubMed Central

Besides pre- and pro-biotic-containing infant formulae, fermented infant formulae are commonly used to relieve or prevent symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort in young infants. During the fermentation process in cow’s milk-based formulae, the beneficial bacteria modulate the product by forming several beneficial compounds, which contribute to the alleviation of the symptoms observed. This review summarizes the clinical evidence on the impact of fermented infant formulae on common pediatric GI-symptoms. The potential mechanisms involved are discussed: i.e., the lactose and protein (in-) digestibility, effects on gastric emptying and gut transit and modulation of the colonic microbiota. Although initial evidence indicates a beneficial effect of fermented formulae on GI discomfort in newborns, validation and confirmation of the clinical proof obtained so far is warranted, as well as further research to (more fully) understand the mode of action. PMID:25255831

van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Berton, Amelie; Bouritius, Hetty; Goulet, Olivier

2014-01-01

413

The Mother-Infant Relationship and Infant Attachment in a South African Peri-Urban Settlement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 147 mother-infant dyads was recruited from a peri-urban settlement outside Cape Town and seen at 2- and 18-months postpartum. At 18 months, 61.9% of the infants were rated as securely attached (B); 4.1% as avoidant (A); 8.2% as resistant (C); and 25.8% disorganized (D). Postpartum depression at 2 months, and indices of poor parenting…

Tomlinson, Mark; Cooper, Peter; Murray, Lynne

2005-01-01

414

The selenium content of infant food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The selenium content of food exhibits great regional differences. Food samples of infants and young children from the North Rhine-Westphalia State in the Fed. Rep. of Germany were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis and showed that the average selenium content of local vegetable and fruit is below 5 ng\\/g wet weight. Only samples of potatoes and bananas exhibit

K. H. Ebert; Ingrid Lombeck; K. Kasperek; L. E. Feinendegen; H. J. Bremer

1984-01-01

415

Generalized benign acanthosis nigricans in an infant.  

PubMed

The generalized form of acanthosis nigricans, especially in infants, is extremely rare. Herein we report a 1-year-old female child who developed generalized acanthosis nigricans without any evidence of internal malignancy or endocrine disorder. This case is being reported for its rarity. PMID:25593799

Das, Dipti; Das, Anupam; Kumar, Dhiraj; Gharami, Ramesh C

2014-12-01

416

Fostering Early Language with Infants and Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This articles describes the learning process of infants and toddlers and provides tips that parents and caregivers can use to promote the development of rich language skills, as well as an abiding passion for learning. From the earliest days, talking with babies encourages their knowledge of words. Singing and reading books increases their…

Honig, Alice Sterling

2014-01-01

417

Infants' Discrimination of Number vs. Continuous Extent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven studies explored the empirical basis for claims that infants represent cardinal values of small sets of objects. Many studies investigating numerical ability did not properly control for continuous stimulus properties such as surface area, volume, contour length, or dimensions that correlate with these properties. Experiment 1 extended the…

Feigenson, Lisa; Carey, Susan; Spelke, Elizabeth

2002-01-01

418

Candida tropicalis meningitis in a young infant.  

PubMed

Candida tropicalis is a rare species of Candida causing meningitis. The authors report a young infant who developed Candida tropicalis meningitis following a prolonged stay in a neonatal intensive care unit for respiratory distress and intra-cranial hemorrhage. The child was successfully treated with recommended doses of Amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine for eight weeks. PMID:14703236

Ahuja, Sanjeev R; Karande, Sunil; Kulkarni, Madhuri V; Tendolkar, Uma

2003-11-01

419

Pregnant Teenagers' Knowledge of Infant Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated pregnant teenagers' knowledge about infant development during the period of their pregnancy. The sample consisted of 98 teenagers between 14 and 19 years old who were pregnant with their first child; all were planning to keep their babies. The group was approximately 50% black and 50% white, 50% middle class and 50% working…

Epstein, Ann S.

420

Prolonging life and allowing death: infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilemmas about resuscitation and life-prolonging treatment for severely compromised infants have become increasingly complex as skills in neonatal care have developed. Quality of life and resource issues necessarily influence management. Our Institute of Medical Ethics working party, on whose behalf this paper is written, recognises that the ultimate responsibility for the final decision rests with the doctor in clinical charge

A G Campbell; H E McHaffie

1995-01-01

421

BORON AND MOLYBDENUM CONTENT IN INFANT FORMULAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is new evidence that the content of boron (B) (Hunt, 2004) and molybdenum (Mo) (Friel, 1999) in human milk (HM) may be regulated homeostatically. Presently, the B and Mo content of infant formulas (F) is not standardized by either statute or manufacturing practice. Our analysis of 5 representa...

422

The Cultural Context of Infant Caregiving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the significance of culture in infant care. Questions the universality of child development theory and research findings. Discusses cultural issues related to sleeping routines, including co-sleeping arrangements, the role of cultural elders or expert specialists, consequences of co-sleeping, and using an evolutionary, cross-cultural,…

Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan; Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

1997-01-01

423

Stork Reality: Why America's Infants Are Dying.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the following barriers to reducing the infant mortality rate: (1) fragmented and bureaucratic federal prenatal care programs; (2) insufficient number of rural public health clinics and private practitioners willing to serve low-income expectant mothers; (3) lack of health insurance; and (4) the high-risk behavior and motivation of…

Singh, Harmeet K. D.

1990-01-01

424

Infants and Toddlers Meet the Natural World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children observe, listen, feel, taste, and take apart while exploring everything in their environment. Teachers can cultivate nature investigations with very young children by offering infants natural objects they can explore and investigate. When adults introduce nature in the earliest stages of development, children will be open to new ideas and…

McHenry, Jolie D.; Buerk, Kathy J.

2008-01-01

425

Assessing body composition in infants and toddlers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to compare different body composition techniques in infants and toddlers. Anthropometric measures including mid-upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), and weight-for-height or -length Z-scores (WHZ), and measures of body fat mass assessed wit...

426

College Students' Attitudes regarding Infant Feeding Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the attitudes of college students toward various infant feeding practices using a questionnaire created by the authors on the basis of a review of the literature. Five hundred ten students enrolled at the University of Mississippi took part in the study. Findings indicated that respondents believed both high school and…

Bomba, Anne K.; Chang, Yunhee; Knight, Kathy B.; Tidwell, Diane K.; Wachter, Kathy; Endo, Seiji; West, Charles K.

2009-01-01

427

Deformation of the palate in preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo investigate the effect of gestation, postmenstrual age, and orotracheal intubation on palate morphology.METHODSA prospective study was made of 76 newborn infants of 25 to 41 weeks’ gestation. Palate dimensions were measured on plaster models produced from serial palatal impressions. Palate size relative to that of the mouth was assessed using a ratio of palate depth to palate width (Palatal

Annie M Procter; Diane Lether; Richard G Oliver; Patrick HT Cartlidge

1998-01-01

428

Disseminated herpes simplex in newborn infants  

PubMed Central

Six cases of disseminated herpes simplex virus infection in newborn infants have been collected. The morbid anatomical and histological findings are described for the various tissues of the body. For the first time, the typical lesions were found in the lung. This and the other findings are discussed from the aetiological point of view. Images PMID:14063326

Bird, T.; Ennis, J. E.; Wort, A. J.; Gardner, P. S.

1963-01-01

429

Body composition assessment in the infant.  

PubMed

Body composition assessment provides a sharper picture of the human biological response to genetic and environmental influences than measures of body size and weight. Infant body composition is particularly important as a marker of fetal adaptation and developmental programming of subsequent health and disease, but until recently, the range of options for measuring infant body composition was relatively narrow. The purpose of this Toolkit: Methods in Human Biology review is to provide a comprehensive overview of methods of body composition methods currently used in infants 0 to 2 years of age, including anthropometric prediction equations, air displacement plethysmography (ADP), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), isotope dilution, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Information on the reliability, validity, and accuracy of the methods is provided. Unique aspects of infant physiology and behavior create challenges for body composition assessment, but this review provides guidance on suitable testing approaches and environments that may aid researchers in this important area of investigation. PMID:24424686

Demerath, Ellen W; Fields, David A

2014-01-01

430

Minimally invasive surgery in neonates and infants  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has significantly improved the field of surgery, with benefits including shorter operating time, improved recovery time, minimizing stress and pain due to smaller incisions, and even improving mortality. MIS procedures, including their indications, impact, limitations, and possible future evolution in neonates and infants, are discussed in this article. PMID:21180496

Lin, Tiffany; Pimpalwar, Ashwin

2010-01-01

431

Infant Face Preferences after Binocular Visual Deprivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early visual deprivation impairs some, but not all, aspects of face perception. We investigated the possible developmental roots of later abnormalities by using a face detection task to test infants treated for bilateral congenital cataract within 1 hour of their first focused visual input. The seven patients were between 5 and 12 weeks old…

Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Levin, Alex V.; Maurer, Daphne

2013-01-01

432

Adipokines in breast milk and preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have shown that the early life environment affects feeding behaviour, food intake and energy balance in later life, suggesting there is a link between foetal and infant growth and the risk of metabolic disorders in adulthood. Although there is an evident epidemiological association between low birth weight and adult-onset diseases, the incidence of metabolic diseases in adulthood among people

Francesco Savino; Stefania Alfonsina Liguori; Maria Maddalena Lupica

2010-01-01

433

Infant Sign Training and Functional Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We taught manual signs to typically developing infants using a reversal design and caregiver-nominated stimuli. We delivered the stimuli on a time-based schedule during baseline. During the intervention, we used progressive prompting and reinforcement, described by Thompson et al. (2004, 2007), to establish mands. Following sign training, we…

Normand, Matthew P.; Machado, Mychal A.; Hustyi, Kristin M.; Morley, Allison J.

2011-01-01

434

Generalized benign acanthosis nigricans in an infant  

PubMed Central

The generalized form of acanthosis nigricans, especially in infants, is extremely rare. Herein we report a 1-year-old female child who developed generalized acanthosis nigricans without any evidence of internal malignancy or endocrine disorder. This case is being reported for its rarity. PMID:25593799

Das, Dipti; Das, Anupam; Kumar, Dhiraj; Gharami, Ramesh C.

2014-01-01

435

Detection of Relative Motion by Human Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed infants' detection of relative motion between a target and its surrounding static reference features in two experiments. Found evidence for 8- and 20-week-olds' detection of a moving target, and a target and surrounding reference features moving in opposite directions. Twenty-week-olds detected a target that moved faster and in the same…

Dannemiller, James L.; Freedland, Robert L.

1991-01-01

436

Infants' Reasoning about Others' False Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research suggests that children younger than age 3 or 4 do not understand that an agent may be deceived by an object's misleading appearance. The authors asked whether 14.5-month-olds would give evidence in a violation-of-expectation task that they understand that agents may form false perceptions. Infants first watched events in which an…

Song, Hyun-joo; Baillargeon, Renee

2008-01-01

437

Behavior Guidance for Infants and Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides guidance to parents regarding behavior of infants and toddlers, including behavior development and problems. It offers common sense advice and practical examples. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction: What Is Misbehavior of Babies?", discussing "crying" as an appropriate behavior for meeting physical and emotional needs, and…

Honig, Alice Sterling

438

Introducing Infants to the Joy of Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that literacy learning begins in infancy and that no age is too young to be read to. Recommends that parents begin reading to their children early, that they read for short periods, and that they read often. Includes a list of books for newborns and infants. (BGC)

McMahon, Rebecca

1996-01-01

439

Nutrition of Preterm Infants After Hospital Discharge  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Growth failure in preterm infants remains extremely common despite advances in neonatal care. Many, or even a majority, leave the hospital with weights below the 10th centile for age. Because of this, the possibility of nutritional interventions to improve postdischarge growth has been considered. A...

440

The Dynamics of Infant Visual Foraging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human infants actively forage for visual information from the moment of birth onward. Although we know a great deal about how stimulus characteristics influence looking behavior in the first few postnatal weeks, we know much less about the intrinsic dynamics of the behavior. Here we show that a simple stochastic dynamical system acts…

Robertson, Steven S.; Guckenheimer, John; Masnick, Amy M.; Bacher, Leigh F.

2004-01-01

441

Belief Attribution in Deaf and Hearing Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on anticipatory looking and reactions to violations of expected events, infants have been credited with "theory of mind" (ToM) knowledge that a person's search behaviour for an object will be guided by true or false beliefs about the object's location. However, little is known about the preconditions for looking patterns consistent with…

Meristo, Marek; Morgan, Gary; Geraci, Alessandra; Iozzi, Laura; Hjelmquist, Erland; Surian, Luca; Siegal, Michael

2012-01-01

442

Cortical specialization for music in preverbal infants  

E-print Network

of such stimuli to specialized areas. In the current study, we sought to investigate whether infants would show similar patterns for processing music and language, as they both contain predictable changes in pitch. In a previous study, we established that language...

Fava, Eswen Elizabeth

2009-05-15

443

Preterm Infant Massage Therapy Research: A Review  

PubMed Central

In this paper, preterm infant massage therapy studies are reviewed. Massage therapy has led to weight gain in preterm infants when moderate pressure massage was provided. In studies on passive movement of the limbs, preterm infants also gained significantly more weight, and their bone density also increased. Research on ways of delivering the massage is also explored including using mothers versus therapists and the added effects of using oils. The use of mothers as therapists was effective in at least one study. The use of oils including coconut oil and safflower oil enhanced the average weight gain, and the transcutaneous absorption of oil also increased triglycerides. In addition, the use of synthetic oil increased vagal activity, which may indirectly contribute to weight gain. The weight gain was associated with shorter hospital stays and, thereby, significant hospital cost savings. Despite these benefits, preterm infant massage is only practiced in 38% of neonatal intensive care units. This may relate to the underlying mechanisms not being well understood. The increases noted in vagal activity, gastric motility, insulin and IGF-1 levels following moderate pressure massage are potential underlying mechanisms. However, those variables combined do not explain all of the variance in weight gain, highlighting the need for additional mechanism studies. PMID:20137814

Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

2010-01-01

444

Infants at Risk: Perinatal and Neonatal Factors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews studies of infant behavior and development. Delineates a behavioral hypothesis relating prenatal and neonatal risk factors in infancy to crib death. The mutual dependence of experience and neurostructural development suggests that infancy is a period of critical learning experiences. (Author/RH)

Lipsitt, Lewis P.

1979-01-01

445

A liveborn infant with triploidy (69, XXX)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a liveborn infant with 69 chromosomes some symptoms have been found which were also seen among the cases of triploidy reported before. The characteristic face, syndactyly, coloboma, abnormal neurological and sexual development, and increased number of digital whorls are the most frequent findings. In our case we found arhinencephaly, bilateral microphthalmy with colobomata iridis, cheilognathopalatoschisis, syndactyly of the III–IV

Lj. Zergollern; A. Dražanci?; I. Damjanov; V. Hitrec; V. Gore?an

1972-01-01

446

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and parental smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke is a major risk factor associated with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and the risk has increased despite continued advice against this practice. Evidence from the UK suggests the prevalence of maternal smoking during pregnancy has risen amongst SIDS mothers (from 50% to 80%) when the rate amongst expectant mothers in the general population has

Peter Fleming; Peter S. Blair

2007-01-01

447

Infants' individuation of agents and inert objects.  

PubMed

Using the violation-of-expectancy method, we investigated 10-month-old infants' ability to rely on dynamic features in object individuation processes. Infants were first familiarized to events in which two different objects repeatedly appeared and disappeared, one at a time from behind a screen; at test, the screen was removed, revealing either one or two objects. In Experiment 1, one self-moving non-rigid agent and one inert object were involved in each trial, while in Experiment 2 two different agents were presented. Infants preferred to look at one-object outcomes in Experiment 1, but they did not show any preference for one- or two-object outcomes in Experiment 2. The results suggest that infants can use dynamic information to detect agents in complex individuation tasks before they can rely on shape or surface features. We propose that the sortals agent and inert object appear in development before 12 months without a substantial contribution of linguistic experience. These findings may motivate a revision of current theories on the development of kind-based individuation and object files. PMID:20121870

Surian, Luca; Caldi, Stefania

2010-01-01

448

The Social Context of Infant Intention Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional looking-time paradigms are often used to assess infants' attention to sociocognitive phenomena, but the link between these laboratory scenarios and real-world interactions is unclear. The current study investigated hypothesized relations between traditional social-cognitive looking-time paradigms and their real-world counterparts…

Dunphy-Lelii, Sarah; LaBounty, Jennifer; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.

2014-01-01

449

Development of Binocular Fixation in Human Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments measured changes in binocular eye alignment from 1- to 6-month-old infants. Experiment 1 recorded these changes from 1-, 2-, and 3-month-olds, using corneal photography. Experiment 2 measured responses of 3-, 4 1/2-, and 6-month-olds as a wedge prism was placed alternately before each eye. (MS)

Aslin, Richard N.

1977-01-01

450

Infant Day Care: Maligned or Malignant?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of data suggesting that infants whose mothers work full-time are more likely as one-year-olds to avoid their mothers after a brief separation and later to be less compliant with their mothers and more aggressive with peers. Further research is needed. (Author/BJV)

Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison

1989-01-01

451

PUERTO RICAN MATERNAL AND INFANT HEALTH PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The high neonatal and post neonatal mortality rates of Puerto Rican infants have led to the identification of this subgroup as a target for special attention by the Public Health Service. This survey will provide the rich data necessary to examine this important health issue. Vit...

452

Baby Carriage: Infants Walking with Loads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintaining balance is a central problem for new walkers. To examine how infants cope with the additional balance control problems induced by load carriage, 14-month-olds were loaded with 15% of their body weight in shoulder-packs. Both symmetrical and asymmetrical loads disrupted alternating gait patterns and caused less mature footfall patterns.…

Garciaguirre, Jessie S.; Adolph, Karen E.; Shrout, Patrick E.

2007-01-01

453

Audiologic Assessment of Infants and Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides guidelines for the audiologic assessment of infants and young children, highlighting recent technologic advances in auditory electrophysiology, acoustic immitance measure procedures, and behavioral audiometric techniques. First, audiologic assessment guidelines developed by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association are…

Gravel, Judith S.

454

Initial Morphological Learning in Preverbal Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do children learn the internal structure of inflected words? We hypothesized that bound functional morphemes begin to be encoded at the preverbal stage, driven by their frequent occurrence with highly variable roots, and that infants in turn use these morphemes to interpret other words with the same inflections. Using a preferential looking…

Marquis, Alexandra; Shi, Rushen

2012-01-01

455

Handbook of Infant Mental Health. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This revised edition offers an interdisciplinary analysis of the developmental, clinical, and social aspects of mental health from birth to age 3. Chapters are organized into five areas, covering the context of mental health, risk and protective factors, assessment, psychopathology, intervention, and applications of infant mental health. The…

Zeanah, Charles H., Jr., Ed.

456

Our Youngest Learners: The Infant School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An approach to teaching based on the English infant school where "youngsters aged from five to 10 work in specially adapted, child sized environments, doing whatever they want. Part of a longer special report which is available from: Grade Teacher Reprints, 23 Leroy Ave., Darien, Conn. 06820 (No. 91291, 75J) (Author/AP)

Grade Teacher, 1969

1969-01-01

457

Easy Toys for Infants and Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides instructions for creating inexpensive activities and toys for infants and toddlers to supplement major toy purchases in early care programs. Includes instructions for making bean bags, cellophane snakes, sock bracelets, one-piece puzzles, milk carton blocks, a pounding bench, paint gloves, and people puzzles. (KB)

Texas Child Care, 2002

2002-01-01

458

Infants Learn What They Want to Learn: Responding to Infant Pointing Leads to Superior Learning  

PubMed Central

The majority of current developmental models prioritise a pedagogical approach to knowledge acquisition in infancy, in which infants play a relatively passive role as recipients of information. In view of recent evidence, demonstrating that infants use pointing to express interest and solicit information from adults, we set out to test whether giving the child the leading role in deciding what information to receive leads to better learning. Sixteen-month-olds were introduced to pairs of novel objects and, once they had pointed to an object, were shown a function for either the object they had chosen, or the object they had ignored. Ten minutes later, infants replicated the functions of chosen objects significantly more than those of un-chosen objects, despite having been equally visually attentive during demonstrations on both types of objects. These results show that offering information in response to infants’ communicative gestures leads to superior learning (Experiment 1) and that this difference in performance is due to learning being facilitated when infants’ pointing was responded to, not hindered when their pointing was ignored (Experiment 2), highlighting the importance of infants’ own active engagement in acquiring information. PMID:25290444

Begus, Katarina; Gliga, Teodora; Southgate, Victoria

2014-01-01

459

Development of preference for conspecific faces in human infants.  

PubMed

Previous studies have proposed that humans may be born with mechanisms that attend to conspecifics. However, as previous studies have relied on stimuli featuring human adults, it remains unclear whether infants attend only to adult humans or to the entire human species. We found that 1-month-old infants (n = 23) were able to differentiate between human and monkey infants' faces; however, they exhibited no preference for human infants' faces over monkey infants' faces (n = 24) and discriminated individual differences only within the category of human infants' faces (n = 30). We successfully replicated previous findings that 1-month-old infants (n = 42) preferred adult humans, even adults of other races, to adult monkeys. Further, by 3 months of age, infants (n = 55) preferred human faces to monkey faces with both infant and adult stimuli. Human infants' spontaneous preference for conspecific faces appears to be initially limited to conspecific adults and afterward extended to conspecific infants. Future research should attempt to determine whether preference for human adults results from some innate tendency to attend to conspecific adults or from the impact of early experiences with adults. PMID:24294877

Sanefuji, Wakako; Wada, Kazuko; Yamamoto, Tomoka; Mohri, Ikuko; Taniike, Masako

2014-04-01

460

Mode of Birth Delivery Affects Oral Microbiota in Infants  

PubMed Central

Establishment of the microbiota of the gut has been shown to differ between infants delivered by Caesarian section (C-section) and those delivered vaginally. The aim of the present study was to compare the oral microbiota in infants delivered by these different routes. The oral biofilm was assayed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) in healthy three-month-old infants, 38 infants born by C-section, and 25 infants delivered vaginally. Among over 300 bacterial taxa targeted by the HOMIM microarray, Slackia exigua was detected only in infants delivered by C-section. Further, significantly more bacterial taxa were detected in the infants delivered vaginally (79 species/species clusters) compared with infants delivered by C-section (54 species/species clusters). Multivariate modeling revealed a strong model that separated the microbiota of C-section and vaginally delivered infants into two distinct colonization patterns. In conclusion, our study indicated differences in the oral microbiota in infants due to mode of delivery, with vaginally delivered infants having a higher number of taxa detected by the HOMIM microarray. PMID:21828355

Lif Holgerson, P.; Harnevik, L.; Hernell, O.; Tanner, A.C.R.; Johansson, I.

2011-01-01

461

Common questions about outpatient care of premature infants.  

PubMed

Preterm births (deliveries before 37 weeks' gestation) comprise 12% of all U.S. births and are responsible for onethird of all infant deaths. Neonatal medical advances have increased survival, and primary care physicians often care for infants who were in the neonatal intensive care unit after birth. Functions of the primary care physician include coordination of medical and social services, nutritional surveillance, and managing conditions associated with prematurity. Parental guidance and encouragement are often necessary to ensure appropriate feeding and infant weight gain. Enriched formula and nutrient fortifiers are used for infants with extrauterine growth restriction. Iron supplementation is recommended for breastfed infants, and iron-fortified formula for formula-fed infants. Screening for iron deficiency anemia in preterm infants should occur at four months of age and at nine to 12 months of age. Gastroesophageal reflux is best treated with nonpharmacologic options because medications provide no long-term benefits. Neurodevelopmental delay occurs in up to 50% of preterm infants. Developmental screening should be performed at every well-child visit. If developmental delay is suspected, more formalized testing may be required with appropriate referral. To prevent complications from respiratory syncytial virus infection, palivizumab is recommended in the first year of life during the respiratory syncytial virus season for all infants born before 29 weeks' gestation and for infants born between 29 and 32 weeks' gestation who have chronic lung disease. Most preterm infants have minimal longterm sequelae. PMID:25250998

Gauer, Robert L; Burket, Jeffrey; Horowitz, Eric

2014-08-15

462

Outcomes of extremely preterm infants following severe intracranial hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Objective Severe intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is an important prognostic variable in extremely preterm (EPT) infants. We examined imaging and clinical variables that predict outcomes in EPT infants with severe ICH. Study design Retrospective analysis of 353 EPT infants with severe ICH. Outcomes were compared by examining: i) unilateral vs. bilateral ICH; and ii) presence vs. absence of hemorrhagic parenchymal infarction (HPI). Regression analyses identified variables associated with death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). Results Bilateral ICH and HPI had higher rates of adverse outcomes and were independently associated with death/NDI. HPI was the most important variable for infants of lower birth weight, and bilateral ICH for larger infants. For infants surviving to 36 weeks, shunt placement was most associated with death/NDI. Conclusions Bilateral ICH and the presence of HPI in EPT infants with severe ICH are associated with death/NDI, though the importance depends on birth weight and survival to 36 weeks. PMID:24370654

Davis, Alexis S.; Hintz, Susan R.; Goldstein, Ricki F.; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Bann, Carla M.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Bell, Edward F.; Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R.; Walsh, Michele C.; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.

2014-01-01

463

Late preterm infant?-?Nature's unfinished master piece.  

PubMed

Late preterm infants (LPI) are preterm infants born at a gestational age between 34 and 0/7 weeks to 36 6/7 weeks. Because of their physiologic and metabolic immaturities, they are at increased risk for a spectrum of morbidities and mortality when compared to the term infants. LPI are "great pretenders and masqueraders", as they pretend to be and masquerading as term infants. Because of their size, frequently they are treated as term infants with potential for bad consequences. In this review, the incidence and high risk factors for late preterm deliveries, early morbidities, late complications and management are described. Computerized data bases such as PubMed, OVID and Embase were searched between January 2005 and March 2012, by using the search terms, Late Preterm Infants and Near Term Infants. From this detailed search available, evidence based guidelines were incorporated in the care of these LPI. PMID:24342192

Nandyal, Raja; Sekar, Kris

2013-12-01

464

Caregiver- vs Infant-Oriented Feeding: A Model of Infant-Feeding Strategies among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Participants in Rural East Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this project was to collect data from focus-group participants to inform the future development of region-specific educational strategies to modify infant-feeding practices that may predispose children to obesity. Infant-feeding perceptions and practices were collected from participants of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, through recorded focus groups, in two East Tennessee counties. Focus

Katherine F. Kavanagh; Mona Habibi; Kirsten Anderson; Marsha Spence

2010-01-01

465

Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development. PMID:25048164

Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

2014-10-01

466

Oral Microbial Profile Discriminates Breastfed from Formula-Fed Infants  

PubMed Central

Objectives Little is known about the impact of diet on the oral microbiota of infants although diet is known to affect the gut microbiota. The aims of the present study were to compare the oral microbiota in breastfed and formula-fed infants, and investigate growth inhibition of streptococci by infant-isolated lactobacilli. Subjects and Methods 207 mothers consented to participation of their three-month old infants. 146 (70.5%) infants were exclusively and 38 (18.4%) partially breastfed, and 23 (11.1%) were exclusively formula-fed. Saliva from all infants was cultured for Lactobacillus species, with isolate identifications from 21 infants. Lactobacillus isolates were tested for their ability to supress Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis. Oral swabs from 73 infants were analysed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) and by q-PCR for Lactobacilius gasseri. Results Lactobacilli were cultured from 27.8% of exclusively and partially breastfed infants, but not from formula-fed infants. The prevalence of 14 HOMIM detected taxa, and total salivary lactobacilli counts differed by feeding method. Multivariate modelling of HOMIM detected bacteria and possible confounders clustered samples from breastfed infants separately from formula-fed infants. The microbiota of breastfed infants differed based on vaginal or C-section delivery. Isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. gasseri and Lactobacillus vaginalis inhibited growth of the cariogenic S. mutans and the commensal S. sanguinis: L. plantarum > L. gasseri > L. vaginalis. Conclusion The microbiota of the mouth differs between breastfed and formula-fed three-month-old infants. Possible mechanisms for microbial differences observed include species suppression by lactobacilli indigenous to breast milk. PMID:22955450

Holgerson, Pernilla Lif; Vestman, Nelly Romani; Claesson, Rolf; Öhman, Carina; Domellöf, Magnus; Tanner, Anne CR; Hernell, Olle; Johansson, Ingegerd

2012-01-01

467

Vitamin A Supplementation in Extremely Low- Birth-Weight Infants: Subgroup Analysis in Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants  

PubMed Central

Objective Preterm infants with intrauterine growth restriction are at increased risk of respiratory distress syndrome and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). A randomized clinical trial by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neonatal Research Network demonstrated that vitamin A supplementation in extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) preterm infants requiring early respiratory support decreased the risk of developing BPD. Study Design A subgroup analysis of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants from the original NICHD trial was performed to test the hypothesis that in infants requiring early respiratory support, vitamin A supplementation decreases the relative risk of BPD or death in premature SGA infants to a greater extent than in gestational age–equivalent vitamin A–treated appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants. Results Although vitamin A supplementation significantly increased serum retinol concentrations in AGA ELBW infants (median [5th percentile, 95th percentile]: 16.3 [?7.0, 68.8] versus 2.4 [?13.9, 55.1]; p < 0.001), no increases were noted in SGA ELBW infants. Conclusions Given the limited power of this analysis due to a low number of SGA infants, these data did not provide evidence to support the hypothesis that vitamin A supplementation in preterm SGA infants requiring early respiratory support decreases the relative risk of BPD or death as compared with preterm AGA infants. PMID:23329565

Londhe, Vedang A.; Nolen, Tracy L.; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Tyson, Jon E.; Oh, William; Devaskar, Sherin U.

2014-01-01

468

An analysis of infant mortality in China.  

PubMed

The State Family Planning Commission sample survey on fertility and contraception conducted in 1988 among two thousandths of the population was further sampled covering 29 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China. China's infant mortality rate (IMR) during 1975-1988 was assessed. The IMR in China declined during 1975-1987 at an annual rate of 3.12%. IMR declined from 62.9/1000 live births to 36.6/1000 among males and from 45.6/1000 to 35.2/1000 among females. In urban areas the male IMR was 35.08/1000 in 1975 and 21.73/1000 in 1987, while the female IMR was 33.24/1000 in 1975 and 23.25/1000 in 1987. In rural areas the male IMR was 68.32/1000 in 1975 and 39.64/1000 in 1987, while the female IMR was 48.14/1000 in 1975 and 38.07/1000 in 1987. The IMR was substantially higher among infants whose parents engaged in agricultural work than among those parents were workers or civil servants. The IMR was approximately 50% lower among HAN people than among ethnic minorities. The IMR was substantially higher among infants whose mothers were illiterates than among infants whose mothers were high school graduates. The IMR of those who were the second child in a family tended to be higher than the IMR of those who were the first child, and the IMR of those who were the first or second child. The IMR was the lowest among infants whose mothers gave birth at the age of 25-29, followed by infants whose mothers gave birth at the age of 20-24 and 30-34. The second level of IMR (20-50/1000) was predominant in China. IMR was high in southwestern, northwestern, and central-southern China, probably attributable to the lower levels of economic and educational development and inadequate health care. The remarkable drop of IMR between 1975 and 1987 demonstrated the improvement of economy, education, and health care. In 1980, the IMR was 97/1000 for the world, 20/1000 among developed countries, and 110/1000 among developing countries. PMID:12345193

Weng, S; Wang, S

1993-01-01

469

Emotional Processing of Infants Displays in Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this study is to examine emotional processing of infant displays in people with Eating Disorders (EDs). Background Social and emotional factors are implicated as causal and maintaining factors in EDs. Difficulties in emotional regulation have been mainly studied in relation to adult interactions, with less interest given to interactions with infants. Method A sample of 138 women were recruited, of which 49 suffered from Anorexia Nervosa (AN), 16 from Bulimia Nervosa (BN), and 73 were healthy controls (HCs). Attentional responses to happy and sad infant faces were tested with the visual probe detection task. Emotional identification of, and reactivity to, infant displays were measured using self-report measures. Facial expressions to video clips depicting sad, happy and frustrated infants were also recorded. Results No significant differences between groups were observed in the attentional response to infant photographs. However, there was a trend for patients to disengage from happy faces. People with EDs also reported lower positive ratings of happy infant displays and greater subjective negative reactions to sad infants. Finally, patients showed a significantly lower production of facial expressions, especially in response to the happy infant video clip. Insecure attachment was negatively correlated with positive facial expressions displayed in response to the happy infant and positively correlated with the intensity of negative emotions experienced in response to the sad infant video clip. Conclusion People with EDs do not have marked abnormalities in their attentional processing of infant emotional faces. However, they do have a reduction in facial affect particularly in response to happy infants. Also, they report greater negative reactions to sadness, and rate positive emotions less intensively than HCs. This pattern of emotional responsivity suggests abnormalities in social reward sensitivity and might indicate new treatment targets. PMID:25463051

Cardi, Valentina; Corfield, Freya; Leppanen, Jenni; Rhind, Charlotte; Deriziotis, Stephanie; Hadjimichalis, Alexandra; Hibbs, Rebecca; Micali, Nadia; Treasure, Janet

2014-01-01

470

Infants' Response to Maternal Mirroring in the Still Face and Replay Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants' response to maternal mirroring was investigated in 4-month-old infants. Mother-infant dyads participated in the still face and replay tasks. Infants were grouped by those whose mothers did and did not mirror their behavior in the interactive phases of the tasks. In the still face task, infants with maternal mirroring showed more…

Bigelow, Ann E.; Walden, Laura M.

2009-01-01

471

Factors Associated with Infant Feeding Difficulties in the Very Preterm Infant  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate early medical and family factors associated with later feeding risk in preterm infants. Methods For this longitudinal study, we enrolled 136 infants born ?30 weeks gestation. Medical and social background factors were assessed at term equivalent age. Infants underwent magnetic resonance imaging, neurobehavioral evaluation, and feeding assessment. Parent involvement in the neonatal intensive care unit was tracked, and maternal mental health was assessed at discharge. At age two years, feeding outcome was assessed using the Eating Subscale of the Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (n=80). Associations between feeding problems at age two and 1) early medical factors, 2) neurobehavioral functioning and feeding at term equivalent age, 3) cerebral structure, and 4) maternal mental health were investigated using regression. Results Eighteen (23%) children had feeding problems at age two years. Feeding problems were associated with early hypotonia (p=0.03; ?=0.29) and lower socioeconomic status (p=0.046; ?=?0.22). No associations were observed between early medical factors, early feeding performance, cerebral structure alterations or maternal well-being and feeding outcome. Conclusion Early hypotonia may disrupt the development of oral-motor skills. Hypotonia and poor feeding also may share a common etiology. Associations with lower socioeconomic status highlight the influence of family background factors in feeding problems in the preterm infant. PMID:23952198

Crapnell, TL; Rogers, CE; Neil, JJ; Inder, TE; Woodward, LJ; Pineda, RG

2013-01-01

472

Can infant lung function predict respiratory morbidity during the first year of life in preterm infants?  

PubMed

Compared with term-born infants, preterm infants have increased respiratory morbidity in the first year of life. We investigated whether lung function tests performed near term predict subsequent respiratory morbidity during the first year of life and compared this to standard clinical parameters in preterms. The prospective birth cohort included randomly selected preterm infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Lung function (tidal breathing and multiple-breath washout) was measured at 44 weeks post-menstrual age during natural sleep. We assessed respiratory morbidity (wheeze, hospitalisation, inhalation and home oxygen therapy) after 1 year using a standardised questionnaire. We first assessed the association between lung function and subsequent respiratory morbidity. Secondly, we compared the predictive power of standard clinical predictors with and without lung function data. In 166 preterm infants, tidal volume, time to peak tidal expiratory flow/expiratory time ratio and respiratory rate were significantly associated with subsequent wheeze. In comparison with standard clinical predictors, lung function did not improve the prediction of later respiratory morbidity in an individual child. Although associated with later wheeze, noninvasive infant lung function shows large physiological variability and does not add to clinically relevant risk prediction for subsequent respiratory morbidity in an individual preterm. PMID:24696112

Proietti, Elena; Riedel, Thomas; Fuchs, Oliver; Pramana, Isabelle; Singer, Florian; Schmidt, Anne; Kuehni, Claudia; Latzin, Philipp; Frey, Urs

2014-06-01

473

Effects of maternal nicotine on breastfeeding infants  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To assess scientific evidence about the effects of maternal nicotine on infant by an integrative review. DATA SOURCES Studies published in Portuguese, English and Spanish, from 1990 to 2009, with abstracts available in the Latin American Health Sciences Literature (Lilacs) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System On-Line (Medline) databases. The descriptors were: "breastfeeding", "lactation" and "smoking". DATA SYNTHESIS The main identified effects of nicotine on infants were: changes in sleep and wakefulness patterns; reduction of iodine supply; hystopathological damage on liver and lung; intracellular oxidative damage; reduction of pancreatic ß cells; and decreased glucose tolerance. CONCLUSIONS It is recommended to inform mothers about harmful chemicals contained in cigarettes that can be secreted into breast milk. They should be strongly encouraged to stop smoking during lactation. PMID:24142324

Primo, Cândida Caniçali; Ruela, Priscilla Bôa F.; Brotto, Léia Damasceno de A.; Garcia, Telma Ribeiro; Lima, Eliane de Fátima

2013-01-01

474

Acute bronchiolitis in infants, a review  

PubMed Central

Acute viral bronchiolitis is one of the most common medical emergency situations in infancy, and physicians caring for acutely ill children will regularly be faced with this condition. In this article we present a summary of the epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis, and focus on guidelines for the treatment of bronchiolitis in infants. The cornerstones of the management of viral bronchiolitis are the administration of oxygen and appropriate fluid therapy, and overall a “minimal handling approach” is recommended. Inhaled adrenaline is commonly used in some countries, but the evidences are sparse. Recently, inhalation with hypertonic saline has been suggested as an optional treatment. When medical treatment fails to stabilize the infants, non-invasive and invasive ventilation may be necessary to prevent and support respiratory failure. It is important that relevant treatment algorithms exist, applicable to all levels of the treatment chain and reflecting local considerations and circumstances. PMID:24694087

2014-01-01

475

Introduction of Solid Food to Young Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timing of the first introduction of solid food during infancy may have potential effects on life-long health. To understand\\u000a the characteristics that are associated with the timing of infants’ initial exposure to solid foods. The 2000 National Survey\\u000a of Early Childhood Health (NSECH) was a nationally representative telephone survey of 2,068 parents of children aged 4–35 months,\\u000a which profiled content and

Alice A. Kuo; Moira Inkelas; Wendelin M. Slusser; Molly Maidenberg; Neal Halfon

476

Planning by 12-Month-Old Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an investigation of 1-year-olds' ability to plan a sequence of steps, 20 infants were administered a compound means-ends problem. In a planning condition, a barrier was placed in front of a cloth at the far end of which was placed one end of a long string. A toy was fastened to the other end of the string and was placed on a table at some…

Willatts, Peter; Rosie, Karen

477

Addition and subtraction by human infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

HUMAN infants can discriminate between different small numbers of items1-4, and can determine numerical equivalence across perceptual modalities5,6. This may indicate the possession of true numerical concepts1,4-7. Alternatively, purely perceptual discriminations may underlie these abilities8,9. This debate addresses the nature of subitization, the ability to quantify small numbers of items without conscious counting10,11. Subitization may involve the holistic recognition of

Karen Wynn

1992-01-01

478

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Famotidine in Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous famotidine were evaluated in 10 infants ranging from 5 to 19 days of age who had a therapeutic indication for the prophylactic treatment of stress ulceration. After a 0.5-mg\\/kg infusion of famotidine, timed serum (n = 6), urine (24-hour collection), and repeated measurements of gastric pH were obtained. The mean ± standard deviation maximum

Laura P. James; Tonya Marotti; Cindy D. Stowe; Henry C. Farrar; Bonnie J. Taylor; Gregory L. Kearns

1998-01-01

479

Early Feeding Skills Assessment in Preterm Infants  

E-print Network

(Stumm et al., 2008). Infants of diabetic mothers are at risk for macrosomia, hypoglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, cardiomyopathy, RDS, iron deficiency, birth at a premature age, and fetal hypoxic events (Nold & Georfieff, 2004; Weindling, 2009..., & Chu, 2008; Poore, Zimmerman, Barlow, Wang, & Gu, 2008). The NTrainer System® stimulus mimics the spatiotemporal patterning of an NNS burst by modulating the air pressure within the pacifier which in turn results in mechanical deflections...

Williamson, Lindsey R.

2013-12-31

480

Congenital midnasal stenosis in an infant.  

PubMed

Neonates and infants are obligate nasal breathers and nasal obstruction in this age group can be a life threatening emergency. Even though the commonest cause for nasal obstruction is nasal oedema, bony stenosis of the posterior choanae or pyriform aperture is quite common and may be seen on CT scans. We describe a case of mid-nasal stenosis in a neonate and discuss the aetiology and management of nasal obstruction in this age group. PMID:15126025

Raghavan, U; Fuad, F; Gibbin, K P

2004-06-01

481

Benzodiazepines for Sedation in Infants and Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzodiazepines are commonly used to provide sedation for infants and children undergoing intensive care or diagnostic and\\u000a therapeutic procedures in a variety of clinical settings. This chapter focuses on Midazolam as representative of this class\\u000a of drug. Midazolam provides sedation by altering the neuroinhibitory pathway mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid. It is primarily\\u000a metabolized by the hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme subfamily

Eugene Ng; Vibhuti Shah

482

Monodialectal and multidialectal infants' representation of familiar words.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Monolingual infants are typically studied as a homogenous group and compared to bilingual infants. This study looks further into two subgroups of monolingual infants, monodialectal and multidialectal, to identify the effects of dialect-related variation on the phonological representation of words. Using an Intermodal Preferential Looking task, the detection of mispronunciations in familiar words was compared in infants aged 1;8 exposed to consistent (monodialectal) or variable (multidialectal) pronunciations of words in their daily input. Only monodialectal infants detected the mispronunciations whereas multidialectal infants looked longer at the target following naming whether the label was correctly produced or not. This suggests that variable phonological input in the form of dialect variation impacts the degree of specificity of lexical representations in early infancy. PMID:24655564

Durrant, Samantha; Delle Luche, Claire; Cattani, Allegra; Floccia, Caroline

2015-03-01

483

Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in infants: diagnostic usefulness and safety.  

PubMed

Although fiberoptic, upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy has become an accepted diagnostic technique in the older child and adult, concerns about safety have limited the use of this procedure in infants. A 1-year experience with 49 upper gastrointestinal endoscopies in infants less than 25 months of age is reported. There were varied indications for the procedures, including upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and obstruction, but evaluation for esophagitis secondary to gastroesophageal reflux was most common. Procedures were performed without sedation in 45% of all infants studied, including 87% of infants less than 3 months of age; procedures were well tolerated. General anesthesia was used on only three occasions. A thorough examination was always possible, and biopsies were taken whenever indicated. Only one complication, transient bradycardia, occurred in a critically ill infant. This experience demonstrates that upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a safe and effective diagnostic aid in infants, and it can often be performed with little or no sedation. PMID:6493878

Hargrove, C B; Ulshen, M H; Shub, M D

1984-11-01

484

Skin-to-skin parental contact with fragile preterm infants.  

PubMed

Skin-to-skin contact has been implemented recently to facilitate maternal-infant bonding of preterm infants. The technique allows the removal of fragile preterm infants from an incubator to the bare chest of a parent or caretaker. When specific guidelines are followed, thermal stability can be maintained, parent-infant bonding can be facilitated, and parental satisfaction can be enhanced. We illustrate a case in which a preterm infant has skin-to-skin contact while being monitored for physiologic parameters, including heart and respiratory rate, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and nasal airflow. Improvements in breathing patterns in this infant during skin-to-skin care and maintenance of a normal temperature suggest that this technique may not only be safe and psychologically beneficial, but it may also promote physiologic improvement. PMID:9284613

Cleary, G M; Spinner, S S; Gibson, E; Greenspan, J S

1997-08-01

485

Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants  

PubMed Central

There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebral palsy. It is still unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate for premature infants; however, until the results of further studies are available, a reasonable target for pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) is 90 to 93% with an intermittent review of the correlation between SpO2 and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2). Because optimal oxygenation depends on individuals at the bedside making ongoing adjustments, each unit must define an optimal target range and set alarm limits according to their own equipment or conditions. All staff must be aware of these values and adjust the concentration of supplemental oxygen frequently. PMID:22232627

2011-01-01

486

Cortical Source Localization of Infant Cognition  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission topography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been utilized with older children and adults to identify cortical sources of perceptual and cognitive processes. However, due to practical and ethical concerns, these techniques cannot be routinely applied to infant participants. An alternative to such neuroimaging techniques appropriate for use with infant participants is high-density EEG recording and cortical source localization techniques. The current paper provides an overview of a method developed for such analyses. The method consists of four steps: 1) recording high-density (e.g., 128-channel) EEG. 2) Analysis of individual participant raw segmented data with independent component analysis (ICA). 3) Estimation of equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) that represent cortical sources for the observed ICA component clusters. 4) Calculation of component activations in relation to experimental factors. We discuss an example of research applying this technique to investigate the development of visual attention and recognition memory. We also describe the application of “realistic head modeling” to address some of the current limitations of infant cortical source localization. PMID:19437206

Reynolds, GD; Richards, JE

2009-01-01

487

Cortical source localization of infant cognition.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission topography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been utilized with older children and adults to identify cortical sources of perceptual and cognitive processes. However, due to practical and ethical concerns, these techniques cannot be routinely applied to infant participants. An alternative to such neuroimaging techniques appropriate for use with infant participants is high-density electroencephalogram (EEG) recording and cortical source localization techniques. The current article provides an overview of a method developed for such analyses. The method consists of four steps: (1) recording high-density (e.g., 128-channel) EEG. (2) Analysis of individual participant raw segmented data with independent component analysis (ICA). (3) Estimation of equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) that represent cortical sources for the observed ICA component clusters. (4) Calculation of component activations in relation to experimental factors. We discuss an example of research applying this technique to investigate the development of visual attention and recognition memory. We also describe the application of "realistic head modeling" to address some of the current limitations of infant cortical source localization. PMID:19437206

Reynolds, Greg D; Richards, John E

2009-01-01

488

Infant mortality and child health in Brazil.  

PubMed

Child health is a central issue in the public policy agenda of developing countries. Several policies aimed at improving child health have been implemented over the years, with varying degrees of success. In Brazil, such policies have triggered a significant decline in infant mortality rates over the last 30 years. Despite this improvement, however, mortality rates are still high compared to international standards. Moreover, there is considerable imbalance across Brazilian municipalities suggesting that various policies should be adopted. We investigate the determinants of infant mortality at the municipal level and provide an analysis of the factors affecting child health at the individual level. To analyze the mortality rate, we estimate static and dynamic panel data models using four censuses covering the period from 1970 to 2000. The demand for child health, on the other hand, is addressed through a household decision model, estimated using anthropometric data from the 1996 Standard of Living Survey. The results obtained indicate that a rise in sanitation, education and per capita income contributed to the decline of infant mortality in Brazil, with stronger impacts in the long run than in the short run. The fixed effects associated with county characteristics explain the observed dispersion in child mortality rates. The results from the decision model are confirmed by the findings of the mortality model: education, sanitation and poverty are the most important causes of poor child health in Brazil. PMID:15576245

Alves, Denisard; Belluzzo, Walter

2004-12-01

489

Infants Help a Non-Human Agent  

PubMed Central

Young children can be motivated to help adults by sympathetic concern based upon empathy, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. One account of empathy-based sympathetic helping in adults states that it arises due to direct-matching mirror-system mechanisms which allow the observer to vicariously experience the situation of the individual in need of help. This mechanism could not account for helping of a geometric-shape agent lacking human-isomorphic body-parts. Here 17-month-olds observed a ball-shaped non-human agent trying to reach a goal but failing because it was blocked by a barrier. Infants helped the agent by lifting it over the barrier. They performed this action less frequently in a control condition in which the barrier could not be construed as blocking the agent. Direct matching is therefore not required for motivating helping in infants, indicating that at least some of our early helpful tendencies do not depend on human-specific mechanisms. Empathy-based mechanisms that do not require direct-matching provide one plausible basis for the observed helping. A second possibility is that rather than being based on empathy, the observed helping occurred as a result of a goal-contagion process in which the infants were primed with the unfulfilled goal. PMID:24058657

Kenward, Ben; Gredebäck, Gustaf

2013-01-01

490

Quality and safety aspects of infant nutrition.  

PubMed

Quality and safety aspects of infant nutrition are of key importance for child health, but oftentimes they do not get much attention by health care professionals whose interest tends to focus on functional benefits of early nutrition. Unbalanced diets and harmful food components induce particularly high risks for untoward effects in infants because of their rapid growth, high nutrient needs, and their typical dependence on only one or few foods during the first months of life. The concepts, standards and practices that relate to infant food quality and safety were discussed at a scientific workshop organized by the Child Health Foundation and the Early Nutrition Academy jointly with the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, and a summary is provided here. The participants reviewed past and current issues on quality and safety, the role of different stakeholders, and recommendations to avert future issues. It was concluded that a high level of quality and safety is currently achieved, but this is no reason for complacency. The food industry carries the primary responsibility for the safety and suitability of their products, including the quality of composition, raw materials and production processes. Introduction of new or modified products should be preceded by a thorough science based review of suitability and safety by an independent authority. Food safety events should be managed on an international basis. Global collaboration of food producers, food-safety authorities, paediatricians and scientists is needed to efficiently exchange information and to best protect public health. PMID:22699763

Koletzko, Berthold; Shamir, Raanan; Ashwell, Margaret

2012-01-01

491

The ethics of circumcision of male infants.  

PubMed

Infant circumcision has recently attracted controversy with professional groups recommending it and various individuals trying to criminalize it. Circumcision is beneficial in the prevention of certain diseases, causing minimal tangible harm to those circumcised. This article argues that government should affirmatively adopt policies tolerating minority practices. Such activities should be banned only if they cause substantial damage to society or its members, or if they engender risks or injuries to which no reasonable person would consent. The benefits and risks of circumcision are outlined. Circumcision of male infants does not trigger cause for government to abolish it, and should be permitted if parents desire it. This article also summarizes common arguments against circumcision and attempts to refute them. These arguments are based on a desire for gender equality as well as a belief that minors should not undergo elective bodily alteration. If there are no unusual risks, parents can ethically authorize, and physicians ethically perform, elective infant circumcision for prophylaxis of disease, ritual purposes, or aesthetic reasons. Furthermore, the state should permit this. PMID:23484246

Jacobs, Allan J

2013-01-01

492

Environmentally-induced methemoglobinemia in an infant  

SciTech Connect

Acquired methemoglobinemia results from the exposure to various chemicals and drugs able to oxidize hemoglobin at a rate exceeding the normal enzymatic capacity for hemoglobin reduction. Levels of methemoglobin exceeding 60-70% may be associated with coma and death. We describe a case of complete, uneventful recovery involving a 10 week-old infant who presented to the Emergency Department with profound sudden onset of cyanosis, irritability, metabolic acidosis, and a lethal methemoglobin level of 71.4%. Intravenous administration of 12 mg methylene blue resulted in immediate resolution of the cyanosis and reduction of measured methemoglobin to 1.3%. The carboxyhemoglobin was negative. Sodium bicarbonate successfully corrected the acidosis. RBC reductase measurement was within normal limits, ruling out congenital methemoglobinemia. Family history revealed a wood-burning stove which emitted pine tar fumes as the potential environmental methemoglobin-producing source. The infant's cradle was situated five feet from the stove. The infant was discharged on day three of hospitalization with a methemoglobin level of 0.2%.

Dean, B.S.; Lopez, G.; Krenzelok, E.P. (Pittsburgh Poison Center, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1992-01-01

493

Environmentally-induced methemoglobinemia in an infant.  

PubMed

Acquired methemoglobinemia results from the exposure to various chemicals and drugs able to oxidize hemoglobin at a rate exceeding the normal enzymatic capacity for hemoglobin reduction. Levels of methemoglobin exceeding 60-70% may be associated with coma and death. We describe a case of complete, uneventful recovery involving a 10 week-old infant who presented to the Emergency Department with profound sudden onset of cyanosis, irritability, metabolic acidosis, and a lethal methemoglobin level of 71.4%. Intravenous administration of 12 mg methylene blue resulted in immediate resolution of the cyanosis and reduction of measured methemoglobin to 1.3%. The carboxyhemoglobin was negative. Sodium bicarbonate successfully corrected the acidosis. RBC reductase measurement was within normal limits, ruling out congenital methemoglobinemia. Family history revealed a wood-burning stove which emitted pine tar fumes as the potential environmental methemoglobin-producing source. The infant's cradle was situated five feet from the stove. The infant was discharged on day three of hospitalization with a methemoglobin level of 0.2%. PMID:1542142

Dean, B S; Lopez, G; Krenzelok, E P

1992-01-01

494

Gasless laparoscopy in infants: the rabbit model.  

PubMed

Laparoscopic operations can be performed in neonates and infants, but carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum may be more dangerous than in adults. Therefore the concept of gasless laparoscopy is especially attractive for small children. The authors have developed an animal training model of gasless infant laparoscopy using the rabbit. Eleven New Zealand white rabbits (mean weight, 2.2 kg) were premedicated with fentanyl (10 micrograms intramuscularly) and maintained under inhalation anesthesia by mask, with halothane (1.0 to 2.5%) in oxygen and nitrous oxide (1:1). The animals were neither intubated nor mechanically ventilated. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were monitored by pulse oximetry. A supraumbilical incision was made through the peritoneum, and an abdominal wall elevator was inserted. A 4-mm-diameter 30 degrees endoscope was introduced at the same site, allowing excellent visualization of the abdominal cavity. Three additional 5-mm cannulas were placed, and a standard Nissen fundoplication was performed in all 11 animals. In seven of these, a left nephrectomy was also performed. Five-millimeter pediatric instruments and 1.7- and 2.7-mm laryngoscopic instruments were used. The rabbit can serve as a training model for laparoscopy in the infant. Gasless laparoscopy, using abdominal wall elevation, may be particularly useful in very small patients. PMID:7472984

Luks, F I; Peers, K H; Deprest, J A; Lerut, T E

1995-08-01

495

Calculating rhythmicity of infant breathing using wavelets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breathing signals are one set of physiological data that may provide information regarding the mechanisms that cause SIDS. Isolated breathing pauses have been implicated in fatal events. Other features of interest include slow amplitude modulation of the breathing signal, a phenomenon whose origin is unclear, and periodic breathing. The latter describes a repetitive series of apnea, and may be considered an extreme manifestation of amplitude modulation with successive cessations of breathing. Rhythmicity is defined to assess the impact of amplitude modulation on breathing signals and describes the extent to which frequency components remain constant for the duration of the signal. The wavelet transform was used to identify sections of constant frequency components within signals. Rhythmicity can be evaluated for all the frequency components in a signal, for individual frequencies. The rhythmicity of eight breathing epochs from sleeping infants at high and low risk for SIDS was calculated. Initial results show breathing from infants at high risk for SIDS exhibits greater rhythmicity of modulating frequencies than breathing from low risk infants.

Macey, Katherine E.; Page, Wyatt H.; Harper, Ronald M.; Macey, Paul M.; Ford, Rodney P. K.

2000-12-01

496

Fundamental frequency development in typically developing infants and infants with severe-to-profound hearing loss  

PubMed Central

Little research has been conducted on the development of suprasegmental characteristics of vocalizations in typically developing infants (TDI) and the role of audition in the development of these characteristics. The purpose of the present study was to examine the longitudinal development of fundamental frequency (F0) in eight TDI and eight infants with severe-to-profound hearing loss matched for level of vocal development. Results revealed no significant changes in F0 with advances in pre-language vocal development for TDI. Infants with hearing loss, however, showed a statistically reliable higher variability of F0 than TDI, when age was accounted for as a covariate. The results suggest development of F0 may be strongly influenced by audition. PMID:19031191

Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Oller, D. Kimbrough

2010-01-01

497

The Beginnings of Word Segmentation in English-Learning Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 15 experiments was conducted to explore English-learning infants' capacities to segment bisyllabic words from fluent speech. The studies in Part I focused on 7.5 month olds' abilities to segment words with strong\\/weak stress patterns from fluent speech. The infants demonstrated an ability to detect strong\\/weak target words in sentential contexts. Moreover, the findings indicated that the infants

Peter W. Jusczyk; Derek M. Houston; Mary Newsome

1999-01-01

498

Social Evaluations of 7- and 8-Month-Old Infants  

E-print Network

SOCIAL EVALUATIONS OF 7- AND 8-MONTH-OLD INFANTS A Thesis by TYLER JOSHUA KASPERBAUER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 2012 Major Subject: Psychology Social Evaluations of 7- and 8-Month-Old Infants Copyright 2012 Tyler Joshua Kasperbauer SOCIAL EVALUATIONS OF 7- AND 8-MONTH-OLD INFANTS A Thesis...

Kasperbauer, Tyler

2012-07-16

499

Placental transfer and pharmacokinetics of thiopentone in newborn infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and ObjectivesThiopentone, a short-acting barbiturate, has been introduced as premedication for intubation in newborn infants. The objectives of this study were to assess the pharmacokinetics of thiopentone in newborn infants, and to unravel whether placental transfer of the drug should be taken into account if administered to infants exposed to it during delivery.MethodsPlasma concentrations were assessed with high-pressure liquid

Elisabeth Norman; Per Westrin; Vineta Fellman

2010-01-01

500

Mycotoxins in infant cereal foods from the Canadian retail market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three hundred and sixty-three samples of cereal-based infant foods were collected from the Canadian retail marketplace over 3 years. The samples included oat-, barley-, soy-, and rice-based infant cereals, mixed-grain infant cereals, teething biscuits, creamed corn, and soy-based formulas. Samples were analysed for targeted mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, HT-2 toxin, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, fumonisins B1 and B2, and five ergot alkaloids).

G. A. Lombaert; P. Pellaers; V. Roscoe; M. Mankotia; R. Neil; P. M. Scott

2003-01-01