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Sample records for code plagiarism detection

  1. Plagiarism Detection Algorithm for Source Code in Computer Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xin; Xu, Chan; Ouyang, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, computer programming is getting more necessary in the course of program design in college education. However, the trick of plagiarizing plus a little modification exists among some students' home works. It's not easy for teachers to judge if there's plagiarizing in source code or not. Traditional detection algorithms cannot fit this…

  2. A Comparison of Source Code Plagiarism Detection Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Thomas; Culwin, Fintan

    2004-01-01

    Automated techniques for finding plagiarism in student source code submissions have been in use for over 20 years and there are many available engines and services. This paper reviews the literature on the major modern detection engines, providing a comparison of them based upon the metrics and techniques they deploy. Generally the most common and…

  3. A Comparison of Source Code Plagiarism Detection Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Thomas; Culwin, Fintan

    2004-06-01

    Automated techniques for finding plagiarism in student source code submissions have been in use for over 20 years and there are many available engines and services. This paper reviews the literature on the major modern detection engines, providing a comparison of them based upon the metrics and techniques they deploy. Generally the most common and effective techniques are seen to involve tokenising student submissions then searching pairs of submissions for long common substrings, an example of what is defined to be a paired structural metric. Computing academics are recommended to use one of the two Web-based detection engines, MOSS and JPlag. It is shown that whilst detection is well established there are still places where further research would be useful, particularly where visual support of the investigation process is possible.

  4. Process Model Improvement for Source Code Plagiarism Detection in Student Programming Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kermek, Dragutin; Novak, Matija

    2016-01-01

    In programming courses there are various ways in which students attempt to cheat. The most commonly used method is copying source code from other students and making minimal changes in it, like renaming variable names. Several tools like Sherlock, JPlag and Moss have been devised to detect source code plagiarism. However, for larger student…

  5. Presenting an Alternative Source Code Plagiarism Detection Framework for Improving the Teaching and Learning of Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattingh, Frederik; Buitendag, Albertus A. K.; van der Walt, Jacobus S.

    2013-01-01

    The transfer and teaching of programming and programming related skills has become, increasingly difficult on an undergraduate level over the past years. This is partially due to the number of programming languages available as well as access to readily available source code over the Web. Source code plagiarism is common practice amongst many…

  6. Source Code Plagiarism--A Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, M.; Cosma, G.; Yau, J. Y.-K.; Sinclair, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of source code plagiarism by students within the computing disciplines and reports the results of a survey of students in Computing departments in 18 institutions in the U.K. This survey was designed to investigate how well students understand the concept of source code plagiarism and to discover what, if any,…

  7. Rapid assessment of assignments using plagiarism detection software.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Whitney R; Abrego, Patricia C

    2011-01-01

    Faculty members most often use plagiarism detection software to detect portions of students' written work that have been copied and/or not attributed to their authors. The rise in plagiarism has led to a parallel rise in software products designed to detect plagiarism. Some of these products are configurable for rapid assessment and teaching, as well as for plagiarism detection. PMID:22024673

  8. Automatic Student Plagiarism Detection: Future Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozgovoy, Maxim; Kakkonen, Tuomo; Cosma, Georgina

    2010-01-01

    The availability and use of computers in teaching has seen an increase in the rate of plagiarism among students because of the wide availability of electronic texts online. While computer tools that have appeared in recent years are capable of detecting simple forms of plagiarism, such as copy-paste, a number of recent research studies devoted to…

  9. Does the Adoption of Plagiarism-Detection Software in Higher Education Reduce Plagiarism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youmans, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    In two studies, students at California State University, Northridge wrote papers that were checked for plagiarism using plagiarism-detection software. In the first study, half of the students in two classes were randomly selected and told by the professor that their term papers would be scanned for plagiarism using the software. Students in the…

  10. The Toolbox for Local and Global Plagiarism Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butakov, Sergey; Scherbinin, Vladislav

    2009-01-01

    Digital plagiarism is a problem for educators all over the world. There are many software tools on the market for uncovering digital plagiarism. Most of them can work only with text submissions. In this paper, we present a new architecture for a plagiarism detection tool that can work with many different kinds of digital submissions, from plain or…

  11. Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. PMID:25309952

  12. Guidelines on What Constitutes Plagiarism and Electronic Tools to Detect it.

    PubMed

    Luksanapruksa, Panya; Millhouse, Paul W

    2016-04-01

    Plagiarism is a serious ethical problem among scientific publications. There are various definitions of plagiarism, and the major categories include unintentional (unsuitable paraphrasing or improper citations) and intentional. Intentional plagiarism includes mosaic plagiarism, plagiarism of ideas, plagiarism of text, and self-plagiarism. There are many Web sites and software packages that claim to detect plagiarism effectively. A violation of plagiarism laws can lead to serious consequences including author banning, loss of professional reputation, termination of a position, and even legal action. PMID:26925859

  13. Online Plagiarism Detection Services--Saviour or Scourge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeever, Lucy

    2006-01-01

    Although the exponential growth of the Internet has made it easier than ever to carry out plagiarism, it has also made it much easier to detect. This paper gives an overview of the many different methods of detecting web-based plagiarism which are currently available, assessing practical matters such as cost, functionality and performance.…

  14. Grade Expectations: Mapping Stakeholder Views of Online Plagiarism Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashe, Diana; Manning, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Based upon a pilot study of the leading online plagiarism detection service, this article examines the views of faculty and students as the main stakeholders in the controversy over online plagiarism detection. Rather than give advice outside of a specific institutional context, this study offers an understanding of the reasoning that informs the…

  15. Education Improves Plagiarism Detection by Biology Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Emily A.

    2012-01-01

    Regrettably, the sciences are not untouched by the plagiarism affliction that threatens the integrity of budding professionals in classrooms around the world. My research, however, suggests that plagiarism training can improve students' recognition of plagiarism. I found that 148 undergraduate ecology students successfully identified plagiarized…

  16. Protecting Student Intellectual Property in Plagiarism Detection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butakov, Sergey; Barber, Craig

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of the Internet along with increasing computer literacy has made it easy and tempting for digital natives to copy-paste someone's work. Plagiarism is now a burning issue in education, industry and even in the research community. In this study, the authors concentrate on plagiarism detection with particular focus on the…

  17. Realigning the Focus of Plagiarism Detection Using "Plagiarismdetect.com"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabapathy, Elangkeeran A/L; Rahim, Rozlan Abd; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which "plagiarismdetect.com," an internet help/tool to detect plagiarism helps academicians tackle the ever-growing problem of plagiarism. Concerned with term papers, essays and most of the time with full-blown research reports, a tool like "plagiarismdetect.com" may…

  18. Plagiarism: Examination of Conceptual Issues and Evaluation of Research Findings on Using Detection Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantinidis, Angelos; Theodosiadou, Dimitra; Pappos, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyze and evaluate the research findings on using Plagiarism Detection Services (PDS) in universities. In order to do that, conceptual issues about plagiarism are examined and the complex nature of plagiarism is discussed. Subsequently, the pragmatic forms of student plagiarism are listed and PDS strategies on…

  19. Combating unethical publications with plagiarism detection services

    PubMed Central

    Garner, H.R.

    2010-01-01

    About 3,000 new citations that are highly similar to citations in previously published manuscripts that appear each year in the biomedical literature (Medline) alone. This underscores the importance for the opportunity for editors and reviewers to have detection system to identify highly similar text in submitted manuscripts so that they can then review them for novelty. New software-based services, both commercial and free, provide this capability. The availability of such tools provides both a way to intercept suspect manuscripts and serve as a deterrent. Unfortunately, the capabilities of these services vary considerably, mainly as a consequence of the availability and completeness of the literature bases to which new queries are compared. Most of the commercial software has been designed for detection of plagiarism in high school and college papers, however, there is at least one fee-based service (CrossRef) and one free service (etblast.org) which are designed to target the needs of the biomedical publication industry. Information on these various services, examples of the type of operability and output, and things that need to be considered by publishers, editors and reviewers before selecting and using these services is provided. PMID:21194644

  20. Detecting Plagiarism in MS Access Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Assurance of individual effort from students in computer-based assignments is a challenge. Due to digitization, students can easily use a copy of their friend's work and submit it as their own. Plagiarism in assignments puts students who cheat at par with those who work honestly and this compromises the learning evaluation process. Using a…

  1. An Empirical Research Study of the Efficacy of Two Plagiarism-Detection Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jacob D.; Page, Elaine Fetyko

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a study of the two most popular plagiarism-detection software platforms available on today's market--Turnitin (http://www.turnitin.com/static/index.html) and SafeAssign (http://www.safeassign.com/). After a brief discussion of plagiarism's relevance to librarians, the authors examine plagiarism-detection methodology and…

  2. Judge Rules Plagiarism-Detection Tool Falls under "Fair Use"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Judge Claude M. Hilton, of the U.S. District Court in Alexandria, Virginia, in March found that scanning the student papers for the purpose of detecting plagiarism is a "highly transformative" use that falls under the fair-use provision of copyright law. He ruled that the company "makes no use of any work's particular expressive or creative…

  3. Protecting Students' Intellectual Property in the Web Plagiarism Detection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butakov, Sergey; Dyagilev, Vadim; Tskhay, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Learning management systems (LMS) play a central role in communications in online and distance education. In the digital era, with all the information now accessible at students' fingertips, plagiarism detection services (PDS) have become a must-have part of LMS. Such integration provides a seamless experience for users, allowing PDS to check…

  4. Hermetic and Web Plagiarism Detection Systems for Student Essays--An Evaluation of the State-of-the-Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakkonen, Tuomo; Mozgovoy, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    Plagiarism has become a serious problem in education, and several plagiarism detection systems have been developed for dealing with this problem. This study provides an empirical evaluation of eight plagiarism detection systems for student essays. We present a categorical hierarchy of the most common types of plagiarism that are encountered in…

  5. Using the Google Search Engine to Detect Word-for-Word Plagiarism in Master's Theses: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Mark; Holmberg, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore Google's potential for detecting occurrences of word-for-word (1) plagiarism in master's theses. The authors sought answers to these questions:1. Is Google an effective tool for detecting plagiarism in master's theses?2. Is Google an efficient tool for detecting plagiarism in master's theses?The first…

  6. An analysis of student privacy rights in the use of plagiarism detection systems.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Bo

    2013-09-01

    Plagiarism detection services are a powerful tool to help encourage academic integrity. Adoption of these services has proven to be controversial due to ethical concerns about students' rights. Central to these concerns is the fact that most such systems make permanent archives of student work to be re-used in plagiarism detection. This computerization and automation of plagiarism detection is changing the relationships of trust and responsibility between students, educators, educational institutions, and private corporations. Educators must respect student privacy rights when implementing such systems. Student work is personal information, not the property of the educator or institution. The student has the right to be fully informed about how plagiarism detection works, and the fact that their work will be permanently archived as a result. Furthermore, plagiarism detection should not be used if the permanent archiving of a student's work may expose him or her to future harm. PMID:22618162

  7. Plagiarism by Adult Learners Online: A Case Study in Detection and Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jocoy, Christine; DiBiase, David

    2006-01-01

    Detecting and combating plagiarism from Web-based sources is a concern for administrators and instructors involved in online distance education. In this paper, we quantify copy-and-paste plagiarism among adult learners in an online geography course offered through Penn State's World Campus Geographic Information Systems (GIS) certificate program.…

  8. Back Translation: An Emerging Sophisticated Cyber Strategy to Subvert Advances in "Digital Age" Plagiarism Detection and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael; Sheridan, Lynnaire

    2015-01-01

    Advances have been made in detecting and deterring the student plagiarism that has accompanied the uptake and development of the internet. Many authors from the late 1990s onwards grappled with plagiarism in the digital age, presenting articles that were provoking and established the foundation for strategies to address cyber plagiarism, including…

  9. Student Plagiarism and the Use of a Plagiarism Detection Tool by Community College Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurmond, Bradley H.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to better inform community college administrators and faculty regarding possible factors that contribute to higher levels of student plagiarism and to suggest appropriate preventative or responsive interventions. The specific purpose of the study was to investigate a set of faculty related factors that may be associated with…

  10. Plagiarism in computer science courses

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.K.

    1994-12-31

    Plagiarism of computer programs has long been a problem in higher education. Ease of electronic copying, vague understanding by students as to what constitutes plagiarism, increasing acceptance of plagiarism by students, lack of enforcement by instructors and school administrators, and a whole host of other factors contribute to plagiarism. The first step in curbing plagiarism is prevention, the second (and much less preferable) is detection. History files and software metrics can be used as a tool to aid in detecting possible plagiarism. This paper gives advice concerning how to deal with plagiarism and with using software monitors to detect plagiarism.

  11. Plagiarism in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahabuddin, Syed

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism sometimes creates legal and ethical problems for students and faculty. It can have serious consequences. Fortunately, there are ways to stop plagiarism. There are many tools available to detect plagiarism, e.g. using software for detecting submitted articles. Also, there are many ways to punish a plagiarist, e.g. banning plagiarists…

  12. Student's Plagiarisms in Higher Learning Institutions in the Era of Improved Internet Access: Case Study of Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anney, Vicent Naano; Mosha, Mary Atanas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated students' plagiarism practices in Tanzania higher learning institutions by involving two universities-one public and one private university as a case study. The universities involved have honour code and policies for plagiarism detection however they do not employ software for checking students' plagiarism. The study…

  13. A Comprehensive Definition of Plagiarism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddell, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Explains how the internet has made it easy for students to plagiarize papers. Gives definitions for plagiarism. Explains reasons why students plagiarize including the following: they don't understand what it is, they think they won't get caught, etc. Describes ways to detect and prevent plagiarism. (ontains 58 references.)(MZ)

  14. Turnitoff: Identifying and Fixing a Hole in Current Plagiarism Detection Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heather, James

    2010-01-01

    In recent times, "plagiarism detection software" has become popular in universities and colleges, in an attempt to stem the tide of plagiarised student coursework. Such software attempts to detect any copied material and identify its source. The most popular such software is Turnitin, a commercial system used by thousands of institutions in more…

  15. Evaluating an Electronic Plagiarism Detection Service: The Importance of Trust and the Difficulty of Proving Students Don't Cheat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism by students is seen as an increasing problem. The fear is that students will use the internet to obtain analysis, interpretation or even complete assignments and then submit these as their own work. Electronic plagiarism detection services may help to prevent such unfair practice but, in doing so, they create a new problem: certifying…

  16. Student and Staff Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Plagiarism Detection Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Doug; Yeoh, Sue

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine student and staff perceptions of the effectiveness of plagiarism detection software. A mixed methods approach was undertaken, using a research model adapted from the literature. Eight hours of interviews were conducted with six students and six teaching staff from Curtin Business School at Curtin…

  17. How to Act When Research Misconduct Is Not Detected by Software but Revealed by the Author of the Plagiarized Article.

    PubMed

    Baydik, Olga D; Gasparyan, Armen Yuri

    2016-10-01

    The detection of plagiarism in scholarly articles is a complex process. It requires not just quantitative analysis with the similarity recording by anti-plagiarism software but also assessment of the readers' opinion, pointing to the theft of ideas, methodologies, and graphics. In this article we describe a blatant case of plagiarism by Chinese authors, who copied a Russian article from a non-indexed and not widely visible Russian journal, and published their own report in English in an open-access journal indexed by Scopus and Web of Science and archived in PubMed Central. The details of copying in the translated English article were presented by the Russian author to the chief editor of the index journal, consultants from Scopus, anti-plagiarism experts, and the administrator of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The correspondents from Scopus and COPE pointed to the decisive role of the editors' of the English journal who may consider further actions if plagiarism is confirmed. After all, the chief editor of the English journal retracted the article on grounds of plagiarism and published a retraction note, although no details of the complexity of the case were reported. The case points to the need for combining anti-plagiarism efforts and actively seeking opinion of non-native English-speaking authors and readers who may spot intellectual theft which is not always detected by software. PMID:27550475

  18. Plagiarism in Grant Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markin, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not news that software exists to check undergraduate papers for plagiarism. What is less well known is that some federal grant agencies are using technology to detect plagiarism in grant proposals. That variety of research misconduct is a growing problem, according to federal experts. The National Science Foundation, in its most recent…

  19. Changing Attitudes in Learning and Assessment: Cast-Off "Plagiarism Detection" and Cast-On Self-Service Assessment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Esyin; Ding, Seong Lin; Rowell, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Considering the change of attitudes of plagiarism detection to assessment for learning, it is necessary to explore the effect of the paradigm shift for Turnitin, from "plagiarism detection" to self-service learning aid. Two research questions are explored in the present study: (1) How Turnitin augments self-service skills of students and…

  20. A Model for Determining Student Plagiarism: Electronic Detection and Academic Judgement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretag, Tracey; Mahmud, Saadia

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides insights based on the authors' own practice as university instructors, researchers and arbitrators of student plagiarism. Recognising the difficulty in defining plagiarism while still acknowledging the practical importance of doing so, the authors find the common element between the various types of plagiarism to be the lack of…

  1. The Case of the Pilfered Paper: Implications of Online Writing Assistance and Web-Based Plagiarism Detection Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Phoebe; Vaughn, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    While there is nothing new about academic dishonesty, how it is committed, prevented, and detected has been dramatically transformed by the advent of online technologies. This article briefly describes the concurrent emergence of online writing assistance services and Web-based plagiarism detection tools and examines the implications of both for…

  2. EDITORIAL: On plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Simon; Webb, Steve; Hendee, William R.

    2008-03-01

    accused authors (all of them), the authors whose work may have been plagiarized, and the copyright holder of the original material. The correspondence will include the alleged plagiarizing language and a copy of the original and suspected work. If all parties agree that plagiarism (whether intentional or unintentional) has occurred, a written letter of apology should be sent promptly by the offending author(s) to the Editor/Publisher and to the authors and copyright holder whose work has been plagiarized. If the offending work has been published, a notice of plagiarism, citing both the plagiarized and the offending articles, will be published in the next available issue of PMB. The plagiarizing authors shall agree that all dissemination of the offending article shall be accompanied by the notice of plagiarism. In the most serious cases of plagiarism, a retraction (erratum) will be published (in accordance with the STM guidelines on 'Preservation of the objective record of science', retraction is favoured over removal in virtually all cases), and further sanctions applied. If the offending work hasn't yet been published (i.e. it is detected by the referees), sanctions will still be applied. If the accused authors deny that plagiarism has occurred, the Editor and Publisher must explore the accusation further. The investigation will also involve the Journals Director and the Chief Scientific Adviser of IOP Publishing (who publish PMB on behalf of IPEM) and also the General Secretary of IPEM. All parties to the allegation will be encouraged to submit corroborating evidence, and the accused authors granted an opportunity (at no expense to the journal) to testify in person to defend themselves against the allegation. The investigation should be concluded as quickly as possible (particularly if the article in question has already been published online or in print). If the investigation of the allegation of plagiarism concludes in support of the allegation, then the process for

  3. Local Plagiarisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism and collusion are significant issues for most lecturers whatever their discipline, and to universities and the higher education sector. Universities respond to these issues by developing institutional definitions of plagiarism, which are intended to apply to all instances of plagiarism and collusion. This article first suggests that…

  4. Plagiarism Detection: A Comparison of Teaching Assistants and a Software Tool in Identifying Cheating in a Psychology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifried, Eva; Lenhard, Wolfgang; Spinath, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Essays that are assigned as homework in large classes are prone to cheating via unauthorized collaboration. In this study, we compared the ability of a software tool based on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) and student teaching assistants to detect plagiarism in a large group of students. To do so, we took two approaches: the first approach was…

  5. Electronic Plagiarism as a College Instructor's Nightmare--Prevention and Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLafferty, Charles L.; Foust, Karen M.

    2004-01-01

    Plagiarism, aided by the emergence of massive databases of information on the World Wide Web, has become commonplace on college campuses and in business schools. Because prevention is preferable to policing, in this article the authors (a) present methods for educators to define plagiarism and educate students in appropriate citation and…

  6. Avoid the Plague: Tips and Tricks for Preventing and Detecting Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolkan, J. V.

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism is an ugly word. Copying someone else's work and attempting to claim credit for one's self is an act that involves a number of ethical failings--theft, laziness, coveting, and lying among others. Many educators blame the Internet for what they perceive as the rise of plagiarism. Although the Internet certainly enables more efficient…

  7. Avoiding plagiarism in academic writing.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Irene

    Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance. PMID:19186631

  8. Plagiarism Software: No Magic Bullet!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warn, James

    2006-01-01

    The ready availability of Internet resources has made it easier than ever for students to plagiarize and many higher education institutions have resorted to checking essays with plagiarism detection software. Student behaviour is likely to change in response to this increased scrutiny but not necessarily in the desired direction. Internet…

  9. Plagiarism Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probett, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism does exist at universities today. In some cases, students are naive with respect to understanding what plagiarism is and how to avoid it. In other cases, students blatantly disregard and disrespect the written work of others, claiming it as their own. Regardless, educators must be vigilant in their efforts to discourage and prevent…

  10. Revisiting Information Technology tools serving authorship and editorship: a case-guided tutorial to statistical analysis and plagiarism detection

    PubMed Central

    Bamidis, P D; Lithari, C; Konstantinidis, S T

    2010-01-01

    With the number of scientific papers published in journals, conference proceedings, and international literature ever increasing, authors and reviewers are not only facilitated with an abundance of information, but unfortunately continuously confronted with risks associated with the erroneous copy of another's material. In parallel, Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools provide to researchers novel and continuously more effective ways to analyze and present their work. Software tools regarding statistical analysis offer scientists the chance to validate their work and enhance the quality of published papers. Moreover, from the reviewers and the editor's perspective, it is now possible to ensure the (text-content) originality of a scientific article with automated software tools for plagiarism detection. In this paper, we provide a step-bystep demonstration of two categories of tools, namely, statistical analysis and plagiarism detection. The aim is not to come up with a specific tool recommendation, but rather to provide useful guidelines on the proper use and efficiency of either category of tools. In the context of this special issue, this paper offers a useful tutorial to specific problems concerned with scientific writing and review discourse. A specific neuroscience experimental case example is utilized to illustrate the young researcher's statistical analysis burden, while a test scenario is purpose-built using open access journal articles to exemplify the use and comparative outputs of seven plagiarism detection software pieces. PMID:21487489

  11. Revisiting Information Technology tools serving authorship and editorship: a case-guided tutorial to statistical analysis and plagiarism detection.

    PubMed

    Bamidis, P D; Lithari, C; Konstantinidis, S T

    2010-12-01

    With the number of scientific papers published in journals, conference proceedings, and international literature ever increasing, authors and reviewers are not only facilitated with an abundance of information, but unfortunately continuously confronted with risks associated with the erroneous copy of another's material. In parallel, Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools provide to researchers novel and continuously more effective ways to analyze and present their work. Software tools regarding statistical analysis offer scientists the chance to validate their work and enhance the quality of published papers. Moreover, from the reviewers and the editor's perspective, it is now possible to ensure the (text-content) originality of a scientific article with automated software tools for plagiarism detection. In this paper, we provide a step-bystep demonstration of two categories of tools, namely, statistical analysis and plagiarism detection. The aim is not to come up with a specific tool recommendation, but rather to provide useful guidelines on the proper use and efficiency of either category of tools. In the context of this special issue, this paper offers a useful tutorial to specific problems concerned with scientific writing and review discourse. A specific neuroscience experimental case example is utilized to illustrate the young researcher's statistical analysis burden, while a test scenario is purpose-built using open access journal articles to exemplify the use and comparative outputs of seven plagiarism detection software pieces. PMID:21487489

  12. [Plagiarism in medical schools, and its prevention].

    PubMed

    Annane, Djillali; Annane, Frédérique

    2012-09-01

    The plagiarism has become very common in universities and medical school. Undoubtedly, the easy access to a huge amount of electronic documents is one explanation for the increasing prevalence of plagiarism among students. While most of universities and medical school have clear statements and rules about plagiarism, available tools for the detection of plagiarism remain inefficient and dedicate training program for students and teachers too scarce. As lack of time is one reason for students to choose plagiarism, it should be one main target for educational programs. PMID:22739066

  13. Mouse Click Plagiarism: The Role of Technology in Plagiarism and the Librarian's Role in Combating It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Nicole J.; Krupar, Ellen M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the growing problem of plagiarism in academia, particularly with Internet-based resources. Topics include factors influencing student behaviors and attitudes toward plagiarism; faculty attitudes; and the role of librarians in helping to prevent and detect plagiarism, including student instruction and forming partnerships with faculty.…

  14. Plagiarism: An Egregious Form of Misconduct

    PubMed Central

    Juyal, Deepak; Thawani, Vijay; Thaledi, Shweta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Publishing research papers for academic fraternity has become important for career advancement and promotion. Number of publications in peer reviewed journals and subsequent citations are recognized as measures of scientific success. Non-publishing academicians and researchers are invisible to the scientific community. Discussion: With pressure to publish, misconduct has crept into scientific writing with the result that research misconduct, plagiarism, misappropriation of intellectual property, and substantial unattributed textual copying of another's publication have become common. The Office of Research Integrity, USA, defines research misconduct as “fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, performing or reviewing research, or in reporting research results.” Although plagiarism is difficult to define in few words, it can be viewed as the stealing of another person's ideas, methods, results, or words without giving proper attribution. The Office of Research Integrity defines plagiarism as being “theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and the substantial unattributed textual copying of another's work.” Plagiarism is one of the most vehemently derided breaches of research integrity as it undermines the original and honest contribution to an existing body of knowledge. Conclusion: Plagiarism has many forms viz. blatant plagiarism, technical plagiarism, patchwork plagiarism, and self-plagiarism. In any form, the plagiarism is a threat to the research integrity and is unacceptable. We do need to detect such acts and effectively prosecute the offenders. PMID:25789254

  15. Educational approaches for discouraging plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Beth A; Zigmond, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Suggested approaches to reduce the occurrence of plagiarism in academia, particularly among trainees. These include (1) educating individuals as to the definition of plagiarism and its consequences through written guidelines, active discussions, and practice in identifying proper and improper citation practices; (2) distributing checklists that break the writing task into more manageable steps, (3) requiring the submission of an outline and then a first draft prior to the deadline for a paper; (4) making assignments relevant to individual interests; and (5) providing trainees with access to software programs that detect plagiarism. PMID:21194645

  16. University Student Online Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-mei

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study investigating university student online plagiarism. The following questions are investigated: (a) What is the incidence of student online plagiarism? (b) What are student perceptions regarding online plagiarism? (c) Are there any differences in terms of student perceptions of online plagiarism and print plagiarism? (d)…

  17. Rethinking Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nealy, Chynette

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism, presenting someone's words or other creative products as one's own, is a mandatory discussion and writing assignment in many undergraduate business communication courses. Class discussions about this topic tend to be lively, ranging from questions about simply omitting identified sources to different standards of ethical behaviors…

  18. "Turnitin Said It Wasn't Happy": Can the Regulatory Discourse of Plagiarism Detection Operate as a Change Artefact for Writing Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penketh, Claire; Beaumont, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper centres on the tensions between the introduction of plagiarism detection software (Turnitin) for student and tutor use at undergraduate level and the aim to promote a developmental approach to writing for assessment at a UK university. Aims to promote developmental models for writing often aim to counteract the effects of the structural…

  19. An Institutional Code of Ethics--A Response to Attitude of Israeli Teachers' Education College Students towards Academic Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reingold,, Roni; Baratz, Lea

    2011-01-01

    Academic plagiarism becomes very easy due to new opportunities provided by the Internet era (Scrinber, 2003; Underwood & Sazabo, 2003; Ross, 2005). We believe that academic dishonesty is a major issue, because it strikes at the heart of the academic and social values: honesty, trust and integrity. When dealing with education students, the future…

  20. Source-Code Plagiarism in Universities: A Comparative Study of Student Perspectives in China and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongyang; Joy, Mike; Cosma, Georgina; Boyatt, Russell; Sinclair, Jane; Yau, Jane

    2014-01-01

    There has been much research and discussion relating to variations in plagiaristic activity observed in students from different demographic backgrounds. Differences in behaviour have been noted in many studies, although the underlying reasons are still a matter of debate. Existing work focuses mainly on textual plagiarism, and most often derives…

  1. Turning to Turnitin to Fight Plagiarism among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batane, Tshepo

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot project of the Turnitin plagiarism detection software, which was implemented to determine the impact of the software on the level of plagiarism among University of Botswana (UB) students. Students' assignments were first submitted to the software without their knowledge so as to gauge their level of plagiarism. The…

  2. Plagiarism in Personal Statements of Anesthesiology Residency Applicants.

    PubMed

    Parks, Lance J; Sizemore, Daniel C; Johnstone, Robert E

    2016-02-15

    Plagiarism by residency applicants in their personal statements, as well as sites that sell personal statements, have been described, and led in 2011 to advice to avoid plagiarism and the caution that plagiarism detection software was available. We screened personal statements of 467 anesthesiology residency applicants from 2013-2014 using Viper Plagiarism Scanner software, and studied them for plagiarism. After quotes and commonly used phrases were removed, 82 statements contained unoriginal content of 8 or more consecutive words. After the study, 13.6% of personal statements from non-United States medical school graduates, and 4.0% from United States medical school graduates, contained plagiarized material, a significant difference. Plagiarized content ranged up to 58%. Plagiarism continues to occur in anesthesiology residency personal statements, with a higher incidence among graduates of non-United States medical schools. PMID:26462161

  3. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  4. Knowing and Avoiding Plagiarism During Scientific Writing

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, SVVS; Nagasree, M

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing. PMID:25364588

  5. The plagiarism project.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Nancy R; Sorensen, Karen; Habousha, Racheline G; Minuti, Aurelia; Schwartz, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism has been a problem plaguing academia for centuries. The Internet has made it easier than ever to copy material from one electronic document and paste it into another. Many cases are unintentional, as writers are unaware of the rules regarding plagiarism. This paper provides an overview of plagiarism and describes a project in which librarians partnered with the assistant dean of a graduate science program to educate students about the perils of plagiarism and encourage ethical writing practices. PMID:22040240

  6. Pattern of Plagiarism in Novice Students' Generated Programs: An Experimental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmadzadeh, Marzieh; Mahmoudabadi, Elham; Khodadadi, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence shows that in computer programming courses plagiarism is a widespread problem. With the growing number of students in such courses, manual plagiarism detection is impractical. This requires instructors to use one of the many available plagiarism detection tools. Prior to choosing one of such tools, a metric that assures the…

  7. Is It Cheating or Learning the Craft of Writing? Using Turnitin to Help Students Avoid Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham-Matheson, Lynne; Starr, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism is a growing problem for universities, many of which are turning to software detection for help in detecting and dealing with it. This paper explores issues around plagiarism and reports on a study of the use of Turnitin in a new university. The purpose of the study was to inform the senior management team about the plagiarism policy…

  8. EDITORIAL: On plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Simon; Webb, Steve; Hendee, William R.

    2008-03-01

    Plagiarism Plagiarism is, we are pleased to observe, not a common occurrence in Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB); however, like those responsible for all scientific journals, we are concerned about plagiarism, and very keen to prevent it. The Publications Committee of the International Organization of Medical Physics (IOMP) has prepared a generic editorial on plagiarism. The editorial is reproduced here (with permission of the IOMP), with slight modifications to enhance its relevance to the audience of PMB, along with our procedures for dealing with any cases of plagiarism should they ever arise. Plagiarism (from the Latin 'plagiare', 'to kidnap') is defined as 'the appropriation or imitation of the language, ideas, and thoughts of another author, and representation of them as one's original work' (the Random House Dictionary of the English Language—unabridged). Plagiarism is a serious breach of research ethics that, if committed intentionally, is considered research misconduct. Plagiarism in its most serious form is the passing off of all, or large sections, of another author's published paper as one's original work. If, following appropriate confidential investigation (see below), such a plagiarism is established, this will result in heavy sanctions including retraction of the article, up to a 5 year publication ban from PMB, and informing of employers and/or professional bodies (even after one offence). This may result in loss of research funding, loss of professional stature, and even termination of employment of the plagiarizing author(s). Plagiarism undermines the authenticity of research manuscripts and the journals in which they are published, and compromises the integrity of the scientific process and the public regard for science. Plagiarism violates the literary rights of the individuals who are plagiarized, and the property rights of copyright holders. Violation of these rights may result in legal action against the individual(s) committing

  9. Decreasing Plagiarism: What Works and What Doesn't

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtman, Anne M.; Walker, Sean

    2010-01-01

    The authors tested the predictions of a game theory model of plagiarism, using a test population of student papers submitted to an online plagiarism detection program, over five semesters in a non-majors biology course with multiple sections and high enrollment. Consistent with the model, as the probability of detection and the penalty if caught…

  10. AuDeNTES: Automatic Detection of teNtative Plagiarism According to a rEference Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariani, Leonardo; Micucci, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    In academic courses, students frequently take advantage of someone else's work to improve their own evaluations or grades. This unethical behavior seriously threatens the integrity of the academic system, and teachers invest substantial effort in preventing and recognizing plagiarism. When students take examinations requiring the production of…

  11. Stealing or Sharing? Cross-Cultural Issues of Plagiarism in an Open-Source Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haitch, Russell

    2016-01-01

    More professors and institutions want to move from a detect-and-punish to an educate-and-prevent model for dealing with plagiarism. Understanding the causes of plagiarism, especially among international students, can aid in efforts to educate students and prevent plagiarism. Research points to a confluence of causal factors, such as time pressure,…

  12. Plagiarism, Cultural Diversity and Metaphor--Implications for Academic Staff Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Betty

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex, culturally loaded concept which causes much anxiety for both academics and students. Exactly what constitutes plagiarism is dependent on a number of contextual factors. Despite the difficulties associated with defining and detecting plagiarism, it is said to be on the increase, and students from "other cultures" are…

  13. The Anatomy of a Plagiarism Initiative: One Library's Campus Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madray, Amrita

    2008-01-01

    Plagiarism in media and print continues to be a major issue for professors, librarians, and students. Through initiatives and outreach from the B. Davis Memorial Library at the C. W. Post Campus of Long Island University, plagiarism Web sites have been created and workshops and programs continually provided for faculty and students to detect,…

  14. A Strategy to Reduce Plagiarism in an Undergraduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belter, Ronald W.; du Pre, Athena

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated how effective an online academic integrity module was at reducing the occurrence of plagiarism in a written assignment for a university course. In a preintervention comparison group, plagiarism was detected in 25.8% of papers submitted, compared with only 6.5% in the group that completed the academic integrity module. The…

  15. Originality Detection Software in a Graduate Policy Course: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreuth Zeman, Laura; Steen, Julie A.; Metz Zeman, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    The authors used a mixed-methods approach to evaluate the use of Turnitin originality detection software in a graduate social work course. Qualitative analysis of student responses revealed positive and negative spent completing assignments, and the tone of the class. Quantitative analysis of students' originality scores indicated a short-term…

  16. Attitudes towards students who plagiarize: a dental hygiene faculty perspective.

    PubMed

    Patel-Bhakta, Hemali G; Muzzin, Kathleen B; Dewald, Janice P; Campbell, Patricia R; Buschang, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine baccalaureate dental hygiene faculty members' attitudes and practices regarding student plagiarism. An email containing a link to a thirty-two-item survey was sent to fifty-two baccalaureate dental hygiene program directors in the United States; thirty of those agreed for their faculty members to participate. Of the 257 faculty members who received the survey link, 106 completed the survey, for a response rate of 41.2 percent. The responding faculty members reported thinking plagiarism is a rising concern in their dental hygiene programs (54.5 percent, 54/99). The majority said they check for plagiarism on student class assignment/projects (67.1 percent, 53/79). For those who did not check for plagiarism, 45.8 percent (11/24) stated it took "too much time to check" or it was "too hard to prove" (16.6 percent, 4/24). The most frequent form of student plagiarism observed by the respondents was "copying directly from a source electronically" (78.0 percent, 39/50). Most respondents reported checking for plagiarism through visual inspection (without technological assistance) (73.0 percent, 38/52). Of those who said they use plagiarism detection software/services, 44.4 percent (16/36) always recommended their students use plagiarism detection software/services to detect unintentional plagiarism. For those faculty members who caught students plagiarizing, 52.9 percent (27/51) reported they "always or often" handled the incident within their dental hygiene department, and 76.5 percent (39/51) said they had never reported the student's violation to an academic review board. PMID:24385532

  17. Towards a testbed for malicious code detection

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, R.; Kerchen, P.; Crawford, R.; Ho, W.; Crossley, J.; Fink, G.; Levitt, K.; Olsson, R.; Archer, M. . Div. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    This paper proposes an environment for detecting many types of malicious code, including computer viruses, Trojan horses, and time/logic bombs. This malicious code testbed (MCT) is based upon both static and dynamic analysis tools developed at the University of California, Davis, which have been shown to be effective against certain types of malicious code. The testbed extends the usefulness of these tools by using them in a complementary fashion to detect more general cases of malicious code. Perhaps more importantly, the MCT allows administrators and security analysts to check a program before installation, thereby avoiding any damage a malicious program might inflict. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. There Was a Crooked Man(uscript): A Not-so-Serious Look at the Serious Subject of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Kevin T.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of plagiarism by political scientists has not received much attention. The incidence of plagiarism, however, may be greater than one would think. In this article, I offer a humorous look at what happened when a manuscript of mine was plagiarized. Based on my experience, I offer some suggestions on how scholars might detect and prevent…

  19. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Turnitin.Com as a Tool for Reducing Plagiarism in Graduate Student Term Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Russell K.; Thornton, Barry; Adams, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Plagiarism is a continual problem in academia. Plagiarism-detection tools like Turnitin have been used for nearly ten years to help university faculty and administration combat this form of cheating (turnitin.com). This paper evaluates the difference in plagiarism levels in graduate-student term papers when students are not provided access to…

  20. Useful Tips on Avoiding Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamalainen, Maryellen

    2007-01-01

    Teachers are generally kind and nurturing people. Students who plagiarize their assignments from these kind and nurturing teachers are often given a second chance when caught and encouraged to do their work over, but it would be better to eliminate their need to plagiarize. The first tip for eliminating plagiarism has not so much to do with what…

  1. Managing Plagiarism: A Preventative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insley, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism is a reality in most college classes where some students plagiarize unknowingly and others do so knowingly. This situation requires instructors to decide how to manage the situation. Some may take the easy way out by ignoring the problem, simply pretending that none of their students plagiarize. In contrast, other instructors embrace…

  2. Beyond the Accusation of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Qing; Brooks, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The paper explores the complexity of the notion of plagiarism from sociocultural and psychological perspectives. Plagiarism is a dynamic and multi-layered phenomenon [Russikoff, K., Fucaloro, L., Salkauskiene, D., 2003. "Plagiarism as a cross-cultural phenomenon." "The CAL Poly Pomona Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies" 16, 109-120.…

  3. Plagiarism: A silent epidemic in scientific writing - Reasons, recognition and remedies.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Jyotindu

    2016-04-01

    Plagiarism is one of the most serious forms of scientific misconduct prevalent today and is an important reason for significant proportion of rejection of manuscripts and retraction of published articles. It is time for the medical fraternity to unanimously adopt a 'zero tolerance' policy towards this menace. While responsibility for ensuring a plagiarism-free manuscript primarily lies with the authors, editors cannot absolve themselves of their accountability. The only way to write a plagiarism-free manuscript for an author is to write an article in his/her own words, literally and figuratively. This article discusses various types of plagiarism, reasons for increasingly reported instances of plagiarism, pros and cons of use of plagiarism detection tools for detecting plagiarism and role of authors and editors in preventing/avoiding plagiarism in a submitted manuscript. Regular usage of professional plagiarism detection tools for similarity checks with critical interpretation by the editorial team at the pre-review stage will certainly help in reducing the menace of plagiarism in submitted manuscripts. PMID:27257327

  4. Automated assistance for detecting malicious code

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, R.; Kerchen, P.; Levitt, K.; Olsson, R.; Archer, M.; Casillas, M.

    1993-06-18

    This paper gives an update on the continuing work on the Malicious Code Testbed (MCT). The MCT is a semi-automated tool, operating in a simulated, cleanroom environment, that is capable of detecting many types of malicious code, such as viruses, Trojan horses, and time/logic bombs. The MCT allows security analysts to check a program before installation, thereby avoiding any damage a malicious program might inflict.

  5. What is Plagiarism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishniac, Ethan T.

    2012-01-01

    Manuscripts submitted to The Astrophysical Journal are required to contain "novel and significant" material and to be free of plagiarism. There is a surprising amount of confusion regarding the definition of plagiarism and what constitutes prior publication. I will discuss the definitions used by the ApJ and the procedures we follow to to support this rule. Individual members of the community frequently show a very different understanding of these standards and are surprised at the conflict. Time allowing, I will briefly discuss some of the other common ethical problems that arise during the preparation and publication of articles.

  6. Surveillance in Programming Plagiarism beyond Techniques: An Incentive-Based Fishbone Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yanqing; Chen, Min; Liang, Yaowen; Jiang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Lots of researches have showed that plagiarism becomes a severe problem in higher education around the world, especially in programming learning for its essence. Therefore, an effective strategy for plagiarism surveillance in program learning is much essential. Some literature focus on code similarity algorithm and the related tools can help to…

  7. Plagiarism and Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebler, Robert

    2009-01-01

    It is costly for faculty to deal with cheating. Keith-Spiegel et al. (1998) identified several of these costs and argued that they can be grouped into four categories: emotionality, difficult, fear, and denial. I argue that the emotional and fear costs for faculty make it unlikely that the common approaches to dealing with plagiarism will be…

  8. Undergraduate and Postgraduate Pharmacy Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism and Academic Honesty

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, Helen; Krass, Ines; Scouller, Karen; Smith, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To assess undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students' perceptions of plagiarism and academic honesty. Methods A questionnaire was administered to undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students to determine their levels of awareness of university policy concerning academic honesty; attitudes to plagiarism by rating the acceptability of a range of plagiarizing and cheating practices; and choice of appropriate penalties for a first and second occurrence. The choice of behaviors in response to a scenario about the preparation of a reading-based written assignment and the strategies that students would be prepared to use in order to submit the assignment on time were also assessed. Results Findings indicated widespread deficiencies in student knowledge of, and attitudes towards, plagiarism. Students did not perceive plagiarism as a serious issue and the use of inappropriate strategies for sourcing and acknowledging material was common. Conclusions The study highlights the importance of achieving a balance among the 3 dimensions of plagiarism management: prevention, detection and penalty. PMID:19885074

  9. PLAGIARISM IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader’s own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  10. Plagiarism in scientific publishing.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2012-12-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader's own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  11. [High frequency of plagiarism in medical thesis from a Peruvian public university].

    PubMed

    Saldaña-Gastulo, J Jhan C; Quezada-Osoria, C Claudia; Peña-Oscuvilca, Américo; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2010-03-01

    An observational study was conducted to describe the presence of plagiarism in medical thesis in 2008 performed at a public university in Peru. Search for plagiarism in 33 thesis introductions using a Google search algorithm, characterizes of the study type and we search in electronic form if the thesis mentor have published articles in scientific journals. We found evidence of plagiarism in 27/33 introductions, 37.3% (171/479) of all the paragraphs analyzed had some degree of plagiarism, literal plagiarism was the most frequent (20/27) and journals were the most common sources of plagiarism (19/27). The characteristics of the studies were observational (32/33), cross-sectional (30/33), descriptive (25/33) and retrospective (19/33). None of the authors had published in a scientific journal, and only nine of his tutors of them had at least one publication. No association was found between the characteristics of the thesis and the presence of plagiarism. In conclusion, we found a high frequency of plagiarism in theses analyzed. Is responsibility of medical schools take the necessary actions to detect and avoid plagiarism among their students. PMID:21072452

  12. Can Paraphrasing Practice Help Students Define Plagiarism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Elaine S.

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism is the new dirty word on campus, and college instructors are increasingly interested in teaching students how to prevent committing plagiarism. In this study, college students wrote definitions of plagiarism before and after 6 weeks of practice paraphrasing and citing original sources. Students' definitions of plagiarism were evaluated…

  13. The Scarlet "P": Plagiarism, Panopticism, and the Rhetoric of Academic Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwagerman, Sean

    2008-01-01

    This article is a rhetorical analysis of the anxious and outraged discourse employed in response to the "rising tide" of cheating and plagiarism. This discourse invites actions that are antithetical to the goals of education and the roles of educators, as exemplified by the proliferation of plagiarism-detection technologies. (Contains 15 notes.)

  14. Exploring Student Self-Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halupa, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Student self-plagiarism is a confusing issue for both faculty and students alike. This problem is compounded because both groups perceive the concept very differently. Recent literature regarding these perceptions is reviewed and some brief preliminary results of an exploratory multi-university study of student perceptions of self-plagiarism are…

  15. University Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Lori G.

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism is an intriguing topic with many avenues for exploration. Students' perceptions of plagiarism certainly differ from their professors' and it is valuable to attempt to listen in some small measure to what those perceptions are. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of some of the ways first- and second-year university…

  16. Acceptability of Treatments for Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.; Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra Maria

    2007-01-01

    This study focused on various treatments for addressing incidents of plagiarism by college students. College students rated the acceptability of different responses by college faculty to a case description of a college student who engaged in plagiarism. The findings revealed that students found some methods of addressing this problem behavior by…

  17. Cheaters: A Case Study of Plagiarism in Composition Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadgir, Sheri A.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to find a better understanding of plagiarism in the university writing classroom; specifically, institutional and departmental honor codes and policies were looked at--as was the tendency of individual instructors to follow those policies versus creating their own. The narrow purpose of the study was to investigate plagiarism…

  18. Deterring Plagiarism in the Age of the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiliano, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Suggests some effective means of identifying and preventing plagiarism in the era of high technology such as: discussing the issue in the classroom, limiting the number of choices and/or the scope of term papers, giving ample time for students to write the paper, allowing students to rewrite papers, and establishing campus honor codes. (Contains…

  19. Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Reva; Hura, Gerri

    2013-01-01

    While plagiarism by college students is a serious problem that must be addressed, students generally overestimate the frequency of plagiarism at their schools and blame students they do not know for the majority of incidents. This study looked at students' estimations of the frequency of plagiarism at a large urban college and explored how…

  20. Rethinking Plagiarism in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evering, Lea Calvert; Moorman, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex issue in need of reexamination. A common misconception is there is consensus on what constitute plagiarism, and general agreement that engaging in plagiarism and other forms of academic dishonesty is a major breech of ethics. There seems to be little concern for differentiating degrees of seriousness; the intentional…

  1. Policy, Preparation, and Prevention: Proactive Minimization of Student Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Marcia

    2006-01-01

    Countless cases of plagiarism are detected across the Australian higher education sector each year. Generally speaking, policy and other responses to the issue focus on punitive, rather than on educative, measures. Recently, a subtle shift is discernable. As well as ensuring appropriate consequences for plagiarists, several universities are…

  2. The Ethics and Politics of Policing Plagiarism: A Qualitative Study of Faculty Views on Student Plagiarism and Turnitin®

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruton, Samuel; Childers, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the usage of plagiarism detection software such as Turnitin® has increased dramatically among university instructors. At the same time, academic criticism of this software's employment has also increased. We interviewed 23 faculty members from various departments at a medium-sized, public university in the southeastern US to determine…

  3. Plagiarism in law and medicine: challenges for scholarship, academia, publishers and regulators.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2010-05-01

    The phenomenon of plagiarism has evolved as a major problem in many fields with the increasing accessibility of material on the internet. It poses dilemmas for those involved in secondary and tertiary education, as well as for book publishers and those who edit journals. This editorial reviews important recent decisions in the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia by courts and regulatory bodies in respect of doctors and lawyers who have engaged in plagiarism in various ways both while undergraduates and in the course of their professional careers. It reflects on the phenomenon of plagiarism, the challenges involved in its detection and the steps that can be taken to reduce its incidence. PMID:20552930

  4. How to Verify Plagiarism of the Paper Written in Macedonian and Translated in Foreign Language?

    PubMed Central

    Spiroski, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to show how to verify plagiarism of the paper written in Macedonian and translated in foreign language. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Original article “Ethics in Medical Research Involving Human Subjects”, written in Macedonian, was submitted as an assay-2 for the subject Ethics and published by Ilina Stefanovska, PhD candidate from the Iustinianus Primus Faculty of Law, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje (UKIM), Skopje, Republic of Macedonia in Fabruary, 2013. Suspected article for plagiarism was published by Prof. Dr. Gordana Panova from the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University Goce Delchev, Shtip, Republic of Macedonia in English with the identical title and identical content in International scientific on-line journal “SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES”, Publisher “Union of Scientists - Stara Zagora”. RESULTS: Original document (written in Macedonian) was translated with Google Translator; suspected article (published in English pdf file) was converted into Word document, and compared both documents with several programs for plagiarism detection. It was found that both documents are identical in 71%, 78% and 82%, respectively, depending on the computer program used for plagiarism detection. It was obvious that original paper was entirely plagiarised by Prof. Dr. Gordana Panova, including six references from the original paper. CONCLUSION: Plagiarism of the original papers written in Macedonian and translated in other languages can be verified after computerised translation in other languages. Later on, original and translated documents can be compared with available software for plagiarism detection. PMID:27275319

  5. Plagiarism in the Internet Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Rebecca Moore; Davies, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    In an age when students gravitate to online sources for research--and when tremendous amounts of both reputable and questionable information are available online--many have come to regard the Internet itself as a culprit in students' plagiarism. Some teachers go so far as to forbid students from researching online, in the mistaken assumption that…

  6. Plagiarism: Can It Be Stopped?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, G. Jay

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism can be controlled, not stopped. The more appropriate question to ask is: What can be done to encourage students to "cheat" correctly by doing the assignment the way it was intended? Cheating by college students continues to reach epidemic proportions on selected campuses, as witnessed by the recent episode at Central Florida University,…

  7. Pluralizing Plagiarism: Identities, Contexts, Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Rebecca Moore; Robillard, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Recent cases have demonstrated that plagiarism is a hot-button issue. It is also pervasive, occurring in universities, four-year colleges, community colleges, secondary schools, graduate programs, international classrooms, multicultural classrooms, writing centers, writing-across-the-curriculum programs, scholarly publications and the popular…

  8. Plagiarism: What's the Big Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Brittney; Stith, Danica; Tesdell, Lee S.

    2011-01-01

    In academic culture, plagiarism is considered to be a form of cheating and therefore unethical. Understandably, instructors try to eliminate this kind of unethical behavior from their courses. But what if they designed their assignments and exams in such a way that students would find no reason to cheat? The authors think that it is possible, at…

  9. CrossCheck plagiarism screening : Experience of the Journal of Epidemiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Katsumi

    Due to technological advances in the past two decades, researchers now have unprecedented access to a tremendous amount of useful information. However, because of the extreme pressure to publish, this abundance of information can sometimes tempt researchers to commit scientific misconduct. A serious form of such misconduct is plagiarism. Editors are always concerned about the possibility of publishing plagiarized manuscripts. The plagiarism detection tool CrossCheck allows editors to scan and analyze manuscripts effectively. The Journal of Epidemiology took part in a trial of CrossCheck, and this article discusses the concerns journal editors might have regarding the use of CrossCheck and its analysis. In addition, potential problems identified by CrossCheck, including self-plagiarism, are introduced.

  10. Penguins and Plagiarism: Stemming the Tide of Plagiarism in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Plagiarism is on the rise on high school and college campuses. There are many reasons why students tend to plagiarize. One of these is that many students are interested in the shortest possible route through a course. Some students also fear that their writing ability is inadequate. If student plagiarism and lack of academic integrity are…

  11. Dynamic Malicious Code Detection Based on Binary Translator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhe; Li, Minglu; Weng, Chuliang; Luo, Yuan

    The binary translator is a software component of a computer system. It converts binary code of one ISA into binary code of another ISA. Recent trends show that binary translators have been used to save CPU power consumption and CPU die size, which makes binary translators a possible indispensable component of future computer systems. And such situation would give new opportunities to the security of these computer systems. One of the opportunities is that we can perform malicious code checking dynamically in the layer of binary translators. This approach has many advantages, both in terms of capability of detection and checking overhead. In this paper, we proposed a working dynamic malicious code checking module integrated to an existent open-source binary translator, QEMU, and explained that our module's capability of detection is superior to other malicious code checking methods while acceptable performance is still maintained.

  12. DROP: Detecting Return-Oriented Programming Malicious Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ping; Xiao, Hai; Shen, Xiaobin; Yin, Xinchun; Mao, Bing; Xie, Li

    Return-Oriented Programming (ROP) is a new technique that helps the attacker construct malicious code mounted on x86/SPARC executables without any function call at all. Such technique makes the ROP malicious code contain no instruction, which is different from existing attacks. Moreover, it hides the malicious code in benign code. Thus, it circumvents the approaches that prevent control flow diversion outside legitimate regions (such as W ⊕ X ) and most malicious code scanning techniques (such as anti-virus scanners). However, ROP has its own intrinsic feature which is different from normal program design: (1) uses short instruction sequence ending in "ret", which is called gadget, and (2) executes the gadgets contiguously in specific memory space, such as standard GNU libc. Based on the features of the ROP malicious code, in this paper, we present a tool DROP, which is focused on dynamically detecting ROP malicious code. Preliminary experimental results show that DROP can efficiently detect ROP malicious code, and have no false positives and negatives.

  13. Measuring students' perceptions of plagiarism: modification and Rasch validation of a plagiarism attitude scale.

    PubMed

    Howard, Steven J; Ehrich, John F; Walton, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a significant area of concern in higher education, given university students' high self-reported rates of plagiarism. However, research remains inconsistent in prevalence estimates and suggested precursors of plagiarism. This may be a function of the unclear psychometric properties of the measurement tools adopted. To investigate this, we modified an existing plagiarism scale (to broaden its scope), established its psychometric properties using traditional (EFA, Cronbach's alpha) and modern (Rasch analysis) survey evaluation approaches, and examined results of well-functioning items. Results indicated that traditional and modern psychometric approaches differed in their recommendations. Further, responses indicated that although most respondents acknowledged the seriousness of plagiarism, these attitudes were neither unanimous nor consistent across the range of issues assessed. This study thus provides rigorous psychometric testing of a plagiarism attitude scale and baseline data from which to begin a discussion of contextual, personal, and external factors that influence students' plagiarism attitudes. PMID:25232671

  14. [Is there protection against copying? Thoughts about plagiarism].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András; Glänzel, Wolfgang

    2015-12-13

    There are at least two reasons why more and more cases of suspected plagiarism are perceived in the scientific literature. On one hand, the ever increasing pressure for publication makes it easier for authors, reviewers and editors to infringe or overlook this serious ethical misdemeanor; on the other hand, with the development of text analysis software, detecting text similarities has become a simple task. The judgement of actual cases, however, requires well-grounded professional knowledge and prudent human decisions. PMID:26639647

  15. An ELT's Solution to Combat Plagiarism: "Birth" of CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabieh, Christine

    One English-as-a Second-Language professor fought plagiarism using computer assisted language learning (CALL). She succeeded in getting half of her class to write documented research papers free of plagiarism. Although all of the students claimed to know how to avoid plagiarizing, 35 percent presented the work with minor traces of plagiarism. The…

  16. Online Plagiarism Training Falls Short in Biology Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Emily A.; Fagerheim, Britt; Durham, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Online plagiarism tutorials are increasingly popular in higher education, as faculty and staff try to curb the plagiarism epidemic. Yet no research has validated the efficacy of such tools in minimizing plagiarism in the sciences. Our study compared three plagiarism-avoidance training regimens (i.e., no training, online tutorial, or homework…

  17. Judging Plagiarism: A Problem of Morality and Convention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Julianne

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of plagiarism as an issue of morality. Outrage about student plagiarism in universities positions it as dishonesty and a transgression of standards. Despite this, there has been little work analysing the implications of positioning plagiarism as a moral matter in the making of judgments about plagiarism and…

  18. Alamouti-type polarization-time coding in coded-modulation schemes with coherent detection.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting

    2008-09-01

    We present the Almouti-type polarization-time (PT) coding scheme suitable for use in multilevel (M>or=2) block-coded modulation schemes with coherent detection. The PT-decoder is found it to be similar to the Alamouti combiner. We also describe how to determine the symbols log-likelihood ratios in the presence of laser phase noise. We show that the proposed scheme is able to compensate even 800 ps of differential group delay, for the system operating at 10 Gb/s, with negligible penalty. The proposed scheme outperforms equal-gain combining polarization diversity OFDM scheme. However, the polarization diversity coded-OFDM and PT-coding based coded-OFDM schemes perform comparable. The proposed scheme has the potential of doubling the spectral efficiency compared to polarization diversity schemes. PMID:18773025

  19. Coded Excitation Plane Wave Imaging for Shear Wave Motion Detection

    PubMed Central

    Song, Pengfei; Urban, Matthew W.; Manduca, Armando; Greenleaf, James F.; Chen, Shigao

    2015-01-01

    Plane wave imaging has greatly advanced the field of shear wave elastography thanks to its ultrafast imaging frame rate and the large field-of-view (FOV). However, plane wave imaging also has decreased penetration due to lack of transmit focusing, which makes it challenging to use plane waves for shear wave detection in deep tissues and in obese patients. This study investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in plane wave imaging for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide superior detection penetration and shear wave signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) compared to conventional ultrasound signals. Both phase encoding (Barker code) and frequency encoding (chirp code) methods were studied. A first phantom experiment showed an approximate penetration gain of 2-4 cm for the coded pulses. Two subsequent phantom studies showed that all coded pulses outperformed the conventional short imaging pulse by providing superior sensitivity to small motion and robustness to weak ultrasound signals. Finally, an in vivo liver case study on an obese subject (Body Mass Index = 40) demonstrated the feasibility of using the proposed method for in vivo applications, and showed that all coded pulses could provide higher SNR shear wave signals than the conventional short pulse. These findings indicate that by using coded excitation shear wave detection, one can benefit from the ultrafast imaging frame rate and large FOV provided by plane wave imaging while preserving good penetration and shear wave signal quality, which is essential for obtaining robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue. PMID:26168181

  20. The detection and extraction of interleaved code segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rugaber, Spencer; Stirewalt, Kurt; Wills, Linda M.

    1995-01-01

    This project is concerned with a specific difficulty that arises when trying to understand and modify computer programs. In particular, it is concerned with the phenomenon of 'interleaving' in which one section of a program accomplishes several purposes, and disentangling the code responsible for each purposes is difficult. Unraveling interleaved code involves discovering the purpose of each strand of computation, as well as understanding why the programmer decided to interleave the strands. Increased understanding improve the productivity and quality of software maintenance, enhancement, and documentation activities. It is the goal of the project to characterize the phenomenon of interleaving as a prerequisite for building tools to detect and extract interleaved code fragments.

  1. Improved coded optical communication error rates using joint detection receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, Zachary; Guha, Saikat; Chen, Jian; Habif, Jonathan; Lazarus, Richard

    2012-02-01

    It is now known that coherent state (laser light) modulation is sufficient to reach the ultimate quantum limit (the Holevo bound) for classical communication capacity. However, all current optical communication systems are fundamentally limited in capacity because they perform measurements on single symbols at a time. To reach the Holevo bound, joint quantum measurements over long symbol blocks will be required. We recently proposed and demonstrated the ``conditional pulse nulling'' (CPN) receiver -- which acts jointly on the time slots of a pulse-position-modulation (PPM) codeword by employing pulse nulling and quantum feedforward -- and demonstrated a 2.3 dB improvement in error rate over direct detection (DD). In a communication system coded error rates are made arbitrary small by employing an outer code (such as Reed-Solomon (RS)). Here we analyze RS coding of PPM errors with both DD and CPN receivers and calculate the outer code length requirements. We find the improved PPM error rates with the CPN translates into >10 times improvement in the required outer code length at high rates. This advantage also translates increase the range for a given coding complexity. In addition, we present results for outer coded error rates of our recently proposed ``Green Machine'' which realizes a joint detection advantage for binary phase shift keyed (BPSK) modulation.

  2. Scientific Misconduct and the Plagiarism Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Debra

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of scientific misconduct, particularly plagiarism, explores the legal issues and compares the processes by which the Office of Research Integrity and the National Science Foundation conduct investigations and evaluate misconduct allegations. Relationships between allegations of plagiarism, copyright infringement, and theft of…

  3. Plagiarism in Second-Language Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecorari, Diane; Petric, Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a broad and multidisciplinary field of study, and within second-language (L2) writing, research on the topic goes back to the mid-1980s. In this review article we first discuss the received view of plagiarism as a transgressive act and alternative understandings which have been presented in the L1 and L2 writing literature. We then…

  4. Chinese University EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Jun; Hu, Guangwei

    2015-01-01

    Although Chinese university students' perceptions of plagiarism have been extensively investigated, those of their teachers have been surprisingly under-researched. This study sought to address this gap by investigating 112 Chinese university English teachers' knowledge of and attitudes towards plagiarism. While 57 participating teachers had…

  5. Exploring Staff Perceptions of Student Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Abbi; Clegg, Sue; Macdonald, Ranald

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents analysis of qualitative data from a research project looking at staff perceptions of plagiarism at a post-1992 university. Twenty-six members of staff from departments and academic schools from across the university took part in open and semi-structured interviews. Analysis shows that variable definitions of plagiarism exist;…

  6. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required. PMID:24785995

  7. Detecting and Characterizing Semantic Inconsistencies in Ported Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Baishakhi; Kim, Miryung; Person,Suzette; Rungta, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Adding similar features and bug fixes often requires porting program patches from reference implementations and adapting them to target implementations. Porting errors may result from faulty adaptations or inconsistent updates. This paper investigates (1) the types of porting errors found in practice, and (2) how to detect and characterize potential porting errors. Analyzing version histories, we define five categories of porting errors, including incorrect control- and data-flow, code redundancy, inconsistent identifier renamings, etc. Leveraging this categorization, we design a static control- and data-dependence analysis technique, SPA, to detect and characterize porting inconsistencies. Our evaluation on code from four open-source projects shows that SPA can detect porting inconsistencies with 65% to 73% precision and 90% recall, and identify inconsistency types with 58% to 63% precision and 92% to 100% recall. In a comparison with two existing error detection tools, SPA improves precision by 14 to 17 percentage points.

  8. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism

  9. Social influences on unconscious plagiarism and anti-plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Hollins, Timothy J; Lange, Nicholas; Dennis, Ian; Longmore, Christopher A

    2016-08-01

    People are more likely to unconsciously plagiarise ideas from a same-sex partner than a different-sex partner, and more likely to unconsciously plagiarise if recalling alone rather than in the presence of their partner [Macrae, C. N., Bodenhausen, G. V., & Calvini, G. (1999). Contexts of cryptomnesia: May the source be with you. Social Cognition, 17, 273-297. doi: 10.1521/soco.1999.17.3.273 ]. Two sets of experiments explore these phenomena, using extensions of the standard unconscious plagiarism paradigm. In Experiment 1A participants worked together in same- or different-sex dyads before trying to recall their own ideas or their partner's ideas. More source errors were evident for same-sex dyads (Experiment 1A), but this effect was absent when participants recalled from both sources simultaneously (Experiment 1B). In Experiment 2A, participants recalled ideas from a single source either alone or in the presence of the partner, using an extended-recall task. Partner presence did not affect the availability of ideas, but did reduce the propensity to report them as task compliant, relative to a partner-present condition. Simultaneous recall from both sources removed this social effect (Experiment 2B). Thus social influences on unconscious plagiarism are apparent, but are influenced by the salience of the alternate source at retrieval. PMID:26293909

  10. Detecting and Characterizing Semantic Inconsistencies in Ported Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Baishakhi; Kim, Miryung; Person, Suzette J.; Rungta, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Adding similar features and bug fixes often requires porting program patches from reference implementations and adapting them to target implementations. Porting errors may result from faulty adaptations or inconsistent updates. This paper investigates (I) the types of porting errors found in practice, and (2) how to detect and characterize potential porting errors. Analyzing version histories, we define five categories of porting errors, including incorrect control- and data-flow, code redundancy, inconsistent identifier renamings, etc. Leveraging this categorization, we design a static control- and data-dependence analysis technique, SPA, to detect and characterize porting inconsistencies. Our evaluation on code from four open-source projects shows thai SPA can dell-oct porting inconsistencies with 65% to 73% precision and 90% recall, and identify inconsistency types with 58% to 63% precision and 92% to 100% recall. In a comparison with two existing error detection tools, SPA improves precision by 14 to 17 percentage points

  11. Runtime Detection of C-Style Errors in UPC Code

    SciTech Connect

    Pirkelbauer, P; Liao, C; Panas, T; Quinlan, D

    2011-09-29

    Unified Parallel C (UPC) extends the C programming language (ISO C 99) with explicit parallel programming support for the partitioned global address space (PGAS), which provides a global memory space with localized partitions to each thread. Like its ancestor C, UPC is a low-level language that emphasizes code efficiency over safety. The absence of dynamic (and static) safety checks allows programmer oversights and software flaws that can be hard to spot. In this paper, we present an extension of a dynamic analysis tool, ROSE-Code Instrumentation and Runtime Monitor (ROSECIRM), for UPC to help programmers find C-style errors involving the global address space. Built on top of the ROSE source-to-source compiler infrastructure, the tool instruments source files with code that monitors operations and keeps track of changes to the system state. The resulting code is linked to a runtime monitor that observes the program execution and finds software defects. We describe the extensions to ROSE-CIRM that were necessary to support UPC. We discuss complications that arise from parallel code and our solutions. We test ROSE-CIRM against a runtime error detection test suite, and present performance results obtained from running error-free codes. ROSE-CIRM is released as part of the ROSE compiler under a BSD-style open source license.

  12. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially

  13. Universal scene change detection on MPEG-coded data domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Yasuyuki; Ujihara, Kiyono; Yoneyama, Akio

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we propose scene decomposition algorithm from MPEG compressed video data. As a preprocessing for scene decomposition, partial reconstruction methods of DC image for P- and B-pictures as well as I-pictures directly from MPEG bitstream are used. As for detection algorithms, we have exploited several methods for detection of abrupt scene change, dissolve and wipe transitions using comparison of DC images between frames and coding information such as motion vectors. It is also proposed the method for exclusion of undesired detection such as flashlight in order to enhance scene change detection accuracy. It is shown that more than 95 percent of decomposition accuracy has been obtained in the experiment using more than one hour TV program. It is also found that in the proposed algorithm scene change detection can be performed more than 5 times faster than normal playback speed using 130MIPS workstation.

  14. Text-based plagiarism in scientific publishing: issues, developments and education.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongyan

    2013-09-01

    Text-based plagiarism, or copying language from sources, has recently become an issue of growing concern in scientific publishing. Use of CrossCheck (a computational text-matching tool) by journals has sometimes exposed an unexpected amount of textual similarity between submissions and databases of scholarly literature. In this paper I provide an overview of the relevant literature, to examine how journal gatekeepers perceive textual appropriation, and how automated plagiarism-screening tools have been developed to detect text matching, with the technique now available for self-check of manuscripts before submission; I also discuss issues around English as an additional language (EAL) authors and in particular EAL novices being the typical offenders of textual borrowing. The final section of the paper proposes a few educational directions to take in tackling text-based plagiarism, highlighting the roles of the publishing industry, senior authors and English for academic purposes professionals. PMID:22535578

  15. Roles for Coincidence Detection in Coding Amplitude-Modulated Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Ashida, Go; Kretzberg, Jutta; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Many sensory neurons encode temporal information by detecting coincident arrivals of synaptic inputs. In the mammalian auditory brainstem, binaural neurons of the medial superior olive (MSO) are known to act as coincidence detectors, whereas in the lateral superior olive (LSO) roles of coincidence detection have remained unclear. LSO neurons receive excitatory and inhibitory inputs driven by ipsilateral and contralateral acoustic stimuli, respectively, and vary their output spike rates according to interaural level differences. In addition, LSO neurons are also sensitive to binaural phase differences of low-frequency tones and envelopes of amplitude-modulated (AM) sounds. Previous physiological recordings in vivo found considerable variations in monaural AM-tuning across neurons. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of the observed temporal tuning properties of LSO and their sources of variability, we used a simple coincidence counting model and examined how specific parameters of coincidence detection affect monaural and binaural AM coding. Spike rates and phase-locking of evoked excitatory and spontaneous inhibitory inputs had only minor effects on LSO output to monaural AM inputs. In contrast, the coincidence threshold of the model neuron affected both the overall spike rates and the half-peak positions of the AM-tuning curve, whereas the width of the coincidence window merely influenced the output spike rates. The duration of the refractory period affected only the low-frequency portion of the monaural AM-tuning curve. Unlike monaural AM coding, temporal factors, such as the coincidence window and the effective duration of inhibition, played a major role in determining the trough positions of simulated binaural phase-response curves. In addition, empirically-observed level-dependence of binaural phase-coding was reproduced in the framework of our minimalistic coincidence counting model. These modeling results suggest that coincidence detection of excitatory

  16. Understanding Plagiarism and How It Differs from Copyright Infringement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dames, K. Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Plagiarism has become the new piracy. Just as piracy was a few years ago, plagiarism has become the hot, new crime du jour--an act that suggests immorality and often scandal at once. What's more, plagiarism allegations feed into the society's "Candid Camera" mentality--the seemingly insatiable need to uncover wrongdoing. One of the biggest…

  17. Perceptions about Plagiarism between Faculty and Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, Serene

    2010-01-01

    The problem. Through observation and the review of literature, students often receive inconsistent and vague messages about plagiarism from faculty. Marcoux (2002) and Roig (2001) found a lack of consensus between faculty concerning definitions and forms of plagiarism. Although some students develop skills in order to avoid plagiarism, almost half…

  18. "You Fail": Plagiarism, the Ownership of Writing, and Transnational Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Arabella

    2009-01-01

    Responding to cultural concerns about the ownership of writing and the nature of plagiarism, this article examines discourses about plagiarism by ESL students and argues for a plurality of approaches to understanding the ownership of language and textual appropriation. First, it uses speech act theory to explain the dynamics of plagiarism; second,…

  19. Rational Ignorance in Education: A Field Experiment in Student Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Thomas S.; Jacob, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism appears to be a common problem among college students, yet there is little evidence on the effectiveness of interventions designed to minimize plagiarism. This study presents the results of a field experiment that evaluated the effects of a web-based educational tutorial in reducing plagiarism. We found that assignment to the treatment…

  20. Ethical and Unethical Methods of Plagiarism Prevention in Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiyari, Kaveh; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Shakiba, Masoud; Zavvari, Azam; Shahbazi-Moghadam, Masoomeh; Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Mohammadjafari, Marjan

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses plagiarism origins, and the ethical solutions to prevent it. It also reviews some unethical approaches, which may be used to decrease the plagiarism rate in academic writings. We propose eight ethical techniques to avoid unconscious and accidental plagiarism in manuscripts without using online systems such as Turnitin and/or…

  1. The Issue of (Software) Plagiarism: A Student View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuda, D.; Navrat, P.; Kovacova, B.; Humay, P.

    2012-01-01

    The issue of plagiarism is discussed in the context of university education in disciplines related to computing. The focus is therefore mainly on software plagiarism. First, however, a case is made for the claim that the most important reason that plagiarism cannot be tolerated lies in the essence of the concept of a university as it is rooted in…

  2. Technology Enhanced Learning and Plagiarism in Entrepreneurship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risquez, Angelica; O'Dwyer, Michele; Ledwith, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore the relationship between entrepreneurship students' ethical views on plagiarism, their self reported engagement in plagiarism and their participation in an online plagiarism prevention tutorial. Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on a questionnaire administered to 434 undergraduate university…

  3. The Crime of Plagiarism: A Critique of Literary Property Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Gary Layne

    Understanding the history of plagiarism may put scholars in a position to define plagiarism more precisely and to decide plagiarism disputes involving students and scholars more fairly. The origins of literary property are found in ritual and religious drama. In classical Greece and Rome, literary property began to hold some value for the author.…

  4. Using Anti-Plagiarism Software to Promote Academic Honesty in the Context of Peer Reviewed Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledwith, Ann; Risquez, Angelica

    2008-01-01

    A variety of free and commercial software applications designed to detect plagiarism from Internet sources has appeared in recent years. However, their effectiveness and impact on student behaviour has been assumed rather than confirmed. The study presented here explores the responses and perceptions of a group of first year students at an Irish…

  5. Performance improvement of spectral amplitude coding-optical code division multiple access systems using NAND detection with enhanced double weight code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Nasim; Aljunid, Syed Alwee; Ahmad, R. Badlishah; Fadhil, Hilal A.; Rashid, Mohd Abdur

    2012-01-01

    The bit-error rate (BER) performance of the spectral amplitude coding-optical code division multiple access (SACOCDMA) system has been investigated by using NAND subtraction detection technique with enhanced double weight (EDW) code. The EDW code is the enhanced version of double weight (DW) code family where the code weight is any odd number and greater than one with ideal cross-correlation. In order to evaluate the performance of the system, we used mathematical analysis extensively along with the simulation experiment. The evaluation results obtained using the NAND subtraction detection technique was compared with those obtained using the complementary detection technique for the same number of active users. The comparison results revealed that the BER performance of the system using NAND subtraction detection technique has greatly been improved as compared to the complementary technique.

  6. Local graph regularized coding for salient object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Lina; Yang, Shuyuan; Jiao, Licheng; Wang, Shuang; Shi, Jiao

    2016-07-01

    Subspace segmentation based salient object detection has received increasing interests in recent years. To preserve the locality and similarity of regions, a grouping effect of representation is introduced to segment the salient object and background in subspace. Then a new saliency map is calculated by incorporating this local graph regularizer into coding, which explicitly explores the data self-representation model and thus locate more accurate salient regions. Moreover, a heuristic object-based dictionary from background superpixels is obtained in border set removing the image regions within the potential object regions. Experimental results on four large benchmark databases demonstrate that the proposed method performs favorably against eight recent state-of-the-art methods in terms of three evaluation criterions, with a reduction of MAE by 19.8% than GR and 29.3% than CB in the two SED datasets, respectively. Meanwhile, our method also runs faster than the comparative detection approaches.

  7. International Perspectives on Plagiarism and Considerations for Teaching International Trainees

    PubMed Central

    Heitman, Elizabeth; Litewka, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    In the increasingly global community of biomedical science and graduate science education, many US academic researchers work with international trainees whose views on scientific writing and plagiarism can be strikingly different from US norms. Although a growing number of countries and international professional organizations identify plagiarism as research misconduct, many international trainees come from research environments where plagiarism is ill-defined and even commonly practiced. Two research-ethics educators consider current perspectives on plagiarism around the world and contend that US research-training programs should focus on trainees’ scientific writing skills and acculturation, not simply on preventing plagiarism. PMID:21194646

  8. International perspectives on plagiarism and considerations for teaching international trainees.

    PubMed

    Heitman, Elizabeth; Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    In the increasingly global community of biomedical science and graduate science education, many US academic researchers work with international trainees whose views on scientific writing and plagiarism can be strikingly different from US norms. Although a growing number of countries and international professional organizations identify plagiarism as research misconduct, many international trainees come from research environments where plagiarism is ill-defined and even commonly practiced. Two research-ethics educators consider current perspectives on plagiarism around the world and contend that US research-training programs should focus on trainees' scientific writing skills and acculturation, not simply on preventing plagiarism. PMID:21194646

  9. Neural coding of passive lump detection in compliant artificial tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gwilliam, James C.; Yoshioka, Takashi; Hsiao, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms of detecting lumps embedded in artificial compliant tissues. We performed a combined psychophysical study of humans performing a passive lump detection task with a neurophysiological study in nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta) where we recorded the responses of peripheral mechanoreceptive afferents to lumps embedded at various depths in intermediates (rubbers) of varying compliance. The psychophysical results reveal that human lump detection is greatly degraded by both lump depth and decreased compliance of the intermediate. The neurophysiology results reveal that only the slowly adapting type 1 (SA1) afferents provide a clear spatial representation of lumps at all depths and that the representation is affected by lump size, depth, and compliance of the intermediate. The rapidly adapting afferents are considerably less sensitive to the lump. We defined eight neural response measures that we hypothesized could explain the psychophysical behavior, including peak firing rate, spatial spread of neural activity, and additional parameters derived from these measures. We find that peak firing rate encodes the depth of the lump, and the neural spatial spread of the SA1 response encodes for lump size but not lump shape. We also find that the perception of lump size may be affected by the compliance of the intermediate. The results show that lump detection is based on a spatial population code of the SA1 afferents, which is distorted by the depth of the lump and compliance of the tissue. PMID:24805077

  10. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism

  11. Avoiding plagiarism: guidance for nursing students.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    The pressures of study, diversity of source materials, past assumptions relating to good writing practice, ambiguous writing guidance on best practice and students' insecurity about their reasoning ability, can lead to plagiarism. With the use of source checking software, there is an increased chance that plagiarised work will be identified and investigated, and penalties given. In extreme cases, plagiarised work may be reported to the Nursing and Midwifery Council and professional as well as academic penalties may apply. This article provides information on how students can avoid plagiarism when preparing their coursework for submission. PMID:24568425

  12. Coded-aperture Raman imaging for standoff explosive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCain, Scott T.; Guenther, B. D.; Brady, David J.; Krishnamurthy, Kalyani; Willett, Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the design of a deep-UV Raman imaging spectrometer operating with an excitation wavelength of 228 nm. The designed system will provide the ability to detect explosives (both traditional military explosives and home-made explosives) from standoff distances of 1-10 meters with an interrogation area of 1 mm x 1 mm to 200 mm x 200 mm. This excitation wavelength provides resonant enhancement of many common explosives, no background fluorescence, and an enhanced cross-section due to the inverse wavelength scaling of Raman scattering. A coded-aperture spectrograph combined with compressive imaging algorithms will allow for wide-area interrogation with fast acquisition rates. Coded-aperture spectral imaging exploits the compressibility of hyperspectral data-cubes to greatly reduce the amount of acquired data needed to interrogate an area. The resultant systems are able to cover wider areas much faster than traditional push-broom and tunable filter systems. The full system design will be presented along with initial data from the instrument. Estimates for area scanning rates and chemical sensitivity will be presented. The system components include a solid-state deep-UV laser operating at 228 nm, a spectrograph consisting of well-corrected refractive imaging optics and a reflective grating, an intensified solar-blind CCD camera, and a high-efficiency collection optic.

  13. Methodology for fast detection of false sharing in threaded scientific codes

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, I-Hsin; Cong, Guojing; Murata, Hiroki; Negishi, Yasushi; Wen, Hui-Fang

    2014-11-25

    A profiling tool identifies a code region with a false sharing potential. A static analysis tool classifies variables and arrays in the identified code region. A mapping detection library correlates memory access instructions in the identified code region with variables and arrays in the identified code region while a processor is running the identified code region. The mapping detection library identifies one or more instructions at risk, in the identified code region, which are subject to an analysis by a false sharing detection library. A false sharing detection library performs a run-time analysis of the one or more instructions at risk while the processor is re-running the identified code region. The false sharing detection library determines, based on the performed run-time analysis, whether two different portions of the cache memory line are accessed by the generated binary code.

  14. Plagiarism: A Shared Responsibility of All, Current Situation, and Future Actions in Yemen.

    PubMed

    Muthanna, Abdulghani

    2016-01-01

    As combating plagiarism is a shared responsibility of all, this article focuses on presenting the current situation of higher education in Yemen. The critical review of four implementable policy documents and interviews revealed the absence of research ethics code, research misconduct policy, and institutional policies in the country. This led to the presence of several acts of research dishonesty. The article concludes with an initiative for necessary future actions in the nation. PMID:26890365

  15. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially similar scientific content

  16. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially

  17. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially

  18. Error Detecting and Error Correcting Codes: The New Mathematics of Shopping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, Kaye

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the embedded mathematics in which important but hidden calculations are being done for communications in commerce. Explains two key concepts, error detecting codes and error correcting codes. Illustrates these ideas using two familiar examples, barcodes and ISBN numbers. (ASK)

  19. Plagiarism: Do Students Know What It Is?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Maureen M.; Overfield, Joyce A.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of students to plagiarise coursework assessments has been a topic of much debate in recent years. The consequences of plagiarism for students may be devastating, since their failure to learn and use appropriate study skills will affect both their university experience and their subsequent career. This project set out to investigate…

  20. Plagiarism within Extension: Origin and Current Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Dora

    2011-01-01

    Extension publication editors from around the United States are finding cases of plagiarism within manuscripts that Extension educators submit as new public education materials. When editors confront such educators with the problem, some don't understand it as such, rationalizing that reproducing published information for a new purpose qualifies…

  1. Reflections on the Cultural Climate of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willen, Matthew S.

    2004-01-01

    If frequiency of e-mail distribution is any indication, college professors and administrators indeed took notice of last fall's article in the New York Times, "A Campus Fad That's Being Copied: Internet Plagiarism" (Rimer 2003), on Rutgers Professor Donald L. McCabe's recent study of cheating in college and universities. Four copies of the…

  2. Plagiarism and the Internet: Turning the Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Thomas; Nelson, Gene

    2001-01-01

    Notes the problem of Net-based plagiarism in student papers. Describes a solution that turns the tables by using the Internet: TurnItIn.com, an Internet scanner that annotates/marks unattributed material in student papers and compiles a report for the teacher overnight. (SR)

  3. Unintended Lessons: Plagiarism and the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carol C.

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism, like other ethical problems, flourishes in atmospheres with few consequences. The finding by one survey that only 27% of college students thought cutting and pasting someone else's work was "serious cheating" is troubling evidence of student inclination to cut corners ethically. Papers are easily copied from the Internet, and adult…

  4. Plagiarism and Academic Writing of NNS Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoCastro, Virginia; Masuko, Mayumi

    A study investigated attitudes toward and practices of plagiarism of Japanese college students writing in English. Data were drawn from two senior theses written in English and two in Japanese, 30 other student academic papers, interviews with students, and a questionnaire administered to 46 undergraduate and graduate students. In both…

  5. Plagiarism: What Don't They Know?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelker, Troy A.; Love, Leonard G.; Pentina, Iryna

    2012-01-01

    The present economic environment is beneficial for universities and schools of business that are experiencing significant enrollment increases. But just as the U.S. economy is suffering from an economic recession, universities increasingly suffer from an integrity recession. Student academic misconduct, particularly plagiarism, is at an all-time…

  6. Academic Integrity and Plagiarism: Australasian Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews nearly 80 published items concerned with promoting academic integrity and reducing plagiarism. Nearly all of them were published in the last seven years and have authors based in Australasia. Most of them have authors from computing departments and many were published in computing journals or presented at computing conferences.…

  7. Evaluation and Testing of the ADVANTG Code on SNM Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; Hayes, John W.

    2013-09-24

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked with evaluating the effectiveness of ORNL’s new hybrid transport code, ADVANTG, on scenarios of interest to our NA-22 sponsor, specifically of detection of diversion of special nuclear material (SNM). PNNL staff have determined that acquisition and installation of ADVANTG was relatively straightforward for a code in its phase of development, but probably not yet sufficient for mass distribution to the general user. PNNL staff also determined that with little effort, ADVANTG generated weight windows that typically worked for the problems and generated results consistent with MCNP. With slightly greater effort of choosing a finer mesh around detectors or sample reaction tally regions, the figure of merit (FOM) could be further improved in most cases. This does take some limited knowledge of deterministic transport methods. The FOM could also be increased by limiting the energy range for a tally to the energy region of greatest interest. It was then found that an MCNP run with the full energy range for the tally showed improved statistics in the region used for the ADVANTG run. The specific case of interest chosen by the sponsor is the CIPN project from Las Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), which is an active interrogation, non-destructive assay (NDA) technique to quantify the fissile content in a spent fuel assembly and is also sensitive to cases of material diversion. Unfortunately, weight windows for the CIPN problem cannot currently be properly generated with ADVANTG due to inadequate accommodations for source definition. ADVANTG requires that a fixed neutron source be defined within the problem and cannot account for neutron multiplication. As such, it is rendered useless in active interrogation scenarios. It is also interesting to note that this is a difficult problem to solve and that the automated weight windows generator in MCNP actually slowed down the problem. Therefore, PNNL had determined

  8. Codon Distribution in Error-Detecting Circular Codes

    PubMed Central

    Fimmel, Elena; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    In 1957, Francis Crick et al. suggested an ingenious explanation for the process of frame maintenance. The idea was based on the notion of comma-free codes. Although Crick’s hypothesis proved to be wrong, in 1996, Arquès and Michel discovered the existence of a weaker version of such codes in eukaryote and prokaryote genomes, namely the so-called circular codes. Since then, circular code theory has invariably evoked great interest and made significant progress. In this article, the codon distributions in maximal comma-free, maximal self-complementary C3 and maximal self-complementary circular codes are discussed, i.e., we investigate in how many of such codes a given codon participates. As the main (and surprising) result, it is shown that the codons can be separated into very few classes (three, or five, or six) with respect to their frequency. Moreover, the distribution classes can be hierarchically ordered as refinements from maximal comma-free codes via maximal self-complementary C3 codes to maximal self-complementary circular codes. PMID:26999215

  9. Integrated photonic decoder with complementary code processing and balanced detection for two-dimensional optical code division multiple access.

    PubMed

    Takiguchi, K; Okuno, M; Takahashi, H; Moriwaki, O

    2007-04-01

    We propose a novel integrated photonic decoder for two-dimensional (time spreading, wavelength hopping) optical code division multiple access. The decoder is composed of multiplexers-demultiplexers, variable delay lines, and a coupler, which processes complementary codes and utilizes balanced detection to reduce unwanted cross-correlation interference. We successfully carried out a 10 Gbit/s transmission that demonstrated its effectiveness. PMID:17339936

  10. Digital system detects binary code patterns containing errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, R. M.; Tharpe, H. M., Jr.

    1966-01-01

    System of square loop magnetic cores associated with code input registers to react to input code patterns by reference to a group of control cores in such a manner that errors are canceled and patterns containing errors are accepted for amplification and processing. This technique improves reception capabilities in PCM telemetry systems.

  11. Generalized Viterbi algorithms for error detection with convolutional codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadri, N.; Sundberg, C.-E. W.

    Presented are two generalized Viterbi algorithms (GVAs) for the decoding of convolutional codes. They are a parallel algorithm that simultaneously identifies the L best estimates of the transmitted sequence, and a serial algorithm that identifies the lth best estimate using the knowledge about the previously found l-1 estimates. These algorithms are applied to combined speech and channel coding systems, concatenated codes, trellis-coded modulation, partial response (continuous-phase modulation), and hybrid ARQ (automatic repeat request) schemes. As an example, for a concatenated code more than 2 dB is gained by the use of the GVA with L = 3 over the Viterbi algorithm for block error rates less than 10-2. The channel is a Rayleigh fading channel.

  12. Legality, Quality Assurance and Learning: Competing Discourses of Plagiarism Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In universities around the world, plagiarism management is an ongoing issue of quality assurance and risk management. Plagiarism management discourses are often framed by legal concepts of authorial rights, and plagiarism policies outline penalties for infringement. Learning and teaching discourses argue that plagiarism management is, and should…

  13. Addressing Plagiarism in Online Programmes at a Health Sciences University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Helen; Anast, Ade; Roehling, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to be a concern for all educational institutions. To build a solid foundation for high academic standards and best practices at a graduate university, aspects of plagiarism were reviewed to develop better management processes for reducing plagiarism. Specifically, the prevalence of plagiarism and software programmes for…

  14. Coded spectroscopy for ethanol detection in diffuse, fluorescent media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCain, Scott Thomas

    Optical sensing in the visible and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum has many useful applications. One particularly interesting one is the non-invasive analysis of tissue since a high penetration depth is possible. With the use of Raman spectroscopy, a high degree of chemical specificity is available with laser powers that are harmless to living tissue. Such systems, however, are plagued by the low efficiency of the Raman scattering process by molecules and the intense background fluorescence from some biological materials. To address these drawbacks, we have investigated the use of coded spectroscopy to make Raman spectroscopy more feasible in routine use. By coding the input aperture of a dispersive spectrometer, throughput gains of 10-100 are possible over a traditional slit spectrometer. The theory, design, and performance characteristics of this static aperture coding will be discussed in this thesis. In addition, by coding the excitation light sources one can filter out the shifting Raman signals from the stationary fluorescent background. The theory and implementation of an expectation maximization algorithm for Raman signal reconstruction will be analyzed. In addition, the design of a multi-excitation, coded-aperture Raman spectrometer will be described, which uses both of the coding mechanisms described.

  15. Fighting Plagiarism: Taking the Work out of Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the rise of cut-and-paste plagiarism in schools. Students are constantly searching for essays online, however, they did not know that their teachers are using the same technology to catch them cheating. Plagiarism is happening on campuses nationwide. Yet, with veritable libraries at their fingertips, students see nothing…

  16. Pandora's Box: Academic Perceptions of Student Plagiarism in Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Plagiarism is viewed by many academics as a kind of Pandora's box--the elements contained inside are too frightening to allow escape for fear of the havoc that may result. Reluctance by academic members of staff to discuss student plagiarism openly may contribute to the often untenable situations we, as teachers, face when dealing with student…

  17. Turnitin Systems: A Deterrent to Plagiarism in College Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckler, Nina C.; Rice, Margaret; Bryan, C. Hobson

    2013-01-01

    Computer technology and the Internet now make plagiarism an easier enterprise. As a result, faculty must be more diligent in their efforts to mitigate the practice of academic integrity, and institutions of higher education must provide the leadership and support to ensure the context for it. This study explored the use of a plagiarism detection…

  18. Arresting Student Plagiarism: Are We Investigators or Educators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lajuan

    2011-01-01

    Managing student plagiarism can cause instructors to feel as if they are serving educational institutions in the role of investigator rather than educator. Since many educators continue to struggle with the issue of student plagiarism, the author interviewed some of her colleagues. In this article, she shares her and her colleagues' antiplagiarism…

  19. Reducing Plagiarism by Using Online Software: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kose, Ozgur; Arikan, Arda

    2011-01-01

    This action research attempts to explore the perceptions of Turkish university students on plagiarism while evaluating the effectiveness of an online application used to deter plagiarism. The participants were 40 first year university students studying in two different sections of an academic writing class. The findings show that the participants…

  20. Plagiarism Litigation Trends in the USA and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, J. Joy

    2008-01-01

    In this article we explore the increasing complexity of plagiarism litigation in the USA and Australia. Plagiarism has always been a serious academic issue and academic staff and students have wrestled with its definition and appropriate penalties for some time. However, the advent of the Internet and more freely accessible information resources,…

  1. Combating plagiarism: the role of the health librarian.

    PubMed

    Spring, Hannah; Adams, Rachel

    2013-12-01

    This feature looks at the issue of plagiarism in health care students and the role of the health librarian in combating the problem. In particular, consideration is given to how plagiarism can occur and provides some examples from two UK universities of approaches health librarians can take in supporting students to avoid these common pitfalls. PMID:24251896

  2. Using Computer Simulations and Games to Prevent Student Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Elizabeth G.

    2015-01-01

    In this increasingly digital age, student plagiarism is rampant. Roughly half of college students admit to plagiarizing using content found online, directly copying and pasting the work of others. Digital technology and social media have greatly changed the landscape of how knowledge is acquired and disseminated; thus, students must be explicitly…

  3. Applying an Employee-Motivation Model to Prevent Student Plagiarism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.; Sims, Randi L.

    1996-01-01

    A model based on Vroom's expectancy theory of employee motivation posits that instructors can prevent plagiarism by ensuring that students understand the rules of ethical writing, expect assignments to be manageable and have personal benefits, and expect plagiarism to be difficult and have important personal costs. (SK)

  4. Teaching Students about Plagiarism Using a Web-Based Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetter, Maria Earman

    2013-01-01

    The following research delivered a web-based module about plagiarism and paraphrasing to avoid plagiarism in both a blended method, with live instruction paired with web presentation for 105 students, and a separate web-only method for 22 other students. Participants were graduates and undergraduates preparing to become teachers, the majority of…

  5. Good intentions: providing students with skills to avoid accidental plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Zafron, Michelle L

    2012-01-01

    This article explores one librarian's experience with creating and implementing a plagiarism seminar as part of the library liaison program to the School of Public Health and Health Professions at the University at Buffalo. The changes and evolution of the seminar over several iterations are described. This article also examines student perceptions, misperceptions, and reactions to the plagiarism workshop. PMID:22559185

  6. Online plagiarism training falls short in biology classrooms.

    PubMed

    Holt, Emily A; Fagerheim, Britt; Durham, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Online plagiarism tutorials are increasingly popular in higher education, as faculty and staff try to curb the plagiarism epidemic. Yet no research has validated the efficacy of such tools in minimizing plagiarism in the sciences. Our study compared three plagiarism-avoidance training regimens (i.e., no training, online tutorial, or homework assignment) and their impacts on students' ability to accurately discriminate plagiarism from text that is properly quoted, paraphrased, and attributed. Using pre- and postsurveys of 173 undergraduate students in three general ecology courses, we found that students given the homework assignment had far greater success in identifying plagiarism or the lack thereof compared with students given no training. In general, students trained with the homework assignment more successfully identified plagiarism than did students trained with the online tutorial. We also found that the summative assessment associated with the plagiarism-avoidance training formats (i.e., homework grade and online tutorial assessment score) did not correlate with student improvement on surveys through time. PMID:24591507

  7. Application of Plagiarism Screening Software in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Matthew E.; Bullard, Lisa G.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is an area of increasing concern for written ChE assignments, such as laboratory and design reports, due to ease of access to text and other materials via the internet. This study examines the application of plagiarism screening software to four courses in a university chemical engineering curriculum. The effectiveness of plagiarism…

  8. Instructor Perceptions of Plagiarism: Are We Finding Common Ground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kymberley K.; Behrendt, Linda S.; Boothby, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined instructor views of what constitutes plagiarism. The authors collected questionnaire data from 158 participants recruited through three teaching-related electronic listservs. Results showed that most participants agreed that behaviors that claim credit for someone else's work constituted plagiarism. Instructors differed in…

  9. Online Plagiarism Training Falls Short in Biology Classrooms

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Emily A.; Fagerheim, Britt; Durham, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Online plagiarism tutorials are increasingly popular in higher education, as faculty and staff try to curb the plagiarism epidemic. Yet no research has validated the efficacy of such tools in minimizing plagiarism in the sciences. Our study compared three plagiarism-avoidance training regimens (i.e., no training, online tutorial, or homework assignment) and their impacts on students’ ability to accurately discriminate plagiarism from text that is properly quoted, paraphrased, and attributed. Using pre- and postsurveys of 173 undergraduate students in three general ecology courses, we found that students given the homework assignment had far greater success in identifying plagiarism or the lack thereof compared with students given no training. In general, students trained with the homework assignment more successfully identified plagiarism than did students trained with the online tutorial. We also found that the summative assessment associated with the plagiarism-avoidance training formats (i.e., homework grade and online tutorial assessment score) did not correlate with student improvement on surveys through time. PMID:24591507

  10. Don't Let Students "Overlook" Internet Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugeja, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Plagiarism involves stealing or closely imitating another's written, creative, electronic, photographed, taped, or promotional or research work, identifying it as your own without permission or authorization. In this article, the author presents a primer discussion of plagiarism prevention in middle school throughout high school. Among other…

  11. The Thieves of Academe: Plagiarism in the University System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Christopher S.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of literary piracy at the collegiate level was examined in an exploratory study. Forms of plagiarism, especially term paper mills; student attitudes toward plagiarism; approaches to dealing with the problem; and measures educators can take to address the problem in the classroom are discussed. (MLW)

  12. Plagiarism, Enclosure, and the Commons of the Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scurrah, William L.

    When discussing plagiarism and cheating these days, college faculty seem to find themselves using the rhetoric of crime and punishment ("It's easier to steal from the Internet") on their students rather than a rhetoric more attuned to their actual mission. A short overview in this paper of the history of plagiarism and the development of the…

  13. More Heat than Light: Plagiarism in Its Appearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Sue; Flint, Abbi

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that the recent debate about plagiarism has taken on aspects of a moral panic, which reflects underlying anxieties about the state of higher education in the United Kingdom. In contrast to the moral absolutism of some commentators, we argue for the significance of posing the phenomenological question of "what is plagiarism in its…

  14. Plagiarism: Why is it such a big issue for medical writers?

    PubMed Central

    Das, Natasha; Panjabi, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism is the wrongful presentation of somebody else‘s work or idea as one’s own without adequately attributing it to the source. Most authors know that plagiarism is an unethical publication practice. Yet, it is a serious problem in the medical writing arena. Plagiarism is perhaps the commonest ethical issue plaguing medical writing. In this article, we highlight the different types of plagiarism and address the issues of plagiarism of text, plagiarism of ideas, mosaic plagiarism, self-plagiarism, and duplicate publication. An act of plagiarism can have several repercussions for the author, the journal in question and the publication house as a whole. Sometimes, strict disciplinary action is also taken against the plagiarist. The article cites examples of retraction of articles, suspension of authors, apology letters from journal editors, and other such actions against plagiarism. PMID:21731858

  15. Pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism after an educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Degeeter, Michelle; Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C; Nuzum, Donald S; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney

    2014-03-12

    Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (p<0.05). The mean change was greatest for P1 and P2 students (5% and 4.8%, respectively). Conclusion. An educational intervention about plagiarism can significantly improve students' ability to identify plagiarism. PMID:24672066

  16. Pharmacy Students’ Ability to Identify Plagiarism After an Educational Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C.; Nuzum, Donald S.; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students’ ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (p<0.05). The mean change was greatest for P1 and P2 students (5% and 4.8%, respectively). Conclusion. An educational intervention about plagiarism can significantly improve students’ ability to identify plagiarism. PMID:24672066

  17. Who Has Read the Policy on Plagiarism? Unpacking Students' Understanding of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullifer, J. M.; Tyson, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has established that the term "plagiarism" is open to different interpretations, resulting in confusion among students and staff alike. University policy on academic integrity/misconduct defines the behaviours that all stakeholders must abide by, and the parameters for reporting, investigating and penalising infringements. These…

  18. Improving detection range via correlation of long PN codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Saurav; Wang, Zhonghai; Zheng, Y. Rosa

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes a correlation method for detecting super-regenerative RF receivers via stimulation. Long PN sequences are used as to stimulate the unintended emissions from the RF receivers. High correlation between known PN sequence and stimulated unintended emissions from RF receivers helps improving the detection range compared to passive detection and power detection methods. Although RF receivers generate unintended emissions from their nonlinear devices, without stimulation, the power of these unintended emission is usually lower than --70dBm, as per the FCC regulations. Direct detection (passive detection) of these emissions is a challenging task specially in noisy conditions. When a stimulation signal is transmitted from distance, superregenerative receivers generate unintended emissions that contain the stimulation signal and its harmonics. Excellent correlation property of PN sequence enables us to improve the range and accuracy of detecting the super-regenerative receivers through stimulation method even in noisy conditions. The experiment involves detection of wireless doorbell, a commercially available super-regenerative receiver. USRP is used for transmitting the stimulant signal and receiving unintended stimulated emissions from the doorbell. Experiments show that the detection range of the proposed method with long PN sequences is much larger than passive detection and power detection methods.

  19. An Approach for Detecting Inconsistencies between Behavioral Models of the Software Architecture and the Code

    SciTech Connect

    Ciraci, Selim; Sozer, Hasan; Tekinerdogan, Bedir

    2012-07-16

    In practice, inconsistencies between architectural documentation and the code might arise due to improper implementation of the architecture or the separate, uncontrolled evolution of the code. Several approaches have been proposed to detect the inconsistencies between the architecture and the code but these tend to be limited for capturing inconsistencies that might occur at runtime. We present a runtime verification approach for detecting inconsistencies between the dynamic behavior of the architecture and the actual code. The approach is supported by a set of tools that implement the architecture and the code patterns in Prolog, and support the automatic generation of runtime monitors for detecting inconsistencies. We illustrate the approach and the toolset for a Crisis Management System case study.

  20. A new look at coding for APD-based direct-detection optical channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herro, Mark A.; Hu, Laizhao

    1988-01-01

    Coding for avalanche-photodiode (APD)-based direct-detection optical channels is investigated using a simple channel model that clearly points out the difference between the signal-dependent optical noise channel model and the additive white Gaussian noise channel model. Coding and modulation are viewed as a single entity, and the coding/modulation gain (CMG) is used to analyze and construct good codes for APD-based optical receivers. It is shown that the structure of block codes, when used in conjunction with on-off keying signaling, renders these codes fairly inefficient with respect to obtaining reasonable CMG on the optical channel. In contrast, codes (or modulations) that use fewer channel ones (pulses) than information ones per block can offer substantial CMG on the optical channel. For bandwidth-constrained applications, it is proposed that pulse-position modulation be used with more than one pulse per word to obtain reasonable CMG while consuming small amounts of bandwidth.

  1. Do medical students require education on issues related to plagiarism?

    PubMed

    Varghese, Joe; Jacob, Molly

    2015-01-01

    In the course of our professional experience, we have seen that many medical students plagiarise. We hypothesised that they do so out of ignorance and that they require formal education on the subject. With this objective in mind, we conducted a teaching session on issues related to plagiarism. As a part of this, we administered a quiz to assess their baseline knowledge on plagiarism and a questionnaire to determine their attitudes towards it. We followed this up with an interactive teaching session, in which we discussed various aspects of plagiarism. We subjected the data obtained from the quiz and questionnaire to bivariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 423 medical students participated in the study. Their average score for the quiz was 4.96±1.67 (out of 10). Age, gender and years in medical school were not significantly associated with knowledge regarding plagiarism. The knowledge scores were negatively correlated with permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and positively correlated with attitudes critical of the practice. Men had significantly higher scores on permissive attitudes compared to women . In conclusion, we found that the medical students' knowledge regarding plagiarism was limited. Those with low knowledge scores tended to have permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and were less critical of the practice. We recommend the inclusion of formal instruction on this subject in the medical curriculum, so that this form of academic misconduct can be tackled. PMID:25671582

  2. Reducing BER of spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access systems by single photodiode detection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khafaji, H. M. R.; Aljunid, S. A.; Amphawan, A.; Fadhil, H. A.; Safar, A. M.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present a single photodiode detection (SPD) technique for spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA) systems. The proposed technique eliminates both phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN) and multiple-access interference (MAI) in the optical domain. Analytical results show that for 35 simultaneous users transmitting at data rate of 622 Mbps, the bit-error rate (BER) = 1.4x10^-28 for SPD technique is much better compared to 9.3x10^-6 and 9.6x10^-3 for the modified-AND as well as the AND detection techniques, respectively. Moreover, we verified the improved performance afforded by the proposed technique using data transmission simulations.

  3. Flow-Based Detection of Bar Coded Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K A; Dougherty, G M; Santiago, J G

    2005-06-24

    We have developed methods for flow control, electric field alignment, and readout of colloidal Nanobarcodes{copyright}. Our flow-based detection scheme leverages microfluidics and alternate current (AC) electric fields to align and image particles in a well-defined image plane. Using analytical models of the particle rotation in electric fields we can optimize the field strength and frequency necessary to align the particles. This detection platform alleviates loss of information in solution-based assays due to particle clumping during detection.

  4. Multi-frequency phase-coded microwave signal generation based on polarization modulation and balanced detection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Xu, Weiyuan; Wei, Zhengwu; Pan, Shilong

    2016-01-01

    Photonic multi-frequency phase-coded microwave signal generation is proposed and demonstrated based on polarization modulation and balanced detection. Consisting of only a polarization modulator (PolM) driven by an electrical coding data, a polarization beam splitter (PBS) and a balanced photodetector (BPD), the proposed microwave phase coder has no requirement on the wavelength, intensity modulation format, or modulation index of the input optical microwave signal, and allows phase coding of arbitrary-format RF signals, which enables multi-frequency phase coding with compact structure, simple operation, and high flexibility. A proof-of-concept experiment is performed, achieving simultaneous phase coding of 15 and 30 GHz, or 10 and 20 GHz RF signals with a coding rate of 5  Gb/s. PMID:26696170

  5. The P-POD Project. [error detection codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlefield, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The programmable pilot oriented display (P-POD), a multiprocessor based flight information processing and display unit, is discussed. Communication protocols between the three Z-80 processors inside P-POD are reviewed. The interface between the video processor, P2, and the main processor, P1, was tested. Hardware and software were revised. Data flow between P1 and P2 is illustrated. While running diagnostic routines to exercise the P1/P2 interface at maximum speed an intermittent failure was observed. A check of possible noise sources or race conditions in the hardware did not reveal the source of this failure. Possible software timing problems were also fully investigated. To eliminate the effects of this type of failure a performance monitor routine was used to detect these occasional failures and correct them. The data transmission cycle between P1/P2 is either allowed to continue normal operation or is re-initialized and restarted when an error is detected.

  6. Teaching Paraphrase, Summary, and Plagiarism: An Integrated Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasarenko, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Offers an exercise to help students understand the difference between summarizing and paraphrasing and how both practices can result in plagiarism if the original source is not cited. Explains how the exercise uses Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address." (TB)

  7. An Exercise To Teach Bioscience Students about Plagiarism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willmott, Chris J. R.; Harrison, Tim M.

    2003-01-01

    Plagiarism is an issue of increasing concern to educators, yet students are not always clear on the boundaries between acceptable and unacceptable practice. Presents an exercise to help bioscience students make this important distinction. (Author/SOE)

  8. Accuracy comparison among different machine learning techniques for detecting malicious codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narang, Komal

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a machine learning based model for malware detection is proposed. It can detect newly released malware i.e. zero day attack by analyzing operation codes on Android operating system. The accuracy of Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Neural Network for detecting malicious code has been compared for the proposed model. In the experiment 400 benign files, 100 system files and 500 malicious files have been used to construct the model. The model yields the best accuracy 88.9% when neural network is used as classifier and achieved 95% and 82.8% accuracy for sensitivity and specificity respectively.

  9. Demonstration of a quantum error detection code using a square lattice of four superconducting qubits

    PubMed Central

    Córcoles, A.D.; Magesan, Easwar; Srinivasan, Srikanth J.; Cross, Andrew W.; Steffen, M.; Gambetta, Jay M.; Chow, Jerry M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to detect and deal with errors when manipulating quantum systems is a fundamental requirement for fault-tolerant quantum computing. Unlike classical bits that are subject to only digital bit-flip errors, quantum bits are susceptible to a much larger spectrum of errors, for which any complete quantum error-correcting code must account. Whilst classical bit-flip detection can be realized via a linear array of qubits, a general fault-tolerant quantum error-correcting code requires extending into a higher-dimensional lattice. Here we present a quantum error detection protocol on a two-by-two planar lattice of superconducting qubits. The protocol detects an arbitrary quantum error on an encoded two-qubit entangled state via quantum non-demolition parity measurements on another pair of error syndrome qubits. This result represents a building block towards larger lattices amenable to fault-tolerant quantum error correction architectures such as the surface code. PMID:25923200

  10. Detection and Location of Gamma-Ray Sources with a Modulating Coded Mask

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dale N.; Stromswold, David C.; Wunschel, Sharon C.; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Hansen, Randy R.

    2006-01-31

    This paper presents methods of detecting and locating a concelaed nuclear gamma-ray source with a coded aperture mask. Energetic gamma rays readily penetrate moderate amounts of shielding material and can be detected at distances of many meters. The detection of high energy gamma-ray sources is vitally important to national security for several reasons, including nuclear materials smuggling interdiction, monitoring weapon components under treaties, and locating nuclear weapons and materials in the possession terrorist organizations.

  11. Digital coherent detection research on Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry with simplex pulse codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yun-Qi; Ye, Qing; Pan, Zheng-Qing; Cai, Hai-Wen; Qu, Rong-Hui

    2014-11-01

    The digital coherent detection technique has been investigated without any frequency-scanning device in the Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR), where the simplex pulse codes are applied in the sensing system. The time domain signal of every code sequence is collected by the data acquisition card (DAQ). A shift-averaging technique is applied in the frequency domain for the reason that the local oscillator (LO) in the coherent detection is fix-frequency deviated from the primary source. With the 31-bit simplex code, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) has 3.5-dB enhancement with the same single pulse traces, accordant with the theoretical analysis. The frequency fluctuation for simplex codes is 14.01 MHz less than that for a single pulse as to 4-m spatial resolution. The results are believed to be beneficial for the BOTDR performance improvement.

  12. Code System to Detect Recurring Loss of Special Nuclear Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    PICARD, R. R.

    2001-08-23

    Version 00 NRCPAGE is used in safeguards applications to detect a recurring loss of special nuclear material by frequent evaluation (sequential analysis) of accountability data. Standard sequential testing procedures are traditionally based on sequences of independent and normally distributed measurements. This same approach can be applied to materials balance (MB) data. Here, the term materials balance has a meaning similar to inventory difference and represents a materials loss indicator localized in time and space. However, distinct Mbs cannot be reasonably treated as statistically independent and may not always be reasonably treated as normally distributed. Furthermore, the covariance structure associated with a given MB sequence is not known and must be estimated. Nonindependence is treated by converting the MB sequence to the innovation sequence, sometimes called the ITMUF sequence or the sequence of MUF residuals, which are statistically independent and amenable to sequential test procedures. A one-sided page's test, effective for a wide range of recurring loss scenarios, is applied to the standardized innovation sequence. The program can be easily modified to suit particular needs; the models for the assumption of multivariate normality for MBs when computing the innovation sequence or the test procedure can be changed as can the input/output format, dimensioning, local error checking, and simulation work. Input files can be sequentially constructed using local text editors to update existing files. Output files can be read by graphics, report writer, or other stand-alone utility routines.

  13. Code System to Detect Recurring Loss of Special Nuclear Materials.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-08-23

    Version 00 NRCPAGE is used in safeguards applications to detect a recurring loss of special nuclear material by frequent evaluation (sequential analysis) of accountability data. Standard sequential testing procedures are traditionally based on sequences of independent and normally distributed measurements. This same approach can be applied to materials balance (MB) data. Here, the term materials balance has a meaning similar to inventory difference and represents a materials loss indicator localized in time and space. However,more » distinct Mbs cannot be reasonably treated as statistically independent and may not always be reasonably treated as normally distributed. Furthermore, the covariance structure associated with a given MB sequence is not known and must be estimated. Nonindependence is treated by converting the MB sequence to the innovation sequence, sometimes called the ITMUF sequence or the sequence of MUF residuals, which are statistically independent and amenable to sequential test procedures. A one-sided page's test, effective for a wide range of recurring loss scenarios, is applied to the standardized innovation sequence. The program can be easily modified to suit particular needs; the models for the assumption of multivariate normality for MBs when computing the innovation sequence or the test procedure can be changed as can the input/output format, dimensioning, local error checking, and simulation work. Input files can be sequentially constructed using local text editors to update existing files. Output files can be read by graphics, report writer, or other stand-alone utility routines.« less

  14. Multiplexed Detection of Cytokines Based on Dual Bar-Code Strategy and Single-Molecule Counting.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Jiang, Wei; Dai, Shuang; Wang, Lei

    2016-02-01

    Cytokines play important roles in the immune system and have been regarded as biomarkers. While single cytokine is not specific and accurate enough to meet the strict diagnosis in practice, in this work, we constructed a multiplexed detection method for cytokines based on dual bar-code strategy and single-molecule counting. Taking interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as model analytes, first, the magnetic nanobead was functionalized with the second antibody and primary bar-code strands, forming a magnetic nanoprobe. Then, through the specific reaction of the second antibody and the antigen that fixed by the primary antibody, sandwich-type immunocomplex was formed on the substrate. Next, the primary bar-code strands as amplification units triggered multibranched hybridization chain reaction (mHCR), producing nicked double-stranded polymers with multiple branched arms, which were served as secondary bar-code strands. Finally, the secondary bar-code strands hybridized with the multimolecule labeled fluorescence probes, generating enhanced fluorescence signals. The numbers of fluorescence dots were counted one by one for quantification with epi-fluorescence microscope. By integrating the primary and secondary bar-code-based amplification strategy and the multimolecule labeled fluorescence probes, this method displayed an excellent sensitivity with the detection limits were both 5 fM. Unlike the typical bar-code assay that the bar-code strands should be released and identified on a microarray, this method is more direct. Moreover, because of the selective immune reaction and the dual bar-code mechanism, the resulting method could detect the two targets simultaneously. Multiple analysis in human serum was also performed, suggesting that our strategy was reliable and had a great potential application in early clinical diagnosis. PMID:26721199

  15. High performance distributed acoustic sensor using cyclic pulse coding in a direct detection coherent-OTDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muanenda, Yonas; Oton, Claudio J.; Faralli, Stefano; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio

    2015-07-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a Distributed Acoustic Sensor exploiting cyclic Simplex coding in a phase-sensitive OTDR on standard single mode fibers based on direct detection. Suitable design of the source and use of cyclic coding is shown to improve the SNR of the coherent back-scattered signal by up to 9 dB, reducing fading due to modulation instability and enabling accurate long-distance measurement of vibrations with minimal post-processing.

  16. Limiter-discriminator detection performance of Manchester and NRZ coded FSK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartier, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    The theory of limiter-discriminator detection of a frequency shift keyed (FSK) carrier is reviewed and this theory is used to predict the bit error probability performance of Manchester coded and nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) coded data. A major result of the study is that the predetection time bandwidth product BT and the deviation ratio h needed to give optimum performance for Manchester coding are seen to be larger than optimum NRZ FSK. Specifically, BT of about 2 and h of about 1 will result in Manchester performance about 2 dB worse than optimum NRZ.

  17. Low-Complexity Saliency Detection Algorithm for Fast Perceptual Video Coding

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengyu; Jia, Kebin

    2013-01-01

    A low-complexity saliency detection algorithm for perceptual video coding is proposed; low-level encoding information is adopted as the characteristics of visual perception analysis. Firstly, this algorithm employs motion vector (MV) to extract temporal saliency region through fast MV noise filtering and translational MV checking procedure. Secondly, spatial saliency region is detected based on optimal prediction mode distributions in I-frame and P-frame. Then, it combines the spatiotemporal saliency detection results to define the video region of interest (VROI). The simulation results validate that the proposed algorithm can avoid a large amount of computation work in the visual perception characteristics analysis processing compared with other existing algorithms; it also has better performance in saliency detection for videos and can realize fast saliency detection. It can be used as a part of the video standard codec at medium-to-low bit-rates or combined with other algorithms in fast video coding. PMID:24489495

  18. Ultraspectral sounder data compression using error-detecting reversible variable-length coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bormin; Ahuja, Alok; Huang, Hung-Lung; Schmit, Timothy J.; Heymann, Roger W.

    2005-08-01

    Nonreversible variable-length codes (e.g. Huffman coding, Golomb-Rice coding, and arithmetic coding) have been used in source coding to achieve efficient compression. However, a single bit error during noisy transmission can cause many codewords to be misinterpreted by the decoder. In recent years, increasing attention has been given to the design of reversible variable-length codes (RVLCs) for better data transmission in error-prone environments. RVLCs allow instantaneous decoding in both directions, which affords better detection of bit errors due to synchronization losses over a noisy channel. RVLCs have been adopted in emerging video coding standards--H.263+ and MPEG-4--to enhance their error-resilience capabilities. Given the large volume of three-dimensional data that will be generated by future space-borne ultraspectral sounders (e.g. IASI, CrIS, and HES), the use of error-robust data compression techniques will be beneficial to satellite data transmission. In this paper, we investigate a reversible variable-length code for ultraspectral sounder data compression, and present its numerical experiments on error propagation for the ultraspectral sounder data. The results show that the RVLC performs significantly better error containment than JPEG2000 Part 2.

  19. Literacy & Identity: Trust, Betrayal, and Authorship: Plagiarism and How We Perceive Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Bronwyn T.

    2007-01-01

    Emotional responses to plagiarism are rarely addressed in professional literature that focuses on ethics and good teaching practices. Yet, the emotions that are unleashed by cases of plagiarism, or suspicions of plagiarism, influence how we perceive our students and how we approach teaching them. Such responses have been complicated by online…

  20. Is It Happening? How to Avoid the Deleterious Effects of Plagiarism and Cheating in Your Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism can be "plaguing" if it is not discussed, understood, and enforced by the professor right at the beginning of the course and throughout the semester. Students usually don't "have" to cheat or plagiarize; they do so mainly because "they can." Professors who turn a deaf ear or a blind eye to students who plagiarize create deleterious…

  1. Measuring Plagiarism: Researching What Students Do, Not What They Say They Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John

    2010-01-01

    Student plagiarism in colleges and universities has become a controversial issue in recent years. A key problem has been the lack of reliable empirical data on the frequency, nature and extent of plagiarism in student assignments. The aim of the study described here was to provide this data. Patterns of plagiarism were tracked in two university…

  2. An Integrated Academic Literacy Approach to Improving Students' Understanding of Plagiarism in an Accounting Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Lisa; Singh, Nishani

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism in higher education is a widespread and complex issue. Students' understanding of plagiarism differs as a result of combining their prior learning about referencing with their current experience of institutional policies and generic resources. Plagiarism was identified as a major learning issue in a core second-year undergraduate…

  3. When Emotion Stands to Reason: A Phenomenological Study of Composition Instructors' Emotional Responses to Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas, Ann E.

    2015-01-01

    Plagiarism has been the focus of considerable scholarly research in recent decades, much of which has examined the number of students who are plagiarizing, why they plagiarize, and what instructors can do to teach students to effectively and ethically integrate their own words and ideas with those of their sources. Overlooked in this scholarship…

  4. Is Cheating Always Intentional? The Perception of College Students toward the Issues of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabor, Erin L.

    2013-01-01

    The definition of plagiarism that is used in university handbooks is a simple one, and policies along with tiers of disciplinary strategies are used by faculty members in higher education to deter students from committing a plagiarism infraction based on this simple definition. However, plagiarism still occurs on college campuses, and this may be…

  5. Placing the Library at the Heart of Plagiarism Prevention: The University of Bradford Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Sarah; Costigan, Anne; O'hara, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism is a vexing issue for Higher Education, affecting student transition, retention, and attainment. This article reports on two initiatives from the University of Bradford library aimed at reducing student plagiarism. The first initiative is an intensive course for students who have contravened plagiarism regulations. The second course…

  6. The Use of Technology to Combat Plagiarism in Business Communication Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowers, Robert H.; Hummel, Julie Y.

    2011-01-01

    Some have called plagiarism literary theft. Plagiarizing is akin to stealing the intellect of another person. At times, plagiarism occurs because of ignorance, sloppy authorship, or lack of knowledge about proper sourcing. Sometimes, it is done purposefully. Experts have suggested that the concept of intellectual ownership is limited to Western…

  7. Policing--Or, at Least, Policying--Plagiarism at One Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Regan, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    How universities and university people deal with plagiarism is articulated in universities' plagiarism policies. Universities, policies and people are all located in a bigger context, one which is being increasingly shaped by global issues. Some global issues of particular relevance to plagiarism are associated with the Internet and its attendant…

  8. Plagiarism Awareness among Students: Assessing Integration of Ethics Theory into Library Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strittmatter, Connie; Bratton, Virginia K.

    2014-01-01

    The library literature on plagiarism instruction focuses on students' understanding of what plagiarism is and is not. This study evaluates the effect of library instruction from a broader perspective by examining the pre- and posttest (instruction) levels of students' perceptions toward plagiarism ethics. Eighty-six students completed a pre- and…

  9. A Safe Place: The Role of Librarians and Writing Centers in Addressing Citation Practices and Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buranen, Lise

    2009-01-01

    In American colleges and universities, plagiarism is a hot topic: teachers wail and moan about the rise in student plagiarism (though often without evidence to demonstrate this supposed rise); they complain that the Web has "caused" plagiarism; and at the same time, many believe that technology is the key to "solving" the problem of student…

  10. Another Look at Plagiarism in the Digital Age: Is It Time to Turn in My Badge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Benie B.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about plagiarism in the digital age and how plagiarism challenges teachers in their relationship with students. With a growing body of digital commentary and the looming dominance of electronic writing, current professional consensus in the plagiarism dilemma appears dubious and the slope gets more slippery every…

  11. First-Year University Science and Engineering Students' Understanding of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a case study of first-year science and engineering students' understandings of plagiarism. Students were surveyed for their views on scenarios illustrating instances of plagiarism in the context of the academic work and assessment of science and engineering students. The aim was to explore their understandings of plagiarism and their…

  12. Scientists Admitting to Plagiarism: A Meta-analysis of Surveys.

    PubMed

    Pupovac, Vanja; Fanelli, Daniele

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of anonymous surveys asking scientists whether they ever committed various forms of plagiarism. From May to December 2011 we searched 35 bibliographic databases, five grey literature databases and hand searched nine journals for potentially relevant studies. We included surveys that asked scientists if, in a given recall period, they had committed or knew of a colleague who committed plagiarism, and from each survey extracted the proportion of those who reported at least one case. Studies that focused on academic (i.e. student) plagiarism were excluded. Literature searches returned 12,460 titles from which 17 relevant survey studies were identified. Meta-analysis of studies reporting committed (N = 7) and witnessed (N = 11) plagiarism yielded a pooled estimate of, respectively, 1.7% (95% CI 1.2-2.4) and 30% (95% CI 17-46). Basic methodological factors, including sample size, year of survey, delivery method and whether survey questions were explicit rather than indirect made a significant difference on survey results. Even after controlling for these methodological factors, between-study differences in admission rates were significantly above those expected by sampling error alone and remained largely unexplained. Despite several limitations of the data and of this meta-analysis, we draw three robust conclusions: (1) The rate at which scientists report knowing a colleague who committed plagiarism is higher than for data fabrication and falsification; (2) The rate at which scientists report knowing a colleague who committed plagiarism is correlated to that of fabrication and falsification; (3) The rate at which scientists admit having committed either form of misconduct (i.e. fabrication, falsification and plagiarism) in surveys has declined over time. PMID:25352123

  13. Microfluidic CODES: a scalable multiplexed electronic sensor for orthogonal detection of particles in microfluidic channels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruxiu; Wang, Ningquan; Kamili, Farhan; Sarioglu, A Fatih

    2016-04-21

    Numerous biophysical and biochemical assays rely on spatial manipulation of particles/cells as they are processed on lab-on-a-chip devices. Analysis of spatially distributed particles on these devices typically requires microscopy negating the cost and size advantages of microfluidic assays. In this paper, we introduce a scalable electronic sensor technology, called microfluidic CODES, that utilizes resistive pulse sensing to orthogonally detect particles in multiple microfluidic channels from a single electrical output. Combining the techniques from telecommunications and microfluidics, we route three coplanar electrodes on a glass substrate to create multiple Coulter counters producing distinct orthogonal digital codes when they detect particles. We specifically design a digital code set using the mathematical principles of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) telecommunication networks and can decode signals from different microfluidic channels with >90% accuracy through computation even if these signals overlap. As a proof of principle, we use this technology to detect human ovarian cancer cells in four different microfluidic channels fabricated using soft lithography. Microfluidic CODES offers a simple, all-electronic interface that is well suited to create integrated, low-cost lab-on-a-chip devices for cell- or particle-based assays in resource-limited settings. PMID:27021807

  14. The effects of pulse rate, power, width and coding on signal detectability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The effects on the signal detectability of varying the pulse repetition rate (PRF), peak pulse power (p(pk)) and pulse width (tau(p)) (tp) are examined. Both coded and uncoded pulses are considered. The following quantities are assumed to be constant; (1) antenna area, (z)echo reflectivity, (3) Doppler shift, (4) spectral width, (5) spectral resolution, (6) effective sampling rate, and (7) total incoherent spectral averagaing time. The detectability is computed for two types of targets.

  15. A new magnetic bar code system based on a magnetic anisotropy detection (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasada, I.; Watanabe, N.

    1996-04-01

    Magnetic bar codes can be used in unclean environments, where widely used optical bar code systems cannot be applied. Readout system for magnetic bar codes can also be made much simpler than optical ones. A new magnetic bar code system is proposed, in which binary information is coded in the sign of tilted angles of magnetic strips from a given standard direction. This scheme is unique compared to the conventional optical bar code, where width or space of the parallel pattern carries information, or an already reported magnetic bar code, where cross sectional shapes of pattern engraved in a ferromagnetic body carries information. Each of the magnetic strips brings about magnetic anisotropy due to its shape effect, hence angular dependent permeability in the proximity of the strip. The sign of the tilted angle of each magnetic strip is detected inductively through the angular dependent permeability by using a magnetic pickup head with a pair of cross-coupled figure-eight coils, where the sign of mutual inductance between the primary and the secondary figure-eight coil has one to one relationship to the sign of the tilted angle. Because the detection of the tilted angle is independent of scanning speed, variation in the scanning speed of the readout head does not affect the performance. In our preliminary study, the proposed magnetic bar code system was examined using pickup head consisting of a pair of cross-coupled 10-turn figure-eight coils which was embedded in a rectangular ferrite rod with cross-shape groove on the top surface of 6.5×3 mm dimension. The head was made thinner in the scanning direction to allow dense alignment of the pattern. Two kinds of pattern were made: the one was by aligning short amorphous wires (5 mm in length and 120 μm in diameter) on the plastic film and the other by using a thin (10 μm in thickness) copper film with tilted slits backed by an amorphous ribbon. These samples of magnetic bar code patterns were scanned with lift-off of

  16. Optimal Multicarrier Phase-Coded Waveform Design for Detection of Extended Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Satyabrata; Glover, Charles Wayne

    2013-01-01

    We design a parametric multicarrier phase-coded (MCPC) waveform that achieves the optimal performance in detecting an extended target in the presence of signal-dependent interference. Traditional waveform design techniques provide only the optimal energy spectral density of the transmit waveform and suffer a performance loss in the synthesis process of the time-domain signal. Therefore, we opt for directly designing an MCPC waveform in terms of its time-frequency codes to obtain the optimal detection performance. First, we describe the modeling assumptions considering an extended target buried within the signal-dependent clutter with known power spectral density, and deduce the performance characteristics of the optimal detector. Then, considering an MCPC signal transmission, we express the detection characteristics in terms of the phase-codes of the MCPC waveform and propose to optimally design the MCPC signal by maximizing the detection probability. Our numerical results demonstrate that the designed MCPC signal attains the optimal detection performance and requires a lesser computational time than the other parametric waveform design approach.

  17. A general-purpose contact detection algorithm for nonlinear structural analysis codes

    SciTech Connect

    Heinstein, M.W.; Attaway, S.W.; Swegle, J.W.; Mello, F.J.

    1993-05-01

    A new contact detection algorithm has been developed to address difficulties associated with the numerical simulation of contact in nonlinear finite element structural analysis codes. Problems including accurate and efficient detection of contact for self-contacting surfaces, tearing and eroding surfaces, and multi-body impact are addressed. The proposed algorithm is portable between dynamic and quasi-static codes and can efficiently model contact between a variety of finite element types including shells, bricks, beams and particles. The algorithm is composed of (1) a location strategy that uses a global search to decide which slave nodes are in proximity to a master surface and (2) an accurate detailed contact check that uses the projected motions of both master surface and slave node. In this report, currently used contact detection algorithms and their associated difficulties are discussed. Then the proposed algorithm and how it addresses these problems is described. Finally, the capability of the new algorithm is illustrated with several example problems.

  18. Improvement of the predicted aural detection code ICHIN (I Can Hear It Now)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Arnold W.; Smith, Charles D.; Lemasurier, Phillip

    Acoustic tests were conducted to study the far-field sound pressure levels and aural detection ranges associated with a Sikorsky S-76A helicopter in straight and level flight at various advancing blade tip Mach numbers. The flight altitude was nominally 150 meters above ground level. This paper compares the normalized predicted aural detection distances, based on the measured far-field sound pressure levels, to the normalized measured aural detection distances obtained from sound jury response measurements obtained during the same test. Both unmodified and modified versions of the prediction code ICHIN-6 (I Can Hear It Now) were used to produce the results for this study.

  19. An intervention aimed at reducing plagiarism in undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Smedley, Alison; Crawford, Tonia; Cloete, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Plagiarism is a current and developing problem in the tertiary education sector where students access information and reproduce it as their own. It is identified as occurring in many tertiary level degrees including nursing and allied health profession degrees. Nursing specifically, is a profession where standards and ethics are required and honesty is paramount. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in nursing student's knowledge and understanding of plagiarism before and after an educational intervention in their first semester of the Bachelor of nursing degree at a private college of higher education in Sydney, Australia. This study concluded that an educational intervention can increase knowledge and awareness of plagiarism among nursing students. PMID:25578380

  20. Detecting Heap-Spraying Code Injection Attacks in Malicious Web Pages Using Runtime Execution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Younghan; Kim, Hyoungchun; Lee, Donghoon

    The growing use of web services is increasing web browser attacks exponentially. Most attacks use a technique called heap spraying because of its high success rate. Heap spraying executes a malicious code without indicating the exact address of the code by copying it into many heap objects. For this reason, the attack has a high potential to succeed if only the vulnerability is exploited. Thus, attackers have recently begun using this technique because it is easy to use JavaScript to allocate the heap memory area. This paper proposes a novel technique that detects heap spraying attacks by executing a heap object in a real environment, irrespective of the version and patch status of the web browser. This runtime execution is used to detect various forms of heap spraying attacks, such as encoding and polymorphism. Heap objects are executed after being filtered on the basis of patterns of heap spraying attacks in order to reduce the overhead of the runtime execution. Patterns of heap spraying attacks are based on analysis of how an web browser accesses benign web sites. The heap objects are executed forcibly by changing the instruction register into the address of them after being loaded into memory. Thus, we can execute the malicious code without having to consider the version and patch status of the browser. An object is considered to contain a malicious code if the execution reaches a call instruction and then the instruction accesses the API of system libraries, such as kernel32.dll and ws_32.dll. To change registers and monitor execution flow, we used a debugger engine. A prototype, named HERAD(HEap spRAying Detector), is implemented and evaluated. In experiments, HERAD detects various forms of exploit code that an emulation cannot detect, and some heap spraying attacks that NOZZLE cannot detect. Although it has an execution overhead, HERAD produces a low number of false alarms. The processing time of several minutes is negligible because our research focuses on

  1. Blind Detection of Region Duplication Forgery Using Fractal Coding and Feature Matching.

    PubMed

    Jenadeleh, Mohsen; Ebrahimi Moghaddam, Mohsen

    2016-05-01

    Digital image forgery detection is important because of its wide use in applications such as medical diagnosis, legal investigations, and entertainment. Copy-move forgery is one of the famous techniques, which is used in region duplication. Many of the existing copy-move detection algorithms cannot effectively blind detect duplicated regions that are made by powerful image manipulation software like Photoshop. In this study, a new method is proposed for blind detecting manipulations in digital images based on modified fractal coding and feature vector matching. The proposed method not only detects typical copy-move forgery, but also finds multiple copied forgery regions for images that are subjected to rotation, scaling, reflection, and a mixture of these postprocessing operations. The proposed method is robust against tampered images undergoing attacks such as Gaussian blurring, contrast scaling, and brightness adjustment. The experimental results demonstrated the validity and efficiency of the method. PMID:27122398

  2. Quantum error correction and detection: Quantitative analysis of a coherent-state amplitude-damping code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickert, Ricardo; van Loock, Peter

    2014-05-01

    We reexamine a non-Gaussian quantum error-correction code designed to protect optical coherent-state qubits against errors due to an amplitude-damping channel. We improve on a previous result [R. Wickert, N. K. Bernardes, and P. van Loock, Phys. Rev. A 81, 062344 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.062344] by providing a tighter upper bound on the performance attained when considering realistic assumptions, which constrain the operation of the gates employed in the scheme. The quantitative characterization is performed through measures of fidelity and concurrence, the latter obtained by employing the code as an entanglement distillation protocol. We find that, when running the code in fully deterministic error-correction mode, direct transmission can only be beaten for certain combinations of channel and input state parameters. In contrast, in error-detection mode, the usage of higher repetition encodings remains beneficial throughout, however, at the expense of diminishing success probabilities.

  3. Advanced Automated Solar Filament Detection and Characterization Code: Description, Performance, and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernasconi, P. N.; Rust, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    We have developed a code for automated detection and classification of solar filaments in full-disk H-alpha images that can contribute to Living With a Star science investigations and space weather forecasting. The program can reliably identify filaments, determine their chirality and other relevant parameters like the filaments area and their average orientation with respect to the equator, and is capable of tracking the day-by-day evolution of filaments while they travel across the visible disk. Detecting the filaments when they appear and tracking their evolution can provide not only early warnings of potentially hazardous conditions but also improve our understanding of solar filaments and their implications for space weather at 1 AU. The code was recently tested by analyzing daily H-alpha images taken at the Big Bear Solar Observatory during a period of four years (from mid 2000 until mid 2004). It identified and established the chirality of more than 5000 filaments without human intervention. We compared the results with the filament list manually compiled by Pevtsov et al. (2003) over the same period of time. The computer list matches the Pevtsov et al. list fairly well. The code results confirm the hemispherical chirality rule: dextral filaments predominate in the north and sinistral ones predominate in the south. The main difference between the two lists is that the code finds significantly more filaments without an identifiable chirality. This may be due to a tendency of human operators to be biased, thereby assigning a chirality in less clear cases, while the code is totally unbiased. We also have found evidence that filaments with definite chirality tend to be larger and last longer than the ones without a clear chirality signature. We will describe the major code characteristics and present and discuss the tests results.

  4. Arbitrary error detection in a planar lattice of the surface code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcoles, Antonio; Magesan, Easwar; Srinivasan, Srikanth; Bronn, Nicholas; Hertzberg, Jared; Cross, Andrew; Steffen, Matthias; Gambetta, Jay; Chow, Jerry

    2015-03-01

    We detect arbitrary single-qubit errors on a system of four superconducting qubits arranged in a planar lattice, amenable to the surface code. The error detection protocol is based on the stabilizer formalism and protects a codeword encoded on an entangled two-qubit state by quantum non-demolition parity measurements, ZZ and XX. These parity measurements are performed using the other two qubits acting as syndromes. We introduce a bit- or phase-flip single-qubit error applied to the codeword and show that this error can be revealed uniquely in the syndromes. The -non-trivial- geometric arrangement of the qubits is essential to the surface code algorithm and is therefore extendable throughout the two-dimensional plane, encoding progressively larger logical Hilbert spaces towards a fully scaled fault-tolerant quantum computer. We acknowledge support from IARPA under contract W911NF-10-1-0324

  5. Using locality-constrained linear coding in automatic target detection of HRS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaee, M.; Mirikharaji, Z.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Automatic target detection with complicated shapes in high spatial resolution images is an ongoing challenge in remote sensing image processing. This is because most methods use spectral or texture information, which are not sufficient for detecting complex shapes. In this paper, a new detection framework, based on Spatial Pyramid Matching (SPM) and Locality- constraint Linear Coding (LLC), is proposed to solve this problem, and exemplified using airplane shapes. The process starts with partitioning the image into sub-regions and generating a unique histogram for local features of each sub-region. Then, linear Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are used to detect objects based on a pyramid-matching kernel, which analyses the descriptors inside patches in different resolution. In order to generate the histogram, first a point feature detector (e.g. SIFT) is applied on the patches, and then a quantization process is used to select local features. In this step, the k-mean method is used in conjunction with the locality-constrained linear coding method. The LLC forces the coefficient matrix in the quantization process to be local and sparse as well. As a result, the speed of the method improves around 24 times in comparison to using sparse coding for quantization. Quantitative analysis also shows improvement in comparison to just using k-mean, but the accuracy in comparison to using sparse coding is similar. Rotation and shift of the desired object has no effect on the obtained results. The speed and accuracy of this algorithm for high spatial resolution images make it capable for use in real-world applications.

  6. Improving the detection task performance of a LWIR imaging system through the use of wavefront coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Kevin A.; Kubala, Kenny

    2007-04-01

    In a traditional optical system the imaging performance is maximized at a single point in the operational space. This characteristic leads to maximizing the probability of detection if the object is on axis, at the designed conjugate, with the designed operational temperature and if the system components are manufactured without error in form and alignment. Due to the many factors that influence the system's image quality the probability of detection will decrease away from this peak value. An infrared imaging system is presented that statistically creates a higher probability of detection over the complete operational space for the Hotelling observer. The system is enabled through the use of wavefront coding, a computational imaging technology in which optics, mechanics, detection and signal processing are combined to enable LWIR imaging systems to be realized with detection task performance that is difficult or impossible to obtain in the optical domain alone. The basic principles of statistical decision theory will be presented along with a specific example of how wavefront coding technology can enable improved performance and reduced sensitivity to some of the fundamental constraints inherent in LWIR systems.

  7. Automatic Detection of Frontal Face Midline by Chain-coded Merlin-Farber Hough Trasform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Daichi; Ohyama, Wataru; Wakabayashi, Tetsushi; Kimura, Fumitaka

    We propose a novel approach for detection of the facial midline (facial symmetry axis) from a frontal face image. The facial midline has several applications, for instance reducing computational cost required for facial feature extraction (FFE) and postoperative assessment for cosmetic or dental surgery. The proposed method detects the facial midline of a frontal face from an edge image as the symmetry axis using the Merlin-Faber Hough transformation. And a new performance improvement scheme for midline detection by MFHT is present. The main concept of the proposed scheme is suppression of redundant vote on the Hough parameter space by introducing chain code representation for the binary edge image. Experimental results on the image dataset containing 2409 images from FERET database indicate that the proposed algorithm can improve the accuracy of midline detection from 89.9% to 95.1 % for face images with different scales and rotation.

  8. Strategies to Help Legal Studies Students Avoid Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Linda B.; Bast, Carol M.

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism is certainly not new to academics, but it may be on the rise with easy access to the vast quantities of information available on the Internet. Students researching on the Internet do not have to take handwritten or typewritten notes. They can simply print out or copy and save whatever they find. They are even spared the tedium of having…

  9. Confronting Plagiarism: How Conventional Teaching Invites Cyber-Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterngold, Arthur

    2004-01-01

    The digital revolution makes it easy for students to plagiarize. Using Internet search engines, DVD-based reference works, online journals, Web-based news sources, article databases, and other electronic sources, students can find information about nearly any topic and paste the data directly into their papers. Or students can take credit for…

  10. Cut and Paste 101: Plagiarism and the Net.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renard, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    There are three types of Internet cheaters: unintentional, sneaky, and lazy. Plagiarism is not new, but Internet cheat sites allowing users to cut and paste papers easily from untraceable sources are widespread. Teachers should be aware of cheat sites, demand rewrites, assign unique topics, and teach source documentation. (MLH)