Sample records for codon usage comparison

  1. Synonymous Codon Usage in TTSuV2: Analysis and Comparison with TTSuV1

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Dingzhen

    2013-01-01

    Two species of the DNA virus Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), TTSuV1 and TTSuV2, have become widely distributed in pig-farming countries in recent years. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of synonymous codon usage bias in 41 available TTSuV2 coding sequences (CDS), and compared the codon usage patterns of TTSuV2 and TTSuV1. TTSuV codon usage patterns were found to be phylogenetically conserved. Values for the effective number of codons (ENC) indicated that the overall extent of codon usage bias in both TTSuV2 and TTSuV1 was not significant, the most frequently occurring codons had an A or C at the third codon position. Correspondence analysis (COA) was performed and TTSuV2 and TTSuV1 sequences were located in different quadrants of the first two major axes. A plot of the ENC revealed that compositional constraint was the major factor determining the codon usage bias for TTSuV2. In addition, hierarchical cluster analysis of 41 TTSuV2 isolates based on relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) values suggested that there was no association between geographic distribution and codon bias of TTSuV2 sequences. Finally, the comparison of RSCU for TTSuV2, TTSuV1 and the corresponding host sequence indicated that the codon usage pattern of TTSuV2 was similar to that of TTSuV1. However the similarity was low for each virus and its host. These conclusions provide important insight into the synonymous codon usage pattern of TTSuV2, as well as better understangding of the molecular evolution of TTSuV2 genomes. PMID:24303050

  2. Codon usage in plant genes.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, E E; Lotzer, J; Eberle, M

    1989-01-01

    We have examined codon bias in 207 plant gene sequences collected from Genbank and the literature. When this sample was further divided into 53 monocot and 154 dicot genes, the pattern of relative use of synonymous codons was shown to differ between these taxonomic groups, primarily in the use of G + C in the degenerate third base. Maize and soybean codon bias were examined separately and followed the monocot and dicot codon usage patterns respectively. Codon preference in ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate and chlorophyll a/b binding protein, two of the most abundant proteins in leaves was investigated. These highly expressed are more restricted in their codon usage than plant genes in general. PMID:2644621

  3. Codon Usage in Higher Plants, Green Algae, and Cyanobacteria 1

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Wilbur H.; Gowri, G.

    1990-01-01

    Codon usage is the selective and nonrandom use of synonymous codons by an organism to encode the amino acids in the genes for its proteins. During the last few years, a large number of plant genes have been cloned and sequenced, which now permits a meaningful comparison of codon usage in higher plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. For the nuclear and organellar genes of these organisms, a small set of preferred codons are used for encoding proteins. Codon usage is different for each genome type with the variation mainly occurring in choices between codons ending in cytidine (C) or guanosine (G) versus those ending in adenosine (A) or uridine (U). For organellar genomes, chloroplastic and mitochrondrial proteins are encoded mainly with codons ending in A or U. In most cyanobacteria and the nuclei of green algae, proteins are encoded preferentially with codons ending in C or G. Although only a few nuclear genes of higher plants have been sequenced, a clear distinction between Magnoliopsida (dicot) and Liliopsida (monocot) codon usage is evident. Dicot genes use a set of 44 preferred codons with a slight preference for codons ending in A or U. Monocot codon usage is more restricted with an average of 38 codons preferred, which are predominantly those ending in C or G. But two classes of genes can be recognized in monocots. One set of monocot genes uses codons similar to those in dicots, while the other genes are highly biased toward codons ending in C or G with a pattern similar to nuclear genes of green algae. Codon usage is discussed in relation to evolution of plants and prospects for intergenic transfer of particular genes. PMID:16667228

  4. Characterization of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus codon usage bias.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ye; Shi, Yuzhen; Deng, Hongjuan; Gu, Ting; Xu, Jian; Ou, Jinxin; Jiang, Zhiguo; Jiao, Yiren; Zou, Tan; Wang, Chong

    2014-12-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has been responsible for several recent outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) and has caused great economic loss in the swine-raising industry. Considering the significance of PEDV, a systemic analysis was performed to study its codon usage patterns. The relative synonymous codon usage value of each codon revealed that codon usage bias exists and that PEDV tends to use codons that end in T. The mean ENC value of 47.91 indicates that the codon usage bias is low. However, we still wanted to identify the cause of this codon usage bias. A correlation analysis between the codon compositions (A3s, T3s, G3s, C3s, and GC3s), the ENC values, and the nucleotide contents (A%, T%, G%, C%, and GC%) indicated that mutational bias plays role in shaping the PEDV codon usage bias. This was further confirmed by a principal component analysis between the codon compositions and the axis values. Using the Gravy, Aroma, and CAI values, a role of natural selection in the PEDV codon usage pattern was also identified. Neutral analysis indicated that natural selection pressure plays a more important role than mutational bias in codon usage bias. Natural selection also plays an increasingly significant role during PEDV evolution. Additionally, gene function and geographic distribution also influence the codon usage bias to a degree. PMID:25239728

  5. Selection Conflicts, Gene Expression, and Codon Usage Trends in Yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. Kliman; Naheelah Irving; Maria Santiago

    2003-01-01

    Synonymous codon usage in yeast appears to be influenced by natural selection on gene expression, as well as regional variation in compositional bias. Because of the large number of potential targets of selection (i.e., most of the codons in the genome) and presumed small selection coefficients, codon usage is an excellent model for studying factors that limit the effectiveness of

  6. Single-stranded genomic architecture constrains optimal codon usage.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Daniel J; Duffy, Siobain

    2011-07-01

    Viral codon usage is shaped by the conflicting forces of mutational pressure and selection to match host patterns for optimal expression. We examined whether genomic architecture (single- or double-stranded DNA) influences the degree to which bacteriophage codon usage differ from their primary bacterial hosts and each other. While both correlated equally with their hosts' genomic nucleotide content, the coat genes of ssDNA phages were less well adapted than those of dsDNA phages to their hosts' codon usage profiles due to their preference for codons ending in thymine. No specific biases were detected in dsDNA phage genomes. In all nine of ten cases of codon redundancy in which a specific codon was overrepresented, ssDNA phages favored the NNT codon. A cytosine to thymine biased mutational pressure working in conjunction with strong selection against non-synonymous mutations appears be shaping codon usage bias in ssDNA viral genomes. PMID:22334868

  7. Single-stranded genomic architecture constrains optimal codon usage

    PubMed Central

    Cardinale, Daniel J.; Duffy, Siobain

    2011-01-01

    Viral codon usage is shaped by the conflicting forces of mutational pressure and selection to match host patterns for optimal expression. We examined whether genomic architecture (single- or double-stranded DNA) influences the degree to which bacteriophage codon usage differ from their primary bacterial hosts and each other. While both correlated equally with their hosts’ genomic nucleotide content, the coat genes of ssDNA phages were less well adapted than those of dsDNA phages to their hosts’ codon usage profiles due to their preference for codons ending in thymine. No specific biases were detected in dsDNA phage genomes. In all nine of ten cases of codon redundancy in which a specific codon was overrepresented, ssDNA phages favored the NNT codon. A cytosine to thymine biased mutational pressure working in conjunction with strong selection against non-synonymous mutations appears be shaping codon usage bias in ssDNA viral genomes. PMID:22334868

  8. Codon usage bias and the evolution of influenza A viruses. Codon Usage Biases of Influenza Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily HM Wong; David K Smith; Raul Rabadan; Malik Peiris; Leo LM Poon

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The influenza A virus is an important infectious cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and was responsible for 3 pandemics in the 20th century. As the replication of the influenza virus is based on its host's machinery, codon usage of its viral genes might be subject to host selection pressures, especially after interspecies transmission. A better understanding of

  9. Genome-wide analysis of codon usage bias in Ebolavirus.

    PubMed

    Cristina, Juan; Moreno, Pilar; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Musto, Héctor

    2015-01-22

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is a member of the family Filoviridae and its genome consists of a 19-kb, single-stranded, negative sense RNA. EBOV is subdivided into five distinct species with different pathogenicities, being Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) the most lethal species. The interplay of codon usage among viruses and their hosts is expected to affect overall viral survival, fitness, evasion from host's immune system and evolution. In the present study, we performed comprehensive analyses of codon usage and composition of ZEBOV. Effective number of codons (ENC) indicates that the overall codon usage among ZEBOV strains is slightly biased. Different codon preferences in ZEBOV genes in relation to codon usage of human genes were found. Highly preferred codons are all A-ending triplets, which strongly suggests that mutational bias is a main force shaping codon usage in ZEBOV. Dinucleotide composition also plays a role in the overall pattern of ZEBOV codon usage. ZEBOV does not seem to use the most abundant tRNAs present in the human cells for most of their preferred codons. PMID:25445348

  10. Analysis of synonymous codon usage pattern in duck circovirus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yu; Jia, Renyong; Zhang, Zhilong; Lu, Yanyan; Wang, Mingshu; Zhu, Dekang; Chen, Shun; Liu, Mafeng; Yin, Zhongqiong; Cheng, Anchun

    2015-02-25

    Duck circovirus (DuCV) disease causes a long-term immunosuppressive and multiple secondary infection in ducks. In this study, relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) values, nucleotide contents and effective number of codon (ENC) values were calculated and compared among open reading frames (ORFs) of 53 DuCV genomes. The results reveal that most of the codons are ended with C and the overall bias is not remarkable in DuCV. A comparative analysis of codon contents and ENC values indicates that mutation pressure is the most significant factor responsible for the evolutional processes of codon usage bias in DuCV. However, other factors, such as composition constraints, translation selection, hydrophobicity and aromaticity should not be ignored. Finally principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering method were performed based on RSCU. The significant difference of codon usage bias exists in DuCV-1 and DuCV-2 genotypes, but codon usage pattern of DuCV from the different epidemic areas or subtypes fails to influence the formation of codon usage bias. Analysis of the relationship of synonymous codon usage variation based on the two genotypes suggests that DuCV-2 is more conservative than DuCV-1, which may because of recombination events. Moreover, there are distinct differences in the degree of codon usage pattern evolution in different function genes, rep and cap. Therefore, the genotypes, subtypes and different functional genes also relate to the pattern of synonymous codon usage. The main objective of this study is to provide some sight into synonymous codon usage characteristics and the evolutionary relationship of DuCV. PMID:25497833

  11. Genome Landscapes and Bacteriophage Codon Usage Julius B. Lucks1

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    Genome Landscapes and Bacteriophage Codon Usage Julius B. Lucks1 , David R. Nelson1,2 , Grzegorz R and simple eukaryotes. Here we analyze patterns of codon usage across 74 diverse bacteriophages that infect E of bacteriophages. Citation: Lucks JB, Nelson DR, Kudla GR, Plotkin JB (2008) Genome Landscapes and Bacteriophage

  12. Complex Codon Usage Pattern and Compositional Features of Retroviruses

    PubMed Central

    RoyChoudhury, Sourav; Mukherjee, Debaprasad

    2013-01-01

    Retroviruses infect a wide range of organisms including humans. Among them, HIV-1, which causes AIDS, has now become a major threat for world health. Some of these viruses are also potential gene transfer vectors. In this study, the patterns of synonymous codon usage in retroviruses have been studied through multivariate statistical methods on ORFs sequences from the available 56 retroviruses. The principal determinant for evolution of the codon usage pattern in retroviruses seemed to be the compositional constraints, while selection for translation of the viral genes plays a secondary role. This was further supported by multivariate analysis on relative synonymous codon usage. Thus, it seems that mutational bias might have dominated role over translational selection in shaping the codon usage of retroviruses. Codon adaptation index was used to identify translationally optimal codons among genes from retroviruses. The comparative analysis of the preferred and optimal codons among different retroviral groups revealed that four codons GAA, AAA, AGA, and GGA were significantly more frequent in most of the retroviral genes inspite of some differences. Cluster analysis also revealed that phylogenetically related groups of retroviruses have probably evolved their codon usage in a concerted manner under the influence of their nucleotide composition. PMID:24288576

  13. Comprehensive analysis of the overall codon usage patterns in equine infectious anemia virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is an important animal model for understanding the relationship between viral persistence and the host immune response during lentiviral infections. Comparison and analysis of the codon usage model between EIAV and its hosts is important for the comprehension of viral evolution. In our study, the codon usage pattern of EIAV was analyzed from the available 29 full-length EIAV genomes through multivariate statistical methods. Finding Effective number of codons (ENC) suggests that the codon usage among EIAV strains is slightly biased. The ENC-plot analysis demonstrates that mutation pressure plays a substantial role in the codon usage pattern of EIAV, whereas other factors such as geographic distribution and host translation selection also take part in the process of EIAV evolution. Comparative analysis of codon adaptation index (CAI) values among EIAV and its hosts suggests that EIAV utilize the translational resources of horse more efficiently than that of donkey. Conclusion The codon usage bias in EIAV is slight and mutation pressure is the main factor that affects codon usage variation in EIAV. These results suggest that EIAV genomic biases are the result of the co-evolution of genome composition and the ability to evade the host’s immune response. PMID:24359511

  14. Analysis of synonymous codon usage bias in Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Lü, Hui; Zhao, Wei-Ming; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Hong; Qi, Mei; Yu, Xiu-Ping

    2005-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause ocular and sexually transmitted diseases, and are associated with cardiovascular diseases. The analysis of codon usage may improve our understanding of the evolution and pathogenesis of Chlamydia and allow reengineering of target genes to improve their expression for gene therapy. Here, we analyzed the codon usage of C. muridarum, C. trachomatis (here indicating biovar trachoma and LGV), C. pneumoniae, and C. psittaci using the codon usage database and the CUSP (Create a codon usage table) program of EMBOSS (The European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite). The results show that the four genomes have similar codon usage patterns, with a strong bias towards the codons with A and T at the third codon position. Compared with Homo sapiens, the four chlamydial species show discordant seven or eight preferred codons. The ENC (effective number of codons used in a gene)-plot reveals that the genetic heterogeneity in Chlamydia is constrained by the G+C content, while translational selection and gene length exert relatively weaker influences. Moreover, mutational pressure appears to be the major determinant of the codon usage variation among the chlamydial genes. In addition, we compared the codon preferences of C. trachomatis with those of E. coli, yeast, adenovirus and Homo sapiens. There are 23 codons showing distinct usage differences between C. trachomatis and E. coli, 24 between C. trachomatis and adenovirus, 21 between C. trachomatis and Homo sapiens, but only six codons between C. trachomatis and yeast. Therefore, the yeast system may be more suitable for the expression of chlamydial genes. Finally, we compared the codon preferences of C. trachomatis with those of six eukaryotes, eight prokaryotes and 23 viruses. There is a strong positive correlation between the differences in coding GC content and the variations in codon bias (r=0.905, P<0.001). We conclude that the variation of codon bias between C. trachomatis and other organisms is much less influenced by phylogenetic lineage and primarily determined by the extent of disparities in GC content. PMID:15645075

  15. The effect of multiple evolutionary selections on synonymous codon usage of genes in the Mycoplasma bovis genome.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian-hua; Ding, Yao-zhong; He, Ying; Chu, Yue-feng; Zhao, Ping; Ma, Li-ya; Wang, Xin-jun; Li, Xue-rui; Liu, Yong-sheng

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a major pathogen causing arthritis, respiratory disease and mastitis in cattle. A better understanding of its genetic features and evolution might represent evidences of surviving host environments. In this study, multiple factors influencing synonymous codon usage patterns in M. bovis (three strains' genomes) were analyzed. The overall nucleotide content of genes in the M. bovis genome is AT-rich. Although the G and C contents at the third codon position of genes in the leading strand differ from those in the lagging strand (p<0.05), the 59 synonymous codon usage patterns of genes in the leading strand are highly similar to those in the lagging strand. The over-represented codons and the under-represented codons were identified. A comparison of the synonymous codon usage pattern of M. bovis and cattle (susceptible host) indicated the independent formation of synonymous codon usage of M. bovis. Principal component analysis revealed that (i) strand-specific mutational bias fails to affect the synonymous codon usage pattern in the leading and lagging strands, (ii) mutation pressure from nucleotide content plays a role in shaping the overall codon usage, and (iii) the major trend of synonymous codon usage has a significant correlation with the gene expression level that is estimated by the codon adaptation index. The plot of the effective number of codons against the G+C content at the third codon position also reveals that mutation pressure undoubtedly contributes to the synonymous codon usage pattern of M. bovis. Additionally, the formation of the overall codon usage is determined by certain evolutionary selections for gene function classification (30S protein, 50S protein, transposase, membrane protein, and lipoprotein) and translation elongation region of genes in M. bovis. The information could be helpful in further investigations of evolutionary mechanisms of the Mycoplasma family and heterologous expression of its functionally important proteins. PMID:25350396

  16. [Codon usage bias in the straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Lü, Beibei; He, Jianhua; Wang, Jinbin; Wu, Xiao; Wu, Guogan; Bao, Dapeng; Chen, Mingjie; Zhang, Jinsong; Tan, Qi; Tang, Xueming

    2014-09-01

    We analyzed the whole genome coding sequence of Volvariella volvacea to study the pattern utilization of codons by Codon W 1.4.2. As results, 24 optimal codons were identified. Moreover, the frequency of codons usage was calculated by CUSP program. We compared the frequency of codons usage of V. volvacea with other organisms including 6 modal value species (Homo sapiens, Saccharomys cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thalian, Mus musculus, Danio rerio and Drosophila melanogaster) and 4 edible fungi (Coprinopsis cinerea, Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus). We found that there were less differences in 3 edible fungi (excluding Pleurotus ostreatus) than 6 modal value species, comparing with the frequency of codons usage of V. volvacea. With software SPSS16.0, cluster analysis which showed differences in the size of codon bias, reflects the evolutionary relationships between species, which can be used as a reference of evolutionary relationships of species. This was the first time for analysis the codon preference among the whole coding sequences of edible fungi, serving as theoretical basis to apply genetic engineering of V. volvacea. PMID:25720157

  17. Synonymous codon usage in chloroplast genome of Coffea arabica

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Rahul R; Nandhini, Manivasagam B; Monalisha, Elango; Murugan, Kavitha; Sethuraman, Thilaga; Nagarajan, Sangeetha; Rao, Nayani Surya Prakash; Ganesh, Doss

    2012-01-01

    Synonymous codon usage of 53 protein coding genes in chloroplast genome of Coffea arabica was analyzed for the first time to find out the possible factors contributing codon bias. All preferred synonymous codons were found to use A/T ending codons as chloroplast genomes are rich in AT. No difference in preference for preferred codons was observed in any of the two strands, viz., leading and lagging strands. Complex correlations between total base compositions (A, T, G, C, GC) and silent base contents (A3, T3, G3, C3, GC3) revealed that compositional constraints played crucial role in shaping the codon usage pattern of C. arabica chloroplast genome. ENC Vs GC3 plot grouped majority of the analyzed genes on or just below the left side of the expected GC3 curve indicating the influence of base compositional constraints in regulating codon usage. But some of the genes lie distantly below the continuous curve confirmed the influence of some other factors on the codon usage across those genes. Influence of compositional constraints was further confirmed by correspondence analysis as axis 1 and 3 had significant correlations with silent base contents. Correlation of ENC with axis 1, 4 and CAI with 1, 2 prognosticated the minor influence of selection in nature but exact separation of highly and lowly expressed genes could not be seen. From the present study, we concluded that mutational pressure combined with weak selection influenced the pattern of synonymous codon usage across the genes in the chloroplast genomes of C. arabica. PMID:23251044

  18. CodonExplorer: An Interactive Online Database for the Analysis of Codon Usage and Sequence Composition

    PubMed Central

    Zaneveld, Jesse; Hamady, Micah; Sueoka, Noboru; Knight, Rob

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of DNA composition and codon usage reveals many factors that influence the evolution of genes and genomes. In this chapter, we show how to use CodonExplorer, a web tool and interactive database that contains millions of genes, to better understand the principles governing evolution at the single gene and whole-genome level. We present principles and practical procedures for using analyses of GC content and codon usage frequency to identify highly expressed or horizontally transferred genes and to study the relative contribution of different types of mutation to gene and genome composition. CodonExplorer’s combination of a user-friendly web interface and a comprehensive genomic database makes these diverse analyses fast and straightforward to perform. CodonExplorer is thus a powerful tool that facilitates and automates a wide range of compositional analyses. PMID:19378146

  19. Codon Usage Domains over Bacterial Chromosomes

    E-print Network

    Kent, University of

    introduce a clustering method based on information theory, specifically designed to cluster genes according of sulphur limitation, the most abundant proteins of the cyanobacterium Calothrix are encoded so as to reduce their sulphur requests. More recently, Elf et al. [8] have shown that when the codon reading is part

  20. Efficient translation initiation dictates codon usage at gene start

    PubMed Central

    Bentele, Kajetan; Saffert, Paul; Rauscher, Robert; Ignatova, Zoya; Blüthgen, Nils

    2013-01-01

    The genetic code is degenerate; thus, protein evolution does not uniquely determine the coding sequence. One of the puzzles in evolutionary genetics is therefore to uncover evolutionary driving forces that result in specific codon choice. In many bacteria, the first 5–10 codons of protein-coding genes are often codons that are less frequently used in the rest of the genome, an effect that has been argued to arise from selection for slowed early elongation to reduce ribosome traffic jams. However, genome analysis across many species has demonstrated that the region shows reduced mRNA folding consistent with pressure for efficient translation initiation. This raises the possibility that unusual codon usage is a side effect of selection for reduced mRNA structure. Here we discriminate between these two competing hypotheses, and show that in bacteria selection favours codons that reduce mRNA folding around the translation start, regardless of whether these codons are frequent or rare. Experiments confirm that primarily mRNA structure, and not codon usage, at the beginning of genes determines the translation rate. PMID:23774758

  1. Patterns of codon usage bias in Silene latifolia.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Suo; Bergero, Roberta; Zeng, Kai; Charlesworth, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of codon usage bias (CUB) convey useful information about the selection on synonymous codons induced by gene expression and contribute to an understanding of substitution patterns observed at synonymous sites. They can also be informative about the distinctive evolutionary properties of sex chromosomes such as genetic degeneration of the Y chromosome, dosage compensation, and hemizygosity of the X chromosome in males, which can affect the selection on codon usage. Here, we study CUB in Silene latifolia, a species of interest for studying the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. We have obtained a large expressed sequence tag data set containing more than 1,608 sequence fragments by 454 sequencing. Using three different methods, we conservatively define 21 preferred codons. Interestingly, the preferred codons in S. latifolia are almost identical to those in Arabidopsis thaliana, despite their long divergence time (we estimate average nonsynonymous site divergence to be 0.216, and synonymous sites are saturated). The agreement suggests that the nature of selection on codon usage has not changed significantly during the long evolutionary time separating the two species. As in many other organisms, the frequency of preferred codons is negatively correlated with protein length. For the 43 genes with both exon and intron sequences, we find a positive correlation between gene expression levels and GC content at third codon positions, but a strong negative correlation between expression and intron GC content, suggesting that the CUB we detect in S. latifolia is more likely to be due to natural selection than to mutational bias. Using polymorphism data, we detect evidence of ongoing natural selection on CUB, but we find little support for effects of biased gene conversion. An analysis of ten sex-linked genes reveals that the X chromosome has experienced significantly more unpreferred to preferred than preferred to unpreferred substitutions, suggesting that it may be evolving higher CUB. In contrast, numbers of substitutions between preferred and unpreferred codons are similar in both directions in the Y-linked genes, contrary to the expectation of genetic degeneration. PMID:20855431

  2. Codon usage patterns in Nematoda: analysis based on over 25 million codons in thirty-two species

    PubMed Central

    Mitreva, Makedonka; Wendl, Michael C; Martin, John; Wylie, Todd; Yin, Yong; Larson, Allan; Parkinson, John; Waterston, Robert H; McCarter, James P

    2006-01-01

    Background Codon usage has direct utility in molecular characterization of species and is also a marker for molecular evolution. To understand codon usage within the diverse phylum Nematoda, we analyzed a total of 265,494 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from 30 nematode species. The full genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae were also examined. A total of 25,871,325 codons were analyzed and a comprehensive codon usage table for all species was generated. This is the first codon usage table available for 24 of these organisms. Results Codon usage similarity in Nematoda usually persists over the breadth of a genus but then rapidly diminishes even within each clade. Globodera, Meloidogyne, Pristionchus, and Strongyloides have the most highly derived patterns of codon usage. The major factor affecting differences in codon usage between species is the coding sequence GC content, which varies in nematodes from 32% to 51%. Coding GC content (measured as GC3) also explains much of the observed variation in the effective number of codons (R = 0.70), which is a measure of codon bias, and it even accounts for differences in amino acid frequency. Codon usage is also affected by neighboring nucleotides (N1 context). Coding GC content correlates strongly with estimated noncoding genomic GC content (R = 0.92). On examining abundant clusters in five species, candidate optimal codons were identified that may be preferred in highly expressed transcripts. Conclusion Evolutionary models indicate that total genomic GC content, probably the product of directional mutation pressure, drives codon usage rather than the converse, a conclusion that is supported by examination of nematode genomes.

  3. Intragenic spatial patterns of codon usage bias in prokaryotic and eukaryotic Hong Qin*,1

    E-print Network

    Wu, Wei-Biao

    1 Intragenic spatial patterns of codon usage bias in prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes Hong Qin*,1 distribution of synonymous codon usage bias in four prokaryotic (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis pattern using isotonic regression, we show that in yeast and prokaryotic genomes, codon usage bias

  4. Estimating Selection on Synonymous Codon Usage from Noisy Experimental Data

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Edward W.J.; Airoldi, Edoardo M.

    2013-01-01

    A key goal in molecular evolution is to extract mechanistic insights from signatures of selection. A case study is codon usage, where despite many recent advances and hypotheses, two longstanding problems remain: the relative contribution of selection and mutation in determining codon frequencies and the relative contribution of translational speed and accuracy to selection. The relevant targets of selection—the rate of translation and of mistranslation of a codon per unit time in the cell—can only be related to mechanistic properties of the translational apparatus if the number of transcripts per cell is known, requiring use of gene expression measurements. Perhaps surprisingly, different gene-expression data sets yield markedly different estimates of selection. We show that this is largely due to measurement noise, notably due to differences between studies rather than instrument error or biological variability. We develop an analytical framework that explicitly models noise in expression in the context of the population-genetic model. Estimates of mutation and selection strength in budding yeast produced by this method are robust to the expression data set used and are substantially higher than estimates using a noise-blind approach. We introduce per-gene selection estimates that correlate well with previous scoring systems, such as the codon adaptation index, while now carrying an evolutionary interpretation. On average, selection for codon usage in budding yeast is weak, yet our estimates show that genes range from virtually unselected to average per-codon selection coefficients above the inverse population size. Our analytical framework may be generally useful for distinguishing biological signals from measurement noise in other applications that depend upon measurements of gene expression. PMID:23493257

  5. Analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in different plant mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Meng; Li, Xia

    2009-11-01

    Codon usage in mitochondrial genome of the six different plants was analyzed to find general patterns of codon usage in plant mitochondrial genomes. The neutrality analysis indicated that the codon usage patterns of mitochondrial genes were more conserved in GC content and no correlation between GC12 and GC3. T and A ending codons were detected as the preferred codons in plant mitochondrial genomes. The Parity Rule 2 plot analysis showed that T was used more frequently than A. The EN(C)-plot showed that although a majority of the points with low EN(C) values were lying below the expected curve, a few genes lied on the expected curve. Correspondence analysis of relative synonymous codon usage yielded a first axis that explained only a partial amount of variation of codon usage. These findings suggest that natural selection is likely to be playing a large role in codon usage bias in plant mitochondrial genomes, but not only natural selection but also other several factors are likely to be involved in determining the selective constraints on codon bias in plant mitochondrial genomes. Meantime, 1 codon (P. patens), 6 codons (Z. mays), 9 codons (T. aestivum), 15 codons (A. thaliana), 15 codons (M. polymorpha) and 15 codons (N. tabacum) were defined as the preferred codons of the six plant mitochondrial genomes. PMID:19005776

  6. Recent Selection on Synonymous Codon Usage in Drosophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. Kliman

    1999-01-01

    .   Evidence from a variety of sources indicates that selection has influenced synonymous codon usage in Drosophila. It has generally been difficult, however, to distinguish selection that acted in the distant past from ongoing selection.\\u000a However, under a neutral model, polymorphisms usually reflect more recent mutations than fixed differences between species\\u000a and may, therefore, be useful for inferring recent selection.

  7. Genome-Wide Analysis of Codon Usage and Influencing Factors in Chikungunya Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yigang

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus of the family Togaviridae that is transmitted to humans by Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Its genome comprises a 12 kb single-strand positive-sense RNA. In the present study, we report the patterns of synonymous codon usage in 141 CHIKV genomes by calculating several codon usage indices and applying multivariate statistical methods. Relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis showed that the preferred synonymous codons were G/C and A-ended. A comparative analysis of RSCU between CHIKV and its hosts showed that codon usage patterns of CHIKV are a mixture of coincidence and antagonism. Similarity index analysis showed that the overall codon usage patterns of CHIKV have been strongly influenced by Pan troglodytes and Aedes albopictus during evolution. The overall codon usage bias was low in CHIKV genomes, as inferred from the analysis of effective number of codons (ENC) and codon adaptation index (CAI). Our data suggested that although mutation pressure dominates codon usage in CHIKV, patterns of codon usage in CHIKV are also under the influence of natural selection from its hosts and geography. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report describing codon usage analysis in CHIKV genomes. The findings from this study are expected to increase our understanding of factors involved in viral evolution, and fitness towards hosts and the environment. PMID:24595095

  8. Codon usage and protein sequence pattern dependency in different organisms: A Bioinformatics approach.

    PubMed

    Foroughmand-Araabi, Mohammad-Hadi; Goliaei, Bahram; Alishahi, Kasra; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Goliaei, Sama

    2015-04-01

    Although it is known that synonymous codons are not chosen randomly, the role of the codon usage in gene regulation is not clearly understood, yet. Researchers have investigated the relation between the codon usage and various properties, such as gene regulation, translation rate, translation efficiency, mRNA stability, splicing, and protein domains. Recently, a universal codon usage based mechanism for gene regulation is proposed. We studied the role of protein sequence patterns on the codons usage by related genes. Considering a subsequence of a protein that matches to a pattern or motif, we showed that, parts of the genes, which are translated to this subsequence, use specific ratios of synonymous codons. Also, we built a multinomial logistic regression statistical model for codon usage, which considers the effect of patterns on codon usage. This model justifies the observed codon usage preference better than the classic organism dependent codon usage. Our results showed that the codon usage plays a role in controlling protein levels, for genes that participate in a specific biological function. This is the first time that this phenomenon is reported. PMID:25409941

  9. Selection pressures on codon usage in the complete genome of bacteriophage T7

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Sharp; Mark S. Rogers; David J. McConnell

    1985-01-01

    Summary We searched the complete 39,936 base DNA sequence of bacteriophage T7 for nonrandomness that might be attributed to natural selection. Codon usage in the 50 genes of T7 is nonrandom, both over the whole code and among groups of synonymous codons. There is a great excess of purineany base-pyrimidine (RNY) codons. Codon usage varies between genes, but from the

  10. A PECULIAR CODON USAGE PATTERN REVEALED AFTER REMOVING THE EFFECT OF DNA METHYLATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuhua Xia

    Summary DNA methylation and deamination increases the C?T mutation rate in CpG dinucleotides, especially in vertebrate genomes. This has profound effect on codon usage in heavily vertebrate genomes, and may obscure the effect of other factors on codon usage bias. We have classified the sense codons into three groups: those decreased by DNA methylation (i.e., CpG-containing codons), those increased by

  11. Pandemic influenza A virus codon usage revisited: biases, adaptation and implications for vaccine strain development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Influenza A virus (IAV) is a member of the family Orthomyxoviridae and contains eight segments of a single-stranded RNA genome with negative polarity. The first influenza pandemic of this century was declared in April of 2009, with the emergence of a novel H1N1 IAV strain (H1N1pdm) in Mexico and USA. Understanding the extent and causes of biases in codon usage is essential to the understanding of viral evolution. A comprehensive study to investigate the effect of selection pressure imposed by the human host on the codon usage of an emerging, pandemic IAV strain and the trends in viral codon usage involved over the pandemic time period is much needed. Results We performed a comprehensive codon usage analysis of 310 IAV strains from the pandemic of 2009. Highly biased codon usage for Ala, Arg, Pro, Thr and Ser were found. Codon usage is strongly influenced by underlying biases in base composition. When correspondence analysis (COA) on relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) is applied, the distribution of IAV ORFs in the plane defined by the first two major dimensional factors showed that different strains are located at different places, suggesting that IAV codon usage also reflects an evolutionary process. Conclusions A general association between codon usage bias, base composition and poor adaptation of the virus to the respective host tRNA pool, suggests that mutational pressure is the main force shaping H1N1 pdm IAV codon usage. A dynamic process is observed in the variation of codon usage of the strains enrolled in these studies. These results suggest a balance of mutational bias and natural selection, which allow the virus to explore and re-adapt its codon usage to different environments. Recoding of IAV taking into account codon bias, base composition and adaptation to host tRNA may provide important clues to develop new and appropriate vaccines. PMID:23134595

  12. Analysing codon usage bias of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 and adaptation of this virus to the hosts.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y P; Liu, Z X; Hao, L; Ma, J Y; Liang, Z L; Li, Y G; Ke, H

    2014-12-01

    The codon usage patterns of open reading frames (ORFs) in cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) have been investigated in this study. The high correlation between GC12 % and GC3 % suggests that mutational pressure rather than natural selection is the main factor that determines the codon usage and base component in the CyHV-3, while mutational pressure effect results from the high correlation between GC3 % and the first principal axis of principle component analysis (Axis 1) on the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) value of the viral functional genes. However, the interaction between the absolute codon usage bias and GC3 % suggests that other selections take part in the formation of codon usage, except for the mutational pressure. It is noted that the similarity degree of codon usage between the CyHV-3 and goldfish, Carassius auratus (L.), is higher than that between the virus and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., suggesting that the goldfish plays a more important role than the common carp in codon usage pattern of the CyHV-3. The study of codon usage in CyHV-3 can provide some evidence about the molecular evolution of the virus. It can also enrich our understanding about the relationship between the CyHV-3 and its hosts by analysing their codon usage patterns. PMID:25491502

  13. Non-optimal codon usage affects expression, structure and function of clock protein FRQ.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mian; Guo, Jinhu; Cha, Joonseok; Chae, Michael; Chen, She; Barral, Jose M; Sachs, Matthew S; Liu, Yi

    2013-03-01

    Codon-usage bias has been observed in almost all genomes and is thought to result from selection for efficient and accurate translation of highly expressed genes. Codon usage is also implicated in the control of transcription, splicing and RNA structure. Many genes exhibit little codon-usage bias, which is thought to reflect a lack of selection for messenger RNA translation. Alternatively, however, non-optimal codon usage may be of biological importance. The rhythmic expression and the proper function of the Neurospora FREQUENCY (FRQ) protein are essential for circadian clock function. Here we show that, unlike most genes in Neurospora, frq exhibits non-optimal codon usage across its entire open reading frame. Optimization of frq codon usage abolishes both overt and molecular circadian rhythms. Codon optimization not only increases FRQ levels but, unexpectedly, also results in conformational changes in FRQ protein, altered FRQ phosphorylation profile and stability, and impaired functions in the circadian feedback loops. These results indicate that non-optimal codon usage of frq is essential for its circadian clock function. Our study provides an example of how non-optimal codon usage functions to regulate protein expression and to achieve optimal protein structure and function. PMID:23417067

  14. Codon usage patterns in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) based on RNA-Seq data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Codon usage analysis has been a classical topic for decades and has significances for studies of evolution, mRNA translation, and new gene discovery, etc. While the codon usage varies among different members of the plant kingdom, indicating the necessity for species-specific study, this work has mostly been limited to model organisms. Recently, the development of deep sequencing, especial RNA-Seq, has made it possible to carry out studies in non-model species. Result RNA-Seq data of Chinese bayberry was analyzed to investigate the bias of codon usage and codon pairs. High frequency codons (AGG, GCU, AAG and GAU), as well as low frequency ones (NCG and NUA codons) were identified, and 397 high frequency codon pairs were observed. Meanwhile, 26 preferred and 141 avoided neighboring codon pairs were also identified, which showed more significant bias than the same pairs with one or more intervening codons. Codon patterns were also analyzed at the plant kingdom, organism and gene levels. Changes during plant evolution were evident using RSCU (relative synonymous codon usage), which was even more significant than GC3s (GC content of 3rd synonymous codons). Nine GO categories were differentially and independently influenced by CAI (codon adaptation index) or GC3s, especially in 'Molecular function’ category. Within a gene, the average CAI increased from 0.720 to 0.785 in the first 50 codons, and then more slowly thereafter. Furthermore, the preferred as well as avoided codons at the position just following the start codon AUG were identified and discussed in relation to the key positions in Kozak sequences. Conclusion A comprehensive codon usage Table and number of high-frequency codon pairs were established. Bias in codon usage as well as in neighboring codon pairs was observed, and the significance of this in avoiding DNA mutation, increasing protein production and regulating protein synthesis rate was proposed. Codon usage patterns at three levels were revealed and the significance in plant evolution analysis, gene function classification, and protein translation start site predication were discussed. This work promotes the study of codon biology, and provides some reference for analysis and comprehensive application of RNA-Seq data from other non-model species. PMID:24160180

  15. Genomic adaptation of the ISA virus to Salmo salar codon usage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ISA virus (ISAV) is an Orthomyxovirus whose genome encodes for at least 10 proteins. Low protein identity and lack of genetic tools have hampered the study of the molecular mechanism behind its virulence. It has been shown that viral codon usage controls several processes such as translational efficiency, folding, tuning of protein expression, antigenicity and virulence. Despite this, the possible role that adaptation to host codon usage plays in virulence and viral evolution has not been studied in ISAV. Methods Intergenomic adaptation between viral and host genomes was calculated using the codon adaptation index score with EMBOSS software and the Kazusa database. Classification of host genes according to GeneOnthology was performed using Blast2go. A non parametric test was applied to determine the presence of significant correlations among CAI, mortality and time. Results Using the codon adaptation index (CAI) score, we found that the encoding genes for nucleoprotein, matrix protein M1 and antagonist of Interferon I signaling (NS1) are the ISAV genes that are more adapted to host codon usage, in agreement with their requirement for production of viral particles and inactivation of antiviral responses. Comparison to host genes showed that ISAV shares CAI values with less than 0.45% of Salmo salar genes. GeneOntology classification of host genes showed that ISAV genes share CAI values with genes from less than 3% of the host biological process, far from the 14% shown by Influenza A viruses and closer to the 5% shown by Influenza B and C. As well, we identified a positive correlation (p<0.05) between CAI values of a virus and the duration of the outbreak disease in given salmon farms, as well as a weak relationship between codon adaptation values of PB1 and the mortality rates of a set of ISA viruses. Conclusions Our analysis shows that ISAV is the least adapted viral Salmo salar pathogen and Orthomyxovirus family member less adapted to host codon usage, avoiding the general behavior of host genes. This is probably due to its recent emergence among farmed Salmon populations. PMID:23829271

  16. Codon Usage Bias and Effective Population Sizes on the X Chromosome versus the Autosomes in

    E-print Network

    : John H. McDonald Abstract Codon usage bias (CUB) in Drosophila is higher for X-linked genes than in Drosophila melanogaster Jose L. Campos,*,1 Kai Zeng,2 Darren J. Parker,3 Brian Charlesworth,1 and Penelope R on the McDonald­Kreitman test. Key words: Drosophila melanogaster, codon usage, effective population size

  17. Factors affecting mito-nuclear codon usage interactions in the OXPHOS system of Drosophila melanogaster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng Sun; Liang Ma; Robert W. Murphy; Xiansheng Zhang; Dawei Huang

    2008-01-01

    Codon usage bias varies considerably among genomes and even within the genes of the same genome. In eukaryotic organisms, energy production in the form of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is the only process under control of both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Although factors affecting codon usage in a single genome have been studied, this has not occurred when both interactional genomes

  18. Synonymous Codon Usage in Drosophila melanogaster: Natural Selection and Translational Accuracy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Akashi

    1994-01-01

    I present evidence that natural selection biases synonymous codon usage to enhance the accuracy of protein synthesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Since the fitness cost of a translational misincorporation will depend on how the amino acid substitution affects protein function, selection for translational accuracy predicts an association between codon usage in DNA and functional constraint at the protein level. The frequency

  19. Species Based Synonymous Codon Usage in Fusion Protein Gene of Newcastle Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Chandra Shekhar; Kumar, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    Newcastle disease is highly pathogenic to poultry and many other avian species. However, the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has also been reported from many non-avian species. The NDV fusion protein (F) is a major determinant of its pathogenicity and virulence. The functionalities of F gene have been explored for the development of vaccine and diagnostics against NDV. Although the F protein is well studied but the codon usage and its nucleotide composition from NDV isolated from different species have not yet been explored. In present study, we have analyzed the factors responsible for the determination of codon usage in NDV isolated from four major avian host species. The F gene of NDV is analyzed for its base composition and its correlation with the bias in codon usage. Our result showed that random mutational pressure is responsible for codon usage bias in F protein of NDV isolates. Aromaticity, GC3s, and aliphatic index were not found responsible for species based synonymous codon usage bias in F gene of NDV. Moreover, the low amount of codon usage bias and expression level was further confirmed by a low CAI value. The phylogenetic analysis of isolates was found in corroboration with the relatedness of species based on codon usage bias. The relationship between the host species and the NDV isolates from the host does not represent a significant correlation in our study. The present study provides a basic understanding of the mechanism involved in codon usage among species. PMID:25479071

  20. Characterizing the Native Codon Usages of a Genome: An Axis Projection Approach

    PubMed Central

    Davis, James J.; Olsen, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    Codon usage can provide insights into the nature of the genes in a genome. Genes that are “native” to a genome (have not been recently acquired by horizontal transfer) range in codon usage from a low-bias “typical” usage to a more biased “high-expression” usage characteristic of genes encoding abundant proteins. Genes that differ from these native codon usages are candidates for foreign genes that have been recently acquired by horizontal gene transfer. In this study, we present a method for characterizing the codon usages of native genes—both typical and highly expressed—within a genome. Each gene is evaluated relative to a half line (or axis) in a 59D space of codon usage. The axis begins at the modal codon usage, the usage that matches the largest number of genes in the genome, and it passes through a point representing the codon usage of a set of genes with expression-related bias. A gene whose codon usage matches (does not significantly differ from) a point on this axis is a candidate native gene, and the location of its projection onto the axis provides a general estimate of its expression level. A gene that differs significantly from all points on the axis is a candidate foreign gene. This automated approach offers significant improvements over existing methods. We illustrate this by analyzing the genomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Bacillus anthracis A0248, which can be difficult to analyze with commonly used methods due to their biased base compositions. Finally, we use this approach to measure the proportion of candidate foreign genes in 923 bacterial and archaeal genomes. The organisms with the most homogeneous genomes (containing the fewest candidate foreign genes) are mostly endosymbionts and parasites, though with exceptions that include Pelagibacter ubique and Beutenbergia cavernae. The organisms with the most heterogeneous genomes (containing the most candidate foreign genes) include members of the genera Bacteroides, Corynebacterium, Desulfotalea, Neisseria, Xylella, and Thermobaculum. PMID:20679093

  1. Analysis of synonymous codon usage in FAD7 genes from different plant species.

    PubMed

    Ma, Q P; Li, C; Wang, J; Wang, Y; Ding, Z T

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the codon bias of the FAD7 genes among 10 different plant species was analyzed to identify general patterns of codon usage in the FAD7 genes. Our results showed that U-ended or A-ended codons were preferentially used in FAD7 for dicots, whereas G-ended or C-ended codons were preferentially used in FAD7 for monocots. An ENC-plot showed that some other factors may influence the codon usage of FAD7, except mutation bias in plant species. A correlation analysis between the codon adaptation index and GC or GC3s contents demonstrated that the codon usage bias of the FAD7 gene in plant species could be influenced by the gene expression level. The cluster analysis of relative synonymous codon usage values and phylogenetic trees of protein sequences for FAD7 genes confirm that the codon preference of FAD7 is influenced by genetic relationships. Moreover, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum were predicted to be the most appropriate expression hosts for the FAD7 genes from dicots, and Zea mays may be suitable for the expression of the FAD7 genes from monocots. Our results provide useful insights into the evolutionary relationships of plant species. PMID:25730080

  2. A comparative analysis of synonymous codon usage bias pattern in human albumin superfamily.

    PubMed

    Mirsafian, Hoda; Mat Ripen, Adiratna; Singh, Aarti; Teo, Phaik Hwan; Merican, Amir Feisal; Mohamad, Saharuddin Bin

    2014-01-01

    Synonymous codon usage bias is an inevitable phenomenon in organismic taxa across the three domains of life. Though the frequency of codon usage is not equal across species and within genome in the same species, the phenomenon is non random and is tissue-specific. Several factors such as GC content, nucleotide distribution, protein hydropathy, protein secondary structure, and translational selection are reported to contribute to codon usage preference. The synonymous codon usage patterns can be helpful in revealing the expression pattern of genes as well as the evolutionary relationship between the sequences. In this study, synonymous codon usage bias patterns were determined for the evolutionarily close proteins of albumin superfamily, namely, albumin, ?-fetoprotein, afamin, and vitamin D-binding protein. Our study demonstrated that the genes of the four albumin superfamily members have low GC content and high values of effective number of codons (ENC) suggesting high expressivity of these genes and less bias in codon usage preferences. This study also provided evidence that the albumin superfamily members are not subjected to mutational selection pressure. PMID:24707212

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Synonymous Codon Usage Bias Pattern in Human Albumin Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Mirsafian, Hoda; Mat Ripen, Adiratna; Singh, Aarti; Teo, Phaik Hwan; Merican, Amir Feisal; Mohamad, Saharuddin Bin

    2014-01-01

    Synonymous codon usage bias is an inevitable phenomenon in organismic taxa across the three domains of life. Though the frequency of codon usage is not equal across species and within genome in the same species, the phenomenon is non random and is tissue-specific. Several factors such as GC content, nucleotide distribution, protein hydropathy, protein secondary structure, and translational selection are reported to contribute to codon usage preference. The synonymous codon usage patterns can be helpful in revealing the expression pattern of genes as well as the evolutionary relationship between the sequences. In this study, synonymous codon usage bias patterns were determined for the evolutionarily close proteins of albumin superfamily, namely, albumin, ?-fetoprotein, afamin, and vitamin D-binding protein. Our study demonstrated that the genes of the four albumin superfamily members have low GC content and high values of effective number of codons (ENC) suggesting high expressivity of these genes and less bias in codon usage preferences. This study also provided evidence that the albumin superfamily members are not subjected to mutational selection pressure. PMID:24707212

  4. Distinguishable codon usage and amino acid composition patterns among substrates of leaderless secretory pathways from proteobacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In?ra Kampenusa; P?teris Zikmanis

    2010-01-01

    The combined set of codon usage frequencies (61 sense codons) from the 111 annotated sequences of leaderless secreted type\\u000a I, type III, type IV, and type VI proteins from proteobacteria were subjected to the forward and backward selection to obtain\\u000a a combination of most effective predictor variables for classification\\/prediction purposes. The group of 24 codon frequencies\\u000a displayed a strong discriminatory

  5. The relationship between synonymous codon usage and protein structure in Escherichia coli and Homo sapiens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wanjun Gu; Tong Zhou; Jianmin Ma; Xiao Sun; Zuhong Lu

    2004-01-01

    The role of silent position in the codon on the protein structure is an interesting and yet unclear problem. In this paper, 563 Homo sapiens genes and 417 Escherichia coli genes coding for proteins with four different folding types have been analyzed using variance analysis, a multivariate analysis method newly used in codon usage analysis, to find the correlation between

  6. Gaining Insights into the Codon Usage Patterns of TP53 Gene across Eight Mammalian Species

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Tarikul Huda; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    TP53 gene is known as the “guardian of the genome” as it plays a vital role in regulating cell cycle, cell proliferation, DNA damage repair, initiation of programmed cell death and suppressing tumor growth. Non uniform usage of synonymous codons for a specific amino acid during translation of protein known as codon usage bias (CUB) is a unique property of the genome and shows species specific deviation. Analysis of codon usage bias with compositional dynamics of coding sequences has contributed to the better understanding of the molecular mechanism and the evolution of a particular gene. In this study, the complete nucleotide coding sequences of TP53 gene from eight different mammalian species were used for CUB analysis. Our results showed that the codon usage patterns in TP53 gene across different mammalian species has been influenced by GC bias particularly GC3 and a moderate bias exists in the codon usage of TP53 gene. Moreover, we observed that nature has highly favored the most over represented codon CTG for leucine amino acid but selected against the ATA codon for isoleucine in TP53 gene across all mammalian species during the course of evolution. PMID:25807269

  7. Characterization of codon usage bias in the gI gene of duck enteritis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lijuan Li; Anchun Cheng; Mingshu Wang; Shunchuan Zhang; Dekang Zhu; Renyong Jia; Qihui Luo; Yi Zhou; Zhengli Chen; Xiaoyue Chen

    2010-01-01

    The analysis on codon usage bias of gI gene of duck enteritis virus (DEV) may provide a basis for understanding the evolution and molecular characteristic of DEV, and for selecting appropriate host expression systems to improve the expression of target gene. A comparative analysis of the codon usage bias of the DEV gI gene and 22 other refrence herpesviruses gI-like

  8. Translational selection is operative for synonymous codon usage in Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium acetobutylicum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hector Musto; Hector Romero; Alejandro Zavala

    2003-01-01

    Here, the codon usage patterns of two Clostridium species (Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium acetobutylicum) are reported. These prokaryotes are characterized by a strong mutational bias towards A+T, a striking excess of coding sequences and purine-rich leading strands of replication, strong GC-skews and a high frequency of genomic rearrangements. As expected, it was found that the mutational bias dominates codon usage

  9. A Major Controversy in Codon-Anticodon Adaptation Resolved by a New Codon Usage Index

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xuhua

    2015-01-01

    Two alternative hypotheses attribute different benefits to codon-anticodon adaptation. The first assumes that protein production is rate limited by both initiation and elongation and that codon-anticodon adaptation would result in higher elongation efficiency and more efficient and accurate protein production, especially for highly expressed genes. The second claims that protein production is rate limited only by initiation efficiency but that improved codon adaptation and, consequently, increased elongation efficiency have the benefit of increasing ribosomal availability for global translation. To test these hypotheses, a recent study engineered a synthetic library of 154 genes, all encoding the same protein but differing in degrees of codon adaptation, to quantify the effect of differential codon adaptation on protein production in Escherichia coli. The surprising conclusion that “codon bias did not correlate with gene expression” and that “translation initiation, not elongation, is rate-limiting for gene expression” contradicts the conclusion reached by many other empirical studies. In this paper, I resolve the contradiction by reanalyzing the data from the 154 sequences. I demonstrate that translation elongation accounts for about 17% of total variation in protein production and that the previous conclusion is due to the use of a codon adaptation index (CAI) that does not account for the mutation bias in characterizing codon adaptation. The effect of translation elongation becomes undetectable only when translation initiation is unrealistically slow. A new index of translation elongation ITE is formulated to facilitate studies on the efficiency and evolution of the translation machinery. PMID:25480780

  10. Mutation and Selection Cause Codon Usage and Bias in Mitochondrial Genomes of Ribbon Worms (Nemertea)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haixia; Sun, Shichun; Norenburg, Jon L.; Sundberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of codon usage bias is known to exist in many genomes and it is mainly determined by mutation and selection. To understand the patterns of codon usage in nemertean mitochondrial genomes, we use bioinformatic approaches to analyze the protein-coding sequences of eight nemertean species. Neutrality analysis did not find a significant correlation between GC12 and GC3. ENc-plot showed a few genes on or close to the expected curve, but the majority of points with low-ENc values are below it. ENc-plot suggested that mutational bias plays a major role in shaping codon usage. The Parity Rule 2 plot (PR2) analysis showed that GC and AT were not used proportionally and we propose that codons containing A or U at third position are used preferentially in nemertean species, regardless of whether corresponding tRNAs are encoded in the mitochondrial DNA. Context-dependent analysis indicated that the nucleotide at the second codon position slightly affects synonymous codon choices. These results suggested that mutational and selection forces are probably acting to codon usage bias in nemertean mitochondrial genomes. PMID:24454907

  11. Constraint on di-nucleotides by codon usage bias in bacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    Satapathy, Siddhartha Sankar; Powdel, Bhes Raj; Dutta, Malay; Buragohain, Alak Kumar; Ray, Suvendra Kumar

    2014-02-15

    It has been reported earlier that the relative di-nucleotide frequency (RDF) in different parts of a genome is similar while the frequency is variable among different genomes. So RDF is termed as genome signature in bacteria. It is not known if the constancy in RDF is governed by genome wide mutational bias or by selection. Here we did comparative analysis of RDF between the inter-genic and the coding sequences in seventeen bacterial genomes, whose gene expression data was available. The constraint on di-nucleotides was found to be higher in the coding sequences than that in the inter-genic regions and the constraint at the 2nd codon position was more than that in the 3rd position within a genome. Further analysis revealed that the constraint on di-nucleotides at the 2nd codon position is greater in the high expression genes (HEG) than that in the whole genomes as well as in the low expression genes (LEG). We analyzed RDF at the 2nd and the 3rd codon positions in simulated coding sequences that were computationally generated by keeping the codon usage bias (CUB) according to genome G+C composition and the sequence of amino acids unaltered. In the simulated coding sequences, the constraint observed was significantly low and no significant difference was observed between the HEG and the LEG in terms of di-nucleotide constraint. This indicated that the greater constraint on di-nucleotides in the HEG was due to the stronger selection on CUB in these genes in comparison to the LEG within a genome. Further, we did comparative analyses of the RDF in the HEG rpoB and rpoC of 199 bacteria, which revealed a common pattern of constraints on di-nucleotides at the 2nd codon position across these bacteria. To validate the role of CUB on di-nucleotide constraint, we analyzed RDF at the 2nd and the 3rd codon positions in simulated rpoB/rpoC sequences. The analysis revealed that selection on CUB is an important attribute for the constraint on di-nucleotides at these positions in bacterial genomes. We believe that this study has come with major findings of the role of CUB on di-nucleotide constraint in bacterial genomes. PMID:24333347

  12. Base composition and translational selection are insufficient to explain codon usage bias in plant viruses.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Daniel J; DeRosa, Kate; Duffy, Siobain

    2013-01-01

    Viral codon usage bias may be the product of a number of synergistic or antagonistic factors, including genomic nucleotide composition, translational selection, genomic architecture, and mutational or repair biases. Most studies of viral codon bias evaluate only the relative importance of genomic base composition and translational selection, ignoring other possible factors. We analyzed the codon preferences of ssRNA (luteoviruses and potyviruses) and ssDNA (geminiviruses) plant viruses that infect translationally distinct monocot and dicot hosts. We found that neither genomic base composition nor translational selection satisfactorily explains their codon usage biases. Furthermore, we observed a strong relationship between the codon preferences of viruses in the same family or genus, regardless of host or genomic nucleotide content. Our results suggest that analyzing codon bias as either due to base composition or translational selection is a false dichotomy that obscures the role of other factors. Constraints such as genomic architecture and secondary structure can and do influence codon usage in plant viruses, and likely in viruses of other hosts. PMID:23322170

  13. Codon usage suggests that translational selection has a major impact on protein expression in trypanosomatids

    PubMed Central

    Horn, David

    2008-01-01

    Background Different proteins are required in widely different quantities to build a living cell. In most organisms, transcription control makes a major contribution to differential expression. This is not the case in trypanosomatids where most genes are transcribed at an equivalent rate within large polycistronic clusters. Thus, trypanosomatids must use post-transcriptional control mechanisms to balance gene expression requirements. Results Here, the evidence for translational selection, the enrichment of 'favoured' codons in more highly expressed genes, is explored. A set of highly expressed, tandem-repeated genes display codon bias in Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania major. The tRNA complement reveals forty-five of the sixty-one possible anticodons indicating widespread use of 'wobble' tRNAs. Consistent with translational selection, cognate tRNA genes for favoured codons are over-represented. Importantly, codon usage (Codon Adaptation Index) correlates with predicted and observed expression level. In addition, relative codon bias is broadly conserved among syntenic genes from different trypanosomatids. Conclusion Synonymous codon bias is correlated with tRNA gene copy number and with protein expression level in trypanosomatids. Taken together, the results suggest that translational selection is the dominant mechanism underlying the control of differential protein expression in these organisms. The findings reveal how trypanosomatids may compensate for a paucity of canonical Pol II promoters and subsequent widespread constitutive RNA polymerase II transcription. PMID:18173843

  14. Incorporating PCA and FCM into Organism Classification Based on Codon Usage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kun-lin Hsieh; I-ching Yang; Cheng-chang Jeng; Chun-nan Lin

    2006-01-01

    To recognize the DNA sequence and mine the hidden information to achieve the classification of organisms are viewed as a difficult work to biologists. As we known, the amino acids are the basic elements to construct DNA. Hence, if the codon usage of amino acids can be analyzed well, the useful information about classification of organisms may be obtained. However,

  15. Codon Usage Patterns in Cytochrome Oxidase I Across Multiple Insect Orders Joshua T. Herbeck,1

    E-print Network

    Herbeck, Joshua

    Codon Usage Patterns in Cytochrome Oxidase I Across Multiple Insect Orders Joshua T. Herbeck,1 John: 10.1007/s00239-002-2437-7 Correspondence to: Joshua Herbeck, JBP Center for Comparative Molecular Biology and Evolution, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA; email: herbeck@mbl.edu #12

  16. Is DNA Code Periodicity Only Due to CUF - Codons Usage Frequency?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariusz Zoltowski; Nicolaus Copernicus

    2007-01-01

    The triplet code for proteins and functional RNA has been either from the universal pattern of ancient RNA (- HI) [1], with a key role of an uneven codon usage frequency (CUF) in the periodic patterns origination, or a reading frame monitoring device (RFMD -H2) [2- 4]. HI has lately been upheld [1] but in a single sequence sensitive way

  17. Viral adaptation to host: a proteome-based analysis of codon usage and amino acid preferences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris Bahir; Menachem Fromer; Yosef Prat; Michal Linial

    2009-01-01

    Viruses differ markedly in their specificity toward host organisms. Here, we test the level of general sequence adaptation that viruses display toward their hosts. We compiled a representative data set of viruses that infect hosts ranging from bacteria to humans. We consider their respective amino acid and codon usages and compare them among the viruses and their hosts. We show

  18. Synonymous Codon Usage Affects the Expression of Wild Type and F508del CFTR.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kalpit; Cheng, Yi; Hahn, Brian; Bridges, Robert; Bradbury, Neil A; Mueller, David M

    2015-03-27

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel composed of 1480 amino acids. The major mutation responsible for cystic fibrosis results in loss of amino acid residue, F508 (F508del). Loss of F508 in CFTR alters the folding pathway resulting in endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation. This study investigates the role of synonymous codon in the expression of CFTR and CFTR F508del in human HEK293 cells. DNA encoding the open reading frame (ORF) for CFTR containing synonymous codon replacements was expressed using a heterologous vector integrated into the genome. The results indicate that the codon usage greatly affects the expression of CFTR. While the promoter strength driving expression of the ORFs was largely unchanged and the mRNA half-lives were unchanged, the steady-state levels of the mRNA varied by as much as 30-fold. Experiments support that this apparent inconsistency is attributed to nonsense mediated decay independent of exon junction complex. The ratio of CFTR/mRNA indicates that mRNA containing native codons was more efficient in expressing mature CFTR as compared to mRNA containing synonymous high-expression codons. However, when F508del CFTR was expressed after codon optimization, a greater percentage of the protein escaped endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation resulting in considerable levels of mature F508del CFTR on the plasma membrane, which showed channel activity. These results indicate that codon usage has an effect on mRNA levels and protein expression, for CFTR, and likely on chaperone-assisted folding pathway, for F508del CFTR. PMID:25676312

  19. Effective population size does not predict codon usage bias in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Michael D; Dean, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Synonymous codons are not used at equal frequency throughout the genome, a phenomenon termed codon usage bias (CUB). It is often assumed that interspecific variation in the intensity of CUB is related to species differences in effective population sizes (Ne), with selection on CUB operating less efficiently in species with small Ne. Here, we specifically ask whether variation in Ne predicts differences in CUB in mammals and report two main findings. First, across 41 mammalian genomes, CUB was not correlated with two indirect proxies of Ne (body mass and generation time), even though there was statistically significant evidence of selection shaping CUB across all species. Interestingly, autosomal genes showed higher codon usage bias compared to X-linked genes, and high-recombination genes showed higher codon usage bias compared to low recombination genes, suggesting intraspecific variation in Ne predicts variation in CUB. Second, across six mammalian species with genetic estimates of Ne (human, chimpanzee, rabbit, and three mouse species: Mus musculus, M. domesticus, and M. castaneus), Ne and CUB were weakly and inconsistently correlated. At least in mammals, interspecific divergence in Ne does not strongly predict variation in CUB. One hypothesis is that each species responds to a unique distribution of selection coefficients, confounding any straightforward link between Ne and CUB. PMID:25505518

  20. Human Retrovirus Codon Usage from tRNA Point of View: Therapeutic Insights.

    PubMed

    Frias, Diego; Monteiro-Cunha, Joana P; Mota-Miranda, Aline C; Fonseca, Vagner S; de Oliveira, Tulio; Galvao-Castro, Bernardo; Alcantara, Luiz C J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the balance between transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) supply and demand in retrovirus-infected cells, seeking the best targets for antiretroviral therapy based on the hypothetical tRNA Inhibition Therapy (TRIT). Codon usage and tRNA gene data were retrieved from public databases. Based on logistic principles, a therapeutic score (T-score) was calculated for all sense codons, in each retrovirus-host system. Codons that are critical for viral protein translation, but not as critical for the host, have the highest T-score values. Theoretically, inactivating the cognate tRNA species should imply a severe reduction of the elongation rate during viral mRNA translation. We developed a method to predict tRNA species critical for retroviral protein synthesis. Four of the best TRIT targets in HIV-1 and HIV-2 encode Large Hydrophobic Residues (LHR), which have a central role in protein folding. One of them, codon CUA, is also a TRIT target in both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2. Therefore, a drug designed for inactivating or reducing the cytoplasmatic concentration of tRNA species with anticodon TAG could attenuate significantly both HIV and HTLV protein synthesis rates. Inversely, replacing codons ending in UA by synonymous codons should increase the expression, which is relevant for DNA vaccine design. PMID:24151425

  1. [Comparative studies on codon usage bias of Ganoderma lucidum based on analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Xuan; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Song, Jing-Yuan; Sun, Chao; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2014-09-01

    Codon usage bias is an important characteristic of genetic information transfer in organisms. Analysis of codon usage bias of different species is important for understanding the rules on genetic information transfer. The previous method for analysis of codon usage bias is mainly based on genomic data. However, this method is greatly limited, because the genome sequences of higher organisms are still not available up to now. In this study, we found that we could obtain the same optimal codons of Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis: Fr.) P. Karst based on its whole genomic data or large-scale transcriptomic data from its liquid-cultured hyphae, primordium and fruiting body, separately. This result indicated the feasibility to understand the codon usage bias based on the large-scale transcriptomic data. By calculating the proportion of rare codons of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in 26 terpene synthases (TS) of G. lucidum, we found that the rare codons of S. cerevisiae have a higher proportion in TS genes, while the rare codons of E. coli have relatively lower, suggesting that the TS genes of G. lucidum are possibly more difficult to be expressed in S. cerevisiae than in E. coli. Chemical synthesis of TS genes according to the yeast optimal codons will be an effective way to solve the problem on the mismatch of gene codon bias between the foreign genes and the host strain. PMID:25518336

  2. Evidence of codon usage in the nearest neighbor spacing distribution of bases in bacterial genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higareda, M. F.; Geiger, O.; Mendoza, L.; Méndez-Sánchez, R. A.

    2012-02-01

    Statistical analysis of whole genomic sequences usually assumes a homogeneous nucleotide density throughout the genome, an assumption that has been proved incorrect for several organisms since the nucleotide density is only locally homogeneous. To avoid giving a single numerical value to this variable property, we propose the use of spectral statistics, which characterizes the density of nucleotides as a function of its position in the genome. We show that the cumulative density of bases in bacterial genomes can be separated into an average (or secular) plus a fluctuating part. Bacterial genomes can be divided into two groups according to the qualitative description of their secular part: linear and piecewise linear. These two groups of genomes show different properties when their nucleotide spacing distribution is studied. In order to analyze genomes having a variable nucleotide density, statistically, the use of unfolding is necessary, i.e., to get a separation between the secular part and the fluctuations. The unfolding allows an adequate comparison with the statistical properties of other genomes. With this methodology, four genomes were analyzed Burkholderia, Bacillus, Clostridium and Corynebacterium. Interestingly, the nearest neighbor spacing distributions or detrended distance distributions are very similar for species within the same genus but they are very different for species from different genera. This difference can be attributed to the difference in the codon usage.

  3. Serine codon-usage bias in deep phylogenomics: pancrustacean relationships as a case study.

    PubMed

    Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Lartillot, Nicolas; Philippe, Hervé; Pisani, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenomic analyses of ancient relationships are usually performed using amino acid data, but it is unclear whether amino acids or nucleotides should be preferred. With the 2-fold aim of addressing this problem and clarifying pancrustacean relationships, we explored the signals in the 62 protein-coding genes carefully assembled by Regier et al. in 2010. With reference to the pancrustaceans, this data set infers a highly supported nucleotide tree that is substantially different to the corresponding, but poorly supported, amino acid one. We show that the discrepancy between the nucleotide-based and the amino acids-based trees is caused by substitutions within synonymous codon families (especially those of serine-TCN and AGY). We show that different arthropod lineages are differentially biased in their usage of serine, arginine, and leucine synonymous codons, and that the serine bias is correlated with the topology derived from the nucleotides, but not the amino acids. We suggest that a parallel, partially compositionally driven, synonymous codon-usage bias affects the nucleotide topology. As substitutions between serine codon families can proceed through threonine or cysteine intermediates, amino acid data sets might also be affected by the serine codon-usage bias. We suggest that a Dayhoff recoding strategy would partially ameliorate the effects of such bias. Although amino acids provide an alternative hypothesis of pancrustacean relationships, neither the nucleotides nor the amino acids version of this data set seems to bring enough genuine phylogenetic information to robustly resolve the relationships within group, which should still be considered unresolved. PMID:22962005

  4. Could protein tertiary structure influence mammary transgene expression more than tissue specific codon usage?

    PubMed Central

    He, Zuyong; Zhao, Yiqiang; Mei, Gui; Li, Ning

    2010-01-01

    Animal mammary glands have been successfully employed to produce therapeutic recombinant human proteins. However, considerable variation in animal mammary transgene expression efficiency has been reported. We now consider whether aspects of codon usage and/or protein tertiary structure underlie this variation in mammary transgene expression. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11248-010-9411-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20563642

  5. Translational selection shapes codon usage in the GC-rich genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugo Naya; Héctor Romero; Nicola Carels; Alejandro Zavala; Héctor Musto

    2001-01-01

    In unicellular species codon usage is determined by mutational biases and natural selection. Among prokaryotes, the influence of these factors is different if the genome is skewed towards AT or GC, since in AT-rich organisms translational selection is absent. On the other hand, in AT-rich unicellular eukaryotes the two factors are present. In order to understand if GC-rich genomes display

  6. Trends in Codon and Amino Acid Usage in Human Pathogen Tropheryma Whipplei, the only Known Actinobacteria with Reduced Genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabyasachi Das; Sandip Paul; Chitra Dutta

    2006-01-01

    The factors governing codon and amino acid usages in the predicted protein-coding sequences of Tropheryma whipplei TW08\\/27 and Twist genomes have been analyzed. Multivariate analysis identifies the replicational-transcriptional selection coupled with DNA strand-specific asymmetric mutational bias as a major driving force behind the significant inter-strand variations in synonymous codon usage patterns in T. whipplei genes, while a residual intra-strand synonymous

  7. Evolutionary Constraints on Codon and Amino Acid Usage in Two Strains of Human Pathogenic Actinobacteria Tropheryma whipplei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabyasachi Das; Sandip Paul; Chitra Dutta

    2006-01-01

    The factors governing codon and amino acid usages in the predicted protein-coding sequences of Tropheryma whipplei TW08\\/27 and Twist genomes have been analyzed. Multivariate analysis identifies the replicational-transcriptional selection\\u000a coupled with DNA strand-specific asymmetric mutational bias as a major driving force behind the significant interstrand variations\\u000a in synonymous codon usage patterns in T. whipplei genes, while a residual intrastrand synonymous

  8. Environmental shaping of codon usage and functional adaptation across microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Roller, Maša; Luci?, Vedran; Nagy, István; Perica, Tina; Vlahovi?ek, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communities represent the largest portion of the Earth’s biomass. Metagenomics projects use high-throughput sequencing to survey these communities and shed light on genetic capabilities that enable microbes to inhabit every corner of the biosphere. Metagenome studies are generally based on (i) classifying and ranking functions of identified genes; and (ii) estimating the phyletic distribution of constituent microbial species. To understand microbial communities at the systems level, it is necessary to extend these studies beyond the species’ boundaries and capture higher levels of metabolic complexity. We evaluated 11 metagenome samples and demonstrated that microbes inhabiting the same ecological niche share common preferences for synonymous codons, regardless of their phylogeny. By exploring concepts of translational optimization through codon usage adaptation, we demonstrated that community-wide bias in codon usage can be used as a prediction tool for lifestyle-specific genes across the entire microbial community, effectively considering microbial communities as meta-genomes. These findings set up a ‘functional metagenomics’ platform for the identification of genes relevant for adaptations of entire microbial communities to environments. Our results provide valuable arguments in defining the concept of microbial species through the context of their interactions within the community. PMID:23921637

  9. Suppression of the negative effect of minor arginine codons on gene expression; preferential usage of minor codons within the first 25 codons of the Escherichia coli genes.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, G F; Inouye, M

    1990-01-01

    AGA and AGG codons for arginine are the least used codons in Escherichia coli, which are encoded by a rare tRNA, the product of the dnaY gene. We examined the positions of arginine residues encoded by AGA/AGG codons in 678 E. coli proteins. It was found that AGA/AGG codons appear much more frequently within the first 25 codons. This tendency becomes more significant in those proteins containing only one AGA or AGG codon. Other minor codons such as CUA, UCA, AGU, ACA, GGA, CCC and AUA are also found to be preferentially used within the first 25 codons. The effects of the AGG codon on gene expression were examined by inserting one to five AGG codons after the 10th codon from the initiation codon of the lacZ gene. The production of beta-galactosidase decreased as more AGG codons were inserted. With five AGG codons, the production of beta-galactosidase (Gal-AGG5) completely ceased after a mid-log phase of cell growth. After 22 hr induction of the lacZ gene, the overall production of Gal-AGG5 was 11% of the control production (no insertion of arginine codons). When five CGU codons, the major arginine codon were inserted instead of AGG, the production of beta-galactosidase (Gal-CGU5) continued even after stationary phase and the overall production was 66% of the control. The negative effect of the AGG codons on the Gal-AGG5 production was found to be dependent upon the distance between the site of the AGG codons and the initiation codon. As the distance was increased by inserting extra sequences between the two codons, the production of Gal-AGG5 increased almost linearly up to 8 fold. From these results, we propose that the position of the minor codons in an mRNA plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression possibly by modulating the stability of the initiation complex for protein synthesis. Images PMID:2109307

  10. Stress induced MAPK genes show distinct pattern of codon usage in Arabidopsis thaliana, Glycine max and Oryza sativa

    PubMed Central

    Singha, H Surachandra; Chakraborty, Supriyo; Deka, Himangshu

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) genes provide resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Codon usage profiling of the genes reveals the characteristic features of the genes like nucleotide composition, gene expressivity, optimal codons etc. The present study is a comparative analysis of codon usage patterns for different MAPK genes in three organisms, viz. Arabidopsis thaliana, Glycine max (soybean) and Oryza sativa (rice). The study has revealed a high AT content in MAPK genes of Arabidopsis and soybean whereas in rice a balanced AT-GC content at the third synonymous position of codon. The genes show a low bias in codon usage profile as reflected in the higher values (50.83 to 56.55) of effective number of codons (Nc). The prediction of gene expression profile in the MAPK genes revealed that these genes might be under the selective pressure of translational optimization as reflected in the low codon adaptation index (CAI) values ranging from 0.147 to 0.208. PMID:25187684

  11. Evolution of Codon Usage in the Smallest Photosynthetic Eukaryotes and Their Giant Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Michely, Stephanie; Toulza, Eve; Subirana, Lucie; John, Uwe; Cognat, Valérie; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence; Grimsley, Nigel; Moreau, Hervé; Piganeau, Gwenaël

    2013-01-01

    Prasinoviruses are among the largest viruses (>200 kb) and encode several hundreds of protein coding genes, including most genes of the DNA replication machinery and several genes involved in transcription and translation, as well as transfer RNAs (tRNAs). They can infect and lyse small eukaryotic planktonic marine green algae, thereby affecting global algal population dynamics. Here, we investigate the causes of codon usage bias (CUB) in one prasinovirus, OtV5, and its host Ostreococcus tauri, during a viral infection using microarray expression data. We show that 1) CUB in the host and in the viral genes increases with expression levels and 2) optimal codons use those tRNAs encoded by the most abundant host tRNA genes, supporting the notion of translational optimization by natural selection. We find evidence that viral tRNA genes complement the host tRNA pool for those viral amino acids whose host tRNAs are in short supply. We further discuss the coevolution of CUB in hosts and prasinoviruses by comparing optimal codons in three evolutionary diverged host–virus-specific pairs whose complete genome sequences are known. PMID:23563969

  12. Residential energy usage comparison: Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.A.; Uhlaner, R.T.; Cason, T.N.; Courteau, S. (Quantum Consulting, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report presents the research methods and results from the Residential Energy Usage Comparison (REUC) project, a joint effort by Southern California Edison Company (SCE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The REUC project design activities began in early 1986. The REUC project is an innovative demand-site project designed to measure and compare typical energy consumption patterns of energy efficient residential electric and gas appliances. 95 figs., 33 tabs.

  13. Codon usage trajectories and 7-cluster structure of 143 complete bacterial genomic sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorban, Alexander; Popova, Tatyana; Zinovyev, Andrey

    2005-08-01

    Three results are presented. First, we prove the existence of a universal 7-cluster structure in all 143 completely sequenced bacterial genomes available in Genbank in August 2004, and explained its properties. The 7-cluster structure is responsible for the main part of sequence heterogeneity in bacterial genomes. In this sense, our 7 clusters is the basic model of bacterial genome sequence. We demonstrated that there are four basic “pure” types of this model, observed in nature: “parallel triangles”, “perpendicular triangles”, degenerated case and the flower-like type. Second, we answered the question: how big are the position-specific information and the contribution connected with correlations between nucleotide. The accuracy of the mean-field (context-free) approximation is estimated for bacterial genomes. We show that codon usage of bacterial genomes is a multi-linear function of their genomic G+C-content with high accuracy (more precisely, by two similar functions, one for eubacterial genomes and the other one for archaea). Description of these two codon-usage trajectories is the third result. All 143 cluster animated 3D-scatters are collected in a database and is made available on our web-site: http://www.ihes.fr/ ?zinovyev/7clusters .

  14. Viral Proteins Originated De Novo by Overprinting Can Be Identified by Codon Usage: Application to the “Gene Nursery” of Deltaretroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Pavesi, Angelo; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Karlin, David G.

    2013-01-01

    A well-known mechanism through which new protein-coding genes originate is by modification of pre-existing genes, e.g. by duplication or horizontal transfer. In contrast, many viruses generate protein-coding genes de novo, via the overprinting of a new reading frame onto an existing (“ancestral”) frame. This mechanism is thought to play an important role in viral pathogenicity, but has been poorly explored, perhaps because identifying the de novo frames is very challenging. Therefore, a new approach to detect them was needed. We assembled a reference set of overlapping genes for which we could reliably determine the ancestral frames, and found that their codon usage was significantly closer to that of the rest of the viral genome than the codon usage of de novo frames. Based on this observation, we designed a method that allowed the identification of de novo frames based on their codon usage with a very good specificity, but intermediate sensitivity. Using our method, we predicted that the Rex gene of deltaretroviruses has originated de novo by overprinting the Tax gene. Intriguingly, several genes in the same genomic region have also originated de novo and encode proteins that regulate the functions of Tax. Such “gene nurseries” may be common in viral genomes. Finally, our results confirm that the genomic GC content is not the only determinant of codon usage in viruses and suggest that a constraint linked to translation must influence codon usage. PMID:23966842

  15. Use of molecular beacons to probe for messenger RNA release from ribosomes during 5'-translational blockage by consecutive low-usage codons in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wenwu; Tyagi, Sanjay; Kramer, Fred R.; Goldman, Emanuel

    2000-03-01

    In `5'-translational blockage,' significantly reduced yields of proteins are synthesized in Escherichia coli when consecutive low-usage codons are inserted near translation starts of messages (with reduced or no effect when these same codons are inserted downstream). We tested the hypothesis that ribosomes encountering these low-usage codons prematurely release the mRNA. RNA from polysome gradients was fractionated into pools of polysomes, monosomes and ribosomes-free. New hybridization probes, called `molecular beacons,' and standard slot-blots, were used to detect test messages containing either consecutive low-usage AGG (arginine) or synonymous high-usage CGU insertions near the 5' end. The results show an approximately twofold increase in the ratio of free to bound mRNA when the low-usage codons were present compared to high-usage codons. In contrast, there was no difference in the ratio of free to bound mRNA when consecutive low-usage CUA or high-usage CUG (leucine) codons were inserted, or when the arginine codons were inserted near the 3' end. These data indicate that at least some mRNA is released from ribosomes during 5'-translational blockage by arginine but not leucine codons, and they support proposals that premature termination of translation can occur in some conditions in vivo in the absence of a stop codon.

  16. Ribosome collisions and Translation efficiency: Optimization by codon usage and mRNA destabilization

    E-print Network

    Namiko Mitarai; Kim Sneppen; Steen Pedersen

    2008-09-25

    Individual mRNAs are translated by multiple ribosomes that initiate translation with a few seconds interval. The ribosome speed is codon dependant, and ribosome queuing has been suggested to explain specific data for translation of some mRNAs in vivo. By modelling the stochastic translation process as a traffic problem, we here analyze conditions and consequences of collisions and queuing. The model allowed us to determine the on-rate (0.8 to 1.1 initiations per sec) and the time (1 sec) the preceding ribosome occludes initiation for Escherichia coli lacZ mRNA in vivo. We find that ribosome collisions and queues are inevitable consequences of a stochastic translation mechanism that reduce the translation efficiency substantially on natural mRNAs. The cells minimize collisions by having its mRNAs being unstable and by a highly selected codon usage in the start of the mRNA. The cost of mRNA breakdown is offset by the concomitant increase in translational efficiency.

  17. Contrasting Codon Usage Patterns and Purifying Selection at the Mating Locus in Putatively Asexual Alternaria Fungal Species

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jane E.; Kawabe, Masato; Abdo, Zaid; Arie, Tsutomu; Peever, Tobin L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in heterothallic ascomycete fungi is controlled by a single mating-type locus called MAT1 with two alternate alleles or idiomorphs, MAT1-1 and MAT1-2. These alleles lack sequence similarity and encode different transcriptional regulators. A large number of phytopathogenic fungi including Alternaria spp. are considered asexual, yet still carry expressed MAT1 genes. The molecular evolution of Alternaria MAT1 was explored using nucleotide diversity, nonsynonymous vs. synonymous substitution (dn/ds) ratios and codon usage statistics. Likelihood ratio tests of site-branch models failed to detect positive selection on MAT1-1-1 or MAT1-2-1. Codon-site models demonstrated that both MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 are under purifying selection and significant differences in codon usage were observed between MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1. Mean GC content at the third position (GC3) and effective codon usage (ENC) were significantly different between MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 with values of 0.57 and 48 for MAT1-1-1 and 0.62 and 46 for MAT1-2-1, respectively. In contrast, codon usage of Pleospora spp. (anamorph Stemphylium), a closely related Dothideomycete genus, was not significantly different between MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1. The purifying selection and biased codon usage detected at the MAT1 locus in Alternaria spp. suggest a recent sexual past, cryptic sexual present and/or that MAT1 plays important cellular role(s) in addition to mating. PMID:21625561

  18. Mutational bias is the driving force for shaping the synonymous codon usage pattern of alternatively spliced genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingpo; Hu, Haichao; Wang, Hong

    2015-04-01

    Alternative splicing plays important roles in diverse aspects of plant development, metabolism, and stress responses. However, the regulatory mechanisms of alternative splicing of genes still remain incompletely elucidated, especially in plants. In this study, the synonymous codon usage pattern of alternatively spliced (AS) genes in rice was firstly explored using the combination of correspondence analysis (CA), internal CA, correlation and ANOVA analyses. The results show that alternatively and non-alternatively spliced (non-AS) genes have similar tendency for overall codon usage, but exhibit significant difference in 58 out of 64 codons. AS and non-AS genes are both under strong purifying selection, but the former ones have significant lower mutation rate and are prone to be enriched towards the chromosomal ends. In the group of AS genes, the variability in synonymous codon usage between genes is mainly due to the variations in GC content, CDS length, as well as gene functions. Mutational bias that accounts for 25.85 % of the total codon usage variability plays a major role in shaping the codon usage pattern of AS genes. In contrast, no obvious evidence is found for the contributions of translational selection, AS types, the conservation of AS events, and numbers of AS variants to the codon usage divergence between AS genes. These findings may be useful for further understanding the mechanisms of origination, differentiation and regulation of alternatively spliced genes in plants. PMID:25407289

  19. Codon usage bias and tRNA over-expression in Buchnera aphidicola after aromatic amino acid nutritional stress on its host Acyrthosiphon pisum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hubert Charles; Federica Calevro; J. Vinuelas; J.-M. Fayard; Y. Rahbe

    2006-01-01

    Codon usage bias and relative abundances of tRNA isoacceptors were analysed in the obligate intracellular symbiotic bacterium, Buchnera aphidi- cola from the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, using a dedicated 35mer oligonucleotide microarray. Buchnera is archetypal of organisms living with minimal metabolic requirements and presents a reduced genome with high-evolutionary rate. Codon usage in Buchnera has been overcome by the high mutational

  20. Codon usage bias and tRNA over-expression in Buchnera aphidicola after aromatic amino acid nutritional stress on its host Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Charles, Hubert; Calevro, Federica; Vinuelas, José; Fayard, Jean-Michel; Rahbe, Yvan

    2006-01-01

    Codon usage bias and relative abundances of tRNA isoacceptors were analysed in the obligate intracellular symbiotic bacterium, Buchnera aphidicola from the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, using a dedicated 35mer oligonucleotide microarray. Buchnera is archetypal of organisms living with minimal metabolic requirements and presents a reduced genome with high-evolutionary rate. Codonusage in Buchnera has been overcome by the high mutational bias towards AT bases. However, several lines of evidence for codon usage selection are given here. A significant correlation was found between tRNA relative abundances and codon composition of Buchnera genes. A significant codon usage bias was found for the choice of rare codons in Buchnera: C-ending codons are preferred in highly expressed genes, whereas G-ending codons are avoided. This bias is not explained by GC skew in the bacteria and might correspond to a selection for perfect matching between codon-anticodon pairs for some essential amino acids in Buchnera proteins. Nutritional stress applied to the aphid host induced a significant overexpression of most of the tRNA isoacceptors in bacteria. Although, molecular regulation of the tRNA operons in Buchnera was not investigated, a correlation between relative expression levels and organization in transcription unit was found in the genome of Buchnera. PMID:16963497

  1. Bicluster pattern of codon context usages between flavivirus and vector mosquito Aedes aegypti: relevance to infection and transcriptional response of mosquito genes.

    PubMed

    Behura, Susanta K; Severson, David W

    2014-10-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue virus (DENV) infection in most of the subtropical and tropical countries. Besides DENV, yellow fever virus (YFV) is also transmitted by A. aegypti. Susceptibility of A. aegypti to West Nile virus (WNV) has also been confirmed. Although studies have indicated correlation of codon bias between flaviviridae and their animal/insect hosts, it is not clear if codon sequences have any relation to susceptibility of A. aegypti to DENV, YFV and WNV. In the current study, usages of codon context sequences (codon pairs for neighboring amino acids) of the vector (A. aegypti) genome as well as the flaviviral genomes are investigated. We used bioinformatics methods to quantify codon context bias in a genome-wide manner of A. aegypti as well as DENV, WNV and YFV sequences. Mutual information statistics was applied to perform bicluster analysis of codon context bias between vector and flaviviral sequences. Functional relevance of the bicluster pattern was inferred from published microarray data. Our study shows that codon context bias of DENV, WNV and YFV sequences varies in a bicluster manner with that of specific sets of genes of A. aegypti. Many of these mosquito genes are known to be differentially expressed in response to flaviviral infection suggesting that codon context sequences of A. aegypti and the flaviviruses may play a role in the susceptible interaction between flaviviruses and this mosquito. The bias in usages of codon context sequences likely has a functional association with susceptibility of A. aegypti to flaviviral infection. The results from this study will allow us to conduct hypothesis-driven tests to examine the role of codon context bias in evolution of vector-virus interactions at the molecular level. PMID:24838953

  2. Increased 2,3-butanediol production by changing codon usages in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Park, Seo-Young; Kim, Borim; Lee, Soojin; Oh, Minkyu; Won, Jong-In; Lee, Jinwon

    2014-01-01

    The natural microorganism Escherichia coli without modification is not suitable for the efficient production of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) on an industrial scale because of its poor metabolic performance. Metabolic capacities of E. coli have been improved to produce 2,3-BD efficiently, the performance of which is possible for producing such a product. Codon optimization with the ribosome-binding site for the efficient production of target genes (budA and budC) was achieved by molecular engineering, which allowed the metabolic engineering to proceed to the next level. As a result, comparing the productivity in 26 H, where the amount of p18COR was 1.04 g/L and that of p18WTR was 0.41 g/L, represents an approximate 60.6% increase in the productivity of the p18WTR with codon optimization. In other words, p18COR was 2.54-fold greater than p18WTR in the production of 2,3-BD. PMID:24527755

  3. Hepatitis A Virus Adaptation to Cellular Shutoff Is Driven by Dynamic Adjustments of Codon Usage and Results in the Selection of Populations with Altered Capsids

    PubMed Central

    Costafreda, M. Isabel; Pérez-Rodriguez, Francisco J.; D'Andrea, Lucía; Guix, Susana; Ribes, Enric; Bosch, Albert

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis A virus (HAV) has a highly biased and deoptimized codon usage compared to the host cell and fails to inhibit host protein synthesis. It has been proposed that an optimal combination of abundant and rare codons controls the translation speed required for the correct capsid folding. The artificial shutoff host protein synthesis results in the selection of variants containing mutations in the HAV capsid coding region critical for folding, stability, and function. Here, we show that these capsid mutations resulted in changes in their antigenicity; in a reduced stability to high temperature, low pH, and biliary salts; and in an increased efficacy of cell entry. In conclusion, the adaptation to cellular shutoff resulted in the selection of large-plaque-producing virus populations. IMPORTANCE HAV has a naturally deoptimized codon usage with respect to that of its cell host and is unable to shut down the cellular translation. This fact contributes to the low replication rate of the virus, in addition to other factors such as the highly inefficient internal ribosome entry site (IRES), and explains the outstanding physical stability of this pathogen in the environment mediated by a folding-dependent highly cohesive capsid. Adaptation to artificially induced cellular transcription shutoff resulted in a redeoptimization of its capsid codon usage, instead of an optimization. These genomic changes are related to an overall change of capsid folding, which in turn induces changes in the cell entry process. Remarkably, the adaptation to cellular shutoff allowed the virus to significantly increase its RNA uncoating efficiency, resulting in the selection of large-plaque-producing populations. However, these populations produced much-debilitated virions. PMID:24554668

  4. B cell Variable genes have evolved their codon usage to focus the targeted patterns of somatic mutation on the complementarity determining regions.

    PubMed

    Saini, Jasmine; Hershberg, Uri

    2015-05-01

    The exceptional ability of B cells to diversify through somatic mutation and improve affinity of the repertoire toward the antigens is the cornerstone of adaptive immunity. Somatic mutation is not evenly distributed and exhibits certain micro-sequence specificities. We show here that the combination of somatic mutation targeting and the codon usage in human B cell receptor (BCR) Variable (V) genes create expected patterns of mutation and post mutation changes that are focused on their complementarity determining regions (CDR). T cell V genes are also skewed in targeting mutations but to a lesser extent and are lacking the codon usage bias observed in BCRs. This suggests that the observed skew in T cell receptors is due to their amino acid usage, which is similar to that of BCRs. The mutation targeting and the codon bias allow B cell CDRs to diversify by specifically accumulating nonconservative changes. We counted the distribution of mutations to CDR in 4 different human datasets. In all four cases we found that the number of actual mutations in the CDR correlated significantly with the V gene mutation biases to the CDR predicted by our models. Finally, it appears that the mutation bias in V genes indeed relates to their long-term survival in actual human repertoires. We observed that resting repertoires of B cells overexpressed V genes that were especially biased toward focused mutation and change in the CDR. This bias in V gene usage was somewhat relaxed at the height of the immune response to a vaccine, presumably because of the need for a wider diversity in a primary response. However, older patients did not retain this flexibility and were biased toward using only highly skewed V genes at all stages of their response. PMID:25660968

  5. Gene Expression Levels Are Correlated with Synonymous Codon Usage, Amino Acid Composition, and Gene Architecture in the Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Williford, Anna; Demuth, Jeffery P.

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression levels correlate with multiple aspects of gene sequence and gene structure in phylogenetically diverse taxa, suggesting an important role of gene expression levels in the evolution of protein-coding genes. Here we present results of a genome-wide study of the influence of gene expression on synonymous codon usage, amino acid composition, and gene structure in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Consistent with the action of translational selection, we find that synonymous codon usage bias increases with gene expression. However, the correspondence between tRNA gene copy number and optimal codons is weak. At the amino acid level, translational selection is suggested by the positive correlation between tRNA gene numbers and amino acid usage, which is stronger for highly expressed genes. In addition, there is a clear trend for increased use of metabolically cheaper, less complex amino acids as gene expression increases. tRNA gene numbers also correlate negatively with amino acid size/complexity (S/C) score indicating the coupling between translational selection and selection to minimize the use of large/complex amino acids. Interestingly, the analysis of 10 additional genomes suggests that the correlation between tRNA gene numbers and amino acid S/C score is widespread and might be explained by selection against negative consequences of protein misfolding. At the level of gene structure, three major trends are detected: 1) complete coding region length increases across low and intermediate expression levels but decreases in highly expressed genes; 2) the average intron size shows the opposite trend, first decreasing with expression, followed by a slight increase in highly expressed genes; and 3) intron density remains nearly constant across all expression levels. These changes in gene architecture are only in partial agreement with selection favoring reduced cost of biosynthesis. PMID:22826459

  6. Optimized codon usage enhances the expression and immunogenicity of DNA vaccine encoding Taenia solium oncosphere TSOL18 gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Chang, Xue-Lian; Tao, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Li; Jiao, Yu-Meng; Chen, Yong; Qi, Wen-Juan; Xia, Hui; Yang, Xiao-Di; Sun, Xin; Shen, Ji-Long; Fang, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Cysticercosis due to larval cysts of Taenia solium, is a serious public health problem affecting humans in numerous regions worldwide. The oncospheral stage?specific TSOL18 antigen is a promising candidate for an anti?cysticercosis vaccine. It has been reported that the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine may be enhanced through codon optimization of candidate genes. The aim of the present study was to further increase the efficacy of the cysticercosis DNA vaccine; therefore, a codon optimized recombinant expression plasmid pVAX1/TSOL18 was developed in order to enhance expression and immunogenicity of TSOL18. The gene encoding TSOL18 of Taenia solium was optimized, and the resulting opt?TSOL18 gene was amplified and expressed. The results of the present study showed that the codon?optimized TSOL18 gene was successfully expressed in CHO?K1 cells, and immunized mice vaccinated with opt?TSOL18 recombinant expression plasmids demonstrated opt?TSOL18 expression in muscle fibers, as determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the codon?optimized TSOL18 gene produced a significantly greater effect compared with that of TSOL18 and active spleen cells were markedly stimulated in vaccinated mice. 3H?thymidine incorporation was significantly greater in the opt?TSOL18 group compared with that of the TSOL18, pVAX and blank control groups (P<0.01). In conclusion, the eukaryotic expression vector containing the codon?optimized TSOL18 gene was successfully constructed and was confirmed to be expressed in vivo and in vitro. The expression and immunogenicity of the codon?optimized TSOL18 gene were markedly greater compared with that of the un?optimized gene. Therefore, these results may provide the basis for an optimized TSOL18 gene vaccine against cysticercosis. PMID:25738605

  7. Translation attenuation via 3' terminal codon usage in bovine csn1s2 is responsible for the difference in ?s2- and ?-casein profile in milk.

    PubMed

    Kim, Julie J; Yu, Jaeju; Bag, Jnanankur; Bakovic, Marica; Cant, John P

    2015-03-01

    The rate of secretion of ?s2-casein into bovine milk is approximately 25% of that of ?-casein, yet mammary expression of their respective mRNA transcripts (csn1s2 and csn2) is not different. Our objective was to identify molecular mechanisms that explain the difference in translation efficiency between csn1s2 and csn2. Cell-free translational efficiency of csn2 was 5 times that of csn1s2. Transcripts of csn1s2 distributed into heavier polysomes than csn2 transcripts, indicating an attenuation of elongation and/or termination. Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of the 5' and 3' UTRs on translational efficiency were different with luciferase and casein sequences in the coding regions. Substituting the 5' and 3' UTRs from csn2 into csn1s2 did not improve csn1s2 translation, implicating the coding region itself in the translation difference. Deletion of a 28-codon fragment from the 3' terminus of the csn1s2 coding region, which displays codons with low correlations to cell fitness, increased translation to a par with csn2. We conclude that the usage of the last 28 codons of csn1s2 is the main regulatory element that attenuates its expression and is responsible for the differential translational expression of csn1s2 and csn2. PMID:25826667

  8. 1999 Oxford University Press16421649 Nucleic Acids Research, 1999, Vol. 27, No. 7 Proteome composition and codon usage in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the linear B.burgdorferi chromosome have very different values of GC skew (the quantity G­C/G+C), and used.burgdorferi has strong AT skews as well as GC skews when measured at third positions of codons and Treponema pallidum show strong strand-specific skews in nucleotide composition, with the leading strand

  9. High-level accumulation of recombinant miraculin protein in transgenic tomatoes expressing a synthetic miraculin gene with optimized codon usage terminated by the native miraculin terminator.

    PubMed

    Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Nyarubona, Mpanja; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Kato, Kazuhisa; Ichikawa, Takanari; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    In our previous study, a transgenic tomato line that expressed the MIR gene under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the nopaline synthase terminator (tNOS) produced the taste-modifying protein miraculin (MIR). However, the concentration of MIR in the tomatoes was lower than that in the MIR gene's native miracle fruit. To increase MIR production, the native MIR terminator (tMIR) was used and a synthetic gene encoding MIR protein (sMIR) was designed to optimize its codon usage for tomato. Four different combinations of these genes and terminators (MIR-tNOS, MIR-tMIR, sMIR-tNOS and sMIR-tMIR) were constructed and used for transformation. The average MIR concentrations in MIR-tNOS, MIR-tMIR, sMIR-tNOS and sMIR-tMIR fruits were 131, 197, 128 and 287 ?g/g fresh weight, respectively. The MIR concentrations using tMIR were higher than those using tNOS. The highest MIR accumulation was detected in sMIR-tMIR fruits. On the other hand, the MIR concentration was largely unaffected by sMIR-tNOS. The expression levels of both MIR and sMIR mRNAs terminated by tMIR tended to be higher than those terminated by tNOS. Read-through mRNA transcripts terminated by tNOS were much longer than those terminated by tMIR. These results suggest that tMIR enhances mRNA expression and permits the multiplier effect of optimized codon usage. PMID:21076835

  10. Proteome Composition in Plasmodium falciparum : Higher Usage of GC-Rich Nonsynonymous Codons in Highly Expressed Genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ipsita Chanda; Archana Pan; Chitra Dutta

    2005-01-01

    The parasite Plasmodium falciparum, responsible for the most deadly form of human malaria, is one of the extremely AT-rich genomes sequenced so far and known to possess many atypical characteristics. Using multivariate statistical approaches, the present study analyzes the amino acid usage pattern in 5038 annotated protein-coding sequences in P. falciparum clone 3D7. The amino acid composition of individual proteins,

  11. Hepatitis A Virus Mutant Spectra under the Selective Pressure of Monoclonal Antibodies: Codon Usage Constraints Limit Capsid Variability?

    PubMed Central

    Aragonès, Lluís; Bosch, Albert; Pintó, Rosa M.

    2008-01-01

    Severe structural constraints in the hepatitis A virus (HAV) capsid have been suggested as the reason for the lack of emergence of new serotypes in spite of the occurrence of complex distributions of mutants or quasispecies. Analysis of the HAV mutant spectra under immune pressure by the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) K34C8 (immunodominant site) and H7C27 (glycophorin binding site) has revealed different evolutionary dynamics. Populations composed of complex ensembles of mutants with very low fitness or single dominant mutants with high fitness permit the acquisition of resistance to each of the MAbs, respectively. Deletion mutants were detected as components of the mutant spectra: up to 61 residues, with an average of 19, and up to 83 residues, with an average of 45, in VP3 and VP1 proteins, respectively. A clear negative selection of those replacements affecting the residues encoded by rare codons of the capsid surface has been detected through the present quasispecies analysis, confirming a certain beneficial role of such clusters. Since these clusters are located near or at the epitope regions, the need to maintain such clusters might prevent the emergence of new serotypes. PMID:18057242

  12. Site-specific codon bias in bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Maynard Smith; N. H. Smith

    1996-01-01

    Sequences of the gapA and ompA genes from 10 genera of enterobacteria have been analyzed. There is strong bias in codon usage, but different synonymous codons are preferred at different sites in the same gene. Site-specific preference for unfavored codons is not confined to the first 100 codons and is usually manifest between two codons utilizing the same tRNA. Statistical

  13. Secret Codon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Julie Yu

    2008-01-01

    In this activity, "write" a secret message in genetic code as beads on a string. Learners use an amino acid codon table to determine the DNA sequences that correspond to the one-letter amino acid abbreviations that make up their secret word(s). Learners also use start and stop codons in their sequences and follow a color key for the bases. Learners can trade strands with a friend to see if they can decode their secret message.

  14. Codon usage in Chlamydia trachomatis is the result of strand-specific mutational biases and a complex pattern of selective forces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Héctor Romero; Alejandro Zavala; Héctor Musto

    2000-01-01

    The patterns of synonymous codon choices of the completely sequenced genome of the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis were analysed. We found that the most important source of variation among the genes results from whether the sequence is located on the leading or lagging strand of replication, resulting in an over representation of G or C, respectively. This can be explained by

  15. High-Level Expression in Mammalian Cells of Recombinant House Dust Mite Allergen ProDer p 1 with Optimized Codon Usage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Massaer; Pasqualina Mazzu; Michèle Haumont; Mauro Magi; Véronique Daminet; Alex Bollen; Alain Jacquet

    2001-01-01

    Background: The major house dust mite allergen Der p 1 is associated with allergic diseases such as asthma. Production of recombinant Der p 1 was previously attempted, but with limited success. The present study describes the expression of recombinant (rec) ProDer p 1, a recombinant precursor form of Der p 1, in CHO cells. Methods: As optimization of the codon

  16. The Comparison of Usage and Availability Measurements for Evaluating Resource Preference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas H. Johnson

    1980-01-01

    Abstract. Modern ecological research often involves the comparison of the usage of habitat types or food items to the availability of those resources to the animal. Widely used methods of determining preference from measurements of usage and availability depend critically on the array of components

  17. Negative comparisons about one's appearance mediate the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns.

    PubMed

    Fardouly, Jasmine; Vartanian, Lenny R

    2015-01-01

    Use of social media, such as Facebook, is pervasive among young women. Body dissatisfaction is also highly prevalent in this demographic. The present study examined the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns among female university students (N=227), and tested whether appearance comparisons on Facebook in general, or comparisons to specific female target groups (family members, close friends, distant peers [women one may know but do not regularly socialize with], celebrities) mediated this relationship. Results showed a positive relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns, which was mediated by appearance comparisons in general, frequency of comparisons to close friends and distant peers, and by upward comparisons (judging one's own appearance to be worse) to distant peers and celebrities. Thus, young women who spend more time on Facebook may feel more concerned about their body because they compare their appearance to others (especially to peers) on Facebook. PMID:25462886

  18. Cellular immunity survey against urinary tract infection using pVAX/fimH cassette with mammalian and wild type codon usage as a DNA vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Bagherpour, Ghasem; Khoramabadi, Nima; Fallah Mehrabadi, Jalil; Mahdavi, Mehdi; Halabian, Raheleh; Amin, Mohsen; Izadi Mobarakeh, Jalal; Einollahi, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose FimH (the adhesion fragment of type 1 fimbriae) is implicated in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) attachment to epithelial cells through interaction with mannose. Recently, some studies have found that UPEC can thrive intracellularly causing recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Almost all vaccines have been designed to induce antibodies against UPEC. Yet, the humoral immune response is not potent enough to overcome neither the primary UTI nor recurrent infections. However, DNA vaccines offer the possibility of inducing cell mediated immune responses and may be a promising preventive tool. Materials and Methods In this study, we employed two different open reading frames within mammalian (mam) and wild type (wt) codons of fimH gene. Optimized fragments were cloned in pVAX-1. Expression of the protein in COS-7 was confirmed by western blot analysis after assessing pVAX/fimH(mam) and pVAX/fimH(wt). The constructs were injected to BALB/c mice at plantar surface of feet followed by electroporation. Results The mice immunized with both constructs following booster injection with recombinant FimH showed increased interferon-? and interleukin-12 responses significantly higher than non-immunized ones (p<0.05). The immunized mice were challenged with UPEC and then the number of bacteria recovered from the immunized mice was compared with the non-immunized ones. Decreased colony count in immunized mice along with cytokine responses confirmed the promising immune response by the DNA vaccines developed in this study. Conclusion In conclusion, DNA vaccines of UPEC proteins may confer some levels of protection which can be improved by multiple constructs or boosters. PMID:25003092

  19. ICT Usage of Pre-service Teachers: Cultural Comparison for Turkey and Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirli, Cihad

    2013-01-01

    The importance of ICTs has become the undisputed in the present century. Studies have been conducted to investigate the use of ICTs with the goal of increase in quality of teacher education for a long time. This study is a cross-cultural comparison in terms of pre-service teachers' level of ICT usage, ICT knowledge and attitudes. The study…

  20. Comparison of Bandwidth Usage: Service Location Protocol and Jini Javier Govea and Michel Barbeau

    E-print Network

    Barbeau, Michel

    ], Bluetooth [13], and Jini [21]. Some of these technologies are more than a simple discovery protocolComparison of Bandwidth Usage: Service Location Protocol and Jini Javier Govea and Michel Barbeau approaches for dealing with resource discovery: the Service Location Protocol (SLP) and Jini. This work

  1. A Comparison of Usage Evaluation and Inspection Methods for Assessing Groupware Usability

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Saul

    A Comparison of Usage Evaluation and Inspection Methods for Assessing Groupware Usability Michelle system, with one evaluation applying user-based techniques, and the other using inspection methods. We compared the results from the two evaluations and concluded that, while the two methods have their own

  2. A General Model of Codon Bias Due to GC Mutational Bias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gareth A. Palidwor; Theodore J. Perkins; Xuhua Xia; Dov Joseph Stekel

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundIn spite of extensive research on the effect of mutation and selection on codon usage, a general model of codon usage bias due to mutational bias has been lacking. Because most amino acids allow synonymous GC content changing substitutions in the third codon position, the overall GC bias of a genome or genomic region is highly correlated with GC3, a

  3. Evidence for codon bias selection at the pre-mRNA level in eukaryotes

    E-print Network

    Majewski, Jacek

    for unequal usage of synon- ymous codons (codon bias) [1] is the mutation-selection balance [2]. UnderRNA molecules, is the most widely accepted selective mechanism. Because selection for codon usage is likely to be weak, its effects are detectable in simple organisms with large population sizes, where the effects

  4. Site-specific codon bias in bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.M.; Smith, N.H. [Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    1996-03-01

    Sequences of the gapA and ompA genes from 10 genera of enterobacteria have been analyzed. There is strong bias in codon usage, but different synonymous codons are preferred at different sites in the same gene. Site-specific preference for unfavored codons is not confined to the first 100 codons and is usually manifest between two codons utilizing the same tRNA. Statistical analyses, based on conclusions reached in an accompanying paper, show that the use of an unfavored codon at a given site in different genera is not due to common descent and must therefore be caused either by sequence-specific mutation or sequence-specific selection. Reasons are given for thinking that sequence-specific mutation cannot be responsible. We are unable to explain the preference between synonymous codons ending in C or T, but synonymous choice between A and G at third sites is largely explained by avoidance of AG-G (where the hyphen indicates the boundary between codons). We also observed that the preferred codon for proline in Enterobacter cloacea has changed from CCG to CCA. 27 refs., 7 tabs.

  5. The Distribution of Synonymous Codon Choice in the Translation Initiation Region of Dengue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian-hua; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Dong-jie; Ma, Qi; Chen, Hao-tai; Ma, Li-na; Ding, Yao-zhong; Liu, Yong-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is the most common arthropod-borne viral (Arboviral) illness in humans. The genetic features concerning the codon usage of dengue virus (DENV) were analyzed by the relative synonymous codon usage, the effective number of codons and the codon adaptation index. The evolutionary distance between DENV and the natural hosts (Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti) was estimated by a novel formula. Finally, the synonymous codon usage preference for the translation initiation region of this virus was also analyzed. The result indicates that the general trend of the 59 synonymous codon usage of the four genotypes of DENV are similar to each other, and this pattern has no link with the geographic distribution of the virus. The effect of codon usage pattern of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti on the formation of codon usage of DENV is stronger than that of the two primates. Turning to the codon usage preference of the translation initiation region of this virus, some codons pairing to low tRNA copy numbers in the two primates have a stronger tendency to exist in the translation initiation region than those in the open reading frame of DENV. Although DENV, like other RNA viruses, has a high mutation to adapt its hosts, the regulatory features about the synonymous codon usage have been ‘branded’ on the translation initiation region of this virus in order to hijack the translational mechanisms of the hosts. PMID:24204777

  6. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of UCC usage in Korea and U.S.A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sora Kang; Yoo-jung Kim; Hyunju Lee

    2009-01-01

    Integrating the technology acceptance model (TAM) and the pleasure-arousal-dominance (PAD) mode, this study aims at identifying the determinants of the favorable user created contents (UCC) usage. This study further attempts a cross cultural comparison on collectivistic and individualistic cultures, Korea and the U.S.A., respectively. The study shows the significant effects of usefulness and ease of use, which are critical variables

  7. Codon Compression Algorithms for Saturation Mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Pines, Gur; Pines, Assaf; Garst, Andrew D; Zeitoun, Ramsey I; Lynch, Sean A; Gill, Ryan T

    2014-10-30

    Saturation mutagenesis is employed in protein engineering and genome-editing efforts to generate libraries that span amino acid design space. Traditionally, this is accomplished by using degenerate/compressed codons such as NNK (N = A/C/G/T, K = G/T), which covers all amino acids and one stop codon. These solutions suffer from two types of redundancy: (a) different codons for the same amino acid lead to bias, and (b) wild type amino acid is included within the library. These redundancies increase library size and downstream screening efforts. Here, we present a dynamic approach to compress codons for any desired list of amino acids, taking into account codon usage. This results in a unique codon collection for every amino acid to be mutated, with the desired redundancy level. Finally, we demonstrate that this approach can be used to design precise oligo libraries amendable to recombineering and CRISPR-based genome editing to obtain a diverse population with high efficiency. PMID:25303315

  8. A General Model of Codon Bias Due to GC Mutational Gareth A. Palidwor1

    E-print Network

    Xia, Xuhua

    . Principal Findings: In analyzing codon usage bias in hundreds of prokaryotic and plant genomes and in human in prokaryotes, plants and human respectively. When codons are grouped based on common GC content, 87%, 80% and 68% of the variation in usage is explained for prokaryotes, plants and human respectively

  9. Ecological Adaptation in Bacteria: Speciation Driven by Codon Selection

    PubMed Central

    Retchless, Adam C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey G.

    2012-01-01

    In bacteria, physiological change may be effected by a single gene acquisition, producing ecological differentiation without genetic isolation. Natural selection acting on such differences can reduce the frequency of genotypes that arise from recombination at these loci. However, gene acquisition can only account for recombination interference in the fraction of the genome that is tightly linked to the integration site. To identify additional loci that contribute to adaptive differences, we examined orthologous genes in species of Enterobacteriaceae to identify significant differences in the degree of codon selection. Significance was assessed using the Adaptive Codon Enrichment metric, which accounts for the variation in codon usage bias that is expected to arise from mutation and drift; large differences in codon usage bias were identified in more genes than would be expected to arise from stochastic processes alone. Genes in the same operon showed parallel differences in codon usage bias, suggesting that changes in the overall levels of gene expression led to changes in the degree of adaptive codon usage. Most significant differences between orthologous operons were found among those involved with specific environmental adaptations, whereas "housekeeping" genes rarely showed significant changes. When considered together, the loci experiencing significant changes in codon selection outnumber potentially adaptive gene acquisition events. The identity of genes under strong codon selection seems to be influenced by the habitat from which the bacteria were isolated. We propose a two-stage model for how adaptation to different selective regimes can drive bacterial speciation. Initially, gene acquisitions catalyze rapid ecological differentiation, which modifies the utilization of genes, thereby changing the strength of codon selection on them. Alleles develop fitness variation by substitution, producing recombination interference at these loci in addition to those flanking acquired genes, allowing sequences to diverge across the entire genome and establishing genetic isolation (i.e., protection from frequent homologous recombination). PMID:22740635

  10. Genome-Wide Patterns of Codon Bias Are Shaped by Natural Selection in the Purple Sea Urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus

    PubMed Central

    Kober, Kord M.; Pogson, Grant H.

    2013-01-01

    Codon usage bias has been documented in a wide diversity of species, but the relative contributions of mutational bias and various forms of natural selection remain unclear. Here, we describe for the first time genome-wide patterns of codon bias at 4623 genes in the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Preferred codons were identified at 18 amino acids that exclusively used G or C at third positions, which contrasted with the strong AT bias of the genome (overall GC content is 36.9%). The GC content of third positions and coding regions exhibited significant correlations with the magnitude of codon bias. In contrast, the GC content of introns and flanking regions was indistinguishable from the genome-wide background, which suggested a limited contribution of mutational bias to synonymous codon usage. Five distinct clusters of genes were identified that had significantly different synonymous codon usage patterns. A significant correlation was observed between codon bias and mRNA expression supporting translational selection, but this relationship was driven by only one highly biased cluster that represented only 8.6% of all genes. In all five clusters preferred codons were evolutionarily conserved to a similar degree despite differences in their synonymous codon usage distributions and magnitude of codon bias. The third positions of preferred codons in two codon usage groups also paired significantly more often in stems than in loops of mRNA secondary structure predictions, which suggested that codon bias might also affect mRNA stability. Our results suggest that mutational bias has played a minor role in determining codon bias in S. purpuratus and that preferred codon usage may be heterogeneous across different genes and subject to different forms of natural selection. PMID:23637123

  11. High codon adaptation in citrus tristeza virus to its citrus host

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the genus Closterovirus within the family Closteroviridae, is the causal agent of citrus tristeza disease. Previous studies revealed that the negative selection, RNA recombination and gene flow were the most important forces that drove CTV evolution. However, the CTV codon usage was not studied and thus its role in CTV evolution remains unknown. Results A detailed comparative analysis of CTV codon usage pattern was done in this study. Results of the study show that although in general CTV does not have a high degree of codon usage bias, the codon usage of CTV has a high level of resemblance to its host codon usage. In addition, our data indicate that the codon usage resemblance is only observed for the woody plant-infecting closteroviruses but not the closteroviruses infecting the herbaceous host plants, suggesting the existence of different virus-host interactions between the herbaceous plant-infecting and woody plant-infecting closteroviruses. Conclusion Based on the results, we suggest that in addition to RNA recombination, negative selection and gene flow, host plant codon usage selection can also affect CTV evolution. PMID:22698086

  12. The Evolution of Codon Preferences in Drosophila: A Maximum-Likelihood Approach to Parameter Estimation and Hypothesis Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilean A. T. McVean; Jorge Vieira

    1999-01-01

    .   Synonymous codon usage in related species may differ as a result of variation in mutation biases, differences in the overall\\u000a strength and efficiency of selection, and shifts in codon preference—the selective hierarchy of codons within and between\\u000a amino acids. We have developed a maximum-likelihood method to employ explicit population genetic models to analyze the evolution\\u000a of parameters determining codon

  13. Enhanced expression of codon optimized Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens in Lactobacillus salivarius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously identified the mycobacterial high G+C codon usage bias as a limiting factor in heterologous expression of MAP proteins from Lb.salivarius, and demonstrated that codon optimisation of a synthetic coding gene greatly enhances MAP protein production. Here, we effectively demonstrate ...

  14. The Effect of Mutation and Selection on Codon Adaptation in Escherichia coli Bacteriophage

    PubMed Central

    Chithambaram, Shivapriya; Prabhakaran, Ramanandan; Xia, Xuhua

    2014-01-01

    Studying phage codon adaptation is important not only for understanding the process of translation elongation, but also for reengineering phages for medical and industrial purposes. To evaluate the effect of mutation and selection on phage codon usage, we developed an index to measure selection imposed by host translation machinery, based on the difference in codon usage between all host genes and highly expressed host genes. We developed linear and nonlinear models to estimate the C?T mutation bias in different phage lineages and to evaluate the relative effect of mutation and host selection on phage codon usage. C?T-biased mutations occur more frequently in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) phages than in double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) phages and affect not only synonymous codon usage, but also nonsynonymous substitutions at second codon positions, especially in ssDNA phages. The host translation machinery affects codon adaptation in both dsDNA and ssDNA phages, with a stronger effect on dsDNA phages than on ssDNA phages. Strand asymmetry with the associated local variation in mutation bias can significantly interfere with codon adaptation in both dsDNA and ssDNA phages. PMID:24583580

  15. Codon bias and frequency-dependent selection on the hemagglutinin epitopes of influenza A virus

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    Codon bias and frequency-dependent selection on the hemagglutinin epitopes of influenza A virus, 2003) Although the surface proteins of human influenza A virus evolve rapidly and continually produce the sequence evolution of three influenza A genes over the past two decades. We study codon usage

  16. Effect of codon-optimized E. coli signal peptides on recombinant Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase periplasmic localization, yield and activity.

    PubMed

    Samant, Shalaka; Gupta, Gunja; Karthikeyan, Subbulakshmi; Haq, Saiful F; Nair, Ayyappan; Sambasivam, Ganesh; Sukumaran, Sunilkumar

    2014-09-01

    Recombinant proteins can be targeted to the Escherichia coli periplasm by fusing them to signal peptides. The popular pET vectors facilitate fusion of target proteins to the PelB signal. A systematic comparison of the PelB signal with native E. coli signal peptides for recombinant protein expression and periplasmic localization is not reported. We chose the Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase (MA), an industrial enzyme widely used in the baking and brewing industry, as a model protein and analyzed the competence of seven, codon-optimized, E. coli signal sequences to translocate MA to the E. coli periplasm compared to PelB. MA fusions to three of the signals facilitated enhanced periplasmic localization of MA compared to the PelB fusion. Interestingly, these three fusions showed greatly improved MA yields and between 18- and 50-fold improved amylase activities compared to the PelB fusion. Previously, non-optimal codon usage in native E. coli signal peptide sequences has been reported to be important for protein stability and activity. Our results suggest that E. coli signal peptides with optimal codon usage could also be beneficial for heterologous protein secretion to the periplasm. Moreover, such fusions could even enhance activity rather than diminish it. This effect, to our knowledge has not been previously documented. In addition, the seven vector platform reported here could also be used as a screen to identify the best signal peptide partner for other recombinant targets of interest. PMID:25038884

  17. Addicted and nonaddicted drug users. A comparison of drug usage patterns.

    PubMed

    Nace, E P; Meyers, A L; Rothberg, J M; Maleson, F

    1975-01-01

    Adetailed analysis of drug usage patterns of 101 multidrug-using soldiers disclosed little differentiation between individuals with a history of heroin addiction (N=68) from demographically similar multidrug-using (but nonaddicted) peers (N=33). Prior to the onset of herion addiction, relatively few differences in drug usage patterns emerged between the two groups, and what differences there were indicated more extensive drug use and a more rapid progression of drug use among the nonaddicted users. A "stepping-stone hypothesis" of heroin addiction is refuted by these data. Differences in drug use emerge after the intiation of heroin. Within a few months after first heroin use, those who did not become addicted returned to their preheroin experimentation levels of drug taking while the addicted group maintained an escalating pattern of opiate use. PMID:1111478

  18. A comparison of two methods to assess the usage of mobile hand-held communication devices.

    PubMed

    Berolo, Sophia; Steenstra, Ivan; Amick, Benjamin C; Wells, Richard P

    2015-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to: 1) examine agreement between self-reported measures of mobile device use and direct measures of use, and 2) understand how respondents thought about their device use when they provided self-reports. Self-reports of six categories of device use were obtained using a previously developed questionnaire, and direct measures of use were collected using a custom logging application (n = 47). Bland-Altman analyses were used to examine agreement between the two measurement approaches. Interviews targeted participants' experiences completing the device use section of the questionnaire. Self-reports of use on a typical day last week overestimated logged use. Overestimates tended to be low at low average usage times, and became more variable as usage time increased. Self-reports of use yesterday also exceeded logged use, however the degree of overestimation was less than for a typical day last week. Six themes were identified from interviews, including the thought process used by participants to arrive at usage and the ease of reporting usage. It is challenging for respondents of this questionnaire to provide accurate self-reports of use. The source of this challenge may be attributed to the intrinsic difficulty of estimating use, partly due to the multiple functions of the devices as well as the variability of use both within a day and a week. Research investigating the relationship between device use and health outcomes should include a logging application to examine exposure simultaneously with self-reports to better understand the sources of hazardous exposures. PMID:25436479

  19. Expression of Human nPTB Is Limited by Extreme Suboptimal Codon Content

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Fiona; Jackson, Richard J.; Smith, Christopher W. J.

    2008-01-01

    Background The frequency of synonymous codon usage varies widely between organisms. Suboptimal codon content limits expression of viral, experimental or therapeutic heterologous proteins due to limiting cognate tRNAs. Codon content is therefore often adjusted to match codon bias of the host organism. Codon content also varies between genes within individual mammalian species. However, little attention has been paid to the consequences of codon content upon translation of host proteins. Methodology/Principal Findings In comparing the splicing repressor activities of transfected human PTB and its two tissue-restricted paralogs–nPTB and ROD1–we found that the three proteins were expressed at widely varying levels. nPTB was expressed at 1–3% the level of PTB despite similar levels of mRNA expression and 74% amino acid identity. The low nPTB expression was due to the high proportion of codons with A or U at the third codon position, which are suboptimal in human mRNAs. Optimization of the nPTB codon content, akin to the “humanization” of foreign ORFs, allowed efficient translation in vivo and in vitro to levels comparable with PTB. We were then able to demonstrate that all three proteins act as splicing repressors. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide a striking illustration of the importance of mRNA codon content in determining levels of protein expression, even within cells of the natural host species. PMID:18335065

  20. Measurement of average decoding rates of the 61 sense codons in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gardin, Justin; Yeasmin, Rukhsana; Yurovsky, Alisa; Cai, Ying; Skiena, Steve; Futcher, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Most amino acids can be encoded by several synonymous codons, which are used at unequal frequencies. The significance of unequal codon usage remains unclear. One hypothesis is that frequent codons are translated relatively rapidly. However, there is little direct, in vivo, evidence regarding codon-specific translation rates. In this study, we generate high-coverage data using ribosome profiling in yeast, analyze using a novel algorithm, and deduce events at the A- and P-sites of the ribosome. Different codons are decoded at different rates in the A-site. In general, frequent codons are decoded more quickly than rare codons, and AT-rich codons are decoded more quickly than GC-rich codons. At the P-site, proline is slow in forming peptide bonds. We also apply our algorithm to short footprints from a different conformation of the ribosome and find strong amino acid-specific (not codon-specific) effects that may reflect interactions with the exit tunnel of the ribosome. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03735.001 PMID:25347064

  1. Synonymous Codon Choices in the Extremely GC-Poor Genome of Plasmodium falciparum: Compositional Constraints and Translational Selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Héctor Musto; Héctor Romero; Alejandro Zavala; Kamel Jabbari; Giorgio Bernardi

    1999-01-01

    .   We have analyzed the patterns of synonymous codon preferences of the nuclear genes of Plasmodium falciparum, a unicellular parasite characterized by an extremely GC-poor genome. When all genes are considered, codon usage is strongly\\u000a biased toward A and T in third codon positions, as expected, but multivariate statistical analysis detects a major trend among\\u000a genes. At one end genes

  2. Cue usage in volleyball: a time course comparison of elite, intermediate and novice female players.

    PubMed

    Vansteenkiste, P; Vaeyens, R; Zeuwts, L; Philippaerts, R; Lenoir, M

    2014-12-01

    This study compared visual search strategies in adult female volleyball players of three levels. Video clips of the attack of the opponent team were presented on a large screen and participants reacted to the final pass before the spike. Reaction time, response accuracy and eye movement patterns were measured. Elite players had the highest response accuracy (97.50 ± 3.5%) compared to the intermediate (91.50 ± 4.7%) and novice players (83.50 ± 17.6%; p<0.05). Novices had a remarkably high range of reaction time but no significant differences were found in comparison to the reaction time of elite and intermediate players. In general, the three groups showed similar gaze behaviour with the apparent use of visual pivots at moments of reception and final pass. This confirms the holistic model of image perception for volleyball and suggests that expert players extract more information from parafoveal regions. PMID:25609887

  3. CUE USAGE IN VOLLEYBALL: A TIME COURSE COMPARISON OF ELITE, INTERMEDIATE AND NOVICE FEMALE PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Vaeyens, R; Zeuwts, L; Philippaerts, R; Lenoir, M

    2014-01-01

    This study compared visual search strategies in adult female volleyball players of three levels. Video clips of the attack of the opponent team were presented on a large screen and participants reacted to the final pass before the spike. Reaction time, response accuracy and eye movement patterns were measured. Elite players had the highest response accuracy (97.50 ± 3.5%) compared to the intermediate (91.50 ± 4.7%) and novice players (83.50 ± 17.6%; p<0.05). Novices had a remarkably high range of reaction time but no significant differences were found in comparison to the reaction time of elite and intermediate players. In general, the three groups showed similar gaze behaviour with the apparent use of visual pivots at moments of reception and final pass. This confirms the holistic model of image perception for volleyball and suggests that expert players extract more information from parafoveal regions. PMID:25609887

  4. Kenyan medicinal plants used as antivenin: a comparison of plant usage

    PubMed Central

    Owuor, Bethwell O; Kisangau, Daniel P

    2006-01-01

    The success of snake bite healers is vaguely understood in Kenya, partly due to their unknown materia medica and occult-mystical nature of their practice. A comparison is made of plants used in snake bite treatments by two culturally distinct African groups (the Kamba and Luo). Thirty two plants used for snakebite treatment are documented. The majority of the antidotes are prepared from freshly collected plant material – frequently leaves. Though knowledge of snake bite conditions etiological perceptions of the ethnic groups is similar, field ethnobotanical data suggests that plant species used by the two ethnic groups are independently derived. Antivenin medicinal plants effectively illustrate the cultural context of medicine. Randomness or the use of a variety of species in different families appears to be a feature of traditional snake bite treatments. A high degree of informant consensus for the species was observed. The study indicates rural Kenya inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for healthcare. PMID:16451723

  5. Positive selection for unpreferred codon usage in eukaryotic genomes

    E-print Network

    Neafsey, Daniel E.

    Background: Natural selection has traditionally been understood as a force responsible for pushing genes to states of higher translational efficiency, whereas lower translational efficiency has been explained by neutral ...

  6. Use and misuse of correspondence analysis in codon usage studies

    E-print Network

    Thioulouse, Jean

    to study species like Escherichia coli (2,3), Bacillus subtilis (4±8), Borrelia burgdorferi (9, occasionally resulting in interpretation errors. For instance, in the case of an organism such as Borrelia burgdorferi, the use of relative measures led to the conclusion that there was no translational selection

  7. Selection on synonymous codons in mammalian rhodopsins: a possible role in optimizing translational processes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Synonymous codon usage can affect many cellular processes, particularly those associated with translation such as polypeptide elongation and folding, mRNA degradation/stability, and splicing. Highly expressed genes are thought to experience stronger selection pressures on synonymous codons. This should result in codon usage bias even in species with relatively low effective population sizes, like mammals, where synonymous site selection is thought to be weak. Here we use phylogenetic codon-based likelihood models to explore patterns of codon usage bias in a dataset of 18 mammalian rhodopsin sequences, the protein mediating the first step in vision in the eye, and one of the most highly expressed genes in vertebrates. We use these patterns to infer selection pressures on key translational mechanisms including polypeptide elongation, protein folding, mRNA stability, and splicing. Results Overall, patterns of selection in mammalian rhodopsin appear to be correlated with post-transcriptional and translational processes. We found significant evidence for selection at synonymous sites using phylogenetic mutation-selection likelihood models, with C-ending codons found to have the highest relative fitness, and to be significantly more abundant at conserved sites. In general, these codons corresponded with the most abundant tRNAs in mammals. We found significant differences in codon usage bias between rhodopsin loops versus helices, though there was no significant difference in mean synonymous substitution rate between these motifs. We also found a significantly higher proportion of GC-ending codons at paired sites in rhodopsin mRNA secondary structure, and significantly lower synonymous mutation rates in putative exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) regions than in non-ESE regions. Conclusions By focusing on a single highly expressed gene we both distinguish synonymous codon selection from mutational effects and analytically explore underlying functional mechanisms. Our results suggest that codon bias in mammalian rhodopsin arises from selection to optimally balance high overall translational speed, accuracy, and proper protein folding, especially in structurally complicated regions. Selection at synonymous sites may also be contributing to mRNA stability and splicing efficiency at exonic-splicing-enhancer (ESE) regions. Our results highlight the importance of investigating highly expressed genes in a broader phylogenetic context in order to better understand the evolution of synonymous substitutions. PMID:24884412

  8. Inducible suppression of global translation by overuse of rare codons.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hideki

    2015-04-01

    Recently, artificial gene networks have been developed in synthetic biology to control gene expression and make organisms as controllable as robots. Here, I present an artificial posttranslational gene-silencing system based on the codon usage bias and low tRNA content corresponding to minor codons. I engineered the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene to inhibit translation indirectly with the lowest-usage codons to monopolize various minor tRNAs (lgfp). The expression of lgfp interfered nonspecifically with the growth of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, human HeLa cervical cancer cells, MCF7 breast cancer cells, and HEK293 kidney cells, as well as phage and adenovirus expansion. Furthermore, insertion of lgfp downstream of a phage response promoter conferred phage resistance on E. coli. Such engineered gene silencers could act as components of biological networks capable of functioning with suitable promoters in E. coli, S. cerevisiae, and human cells to control gene expression. The results presented here show general suppressor artificial genes for live cells and viruses. This robust system provides a gene expression or cell growth control device for artificially synthesized gene networks. PMID:25636849

  9. Computational codon optimization of synthetic gene for protein expression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The construction of customized nucleic acid sequences allows us to have greater flexibility in gene design for recombinant protein expression. Among the various parameters considered for such DNA sequence design, individual codon usage (ICU) has been implicated as one of the most crucial factors affecting mRNA translational efficiency. However, previous works have also reported the significant influence of codon pair usage, also known as codon context (CC), on the level of protein expression. Results In this study, we have developed novel computational procedures for evaluating the relative importance of optimizing ICU and CC for enhancing protein expression. By formulating appropriate mathematical expressions to quantify the ICU and CC fitness of a coding sequence, optimization procedures based on genetic algorithm were employed to maximize its ICU and/or CC fitness. Surprisingly, the in silico validation of the resultant optimized DNA sequences for Escherichia coli, Lactococcus lactis, Pichia pastoris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggests that CC is a more relevant design criterion than the commonly considered ICU. Conclusions The proposed CC optimization framework can complement and enhance the capabilities of current gene design tools, with potential applications to heterologous protein production and even vaccine development in synthetic biotechnology. PMID:23083100

  10. Inducible Suppression of Global Translation by Overuse of Rare Codons

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recently, artificial gene networks have been developed in synthetic biology to control gene expression and make organisms as controllable as robots. Here, I present an artificial posttranslational gene-silencing system based on the codon usage bias and low tRNA content corresponding to minor codons. I engineered the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene to inhibit translation indirectly with the lowest-usage codons to monopolize various minor tRNAs (lgfp). The expression of lgfp interfered nonspecifically with the growth of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, human HeLa cervical cancer cells, MCF7 breast cancer cells, and HEK293 kidney cells, as well as phage and adenovirus expansion. Furthermore, insertion of lgfp downstream of a phage response promoter conferred phage resistance on E. coli. Such engineered gene silencers could act as components of biological networks capable of functioning with suitable promoters in E. coli, S. cerevisiae, and human cells to control gene expression. The results presented here show general suppressor artificial genes for live cells and viruses. This robust system provides a gene expression or cell growth control device for artificially synthesized gene networks. PMID:25636849

  11. A Rev-Independent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV1)Based Vector That Exploits a Codon-Optimized HIV1 gag-pol Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EKATERINI KOTSOPOULOU; V. NARRY KIM; ALAN J. KINGSMAN; SUSAN M. KINGSMAN; KYRIACOS A. MITROPHANOUS

    2000-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genome is AU rich, and this imparts a codon bias that is quite different from the one used by human genes. The codon usage is particularly marked for the gag, pol, and env genes. Interestingly, the expression of these genes is dependent on the presence of the Rev\\/Rev-responsive element (RRE) regulatory system, even in contexts

  12. A Comparison of the Usage of Tablet PC, Lecture Capture, and Online Homework in an Introductory Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revell, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Three emerging technologies were used in a large introductory chemistry class: a tablet PC, a lecture capture and replay software program, and an online homework program. At the end of the semester, student usage of the lecture replay and online homework systems was compared to course performance as measured by course grade and by a standardized…

  13. Comparison of Turkish and US Pre-Service Teachers' Web 2.0 Tools Usage Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiyici, Mubin; Akyeampong, Albert; Balkan Kiyici, Fatime

    2013-01-01

    As the Internet and computer develop, the world is changing dramatically and fantastically. Usage of technological tools is increased day by day in daily life besides ICT. All the technological tools shape individual behavior, life style and learning style as well as individual lives. Today's child use different tools and different way to…

  14. Worksheet Usage, Reading Achievement, Classes' Lack of Readiness, and Science Achievement: A Cross-Country Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Che-Di

    2014-01-01

    Instructional written materials play important roles as teachers' agents in effective teaching practices. Worksheets are one of the most frequently used materials. In this exploratory study, the relationships between worksheet usage and science achievement in 32 countries were examined through the use of TIMSS and PIRLS data and multiple…

  15. Gene expression level influences amino acid usage, but not codon usage, in the tsetse fly

    E-print Network

    Herbeck, Joshua

    endosymbiont Wigglesworthia Joshua T. Herbeck,1 Dennis P. Wall2 and Jennifer J. Wernegreen1 Correspondence and Evolution, Marine Biological Laboratory, 7 MBL Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA 2 Department of Biological

  16. Phylogenetic inference with weighted codon evolutionary distances.

    PubMed

    Criscuolo, Alexis; Michel, Christian J

    2009-04-01

    We develop a new approach to estimate a matrix of pairwise evolutionary distances from a codon-based alignment based on a codon evolutionary model. The method first computes a standard distance matrix for each of the three codon positions. Then these three distance matrices are weighted according to an estimate of the global evolutionary rate of each codon position and averaged into a unique distance matrix. Using a large set of both real and simulated codon-based alignments of nucleotide sequences, we show that this approach leads to distance matrices that have a significantly better treelikeness compared to those obtained by standard nucleotide evolutionary distances. We also propose an alternative weighting to eliminate the part of the noise often associated with some codon positions, particularly the third position, which is known to induce a fast evolutionary rate. Simulation results show that fast distance-based tree reconstruction algorithms on distance matrices based on this codon position weighting can lead to phylogenetic trees that are at least as accurate as, if not better, than those inferred by maximum likelihood. Finally, a well-known multigene dataset composed of eight yeast species and 106 codon-based alignments is reanalyzed and shows that our codon evolutionary distances allow building a phylogenetic tree which is similar to those obtained by non-distance-based methods (e.g., maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood) and also significantly improved compared to standard nucleotide evolutionary distance estimates. PMID:19308635

  17. A study of the purine/pyrimidine codon occurrence with a reduced centered variable and an evaluation compared to the frequency statistic.

    PubMed

    Michel, C J

    1989-12-01

    With the three-letter alphabet [R,Y,N] (R = purine, Y = pyrimidine, N = R or Y), there are 26 codons (NNN being excluded): RNN,...,NNY (six codons at two unspecified bases N), RRN,...,NYY (12 codons at one unspecified base N), RRR,...,YYY (eight specified codons). A statistical methodology that uses the codon frequency and a reduced centered variable leads to similar results for a codon occurrence study, regardless of gene function and regardless of a particular protein coding gene taxonomic population. Therefore, this variable can be considered a new codon usage index, whose use removes certain nonsignificant results found with the frequency statistic. This methodology identifies the common and rare codons (i.e., the codons having the highest and lowest occurrence) and leads to a model of codon evolution at three successive states: RNN, then RNY, and finally RYY. Some biological relations between this model and the YRY(N)6YRY preferential occurrence are also presented. PMID:2520209

  18. Evaluation of Codon Biology in Citrus and Poncirus trifoliata Based on Genomic Features and Frame Corrected Expressed Sequence Tags

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Touqeer; Sablok, Gaurav; Tatarinova, Tatiana V.; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2013-01-01

    Citrus, as one of the globally important fruit trees, has been an object of interest for understanding genetics and evolutionary process in fruit crops. Meta-analyses of 19 Citrus species, including 4 globally and economically important Citrus sinensis, Citrus clementina, Citrus reticulata, and 1 Citrus relative Poncirus trifoliata, were performed. We observed that codons ending with A- or T- at the wobble position were preferred in contrast to C- or G- ending codons, indicating a close association with AT richness of Citrus species and P. trifoliata. The present study postulates a large repertoire of a set of optimal codons for the Citrus genus and P. trifoliata and demonstrates that GCT and GGT are evolutionary conserved optimal codons. Our observation suggested that mutational bias is the dominating force in shaping the codon usage bias (CUB) in Citrus and P. trifoliata. Correspondence analysis (COA) revealed that the principal axis [axis 1; COA/relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU)] contributes only a minor portion (?10.96%) of the recorded variance. In all analysed species, except P. trifoliata, Gravy and aromaticity played minor roles in resolving CUB. Compositional constraints were found to be strongly associated with the amino acid signatures in Citrus species and P. trifoliata. Our present analysis postulates compositional constraints in Citrus species and P. trifoliata and plausible role of the stress with GC3 and coevolution pattern of amino acid. PMID:23315666

  19. Investigations of Oligonucleotide Usage Variance Within and Between Prokaryotes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Bohlin; Eystein Skjerve; David W. Ussery

    2008-01-01

    Oligonucleotide usage in archaeal and bacterial genomes can be linked to a number of properties, including codon usage (trinucleotides), DNA base-stacking energy (dinucleotides), and DNA structural conformation (di- to tetranucleotides). We wanted to assess the statistical information potential of different DNA ‘word-sizes’ and explore how oligonucleotide frequencies differ in coding and non-coding regions. In addition, we used oligonucleotide frequencies to

  20. Investigations of Oligonucleotide Usage Variance Within and Between Prokaryotes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Bohlin; Eystein Skjerve; David W. Ussery

    2008-01-01

    Oligonucleotide usage in archaeal and bacterial genomes can be linked to a number of properties, including codon usage (trinucleotides), DNA base-stacking energy (dinucleotides), and DNA structural conformation (di- to tetranucleotides). We wanted to assess the statistical information potential of different DNA 'word-sizes' and explore how oligonucleotide frequencies differ in coding and non-coding regions. In addition, we used oligonucleotide frequencies to

  1. Comparison between oral and vaginal estrogen usage in inadequate endometrial patients for frozen-thawed blastocysts transfer

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xiuhua; Li, Zhou; Dong, Xiyuan; Zhang, Hanwang

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial preparation with exogenous estrogen is a common practice in frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of two endometrial preparation groups, oral estradiol valerate tablets (OEV) group versus vaginal estradiol (VE) tablets group, in inadequate endometrium patients. This retrospective, single-center, cohort study of patients undergoing FET treatment between Jan. 2012 and Jun. 2013, at an academic IVF center, included 247 patients (cycles) with endometrial thickness < 8 mm on day 13 of the hormone replacement cycle: OEV group included 69 patients (cycles) who received continuous OEV from day 1 onwards up to the day of progesterone supplement, while VE group included 178 patients (cycles) who taken OEV from day 1 to day 12, and used VE tablets from day 13 till the day of progesterone supplement. Patients in VE group required more days and higher dosage of estradiol, but had thinner endometrium on the day of transfer. However, the increase of endometrial thickness was more, when compared to OEV-treated patients. The implantation rate and pregnancy rate were, though not significantly, higher in VE group. Conclusions: Longer time of administration and higher dosage of estradiol usage did not have adverse effects on the clinical pregnancy rate. VE tablets may promote endometrial development and pregnancy success in FET cycles could not verify. Further study is needed to confirm the vaginal estradiol action on frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles. PMID:25400786

  2. A condition-specific codon optimization approach for improved heterologous gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Heterologous gene expression is an important tool for synthetic biology that enables metabolic engineering and the production of non-natural biologics in a variety of host organisms. The translational efficiency of heterologous genes can often be improved by optimizing synonymous codon usage to better match the host organism. However, traditional approaches for optimization neglect to take into account many factors known to influence synonymous codon distributions. Results Here we define an alternative approach for codon optimization that utilizes systems level information and codon context for the condition under which heterologous genes are being expressed. Furthermore, we utilize a probabilistic algorithm to generate multiple variants of a given gene. We demonstrate improved translational efficiency using this condition-specific codon optimization approach with two heterologous genes, the fluorescent protein-encoding eGFP and the catechol 1,2-dioxygenase gene CatA, expressed in S. cerevisiae. For the latter case, optimization for stationary phase production resulted in nearly 2.9-fold improvements over commercial gene optimization algorithms. Conclusions Codon optimization is now often a standard tool for protein expression, and while a variety of tools and approaches have been developed, they do not guarantee improved performance for all hosts of applications. Here, we suggest an alternative method for condition-specific codon optimization and demonstrate its utility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a proof of concept. However, this technique should be applicable to any organism for which gene expression data can be generated and is thus of potential interest for a variety of applications in metabolic and cellular engineering. PMID:24636000

  3. Comparative study of codon substitution patterns in foot-and-mouth disease virus (serotype O)

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Insung; Bae, Se-Eun

    2011-01-01

    We compared genetic variations in the VP1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) isolated since 2000 from various region of the world. We analyzed relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) and phylogenetic relationship between geographical regions, and calculated the genetic substitution patterns between Korean isolate and those from other countries. We calculated the ratios of synonymously substituted codons (SSC) to all observed substitutions and developed a new analytical parameter, EMC (the ratio of exact matching codons within each synonymous substitution group) to investigate more detailed substitution patterns within each synonymous codon group. We observed that FMDVs showed distinct RSCU patterns according to phylogenetic relationships in the same serotype (serotype O). Moreover, while the SSC and EMC values of FMDVs decreased according to phylogenetic distance, G + C composition at the third codon position was strictly conserved. Although there was little variation among the SSC values of 18 amino acids, more dynamic differences were observed in EMC values. The EMC values of 4- and 6-fold degenerate amino acids showed significantly lower values while most 2-fold degenerate amino acids showed no significant difference. Our findings suggest that different EMC patterns among the 18 amino acids might be an important factor in determining the direction of evolution in FMDV. PMID:21825834

  4. Transfer RNA misidentification scrambles sense codon recoding

    PubMed Central

    Krishnakumar, Radha; Prat, Laure; Aerni, Hans; Ling, Jiqiang; Merryman, Chuck

    2013-01-01

    Sense codon recoding is the basis for genetic code expansion with more than two different noncanonical amino acids. It requires an unused or rarely used codon, and an orthogonal tRNA synthetase:tRNA pair with the complementary anticodon. Mycoplasma capricolum contains only 6 CGG arginine codons without a dedicated tRNAArg. We wanted to reassign this codon to pyrrolysine by providing M. capricolum with pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase, a synthetic tRNA with a CCG anticodon (tRNAPylCCG), and the genes for pyrrolysine biosynthesis. Here we show that tRNAPylCCG is efficiently recognized by the endogenous arginyl-tRNA synthetase, presumably at the anticodon. Mass spectrometry reveals that in the presence of tRNAPylCCG, CGG codons are translated as arginine. This result is not unexpected as most tRNA synthetases use the anticodon as a recognition element. The data suggest that tRNA misidentification by endogenous aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases needs to be overcome for sense codon recoding. PMID:24000185

  5. Most Used Codons per Amino Acid and per Genome in the Code of Man Compared to Other Organisms According to the Rotating Circular Genetic Code

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Chavez, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    My previous theoretical research shows that the rotating circular genetic code is a viable tool to make easier to distinguish the rules of variation applied to the amino acid exchange; it presents a precise and positional bio-mathematical balance of codons, according to the amino acids they codify. Here, I demonstrate that when using the conventional or classic circular genetic code, a clearer pattern for the human codon usage per amino acid and per genome emerges. The most used human codons per amino acid were the ones ending with the three hydrogen bond nucleotides: C for 12 amino acids and G for the remaining 8, plus one codon for arginine ending in A that was used approximately with the same frequency than the one ending in G for this same amino acid (plus *). The most used codons in man fall almost all the time at the rightmost position, clockwise, ending either in C or in G within the circular genetic code. The human codon usage per genome is compared to other organisms such as fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), squid (Loligo pealei), and many others. The biosemiotic codon usage of each genomic population or ‘Theme’ is equated to a ‘molecular language’. The C/U choice or difference, and the G/A difference in the third nucleotide of the most used codons per amino acid are illustrated by comparing the most used codons per genome in humans and squids. The human distribution in the third position of most used codons is a 12-8-2, C-G-A, nucleotide ending signature, while the squid distribution in the third position of most used codons was an odd, or uneven, distribution in the third position of its most used codons: 13-6-3, U-A-G, as its nucleotide ending signature. These findings may help to design computational tools to compare human genomes, to determine the exchangeability between compatible codons and amino acids, and for the early detection of incompatible changes leading to hereditary diseases. PMID:22997484

  6. Ancestral Inference and the Study of Codon Bias Evolution: Implications for Molecular Evolutionary Analyses of the Drosophila melanogaster Subgroup

    PubMed Central

    Akashi, Hiroshi; Goel, Piyush; John, Anoop

    2007-01-01

    Reliable inference of ancestral sequences can be critical to identifying both patterns and causes of molecular evolution. Robustness of ancestral inference is often assumed among closely related species, but tests of this assumption have been limited. Here, we examine the performance of inference methods for data simulated under scenarios of codon bias evolution within the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup. Genome sequence data for multiple, closely related species within this subgroup make it an important system for studying molecular evolutionary genetics. The effects of asymmetric and lineage-specific substitution rates (i.e., varying levels of codon usage bias and departures from equilibrium) on the reliability of ancestral codon usage was investigated. Maximum parsimony inference, which has been widely employed in analyses of Drosophila codon bias evolution, was compared to an approach that attempts to account for uncertainty in ancestral inference by weighting ancestral reconstructions by their posterior probabilities. The latter approach employs maximum likelihood estimation of rate and base composition parameters. For equilibrium and most non-equilibrium scenarios that were investigated, the probabilistic method appears to generate reliable ancestral codon bias inferences for molecular evolutionary studies within the D. melanogaster subgroup. These reconstructions are more reliable than parsimony inference, especially when codon usage is strongly skewed. However, inference biases are considerable for both methods under particular departures from stationarity (i.e., when adaptive evolution is prevalent). Reliability of inference can be sensitive to branch lengths, asymmetry in substitution rates, and the locations and nature of lineage-specific processes within a gene tree. Inference reliability, even among closely related species, can be strongly affected by (potentially unknown) patterns of molecular evolution in lineages ancestral to those of interest. PMID:17957249

  7. Hand gesture recognition by analysis of codons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandra, Poornima; Shrikhande, Neelima

    2007-09-01

    The problem of recognizing gestures from images using computers can be approached by closely understanding how the human brain tackles it. A full fledged gesture recognition system will substitute mouse and keyboards completely. Humans can recognize most gestures by looking at the characteristic external shape or the silhouette of the fingers. Many previous techniques to recognize gestures dealt with motion and geometric features of hands. In this thesis gestures are recognized by the Codon-list pattern extracted from the object contour. All edges of an image are described in terms of sequence of Codons. The Codons are defined in terms of the relationship between maxima, minima and zeros of curvature encountered as one traverses the boundary of the object. We have concentrated on a catalog of 24 gesture images from the American Sign Language alphabet (Letter J and Z are ignored as they are represented using motion) [2]. The query image given as an input to the system is analyzed and tested against the Codon-lists, which are shape descriptors for external parts of a hand gesture. We have used the Weighted Frequency Indexing Transform (WFIT) approach which is used in DNA sequence matching for matching the Codon-lists. The matching algorithm consists of two steps: 1) the query sequences are converted to short sequences and are assigned weights and, 2) all the sequences of query gestures are pruned into match and mismatch subsequences by the frequency indexing tree based on the weights of the subsequences. The Codon sequences with the most weight are used to determine the most precise match. Once a match is found, the identified gesture and corresponding interpretation are shown as output.

  8. Why has nature invented three stop codons of DNA and only one start codon?

    PubMed

    K?ížek, Michal; K?ížek, Pavel

    2012-07-01

    We examine the standard genetic code with three stop codons. Assuming that the synchronization period of length 3 in DNA or RNA is violated during the transcription or translation processes, the probability of reading a frameshifted stop codon is higher than if the code would have only one stop codon. Consequently, the synthesis of RNA or proteins will soon terminate. In this way, cells do not produce undesirable proteins and essentially save energy. This hypothesis is tested on the AT-rich Drosophila genome, where the detection of frameshifted stop codons is even higher than the theoretical value. Using the binomial theorem, we establish the probability of reading a frameshifted stop codon within n steps. Since the genetic code is largely redundant, there is still space for some hidden secondary functions of this code. In particular, because stop codons do not contain cytosine, random C ? U and C ? T mutations in the third position of codons increase the number of hidden frameshifted stops and simultaneously the same amino acids are coded. This evolutionary advantage is demonstrated on the genomes of several simple species, e.g. Escherichia coli. PMID:22483666

  9. Enhanced expression of codon optimized Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens in Lactobacillus salivarius

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Christopher D.; Bannantine, John P.; Govender, Rodney; Endersen, Lorraine; Pletzer, Daniel; Weingart, Helge; Coffey, Aidan; O'Mahony, Jim; Sleator, Roy D.

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that open reading frames containing high GC content show poor expression in A+T rich hosts. Specifically, G+C-rich codon usage is a limiting factor in heterologous expression of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) proteins using Lactobacillus salivarius. However, re-engineering opening reading frames through synonymous substitutions can offset codon bias and greatly enhance MAP protein production in this host. In this report, we demonstrate that codon-usage manipulation of MAP2121c can enhance the heterologous expression of the major membrane protein (MMP), analogous to the form in which it is produced natively by MAP bacilli. When heterologously over-expressed, antigenic determinants were preserved in synthetic MMP proteins as shown by monoclonal antibody mediated ELISA. Moreover, MMP is a membrane protein in MAP, which is also targeted to the cellular surface of recombinant L. salivarius at levels comparable to MAP. Additionally, we previously engineered MAP3733c (encoding MptD) and show herein that MptD displays the tendency to associate with the cytoplasmic membrane boundary under confocal microscopy and the intracellularly accumulated protein selectively adheres to the MptD-specific bacteriophage fMptD. This work demonstrates there is potential for L. salivarius as a viable antigen delivery vehicle for MAP, which may provide an effective mucosal vaccine against Johne's disease. PMID:25237653

  10. A common periodic table of codons and amino acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Biro; B. Benyo; C. Sansom; Á Szlávecz; G Fördös; T Micsik; Z Benyó

    2003-01-01

    A periodic table of codons has been designed where the codons are in regular locations. The table has four fields (16 places in each) one with each of the four nucleotides (A, U, G, C) in the central codon position. Thus, AAA (lysine), UUU (phenylalanine), GGG (glycine), and CCC (proline) were placed into the corners of the fields as the

  11. CpG Usage in RNA Viruses: Data and Hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiaofei; Virk, Nasar; Chen, Wei; Ji, Shuqin; Ji, Shuxian; Sun, Yuqiang; Wu, Xiaoyun

    2013-01-01

    CpG repression in RNA viruses has been known for decades, but a reasonable explanation has not yet been proposed to explain this phenomenon. In this study, we calculated the CpG odds ratio of all RNA viruses that have available genome sequences and analyzed the correlation with their genome polarity, base composition, synonymous codon usage, phylogenetic relationship, and host. The results indicated that the viral base composition, synonymous codon usage and host selection were the dominant factors that determined the CpG bias in RNA viruses. CpG usage variation between the different viral groups was caused by different combinations of these pressures, which also differed from each other in strength. The consistent under-representation of CpG usage in ?ssRNA viruses is determined predominantly by base composition, which may be a consequence of the U/A preferred mutation bias of ?ssRNA viruses, whereas the CpG usage of +ssRNA viruses is affected greatly by their hosts. As a result, most +ssRNA viruses mimic their hosts' CpG usage. Unbiased CpG usage in dsRNA viruses is most likely a result of their dsRNA genome, which allows the viruses to escape from the host-driven CpG elimination pressure. CpG was under-represented in all reverse-transcribing viruses (RT viruses), suggesting that DNA methylation is an important factor affecting the CpG usage of retroviruses. However, vertebrate-infecting RT viruses may also suffer host' CpG elimination pressure that also acts on +ssRNA viruses, which results in further under-representation of CpG in the vertebrate-infecting RT viruses. PMID:24086312

  12. Genetic polymorphism near HIV-1 reverse transcriptase resistance-associated codons is a major obstacle for the line probe assay as an alternative method to sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Koch, N; Yahi, N; Colson, P; Fantini, J; Tamalet, C

    1999-06-01

    The performance of the line probe assay (LIPA) for the detection of mutations conferring resistance to nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase was evaluated in comparison with sequence analysis. The tests were undertaken on plasma samples from 63 patients (61 receiving combination therapy and 2 without treatment at the time of inclusion). In 27 cases (43%) which included codons 41, 69, 70, 74, 184 and 215, the sequence of the RT gene was distinct from the hybridization probes used in LIPA. Correspondingly, LIPA gave uninterpretable results in 15, 30 and 41% of cases for codons 184, 215 and 41, respectively. Overall, the concordance between LIPA and sequence analysis varied from 52% (codons 41 and 215) to 85% (codon 70). These data show that the polymorphism of the nucleotide sequence near resistance-associated codons is a major shortcoming of LIPA. PMID:10403673

  13. Codon optimization of genes for efficient protein expression in mammalian cells by selection of only preferred human codons.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Satoshi; Sahara-Miura, Yuiko; Sato, Jun-Ichi; Suzuki, Takahiro

    2015-05-01

    A simple design method for codon optimization of genes to express a heterologous protein in mammalian cells is described. Codon optimization was performed by choosing only codons preferentially used in humans and with over 60% GC content, and the method was named the "preferred human codon-optimized method." To test our simple rule for codon optimization, the preferred human codon-optimized genes for six proteins containing photoproteins (aequorin and clytin II) and luciferases (Gaussia luciferase, Renilla luciferase, and firefly luciferases from Photinus pyralis and Luciola cruciata) were chemically synthesized and transiently expressed in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells. All preferred human codon-optimized genes showed higher luminescence activity than the corresponding wild-type genes. Our simple design method could be used to improve protein expression in mammalian cells efficiently. PMID:25665506

  14. Changes in Word Usage Frequency May Hamper Intergenerational Comparisons of Vocabulary Skills: An Ngram Analysis of Wordsum, WAIS, and WISC Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2014-01-01

    Research on secular trends in mean intelligence test scores shows smaller gains in vocabulary skills than in nonverbal reasoning. One possible explanation is that vocabulary test items become outdated faster compared to nonverbal tasks. The history of the usage frequency of the words on five popular vocabulary tests, the GSS Wordsum, Wechsler…

  15. Codon-by-Codon Modulation of Translational Speed and Accuracy Via mRNA Folding

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Rong; Chen, Xiaoshu; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2014-01-01

    Rapid cell growth demands fast protein translational elongation to alleviate ribosome shortage. However, speedy elongation undermines translational accuracy because of a mechanistic tradeoff. Here we provide genomic evidence in budding yeast and mouse embryonic stem cells that the efficiency–accuracy conflict is alleviated by slowing down the elongation at structurally or functionally important residues to ensure their translational accuracies while sacrificing the accuracy for speed at other residues. Our computational analysis in yeast with codon resolution suggests that mRNA secondary structures serve as elongation brakes to control the speed and hence the fidelity of protein translation. The position-specific effect of mRNA folding on translational accuracy is further demonstrated experimentally by swapping synonymous codons in a yeast transgene. Our findings explain why highly expressed genes tend to have strong mRNA folding, slow translational elongation, and conserved protein sequences. The exquisite codon-by-codon translational modulation uncovered here is a testament to the power of natural selection in mitigating efficiency–accuracy conflicts, which are prevalent in biology. PMID:25051069

  16. Therapeutic vaccination with Salmonella-delivered codon-optimized outer inflammatory protein DNA vaccine enhances protection in Helicobacter pylori infected mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiansen; Lin, Miaoduan; Li, Neng; Lin, Liping; She, Feifei

    2012-08-01

    Vaccination had demonstrated as an alternative way to combat Helicobacter pylori challenge. In the present study, codon-optimized outer inflammatory protein gene (oipA) for Mus species codon usage, the inclusion of optimal Kozak sequence, and modified of GC content was applied to construct a novel DNA construct. The Salmonella-delivered wild type oipA construct (SL7207/poipA) and the Salmonella-delivered codon-optimized oipA construct (SL7207/poipA-opt) were prepared and their therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in H. pylori-infected mice. The codon-optimized oipA construct (poipA-opt) expressed almost six-fold higher protein than that of wild type construct (poipA) as normalized to the ?-actin expression in AGS cells. Oral therapeutic immunization with SL7207/poipA-opt significantly eliminated H. pylori colonization in the stomach; and protection was related to a robust Th1/Th2 immune response. Therefore, our results suggested that fine therapeutic efficacy was related to sufficient expression of the antigen. It is supposed that codon-optimized oipA gene improves protein expression and consequently enhances the immunogenicity of DNA vaccine, which resulted in a significant reduction of bacterial loads in H. pylori infected mice. The Salmonella-delivered codon-optimized DNA construct could be a candidate vaccine against H. pylori for the clinical application. PMID:22749593

  17. Amino Acid Usage Is Asymmetrically Biased in AT- and GC-Rich Microbial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Bohlin, Jon; Brynildsrud, Ola; Vesth, Tammi; Skjerve, Eystein; Ussery, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Genomic base composition ranges from less than 25% AT to more than 85% AT in prokaryotes. Since only a small fraction of prokaryotic genomes is not protein coding even a minor change in genomic base composition will induce profound protein changes. We examined how amino acid and codon frequencies were distributed in over 2000 microbial genomes and how these distributions were affected by base compositional changes. In addition, we wanted to know how genome-wide amino acid usage was biased in the different genomes and how changes to base composition and mutations affected this bias. To carry this out, we used a Generalized Additive Mixed-effects Model (GAMM) to explore non-linear associations and strong data dependences in closely related microbes; principal component analysis (PCA) was used to examine genomic amino acid- and codon frequencies, while the concept of relative entropy was used to analyze genomic mutation rates. Results We found that genomic amino acid frequencies carried a stronger phylogenetic signal than codon frequencies, but that this signal was weak compared to that of genomic %AT. Further, in contrast to codon usage bias (CUB), amino acid usage bias (AAUB) was differently distributed in AT- and GC-rich genomes in the sense that AT-rich genomes did not prefer specific amino acids over others to the same extent as GC-rich genomes. AAUB was also associated with relative entropy; genomes with low AAUB contained more random mutations as a consequence of relaxed purifying selection than genomes with higher AAUB. Conclusion Genomic base composition has a substantial effect on both amino acid- and codon frequencies in bacterial genomes. While phylogeny influenced amino acid usage more in GC-rich genomes, AT-content was driving amino acid usage in AT-rich genomes. We found the GAMM model to be an excellent tool to analyze the genomic data used in this study. PMID:23922837

  18. Codon usage limitation in the expression of HIV1 envelope glycoprotein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen Haas; Eun-Chung Park; Brian Seed

    1996-01-01

    Background: The expression of both the env and gag gene products of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is known to be limited by cis elements in the viral RNA that impede egress from the nucleus and reduce the efficiency of translation. Identifying these elements has proven difficult, as they appear to be disseminated throughout the viral genome.Results Here, we

  19. TRENDS IN CODON AND AMINO ACID USAGE IN HUMAN PATHOGEN TROPHERYMA WHIPPLEI, THE ONLY KNOWN

    E-print Network

    Wong, Limsoon

    ACTINOBACTERIA WITH REDUCED GENOME SABYASACHI DAS, SANDIP PAUL and CHITRA DUTTA Bioinformatics Centre, Indian multisystemic bacterial infection caused by an intracellular pathogenic actinobacteria Tropheryma whipplei.1

  20. Synonymous codon usage bias and the expression of human glucocerebrosidase in the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham Sinclair; Francis Y. M. Choy

    2002-01-01

    The lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase catalyzes the penultimate step in the breakdown of membrane glycosphingolipids. An inherited deficiency in this enzyme leads to the onset of Gaucher disease, the most common lysosomal storage disorder. Exogenous sources of this protein are required for biochemical and biophysical investigations and enzyme replacement therapy of Gaucher disease. Heterologous expression of glucocerebrosidase has been successful in

  1. Evidence of selectively driven codon usage in rice: Implications for GC content evolution of Gramineae genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xingyi Guo; Jiandong Bao; Longjiang Fan

    2007-01-01

    Two gene classes characterized by high and low GC content have been found in rice and other cereals, but not dicot genomes. We used paralogs with high and low GC contents in rice and found: (a) a greater increase in GC content at exonic fourfold-redundant sites than at flanking introns; (b) with reference to their orthologs in Arabidopsis, most substitution

  2. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL USAGE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report, which summarizes the use of agricultural chemicals is issued by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) as part of its series on Agricultural Chemical Usage. Other publications in the series present statistics for on-farm agricultural chemical usage for f...

  3. Analysis of the use of codon pairs in the HE gene of the ISA virus shows a correlation between bias in HPR codon-pair use and mortality rates caused by the virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Segment 6 of the ISA virus codes for hemoagglutinin-esterase (HE). This segment is highly variable, with more than 26 variants identified. The major variation is observed in what is called the high polymorphism region (HPR). The role of the different HPR zones in the viral cycle or evolution remains unknown. However viruses that present the HPR0 are avirulent, while viruses with important deletions in this region have been responsible for outbreaks with high mortality rates. In this work, using bioinformatic tools, we examined the influence of different HPRs on the adaptation of HE genes to the host translational machinery and the relationship to observed virulence. Methods Translational efficiency of HE genes and their HPR were estimated analyzing codon-pair bias (CPB), adaptation to host codon use (codon adaptation index - CAI) and the adaptation to available tRNAs (tAI). These values were correlated with reported mortality for the respective ISA virus and the ?G of RNA folding. tRNA abundance was inferred from tRNA gene numbers identified in the Salmo salar genome using tRNAScan-SE. Statistical correlation between data was performed using a non-parametric test. Results We found that HPR0 contains zones with codon pairs of low frequency and low availability of tRNA with respect to salmon codon-pair usage, suggesting that HPR modifies HE translational efficiency. Although calculating tAI was impossible because one third of tRNAs (~60.000) were tRNA-ala, translational efficiency measured by CPB shows that as HPR size increases, the CPB value of the HE gene decreases (P = 2x10-7, ? = ?0.675, n = 63) and that these values correlate positively with the mortality rates caused by the virus (? = 0.829, P = 2x10-7, n = 11). The mortality associated with different virus isolates or their corresponding HPR sizes were not related with the ?G of HPR RNA folding, suggesting that the secondary structure of HPR RNA does not modify virulence. Conclusions Our results suggest that HPR size affects the efficiency of gene translation, which modulates the virulence of the virus by a mechanism similar to that observed in production of live attenuated vaccines through deoptimization of codon-pair usage. PMID:23742749

  4. UAG is a sense codon in several chlorophycean mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Hayashi-Ishimaru, Y; Ohama, T; Kawatsu, Y; Nakamura, K; Osawa, S

    1996-06-01

    The mitochondrial genetic code of those land plants and green algae that have been examined does not deviate from the universal one. A red alga, Chondrus crispus, is the sole reported example throughout the algae that uses a deviant (non-universal) mitochondrial genetic code (UGA=Trp). We have analyzed 366-bp DNA sequences of the gene for mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COXI) from ten chlorophyceaen algae, and detected 3-8 in-frame UAG codons in the sequences of five species. Comparisons of these sequences with those of other algae and land plants have shown that most of the UAG sites in Hydrodictyon reticulatum, Pediastrum boryanum and Tetraedron bitridens correspond to alanine, and those of Coelastrum microporum and Scenedesmus quadricauda to leucine. The three species in which UAG probably codes for alanine are characterized by zoospore formation in asexual reproduction and form a clade in the COXI phylogenetic tree. The two species in which UAG codes for leucine are known to form daughter coenobia and pair in the tree. This is the first report on a deviant mitochondrial genetic code in green algae. Mutational change(s) in the release factor corresponding to UAG would be involved in these code changes. No genetic code deviation has been found in five other species examined. PMID:8662206

  5. [Codon optimization and eukaryotic expression analysis of the analgesic peptide gene BmK AngM1 from Buthus martensii Karsch].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-ling; Gao, Li-li; Zhu, Ping; Hou, Qi; Wang, Fen; Yu, Wen-bo; Nie, Tao

    2012-10-01

    Codon bias is an important factor which influences heterologous gene expression. Optimizing codon sequence could improve expression level of heterologous gene. In order to improve the expression level of BmK AngM1 gene encoding the analgesic peptide from Buthus martensii Karsch in Pichia pastoris, the codon-optimized BmK AngM1 gene according to its cDNA sequence and the preference codon usage of P. pastoris were cloned into expression vector pPIC9K and then transformed into P. pastoris. The expersion of recombinant BmK AngM1 (rBmK AngM1) was inducced by methanol in the medium, and the expression level of the optimized BmK AngM1 gene was 3.7 times of the native one. These results suggested that the expression of BmK AngM1 in P. pastoris could be successfully improved by codon optimization. PMID:23289154

  6. MODIS Collection 6 aerosol products: Comparison between Aqua's e-Deep Blue, Dark Target, and "merged" data sets, and usage recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Munchak, L. A.; Hsu, N. C.; Levy, R. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.

    2014-12-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Atmospheres data product suite includes three algorithms applied to retrieve midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD): the Enhanced Deep Blue (DB) and Dark Target (DT) algorithms over land, and a DT over-water algorithm. All three have been refined in the recent "Collection 6" (C6) MODIS reprocessing. In particular, DB has been expanded to cover vegetated land surfaces as well as brighter desert/urban areas. Additionally, a new "merged" data set which draws from all three algorithms is included in the C6 products. This study is intended to act as a point of reference for new and experienced MODIS data users with which to understand the global and regional characteristics of the C6 DB, DT, and merged data sets, based on MODIS Aqua data. This includes validation against Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations at 111 sites, focused toward regional and categorical (surface/aerosol type) analysis. Neither algorithm consistently outperforms the other, although in many cases the retrieved AOD and the level of its agreement with AERONET are very similar. In many regions the DB, DT, and merged data sets are all suitable for quantitative applications, bearing in mind that they cannot be considered independent, while in other cases one algorithm does consistently outperform the other. Usage recommendations and caveats are thus somewhat complicated and regionally dependent.

  7. Dual Accelerometer Usage Strategy for Onboard Space Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato; D'Souza, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This work introduces a dual accelerometer usage strategy for onboard space navigation. In the proposed algorithm the accelerometer is used to propagate the state when its value exceeds a threshold and it is used to estimate its errors otherwise. Numerical examples and comparison to other accelerometer usage schemes are presented to validate the proposed approach.

  8. Evidence of efficient stop codon readthrough in four mammalian genes

    E-print Network

    Loughran, Gary

    Stop codon readthrough is used extensively by viruses to expand their gene expression. Until recent discoveries in Drosophila, only a very limited number of readthrough cases in chromosomal genes had been reported. Analysis ...

  9. Heterologous Stop Codon Readthrough of Metazoan Readthrough Candidates in Yeast

    E-print Network

    Jungreis, Irwin

    Recent analysis of genomic signatures in mammals, flies, and worms indicates that functional translational stop codon readthrough is considerably more abundant in metazoa than previously recognized, but this analysis ...

  10. Towards reassigning the rare AGG codon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yu; Wang, Wei; Liu, Wenshe R

    2014-08-18

    The rare AGG codon in Escherichia coli has been reassigned to code non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) by using the PylRS-tRNA(Pyl)(CCU) pair. When N(?) -alloc-lysine was used as a PylRS substrate, almost quantitative occupancy of N(?) -alloc-lysine at an AGG codon site was achieved in minimal medium. ncAAs can be potentially incorporated at the AGG codon with varying efficiencies, depending on their activities towards corresponding enzymes. As AGG is a sense codon, the approach reported here resolves the typical low ncAA incorporation issue that has been associated with ncAA mutagenesis and therefore allows bulk preparation of proteins with site-selectively incorporated ncAAs for applications such as therapeutic protein production. PMID:25044341

  11. The empirical codon mutation matrix as a communication channel

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A number of evolutionary models have been widely used for sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree reconstruction, and database searches. These models focus on how sets of independent substitutions between amino acids or codons derive one protein sequence from its ancestral sequence during evolution. In this paper, we regard the Empirical Codon Mutation (ECM) Matrix as a communication channel and compute the corresponding channel capacity. Results The channel capacity of 4.1875 bit, which is needed to preserve the information determined by the amino acid distribution, is obtained with an exponential factor of 0.26 applied to the ECM matrix. Additionally, we have obtained the optimum capacity achieving codon distribution. Compared to the biological distribution, there is an obvious difference, however, the distribution among synonymous codons is preserved. More importantly, the results show that the biological codon distribution allows for a “transmission” at a rate very close to the capacity. Conclusion We computed an exponential factor for the ECM matrix that would still allow for preserving the genetic information given the redundancy that is present in the codon-to-amino acid mapping. This gives an insight how such a mutation matrix relates to the preservation of a species in an information-theoretic sense. PMID:24655606

  12. Properties and determinants of codon decoding time distributions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Codon decoding time is a fundamental property of mRNA translation believed to affect the abundance, function, and properties of proteins. Recently, a novel experimental technology--ribosome profiling--was developed to measure the density, and thus the speed, of ribosomes at codon resolution. Specifically, this method is based on next-generation sequencing, which theoretically can provide footprint counts that correspond to the probability of observing a ribosome in this position for each nucleotide in each transcript. Results In this study, we report for the first time various novel properties of the distribution of codon footprint counts in five organisms, based on large-scale analysis of ribosomal profiling data. We show that codons have distinctive footprint count distributions. These tend to be preserved along the inner part of the ORF, but differ at the 5' and 3' ends of the ORF, suggesting that the translation-elongation stage actually includes three biophysical sub-steps. In addition, we study various basic properties of the codon footprint count distributions and show that some of them correlate with the abundance of the tRNA molecule types recognizing them. Conclusions Our approach emphasizes the advantages of analyzing ribosome profiling and similar types of data via a comparative genomic codon-distribution-centric view. Thus, our methods can be used in future studies related to translation and even transcription elongation. PMID:25572668

  13. A Model of Proto-Anti-Codon RNA Enzymes Requiring L-Amino Acid Homochirality

    E-print Network

    Erives, Albert J.

    A Model of Proto-Anti-Codon RNA Enzymes Requiring L-Amino Acid Homochirality Albert Erives Received natural amino acid units of polypeptides using a universal scheme of triplet nucleotide ``codons) the absence of any codons for D-amino acids; (ii) the odd combination of alternate codon patterns for some

  14. Robotics and Energy Usage

    E-print Network

    Hershey, R. L.; Fenton, S. E.; Letzt, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    the facility and the neighboring utility. REFERENCES 1. Hershey, R.L.j Letzt, A.M. and Fenton, S.E., "The Impact of Industrial Robots on Electric Loads in U.S. Industry," Final Report for EPRI Research Project 1967-4, March 1983 2. Munson, George E...ROBOTICS AND ENERGY USAGE Robert L. Hershey Scott E. Fenton Alan M. Letzt SCIENCE MANAGEMENT CORPORATION Washington, D.C. ABSTRACT It is commonly assumed that the use of robots in an industrial plant will cut energy usage, because robots...

  15. Usage as Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorrell, Robert M.

    Even though linguistics has freed us from misconceptions, we have continued to seek answers to usage problems primarily by looking to linguistics. The myth of the verbal authority of standard speakers has given way to the evaluation of statistical frequency of forms. No matter how extensive or accurate the statistics, they must still be followed…

  16. Diversity in smartphone usage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hossein Falaki; Ratul Mahajan; Srikanth Kandula; Dimitrios Lymberopoulos; Ramesh Govindan; Deborah Estrin

    2010-01-01

    Using detailed traces from 255 users, we con- duct a comprehensive study of smartphone use. We char- acterize intentional user activities - interactions with the device and the applications used - and the impact of those activities on network and energy usage. We find immense diversity among users. Along all aspects that we study, users differ by one or more

  17. Usage and Safety Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page presents activities related to usage and safety from the Science & Engineering in the Lives of Students project. Activities include Battery and Bulb, Examine GFCI Outlet, Grounding and Protecting, Insulators, and Waste. Each activity includes a detailed description, list of the materials needed, science concepts covered, and reflection questions.

  18. Translation initiation at non-AUG codons mediated by weakened association of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2 subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Nilce N; Carnevalli, Larissa S; Castilho, Beatriz A

    2002-01-01

    The heterotrimeric eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2 binds the initiator methionyl-tRNA in a GTP-dependent mode and delivers it to the 40 S ribosomal subunit. In the present study, we have identified amino acid residues in eIF2beta required for binding to eIF2gamma in yeast. Alteration of six residues in the central region of eIF2beta abolished this interaction, as determined by GST-pull down and two-hybrid assays, and leads to cell lethality. Substitution of (131)Tyr and (132)Ser by alanine residues ((131)YS), although abolishing the binding to eIF2gamma in these assays, resulted in a functional but defective protein in vivo, imparting a temperature-sensitive growth phenotype to cells. A dramatically weakened association of this mutant protein with eIF2gamma in vivo was shown by co-immunoprecipitation. The (131)YS mutation in eIF2beta allows translation to initiate at non-AUG codons, as defined by the ability of cells carrying an initiator codon mutation in the HIS4 mRNA to grow in the absence of histidine. The combination of this mutation with the (264)Ser-->Tyr alteration, a previously isolated suppressor of initiator codon mutations which has been shown to increase the spontaneous GTP hydrolysis in the ternary complex, caused a recessive lethality, suggesting additive defects. Thus the impaired interaction of these two subunits represents a novel type of defect in eIF2 function, providing in vivo evidence that the strength of interaction between eIF2beta and eIF2gamma defines the correct usage of the AUG codon for translation initiation. PMID:12137565

  19. Dual functions of codons in the genetic code

    PubMed Central

    Lobanov, Alexey V.; Turanov, Anton A.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of the genetic code provided one of the basic foundations of modern molecular biology. Most organisms use the same genetic language, but there are also well-documented variations representing codon reassignments within specific groups of organisms (such as ciliates and yeast) or organelles (such as plastids and mitochondria). In addition, duality in codon function is known in the use of AUG in translation initiation and methionine insertion into internal protein positions as well as in the case of selenocysteine and pyrrolysine insertion (encoded by UGA and UAG, respectively) in competition with translation termination. Ambiguous meaning of CUG in coding for serine and leucine is also known. However, a recent study revealed that codons in any position within the open reading frame can serve a dual function and that a change in codon meaning can be achieved by availability of a specific type of RNA stem-loop structure in the 3’-untranslated region. Thus, duality of codon function is a more widely used feature of the genetic code than previously known, and this observation raises the possibility that additional recoding events and additional novel features have evolved in the genetic code. PMID:20446809

  20. Model for Codon Position Bias in RNA Editing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tsunglin; Bundschuh, Ralf

    2005-08-01

    RNA editing can be crucial for the expression of genetic information via inserting, deleting, or substituting a few nucleotides at specific positions in an RNA sequence. Within coding regions in an RNA sequence, editing usually occurs with a certain bias in choosing the positions of the editing sites. In the mitochondrial genes of Physarum polycephalum, many more editing events have been observed at the third codon position than at the first and second, while in some plant mitochondria the second codon position dominates. Here we propose an evolutionary model that explains this bias as the basis of selection at the protein level. The model predicts a distribution of the three positions rather close to the experimental observation in Physarum. This suggests that the codon position bias in Physarum is mainly a consequence of selection at the protein level.

  1. A model for codon position bias in RNA editing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundschuh, Ralf; Liu, Tsunglin

    2006-03-01

    RNA editing can be crucial for the expression of genetic information via inserting, deleting, or substituting a few nucleotides at specific positions in an RNA sequence. Within coding regions in an RNA sequence, editing usually occurs with a certain bias in choosing the positions of the editing sites. In the mitochondrial genes of Physarum polycephalum, many more editing events have been observed at the third codon position than at the first and second, while in some plant mitochondria the second codon position dominates. Here we propose an evolutionary model that explains this bias as the basis of selection at the protein level. The model predicts a distribution of the three positions rather close to the experimental observation in Physarum. This suggests that the codon position bias in Physarum is mainly a consequence of selection at the protein level.

  2. An evaluation of data-driven motion estimation in comparison to the usage of external-surrogates in cardiac SPECT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra Mukherjee, Joyeeta; Hutton, Brian F.; Johnson, Karen L.; Hendrik Pretorius, P.; King, Michael A.

    2013-11-01

    Motion estimation methods in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be classified into methods which depend on just the emission data (data-driven), or those that use some other source of information such as an external surrogate. The surrogate-based methods estimate the motion exhibited externally which may not correlate exactly with the movement of organs inside the body. The accuracy of data-driven strategies on the other hand is affected by the type and timing of motion occurrence during acquisition, the source distribution, and various degrading factors such as attenuation, scatter, and system spatial resolution. The goal of this paper is to investigate the performance of two data-driven motion estimation schemes based on the rigid-body registration of projections of motion-transformed source distributions to the acquired projection data for cardiac SPECT studies. Comparison is also made of six intensity based registration metrics to an external surrogate-based method. In the data-driven schemes, a partially reconstructed heart is used as the initial source distribution. The partially-reconstructed heart has inaccuracies due to limited angle artifacts resulting from using only a part of the SPECT projections acquired while the patient maintained the same pose. The performance of different cost functions in quantifying consistency with the SPECT projection data in the data-driven schemes was compared for clinically realistic patient motion occurring as discrete pose changes, one or two times during acquisition. The six intensity-based metrics studied were mean-squared difference, mutual information, normalized mutual information (NMI), pattern intensity (PI), normalized cross-correlation and entropy of the difference. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the performance is reported using Monte-Carlo simulations of a realistic heart phantom including degradation factors such as attenuation, scatter and system spatial resolution. Further the visual appearance of motion-corrected images using data-driven motion estimates was compared to that obtained using the external motion-tracking system in patient studies. Pattern intensity and normalized mutual information cost functions were observed to have the best performance in terms of lowest average position error and stability with degradation of image quality of the partial reconstruction in simulations. In all patients, the visual quality of PI-based estimation was either significantly better or comparable to NMI-based estimation. Best visual quality was obtained with PI-based estimation in one of the five patient studies, and with external-surrogate based correction in three out of five patients. In the remaining patient study there was little motion and all methods yielded similar visual image quality.

  3. Investigations of oligonucleotide usage variance within and between prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, Jon; Skjerve, Eystein; Ussery, David W

    2008-04-01

    Oligonucleotide usage in archaeal and bacterial genomes can be linked to a number of properties, including codon usage (trinucleotides), DNA base-stacking energy (dinucleotides), and DNA structural conformation (di- to tetranucleotides). We wanted to assess the statistical information potential of different DNA 'word-sizes' and explore how oligonucleotide frequencies differ in coding and non-coding regions. In addition, we used oligonucleotide frequencies to investigate DNA composition and how DNA sequence patterns change within and between prokaryotic organisms. Among the results found was that prokaryotic chromosomes can be described by hexanucleotide frequencies, suggesting that prokaryotic DNA is predominantly short range correlated, i.e., information in prokaryotic genomes is encoded in short oligonucleotides. Oligonucleotide usage varied more within AT-rich and host-associated genomes than in GC-rich and free-living genomes, and this variation was mainly located in non-coding regions. Bias (selectional pressure) in tetranucleotide usage correlated with GC content, and coding regions were more biased than non-coding regions. Non-coding regions were also found to be approximately 5.5% more AT-rich than coding regions, on average, in the 402 chromosomes examined. Pronounced DNA compositional differences were found both within and between AT-rich and GC-rich genomes. GC-rich genomes were more similar and biased in terms of tetranucleotide usage in non-coding regions than AT-rich genomes. The differences found between AT-rich and GC-rich genomes may possibly be attributed to lifestyle, since tetranucleotide usage within host-associated bacteria was, on average, more dissimilar and less biased than free-living archaea and bacteria. PMID:18421372

  4. Extensive frameshift at all AGG and CCC codons in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of Perkinsus marinus (Alveolata; Dinoflagellata).

    PubMed

    Masuda, Isao; Matsuzaki, Motomichi; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2010-10-01

    Diverse mitochondrial (mt) genetic systems have evolved independently of the more uniform nuclear system and often employ modified genetic codes. The organization and genetic system of dinoflagellate mt genomes are particularly unusual and remain an evolutionary enigma. We determined the sequence of full-length cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mRNA of the earliest diverging dinoflagellate Perkinsus and show that this gene resides in the mt genome. Apparently, this mRNA is not translated in a single reading frame with standard codon usage. Our examination of the nucleotide sequence and three-frame translation of the mRNA suggest that the reading frame must be shifted 10 times, at every AGG and CCC codon, to yield a consensus COX1 protein. We suggest two possible mechanisms for these translational frameshifts: a ribosomal frameshift in which stalled ribosomes skip the first bases of these codons or specialized tRNAs recognizing non-triplet codons, AGGY and CCCCU. Regardless of the mechanism, active and efficient machinery would be required to tolerate the frameshifts predicted in Perkinsus mitochondria. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of translational frameshifts in protist mitochondria and, by far, is the most extensive case in mitochondria. PMID:20507907

  5. All-codon scanning identifies p53 cancer rescue mutations

    E-print Network

    Lathrop, Richard H.

    ,2 , Linda V. Hall1 , Kirsty Salmon1 , G. Wesley Hatfield1,3,4 , Richard H. Lathrop1,2,5, * and Peter Kaiser6 of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, 4 Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, 5 Department with modified properties. We describe the fast and simple All- Codon Scanning (ACS) strategy that creates

  6. ABC50 mutants modify translation start codon selection.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Joanna D; Cowan, Joanne L; Perry, Lisa S; Coldwell, Mark J; Proud, Christopher G

    2015-04-15

    ATP-binding cassette 50 (ABC50; also known as ABCF1) binds to eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) and is required for efficient translation initiation. An essential step of this process is accurate recognition and selection of the initiation codon. It is widely accepted that the presence and movement of eIF1, eIF1A and eIF5 are key factors in modulating the stringency of start-site selection, which normally requires an AUG codon in an appropriate sequence context. In the present study, we show that expression of ABC50 mutants, which cannot hydrolyse ATP, decreases general translation and relaxes the discrimination against the use of non-AUG codons at translation start sites. These mutants do not appear to alter the association of key initiation factors to 40S subunits. The stringency of start-site selection can be restored through overexpression of eIF1, consistent with the role of that factor in enhancing stringency. The present study indicates that interfering with the function of ABC50 influences the accuracy of initiation codon selection. PMID:25597744

  7. Codon engineering for improved antibody expression in mammalian cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill M. Carton; Tina Sauerwald; Pam Hawley-Nelson; Barry Morse; Nancy Peffer; Heena Beck; Jin Lu; Adam Cotty; Bernard Amegadzie; Ray Sweet

    2007-01-01

    While well established in bacterial hosts, the effect of coding sequence variation on protein expression in mammalian systems is poorly characterized outside of viral proteins or proteins from distant phylogenetic families. The potential impact is substantial given the extensive use of mammalian expression systems in research and manufacturing of protein biotherapeutics. We are studying the effect of codon engineering on

  8. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Pink Stem Borer, Sesamia inferens, in Comparison with Four Other Noctuid Moths

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Huan-Na; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2012-01-01

    The complete 15,413-bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was sequenced and compared with those of four other noctuid moths. All of the mitogenomes analyzed displayed similar characteristics with respect to gene content, genome organization, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages. Twelve-one protein-coding genes (PCGs) utilized the standard ATN, but the cox1 gene used CGA as the initiation codon; cox1, cox2, and nad4 genes had the truncated termination codon T in the S. inferens mitogenome. All of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures except for trnS1(AGN), in which the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Both the secondary structures of rrnL and rrnS genes inferred from the S. inferens mitogenome closely resembled those of other noctuid moths. In the A+T-rich region, the conserved motif “ATAGA” followed by a long T-stretch was observed in all noctuid moths, but other specific tandem-repeat elements were more variable. Additionally, the S. inferens mitogenome contained a potential stem-loop structure, a duplicated 17-bp repeat element, a decuplicated segment, and a microsatellite “(AT)7”, without a poly-A element upstream of the trnM in the A+T-rich region. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed based on amino acid sequences of mitochondrial 13 PCGs, which support the traditional morphologically based view of relationships within the Noctuidae. PMID:22949858

  9. Notational usage modulates attention networks in binumerates

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Atesh; Tyagi, Vaibhav; Singh, Nandini C.

    2014-01-01

    Multicultural environments require learning multiple number notations wherein some are encountered more frequently than others. This leads to differences in exposure and consequently differences in usage between notations. We find that differential notational usage imposes a significant neurocognitive load on number processing. Despite simultaneous acquisition, twenty four adult binumerates, familiar with two positional writing systems namely Hindu Nagari digits and Hindu Arabic digits, reported significantly lower preference and usage for Nagari as compared to Arabic. Twenty-four participants showed significantly increased reaction times and reduced accuracy while performing magnitude comparison tasks in Nagari with respect to Arabic. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that processing Nagari elicited significantly greater activity in number processing and attention networks. A direct subtraction of networks for Nagari and Arabic notations revealed a neural circuit comprising of bilateral Intra-parietal Sulcus (IPS), Inferior and Mid Frontal Gyri, Fusiform Gyrus and the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (FDR p < 0.005). Additionally, whole brain correlation analysis showed that activity in the left inferior parietal region was modulated by task performance in Nagari. We attribute the increased activation in Nagari to increased task difficulty due to infrequent exposure and usage. Our results reiterate the role of left IPS in modulating performance in numeric tasks and highlight the role of the attention network for monitoring symbolic notation mode in binumerates. PMID:24904366

  10. Codon-optimized Human Sodium Iodide Symporter (opt-hNIS) as a Sensitive Reporter and Efficient Therapeutic Gene

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Hwa; Youn, Hyewon; Na, Juri; Hong, Kee-Jong; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key

    2015-01-01

    To generate a more efficient in vivo reporter and therapeutic gene, we optimized the coding sequence of the human sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene by replacing NIS DNA codons from wild type to new codons having the highest usage in human gene translation. The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI), representing the number of codons effective for human expression, was much improved (0.79 for hNIS, 0.97 for opt-hNIS). Both wild-type (hNIS) and optimized human NIS (opt-hNIS) were cloned into pcDNA3.1 and pMSCV vectors for transfection. Various cancer cell lines such as thyroid (TPC-1, FRO, B-CPAP), breast (MDA-MB-231), liver (Hep3B), cervical (HeLa), and glioma (U87MG) were transfected with pcDNA3.1/hNIS or pcDNA3.1/opt-hNIS. 125I uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing cells was 1.6 ~ 2.1 times higher than uptake by wild-type hNIS-expressing cells. Stable cell lines were also established by retroviral transduction using pMSCV/hNIS or pMSCV/opt-hNIS, revealing higher NIS protein levels and 125I uptake in opt-hNIS-expressing cells than in hNIS-expressing cells. Moreover, scintigraphic images from cell plates and mouse xenografts showed stronger signals from opt-hNIS-expressing cells than hNIS-expressing cells, and radioactivity uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing tumors was 2.3-fold greater than that by hNIS-expressing tumors. To test the efficacy of radioiodine therapy, mouse xenograft models were established with cancer cells expressing hNIS or opt-hNIS. 131I treatment reduced tumor sizes of hNIS- and opt-hNIS-expressing tumors to 0.57- and 0.27- fold, respectively, compared to their sizes before therapy, suggesting an improved therapeutic effect of opt-hNIS. In summary, this study shows that codon optimization strongly increases hNIS protein levels and radioiodine uptake, thus supporting opt-hNIS as a more sensitive reporter and efficient therapeutic gene. PMID:25553100

  11. Internal editing of the maize chloroplast ndhA transcript restores codons for conserved amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Maier, R M; Hoch, B; Zeltz, P; Kössel, H

    1992-01-01

    The NADH dehydrogenase subunit A (ndhA) gene from maize chloroplasts encodes a highly conserved peptide, which at several positions could be restored to consensus sequences by potential C-to-U editing of the codons involved. This gene was, therefore, chosen for analysis of its mRNA sequence in the form of amplified cDNA. A comparison of this cDNA sequence with the plastome-encoded ndhA sequence reveals four C-to-U editing sites, thereby demonstrating as a novel finding that chloroplast editing can also affect internal mRNA positions. All the edited codons restore amino acids that are conserved in the ndhA-encoded peptides of other chloroplast species. Alignment with homologous mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone reductase subunit 1 (nad1) sequences of plant and even nonplant species shows that two of the editing positions restore universally conserved amino acids and that one editing site is even shared with nad1 mRNA of plant mitochondria. No editing sites could be detected in the cDNA derived from transcripts of the maize chloroplast RNA polymerase alpha-subunit (rpoA) gene. PMID:1498612

  12. Problem-Solving Test: The Effect of Synonymous Codons on Gene Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: the genetic code, codon, degenerate codons, protein synthesis, aminoacyl-tRNA, anticodon, antiparallel orientation, wobble, unambiguous codons, ribosomes, initiation, elongation and termination of translation, peptidyl transferase, translocation, degenerate oligonucleotides, green…

  13. Prokaryotic Gene Finding Based on Physicochemical Characteristics of Codons Calculated from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    E-print Network

    Jayaram, Bhyravabotla

    Prokaryotic Gene Finding Based on Physicochemical Characteristics of Codons Calculated from An ab initio model for gene prediction in prokaryotic genomes is proposed based on physicochemical prediction in prokaryotic genomes based on a set of three physicochemical characteristics of codons--by codon

  14. Codon optimization of xylA gene for recombinant glucose isomerase production in Pichia pastoris and fed-batch feeding strategies to fine-tune bioreactor performance.

    PubMed

    Ata, Özge; Boy, Erdem; Güne?, Hande; Çal?k, P?nar

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this work are the optimization of the codons of xylA gene from Thermus thermophilus to enhance the production of recombinant glucose isomerase (rGI) in P. pastoris and to investigate the effects of feeding strategies on rGI production. Codons of xylA gene from T. thermophilus were optimized, ca. 30 % of the codons were replaced with those with higher frequencies according to the codon usage bias of P. pastoris, codon optimization resulted in a 2.4-fold higher rGI activity. To fine-tune bioreactor performance, fed-batch bioreactor feeding strategies were designed as continuous exponential methanol feeding with pre-calculated feeding rate based on the pre-determined specific growth rate, and fed-batch methanol-stat feeding. Six feeding strategies were designed, as follows: (S1) continuous exponential methanol- and pulse- sorbitol feeding; (S2) continuous exponential methanol- and peptone- feeding; (S3) continuous exponential methanol- and pulse- mannitol feeding; (S4) continuous exponential methanol- and peptone- feeding and pulse-mannitol feeding; (S5) methanol-stat feeding by keeping methanol concentration at 5 g L(-1); and, (S6) methanol-stat feeding by keeping methanol concentration at 5 g L(-1) and pulse-mannitol feeding. The highest cell and rGI activity was attained as 117 g L(-1) at t = 66 h and 32530 U L(-1) at t = 53 h, in strategy-S5. The use of the co-substrate mannitol does not increase the rGI activity in methanol-stat feeding, where 4.1-fold lower rGI activity was obtained in strategy-S6. The overall cell yield on total substrate was determined at t = 53 h as 0.21 g g(-1) in S5 strategy. PMID:25492311

  15. KRAS codon 61, 146 and BRAF mutations predict resistance to cetuximab plus irinotecan in KRAS codon 12 and 13 wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Loupakis; A Ruzzo; C Cremolini; B Vincenzi; L Salvatore; D Santini; G Masi; I Stasi; E Canestrari; E Rulli; I Floriani; K Bencardino; N Galluccio; V Catalano; G Tonini; M Magnani; G Fontanini; F Basolo; A Falcone; F Graziano

    2009-01-01

    Background:KRAS codons 12 and 13 mutations predict resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) in metastatic colorectal cancer. Also, BRAF V600E mutation has been associated with resistance. Additional KRAS mutations are described in CRC.Methods:We investigated the role of KRAS codons 61 and 146 and BRAF V600E mutations in predicting resistance to cetuximab plus irinotecan in a cohort of KRAS codons 12

  16. Feasibility Study of a Rotorcraft Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS): Usage and Structural Life Monitoring Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, B.; Cronkhite, J.; Bielefeld, S.; Killian, L.; Hayden, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate two techniques, Flight Condition Recognition (FCR) and Flight Load Synthesis (FIS), for usage monitoring and assess the potential benefits of extending the retirement intervals of life-limited components, thus reducing the operator's maintenance and replacement costs. Both techniques involve indirect determination of loads using measured flight parameters and subsequent fatigue analysis to calculate the life expended on the life-limited components. To assess the potential benefit of usage monitoring, the two usage techniques were compared to current methods of component retirement. In addition, comparisons were made with direct load measurements to assess the accuracy of the two techniques.

  17. Comparison of the effects of 2,3-butanedione monoxime on force production, myosin light chain phosphorylation and chemical energy usage in intact and permeabilized smooth and skeletal muscles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion J. Siegman; Susan U. Mooers; Thomas B. Warren; David M. Warshaw; Mitsuo Ikebe; Thomas M. Butler

    1994-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to determine the utility of 2,3-butanedione monoxime as a tool for determining and separating the chemical energy usage associated with force production from that of force-independent, or ‘activation’ processes in smooth and skeletal muscles. We determined the effects of 2,3-butanedione monoxime on force production, myosin light chain phosphorylation and high energy phosphate usage

  18. Basic Usage of Signal Generator Basic Usage of Oscilloscope

    E-print Network

    Ünay, Devrim

    Topics: Basic Usage of Signal Generator Basic Usage of Oscilloscope Capacitor Required Equipment and Components: CRO (Cathode Ray Oscilloscope) Breadboard DC power supply Resistors Function Generator Capacitor Information: Signal Generators A signal generator is an electronic instrument that generates repeating voltage

  19. KRAS codon 12 mutations occur very frequently in pancreatic adenocarcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, V.T.H.B.M.; Boot, A.J.M.; Smits, A.M.M.; Fleuren, G.J.; Cornelisse, C.J.; Bos, J.L. (State Univ. of Leiden (Netherlands))

    1988-08-25

    DNAs from human pancreatic adenocarcinomas were analyzed for the presence of mutations in codons 12, 13 and 61 of the NRAS, KRAS and HRAS gene. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue was used directly in an in vitro amplification reaction to expand the relevant RAS sequences. The mutations were detected by selective hybridization using mutation-specific synthetic oligonucleotides. In 28 of the 30 patients the authors found a mutation in codon 12 of the KRAS gene. This result confirms findings that KRAS mutations occur frequently in adenocarcinomas of the exocrine pancreas. The mutations are predominantly G-T transversions, in contrast to the KRAS mutations in colon tumors which are mainly G-A transitions. Furthermore, in a portion of the tumors the mutation appears to be homozygous.

  20. KRAS codon 12 mutations occur very frequently in pancreatic adenocarcinomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent T. H. B. M. Smit; Angelina J. M. Boot; Alida M. M. Smits; Gert Jan Fleuren; Cees J. Cornelisse; Johannes L. Bos

    1988-01-01

    DNAs from human pancreatic adenocarcinomas were analyzed for the presence of mutations in codons 12, 13 and 61 of the NRAS, KRAS and HRAS gene. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue was used directly in an in vitro amplification reaction to expand the relevant RAS sequences. The mutations were detected by selective hybridization using mutation-specific synthetic oligonucleotides. In 28 of the 30

  1. Codon Optimisation Is Key for Pernisine Expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Šnajder, Marko; Miheli?, Marko; Turk, Dušan; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    Background Pernisine is an extracellular serine protease from the hyperthermophilic Archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1. Low yields from the natural host and expression problems in heterologous hosts have limited the potential applications of pernisine in industry. Methodology/ Principal Findings The challenges of pernisine overexpression in Escherichia coli were overcome by codon preference optimisation and de-novo DNA synthesis. The following forms of the pernisine gene were cloned into the pMCSGx series of vectors and expressed in E. coli cells: wild-type (pernisinewt), codon-optimised (pernisineco), and codon-optimised with a S355A mutation of a predicted active site (pernisineS355Aco). The fusion-tagged pernisines were purified using fast protein liquid chromatography equipped with Ni2+ chelate and gel filtration chromatography columns. The identities of the resultant proteins were confirmed with N-terminal sequencing, tandem mass spectrometry analysis, and immunodetection. Pernisinewt was not expressed in E. coli at detectable levels, while pernisineco and pernisineS355Aco were expressed and purified as 55-kDa proforms with yields of around 10 mg per litre E. coli culture. After heat activation of purified pernisine, the proteolytic activity of the mature pernisineco was confirmed using zymography, at a molecular weight of 36 kDa, while the mutant pernisineS355Aco remained inactive. Enzymatic performances of pernisine evaluated under different temperatures and pHs demonstrate that the optimal enzymatic activity of the recombinant pernisine is ca. 100°C and pH 7.0, respectively. Conclusions/ Significance These data demonstrate that codon optimisation is crucial for pernisine overexpression in E. coli, and that the proposed catalytic Ser355 has an important role in pernisine activity, but not in its activation process. Pernisine is activated by autoproteolytical cleavage of its N-terminal proregion. We have also confirmed that the recombinant pernisine retains the characteristics of native pernisine, as a calcium modulated thermostable serine protease. PMID:25856104

  2. Translational redefinition of UGA codons is regulated by selenium availability.

    PubMed

    Howard, Michael T; Carlson, Bradley A; Anderson, Christine B; Hatfield, Dolph L

    2013-07-01

    Incorporation of selenium into ~25 mammalian selenoproteins occurs by translational recoding whereby in-frame UGA codons are redefined to encode the selenium containing amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec). Here we applied ribosome profiling to examine the effect of dietary selenium levels on the translational mechanisms controlling selenoprotein synthesis in mouse liver. Dietary selenium levels were shown to control gene-specific selenoprotein expression primarily at the translation level by differential regulation of UGA redefinition and Sec incorporation efficiency, although effects on translation initiation and mRNA abundance were also observed. Direct evidence is presented that increasing dietary selenium causes a vast increase in ribosome density downstream of UGA-Sec codons for a subset of selenoprotein mRNAs and that the selenium-dependent effects on Sec incorporation efficiency are mediated in part by the degree of Sec-tRNA([Ser]Sec) Um34 methylation. Furthermore, we find evidence for translation in the 5'-UTRs for a subset of selenoproteins and for ribosome pausing near the UGA-Sec codon in those mRNAs encoding the selenoproteins most affected by selenium availability. These data illustrate how dietary levels of the trace element selenium can alter the readout of the genetic code to affect the expression of an entire class of proteins. PMID:23696641

  3. Archaeal grpE: transcription in two different morphologic stages of Methanosarcina mazei and comparison with dnaK and dnaJ.

    PubMed Central

    Conway De Macario, E; Clarens, M; Macario, A J

    1995-01-01

    Transcription of the heat shock gene grpE was studied in two different morphologic stages of the archaeon Methanosarcina mazei S-6 that differ in resistance to physical and chemical traumas: single cells and packets. While single cells are directly exposed to environmental changes, such as temperature elevations, cells in packets are surrounded by intercellular and peripheral material that keeps them together in a globular structure which can reach several millimeters in diameter. grpE transcript levels determined by Northern (RNA) blotting peaked after a 15-min heat shock in single cells. In contrast, the highest transcript levels in packets were observed after the longest heat shock tested, 60 min. The same response profiles were demonstrated by primer extension experiments and S1 nuclease analysis. A comparison of the grpE response to heat shock with those of dnaK and dnaJ showed that the grpE transcript level was the most increased, closely followed by that of the dnaK transcript, with that of the dnaJ gene being the least augmented. Transcription of grpE started at the same site under normal and heat shock temperatures, and the transcript was consistently approximately 700 bases long. Codon usage patterns revealed that the three archaeal genes use most codons and have the same codon preference for 61% of the amino acids. PMID:7836285

  4. Analyses of clinicopathological, molecular, and prognostic associations of KRAS codon 61 and codon 146 mutations in colorectal cancer: cohort study and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background KRAS mutations in codons 12 and 13 are established predictive biomarkers for anti-EGFR therapy in colorectal cancer. Previous studies suggest that KRAS codon 61 and 146 mutations may also predict resistance to anti-EGFR therapy in colorectal cancer. However, clinicopathological, molecular, and prognostic features of colorectal carcinoma with KRAS codon 61 or 146 mutation remain unclear. Methods We utilized a molecular pathological epidemiology database of 1267 colon and rectal cancers in the Nurse’s Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We examined KRAS mutations in codons 12, 13, 61 and 146 (assessed by pyrosequencing), in relation to clinicopathological features, and tumor molecular markers, including BRAF and PIK3CA mutations, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), LINE-1 methylation, and microsatellite instability (MSI). Survival analyses were performed in 1067 BRAF-wild-type cancers to avoid confounding by BRAF mutation. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute mortality hazard ratio, adjusting for potential confounders, including disease stage, PIK3CA mutation, CIMP, LINE-1 hypomethylation, and MSI. Results KRAS codon 61 mutations were detected in 19 cases (1.5%), and codon 146 mutations in 40 cases (3.2%). Overall KRAS mutation prevalence in colorectal cancers was 40% (=505/1267). Of interest, compared to KRAS-wild-type, overall, KRAS-mutated cancers more frequently exhibited cecal location (24% vs. 12% in KRAS-wild-type; P?codon, though statistical power was limited for codon 61 mutants. Neither KRAS codon 61 nor codon 146 mutation was significantly associated with clinical outcome or prognosis in univariate or multivariate analysis [colorectal cancer-specific mortality hazard ratio (HR)?=?0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.29-2.26 for codon 61 mutation; colorectal cancer-specific mortality HR?=?0.86, 95% CI?=?0.42-1.78 for codon 146 mutation]. Conclusions Tumors with KRAS mutations in codons 61 and 146 account for an appreciable proportion (approximately 5%) of colorectal cancers, and their clinicopathological and molecular features appear generally similar to KRAS codon 12 or 13 mutated cancers. To further assess clinical utility of KRAS codon 61 and 146 testing, large-scale trials are warranted. PMID:24885062

  5. Modifying Myxococcus xanthus protoporphyrinogen oxidase to plant codon usage and high level of oxyfluorfen resistance in transgenic rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiwoung Yang; Sunyo Jung; Yonghyuk Lee; Kyoungwhan Back

    2006-01-01

    Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) of Myxococcus xanthus (Mx Protox) is a 49-kDa membrane protein that catalyzes conversion of protoporphyrinogen IX (Protogen IX) into protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX). Upon heterologous expression in transgenic rice plants, Mx Protox is dually targeted into plastids and mitochondria, increasing resistance against the herbicidal Protox inhibitor oxyfluorfen. Here, we describe the chemical synthesis of the Mx Protox

  6. Increased tRNA modification and gene-specific codon usage regulate cell cycle progression during the DNA damage response

    E-print Network

    Patil, Ashish

    S-phase and DNA damage promote increased ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) activity. Translation of RNR1 has been linked to the wobble uridine modifying enzyme tRNA methyltransferase 9 (Trm9). We predicted that changes in ...

  7. Hepatitis A Virus Mutant Spectra under the Selective Pressure of Monoclonal Antibodies: Codon Usage Constraints Limit Capsid Variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lluõ ´ s Aragones; Albert Bosch; R. M. Pinto

    2008-01-01

    Severe structural constraints in the hepatitis A virus (HAV) capsid have been suggested as the reason for the lack of emergence of new serotypes in spite of the occurrence of complex distributions of mutants or quasi- species. Analysis of the HAV mutant spectra under immune pressure by the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) K34C8 (immunodominant site) and H7C27 (glycophorin binding site) has

  8. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  9. Partial Optimization of the 5-Terminal Codon Increased a Recombination Porcine Pancreatic Lipase (opPPL) Expression in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Chen, Dan; Tang, Jiayong; Jia, Gang; Long, Dingbiao; Liu, Guangmang; Chen, Xiaoling; Shang, Haiying

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic lipase plays a key role in intestinal digestion of feed fat, and is often deficient in young animals such as weaning piglets. The objective of this study was to express and characterize a partial codon optimized porcine pancreatic lipase (opPPL). A 537 bp cDNA fragment encoding N-terminus amino acid residue of the mature porcine pancreatic lipase was synthesized according to the codon bias of Pichia pastoris and ligated to the full-length porcine pancreatic lipase cDNA fragment. The codon optimized PPL was cloned into the pPICZ?A (Invitrogen, Beijing, China) vector. After the resultant opPPL/pPICZ?? plasmid was transformed into P.pastoris, the over-expressed extracellular opPPL containing a His-tag to the C terminus was purified using Ni Sepharose affinity column (GE Healthcare, Piscataway, NJ, USA), and was characterized against the native enzyme (commercial PPL from porcine pancreas, Sigma). The opPPL exhibited a molecular mass of approximately 52 kDa, and showed optimal temperature (40°C), optimal pH (8.0), Km (0.041 mM), and Vmax (2.008 µmol.mg protein ?1.min?1) similar to those of the commercial enzyme with p-NPP as the substrate. The recombinant enzyme was stable at 60°C, but lost 80% (P<0.05) of its activity after exposure to heat ?60°C for 20 min. The codon optimization increased opPPL yield for ca 4 folds (146 mg.L?1 vs 36 mg.L?1) and total enzyme activity increased about 5 folds (1900 IU.L?1 vs 367 IU.L?1) compared with those native naPPL/pPICZ?? tranformant. Comparison of gene copies and mRNA profiles between the two strains indicated the increased rePPL yields may partly be ascribed to the increased protein translational efficiency after codon optimization. In conclusion, we successfully optimized 5-terminal of porcine pancreatic lipase encoding gene and over-expressed the gene in P. pastoris as an extracellular, functional enzyme. The recombination enzyme demonstrates a potential for future use as an animal feed additive for animal improvement. PMID:25544987

  10. Estimating the fraction of invariable codons with a capture-recapture method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arend Sidow; Trang Nguyen; Terence P. Speed

    1992-01-01

    A codon-based approach to estimating the number of variable sites in a protein is presented. When first and second positions of codons are assumed to be replacement positions, a capture-recapture model can be used to estimate the number of variable codons from every pair of homologous and aligned sequences. The capture-recapture estimate is compared to a maximum likelihood estimate of

  11. Why Are Translationally SubOptimal Synonymous Codons Used in Escherichia coli ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick G. C. Smith; Adam Eyre-Walker

    2001-01-01

    .   Natural selection favors certain synonymous codons which aid translation in Escherichia coli, yet codons not favored by translational selection persist. We use the frequency distributions of synonymous polymorphisms\\u000a to test three hypotheses for the existence of translationally sub-optimal codons: (1) selection is a relatively weak force,\\u000a so there is a balance between mutation, selection, and drift; (2) at some

  12. Codon optimization of the major antigen encoding genes of diverse strains of influenza a virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Indra Mani; Vijai Singh; Dharmendra Kumar Chaudhary; Pallavi Somvanshi; M. P. S. Negi

    2011-01-01

    A large number of influenza A virus outbreaks and mortality occurred in the world recently, an urgent attention to develop\\u000a effective and sufficient quantity of vaccines are needed. Vaccines are generally protein with immunogenic properties and are\\u000a not expressed in sufficient quantity because of the codon bias, so it is necessary to optimize its codon in the expression\\u000a host. Codon

  13. Codon 219 polymorphism of PRNP in healthy caucasians and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients

    SciTech Connect

    Petraroli, R.; Pocchiari, M. [Instituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    1996-04-01

    A number of point and insert mutations of the PrP gene (PRNP) have been linked to familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease (GSS). Moreover, the methionine/valine homozygosity at the polymorphic codon 129 of PRNP may cause a predisposition to sporadic and iatrogenic CJD or may control the age at onset of familial cases carrying either the 144-bp insertion or codon 178, codon 198, and codon 210 pathogenic mutations in PRNP. In addition, the association of methionine or valine at codon 129 and the point mutation at codon 178 on the same allele seem to play an important role in determining either fatal familial insomnia or CJD. However, it is noteworthy that a relationship between codon 129 polymorphism and accelerated pathogenesis (early age at onset or shorter duration of the disease) has not been seen in familial CJD patients with codon 200 mutation or in GSS patients with codon 102 mutation, arguing that other, as yet unidentified, gene products or environmental factors, or both, may influence the clinical expression of these diseases. 17 refs.

  14. Lung cancer risk in relation to TP53 codon 47 and codon 72 polymorphism in Bangladeshi population.

    PubMed

    Mostaid, Md Shaki; Ahmed, Maizbha Uddin; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat; Hasnat, Abul

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether p53 codon 47 and codon 72 polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of lung cancer in Bangladeshi population. We carried out a case-control study and examined the genotype distribution Pro47Ser and Arg72Pro single-nucleotide polymorphisms along with tobacco smoking in the predisposition of lung cancer by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) approach. The study included 106 lung cancer patients and 116 control subjects from Bangladesh. Lung cancer risk was estimated as odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) using conditional logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, and smoking. No significant association was found between Pro47Ser SNP and lung cancer. The frequencies of p53 codon 72 polymorphisms (Arg/Arg, Arg/Pro, and Pro/Pro) in lung cancer were 25.5, 37.7, and 36.8 %, respectively; frequencies in the controls were 53.4, 30.2, and 16.4 %, respectively (p?codon 72 genotype distributions. When classified by smoking status, the effects of Arg72Pro polymorphism on lung cancer risk was only found to be significant (? (2) ?=?33.94, p?=?0.00000004) in case of heavy smokers (40 packs per year or more). We conclude that not Pro47Ser SNP but Arg72Pro SNP is involved in susceptibility to developing lung cancer, at least in Bangladeshi population. PMID:25034526

  15. Premature Stop Codon in MMP20 Causing Amelogenesis Imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Papagerakis, P.; Lin, H-K.; Lee, K. Y.; Hu, Y.; Simmer, J. P.; Bartlett, J. D.; Hu, J. C-C

    2009-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes are necessary for the hardening of dental enamel during development, and mutations in the kallikrein 4 (KLK4) and enamelysin (MMP20) genes cause autosomal recessive amelogenesis imperfecta (ARAI). So far, only one KLK4 and two MMP20 mutations have been reported. We have identified an ARAI-causing point mutation (c.l02G>A, g.l02G>A, and p.W34X) in exon 1 of MMP20 in a proband with autosomal recessive hypoplastic-hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta. The G to A transition changes the tryptophan (W) codon (TGG) at amino acid position 34 into a translation termination (X) codon (TGA). No disease-causing sequence variations were detected in KLK4. The affected enamel is thin, with mild spacing in the anterior dentition. The enamel layer is hypomineralized, does not contrast with dentin on radiographs, and tends to chip away from the underlying dentin. An intrinsic yellowish pigmentation is evident even during eruption. The phenotype supports current ideas concerning the function of enamelysin. PMID:18096894

  16. A Study of the purine\\/pyrimidine codon occurrence with a reduced centered variable and an evaluation compared to the frequency statistic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTIAN J. MICHEL

    1989-01-01

    With the three-letter alphabet {R,Y,N} (R = purine, Y = pyrimidine, N= R or Y), there are 26 codons (NNN being excluded): RNN, . ,NNY (six codons at two unspecified bases N), RRN,. ,NYY (12 codons at one unspecified base N), RRR ,.._, YYY (eight specified codons). A statistical methodology that uses the codon frequency and a reduced centered variable

  17. Feasibility Study of a Rotorcraft Health and Usage Monitoring System ( HUMS): Usage and Structural Life Monitoring Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, B.; Cronkhite, J.; Bielefeld, S.; Killian, L.; Hayden, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate two techniques, Flight Condition Recognition (FCR) and Flight Load Synthesis (FLS), for usage monitoring and assess the potential benefits of extending the retirement intervals of life-limited components, thus reducing the operator's maintenance and replacement costs. Both techniques involve indirect determination of loads using measured flight parameters and subsequent fatigue analysis to calculate the life expended on the life-limited components. To assess the potential benefit of usage monitoring, the two usage techniques were compared to current methods of component retirement. In addition, comparisons were made with direct load measurements to assess the accuracy of the two techniques. The data that was used for the evaluation of the usage monitoring techniques was collected under an independent HUMS Flight trial program, using a commercially available HUMS and data recording system. The usage data collect from the HUMS trial aircraft was analyzed off-line using PC-based software that included the FCR and FLS techniques. In the future, if the technique prove feasible, usage monitoring would be incorporated into the onboard HUMS.

  18. Prion protein gene analysis in three kindreds with fatal familial insomnia (FFI): Codon 178 mutation and codon 129 polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Medori, R.; Tritschler, H.J. (Universita di Bologna (Italy))

    1993-10-01

    Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a disease linked to a GAC(Asp) [yields] AAC(Asn) mutation in codon 178 of the prion protein (PrP) gene. FFI is characterized clinically by untreatable progressive insomnia, dysautonomia, and motor dysfunctions and is characterized pathologically by selective thalamic atrophy. The authors confirmed the 178[sup Asn] mutation in the PrP gene of a third FFI family of French ancestry. Three family members who are under 40 years of age and who inherited the mutation showed only reduced perfusion in the basal ganglia on single photon emission computerized tomography. Some FFI features differ from the clinical and neuropathologic findings associated with 178[sup Asn] reported elsewhere. However, additional intragenic mutations accounting for the phenotypic differences were not observed in two affected individuals. In other sporadic and familial forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Gerstmann-Straeussler syndrome, Met or Val homozygosity at polymorphic codon 129 is associated with a more severe phenotype, younger age at onset, and faster progression. In FFI, young and old individuals at disease onset had 129[sup Met/Val]. Moreover, of five 178[sup Asn] individuals who are above age-at-onset range and who are well, two have 129[sup Met] and three have 129[sup Met/Val], suggesting that polymorphic site 129 does not modulate FFI phenotypic expression. Genetic heterogeneity and environment may play an important role in inter- and intrafamilial variability of the 178[sup Asn] mutation. 32 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Characterization and expression of codon optimized soybean phytase gene in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pritee; Punjabi, Mansi; Jolly, Monica; Rai, R D; Sachdev, Archana

    2013-12-01

    Phytic acid, the major storage form of phosphorus in plant seeds is degraded by the phytases to yield inositol and free phosphate, contributing thereby to the improved bioavailability of phytate phosphorus and essential minerals in plant foods and simultaneous reduction in phosphorus pollution of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. As a possible strategy for altering seed phytate levels, the approach involving reduction of phytate content by ectopically expressing endogenous phytase gene during seed development of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Pusa-20) was attempted in the present study. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed the maximum expression of phytase gene transcripts in germinating cotyledons (approximately 10 days after germinations), compared to other vegetative tissues. A full-length phytase cDNA was amplified from the germinating seedlings by splicing by overlap extension (SOE)-PCR and its sequence analysis revealed an open-reading-frame of 1644 bp, including an N terminal signal peptide of 28 amino acids. Predicted amino acid sequence (547-aa) of molecular mass 62 kDa on alignment with related purple acid phosphatases in other plants shared five conserved domains and seven invariant amino acids involved in coordination of the metals in the binuclear center of purple acid phosphatases. Owing to a large number of E. coli low-usage codons in soybean phytase gene, the modified gene was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a (+) and its expression in E. coli was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Bioassay of the crude expression product in E. coli revealed a functional phytase gene, showing a great potential for developing low phytate transgenic soybean through its seed-specific overexpression in the early stages of seed development. PMID:24772979

  20. Why Are Translationally Sub-Optimal Synonymous Codons Used in Escherichia coli?

    E-print Network

    Eyre-Walker, Adam

    Why Are Translationally Sub-Optimal Synonymous Codons Used in Escherichia coli? Nick G.C. Smith, Adam Eyre-Walker Centre for the Study of Evolution and School of Biological Sciences, University still be referred to as a sub-optimal codon.Correspondence to: N.G.C. Smith; email: n.g.c.smith

  1. Lie superalgebras and the multiplet structure of the genetic code. I. Codon representations

    E-print Network

    Forger, Frank Michael

    for the storage and transfer of genetic information. DNA is a macromolecule in the form of a double helix whichLie superalgebras and the multiplet structure of the genetic code. I. Codon representations Michael that the degeneracy of the genetic code, i.e., the phenomenon that different codons base triplets of DNA

  2. Two-nucleotide codon change in a hemoglobin polymorphism of the Celebes black ape ( Macaca nigra )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuo Murata; Peter E. Thompson

    1976-01-01

    A hemoglobin polymorphism involving variant ß-chains was demonstrated in the Celebes black ape, Macaca nigra. Fingerprinting and amino acid analysis of the tryptic peptides from the two chain types have shown that they differ by a single amino acid substitution, between lysine and aspartic acid, which requires a two-nucleotide change in the corresponding codon. Another substitution in the same codon

  3. Translation efficiency is determined by both codon bias and folding energy

    E-print Network

    Ruppin, Eytan

    density | translation initiation Synonymous mutations (mutations that alter the coding DNA and RNATranslation efficiency is determined by both codon bias and folding energy Tamir Tullera,b,1 studies have suggested that codon bias is the most important determinant of translation efficiency

  4. Association between p53 Codon 72 (Arg72Pro) Polymorphism and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Neamatzadeh, Hossein; Soleimanizad, Reza; Zare-Shehneh, Masoud; Gharibi, Saba; Shekari, Abolfazl; Bahman Rahimzadeh, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glaucomatous neuropathy is a type of cell death due to apoptosis. The p53 gene is one of the regulatory genes of apoptosis. Recently, the association between the p53 gene encoding for proline at codon 72 and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) has been studied in some ethnic groups. This study is the first association analysis of POAG and p53 codon 72 polymorphism in Iranian patients. Methods: A cohort of 65 unrelated patients with POAG (age range from 12-62 years, mean ± SD of 40.16 ± 17.51 years) and 65 unrelated control subjects (without glaucoma, age range of 14-63 years, mean ± SD of 35.64 ± 13.61 years) were selected. In Iranian POAG patients and normal healthy controls, the p53 codon 72 polymorphism in exon 4 was amplified using polymerase chain reaction. The amplified DNA fragments were digested with the BstUI restriction enzyme, and the digestion patterns were used to identify the alleles for the polymorphic site. Results: Comparisons revealed significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of Pro72Arg between POAG patients and control group. A higher risk of POAG was associated with allele Pro (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2–3.4) and genotype Pro/Pro (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 0.13-12.7). Conclusion: The p53 Pro72 allele was more frequent in Iranian POAG patients than in the control group (P<0.05). The present findings show that the individuals with the Pro/Pro genotype may be more likely to develop POAG. However, additional studies are necessary to confirm this association. PMID:25605490

  5. Refining the Balance of Attenuation and Immunogenicity of Respiratory Syncytial Virus by Targeted Codon Deoptimization of Virulence Genes

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jia; Lee, Sujin; Hotard, Anne L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important pathogen for lower respiratory tract illness in children for which there is no licensed vaccine. Live-attenuated RSV vaccines are the most clinically advanced in children, but achieving an optimal balance of attenuation and immunogenicity is challenging. One way to potentially retain or enhance immunogenicity of attenuated virus is to mutate virulence genes that suppress host immune responses. The NS1 and NS2 virulence genes of the RSV A2 strain were codon deoptimized according to either human or virus codon usage bias, and the resulting recombinant viruses (dNSh and dNSv, respectively) were rescued by reverse genetics. RSV dNSh exhibited the desired phenotype of reduced NS1 and NS2 expression. RSV dNSh was attenuated in BEAS-2B and primary differentiated airway epithelial cells but not in HEp-2 or Vero cells. In BALB/c mice, RSV dNSh exhibited a lower viral load than did A2, and yet it induced slightly higher levels of RSV-neutralizing antibodies than did A2. RSV A2 and RSV dNSh induced equivalent protection against challenge strains A/1997/12-35 and A2-line19F. RSV dNSh caused less STAT2 degradation and less NF-?B activation than did A2 in vitro. Serial passage of RSV dNSh in BEAS-2B cells did not result in mutations in the deoptimized sequences. Taken together, RSV dNSh was moderately attenuated, more immunogenic, and equally protective compared to wild-type RSV and genetically stable. PMID:25249281

  6. Modeling educational usage of Facebook

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sacide Güzin Mazman; Yasemin Koçak Usluel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design a structural model explaining how users could utilize Facebook for educational purposes. In order to shed light on the educational usage of Facebook, in constructing the model, the relationship between users' Facebook adoption processes and their educational use of Facebook were included indirectly while the relationship between users' purposes in using Facebook

  7. Code Usage Analysis System (CUAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horsley, P. H.; Oliver, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    A set of computer programs is offered to aid a user in evaluating performance of an application program. The system provides reports of subroutine usage, program errors, and segment loading which occurred during the execution of an application program. It is presented in support of the development and validation of the space vehicle dynamics project.

  8. Modeling Educational Usage of Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazman, Sacide Guzin; Usluel, Yasemin Kocak

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design a structural model explaining how users could utilize Facebook for educational purposes. In order to shed light on the educational usage of Facebook, in constructing the model, the relationship between users' Facebook adoption processes and their educational use of Facebook were included indirectly while the…

  9. Exploring iPhone Usage: The Influence of Socioeconomic Differences on Smartphone Adoption, Usage and Usability

    E-print Network

    Zhong, Lin

    Exploring iPhone Usage: The Influence of Socioeconomic Differences on Smartphone Adoption, Usage, identify similarities, differences, and trends, and highlight systemat- ic differences in smartphone usage across SES brackets. Author Keywords Smartphones; Socioeconomic Status; SES; Applications; Diversity

  10. Readthrough of stop codons by use of aminoglycosides in cells from xeroderma pigmentosum group C patients.

    PubMed

    Kuschal, Christiane; Khan, Sikandar G; Enk, Benedikt; DiGiovanna, John J; Kraemer, Kenneth H

    2015-04-01

    Readthrough of premature termination (stop) codons (PTC) is a new approach to treatment of genetic diseases. We recently reported that readthrough of PTC in cells from some xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XP-C) patients could be achieved with the aminoglycosides geneticin or gentamicin. We found that the response depended on several factors including the PTC sequence, its location within the gene and the aminoglycoside used. Here, we extended these studies to investigate the effects of other aminoglycosides that are already on the market. We reasoned that topical treatment could deliver much higher concentrations of drug to the skin, the therapeutic target, and thus increase the therapeutic effect while reducing renal or ototoxicity in comparison with systemic treatment. Our prior clinical studies indicated that only a few percent of normal XPC expression was associated with mild clinical disease. We found minimal cell toxicity in the XP-C cells with several aminoglycosides. We found increased XPC mRNA expression in PTC-containing XP-C cells with G418, paromomycin, neomycin and kanamycin and increased XPC protein expression with G418. We conclude that in selected patients with XP, topical PTC therapy can be investigated as a method of personalized medicine to alleviate their cutaneous symptoms. PMID:25651777

  11. Usage

    E-print Network

    Tarn Duong; Maintainer Tarn Duong; Depends R; Needscompilation No

    2013-01-01

    R topics documented: plot.prim........................................... 2 prim............................................. 3 prim.box........................................... 4 quasiflow.......................................... 6 Index 7 1 2 plot.prim plot.prim PRIM plot for multivariate data

  12. Suppressors of lysine codons may be misacylated lysine tRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Murgola, E J; Pagel, F T

    1983-01-01

    We describe a novel class of missense suppressors that read the codons for lysine at two positions (211 and 234) in the trpA polypeptide of Escherichia coli. The suppressor mutations are highly linked to lysT, a gene for lysine tRNA. The results suggest that the suppressors are misacylated lysine tRNAs that carry glycine or alanine. The mutant codons are apparently suppressed better at position 211 than at position 234, indicating the existence of codon context effects in missense suppression. PMID:6415042

  13. Suppression of Premature Termination Codons as a Therapeutic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Keeling, Kim M.; Wang, Dan; Conard, Sara E.; Bedwell, David M.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we describe our current understanding of translation termination and pharmacological agents that influence the accuracy of this process. A number of drugs have been identified that induce suppression of translation termination at in-frame premature termination codons (PTCs; also known as nonsense mutations) in mammalian cells. We discuss efforts to utilize these drugs to suppress disease-causing PTCs that result in the loss of protein expression and function. In-frame PTCs represent a genotypic subset of mutations that make up ~11% of all known mutations that cause genetic diseases, and millions of patients have diseases attributable to PTCs. Current approaches aimed at reducing the efficiency of translation termination at PTCs (referred to as PTC suppression therapy) have the goal of alleviating the phenotypic consequences of a wide range of genetic diseases. Suppression therapy is currently in clinical trials for treatment of several genetic diseases caused by PTCs, and preliminary results suggest that some patients have shown clinical improvements. While current progress is promising, we discuss various approaches that may further enhance the efficiency of this novel therapeutic approach. PMID:22672057

  14. Pyrrolysine is not hardwired for cotranslational insertion at UAG codons

    PubMed Central

    Ambrogelly, Alexandre; Gundllapalli, Sarath; Herring, Stephanie; Polycarpo, Carla; Frauer, Carina; Söll, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    Pyrrolysine (Pyl), the 22nd naturally encoded amino acid, gets acylated to its distinctive UAG suppressor tRNAPyl by the cognate pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS). Here we determine the RNA elements required for recognition and aminoacylation of tRNAPyl in vivo by using the Pyl analog N-?-cyclopentyloxycarbonyl-l-lysine. Forty-two Methanosarcina barkeri tRNAPyl variants were tested in Escherichia coli for suppression of the lac amber A24 mutation; then relevant tRNAPyl mutants were selected to determine in vivo binding to M. barkeri PylRS in a yeast three-hybrid system and to measure in vitro tRNAPyl aminoacylation. tRNAPyl identity elements include the discriminator base, the first base pair of the acceptor stem, the T-stem base pair G51:C63, and the anticodon flanking nucleotides U33 and A37. Transplantation of the tRNAPyl identity elements into the mitochondrial bovine tRNASer scaffold yielded chimeric tRNAs active both in vitro and in vivo. Because the anticodon is not important for PylRS recognition, a tRNAPyl variant could be constructed that efficiently suppressed the lac opal U4 mutation in E. coli. These data suggest that tRNAPyl variants may decode numerous codons and that tRNAPyl:PylRS is a fine orthogonal tRNA:synthetase pair that facilitated the late addition of Pyl to the genetic code. PMID:17360621

  15. University of Florida Cell Phone Usage Log

    E-print Network

    Sin, Peter

    University of Florida Cell Phone Usage Log Information below must be compared to the monthly of the last page of the usage log. Employee's Name:Business Device - Cell Phone Number: Printed Name Cell Phone Usage Logs attached? Certification and Signature: The information listed on the Cell Phone

  16. Some FAQs about Usage-Based Pricing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hal R. Varian

    1999-01-01

    . This is a list of Frequently Asked Questions about usage-based pricing of the Internet.We argue that usage-based pricing is likely to come sooner or later and that some serious thoughtshould be devoted to devising a sensible system of usage-based pricing. This document is availableon-line at

  17. Some FAQs about Usage-Based Pricing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey K. Mackie-mason; Hal R. Varian

    1995-01-01

    This is a list of Frequently Asked Questions about usage-based pricing of the Internet. We argue that usage-based pricing is likely to come sooner or later and that some serious thought should be devoted to devising a sensible system of usage-based pricing.

  18. Amino Acid Deletion at Codon 67 and Thr-to-Gly Change at Codon 69 of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reverse Transcriptase Confer Novel Drug Resistance Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Imamichi, Tomozumi; Murphy, Michael A.; Imamichi, Hiromi; Lane, H. Clifford

    2001-01-01

    The potential roles of an amino acid deletion at codon 67 (?67) and a Thr-to-Gly change at codon 69 (T69G) in the reverse transcriptase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 in drug sensitivity and relative replication fitness were studied. Our results suggest that the ?67 and T69G changes can be categorized as mutations associated with multidrug resistance. The combination of both mutations with an L74I change (?67+T69G/L74I) leads to a novel 3?-azido-3?-deoxythymidine resistance motif and compensates for impaired HIV replication. PMID:11264389

  19. Identifying protein-coding genes and synonymous constraint elements using phylogenetic codon models

    E-print Network

    Lin, Michael F. (Michael Fong-Jay)

    2012-01-01

    We develop novel methods for comparative genomics analysis of protein-coding genes using phylogenetic codon models, in pursuit of two main lines of biological investigation: First, we develop PhyloCSF, an algorithm based ...

  20. Evidence of abundant stop codon readthrough in Drosophila and other Metazoa

    E-print Network

    Jungreis, Irwin

    While translational stop codon readthrough is often used by viral genomes, it has been observed for only a handful of eukaryotic genes. We previously used comparative genomics evidence to recognize protein-coding regions ...

  1. Web Usage Mining: Discovery and Applications of Usage Patterns from Web Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaideep Srivastava; Robert Cooley; Mukund Deshpande; Pang-Ning Tan

    2000-01-01

    Web usage mining is the application of data mining techniques to discover usage patterns from Web data, in order to understand and better serve the needs of Web-based applications. Web usage mining consists of three phases, namely . This paper describes each of these phases in detail. Given its application potential, Web usage mining has seen a rapid increase in

  2. Comparison of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device with oral progestins in heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) cases with uterine leiomyoma (LNG-IUD and oral progestin usage in myoma uteri)

    PubMed Central

    Tosun, Ayse Kavasoglu; Tosun, Ismet; Suer, Necdet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness and acceptability of LNG-IUD with oral progesterone (norethisterone acetate; NETA) in achieving a reduction in volume of the myomas, hemoglobin levels, satisfaction of the women. Methods: This study includes randomized 30 women treated by LNG-IUD and randomized 30 women treated by oral norethisterone (NETA). All these participants in the study have received medical treatment and had been registered as patients in Istanbul Medeniyet University Göztepe Education and Research Hospital. Leiomyoma volumes and hemoglobin levels have been determined. In the third and sixth months, these measurements have been done again. We examined the adverse effects and the treatment continuity. For the statistical analysis of the findings NCSS [Number Cruncher Statistical System] 2007 & PASS 2008 program; student t, Mann Whitney U, Paired Samples t, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks, Ki-Kare, Fisher's Exact Ki-Kare tests have been used. Results: After six months treatment, the reduction of bleeding determined by Visual Bleeding Score (VBS) in LNG-IUD group is 80% and in oral norethisteron group is 56%; in both groups leiomyoma volumes and hemoglobin levels were significantly high. Conclusion: LNG-IUD is a good alternative treatment to the oral progesterone in long term minimizing the hysterectomy for myoma uteri because of the good patient tolerance and easy usage. PMID:25097527

  3. Molecular Mechanism of Scanning and Start Codon Selection in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Hinnebusch, Alan G.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The correct translation of mRNA depends critically on the ability to initiate at the right AUG codon. For most mRNAs in eukaryotic cells, this is accomplished by the scanning mechanism, wherein the small (40S) ribosomal subunit attaches to the 5? end of the mRNA and then inspects the leader base by base for an AUG in a suitable context, using complementarity with the anticodon of methionyl initiator tRNA (Met-tRNAiMet) as the key means of identifying AUG. Over the past decade, a combination of yeast genetics, biochemical analysis in reconstituted systems, and structural biology has enabled great progress in deciphering the mechanism of ribosomal scanning. A robust molecular model now exists, describing the roles of initiation factors, notably eukaryotic initiation factor 1 (eIF1) and eIF1A, in stabilizing an “open” conformation of the 40S subunit with Met-tRNAiMet bound in a low-affinity state conducive to scanning and in triggering rearrangement into a “closed” conformation incompatible with scanning, which features Met-tRNAiMet more tightly bound to the “P” site and base paired with AUG. It has also emerged that multiple DEAD-box RNA helicases participate in producing a single-stranded “landing pad” for the 40S subunit and in removing the secondary structure to enable the mRNA to traverse the 40S mRNA-binding channel in the single-stranded form for base-by-base inspection in the P site. PMID:21885680

  4. Pyrrolysine is not hardwired for cotranslational insertion at UAG codons.

    PubMed

    Ambrogelly, Alexandre; Gundllapalli, Sarath; Herring, Stephanie; Polycarpo, Carla; Frauer, Carina; Söll, Dieter

    2007-02-27

    Pyrrolysine (Pyl), the 22nd naturally encoded amino acid, gets acylated to its distinctive UAG suppressor tRNA(Pyl) by the cognate pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS). Here we determine the RNA elements required for recognition and aminoacylation of tRNA(Pyl) in vivo by using the Pyl analog N-epsilon-cyclopentyloxycarbonyl-l-lysine. Forty-two Methanosarcina barkeri tRNA(Pyl) variants were tested in Escherichia coli for suppression of the lac amber A24 mutation; then relevant tRNA(Pyl) mutants were selected to determine in vivo binding to M. barkeri PylRS in a yeast three-hybrid system and to measure in vitro tRNA(Pyl) aminoacylation. tRNA(Pyl) identity elements include the discriminator base, the first base pair of the acceptor stem, the T-stem base pair G51:C63, and the anticodon flanking nucleotides U33 and A37. Transplantation of the tRNA(Pyl) identity elements into the mitochondrial bovine tRNA(Ser) scaffold yielded chimeric tRNAs active both in vitro and in vivo. Because the anticodon is not important for PylRS recognition, a tRNA(Pyl) variant could be constructed that efficiently suppressed the lac opal U4 mutation in E. coli. These data suggest that tRNA(Pyl) variants may decode numerous codons and that tRNA(Pyl):PylRS is a fine orthogonal tRNA:synthetase pair that facilitated the late addition of Pyl to the genetic code. PMID:17360621

  5. Evidence that UGA is read as a tryptophan codon rather than as a stop codon by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    PubMed

    Inamine, J M; Ho, K C; Loechel, S; Hu, P C

    1990-01-01

    Molecular cloning and sequencing showed that Mycoplasma gallisepticum, like Mycoplasma capricolum, contains both tRNA(UCA) and tRNA(CCA) genes, while Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium each appear to have only a tRNA(UCA) gene. Therefore, these mycoplasma species contain a tRNA with the anticodon UCA that can translate both UGA and UGG codons. PMID:2104612

  6. Identification of eRF1 residues that play critical and complementary roles in stop codon recognition

    PubMed Central

    Conard, Sara E.; Buckley, Jessica; Dang, Mai; Bedwell, Gregory J.; Carter, Richard L.; Khass, Mohamed; Bedwell, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The initiation and elongation stages of translation are directed by codon–anticodon interactions. In contrast, a release factor protein mediates stop codon recognition prior to polypeptide chain release. Previous studies have identified specific regions of eukaryotic release factor one (eRF1) that are important for decoding each stop codon. The cavity model for eukaryotic stop codon recognition suggests that three binding pockets/cavities located on the surface of eRF1's domain one are key elements in stop codon recognition. Thus, the model predicts that amino acid changes in or near these cavities should influence termination in a stop codon-dependent manner. Previous studies have suggested that the TASNIKS and YCF motifs within eRF1 domain one play important roles in stop codon recognition. These motifs are highly conserved in standard code organisms that use UAA, UAG, and UGA as stop codons, but are more divergent in variant code organisms that have reassigned a subset of stop codons to sense codons. In the current study, we separately introduced TASNIKS and YCF motifs from six variant code organisms into eRF1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to determine their effect on stop codon recognition in vivo. We also examined the consequences of additional changes at residues located between the TASNIKS and YCF motifs. Overall, our results indicate that changes near cavities two and three frequently mediated significant effects on stop codon selectivity. In particular, changes in the YCF motif, rather than the TASNIKS motif, correlated most consistently with variant code stop codon selectivity. PMID:22543865

  7. Molecular Comparisons of Full Length Metapneumovirus (MPV) Genomes, Including Newly Determined French AMPV-C and –D Isolates, Further Supports Possible Subclassification within the MPV Genus

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Paul A.; Lemaitre, Evelyne; Briand, François-Xavier; Courtillon, Céline; Guionie, Olivier; Allée, Chantal; Toquin, Didier; Bayon-Auboyer, Marie-Hélène; Jestin, Véronique; Eterradossi, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Four avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) subgroups (A–D) have been reported previously based on genetic and antigenic differences. However, until now full length sequences of the only known isolates of European subgroup C and subgroup D viruses (duck and turkey origin, respectively) have been unavailable. These full length sequences were determined and compared with other full length AMPV and human metapneumoviruses (HMPV) sequences reported previously, using phylogenetics, comparisons of nucleic and amino acid sequences and study of codon usage bias. Results confirmed that subgroup C viruses were more closely related to HMPV than they were to the other AMPV subgroups in the study. This was consistent with previous findings using partial genome sequences. Closer relationships between AMPV-A, B and D were also evident throughout the majority of results. Three metapneumovirus “clusters” HMPV, AMPV-C and AMPV-A, B and D were further supported by codon bias and phylogenetics. The data presented here together with those of previous studies describing antigenic relationships also between AMPV-A, B and D and between AMPV-C and HMPV may call for a subclassification of metapneumoviruses similar to that used for avian paramyxoviruses, grouping AMPV-A, B and D as type I metapneumoviruses and AMPV-C and HMPV as type II. PMID:25036224

  8. Kinetic modelling indicates that fast-translating codons can coordinate cotranslational protein folding by avoiding misfolded intermediates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Edward P.; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    It has been observed for several proteins that slowing down the rate at which individual codons are translated can increase their probability of cotranslational protein folding, while speeding up codon translation can decrease it. Here we investigate whether or not this inverse relationship between translation speed and the cotranslational folding probability is a general phenomenon or if other scenarios are possible. We first derive chemical kinetic equations that relate individual codon translation rates to the probability that a domain will fold, populate an intermediate or misfold, and examine the cotranslational folding scenarios that are possible within these models. We find that speeding up codon translation through misfolding-prone segments can, in some cases, increase the folding probability of a domain immediately before the nascent protein is released from the ribosome and decrease its chances of misfolding. Thus, for some proteins fast-translating codons could be as important as slow-translating codons in coordinating cotranslational protein folding.

  9. Association of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Bacteremia and Ceftriaxone Usage

    PubMed Central

    McKinnell, James A.; Kunz, Danielle F.; Chamot, Eric; Patel, Mukesh; Shirley, Rhett M.; Moser, Stephen A.; Baddley, John W.; Pappas, Peter G.; Miller, Loren G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) have become a public health concern with implications for patient mortality and costs. Hospital antibiotic usage may impact VRE incidence, but the relationship is poorly understood. Animal investigations suggest ceftriaxone may be associated with VRE proliferation. We measured antimicrobial usage and VRE bloodstream infection (BSI) incidence to test our hypothesis that increased ceftriaxone use would be associated with a higher incidence of VRE-BSI. Setting The University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Center is a 900-bed urban tertiary-care hospital Methods Retrospective analysis of antimicrobial usage and VRE-BSI from 2005 to 2008 (43 months). Antimicrobial usage quantified as days of therapy/1,000 patient-days (DOT). VRE-BSI incidence calculated as cases/1,000 patient-days. Negative binomial regression with adjustment for correlation between consecutive observations measured the association between antimicrobial usage and VRE-BSI incidence at the hospital- and care-unit levels. Results VRE-BSI incidence increased from 0.06 to 0.17 infections/1,000 patient-days. Hospital VRE-BSI incidence was associated with prior-month ceftriaxone DOT (Incidence Rate Ratio 1.38 per 10 DOT; p=0.005). After controlling for ceftriaxone, prior-month cephalosporin use (class) was not predictive of VRE-BSI (p=0.70). Similarly, prior-month use of piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefepime, cefazolin, or vancomycin was not predictive of VRE-BSI when considered individually (p?0.4 for all comparisons). The final model suggests that type of intensive care unit was related to VRE-BSI incidence. Conclusions Ceftriaxone use in the prior month, but not cephalosporin (class) or vancomycin use, was related to VRE-BSI incidence. These findings suggest that an antimicrobial stewardship program that limits ceftriaxone may reduce nosocomial VRE-BSI incidence. PMID:22669234

  10. The effect of tRNA levels on decoding times of mRNA codons

    PubMed Central

    Dana, Alexandra; Tuller, Tamir

    2014-01-01

    The possible effect of transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) concentrations on codons decoding time is a fundamental biomedical research question; however, due to a large number of variables affecting this process and the non-direct relation between them, a conclusive answer to this question has eluded so far researchers in the field. In this study, we perform a novel analysis of the ribosome profiling data of four organisms which enables ranking the decoding times of different codons while filtering translational phenomena such as experimental biases, extreme ribosomal pauses and ribosome traffic jams. Based on this filtering, we show for the first time that there is a significant correlation between tRNA concentrations and the codons estimated decoding time both in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes in natural conditions (?0.38 to ?0.66, all P values <0.006); in addition, we show that when considering tRNA concentrations, codons decoding times are not correlated with aminoacyl-tRNA levels. The reported results support the conjecture that translation efficiency is directly influenced by the tRNA levels in the cell. Thus, they should help to understand the evolution of synonymous aspects of coding sequences via the adaptation of their codons to the tRNA pool. PMID:25056313

  11. Infrequent point mutations in codons 12 and 61 of ras oncogenes in human hepatocellular carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Challen, C; Guo, K; Collier, J D; Cavanagh, D; Bassendine, M F

    1992-03-01

    DNA from human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) were analysed for the presence of mutations in codons 12 and 61 of the K-ras, H-ras and N-ras genes. The relevant ras sequences were amplified in vitro using the polymerase chain reaction and point mutations detected by selective hybridisation using mutation-specific synthetic oligonucleotides. In one of the 19 HCCs a mutation in codon 61 of the K-ras gene was detected, whilst in 3/19 HCCs a mutation was found in codon 61 of the N-ras gene. The mutations were all heterozygous A-T transversions and were found in HCCs arising in patients with underlying cirrhosis. In two of these patients where the corresponding normal tissue was available only the wild-type ras gene was detected, indicating that oncogenic activation of the ras gene was a consequence of somatic mutation. In another patient the same mutation in codon 61 of the N-ras gene was found in cirrhotic liver tissue and in all four patients the same mutation was also detected in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver biopsy HCC tissue obtained at diagnosis. These results indicate that mutational activation of the ras genes at codon 61 is an infrequent but possibly early event in the development of HCC in Britain. PMID:1323601

  12. p53 codon 72 polymorphism and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    HOU, JING; JIANG, YUAN; TANG, WENRU; JIA, SHUTING

    2013-01-01

    p53 is a tumor suppressor gene and plays important roles in the etiology of breast cancer. Studies have produced conflicting results concerning the role of p53 codon 72 polymorphism (G>C) on the risk of breast cancer; therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to estimate the association between the p53 codon 72 polymorphism and breast cancer. Screening of the PubMed database was conducted to identify relevant studies. Studies containing available genotype frequencies of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism were selected and a pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the association. Sixty-one published studies, including 28,539 breast cancer patients and 32,788 controls were identified. The results suggest that variant genotypes are not associated with breast cancer risk (Pro/Pro + Arg/Pro vs. Arg/Arg: OR=1.016, 95% CI=0.931–1.11, P=0.722). The symmetric funnel plot, Egger’s test (P=0.506) and Begg’s test (P=0.921) were all suggestive of the lack of publication bias. This meta-analysis suggests that the p53 codon 72 Pro/Pro + Arg/Pro genotypes are not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. To validate the association between the p53 codon 72 polymorphism and breast cancer, further studies with larger numbers of participants worldwide are required. PMID:23737888

  13. Influence of modification next to the anticodon in tRNA on codon context sensitivity of translational suppression and accuracy.

    PubMed Central

    Bouadloun, F; Srichaiyo, T; Isaksson, L A; Björk, G R

    1986-01-01

    Effects on translation in vivo by modification deficiencies for 2-methylthio-N6-isopentenyladenosine (ms2i6A) (Escherichia coli) or 2-methylthio-N6-(4-hydroxyisopentenyl)adenosine (ms2io6A) (Salmonella typhimurium) in tRNA were studied in mutant strains. These hypermodified nucleosides are present on the 3' side of the anticodon (position 37) in tRNA reading codons starting with uridine. In E. coli, translational error caused by tRNA was strongly reduced in the case of third-position misreading of a tryptophan codon (UGG) in a particular codon context but was not affected in the case of first-position misreading of an arginine codon (CGU) in another codon context. Misreading of UGA nonsense codons at two different positions was codon context dependent. The efficiencies of some tRNA nonsense suppressors were decreased in a tRNA-dependent manner. Suppressor tRNA which lacks ms2i6A-ms2io6A becomes more sensitive to codon context. Our results therefore indicate that, besides improving translational efficiency, ms2i6A37 and ms2io6A37 modifications in tRNA are also involved in decreasing the intrinsic codon reading context sensitivity of tRNA. Possible consequences for regulation of gene expression are discussed. PMID:3086285

  14. Definite Article Usage across Varieties of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahid, Ridwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the extent of definite article usage variation in several varieties of English based on a classification of its usage types. An annotation scheme based on Hawkins and Prince was developed for this purpose. Using matching corpus data representing Inner Circle varieties and Outer Circle varieties, analysis was made on…

  15. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

    1982-01-01

    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  16. Patterns of Drug Usage Among Vietnam Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Allan H., Jr.; And Others

    A factor analysis was performed on an intercorrelation matrix of reported drug usage frequencies for seven drug categories at two consecutive periods of time. Subjects were 1,010 Army Vietnam veterans in pay grade E6 or below, aged 26 years or less. Retrospective reporting identified drug usage prior to a tour of Vietnam and during the tour. Four…

  17. Physical Educators' Technology Competencies and Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Marianne L.; Goc Karp, Grace; Miao, Hui; Perlman, Dana

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine K-12 physical education teachers' perceptions of ability and usage of technology. Physical educators (n = 114) completed the Physical Education Technology Usage Survey assessing their perceived technology competency, how and why they utilize technology, challenges they face in implementing technology, and…

  18. Effect of sequence context at stop codons on efficiency of reinitiation in GCN4 translational control.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, C M; Hinnebusch, A G

    1994-01-01

    Translational control of the GCN4 gene involves two short open reading frames in the mRNA leader (uORF1 and uORF4) that differ greatly in the ability to allow reinitiation at GCN4 following their own translation. The low efficiency of reinitiation characteristic of uORF4 can be reconstituted in a hybrid element in which the last codon of uORF1 and 10 nucleotides 3' to its stop codon (the termination region) are substituted with the corresponding nucleotides from uORF4. To define the features of these 13 nucleotides that determine their effects on reinitiation, we separately randomized the sequence of the third codon and termination region of the uORF1-uORF4 hybrid and selected mutant alleles with the high-level reinitiation that is characteristic of uORF1. The results indicate that many different A+U-rich triplets present at the third codon of uORF1 can overcome the inhibitory effect of the termination region derived from uORF4 on the efficiency of reinitiation at GCN4. Efficient reinitiation is not associated with codons specifying a particular amino acid or isoacceptor tRNA. Similarly, we found that a diverse collection of A+U-rich sequences present in the termination region of uORF1 could restore efficient reinitiation at GCN4 in the presence of the third codon derived from uORF4. To explain these results, we propose that reinitiation can be impaired by stable base pairing between nucleotides flanking the uORF1 stop codon and either the tRNA which pairs with the third codon, the rRNA, or sequences located elsewhere in GCN4 mRNA. We suggest that these interactions delay the resumption of scanning following peptide chain termination at the uORF and thereby lead to ribosome dissociation from the mRNA. Images PMID:8264629

  19. Sense codon emancipation for proteome-wide incorporation of noncanonical amino acids: rare isoleucine codon AUA as a target for genetic code expansion

    PubMed Central

    Bohlke, Nina; Budisa, Nediljko

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges in contemporary synthetic biology is to find a route to engineer synthetic organisms with altered chemical constitution. In terms of core reaction types, nature uses an astonishingly limited repertoire of chemistries when compared with the exceptionally rich and diverse methods of organic chemistry. In this context, the most promising route to change and expand the fundamental chemistry of life is the inclusion of amino acid building blocks beyond the canonical 20 (i.e. expanding the genetic code). This strategy would allow the transfer of numerous chemical functionalities and reactions from the synthetic laboratory into the cellular environment. Due to limitations in terms of both efficiency and practical applicability, state-of-the-art nonsense suppression- or frameshift suppression-based methods are less suitable for such engineering. Consequently, we set out to achieve this goal by sense codon emancipation, that is, liberation from its natural decoding function – a prerequisite for the reassignment of degenerate sense codons to a new 21st amino acid. We have achieved this by redesigning of several features of the post-transcriptional modification machinery which are directly involved in the decoding process. In particular, we report first steps towards the reassignment of 5797 AUA isoleucine codons in Escherichia coli using efficient tools for tRNA nucleotide modification pathway engineering. PMID:24433543

  20. FPGA curved track fitter with very low resource usage

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jin-Yuan; Wang, M.; Gottschalk, E.; Shi, Z.; /Fermilab

    2006-11-01

    Standard least-squares curved track fitting process is tailored for FPGA implementation. The coefficients in the fitting matrices are carefully chosen so that only shift and accumulation operations are used in the process. The divisions and full multiplications are eliminated. Comparison in an application example shows that the fitting errors of the low resource usage implementation are less than 4% bigger than the fitting errors of the exact least-squares algorithm. The implementation is suitable for low-cost, low-power applications such as high energy physics detector trigger systems.

  1. PCR-RFLP to Detect Codon 248 Mutation in Exon 7 of "p53" Tumor Suppressor Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouyang, Liming; Ge, Chongtao; Wu, Haizhen; Li, Suxia; Zhang, Huizhan

    2009-01-01

    Individual genome DNA was extracted fast from oral swab and followed up with PCR specific for codon 248 of "p53" tumor suppressor gene. "Msp"I restriction mapping showed the G-C mutation in codon 248, which closely relates to cancer susceptibility. Students learn the concepts, detection techniques, and research significance of point mutations or…

  2. Mutations at codons 178, 200-129, and 232 contributed to the inherited prion diseases in Korean patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo-Yeong Choi; Su Yeon Kim; So-Young Seo; Seong Soo A An; SangYun Kim; Sang-Eun Park; Seung-Han Lee; Yun-Ju Choi; Sang-Jin Kim; Chi-Kyeong Kim; Jun-Sun Park; Young-Ran Ju

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms of the human prion protein gene (PRNP) contribute to the genetic determinants of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Numerous polymorphisms in the promoter regions as well as the open reading frame of PRNP were investigated. Greater than 90% of Korean, Chinese, and Japanese carry the homozygote 129 MM codon. In Korea, polymorphisms have not been comprehensively studied, except codons 129

  3. HER2 Codon 655 Polymorphism and Risk of Breast Cancer in African Americans and Whites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Millikan; Allison Eaton; Kendra Worley; Lorna Biscocho; Elizabeth Hodgson; Wen-Yi Huang; Joseph Geradts; Mary Iacocca; David Cowan; Kathleen Conway; Lynn Dressler

    2003-01-01

    Background. Several recent epidemiologic studies examined the association between breast cancer risk and an inherited, single-nucleotide polymorphism in the HER2 gene, codon 655 G to A, which leads to an amino acid substitution of Ile to Val. Results of previous studies have been mixed, with most studies showing no association but some suggesting an association in younger women or women

  4. Role of PRNP codon 129 genotype in defining strain transmission properties of human transmissible spongiform encephalopathy 

    E-print Network

    Bishop, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    three codon 129 genotype mice are susceptible with a ranking of transmission efficiency of HuMM>HuMV>HuVV. HuMM mice develop the most widespread neuropathology with features similar to human vCJD. Subclinical infection was noted in each mouse line...

  5. Genetic diversity of mango cultivars estimated using Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diversity and genetic relationships among 23 mango germplasm accessions, collected from different locations in Guangxi province in China, were analyzed by using a novel and simple gene targeted DNA marker: Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) markers. This technique uses a single, 18-mer primer PCR amplifica...

  6. Causal signals between codon bias, mRNA structure, and the efficiency of translation and elongation

    PubMed Central

    Pop, Cristina; Rouskin, Silvi; Ingolia, Nicholas T; Han, Lu; Phizicky, Eric M; Weissman, Jonathan S; Koller, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    Ribosome profiling data report on the distribution of translating ribosomes, at steady-state, with codon-level resolution. We present a robust method to extract codon translation rates and protein synthesis rates from these data, and identify causal features associated with elongation and translation efficiency in physiological conditions in yeast. We show that neither elongation rate nor translational efficiency is improved by experimental manipulation of the abundance or body sequence of the rare AGG tRNA. Deletion of three of the four copies of the heavily used ACA tRNA shows a modest efficiency decrease that could be explained by other rate-reducing signals at gene start. This suggests that correlation between codon bias and efficiency arises as selection for codons to utilize translation machinery efficiently in highly translated genes. We also show a correlation between efficiency and RNA structure calculated both computationally and from recent structure probing data, as well as the Kozak initiation motif, which may comprise a mechanism to regulate initiation. PMID:25538139

  7. New LIC vectors for production of proteins from genes containing rare codons.

    PubMed

    Eschenfeldt, William H; Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Stols, Lucy; Donnelly, Mark I; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2013-12-01

    In the effort to produce proteins coded by diverse genomes, structural genomics projects often must express genes containing codons that are rare in the production strain. To address this problem, genes expressing tRNAs corresponding to those codons are typically coexpressed from a second plasmid in the host strain, or from genes incorporated into production plasmids. Here we describe the modification of a series of LIC pMCSG vectors currently used in the high-throughput (HTP) production of proteins to include crucial tRNA genes covering rare codons for Arg (AGG/AGA) and Ile (AUA). We also present variants of these new vectors that allow analysis of ligand binding or co-expression of multiple proteins introduced through two independent LIC steps. Additionally, to accommodate the cloning of multiple large proteins, the size of the plasmids was reduced by approximately one kilobase through the removal of non-essential DNA from the base vector. Production of proteins from core vectors of this series validated the desired enhanced capabilities: higher yields of proteins expressed from genes with rare codons occurred in most cases, biotinylated derivatives enabled detailed automated ligand binding analysis, and multiple proteins introduced by dual LIC cloning were expressed successfully and in near balanced stoichiometry, allowing tandem purification of interacting proteins. PMID:24057978

  8. MACSE: Multiple Alignment of Coding SEquences Accounting for Frameshifts and Stop Codons

    PubMed Central

    Ranwez, Vincent; Harispe, Sébastien; Delsuc, Frédéric; Douzery, Emmanuel J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Until now the most efficient solution to align nucleotide sequences containing open reading frames was to use indirect procedures that align amino acid translation before reporting the inferred gap positions at the codon level. There are two important pitfalls with this approach. Firstly, any premature stop codon impedes using such a strategy. Secondly, each sequence is translated with the same reading frame from beginning to end, so that the presence of a single additional nucleotide leads to both aberrant translation and alignment. We present an algorithm that has the same space and time complexity as the classical Needleman-Wunsch algorithm while accommodating sequencing errors and other biological deviations from the coding frame. The resulting pairwise coding sequence alignment method was extended to a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) algorithm implemented in a program called MACSE (Multiple Alignment of Coding SEquences accounting for frameshifts and stop codons). MACSE is the first automatic solution to align protein-coding gene datasets containing non-functional sequences (pseudogenes) without disrupting the underlying codon structure. It has also proved useful in detecting undocumented frameshifts in public database sequences and in aligning next-generation sequencing reads/contigs against a reference coding sequence. MACSE is distributed as an open-source java file executable with freely available source code and can be used via a web interface at: http://mbb.univ-montp2.fr/macse. PMID:21949676

  9. Codon Bias is a Major Factor Explaining Phage Evolution in Translationally Biased Hosts

    E-print Network

    Carbone, Alessandra

    , and we propose a classification of phages with translationally biased hosts which is based on adaptation morphogenesis, host interaction and ssDNA binding are also affected by adaptive pressure. Adaptation affectsCodon Bias is a Major Factor Explaining Phage Evolution in Translationally Biased Hosts Alessandra

  10. Oligonucleotide Design and Codon Optimization for PCR-based Gene Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Williams, Brian C.

    by ligation or PCR; this thesis focuses on PCR-based methods. Many sets of oligonucleotides can be used protein-coding regions; because the genetic code is degenerate, a combinatorial number of di erent sequences can encode the same protein. If the primary concern is a protein sequence, codons can be changed

  11. Genetic analysis of diversity within a Chinese local sugarcane germplasm based on start codon targeted polymorphism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic dive...

  12. TGF-?1 codon 25 gene polymorphism is associated with cirrhosis in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph H. Österreicher; Christian Datz; Felix Stickel; Claus Hellerbrand; Melitta Penz; Harald Hofer; Fritz Wrba; Edward Penner; Detlef Schuppan; Peter Ferenci

    2005-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HHC) is an autosomal recessive disorder of iron metabolism with variable penetrance. Only a minority of C282Y homozygotes develop clinical overt disease and cirrhosis. The phenotypic heterogeneity of HHC may be due to host genetic factors influencing fibrogenesis such as cytokine gene polymorphisms. In this respect, we investigated the impact of functional genetic polymorphisms of TGF-?1 (codon 10

  13. Influenza A Virus Attenuation by Codon Deoptimization of the NS Gene for Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Nogales, Aitor; Baker, Steven F.; Ortiz-Riaño, Emilio; Dewhurst, Stephen; Topham, David J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza viral infection represents a serious public health problem that causes contagious respiratory disease, which is most effectively prevented through vaccination to reduce transmission and future infection. The nonstructural (NS) gene of influenza A virus encodes an mRNA transcript that is alternatively spliced to express two viral proteins, the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) and the nuclear export protein (NEP). The importance of the NS gene of influenza A virus for viral replication and virulence has been well described and represents an attractive target to generate live attenuated influenza viruses with vaccine potential. Considering that most amino acids can be synthesized from several synonymous codons, this study employed the use of misrepresented mammalian codons (codon deoptimization) for the de novo synthesis of a viral NS RNA segment based on influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) (PR8) virus. We generated three different recombinant influenza PR8 viruses containing codon-deoptimized synonymous mutations in coding regions comprising the entire NS gene or the mRNA corresponding to the individual viral protein NS1 or NEP, without modifying the respective splicing and packaging signals of the viral segment. The fitness of these synthetic viruses was attenuated in vivo, while they retained immunogenicity, conferring both homologous and heterologous protection against influenza A virus challenges. These results indicate that influenza viruses can be effectively attenuated by synonymous codon deoptimization of the NS gene and open the possibility of their use as a safe vaccine to prevent infections with these important human pathogens. IMPORTANCE Vaccination serves as the best therapeutic option to protect humans against influenza viral infections. However, the efficacy of current influenza vaccines is suboptimal, and novel approaches are necessary for the prevention of disease cause by this important human respiratory pathogen. The nonstructural (NS) gene of influenza virus encodes both the multifunctional nonstructural protein 1 (NS1), essential for innate immune evasion, and the nuclear export protein (NEP), required for the nuclear export of viral ribonucleoproteins and for timing of the virus life cycle. Here, we have generated a recombinant influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) (PR8) virus containing a codon-deoptimized NS segment that is attenuated in vivo yet retains immunogenicity and protection efficacy against homologous and heterologous influenza virus challenges. These results open the exciting possibility of using this NS codon deoptimization methodology alone or in combination with other approaches for the future development of vaccine candidates to prevent influenza viral infections. PMID:24965472

  14. Analysis of Serine Codon Conservation Reveals Diverse Phenotypic Constraints on Hepatitis C Virus Glycoprotein Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Koutsoudakis, George; Urbanowicz, Richard A.; Mirza, Deeman; Ginkel, Corinne; Riebesehl, Nina; Calland, Noémie; Albecka, Anna; Price, Louisa; Hudson, Natalia; Descamps, Véronique; Backx, Matthijs; McClure, C. Patrick; Duverlie, Gilles; Pecheur, Eve-Isabelle; Dubuisson, Jean; Perez-del-Pulgar, Sofia; Forns, Xavier; Steinmann, Eike; Tarr, Alexander W.; Pietschmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Serine is encoded by two divergent codon types, UCN and AGY, which are not interchangeable by a single nucleotide substitution. Switching between codon types therefore occurs via intermediates (threonine or cysteine) or via simultaneous tandem substitutions. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronically infects 2 to 3% of the global population. The highly variable glycoproteins E1 and E2 decorate the surface of the viral envelope, facilitate cellular entry, and are targets for host immunity. Comparative sequence analysis of globally sampled E1E2 genes, coupled with phylogenetic analysis, reveals the signatures of multiple archaic codon-switching events at seven highly conserved serine residues. Limited detection of intermediate phenotypes indicates that associated fitness costs restrict their fixation in divergent HCV lineages. Mutational pathways underlying codon switching were probed via reverse genetics, assessing glycoprotein functionality using multiple in vitro systems. These data demonstrate selection against intermediate phenotypes can act at the structural/functional level, with some intermediates displaying impaired virion assembly and/or decreased capacity for target cell entry. These effects act in residue/isolate-specific manner. Selection against intermediates is also provided by humoral targeting, with some intermediates exhibiting increased epitope exposure and enhanced neutralization sensitivity, despite maintaining a capacity for target cell entry. Thus, purifying selection against intermediates limits their frequencies in globally sampled strains, with divergent functional constraints at the protein level restricting the fixation of deleterious mutations. Overall our study provides an experimental framework for identification of barriers limiting viral substitutional evolution and indicates that serine codon-switching represents a genomic “fossil record” of historical purifying selection against E1E2 intermediate phenotypes. PMID:24173227

  15. Analysis of serine codon conservation reveals diverse phenotypic constraints on hepatitis C virus glycoprotein evolution.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard J P; Koutsoudakis, George; Urbanowicz, Richard A; Mirza, Deeman; Ginkel, Corinne; Riebesehl, Nina; Calland, Noémie; Albecka, Anna; Price, Louisa; Hudson, Natalia; Descamps, Véronique; Backx, Matthijs; McClure, C Patrick; Duverlie, Gilles; Pecheur, Eve-Isabelle; Dubuisson, Jean; Perez-del-Pulgar, Sofia; Forns, Xavier; Steinmann, Eike; Tarr, Alexander W; Pietschmann, Thomas; Ball, Jonathan K

    2014-01-01

    Serine is encoded by two divergent codon types, UCN and AGY, which are not interchangeable by a single nucleotide substitution. Switching between codon types therefore occurs via intermediates (threonine or cysteine) or via simultaneous tandem substitutions. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronically infects 2 to 3% of the global population. The highly variable glycoproteins E1 and E2 decorate the surface of the viral envelope, facilitate cellular entry, and are targets for host immunity. Comparative sequence analysis of globally sampled E1E2 genes, coupled with phylogenetic analysis, reveals the signatures of multiple archaic codon-switching events at seven highly conserved serine residues. Limited detection of intermediate phenotypes indicates that associated fitness costs restrict their fixation in divergent HCV lineages. Mutational pathways underlying codon switching were probed via reverse genetics, assessing glycoprotein functionality using multiple in vitro systems. These data demonstrate selection against intermediate phenotypes can act at the structural/functional level, with some intermediates displaying impaired virion assembly and/or decreased capacity for target cell entry. These effects act in residue/isolate-specific manner. Selection against intermediates is also provided by humoral targeting, with some intermediates exhibiting increased epitope exposure and enhanced neutralization sensitivity, despite maintaining a capacity for target cell entry. Thus, purifying selection against intermediates limits their frequencies in globally sampled strains, with divergent functional constraints at the protein level restricting the fixation of deleterious mutations. Overall our study provides an experimental framework for identification of barriers limiting viral substitutional evolution and indicates that serine codon-switching represents a genomic "fossil record" of historical purifying selection against E1E2 intermediate phenotypes. PMID:24173227

  16. College Student Credit Card Usage and Debt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybka, Kathryn M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the concerns related to credit card usage by college students. Offers information student affairs professionals can use to help college students make responsible choices. (Contains 26 references.) (GCP)

  17. Amphetamine usage and genital self-mutilation.

    PubMed

    Israel, Joshua A; Lee, Kewchang

    2002-09-01

    Amphetamine usage has been associated with addiction, psychosis and self-injurious behavior. We report on two patients who severely and repeatedly mutilated their own genitalia while intoxicated on amphetamines and consider possible diagnostic etiologies. PMID:12199837

  18. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pu; Hunter, Timothy; Bayen, Alexandre M.; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach. PMID:23259045

  19. RESEARCH INFORMATICS Usage and Impact Summary

    E-print Network

    Allesina, Stefano

    CENTER FOR RESEARCH INFORMATICS Usage and Impact Summary 08.26.13 #12;01. CLINICAL & TRANSLATIONAL & Translational Informatics Bioinfromatics Core Clinical Cancer Genetics Childhood Cancer and Blood Diseases Center for Research Informatics Clinical and Translational Informatics Ecology & Evolution External

  20. Material impacts on operational energy usage

    E-print Network

    Love, Andrea, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Decisions regarding materials and construction of a building are made all the time in the architectural process, but thought is not always given to how those choices may affect the buildings ultimate energy usage and the ...

  1. Error compensation of tRNA misacylation by codon-anticodon mismatch prevents translational amino acid misinsertion.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2011-04-01

    Codon-anticodon mismatches and tRNA misloadings cause translational amino acid misinsertions, producing dysfunctional proteins. Here I explore the original hypothesis whether mismatches tend to compensate misacylation, so as to insert the amino acid coded by the codon. This error compensation is promoted by the fact that codon-anticodon mismatch stabilities increase with tRNA misacylation potentials (predicted by 'tfam') by non-cognate amino acids coded by the mismatched codons for most tRNAs examined. Error compensation is independent of preferential misacylation by non-cognate amino acids physico-chemically similar to cognate amino acids, a phenomenon that decreases misinsertion impacts. Error compensation correlates negatively with (a) codon/anticodon abundance (in human mitochondria and Escherichia coli); (b) developmental instability (estimated by fluctuating asymmetry in bilateral counts of subdigital lamellae, in each of two lizard genera, Anolis and Sceloporus); and (c) pathogenicity of human mitochondrial tRNA polymorphisms. Patterns described here suggest that tRNA misacylation is sometimes compensated by codon-anticodon mismatches. Hence translation inserts the amino acid coded by the mismatched codon, despite mismatch and misloading. Results suggest that this phenomenon is sufficiently important to affect whole organism phenotypes, as shown by correlations with pathologies and morphological estimates of developmental stability. PMID:21470914

  2. Alternative 5' exons either provide or deny an initiator methionine codon to the same alpha-tubulin coding region.

    PubMed Central

    Dobner, P R; Kislauskis, E; Wentworth, B M; Villa-Komaroff, L

    1987-01-01

    The primary structures of two overlapping novel alpha-tubulin cDNA clones isolated from a Macaca fascicularis testis cDNA library and the corresponding human gene are presented. Although the general structure of the human gene conforms to that of previously described mammalian alpha-tubulin genes, there is a surprising difference: the ATG initiator codon is conspicuously absent. The macaque testis cDNA similarly lacks the initiator methionine, but otherwise encodes a variant alpha-tubulin isotype precisely conserved in the human gene. RNA blot analysis in the macaque, using a 3' untranslated region probe, revealed the existence of two additional related transcripts expressed in every tissue examined except the adult testis. Sequence comparisons indicate that the 2.0 kb testis transcript and one of the additional transcripts result from differential transcription of the same gene. The two transcripts differ only at the 5' end as a result of the recruitment of different 5' exons. Curiously, the 5' exon utilized outside the testis encodes an initiator methionine in the expected location. Images PMID:3029670

  3. JSTOR usage data and what it can tell us about ourselves: is there predictability based on historical use by libraries of similar size?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara J. Gauger; Carolyn Kacena

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – Sets out to explore what effects institutional size and the selections of JSTOR collections have on the overall (total) usage statistics. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This is a preliminary report of JSTOR use made by five academic libraries of similar size and scale; a sixth smaller campus is used to contrast\\/support findings. A comparison study of the five institutions' usage

  4. The human mitochondrial tRNAMet: Structure/function relationship of a unique modification in the decoding of unconventional codons

    PubMed Central

    Bilbille, Yann; Gustilo, Estella M.; Harris, Kimberly A.; Jones, Christie N.; Lusic, Hrvoje; Kaiser, Robert J.; Delaney, Michael O.; Spremulli, Linda L.; Deiters, Alexander; Agris, Paul F.

    2011-01-01

    Human mitochondrial mRNAs utilize the universal AUG and the unconventional isoleucine AUA codons for methionine. In contrast to translation in the cytoplasm, human mitochondria use one tRNA, hmtRNAMetCAU, to read AUG and AUA codons at both the peptidyl- (P-), and aminoacyl-(A-) sites of the ribosome. The hmtRNAMetCAU has a unique post-transcriptional modification, 5-formylcytidine, at the wobble position 34 (f5C34), and a cytidine substituting for the invariant uridine at position 33 of the canonical “U-turn” in tRNAs. The structure of the tRNA's anticodon stem and loop domain (hmtASLMetCAU), determined by NMR restrained molecular modeling, revealed how the f5C34 modification facilitates the decoding of AUA at the P- and A-sites. The f5C34 defined a reduced conformational space for the nucleoside, in what appears to have restricted the conformational dynamics of the anticodon bases of the modified hmtASLMetCAU. The hmtASLMetCAU exhibited a “C-turn” conformation that has some characteristics of the U-turn motif. Codon binding studies with both E. coli and bovine mitochondrial ribosomes revealed that the f5C34 facilitates AUA binding in the A-site and suggested that the modification favorably alters the ASL's binding kinetics. Mitochondrial translation by many organisms including humans sometimes initiates with the universal isoleucine codons AUU and AUC. The f5C34 enabled P-site codon binding to these normally isoleucine codons. Thus, the physicochemical properties of this one modification, f5C34, expand codon recognition from the traditional AUG to the non-traditional, synonymous codons AUU and AUC as well as AUA, in the reassignment of universal codons in the mitochondria. PMID:21168417

  5. Numeral series hidden in the distribution of atomic mass of amino acids to codon domains in the genetic code.

    PubMed

    Wohlin, Åsa

    2015-03-21

    The distribution of codons in the nearly universal genetic code is a long discussed issue. At the atomic level, the numeral series 2x(2) (x=5-0) lies behind electron shells and orbitals. Numeral series appear in formulas for spectral lines of hydrogen. The question here was if some similar scheme could be found in the genetic code. A table of 24 codons was constructed (synonyms counted as one) for 20 amino acids, four of which have two different codons. An atomic mass analysis was performed, built on common isotopes. It was found that a numeral series 5 to 0 with exponent 2/3 times 10(2) revealed detailed congruency with codon-grouped amino acid side-chains, simultaneously with the division on atom kinds, further with main 3rd base groups, backbone chains and with codon-grouped amino acids in relation to their origin from glycolysis or the citrate cycle. Hence, it is proposed that this series in a dynamic way may have guided the selection of amino acids into codon domains. Series with simpler exponents also showed noteworthy correlations with the atomic mass distribution on main codon domains; especially the 2x(2)-series times a factor 16 appeared as a conceivable underlying level, both for the atomic mass and charge distribution. Furthermore, it was found that atomic mass transformations between numeral systems, possibly interpretable as dimension degree steps, connected the atomic mass of codon bases with codon-grouped amino acids and with the exponent 2/3-series in several astonishing ways. Thus, it is suggested that they may be part of a deeper reference system. PMID:25623487

  6. Amino-acid substitutions at codon 13 of the N-ras oncogene in human acute myeloid leukaemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Johannes L.; Toksoz, Deniz; Marshall, Christopher J.; Verlaan-de Vries, Matty; Veeneman, Gerrit H.; van der Eb, Alex J.; van Boom, Jacques H.; Janssen, Johannes W. G.; Steenvoorden, Ada C. M.

    1985-06-01

    DNAs from four out of five patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) tested by an in vivo selection assay in nude mice using transfected mouse NIH 3T3 cells were found to contain an activated N-ras oncogene. Using a set of synthetic oligonucleotide probes, we have detected a mutation at codon 13 in all four genes. The same codon is mutated in an additional AML DNA that is positive in the focus-formation assay on 3T3 cells. DNA from the peripheral blood of one patient in remission does not contain a codon 13 mutation.

  7. EBSCO's Usage Consolidation Attempts to Streamline Gathering, Storage, and Reporting of Usage Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remy, Charlie

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of EBSCO's new Usage Consolidation product designed to streamline the harvesting, storage, and analysis of usage statistics from electronic resources. Strengths and weaknesses of the product are discussed as well as an early beta partner's experience. In the current atmosphere of flat or declining budgets, libraries…

  8. [BIG-H3 protein: mutation of codon 124 and corneal amyloidosis].

    PubMed

    Schmitt-Bernard, C-F; Pouliquen, Y; Argilès, A

    2004-05-01

    In 1997, a group of hereditary corneal dystrophies was related to mutations in the TGFBI (BIGH3) gene. Within this group, some corneal dystrophies present particular biochemical features in that they are characterized by corneal amyloid deposition. Contrary to clinical and genetic knowledge, the biochemical characteristics of the encoded protein (Big-h3) and the mechanisms of its amyloid conversion remain unclear. We review the current knowledge on the Big-h3 protein and focus on the behavior of the codon 124 region. We discuss this protein's mechanisms of amyloid conversion from our results and previous reports as well as from other types of amyloidosis. These data provide a better understanding of the putative processes leading to the phenotypic variations linked with their respective codon 124 mutation. PMID:15179309

  9. Degradation of mRNAs that lack a stop codon: A decade of nonstop progress

    PubMed Central

    Klauer, A. Alejandra; van Hoof, Ambro

    2013-01-01

    Nonstop decay is the mechanism of identifying and disposing aberrant transcripts that lack in-frame stop codons. It is hypothesized that these transcripts are identified during translation when the ribosome arrives at the 3? end of the mRNA and stalls. Presumably the ribosome stalling recruits additional cofactors, Ski7 and the exosome complex. The exosome degrades the transcript using either one of is ribonucleolytic activities and the ribosome and the peptide are both released. Additional precautionary measures by the nonstop decay pathway may include translational repression of the nonstop transcript after translation, and proteolysis of the released peptide by the proteasome. This surveillance mechanism protects the cells from potentially harmful truncated proteins, but it may also be involved in mediating critical cellular functions of transcripts that are prone to stop codon read-through. Important advances have been made in the past decade as we learn that nonstop decay may have implications in human disease. PMID:22740367

  10. A POPULATION-SPECIFIC HTR2B STOP CODON PREDISPOSES TO SEVERE IMPULSIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Bevilacqua, Laura; Doly, Stéphane; Kaprio, Jaakko; Yuan, Qiaoping; Tikkanen, Roope; Paunio, Tiina; Zhou, Zhifeng; Wedenoja, Juho; Maroteaux, Luc; Diaz, Silvina; Belmer, Arnaud; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Dell’Osso, Liliana; Suvisaari, Jaana; Coccaro, Emil; Rose, Richard J; Peltonen, Leena; Virkkunen, Matti; Goldman, David

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Impulsivity, describing action without foresight, is an important feature of several psychiatric diseases, suicidality and violent behavior. The complex origins of impulsivity hinder identification of the genes influencing both it and diseases with which it is associated. We performed exon-centric sequencing of impulsive individuals in a founder population, targeting fourteen genes belonging to the serotonin and dopamine domain. A stop codon in HTR2B that is common (MAF >1%) but exclusive to Finns was identified. Expression of the gene in the human brain was assessed, as well as the molecular functionality of the stop codon that was associated with psychiatric diseases marked by impulsivity in both population and family-based analyses. Knockout of Htr2b increased impulsive behaviors in mice, indicative of predictive validity. Our study shows the potential for identifying and tracing effects of rare alleles in complex behavioral phenotypes using founder populations, and suggests a role for HTR2B in impulsivity. PMID:21179162

  11. Lack of IRS-1 codon 513 and 972 polymorphism in Pima Indians

    SciTech Connect

    Celi, F.S.; Silver, K.; Walston, J. [and others] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), a 1242 amino acid protein, an endogenous substrate for the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase, mediates many or all of the metabolic actions of insulin. Recently, polymorphism at codons 513 and 972 of the IRS-1 gene resulting in 2 amino acid substitutions that were associated with type II diabetes were found in a Caucasian population. Using allele specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridization, we screened 242 diabetic and 190 nondiabetic Pima Indians, a population with a very high prevalence of type II diabetes. Neither of the two mutations was present in either diabetic or nondiabetic subjects. We conclude that polymorphism at codons 513 and 972 of the IRS-1 gene observed in certain Caucasian populations is very rare or absent in Pima Indians. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Ancestral Codon Usage Bias Parameters in Rasmus Nielsen,* Vanessa L. Bauer DuMont, Melissa J. Hubisz, and Charles F. Aquadro

    E-print Network

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    ,* Vanessa L. Bauer DuMont,à Melissa J. Hubisz, and Charles F. Aquadroà *Institute of Biology and Centre in these species (i.e., Begun 2001; Kern et al. 2002; Bartolome´ et al. 2004; Bauer DuMont et al. 2004 (Akashi 1996; Bauer DuMont et al. 2004). Relaxation of constraint, presumably due to a reduction

  13. Evolutionary Adaptation of the Amino Acid and Codon Usage of the Mosquito Sodium Channel following Insecticide Selection in the Field Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Lee; Li, Ting; Zhang, Lan; He, Lin; Dong, Ke; Liu, Nannan

    2012-01-01

    Target site insensitivity resulting from point mutations within the voltage-gated sodium channel of the insect nervous system is known to be of primary importance in the development of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. This study shifts current research paradigms by conducting, for the first time, a global analysis of all the naturally occurring mutations, both nonsynonymous and synonymous mutations, as well as mutation combinations in the entire mosquito sodium channel of Culex quinquefasciatus and analyzing their evolutionary and heritable feature and roles in insecticide resistance. Through a systematic analysis of comparing nucleotide polymorphisms in the entire sodium channel cDNAs of individuals between susceptible and resistant mosquito strains, between field parental mosquitoes and their permethrin selected offspring, and among different mosquito groups categorized by their levels of tolerance to specific permethrin concentrations within and among the mosquito strains of the field parental strains and their permethrin selected offspring, 3 nonsynonymous (A109S, L982F, and W1573R) and 6 synonymous (L852, G891, A1241, D1245, P1249, and G1733) mutations were identified. The co-existence of all 9 mutations, both nonsynonymous and synonymous, and their homozygousity were found to be important factors for high levels of resistance. Our study, for the first time, provide a strong case demonstrating the co-existence of both nonsynonymous and synonymous mutations in the sodium channel of resistant mosquitoes in response to insecticide resistance and the inheritance of these mutations in the offspring of field mosquito strains following insecticide selection. PMID:23082181

  14. A global profile of replicative polymerase usage.

    PubMed

    Daigaku, Yasukazu; Keszthelyi, Andrea; Müller, Carolin A; Miyabe, Izumi; Brooks, Tony; Retkute, Renata; Hubank, Mike; Nieduszynski, Conrad A; Carr, Antony M

    2015-03-01

    Three eukaryotic DNA polymerases are essential for genome replication. Polymerase (Pol) ?-primase initiates each synthesis event and is rapidly replaced by processive DNA polymerases: Pol? replicates the leading strand, whereas Pol? performs lagging-strand synthesis. However, it is not known whether this division of labor is maintained across the whole genome or how uniform it is within single replicons. Using Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we have developed a polymerase usage sequencing (Pu-seq) strategy to map polymerase usage genome wide. Pu-seq provides direct replication-origin location and efficiency data and indirect estimates of replication timing. We confirm that the division of labor is broadly maintained across an entire genome. However, our data suggest a subtle variability in the usage of the two polymerases within individual replicons. We propose that this results from occasional leading-strand initiation by Pol? followed by exchange for Pol?. PMID:25664722

  15. Relationship between p53 gene codon-72 polymorphisms and hypertrophic scar formation following caesarean section

    PubMed Central

    GAO, JIANHUA; CHEN, YING; LIAO, NONG; ZHAO, WEI; ZENG, WEISEN; LI, YINGTAO; WANG, SHAOJING; LU, FENG

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between p53 gene codon-72 polymorphisms and hypertrophic scar formation following caesarean section (CS). Blood samples from 260 female patients were collected one week following a CS for the detection of p53 gene polymorphisms using a molecular beacon-coupled quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique. Patients had follow-ups for 12–18 months to observe the scar formation. From these observations, the relationship between the p53 codon-72 polymorphisms and hypertrophic scar formation occurrence was investigated. Among the patients with the CCC/CCC genotype, nine patients had hypertrophic scars and 46 patients showed normal healing, which is a ratio of 0.19. However, the follow-up investigations indicated that the presence of a homozygous or heterozygous C-to-G alteration at the codon-72 site in gene p53 resulted in 13 patients with hypertrophic scars and 192 patients with normal healing, which is a ratio of 0.07. Therefore, these results indicate that patients with the CCC/CCC genotype had a higher risk of developing hypertrophic scars compared with that for patients with the CCC/CGC or CGC/CGC genotypes. PMID:24940419

  16. New insights into stop codon recognition by eRF1

    PubMed Central

    Blanchet, Sandra; Rowe, Michelle; Von der Haar, Tobias; Fabret, Céline; Demais, Stéphane; Howard, Mark J.; Namy, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, translation termination is performed by eRF1, which recognizes stop codons via its N-terminal domain. Many previous studies based on point mutagenesis, cross-linking experiments or eRF1 chimeras have investigated the mechanism by which the stop signal is decoded by eRF1. Conserved motifs, such as GTS and YxCxxxF, were found to be important for termination efficiency, but the recognition mechanism remains unclear. We characterized a region of the eRF1 N-terminal domain, the P1 pocket, that we had previously shown to be involved in termination efficiency. We performed alanine scanning mutagenesis of this region, and we quantified in vivo readthrough efficiency for each alanine mutant. We identified two residues, arginine 65 and lysine 109, as critical for recognition of the three stop codons. We also demonstrated a role for the serine 33 and serine 70 residues in UGA decoding in vivo. NMR analysis of the alanine mutants revealed that the correct conformation of this region was controlled by the YxCxxxF motif. By combining our genetic data with a structural analysis of eRF1 mutants, we were able to formulate a new model in which the stop codon interacts with eRF1 through the P1 pocket. PMID:25735746

  17. A model-independent approach to infer hierarchical codon substitution dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Codon substitution constitutes a fundamental process in molecular biology that has been studied extensively. However, prior studies rely on various assumptions, e.g. regarding the relevance of specific biochemical properties, or on conservation criteria for defining substitution groups. Ideally, one would instead like to analyze the substitution process in terms of raw dynamics, independently of underlying system specifics. In this paper we propose a method for doing this by identifying groups of codons and amino acids such that these groups imply closed dynamics. The approach relies on recently developed spectral and agglomerative techniques for identifying hierarchical organization in dynamical systems. Results We have applied the techniques on an empirically derived Markov model of the codon substitution process that is provided in the literature. Without system specific knowledge of the substitution process, the techniques manage to "blindly" identify multiple levels of dynamics; from amino acid substitutions (via the standard genetic code) to higher order dynamics on the level of amino acid groups. We hypothesize that the acquired groups reflect earlier versions of the genetic code. Conclusions The results demonstrate the applicability of the techniques. Due to their generality, we believe that they can be used to coarse grain and identify hierarchical organization in a broad range of other biological systems and processes, such as protein interaction networks, genetic regulatory networks and food webs. PMID:20412602

  18. A method for multi-codon scanning mutagenesis of proteins based on asymmetric transposons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Cropp, T Ashton

    2012-02-01

    Random mutagenesis followed by selection or screening is a commonly used strategy to improve protein function. Despite many available methods for random mutagenesis, nearly all generate mutations at the nucleotide level. An ideal mutagenesis method would allow for the generation of 'codon mutations' to change protein sequence with defined or mixed amino acids of choice. Herein we report a method that allows for mutations of one, two or three consecutive codons. Key to this method is the development of a Mu transposon variant with asymmetric terminal sequences. As a demonstration of the method, we performed multi-codon scanning on the gene encoding superfolder GFP (sfGFP). Characterization of 50 randomly chosen clones from each library showed that more than 40% of the mutants in these three libraries contained seamless, in-frame mutations with low site preference. By screening only 500 colonies from each library, we successfully identified several spectra-shift mutations, including a S205D variant that was found to bear a single excitation peak in the UV region. PMID:22184456

  19. Structural Changes Enable Start Codon Recognition by the Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Complex

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Tanweer; Llácer, Jose L.; Fernández, Israel S.; Munoz, Antonio; Martin-Marcos, Pilar; Savva, Christos G.; Lorsch, Jon R.; Hinnebusch, Alan G.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary During eukaryotic translation initiation, initiator tRNA does not insert fully into the P decoding site on the 40S ribosomal subunit. This conformation (POUT) is compatible with scanning mRNA for the AUG start codon. Base pairing with AUG is thought to promote isomerization to a more stable conformation (PIN) that arrests scanning and promotes dissociation of eIF1 from the 40S subunit. Here, we present a cryoEM reconstruction of a yeast preinitiation complex at 4.0 Å resolution with initiator tRNA in the PIN state, prior to eIF1 release. The structure reveals stabilization of the codon-anticodon duplex by the N-terminal tail of eIF1A, changes in the structure of eIF1 likely instrumental in its subsequent release, and changes in the conformation of eIF2. The mRNA traverses the entire mRNA cleft and makes connections to the regulatory domain of eIF2?, eIF1A, and ribosomal elements that allow recognition of context nucleotides surrounding the AUG codon. PMID:25417110

  20. Self-catalytic DNA Depurination Underlies Human ?-Globin Gene Mutations at Codon 6 That Cause Anemias and Thalassemias*

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R.; Amosova, Olga; Fresco, Jacques R.

    2013-01-01

    The human ?-globin gene contains an 18-nucleotide coding strand sequence centered at codon 6 and capable of forming a stem-loop structure that can self-catalyze depurination of the 5?G residue of that codon. The resultant apurinic lesion is subject to error-prone repair, consistent with the occurrence about this codon of mutations responsible for 6 anemias and ?-thalassemias and additional substitutions without clinical consequences. The 4-residue loop of this stem-loop-forming sequence shows the highest incidence of mutation across the gene. The loop and first stem base pair-forming residues appeared early in the mammalian clade. The other stem-forming segments evolved more recently among primates, thereby conferring self-depurination capacity at codon 6. These observations indicate a conserved molecular mechanism leading to ?-globin variants underlying phenotypic diversity and disease. PMID:23457306

  1. Self-catalytic DNA depurination underlies human ?-globin gene mutations at codon 6 that cause anemias and thalassemias.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R; Amosova, Olga; Fresco, Jacques R

    2013-04-19

    The human ?-globin gene contains an 18-nucleotide coding strand sequence centered at codon 6 and capable of forming a stem-loop structure that can self-catalyze depurination of the 5'G residue of that codon. The resultant apurinic lesion is subject to error-prone repair, consistent with the occurrence about this codon of mutations responsible for 6 anemias and ?-thalassemias and additional substitutions without clinical consequences. The 4-residue loop of this stem-loop-forming sequence shows the highest incidence of mutation across the gene. The loop and first stem base pair-forming residues appeared early in the mammalian clade. The other stem-forming segments evolved more recently among primates, thereby conferring self-depurination capacity at codon 6. These observations indicate a conserved molecular mechanism leading to ?-globin variants underlying phenotypic diversity and disease. PMID:23457306

  2. Near-cognate suppression of amber, opal and quadruplet codons competes with aminoacyl-tRNAPyl for genetic code expansion

    PubMed Central

    O’Donoghue, Patrick; Prat, Laure; Heinemann, Ilka U.; Ling, Jiqiang; Odoi, Keturah; Liu, Wenshe R.; Söll, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Over 300 amino acids are found in proteins in nature, yet typically only 20 are genetically encoded. Reassigning stop codons and use of quadruplet codons emerged as the main avenues for genetically encoding non-canonical amino acids (NCAAs). Canonical aminoacyl-tRNAs with near-cognate anticodons also read these codons to some extent. This background suppression leads to ‘statistical protein’ that contains some natural amino acid(s) at a site intended for NCAA. We characterize near-cognate suppression of amber, opal and a quadruplet codon in common Escherichia coli laboratory strains and find that the PylRS/tRNAPyl orthogonal pair cannot completely outcompete contamination by natural amino acids. PMID:23036644

  3. Near-cognate suppression of amber, opal and quadruplet codons competes with aminoacyl-tRNAPyl for genetic code expansion.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Patrick; Prat, Laure; Heinemann, Ilka U; Ling, Jiqiang; Odoi, Keturah; Liu, Wenshe R; Söll, Dieter

    2012-11-01

    Over 300 amino acids are found in proteins in nature, yet typically only 20 are genetically encoded. Reassigning stop codons and use of quadruplet codons emerged as the main avenues for genetically encoding non-canonical amino acids (NCAAs). Canonical aminoacyl-tRNAs with near-cognate anticodons also read these codons to some extent. This background suppression leads to 'statistical protein' that contains some natural amino acid(s) at a site intended for NCAA. We characterize near-cognate suppression of amber, opal and a quadruplet codon in common Escherichia coli laboratory strains and find that the PylRS/tRNA(Pyl) orthogonal pair cannot completely outcompete contamination by natural amino acids. PMID:23036644

  4. Motivations and usage patterns of Weibo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixuan; Pentina, Iryna

    2012-06-01

    Referred to as "Weibo," microblogging in China has witnessed an exponential growth. In addition to the Twitter-like functionality, Weibo allows rich media uploads into user feeds, provides threaded comments, and offers applications, games, and Weibo medals. This expanded functionality, as well as the observed differences in trending content, suggests potentially different user motivations to join Weibo and their usage patterns compared to Twitter. This pioneering study identifies dominant Weibo user motivations and their effects on usage patterns. We discuss the findings of an online survey of 234 Weibo users and suggest managerial implications and future research directions. PMID:22703037

  5. The Genetic Code Degeneration I: Rules Governing the Code Degeneration and the Spatial Organization of the Codon Informative Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edmundo Rofman; Melina Rapacioli; Vladimir Flores

    2006-01-01

    The present work is devoted to describe a set of rules explaining the discriminating versus non-discriminating behavior of the di-basic stages and to characterize the role of each base in determining such a behavior. Bases are analyze as dual entities characterized by its chemical type and the number of H bonds involved in the codon-anticodon interaction. A codon is characterized

  6. Apolipoprotein B48 is the Product of a Messenger RNA with an Organ-Specific In-Frame Stop Codon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    San-Hwan Chen; Geetha Habib; Chao-Yuh Yang; Zi-Wei Gu; Bo Rong Lee; Shi-Ai Weng; Steven R. Silberman; Sheng-Jian Cai; J. P. Deslypere; Maryvonne Rosseneu; Antonio M. Gotto; Wen-Hsiung Li; Lawrence Chan

    1987-01-01

    The primary structure of human apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 has been deduced and shown by a combination of DNA excess hybridization, sequencing of tryptic peptides, cloned complementary DNAs, and intestinal messenger RNAs (mRNAs) to be the product of an intestinal mRNA with an in-frame UAA stop codon resulting from a C to U change in the codon CAA encoding Gln2153 in

  7. Harvey ras Genes Transform without Mutant Codons, Apparently Activated by Truncation of a 5' Exon (Exon --1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Cichutek; Peter H. Duesberg

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis is tested that the ras gene of Harvey sarcoma virus (Ha-SV) and the proto-ras DNAs from certain tumor cells derive transforming function from specific codons in which they differ from normal proto-ras genes. Molecularly cloned Harvey proviral vectors carrying viral ras, normal rat proto-ras, and recombinant ras genes in which the virus-specific ras codons 12 and 59 were

  8. Glycine to Aspartic Acid Mutations at Codon 13 of the c-Ki-ras Gene in Human Gastrointestinal Cancers1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhiko Nagata; Masumi Abe; Kohmei Kobayashi; Kuniko Yoshida; Tsunehisa Ishibashi; Tomoki Naoe; Eiichi Nakayama; Hiroshi Sliiktr

    1990-01-01

    Point mutations of c-ras genes were analyzed in human gastrointestinal cancers. DNA obtained from the tissues was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and then analyzed by dot blot hybridization assay with oligonucleotide probes to detect mutations at codons 12, 13, and 61 of c- Ki-ras, c-Ha-ras, and c-N-ras. In two of 25 cases of stomach cancer point mutations at codon

  9. Safety and efficacy of LigaSure usage in pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Oliver S; Goswami, Julie; Moore, Dirk; Chen, Chunxia; Brumbaugh, Jennifer; Gannon, Christopher J; August, David A; Carpizo, Darren R

    2013-01-01

    Background Over recent years, use of the LigaSure™ vessel sealing device has increased in major abdominal surgery to include pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). LigaSure™ use during PD has expanded to include all steps of the procedure, including the division of the uncinate margin. This introduces the potential for thermal major vascular injury or margin positivity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of LigaSure™ usage in PD in comparison to established dissection techniques. Methods One hundred and forty-eight patients who underwent PD from 2007 to 2012 at Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital were identified from a retrospective database. Two groups were recognized: those in which the LigaSure™ device was used (N = 114), and in those it was not (N = 34). Peri-operative outcomes were compared. Results Vascular intra-operative complications directly caused by thermal injury from LigaSure™ use occurred in 1.8% of patients. Overall vascular intra-operative complications, uncinate margin positivity, blood loss, length of stay, and complication severity were not significantly different between groups. The mean operative time was 77 min less (P < 0.010) in the LigaSure™ group. Savings per case where the LigaSure™ was used amounted to $1776.73. Conclusion LigaSure™ usage during PD is safe and effective. It is associated with decreased operative times, which may decrease operative costs in PD. PMID:23782268

  10. Integration-deficient Lentiviral Vectors Expressing Codon-optimized R338L Human FIX Restore Normal Hemostasis in Hemophilia B Mice

    PubMed Central

    Suwanmanee, Thipparat; Hu, Genlin; Gui, Tong; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; Kutschera, Ina; von Kalle, Christof; Schmidt, Manfred; Monahan, Paul E; Kafri, Tal

    2014-01-01

    Integration-deficient lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) have been shown to transduce a wide spectrum of target cells and organs in vitro and in vivo and to maintain long-term transgene expression in nondividing cells. However, epigenetic silencing of episomal vector genomes reduces IDLV transgene expression levels and renders these safe vectors less efficient. In this article, we describe for the first time a complete correction of factor IX (FIX) deficiency in hemophilia B mice by IDLVs carrying a novel, highly potent human FIX cDNA. A 50-fold increase in human FIX cDNA potency was achieved by combining two mechanistically independent yet synergistic strategies: (i) optimization of the human FIX cDNA codon usage to increase human FIX protein production per vector genome and (ii) generation of a highly catalytic mutant human FIX protein in which the arginine residue at position 338 was substituted with leucine. The enhanced human FIX activity was not associated with liver damage or with the formation of human FIX-directed inhibitory antibodies and rendered IDLV-treated FIX-knockout mice resistant to a challenging tail-clipping assay. A novel S1 nuclease-based B1-quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay showed low levels of IDLV integration in mouse liver. Overall, this study demonstrates that IDLVs carrying an improved human FIX cDNA safely and efficiently cure hemophilia B in a mouse model. PMID:23941813

  11. Integration-deficient lentiviral vectors expressing codon-optimized R338L human FIX restore normal hemostasis in Hemophilia B mice.

    PubMed

    Suwanmanee, Thipparat; Hu, Genlin; Gui, Tong; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; Kutschera, Ina; von Kalle, Christof; Schmidt, Manfred; Monahan, Paul E; Kafri, Tal

    2014-03-01

    Integration-deficient lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) have been shown to transduce a wide spectrum of target cells and organs in vitro and in vivo and to maintain long-term transgene expression in nondividing cells. However, epigenetic silencing of episomal vector genomes reduces IDLV transgene expression levels and renders these safe vectors less efficient. In this article, we describe for the first time a complete correction of factor IX (FIX) deficiency in hemophilia B mice by IDLVs carrying a novel, highly potent human FIX cDNA. A 50-fold increase in human FIX cDNA potency was achieved by combining two mechanistically independent yet synergistic strategies: (i) optimization of the human FIX cDNA codon usage to increase human FIX protein production per vector genome and (ii) generation of a highly catalytic mutant human FIX protein in which the arginine residue at position 338 was substituted with leucine. The enhanced human FIX activity was not associated with liver damage or with the formation of human FIX-directed inhibitory antibodies and rendered IDLV-treated FIX-knockout mice resistant to a challenging tail-clipping assay. A novel S1 nuclease-based B1-quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay showed low levels of IDLV integration in mouse liver. Overall, this study demonstrates that IDLVs carrying an improved human FIX cDNA safely and efficiently cure hemophilia B in a mouse model. PMID:23941813

  12. Synonymous codon bias and functional constraint on GC3-related DNA backbone dynamics in the prokaryotic nucleoid

    PubMed Central

    Babbitt, Gregory A.; Alawad, Mohammed A.; Schulze, Katharina V.; Hudson, André O.

    2014-01-01

    While mRNA stability has been demonstrated to control rates of translation, generating both global and local synonymous codon biases in many unicellular organisms, this explanation cannot adequately explain why codon bias strongly tracks neighboring intergene GC content; suggesting that structural dynamics of DNA might also influence codon choice. Because minor groove width is highly governed by 3-base periodicity in GC, the existence of triplet-based codons might imply a functional role for the optimization of local DNA molecular dynamics via GC content at synonymous sites (?GC3). We confirm a strong association between GC3-related intrinsic DNA flexibility and codon bias across 24 different prokaryotic multiple whole-genome alignments. We develop a novel test of natural selection targeting synonymous sites and demonstrate that GC3-related DNA backbone dynamics have been subject to moderate selective pressure, perhaps contributing to our observation that many genes possess extreme DNA backbone dynamics for their given protein space. This dual function of codons may impose universal functional constraints affecting the evolution of synonymous and non-synonymous sites. We propose that synonymous sites may have evolved as an ‘accessory’ during an early expansion of a primordial genetic code, allowing for multiplexed protein coding and structural dynamic information within the same molecular context. PMID:25200075

  13. White Paper on Electronic Journal Usage Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luther, Judy

    This paper provides a snapshot of developments in the electronic journal industry. The first section identifies issues affecting librarians and publishers, including: (1) issues of common concern to both publishers and librarians, e.g., lack of comparable data, lack of context, incomplete usage data, marketing, content provided, interface…

  14. Collaborative Portfolio's Effect on Library Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Library resources are expensive and it is the library media specialist's responsibility to ensure that use of the library's resources is maximized to support the School Strategic Plan (SSP). This library usage study examined data on the scheduling of high school classes for research-based assignments, related to content area curriculum standards,…

  15. The instrumented walker: usage patterns and forces.

    PubMed

    Fast, A; Wang, F S; Adrezin, R S; Cordaro, M A; Ramis, J; Sosner, J

    1995-05-01

    Studies documenting the forces that are transmitted through a walker's frame are still scant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pattern and magnitude of forces that are transmitted through the frame of a walker during ambulation. A standard aluminum walker was instrumented. Gauges, which were mounted on all four legs, recorded axial, frontal, and sagittally oriented forces. A custom made computerized system registered the forces during 30 seconds of data acquisition. Twelve patients with ambulation dysfunction were tested with this system. Two different usage patterns emerged from the study. One usage pattern was observed in patients who were using the walker as a mean to reduce the amount of weight transmitted through the lower extremity. The second pattern was observed in patients with severe balance problems. These patients used the walker to enhance their balance and stability. The system described allows walker usage pattern analysis. Better understanding of force distribution and usage patterns may lead to improved or new walker design. PMID:7741624

  16. Drug Usage Trends Among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girdano, Daniel A.; Girdano, Dorothy Dusek

    1974-01-01

    The health Education Department of the University of Maryland continuously monitors the drug usage trends on campus. The latest survey (fall, 1973) of 1,385 undergraduates at this school shows that student use of illicit drugs has increased. Alcohol is the most popular drug followed by marijuana, hashish, methaqualone and speed. (Author)

  17. Rhetoric and Usage in Technical Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Art

    Selecting criteria for usage is done in basically the same way for both technical writing and other forms of composition. Similarly, the same rhetorical theory applies to the teaching of both, and proves especially helpful in the teaching of formal report-writing skills in required freshman composition courses. Focusing on the appropriate voice,…

  18. Task and Activity Models in Hypertext Usage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-François Rouet; André Tricot

    In this chapter we examine hypertext usage from the point of view of the information processing tasks performed by hypertext users. Our main purpose is to provide a general framework to identify the tasks which may be effectively supported by hypertext environments. First we present different approaches to the analysis of information processing tasks, as they appear in hypertext and

  19. Discursive Usage of Six Chinese Punctuation Marks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YUE Ming

    2006-01-01

    Both rhetorical structure and punctuation have been helpful in discourse processing. Based on a corpus annotation project, this paper reports the discursive usage of 6 Chinese punctuation marks in news commentary texts: Colon, Dash, Ellipsis, Exclamation Mark, Question Mark, and Semicolon. The rhetorical patterns of these marks are compared against patterns around cue phrases in general. Results show that these

  20. Female Athletes and Performance-Enhancer Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fralinger, Barbara K.; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Olson, Valerie; Simpkins, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a knowledge base on factors associated with performance-enhancer usage among female athletes at the high school level in order to identify markers for a future prevention-education program. The study used a pretest-only, between-subjects Likert Scale survey to rank the importance of internal and external…

  1. College Student Performance and Credit Card Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Palmer, Todd Starr

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between credit card usage, employment, and academic performance among a group of college students with credit cards. Results reveal that the students differed significantly in the level of anxiety felt from carrying debt, perceived need to work, and perceived impact of employment on academic performance. (Contains 57…

  2. Google Scholar Usage: An Academic Library's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ya; Howard, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Google Scholar is a free service that provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly works and to connect patrons with the resources libraries provide. The researchers in this study analyzed Google Scholar usage data from 2006 for three library tools at San Francisco State University: SFX link resolver, Web Access Management proxy server,…

  3. Predicting Student Success via Online Homework Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Charles R.; Gulacar, Ozcan; King, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    With the amount of data available through an online homework system about students' study habits, it stands to reason that such systems can be used to identify likely student outcomes. A study was conducted to see how student usage of an online chemistry homework system (OWL) correlated with student success in a general chemistry course.…

  4. Twitter Usage of Universities in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yolcu, Ozgu

    2013-01-01

    Universities are among the users of the most popular social media networks. Usage of social media by especially students and many other people and institutions, which constitutes the target audience for universities, encourages the universities to effectively use this environment. Twitter is among these social media networks which facilitate the…

  5. Individual differences in Internet usage motives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tel Amiel; Stephanie Lee Sargent

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between the psychobiological model of personality types (psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism) devised by Eysenck and Eysenck [Personality and individual differences: A natural science approach, Plenum Press, New York, 1985] and Internet use and usage motives was examined. A sample of 210 undergraduate students were asked to report on their motives for using the Internet and how often they

  6. Production, Usage, and Comprehension in Animal Vocalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we place equal emphasis on production, usage, and comprehension because these components of communication may exhibit different developmental trajectories and be affected by different neural mechanisms. In the animal kingdom generally, learned, flexible vocal production is rare, appearing in only a few orders of birds and few…

  7. Opportunities for white space usage in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. Freyens; M. Loney

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the scope and nature of opp ortunities for white space devices to operate in the UHF band in Australia after the digital dividend. We identify opportunities for white space usage in the reduced UHF band to be used for television services as well as in nearby guard bands. We extend the discussion to the longer-term by examining scenarios

  8. Style and Usage Software: Mentor, not Judge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smye, Randy

    Computer software style and usage checkers can encourage students' recursive revision strategies. For example, HOMER is based on the revision pedagogy presented in Richard Lanham's "Revising Prose," while Grammatik II focuses on readability, passive voice, and possibly misused words or phrases. Writer's Workbench "Style" (a UNIX program) provides…

  9. The Scope of Usage-Based Theory

    PubMed Central

    Ibbotson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Usage-based approaches typically draw on a relatively small set of cognitive processes, such as categorization, analogy, and chunking to explain language structure and function. The goal of this paper is to first review the extent to which the “cognitive commitment” of usage-based theory has had success in explaining empirical findings across domains, including language acquisition, processing, and typology. We then look at the overall strengths and weaknesses of usage-based theory and highlight where there are significant debates. Finally, we draw special attention to a set of culturally generated structural patterns that seem to lie beyond the explanation of core usage-based cognitive processes. In this context we draw a distinction between cognition permitting language structure vs. cognition entailing language structure. As well as addressing the need for greater clarity on the mechanisms of generalizations and the fundamental units of grammar, we suggest that integrating culturally generated structures within existing cognitive models of use will generate tighter predictions about how language works. PMID:23658552

  10. Nutritional supplements usage by Portuguese athletes.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Mónica; Fernandes, Maria João; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor Hugo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we determined the prevalence of nutritional supplements (NS) usage, the type of supplements used, the reasons for usage, and the source of nutritional advice among Portuguese athletes. Two hundred ninety-two athletes (68 % male, 12 - 37 years old) from 13 national sports federations completed a questionnaire that sought information on socio-demographics, sports data, and NS usage. Most athletes (66 %) consumed NS, with a median consumption of 4 supplements per athlete. The most popular supplements included multivitamins/minerals (67 %), sport drinks (62 %), and magnesium (53 %). Significant differences for the type of NS consumed were found between gender and age groups and the number of weekly training hours. Most athletes used NS to accelerate recovery (63 %), improve sports performance (62 %), and have more energy/reduce fatigue (60 %). Athletes sought advice on supplementation mainly from physicians (56 %) and coaches (46 %). Age and gender were found to influence reasons for use and the source of information. Reasons for NS usage were supported scientifically in some cases (e. g., muscle gain upon protein supplementation), but others did not have a scientific basis (e. g., use of glutamine and magnesium). Given the high percentage of NS users, there is an urgent need to provide athletes with education and access to scientific and unbiased information, so that athletes can make assertive and rational choices about the utilization of these products. PMID:24220164

  11. Context-dependent codon partition models provide significant increases in model fit in atpB and rbcL protein-coding genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Accurate modelling of substitution processes in protein-coding sequences is often hampered by the computational burdens associated with full codon models. Lately, codon partition models have been proposed as a viable alternative, mimicking the substitution behaviour of codon models at a low computational cost. Such codon partition models however impose independent evolution of the different codon positions, which is overly restrictive from a biological point of view. Given that empirical research has provided indications of context-dependent substitution patterns at four-fold degenerate sites, we take those indications into account in this paper. Results We present so-called context-dependent codon partition models to assess previous empirical claims that the evolution of four-fold degenerate sites is strongly dependent on the composition of its two flanking bases. To this end, we have estimated and compared various existing independent models, codon models, codon partition models and context-dependent codon partition models for the atpB and rbcL genes of the chloroplast genome, which are frequently used in plant systematics. Such context-dependent codon partition models employ a full dependency scheme for four-fold degenerate sites, whilst maintaining the independence assumption for the first and second codon positions. Conclusions We show that, both in the atpB and rbcL alignments of a collection of land plants, these context-dependent codon partition models significantly improve model fit over existing codon partition models. Using Bayes factors based on thermodynamic integration, we show that in both datasets the same context-dependent codon partition model yields the largest increase in model fit compared to an independent evolutionary model. Context-dependent codon partition models hence perform closer to codon models, which remain the best performing models at a drastically increased computational cost, compared to codon partition models, but remain computationally interesting alternatives to codon models. Finally, we observe that the substitution patterns in both datasets are drastically different, leading to the conclusion that combined analysis of these two genes using a single model may not be advisable from a context-dependent point of view. PMID:21619569

  12. Translational efficiency of the Escherichia coli adenylate cyclase gene: mutating the UUG initiation codon to GUG or AUG results in increased gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, P; Peterkofsky, A; McKenney, K

    1985-01-01

    Roy et al. [Roy, A., Haziza, C. & Danchin, A. (1983) EMBO J. 2, 791-797] established that translation of Escherichia coli adenylate cyclase initiates at a UUG codon, and they suggested this might decrease the efficiency of translation. We investigated the effect of varying the initiation codon on the expression of the adenylate cyclase (cya) gene. Using oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis, we changed the UUG initiation codon to GUG and the more common initiator AUG and assayed for cya gene expression in a number of ways. First, the GUG initiation codon, in place of UUG, doubled cya expression when cya was expressed from the dual cya P1/P2 promoters. The corresponding AUG codon construct was nonviable. Second, when the cya gene was placed under the transcriptional control of the thermoinducible phage lambda PL promoter, the relative amounts of cya gene product were 1:2:6 for the UUG, GUG, and AUG initiation codons, respectively. Finally, the cya P2 promoter, Shine-Dalgarno sequence, and the DNA corresponding to the first 86 codons of cya were fused to DNA encoding the E. coli galactokinase gene beginning at the second codon. The relative amounts of the fusion polypeptides, which had galactokinase activity, were 1:2:3 for the UUG, GUG, and AUG initiation codons, respectively. These results demonstrate that the cya UUG initiation codon limits cya expression at the level of translation. PMID:3898067

  13. Comparing internet and mobile phone usage: digital divides of usage, adoption, and dropouts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald E. Rice; James E. Katz

    2003-01-01

    Results from a national representative telephone survey of Americans in 2000 show that Internet and mobile phone usage was very similar, and that several digital divides exist with respect to both Internet and mobile phone usage. The study identifies and analyzes three kinds of digital divides for both the Internet and mobile phones—users\\/nonuser, veteran\\/recent, and continuing\\/dropout—and similarities and differences among

  14. Limitations of the 'ambush hypothesis' at the single-gene scale: what codon biases are to blame?

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Robert L; Abdel-Hameed, Mona; Sorensen, John L

    2015-04-01

    Ribosomal frameshifting, a translational error, catastrophically alters the amino acid composition of the nascent protein by shifting the reading frame from the intended contiguous trinucleotide reading. Frameshift events waste energy and resources, and peptide products have unpredictable cytotoxic effects. The 'Ambush Hypothesis' (Seligmann and Pollock 2004, DNA Cell Biol 23:701-5) suggests there is a selective pressure favouring the evolution of out-of-frame ('hidden') stop codons. Although this hypothesis has gained empirical support through whole-genome studies, it is presently unknown whether it can be applied at a single-gene scale. Herein, we report such an investigation using the gene, polyketide synthase (PKS), among species of fungi. Contrary to expectation, genes presented with significantly lower number of hidden stop codons than expected in a selection-neutral model (p < 0.0005), suggesting both non-adherence to the ambush hypothesis as well as suppression of hidden stop codon evolution. It is known that there are multiple adaptive considerations determining codon selection during evolution, and that the information-holding potential of the genetic code is finite. We hypothesize that the reason for low hidden stops in PKS genes is due to competing 'codon biases' that are prioritized over the selective pressure favouring the emergence of hidden stops. Future studies of the ambush hypothesis in the context of other drivers of codon bias may allow this hypothesis to be molded into a comprehensive genetic theory that can be integrated within the broader genetic theory of codon bias and applied to the genetic code at any scale of analysis. PMID:25307067

  15. Yeast mitochondrial threonyl-tRNA synthetase recognizes tRNA isoacceptors by distinct mechanisms and promotes CUN codon reassignment

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Jiqiang; Peterson, Kaitlyn M.; Simonovic, Ivana; Cho, Chris; Soll, Dieter; Simonovic, Miljan (Yale) [Yale; (UIC)

    2014-03-12

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) ensure faithful translation of mRNA into protein by coupling an amino acid to a set of tRNAs with conserved anticodon sequences. Here, we show that in mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a single aaRS (MST1) recognizes and aminoacylates two natural tRNAs that contain anticodon loops of different size and sequence. Besides a regular ?? with a threonine (Thr) anticodon, MST1 also recognizes an unusual ??, which contains an enlarged anticodon loop and an anticodon triplet that reassigns the CUN codons from leucine to threonine. Our data show that MST1 recognizes the anticodon loop in both tRNAs, but employs distinct recognition mechanisms. The size but not the sequence of the anticodon loop is critical for ?? recognition, whereas the anticodon sequence is essential for aminoacylation of ??. The crystal structure of MST1 reveals that, while lacking the N-terminal editing domain, the enzyme closely resembles the bacterial threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS). A detailed structural comparison with Escherichia coli ThrRS, which is unable to aminoacylate ??, reveals differences in the anticodon-binding domain that probably allow recognition of the distinct anticodon loops. Finally, our mutational and modeling analyses identify the structural elements in MST1 (e.g., helix {alpha}11) that define tRNA selectivity. Thus, MTS1 exemplifies that a single aaRS can recognize completely divergent anticodon loops of natural isoacceptor tRNAs and that in doing so it facilitates the reassignment of the genetic code in yeast mitochondria.

  16. Comparative Mitogenomics of Plant Bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae): Identifying the AGG Codon Reassignments between Serine and Lysine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei; Song, Fan; Cai, Wanzhi

    2014-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genomes are very important to understand the molecular evolution as well as for phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies of the insects. The Miridae are the largest family of Heteroptera encompassing more than 11,000 described species and of great economic importance. For better understanding the diversity and the evolution of plant bugs, we sequence five new mitochondrial genomes and present the first comparative analysis of nine mitochondrial genomes of mirids available to date. Our result showed that gene content, gene arrangement, base composition and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor were conserved in plant bugs. Intra-genus species shared more conserved genomic characteristics, such as nucleotide and amino acid composition of protein-coding genes, secondary structure and anticodon mutations of tRNAs, and non-coding sequences. Control region possessed several distinct characteristics, including: variable size, abundant tandem repetitions, and intra-genus conservation; and was useful in evolutionary and population genetic studies. The AGG codon reassignments were investigated between serine and lysine in the genera Adelphocoris and other cimicomorphans. Our analysis revealed correlated evolution between reassignments of the AGG codon and specific point mutations at the antidocons of tRNALys and tRNASer(AGN). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that mitochondrial genome sequences were useful in resolving family level relationship of Cimicomorpha. Comparative evolutionary analysis of plant bug mitochondrial genomes allowed the identification of previously neglected coding genes or non-coding regions as potential molecular markers. The finding of the AGG codon reassignments between serine and lysine indicated the parallel evolution of the genetic code in Hemiptera mitochondrial genomes. PMID:24988409

  17. Attenuation of human respiratory syncytial virus by genome-scale codon-pair deoptimization.

    PubMed

    Le Nouën, Cyril; Brock, Linda G; Luongo, Cindy; McCarty, Thomas; Yang, Lijuan; Mehedi, Masfique; Wimmer, Eckard; Mueller, Steffen; Collins, Peter L; Buchholz, Ursula J; DiNapoli, Joshua M

    2014-09-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral agent of serious pediatric respiratory-tract disease worldwide. A vaccine or generally effective antiviral drug is not yet available. We designed new live attenuated RSV vaccine candidates by codon-pair deoptimization (CPD). Specifically, viral ORFs were recoded by rearranging existing synonymous codons to increase the content of underrepresented codon pairs. Amino acid coding was completely unchanged. Four CPD RSV genomes were designed in which the indicated ORFs were recoded: Min A (NS1, NS2, N, P, M, and SH), Min B (G and F), Min L (L), and Min FLC (all ORFs except M2-1 and M2-2). Surprisingly, the recombinant CPD viruses were temperature-sensitive for replication in vitro (level of sensitivity: Min FLC > Min L > Min B > Min A). All of the CPD mutants grew less efficiently in vitro than recombinant wild-type (WT) RSV, even at the typically permissive temperature of 32 °C (growth efficiency: WT > Min L > Min A > Min FLC > Min B). CPD of the ORFs for the G and F surface glycoproteins provided the greatest restrictive effect. The CPD viruses exhibited a range of restriction in mice and African green monkeys comparable with that of two attenuated RSV strains presently in clinical trials. This study provided a new type of attenuated RSV and showed that CPD can rapidly generate vaccine candidates against nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses, a large and expanding group that includes numerous pathogens of humans and animals. PMID:25157129

  18. Impact of TP53 Codon 72 and MDM2 SNP 309 Polymorphisms in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Yasuki; Miyabe, Katsuyuki; Yoshida, Michihiro; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Hayashi, Kazuki; Naitoh, Itaru; Shimizu, Shuya; Kondo, Hiromu; Nishi, Yuji; Umemura, Shuichiro; Kato, Akihisa; Ohara, Hirotaka; Inagaki, Hiroshi; Joh, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TP53 (codon 72, rs1042522) and MDM2 promoter (SNP 309, rs2279744) have been associated with risk for various human cancers. However, studies analyzing these polymorphisms in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are lacking. We investigated TP53 codon 72 and MDM2 SNP 309 polymorphisms in 32 patients with PDAC, 16 patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP), and 32 normal controls, using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. We also examined TP53 and MDM2 protein immunohistochemistry (IHC) to assess the involvement of these differences in malignant transformation and disease progression. TP53 Pro/Pro genotype was significantly more frequent in PDAC patients than in controls (65.6 vs. 15.6%, p < 0.001) and no significant difference was found between CP patients (37.5%) and controls. In MDM2 SNP 309, there were no significant differences among the three groups. Based on the Kaplan-Meier analysis, overall survival was significantly shorter in MDM2 G/G genotypes compared with other genotypes (G/T and T/T) (359 vs. 911 days, p = 0.016) whereas no significant differences in TP53 genotypes were observed (638 vs. 752 days, p = 0.471). Although TP53 IHC was frequent in PDAC patients (53.1%), TP53 and MDM2 protein expression was not correlated with polymorphisms. Our study demonstrated TP53 codon 72 polymorphism is potentially a genetic predisposing factor while MDM2 SNP 309 polymorphism might be useful in predicting survival outcome. PMID:25734904

  19. Nonsense-mediated translational repression involves exon junction complex downstream of premature translation termination codon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Chul; Oh, Nara; Cho, Hana; Choe, Junho; Kim, Yoon Ki

    2010-02-19

    Human transforming growth factor-beta receptor type 2 (TGFbetaR2) mRNA harboring a premature translation termination codon (PTC) generated by frameshift mutation is targeted for nonsense-mediated translational repression (NMTR), rather than nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Here we show that exon junction complex (EJC) downstream of a PTC plays an inhibitory role in translation of TGFbetaR2 mRNA. Translational repression by core EJC components occurs after formation of 80S ribosome complex, which is demonstrated using different types of internal ribosome entry sites (IRESes). Our findings implicate EJCs or core EJC components as negative regulators of translation. PMID:20067791

  20. Historical review of medicinal plants’ usage

    PubMed Central

    Petrovska, Biljana Bauer

    2012-01-01

    Healing with medicinal plants is as old as mankind itself. The connection between man and his search for drugs in nature dates from the far past, of which there is ample evidence from various sources: written documents, preserved monuments, and even original plant medicines. Awareness of medicinal plants usage is a result of the many years of struggles against illnesses due to which man learned to pursue drugs in barks, seeds, fruit bodies, and other parts of the plants. Contemporary science has acknowledged their active action, and it has included in modern pharmacotherapy a range of drugs of plant origin, known by ancient civilizations and used throughout the millennia. The knowledge of the development of ideas related to the usage of medicinal plants as well as the evolution of awareness has increased the ability of pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges that have emerged with the spreading of professional services in facilitation of man's life. PMID:22654398

  1. Monitoring Object Library Usage and Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, R. K.; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Ames Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation program Aeronautics Consolidated Supercomputing Facility (NAS/ACSF) supercomputing center services over 1600 users, and has numerous analysts with root access. Several tools have been developed to monitor object library usage and changes. Some of the tools do "noninvasive" monitoring and other tools implement run-time logging even for object-only libraries. The run-time logging identifies who, when, and what is being used. The benefits are that real usage can be measured, unused libraries can be discontinued, training and optimization efforts can be focused at those numerical methods that are actually used. An overview of the tools will be given and the results will be discussed.

  2. Space Shuttle Usage of z/OS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the avionics associated with the Space Shuttle's data processing system and its usage of z/OS. The contents include: 1) Mission, Products, and Customers; 2) Facility Overview; 3) Shuttle Data Processing System; 4) Languages and Compilers; 5) Application Tools; 6) Shuttle Flight Software Simulator; 7) Software Development and Build Tools; and 8) Fun Facts and Acronyms.

  3. Vegetarianism and Supplement Usage among College Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kim; N. Boudreau; J. Williford; J. Miller

    1997-01-01

    LEARNING OUTCOME: To examine the practices of vegetarianism and supplement usage among college students.Using questionnaires, 1,211 female and 655 male college students were surveyed concerning their diet practices. The participants were random with regard to major, age, sex and race. The choices for diet groups in the survey were: Vegetarian, Red-Meat Abstainer, and Nonvegetarian. The survey showed that there were

  4. Monitoring the Evolution of Web Usage Patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steffan Baron; Myra Spiliopoulou

    2003-01-01

    With the ongoing shift from o-line to on-line business pro- cesses, the Web has become an important business platform, and for most companies it is crucial to have an on-line presence which can be used to gather information about their products and\\/or services. How- ever, in many cases there is a dierence between the intended and the eective usage of

  5. Internet Usage Status among Chinese College Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Li

    2008-01-01

    The study was carried out to determine Internet usage status among Chinese college students and how personal differences impact\\u000a students’ online activities. Quantitative research was employed and the findings were descriptive in nature. Results showed\\u000a that the majority (80%) of participating Zhejiang University (ZJU) students (N=596) currently owned PCs. Averagely, they spent\\u000a 3.11 hrs per day using computer, within which

  6. Context-Aware Usage Control for Android

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangdong Bai; Liang Gu; Tao Feng; Yao Guo; Xiangqun Chen

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a The security of smart phones is increasingly important due to their rapid popularity. Mobile computing on smart phones introduces\\u000a many new characteristics such as personalization, mobility, pay-for-service and limited resources. These features require\\u000a additional privacy protection and resource usage constraints in addition to the security and privacy concerns on traditional\\u000a computers. As one of the leading open source mobile platform,

  7. Urologists' usage and perceptions of urological apps.

    PubMed

    Dempster, Niall J; Risk, Rachel; Clark, Ross; Meddings, Robert N

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a survey of urologists to document their patterns of app usage and perceptions of app quality, and to assess their interest in future app usage. The survey was sent to all urologists on the mailing list of the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) (n=1613). A total of 115 responses were received (a response rate of 7%). Most respondents (89%) owned mobile devices capable of downloading apps. Most respondents (79%) used apps and about half (49%) used urological apps; the latter accessed a mean of 2.4 urological apps per month. Significantly more younger (defined as <45 years old) than older urologists used urological apps (P<0.001). Respondents' perception of the overall quality of apps produced for both urologists and patients was relatively low. The respondents' interest in future app usage was strong. There was greatest interest in apps such as logbooks or revalidation ones (87%), reference apps (86%) and ones which aided decision-making (85%). There was considerable support for the implementation of measures to provide urological app quality assurance; most respondents believed app peer review (78%) and validation (78%) would be beneficial and 48% supported regulatory oversight. There appears to be a need for high quality urological apps and opportunities therefore exist for national urological associations and academic units to lead developments. PMID:25316043

  8. Mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I of Manduca sexta and a comparison with other invertebrate genes.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, D R; Stevenson, B A; Peterson, A M; Wells, M A

    1996-04-01

    A cDNA encoding mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mt COI) from Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) was cloned and sequenced. AT (adenine-thymine) content is high and codon usage is biased and likely reflects the role of mt COI in electron transport. The encoded protein is 514 amino acids long, contains seven invariant His residues observed in COIs in all organisms and would be predicted to be composed of 12 transmembrane regions. PMID:8925445

  9. Usage-Based versus Measure-Based Unit Pricing: Is there a Better Index of Value?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Kwortnik Jr; Elizabeth H. Creyer; William T. Ross Jr

    2006-01-01

    In many product categories, unit prices facilitate price comparisons across brands and package sizes; this enables consumers\\u000a to identify those products that provide the greatest value. However in other product categories, unit prices may be confusing.\\u000a This is because there are two types of unit pricing, measure-based and usage-based. Measure-based unit prices are what the\\u000a name implies; price is expressed

  10. Experience with the use of the Codonics Safe Label System(™) to improve labelling compliance of anaesthesia drugs.

    PubMed

    Ang, S B L; Hing, W C; Tung, S Y; Park, T

    2014-07-01

    The Codonics Safe Labeling System(™) (http://www.codonics.com/Products/SLS/flash/) is a piece of equipment that is able to barcode scan medications, read aloud the medication and the concentration and print a label of the appropriate concentration in the appropriate colour code. We decided to test this system in our facility to identify risks, benefits and usability. Our project comprised a baseline survey (25 anaesthesia cases during which 212 syringes were prepared from 223 drugs), an observational study (47 cases with 330 syringes prepared) and a user acceptability survey. The baseline compliance with all labelling requirements was 58%. In the observational study the compliance using the Codonics system was 98.6% versus 63.8% with conventional labelling. In the user acceptability survey the majority agreed the Codonics machine was easy to use, more legible and adhered with better security than the conventional preprinted label. However, most were neutral when asked about the likelihood of flexibility and customisation and were dissatisfied with the increased workload. Our findings suggest that the Codonics labelling machine is user-friendly and it improved syringe labelling compliance in our study. However, staff need to be willing to follow proper labelling workflow rather than batch label during preparation. Future syringe labelling equipment developers need to concentrate on user interface issues to reduce human factor and workflow problems. Support logistics are also an important consideration prior to implementation of any new labelling system. PMID:24967766

  11. On the Importance of Oxidative Folding in the Evolution of Conotoxins: Cysteine Codon Preservation through Gene Duplication and Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Andrew M.; Bulaj, Grzegorz; Puillandre, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Conotoxin genes are among the most rapidly evolving genes currently known; however, despite the well-established hypervariability of the intercysteine loops, the cysteines demonstrate significant conservation, with a site-specific codon bias for each cysteine in a family of conotoxins. Herein we present a novel rationale behind the codon-level conservation of the cysteines that comprise the disulfide scaffold. We analyze cysteine codon conservation using an internal reference and phylogenetic tools; our results suggest that the established codon conservation can be explained as the result of selective pressures linked to the production efficiency and folding of conotoxins, driving the conservation of cysteine at the amino-acid level. The preservation of cysteine has resulted in maintenance of the ancestral codon in most of the daughter lineages, despite the hypervariability of adjacent residues. We propose that the selective pressures acting on the venom components of cone snails involve an interplay of biosynthetic efficiency, activity at the target receptor and the importance of that activity to effective prey immobilization. Functional redundancy in the venom can thus serve as a buffer for the energy expenditure of venom production. PMID:24244311

  12. Ribosomal Readthrough at a Short UGA Stop Codon Context Triggers Dual Localization of Metabolic Enzymes in Fungi and Animals

    PubMed Central

    Schink, Kay O.; Stehlik, Thorsten; Tillmann, Britta A. M.; Ast, Julia; Bölker, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Translation of mRNA into a polypeptide chain is a highly accurate process. Many prokaryotic and eukaryotic viruses, however, use leaky termination of translation to optimize their coding capacity. Although growing evidence indicates the occurrence of ribosomal readthrough also in higher organisms, a biological function for the resulting extended proteins has been elucidated only in very few cases. Here, we report that in human cells programmed stop codon readthrough is used to generate peroxisomal isoforms of cytosolic enzymes. We could show for NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB) and NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase 1 (MDH1) that translational readthrough results in C-terminally extended protein variants containing a peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (PTS1). Efficient readthrough occurs at a short sequence motif consisting of a UGA termination codon followed by the dinucleotide CU. Leaky termination at this stop codon context was observed in fungi and mammals. Comparative genome analysis allowed us to identify further readthrough-derived peroxisomal isoforms of metabolic enzymes in diverse model organisms. Overall, our study highlights that a defined stop codon context can trigger efficient ribosomal readthrough to generate dually targeted protein isoforms. We speculate that beyond peroxisomal targeting stop codon readthrough may have also other important biological functions, which remain to be elucidated. PMID:25340584

  13. Supervisor's User Guide (Exempt Employees--Web): Leave Usage Genie

    E-print Network

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    Supervisor's User Guide (Exempt Employees--Web): Leave Usage Genie Purpose_____ The Leave Usage Genie allows you to review timecard approvals and leave taken by the employees that you supervise in to CalTime." 2. Go to the Leave Usage Genie by clicking on its link underneath the My Genies tab

  14. Research article Statistics usage by French academic libraries a

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    a survey on usage statistics management in academic libraries in France. The objective is to provide1/15 Research article Statistics usage by French academic libraries ­ a survey Chérifa BOUKACEM academic libraries answered to the survey. Results show that usage statistics are crucial

  15. A Structural Equation Model for ICT Usage in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usluel, Yasemin Kocak; Askar, Petek; Bas, Turgay

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) usage, which is the indicator of diffusion. A model composed of the variables which can explain ICT usage in Turkish higher education is established and tested within the study. The two dimensions of ICT usage are considered: instructional and managerial. The data collected…

  16. A diary study of password usage in daily life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiji Hayashi; Jason Hong

    2011-01-01

    While past work has examined password usage on a specific computer, web site, or organization, there is little work examining overall password usage in daily life. Through a diary study, we examine all usage of passwords, and offer some new findings based on quantitative analyses regarding how often people log in, where they log in, and how frequently people use

  17. A session-based empirical investigation of web usage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Christ; Steffan Baron; Ramayya Krishnan; Daniel Nagin; Oliver Günther

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study of Web usage of 139 users over a 8 month period of time. It uses a longitudinal Web log analysis of the URLs accessed during 33916 user-days of Web usage. It aims to detect changes in Web usage associated with increased experience of using the Web. Specifically, it answers the question whether

  18. Codon optimization, expression, and characterization of recombinant lumbrokinase in goat milk.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rongliang; Zhang, Shoufeng; Liang, Huiying; Li, Ning; Tu, Changchun

    2004-09-01

    Lumbrokinase is an important fibrinolytic enzyme derived from earthworm. Although its cDNA has been isolated and sequenced, there is still no report on expression of the lumbrokinase due to unknown reasons. To determine the elements affecting the expression of lumbrokinase, two copies of a lumbrokinase cDNA(w) obtained by RT-PCR and a synthesized lumbrokinase cDNA(m) with optimized codons were cloned into a mammary-gland-specific expression vector pIbCP. The pIbCP-LK-LK vector preparations were directly injected in the lactating goat mammary glands. Results showed that both LK-w and LK-m were successfully expressed in goat milk. The fibrinolytic activity of the LK-w in milk was 225,000 +/- 13,200 tPA units/L, while that of the LK-m was 550,000 +/- 21,600 tPA units/L, indicating that the codon optimization plays an important role in improving the lumbrokinase expression. The molecular weight of the recombinant lumbrokinase is 31.8 kDa. The main physiochemical features of the recombinant lumbrokinase, including temperature stability, pH resistance, and sensitivity to pepsin, were also clarified. This is the first report on expression and characterization of a genetically engineered lumbrokinase. PMID:15294284

  19. Substrate-mediated Fidelity Mechanism Ensures Accurate Decoding of Proline Codons*

    PubMed Central

    So, Byung Ran; An, Songon; Kumar, Sandeep; Das, Mom; Turner, Daniel A.; Hadad, Christopher M.; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases attach specific amino acids to cognate tRNAs. Prolyl-tRNA synthetases are known to mischarge tRNAPro with the smaller amino acid alanine and with cysteine, which is the same size as proline. Quality control in proline codon translation is partly ensured by an editing domain (INS) present in most bacterial prolyl-tRNA synthetases that hydrolyzes smaller Ala-tRNAPro and excludes Pro-tRNAPro. In contrast, Cys-tRNAPro is cleared by a freestanding INS domain homolog, YbaK. Here, we have investigated the molecular mechanism of catalysis and substrate recognition by Hemophilus influenzae YbaK using site-directed mutagenesis, enzymatic assays of isosteric substrates and functional group analogs, and computational modeling. These studies together with mass spectrometric characterization of the YbaK-catalyzed reaction products support a novel substrate-assisted mechanism of Cys-tRNAPro deacylation that prevents nonspecific Pro-tRNAPro hydrolysis. Collectively, we propose that the INS and YbaK domains co-evolved distinct mechanisms involving steric exclusion and thiol-specific chemistry, respectively, to ensure accurate decoding of proline codons. PMID:21768119

  20. TP53 codon 72 polymorphism affects accumulation of mtDNA damage in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Altilia, Serena; Santoro, Aurelia; Malagoli, Davide; Lanzarini, Catia; Álvarez, Josué Adolfo Ballesteros; Galazzo, Gianluca; Porter, Donald Carl; Crocco, Paolina; Rose, Giuseppina; Passarino, Giuseppe; Roninson, Igor Boris; Franceschi, Claudio; Salvioli, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Human TP53 gene is characterised by a polymorphism at codon 72 leading to an Arginine-to-Proline (R/P) substitution. The two resulting p53 isoforms have a different subcellular localisation after stress (more nuclear or more mitochondrial for the P or R isoform, respectively). p53P72 variant is more efficient than p53R72 in inducing the expression of genes involved in nuclear DNA repair. Since p53 is involved also in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance, we wondered whether these p53 isoforms are associated with different accumulation of mtDNA damage. We observed that cells bearing p53R72 accumulate lower amount of mtDNA damage upon rotenone stress with respect to cells bearing p53P72, and that p53R72 co-localises with polymerase gamma more than p53P72. We also analysed the in vivo accumulation of heteroplasmy in a 300 bp fragment of mtDNA D-loop of 425 aged subjects. We observed that subjects with heteroplasmy higher than 5% are significantly less than expected in the p53R72/R72 group. On the whole, these data suggest that the polymorphism of TP53 at codon 72 affects the accumulation of mtDNA mutations, likely through the different ability of the two p53 isoforms to bind to polymerase gamma, and may contribute to in vivo accumulation of mtDNA mutations. PMID:22289634

  1. Nucleotide modifications and tRNA anticodon–mRNA codon interactions on the ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Allnér, Olof; Nilsson, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    We have carried out molecular dynamics simulations of the tRNA anticodon and mRNA codon, inside the ribosome, to study the effect of the common tRNA modifications cmo5U34 and m6A37. In tRNAVal, these modifications allow all four nucleotides to be successfully read at the wobble position in a codon. Previous data suggest that entropic effects are mainly responsible for the extended reading capabilities, but detailed mechanisms have remained unknown. We have performed a wide range of simulations to elucidate the details of these mechanisms at the atomic level and quantify their effects: extensive free energy perturbation coupled with umbrella sampling, entropy calculations of tRNA (free and bound to the ribosome), and thorough structural analysis of the ribosomal decoding center. No prestructuring effect on the tRNA anticodon stem–loop from the two modifications could be observed, but we identified two mechanisms that may contribute to the expanded decoding capability by the modifications: The further reach of the cmo5U34 allows an alternative outer conformation to be formed for the noncognate base pairs, and the modification results in increased contacts between tRNA, mRNA, and the ribosome. PMID:22028366

  2. 5-Aminolevulinate production with recombinant Escherichia coli using a rare codon optimizer host strain.

    PubMed

    Fu, Weiqi; Lin, Jianping; Cen, Peilin

    2007-06-01

    The 5-aminolevulinate (ALA) synthase gene (hemA) containing several codons rarely used by Escherichia coli was cloned from the genome of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and optimized in two strains of Escherichia coli: BL21(DE3) and Rosetta(DE3), which is a rare codon optimizer strain. The effects of initial isopropyl-beta-D: -thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) concentration, induction time, and temperature on enzyme activity were studied and compared for two strains. The results indicated that the ALA synthase expressed by Rosetta(DE3)/pET-28a(+)-hemA was higher than that by BL21(DE3)/pET-28a(+)-hemA. The initial precursors, glycine and succinate, and initial glucose, which is an inhibitor for both ALA synthase and dehydratase, were observed to be the key factors affecting ALA production. ALA synthase activity was generally higher with Rosetta(DE3) than with BL21(DE3), so was ALA biosynthesis. Based on the optimal culture system using Rosetta(DE3), the yield of ALA achieved 3.8 g/l (29 mM) under the appropriate conditions in fermenter. PMID:17333171

  3. Contrast in Usage of FCAT-Approved Anatomical Terminology Between Members of Two Anatomy Associations in North America

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bradford Martin (Loma Linda University Physical Therapy)

    2009-11-04

    This article describes the outcomes of a AAA survey comparing the frequency of FCAT term usage among HAPS instructors. The survey had already been conducted among AAA members and comparisons between societies were made. An initial reporting of the differences and similarities among societies and anatomy teaching backgrounds are discussed.

  4. Detection of codon 12 point mutations of K-ras gene from mouse lung adenocarcinoma by "enriched" PCR.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Woloschak, G. E.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology

    1998-07-01

    PURPOSE: Recent studies have shown that chemical carcinogens induce a high frequency of point mutations in the K-ras oncogene from mouse lung tumors at codons 12, 13 and 61. These experiments were performed to identify K-ras mutations in tissues from control and radiation-exposed mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: By modifying the technique of the 'enriched' polymerase chain reaction (PCR), it was possible to detect point mutations at codon 12 of the K-ras oncogene from 25-year-old paraffin-embedded normal lungs and lung adenocarcinomas from mice exposed to radiation. Together, a total of 120 lung tissues were screened for point mutations at codon 12 of the K-ras oncogene in this study. RESULTS: A significant increase in K-ras codon 12 point mutations was observed in the normal lungs from mice exposed to 24 once-weekly neutron irradiations (100%), compared with normal lungs from mice with sham-irradiation (50%) (p<0.05). Lung adenocarcinomas from mice receiving 24 once-weekly neutron irradiations also had a significantly higher frequency of K-ras codon 12 point mutations (100%) than the lung adenocarcinomas of mice receiving 24 or 60 once-weekly gamma-ray irradiations (50%), but the higher frequency was not significantly different from that in spontaneous lung adenocarcinomas from mice (75%; p > 0.05). The validity of the technique was confirmed by sequencing two of the mutants. In doing so, a K-ras 13(Asp) point mutation was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that high-linear energy transfer (LET) neutron radiation was more effective than low-LET gamma-rays in inducing K-ras point mutations at codon 12 in the lungs of B6CF1 mice.

  5. Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa: Absence of the rhodopsin proline?histidine substitution (codon 23) in pedigrees from Europe

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, G. J.; Kenna, P.; Redmond, R.; McWilliam, P.; Bradley, D. G.; Humphries, M. M.; Sharp, E. M.; Inglehearn, C. F.; Bashir, R.; Jay, M.; Watty, A.; Ludwig, M.; Schinzel, A.; Samanns, C.; Gal, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Humphries, P.

    1990-01-01

    In exon 1 at codon 23 of the rhodopsin gene, a mutation resulting in a proline-to-histidine substitution has previously been observed in approximately 12% of American autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) patients. The region around the site of this mutation in the rhodopsin gene has been amplified and analyzed in affected individuals from 91 European ADRP pedigrees. The codon 23 mutation has been found to be absent in all cases, including a large Irish pedigree in which the disease gene has previously been shown to be closely linked to the rhodopsin locus. This indicates the presence of either allelic or nonallelic heterogeneity in ADRP. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:2239971

  6. Efficient Energy Usage in Butane Splitters

    E-print Network

    Barnwell, J.; Morris, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    EFFICIENT ENERGY USAGE IN BUTANE SPLITTERS J. Barnwell, C.P. Harris Bechtel Great Britain Limited London, England ISO AND NORMAL BUTANE IS SEPARATED BY THE HEAT PUMP PRINCIPLE USING LESS ENERGY THAN A CONVENTIONAL FRACTIONATOR. SU~1MARY A... No.96. ri I I 5. Barnwell, J., "LPG Availability and its Impact on Gas Demand". Bahrain Socie~y of Engineers, November 1981. I I JULIAN BARNWELL is Vice President and Manager of the Process Design Department of Bechtel GreatlBritain Limited...

  7. Better Living Through Metadata: Examining Archive Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, G.; Winkelman, S.; Rots, A.

    2013-10-01

    The primary purpose of an observatory's archive is to provide access to the data through various interfaces. User interactions with the archive are recorded in server logs, which can be used to answer basic questions like: Who has downloaded dataset X? When did she do this? Which tools did she use? The answers to questions like these fill in patterns of data access (e.g., how many times dataset X has been downloaded in the past three years). Analysis of server logs provides metrics of archive usage and provides feedback on interface use which can be used to guide future interface development. The Chandra X-ray Observatory is fortunate in that a database to track data access and downloads has been continuously recording such transactions for years; however, it is overdue for an update. We will detail changes we hope to effect and the differences the changes may make to our usage metadata picture. We plan to gather more information about the geographic location of users without compromising privacy; create improved archive statistics; and track and assess the impact of web “crawlers” and other scripted access methods on the archive. With the improvements to our download tracking we hope to gain a better understanding of the dissemination of Chandra's data; how effectively it is being done; and perhaps discover ideas for new services.

  8. Usage analysis of user files in UNIX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devarakonda, Murthy V.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is a user-oriented analysis of short term file usage in a 4.2 BSD UNIX environment. The key aspect of this analysis is a characterization of users and files, which is a departure from the traditional approach of analyzing file references. Two characterization measures are employed: accesses-per-byte (combining fraction of a file referenced and number of references) and file size. This new approach is shown to distinguish differences in files as well as users, which cam be used in efficient file system design, and in creating realistic test workloads for simulations. A multi-stage gamma distribution is shown to closely model the file usage measures. Even though overall file sharing is small, some files belonging to a bulletin board system are accessed by many users, simultaneously and otherwise. Over 50% of users referenced files owned by other users, and over 80% of all files were involved in such references. Based on the differences in files and users, suggestions to improve the system performance were also made.

  9. Life without tRNA[superscript Ile]-lysidine synthetase: translation of the isoleucine codon AUA in Bacillus subtilis lacking the canonical tRNA[Ile over 2

    E-print Network

    Koehrer, Caroline

    Translation of the isoleucine codon AUA in most prokaryotes requires a modified C (lysidine or agmatidine) at the wobble position of tRNA[Ile over 2] to base pair specifically with the A of the AUA codon but not with the ...

  10. A novel point mutation at codon 146 of the K- ras gene in a human colorectal cancer identified by the polymerase chain reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Orita; Takatsugu Higashi; Yasuhito Kawasaki; Atsuko Harada; Hisanaga Igarashi; Takushi Monden; Hideki Morimoto; Takashi Shimano; Takesada Mori; Jun Miyoshi

    1991-01-01

    In this report, point mutations of the K-ras gene at codon 146 were analyzed in 25 cases of colon cancer, 4 cases of lung cancer, and 41 cases of lymphoid malignancy. A codon 146 mutation substituting threonine (ACA) for alanine (GCA) was detected in the tumor tissue of a patient with colon cancer and was not detected in the normal

  11. The C-terminal amino acid sequence of nascent peptide is a major determinant of SsrA tagging at all three stop codons.

    PubMed

    Sunohara, Takafumi; Abo, Tatsuhiko; Inada, Toshifumi; Aiba, Hiroji

    2002-11-01

    Recent studies on endogenous SsrA-tagged proteins have revealed that the tagging could occur at a position corresponding to the normal termination codon. During the study of SsrA-mediated Lacl tagging (Abo et al., EMBO J, 2000 19:3762-3769), we found that a variant Lacl (Lacl deltaC1) lacking the last C-terminal amino acid residue is efficiently tagged in a stop codon-dependent manner. SsrA tagging of Lacl deltaC1 occurred efficiently without Lacl binding to the lac operators at any one of three stop codons. The C-terminal (R)LESG peptide of Lacl deltaC1 was shown to trigger the SsrA tagging of an unrelated protein (CRP) when fused to its C terminus. Mass spectrometry analysis of the purified fusion proteins revealed that SsrA tagging occurs at a position corresponding to the termination codon. The alteration of the amino acid sequence but not the nucleotide sequence of the C-terminal portion eliminated the tagging. We also showed that the tagging-provoking sequences cause an efficient translational readthrough at UGA but not UAA codons. In addition, we found that C-terminal dipeptides known to induce an efficient translation readthrough could cause an efficient tagging at stop codons. We conclude that the amino acid sequence of nascent polypeptide prior to stop codons is a major determinant for the SsrA tagging at all three stop codons. PMID:12458795

  12. The C-terminal amino acid sequence of nascent peptide is a major determinant of SsrA tagging at all three stop codons.

    PubMed Central

    Sunohara, Takafumi; Abo, Tatsuhiko; Inada, Toshifumi; Aiba, Hiroji

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies on endogenous SsrA-tagged proteins have revealed that the tagging could occur at a position corresponding to the normal termination codon. During the study of SsrA-mediated Lacl tagging (Abo et al., EMBO J, 2000 19:3762-3769), we found that a variant Lacl (Lacl deltaC1) lacking the last C-terminal amino acid residue is efficiently tagged in a stop codon-dependent manner. SsrA tagging of Lacl deltaC1 occurred efficiently without Lacl binding to the lac operators at any one of three stop codons. The C-terminal (R)LESG peptide of Lacl deltaC1 was shown to trigger the SsrA tagging of an unrelated protein (CRP) when fused to its C terminus. Mass spectrometry analysis of the purified fusion proteins revealed that SsrA tagging occurs at a position corresponding to the termination codon. The alteration of the amino acid sequence but not the nucleotide sequence of the C-terminal portion eliminated the tagging. We also showed that the tagging-provoking sequences cause an efficient translational readthrough at UGA but not UAA codons. In addition, we found that C-terminal dipeptides known to induce an efficient translation readthrough could cause an efficient tagging at stop codons. We conclude that the amino acid sequence of nascent polypeptide prior to stop codons is a major determinant for the SsrA tagging at all three stop codons. PMID:12458795

  13. Maternal Control Strategies, Maternal Language Usage and Children's Language Usage at Two Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Nicole; Donovan, Wilberta; Miles, Sally; Leavitt, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined whether parenting style, defined by control strategies varying in power-assertion mediated the established relation between maternal language usage (grammar and semantics) and child language (grammar, semantics and pragmatics) during toddlerhood (n = 60). Based upon their use of control strategies mothers were…

  14. Mutations at a single codon in Mad homology 2 domain of SMAD4 cause Myhre syndrome.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Carine; Mahaut, Clémentine; Abhyankar, Avinash; Le Goff, Wilfried; Serre, Valérie; Afenjar, Alexandra; Destrée, Anne; di Rocco, Maja; Héron, Delphine; Jacquemont, Sébastien; Marlin, Sandrine; Simon, Marleen; Tolmie, John; Verloes, Alain; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Munnich, Arnold; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

    2012-01-01

    Myhre syndrome (MIM 139210) is a developmental disorder characterized by short stature, short hands and feet, facial dysmorphism, muscular hypertrophy, deafness and cognitive delay. Using exome sequencing of individuals with Myhre syndrome, we identified SMAD4 as a candidate gene that contributes to this syndrome on the basis of its pivotal role in the bone morphogenetic pathway (BMP) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-? signaling. We identified three distinct heterozygous missense SMAD4 mutations affecting the codon for Ile500 in 11 individuals with Myhre syndrome. All three mutations are located in the region of SMAD4 encoding the Mad homology 2 (MH2) domain near the site of monoubiquitination at Lys519, and we found a defect in SMAD4 ubiquitination in fibroblasts from affected individuals. We also observed decreased expression of downstream TGF-? target genes, supporting the idea of impaired TGF-?-mediated transcriptional control in individuals with Myhre syndrome. PMID:22158539

  15. Translation initiation in Drosophila melanogaster is reduced by mutations upstream of the AUG initiator codon

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Yue; Gunter, L.E.; Organ, E.L.; Cavener, D.R. (Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States))

    1991-04-01

    The importance to in vivo translation of sequences immediately upstream of the Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) start codon was examined at two developmental stages. Mutations were introduced into the Adh gene in vitro, and the mutant gene was inserted into the genome via germ line transformation. An A-to-T substitution at the [minus]3 position did not affect relative translation of ADH at the adult stage. A second mutant gene, containing five mutations in the region [minus]1 to [minus]9, was designed to completely block translation initiation. However, transformant lines bearing these mutations still exhibit detectable ADH, albeit at substantially reduced levels. The average fold reduction at the second-instar larval stage was 5.9, while at the adult stage a 12.5-fold reduction was observed.

  16. Second generation codon optimized minicircle (CoMiC) for nonviral reprogramming of human adult fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Diecke, Sebastian; Lisowski, Leszek; Kooreman, Nigel G; Wu, Joseph C

    2014-01-01

    The ability to induce pluripotency in somatic cells is one of the most important scientific achievements in the fields of stem cell research and regenerative medicine. This technique allows researchers to obtain pluripotent stem cells without the controversial use of embryos, providing a novel and powerful tool for disease modeling and drug screening approaches. However, using viruses for the delivery of reprogramming genes and transcription factors may result in integration into the host genome and cause random mutations within the target cell, thus limiting the use of these cells for downstream applications. To overcome this limitation, various non-integrating techniques, including Sendai virus, mRNA, minicircle, and plasmid-based methods, have recently been developed. Utilizing a newly developed codon optimized 4-in-1 minicircle (CoMiC), we were able to reprogram human adult fibroblasts using chemically defined media and without the need for feeder cells. PMID:25070322

  17. Distinguishing Regional from Within-Codon Rate Heterogeneity in DNA Sequence Alignments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantzaris, Alexander V.; Husmeier, Dirk

    We present an improved phylogenetic factorial hidden Markov model (FHMM) for detecting two types of mosaic structures in DNA sequence alignments, related to (1) recombination and (2) rate heterogeneity. The focus of the present work is on improving the modelling of the latter aspect. Earlier papers have modelled different degrees of rate heterogeneity with separate hidden states of the FHMM. This approach fails to appreciate the intrinsic difference between two types of rate heterogeneity: long-range regional effects, which are potentially related to differences in the selective pressure, and the short-term periodic patterns within the codons, which merely capture the signature of the genetic code. We propose an improved model that explicitly distinguishes between these two effects, and we assess its performance on a set of simulated DNA sequence alignments.

  18. A reporter system for translational readthrough of stop codons in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Halvey, Patrick J.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Slebos, Robbert J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Agents to induce readthrough of premature termination codons (PTCs) are useful research tools and potential therapeutics. Reporters used to detect PTC readthrough are gene-specific and thus are not suited to for general assessment of readthrough activity or in cases where PTC-inactivated genes are unknown. Here we describe a GFP-based reporter construct pMHG-W57? which is capable of detecting dose-dependent drug-induced PTC readthrough both by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. pMHG-W57? may be used as a general indicator of PTC readthrough in living cells and obviates the need for gene-specific recoding sequences in reporter constructs. PMID:22563532

  19. Replicating reoviruses with a transgene replacing the codons for the head domain of the viral spike.

    PubMed

    van den Wollenberg, D J M; Dautzenberg, I J C; Ros, W; Lipi?ska, A D; van den Hengel, S K; Hoeben, R C

    2015-03-01

    The capacity to modify the reovirus genome facilitates generation of new therapeutic reoviruses. We describe a method for generating replication-competent reoviruses carrying a heterologous transgene. The strategy is based on the expanded-tropism reovirus mutant jin-3, which can infect cells independent of the reovirus receptor junction-adhesion molecule A (JAM-A). Jin-3 harbors a mutation in the S1 segment, resulting in a G196R substitution in the tail of the spike protein ?1. The use of the jin-3 tail-encoding S1 segment allows replacing the codons for the JAM-A-binding head domain by up to 522? nucleotides of foreign sequences, without exceeding the size of the wild-type S1 segment. We inserted the codons for the porcine teschovirus-1 2A element fused with those encoding the fluorescent protein iLOV. Replicating rS1His-2A-iLOV reoviruses were generated by co-transfection of expression plasmids for all reovirus segments. These reoviruses contain the S1His-2A-iLOV segment in the absence of the wild-type S1 segment. Density-gradient centrifugation confirmed the association of the ?1-tail fragment with the capsid. Both JAM-A-positive and -negative cells exposed to the rS1His-2A-iLOV reoviruses exhibited iLOV fluorescence, confirming the jin-3-derived expanded-tropism phenotype. These data demonstrated the feasibility of generating decapitated replication-competent T3D reoviruses carrying a heterologous transgene. PMID:25588743

  20. Functional studies of a germ-line polymorphism at codon 47 within the p53 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Felley-Bosco, E; Weston, A; Cawley, H M; Bennett, W P; Harris, C C

    1993-01-01

    A rare germ-line polymorphism in codon 47 of the p53 gene replaces the wild-type proline (CCG) with a serine (TCG). Restriction analysis of 101 human samples revealed the frequency of the rare allele to be 0% (n = 69) in Caucasians and 4.7% (3/64, n = 32) among African-Americans. To investigate the consequence of this amino acid substitution, a cDNA construct (p53 mut47ser) containing the mutation was introduced into a lung adenocarcinoma cell line (Calu-6) that does not express p53. A growth suppression similar to that obtained after introduction of a wild-type p53 cDNA construct was observed, in contrast to the result obtained by introduction of p53 mut143ala. Furthermore, expression of neither p53 mut47ser nor wild-type p53 was tolerated by growing cells. In transient expression assays, both mut47ser and wild-type p53 activated the expression of a reporter gene linked to a p53 binding sequence (PG13-CAT) and inhibited the expression of the luciferase gene under the control of the Rous sarcoma virus promoter (RSVluc). In the same assay, mut143ala did not activate the expression of PG13-CAT and produced only a slight inhibitory effect on RSVluc. These findings indicate that the p53 variant with a serine at codon 47 should be considered as a rare germ-line polymorphism that does not alter the growth-suppression activity of p53. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8352280

  1. p53 codon 72 polymorphism and Hematological Cancer Risk: An Update Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Guorong; Guo, Jing; Zhang, Zhizhong; Xie, Xinyou; Chen, Guangdi

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies on the association of p53 codon 72 (Arg72Pro) polymorphism with hematological malignancies risk have produced conflicting results. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to define the effect of p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism on hematological malignancies risk. Methodology/Principal Findings Through searching PubMed databases (or hand searching) up to April 2012 using the following MeSH terms and keywords: “p53”, “codon 72” “polymorphism” and “leukemia”, or “lymphoma”, or “myeloma”, thirteen were identified as eligible articles in this meta-analysis for p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism (2,731 cases and 7, 356 controls), including nine studies on leukemia (1,266 cases and 4, 474 controls), three studies on lymphoma (1,359 cases and 2,652 controls), and one study on myeloma. The overall results suggested that p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism was not associated with hematological malignancies risk. In stratified analyses, significantly increased non-Hodgkin lymphomas risk was found in p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism heterozygote model (Arg/Pro vs. Arg/Arg: OR?=?1.18, 95%CI: 1.02–1.35) and dominant model (Arg/Pro+Pro/Pro vs. Arg/Arg: OR?=?1.18, 95%CI: 1.03–1.34), but no significant association was found between leukemia risk and p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism. Further studies showed no association between leukemia risk and p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism when stratified in subtypes of leukemias, ethnicities and sources of controls. Conclusions/Significance This meta-analysis indicates that the p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism may contribute to susceptibility to non-Hodgkin lymphomas. PMID:23029260

  2. TP53 gene expression, codon 72 polymorphism and human papillomavirus DNA associated with pterygium.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, F W; Arruda, J T; Silva, R E; Moura, K K V O

    2008-01-01

    Pterygium is a disease of unknown origin and pathogenesis that can be vision threatening. Several researchers believe that pterygium is UV-related and that abnormal expression of p53 protein and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) are risk factors for pterygium, but their experiments have been inconclusive. We investigated its relation with p53 protein expression, p53 gene codon 72 polymorphism and infection with HPV DNA. Pterygial samples were obtained from 36 patients; 21 normal conjunctival samples were used as controls. Expression of p53 protein was studied by immunohistochemistry, using the antibody DO-7. Analysis for the p53 genotype was made by polymerase chain reaction, using specific primers for the arginine and proline alleles, and an analysis for HPV was made of the pterygium patients and control group. Fourteen of the 36 pterygial specimens were positive for abnormal p53 expression. Thirty-one of the patients were heterozygotic and three were homozygotic for the proline allele; two were homozygotic for the arginine allele; in the control group 12 of 21 were heterozygotic and seven of these 21 were homozygotic for the proline allele; two were homozygotic for the arginine allele. Twenty-one of the pterygium patients were positive for HPV; HPV type 1 was found in nine of these, type 2 in seven and both types in five. Only two of the 21 controls had HPV; both had type 16. We suggest that abnormal expression of p53, p53 codon 72 polymorphisms and HPV DNA are required co-factors for the development of pterygium. PMID:19065760

  3. Attenuation of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Using Large-Scale Random Codon Re-encoding

    PubMed Central

    de Fabritus, Lauriane; Nougairède, Antoine; Aubry, Fabien; Gould, Ernest A; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale codon re-encoding (i.e. introduction of a large number of synonymous mutations) is a novel method of generating attenuated viruses. Here, it was applied to the pathogenic flavivirus, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) which causes febrile illness and encephalitis in humans in forested regions of Europe and Asia. Using an infectious clone of the Oshima 5–10 strain ("wild-type virus"), a cassette of 1.4kb located in the NS5 coding region, was modified by randomly introducing 273 synonymous mutations ("re-encoded virus"). Whilst the in cellulo replicative fitness of the re-encoded virus was only slightly reduced, the re-encoded virus displayed an attenuated phenotype in a laboratory mouse model of non-lethal encephalitis. Following intra-peritoneal inoculation of either 2.105 or 2.106 TCID50 of virus, the frequency of viraemia, neurovirulence (measured using weight loss and appearance of symptoms) and neuroinvasiveness (detection of virus in the brain) were significantly decreased when compared with the wild-type virus. Mice infected by wild-type or re-encoded viruses produced comparable amounts of neutralising antibodies and results of challenge experiments demonstrated that mice previously infected with the re-encoded virus were protected against subsequent infection by the wild-type virus. This constitutes evidence that a mammalian species can be protected against infection by a virulent wild-type positive-stranded RNA virus following immunisation with a derived randomly re-encoded strain. Our results demonstrate that random codon re-encoding is potentially a simple and effective method of generating live-attenuated vaccine candidates against pathogenic flaviviruses. PMID:25734338

  4. Association between genotypes at codon 171 and 136 of the prion protein gene and production traits in market lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of small ruminants for which infection is genetically controlled by commonly occurring polymorphisms in the gene encoding the normal prion protein precursor gene Prnp. Selection of sheep with the Prnp allele encoding arginine at codon 171 is rema...

  5. CODON-BASED DETECTION OF POSITIVE SELECTION CAN BE BIASED BY HETEROGENEOUS DISTRIBUTION OF POLAR AMINO ACIDS ALONG PROTEIN

    E-print Network

    Xia, Xuhua

    1 CODON-BASED DETECTION OF POSITIVE SELECTION CAN BE BIASED BY HETEROGENEOUS DISTRIBUTION OF POLAR AMINO ACIDS ALONG PROTEIN SEQUENCES Xuhua Xia Department of Biology, University of Ottawa 30 Marie Curie selection, are associated with a high frequency of polar amino acids with a high mutability

  6. Measures of Codon Bias in Yeast, the tRNA Pairing Index and Possible DNA Repair Mechanisms #

    E-print Network

    Schraudolph, Nicol N.

    Measures of Codon Bias in Yeast, the tRNA Pairing Index and Possible DNA Repair Mechanisms # Markus. Protein translation is a rapid and accurate process, which has been optimized by evolution. Recently, it has been shown that tRNA reusage influ­ ences translation speed. We present the tRNA Pairing Index

  7. The other codons: Nirenberg and the genetic code, 2D animationSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-06

    After the easy codons, exact triplets had to be made in order to finish deciphering the rest. Marshall Nirenberg and a group of scientists including Maxine Singer, Marianne Grunberg-Manago, Phil Leder were involved in this process. Har Gobind Khorana also worked on this problem.

  8. Conserved residues in yeast initiator tRNA calibrate initiation accuracy by regulating preinitiation complex stability at the start codon.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jinsheng; Munoz, Antonio; Kolitz, Sarah E; Saini, Adesh K; Chiu, Wen-ling; Rahman, Hafsa; Lorsch, Jon R; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2014-03-01

    Eukaryotic initiator tRNA (tRNAi) contains several highly conserved unique sequence features, but their importance in accurate start codon selection was unknown. Here we show that conserved bases throughout tRNAi, from the anticodon stem to acceptor stem, play key roles in ensuring the fidelity of start codon recognition in yeast cells. Substituting the conserved G31:C39 base pair in the anticodon stem with different pairs reduces accuracy (the Sui(-) [suppressor of initiation codon] phenotype), whereas eliminating base pairing increases accuracy (the Ssu(-) [suppressor of Sui(-)] phenotype). The latter defect is fully suppressed by a Sui(-) substitution of T-loop residue A54. These genetic data are paralleled by opposing effects of Sui(-) and Ssu(-) substitutions on the stability of methionylated tRNAi (Met-tRNA(i)) binding (in the ternary complex [TC] with eIF2-GTP) to reconstituted preinitiation complexes (PICs). Disrupting the C3:G70 base pair in the acceptor stem produces a Sui(-) phenotype and also reduces the rate of TC binding to 40S subunits in vitro and in vivo. Both defects are suppressed by an Ssu(-) substitution in eIF1A that stabilizes the open/P(OUT) conformation of the PIC that exists prior to start codon recognition. Our data indicate that these signature sequences of tRNA(i) regulate accuracy by distinct mechanisms, promoting the open/P(OUT) conformation of the PIC (for C3:G70) or destabilizing the closed/P(IN) state (for G31:C39 and A54) that is critical for start codon recognition. PMID:24589778

  9. Directional next-generation RNA sequencing and examination of premature termination codon mutations in endoglin/hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Govani, F S; Giess, A; Mollet, I G; Begbie, M E; Jones, M D; Game, L; Shovlin, C L

    2013-04-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a disease characterised by abnormal vascular structures, and most commonly caused by mutations in ENG, ACVRL1 or SMAD4 encoding endothelial cell-expressed proteins involved in TGF-? superfamily signalling. The majority of mutations reported on the HHT mutation database are predicted to lead to stop codons, either due to frameshifts or direct nonsense substitutions. The proportion is higher for ENG (67%) and SMAD4 (65%) than for ACVRL1 (42%), p < 0.0001. Here, by focussing on ENG, we report why conventional views of these mutations may need to be revised. Of the 111 stop codon-generating ENG mutations, on ExPASy translation, all except one were premature termination codons (PTCs), sited at least 50-55 bp upstream of the final exon-exon boundary of the main endoglin isoform, L-endoglin. This strongly suggests that the mutated RNA species will undergo nonsense-mediated decay. We provide new in vitro expression data to support dominant negative activity of stable truncated endoglin proteins but suggest these will not generate HHT: the single natural stop codon mutation in L-endoglin (sited within 50-55 nucleotides of the final exon-exon boundary) is unlikely to generate functional protein since it replaces the entire transmembrane domain, as would 8 further natural stop codon mutations, if the minor S-endoglin isoform were implicated in HHT pathogenesis. Finally, next-generation RNA sequencing data of 7 different RNA libraries from primary human endothelial cells demonstrate that multiple intronic regions of ENG are transcribed. The potential consequences of heterozygous deletions or duplications of such regions are discussed. These data support the haploinsufficiency model for HHT pathogenesis, explain why final exon mutations have not been detected to date in HHT, emphasise the potential need for functional examination of non-PTC-generating mutations, and lead to proposals for an alternate stratification system of mutational types for HHT genotype-phenotype correlations. PMID:23801935

  10. Cleaning optimization for reduced chemical usage

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, P.J.; Simonson, G.C.; Matlock, C.A.; Kelly, M.J.

    1996-11-01

    The use of dilute SC-1 (NH40H:H202:H20) chemistry cleaning processes for particle removal from silicon surfaces has been investigated. Dilute chemistries can be highly effective, especially when high- frequency acoustic energy (megasonics) is applied. The high particle removal efficacy of the dilute chemistry processes presumably arises due to increased double layer effects caused by reduced ionic strength. Dilute chemistry SC- I solutions exhibit somewhat reduced efficacy for removal of certain light organics; however, when dilute SC-1 is used along with other pre-gate cleaning steps (e.g. HF, SC-2, and piranha), then the overall cleaning sequence is quite effective. In addition to providing robust cleaning processes, dilute chemistries also result in significantly lower chemical and rinse water usage. Waste water treatment requirements are also lessened when dilute chemistry cleaning solutions are employed.

  11. Household appliance usage data. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, A.D.; Kelly, R.V.; Lewis, A.C.; Lovett, C.D.; Wang, T.J.

    1980-03-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) requires the development of test procedures for the measurement of the energy efficiencies and the computation of Estimated Annual Operating Costs (EAOC's) of consumer products covered by the EPCA. These products are refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, dishwashers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, television sets, kitchen ranges and ovens, clothes washers, humidifiers, dehumidifiers, central air conditioners and furnaces. The purpose of the report is to provide perspective in selecting usage factors for future study and refinement. The items found to be most in need of refinement were factors bearing on temperature and humidity control and on water heating, both on national and regional bases.

  12. Computer Usage and Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachid M. Zeffane

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of a survey of 1,300 employees from the Australian telecommunications industry, examines the impact of computer usage on job satisfaction. Results reveal that job satisfaction is positively influenced by the extent of computer usage, aspects of computer-related training and demographic characteristics such as tenure and job position. However, by catering for different areas of computer-usage and by

  13. File Usage Analysis and Resource Usage Prediction: a Measurement-Based Study. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devarakonda, Murthy V.-S.

    1987-01-01

    A probabilistic scheme was developed to predict process resource usage in UNIX. Given the identity of the program being run, the scheme predicts CPU time, file I/O, and memory requirements of a process at the beginning of its life. The scheme uses a state-transition model of the program's resource usage in its past executions for prediction. The states of the model are the resource regions obtained from an off-line cluster analysis of processes run on the system. The proposed method is shown to work on data collected from a VAX 11/780 running 4.3 BSD UNIX. The results show that the predicted values correlate well with the actual. The coefficient of correlation between the predicted and actual values of CPU time is 0.84. Errors in prediction are mostly small. Some 82% of errors in CPU time prediction are less than 0.5 standard deviations of process CPU time.

  14. Codon Optimization of the Human Papillomavirus E7 Oncogene Induces a CD8+ T Cell Response to a Cryptic Epitope Not Harbored by Wild-Type E7

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Felix K. M.; Wilde, Susanne; Voigt, Katrin; Kieback, Elisa; Mosetter, Barbara; Schendel, Dolores J.; Uckert, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Codon optimization of nucleotide sequences is a widely used method to achieve high levels of transgene expression for basic and clinical research. Until now, immunological side effects have not been described. To trigger T cell responses against human papillomavirus, we incubated T cells with dendritic cells that were pulsed with RNA encoding the codon-optimized E7 oncogene. All T cell receptors isolated from responding T cell clones recognized target cells expressing the codon-optimized E7 gene but not the wild type E7 sequence. Epitope mapping revealed recognition of a cryptic epitope from the +3 alternative reading frame of codon-optimized E7, which is not encoded by the wild type E7 sequence. The introduction of a stop codon into the +3 alternative reading frame protected the transgene product from recognition by T cell receptor gene-modified T cells. This is the first experimental study demonstrating that codon optimization can render a transgene artificially immunogenic through generation of a dominant cryptic epitope. This finding may be of great importance for the clinical field of gene therapy to avoid rejection of gene-corrected cells and for the design of DNA- and RNA-based vaccines, where codon optimization may artificially add a strong immunogenic component to the vaccine. PMID:25799237

  15. Cloning and in vitro function analysis of codon-optimized FatI gene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Xing-Hong; Teng, Mei-Li; Liu, Huan-Qi; Min, Ling-Jiang; Pan, Qing-Jie; Qin, Guo-Qing; Shen, Wei; Li, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Currently, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have attracted great attention because of their biological significance to organisms. In addition, PUFAs show an obvious impact on prevention and treatment of various diseases. Because n-3 PUFAs cannot be endogenously synthesized by mammals, mammals have to rely on a dietary supplement for sufficient supply. The finding and application of the fatty acid dehydrogenase I (FatI) gene are expected to change the current situation because it can convert n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) to n-3 PUFAs. Meanwhile, the gradual maturation of transgenic technology makes it possible to produce transgenic animals that can synthesize n-3 PUFAs by themselves. In this study, the DNA coding sequence of FatI was synthesized by a chemical method after codon optimization according to the mammal's codon bias. The synthesized DNA sequence was introduced into Boer goat fetal fibroblasts by the constructed recombinant eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(+)-FatI. Boer goat fetal fibroblasts were transfected by electroporation, and the stable transfected cell lines were obtained by G418 selection. Genomic DNA PCR and Southern blot were applied to verify that the foreign gene FatI was integrated into the genome of the Boer goat fibroblasts. RT-PCR results showed the expression of FatI gene at the mRNA level. The fatty acid profile of cells carrying the FatI gene revealed an increase in total n-3 PUFAs (from 0.61 to 0.95), but a decrease in n-6 PUFAs (from 10.34 to 9.85), resulting in a remarkable increase in the n-3:n-6 ratio (from 0.059 to 0.096). The n-3:n-6 ratio had a 63.49 percent increase, which is a precursor of the response of n-3 desaturase activity of the FatI gene. The study may provide a practical tool for producing transgenic animals that can produce n-3 PUFAs by themselves, and we hope that the application will lay the foundation for animals producing n-3 PUFAs, which will benefit human nutrition and wellness. PMID:24117953

  16. 1-Methylguanosine deficiency of tRNA influences cognate codon interaction and metabolism in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Li, J N; Björk, G R

    1995-01-01

    1-Methylguanosine (m1G) is present next to the 3' end of the anticodon (position 37) in tRNA(1,2,3,Leu), tRNA(1,2,3,Pro), and tRNA(3Arg). A mutant of Salmonella typhimurium lacks m1G in these seven tRNAs when grown at or above 37 degrees C, as a result of a mutation (trmD3) in the structural gene (trmD) for the tRNA(m1G37)methyltransferase. The m1G deficiency induced 24 and 26% reductions in the growth rate and polypeptide chain elongation rate, respectively, in morpholinepropanesulfonic acid (MOPS)-glucose minimal medium at 37 degrees C. The expression of the leuABCD operon is controlled by the rate with which tRNA(2Leu) and tRNA(3Leu) read four leucine codons in the leu-leader mRNA. Lack of m1G in these tRNAs did not influence the expression of this operon, suggesting that m1G did not influence the efficiency of tRNA(2,3Leu). Since the average step time of the m1G-deficient tRNAs was increased 3.3-fold, the results suggest that the impact of m1G in decoding cognate codons may be tRNA dependent. The trmD3 mutation rendered the cell more resistant or sensitive to several amino acid analogs. 3-Nitro-L-tyrosine (NT), to which the trmD3 mutant is sensitive, was shown to be transported by the tryptophan-specific permease, and mutations in this gene (mtr) render the cell resistant to NT. Since the trmD3 mutation did not affect the activity of the permease, some internal metabolic step(s), but not the uptake of the analog per se, is affected. We suggest that the trmD3-mediated NT sensitivity is by an abnormal translation of some mRNA(s) whose product(s) is involved in the metabolic reactions affected by the analog. Our results also suggest that tRNA modification may be a regulatory device for gene expression. PMID:7592438

  17. Web-based pathology practice examination usage

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Context: General and subject specific practice examinations for students in health sciences studying pathology were placed onto a free public internet web site entitled web path and were accessed four clicks from the home web site menu. Subjects and Methods: Multiple choice questions were coded into. html files with JavaScript functions for web browser viewing in a timed format. A Perl programming language script with common gateway interface for web page forms scored examinations and placed results into a log file on an internet computer server. The four general review examinations of 30 questions each could be completed in up to 30 min. The 17 subject specific examinations of 10 questions each with accompanying images could be completed in up to 15 min each. The results of scores and user educational field of study from log files were compiled from June 2006 to January 2014. Results: The four general review examinations had 31,639 accesses with completion of all questions, for a completion rate of 54% and average score of 75%. A score of 100% was achieved by 7% of users, ?90% by 21%, and ?50% score by 95% of users. In top to bottom web page menu order, review examination usage was 44%, 24%, 17%, and 15% of all accessions. The 17 subject specific examinations had 103,028 completions, with completion rate 73% and average score 74%. Scoring at 100% was 20% overall, ?90% by 37%, and ?50% score by 90% of users. The first three menu items on the web page accounted for 12.6%, 10.0%, and 8.2% of all completions, and the bottom three accounted for no more than 2.2% each. Conclusions: Completion rates were higher for shorter 10 questions subject examinations. Users identifying themselves as MD/DO scored higher than other users, averaging 75%. Usage was higher for examinations at the top of the web page menu. Scores achieved suggest that a cohort of serious users fully completing the examinations had sufficient preparation to use them to support their pathology education. PMID:25337431

  18. Agriculture and Life Sciences Complex Usage Request Form

    E-print Network

    Phone: Cell Phone: Email: I agree to limit the extent of this usage to the area(s), date(s), time Phone: Cell Phone: Email: Advisor Contact Information (Only applicable to student groups): Name: OfficeAgriculture and Life Sciences Complex Usage Request Form Organization or Group

  19. Furman University Justification of Business Usage of Cell Phone

    E-print Network

    Furman University Justification of Business Usage of Cell Phone 1 Name Justification of Business Usage of Cell Phone 2 The type of cell phone coverage must be reasonably workday? Yes_____ No_____ Other business reason that may necessitate use of cell phone, describe

  20. Understanding Mobile App Usage Patterns Using In-App Advertisements

    E-print Network

    Song, Dawn

    Understanding Mobile App Usage Patterns Using In-App Advertisements Alok Tongaonkar1 , Shuaifu Dai2. This has resulted in a growing need of the operators to understand the usage patterns of the mobile apps present a novel way of identifying Android apps in network traces using mobile in-app advertisements. Our

  1. Characterizing data usage patterns in a large cellular network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Jin; Nick Duffield; Alexandre Gerber; Patrick Haffner; Wen-Ling Hsu; Guy Jacobson; Subhabrata Sen; Shobha Venkataraman; Zhi-Li Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Using heterogeneous data sources collected from one of the largest 3G cellular networks in the US over three months, in this paper we investigate the usage patterns of mobile data users. We observe that data usage across mobile users are highly uneven. Most of the users access data services occasionally, while a small number of heavy users contribute to a

  2. Estimating Usage Can Reduce the Stress of Social Networking

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Sriram

    Estimating Usage Can Reduce the Stress of Social Networking Abstract Social networks are increasingly popular and provide benefits such as easy peer group communication. However, there is evidence participants with an objective measure of their social network usage and also asked them for a daily estimate

  3. KOINOTITES: A Web Usage Mining Tool for Personalization

    E-print Network

    Paliouras, George

    KOINOTITES: A Web Usage Mining Tool for Personalization Dimitrios Pierrakos Inst. of Informatics@iit.demokritos.gr SUMMARY This paper presents the Web Usage Mining system KOINOTITES, which uses data mining techniques for the construction of user communities on the Web. User communities model groups of visitors in a Web site, who have

  4. Software Dependability Evaluation Based on Markov Usage Models

    E-print Network

    Gutjahr, Walter

    Software Dependability Evaluation Based on Markov Usage Models Walter J. Gutjahr Department for computing optimal state transition probabilities for software tests, based on a Markov usage model; this distribution may also be used in the more general context of structural statistical testing of software

  5. Measuring and Modeling Usage and Reliability for Statistical Web Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaitanya Kallepalli; Jeff Tian

    2001-01-01

    Statistical testing and reliability analysis can be used effectively to assure quality for Web applications. To support this strategy, we extract Web usage and failure information from existing Web logs. The usage information is used to build models for statistical Web testing. The related failure information is used to measure the reliability of Web applications and the potential effectiveness of

  6. An Exploratory Study of Internet Addiction, Usage and Communication Pleasure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chien; Chou, Jung; Tyan, Nay-Ching Nancy

    This study examined the correlation between Internet addiction, usage, and communication pleasure. Research questions were: (1) What is computer network addiction? (2) How can one measure the degree of computer network addiction? (3) What is the correlation between the degree of users' network addiction and their network usage? (4) What is the…

  7. Query suggestions for mobile search: understanding usage patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryam Kamvar; Shumeet Baluja

    2008-01-01

    Entering search terms on mobile phones is a time consuming and cumbersome task. In this paper, we explore the usage patterns of query entry interfaces that display suggestions. Our primary goal is to build a usage model of query suggestions in order to provide user interface guidelines for mobile text prediction interfaces. We find that users who were asked to

  8. A Cognitive Radio Approach for Usage of Virtual Unlicensed Spectrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shridhar Mubaraq Mishra; Daniel Willkomm; Robert Brodersen; Adam Wolisz

    2005-01-01

    While essentially all of the frequency spectrum is allocated to different applications, observations provide evidence that usage of the spectrum is actually quite limited, particularly in bands above 3 GHz. In this paper we present a Cognitive Radio approach for usage of Virtual Unlicensed Spectrum (CORVUS), a vision of a Cognitive Radio (CR) based approach that uses allocated spectrum in

  9. Benchmarking Usage Statistics in Collection Management Decisions for Serials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Cory

    2009-01-01

    Usage statistics are an important metric for making decisions on serials. Although the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) Libraries have been collecting usage statistics, the statistics had not frequently been used to make decisions and had not been included in collection development policy. After undergoing a collection assessment, the…

  10. Transportation & Work: Exploring Car Usage and Employment Outcomes

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Transportation & Work: Exploring Car Usage and Employment Outcomes in the LSAL Data Field Area information on car ownership as well as employment history, literacy proficiency, and measures of social networks. This analysis addresses the role of car usage in employment outcomes such as employment status

  11. Malaysian women entrepreneurs: understanding the ICT usage behaviors and drivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nelson Oly Ndubisi; Cengiz Kahraman

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – This research aims to investigate the extent and pattern of information and communication technology (ICT) usage by women entrepreneurs in Malaysia, as well as the impact of personal traits on usage. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – All the members of the National Association of Women Entrepreneurs in Malaysia (NAWEM) were surveyed, out of which a 62 percent usable response rate was

  12. Accurate Learning of Word Usage: Differentiating Semantically Similar Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adachi, Takanori

    2003-01-01

    Sought to determine optimal conditions for learning accurate word usage in Japanese from limited exposure to exemplars. Results indicate that having varied type exemplars that show clear distinctions among semantically similar words promotes accuracy of usage, as measured by learners' ability to extend a word's core meaning to more abstract or…

  13. Student Drug Usage and Self-Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischler, Michael L.

    Utilizing responses (a self administered, 15 item questionnaire) of a rural northeastern New England sample of junior high, senior high, and college students, correlation between legal and illegal drug use and perceived self-alienation was examined. Comparison was also made between users and nonusers. Legal users were defined as those who made at…

  14. Differential receptor usage by measles virus strains.

    PubMed

    Bartz, R; Firsching, R; Rima, B; ter Meulen, V; Schneider-Schaulies, J

    1998-05-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that infection of cells with all measles virus (MV) strains tested was inhibited by antibodies against CD46, although not all strains caused downregulation of the MV receptor CD46 from the surface of human cells. We now show that infection of cells with MV strain WTFb, a variant of wild-type isolate WTF which has been isolated and propagated on human BJAB cells, is not inhibited by antibodies against CD46. In contrast, infection of cells with the closely related strain WTFv, a Vero cell-adapted variant of WTF, is inhibited by antibodies against CD46. This observation led us to investigate the interaction of these viruses and the vaccine strain Edmonston (Edm) with CD46 and target cells. Cellular receptors with high affinity binding for WTFb are present on BJAB cells, but not on transfected CD46-expressing CHO cells. In contrast to the Edm strain, virus particles and solubilized envelope glycoproteins of WTFb have a very limited binding capacity to CD46. Furthermore, we show that recombinant soluble CD46 either does not bind, or binds very weakly, to WTFb glycoproteins expressed on the cell surface. Our findings indicate that wild-type MV strain WTFb and vaccine strain Edm use different binding sites on human cells. In addition, the results suggest that MV strains may alternatively use CD46 and an unknown molecule as receptors, and that the degree of usage of both receptors may be MV strain-specific. PMID:9603316

  15. Measuring and modelling surgical bed usage.

    PubMed

    Millard, P H; Mackay, M; Vasilakis, C; Christodoulou, G

    2000-03-01

    Surgical departments treat two groups of inpatients--the simple and the complex--consequently a single average fails to describe the use being made of the occupied beds. Using decision support techniques, we show why indicators such as the average length, the average occupancy and the average admissions mislead. Furthermore, by analysing the fluctuating pattern of weekly admissions we show how weekends and the Christmas holiday periods impact on bed usage. Next, we demonstrate that flow process models can be used to describe how the in-patient workload concerns two groups of patients. On an average day, 71.4% of the beds contained patients who will have an average (exponential) stay of 4.8 days, and the other beds, 28.6%, contain patients who will have an average (exponential) stay of 22.8 days. The article concludes by demonstrating the short and long-term impact on daily admissions of a 10% change in four different parameters of the model. The data used come from a surgical department in Adelaide, as UK data sets report finished consultant episodes rather than completed in-patient spells. PMID:10743421

  16. Factor structure of common drug usage.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, N L; McClearn, G E

    1983-08-01

    The correlated usage of commonly employed, legal drugs was examined in a sample of 377 American and 908 Swedish adults. Measures of alcohol, tranquilizer, sleeping pill, and coffee or tea consumption were submitted to a principal components factor analysis with Varimax rotation. The resultant three factors were characterized by (1) heavy drinking in general and beer consumption specifically (ALCFAC), (2) the use of tranquilizers and sleeping medications (TSFAC) and (3) the consumption of coffee and tea (CTFAC). Factor structure profiles for ALCFAC and TSFAC were more stable than CTFAC across nationalities, sexes, and cohorts. Profiles for Swedish smokers and never-smokers were very similar; for Americans, however, profiles for never-smokers were more similar to Swedish profiles than to those of American smokers. Factor scores were computed to examine the relationship between tobacco use and levels of the factors by means of analysis of variance. In Swedes, ALCFAC and CTFAC levels varied with smoking status, whereas ALCFAC and TSFAC levels with smoking status in Americans. PMID:6641502

  17. Reviewing prescription spending and accessory usage.

    PubMed

    Oxenham, Julie

    This article aims to explore the role of the stoma nurse specialist in the community and how recent initiatives within the NHS have impacted on the roles in stoma care to react to the rising prescription costs in the specialty. The article will explore how the stoma care nurse conducted her prescription reviews within her own clinical commissioning group (CCG). The findings of the reviews will be highlighted by a small case history and a mini audit that reveals that some stoma patients may be using their stoma care accessories inappropriately, which may contribute to the rise in stoma prescription spending. To prevent the incorrect use of stoma appliances it may necessitate an annual review of ostomates (individuals who have a stoma), as the author's reviews revealed that inappropriate usage was particularly commonplace when a patient may have not been reviewed by a stoma care specialist for some considerable amount of time. Initial education of the ostomate and ongoing education of how stoma products work is essential to prevent the misuse of stoma appliances, particularly accessories, as the reviews revealed that often patients were not always aware of how their products worked in practice. PMID:24642774

  18. Stimulation of stop codon readthrough: frequent presence of an extended 3' RNA structural element.

    PubMed

    Firth, Andrew E; Wills, Norma M; Gesteland, Raymond F; Atkins, John F

    2011-08-01

    In Sindbis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and related alphaviruses, the polymerase is translated as a fusion with other non-structural proteins via readthrough of a UGA stop codon. Surprisingly, earlier work reported that the signal for efficient readthrough comprises a single cytidine residue 3'-adjacent to the UGA. However, analysis of variability at synonymous sites revealed strikingly enhanced conservation within the ? 150 nt 3'-adjacent to the UGA, and RNA folding algorithms revealed the potential for a phylogenetically conserved stem-loop structure in the same region. Mutational analysis of the predicted structure demonstrated that the stem-loop increases readthrough by up to 10-fold. The same computational analysis indicated that similar RNA structures are likely to be relevant to readthrough in certain plant virus genera, notably Furovirus, Pomovirus, Tobravirus, Pecluvirus and Benyvirus, as well as the Drosophilia gene kelch. These results suggest that 3' RNA stimulatory structures feature in a much larger proportion of readthrough cases than previously anticipated, and provide a new criterion for assessing the large number of cellular readthrough candidates that are currently being revealed by comparative sequence analysis. PMID:21525127

  19. SwiftLib: rapid degenerate-codon-library optimization through dynamic programming.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Timothy M; Yumerefendi, Hayretin; Kuhlman, Brian; Leaver-Fay, Andrew

    2015-03-11

    Degenerate codon (DC) libraries efficiently address the experimental library-size limitations of directed evolution by focusing diversity toward the positions and toward the amino acids (AAs) that are most likely to generate hits; however, manually constructing DC libraries is challenging, error prone and time consuming. This paper provides a dynamic programming solution to the task of finding the best DCs while keeping the size of the library beneath some given limit, improving on the existing integer-linear programming formulation. It then extends the algorithm to consider multiple DCs at each position, a heretofore unsolved problem, while adhering to a constraint on the number of primers needed to synthesize the library. In the two library-design problems examined here, the use of multiple DCs produces libraries that very nearly cover the set of desired AAs while still staying within the experimental size limits. Surprisingly, the algorithm is able to find near-perfect libraries where the ratio of amino-acid sequences to nucleic-acid sequences approaches 1; it effectively side-steps the degeneracy of the genetic code. Our algorithm is freely available through our web server and solves most design problems in about a second. PMID:25539925

  20. Structural Evidence for a Germline-Encoded T Cell Receptor - Major Histocompatibility Complex Interaction 'Codon'

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, D.; Bond, C.J.; Ely, L.K.; Maynard, J.; Garcia, K.C.

    2009-06-02

    All complexes of T cell receptors (TCRs) bound to peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) molecules assume a stereotyped binding 'polarity', despite wide variations in TCR-pMHC docking angles. However, existing TCR-pMHC crystal structures have failed to show broadly conserved pairwise interaction motifs. Here we determined the crystal structures of two TCRs encoded by the variable {beta}-chain 8.2 (V{sub {beta}}8.2), each bound to the MHC class II molecule I-A{sup u}, and did energetic mapping of V{sub {alpha}} and V{sub {beta}} contacts with I-A{sup u}. Together with two previously solved structures of V{sub {beta}}8.2-containing TCR-MHC complexes, we found four TCR-I-A complexes with structurally superimposable interactions between the V{sub {beta}} loops and the I-A {alpha}-helix. This examination of a narrow 'slice' of the TCR-MHC repertoire demonstrates what is probably one of many germline-derived TCR-MHC interaction 'codons'.

  1. Therapeutic suppression of premature termination codons: Mechanisms and clinical considerations (Review)

    PubMed Central

    KARIJOLICH, JOHN; YU, YI-TAO

    2014-01-01

    An estimated one-third of genetic disorders are the result of mutations that generate premature termination codons (PTCs) within protein coding genes. These disorders are phenotypically diverse and consist of diseases that affect both young and old individuals. Various small molecules have been identified that are capable of modulating the efficiency of translation termination, including select antibiotics of the aminoglycoside family and multiple novel synthetic molecules, including PTC124. Several of these agents have proved their effectiveness at promoting nonsense suppression in preclinical animal models, as well as in clinical trials. In addition, it has recently been shown that box H/ACA RNA-guided peudouridylation, when directed to modify PTCs, can also promote nonsense suppression. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of eukaryotic translation termination and discuss various methods for promoting the read-through of disease-causing PTCs, as well as the current obstacles that stand in the way of using the discussed agents broadly in clinical practice. PMID:24939317

  2. Genetic analysis of diversity within a Chinese local sugarcane germplasm based on start codon targeted polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Que, Youxiong; Pan, Yongbao; Lu, Yunhai; Yang, Cui; Yang, Yuting; Huang, Ning; Xu, Liping

    2014-01-01

    In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic diversity among 107 sugarcane accessions within a local sugarcane germplasm collection. These primers amplified 176 DNA fragments, of which 163 were polymorphic (92.85%). Polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.783 to 0.907 with a mean of 0.861. Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the SCoT marker data divided the 107 sugarcane accessions into six clusters at 0.674 genetic similarity coefficient level. Relatively abundant genetic diversity was observed among ROC22, ROC16, and ROC10, which occupied about 80% of the total sugarcane acreage in China, indicating their potential breeding value on Mainland China. Principal component analysis (PCA) partitioned the 107 sugarcane accessions into two major groups, the Domestic Group and the Foreign Introduction Group. Each group was further divided based on institutions, where the sugarcane accessions were originally developed. The knowledge of genetic diversity among the local sugarcane germplasm provided foundation data for managing sugarcane germplasm, including construction of a core collection and regional variety distribution and subrogation. PMID:24779012

  3. Genetic Analysis of Diversity within a Chinese Local Sugarcane Germplasm Based on Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Que, Youxiong; Pan, Yongbao; Lu, Yunhai; Yang, Cui; Yang, Yuting; Huang, Ning; Xu, Liping

    2014-01-01

    In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic diversity among 107 sugarcane accessions within a local sugarcane germplasm collection. These primers amplified 176 DNA fragments, of which 163 were polymorphic (92.85%). Polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.783 to 0.907 with a mean of 0.861. Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the SCoT marker data divided the 107 sugarcane accessions into six clusters at 0.674 genetic similarity coefficient level. Relatively abundant genetic diversity was observed among ROC22, ROC16, and ROC10, which occupied about 80% of the total sugarcane acreage in China, indicating their potential breeding value on Mainland China. Principal component analysis (PCA) partitioned the 107 sugarcane accessions into two major groups, the Domestic Group and the Foreign Introduction Group. Each group was further divided based on institutions, where the sugarcane accessions were originally developed. The knowledge of genetic diversity among the local sugarcane germplasm provided foundation data for managing sugarcane germplasm, including construction of a core collection and regional variety distribution and subrogation. PMID:24779012

  4. Donor plasmid design for codon and single base genome editing using zinc finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Pruett-Miller, Shondra M; Davis, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, CompoZr zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology has matured to the point that a user-defined double strand break (DSB) can be placed at virtually any location in the human genome within 50 bp of a desired site. Such high resolution ZFN engineering is well within the conversion tract limitations demarcated by the mammalian DNA repair machinery, resulting in a nearly universal ability to create point mutations throughout the human genome. Additionally, new architectures for targeted nuclease engineering have been rapidly developed, namely transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas systems, further expanding options for placement of DSBs. This new capability has created a need to explore the practical limitations of delivering plasmid-based information to the sites of chromosomal double strand breaks so that nuclease-donor methods can be widely deployed in fundamental and therapeutic research. In this chapter, we explore a ZFN-compatible donor design in the context of codon changes at an endogenous locus encoding the human RSK2 kinase. PMID:25408408

  5. SwiftLib: rapid degenerate-codon-library optimization through dynamic programming

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Timothy M.; Yumerefendi, Hayretin; Kuhlman, Brian; Leaver-Fay, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Degenerate codon (DC) libraries efficiently address the experimental library-size limitations of directed evolution by focusing diversity toward the positions and toward the amino acids (AAs) that are most likely to generate hits; however, manually constructing DC libraries is challenging, error prone and time consuming. This paper provides a dynamic programming solution to the task of finding the best DCs while keeping the size of the library beneath some given limit, improving on the existing integer-linear programming formulation. It then extends the algorithm to consider multiple DCs at each position, a heretofore unsolved problem, while adhering to a constraint on the number of primers needed to synthesize the library. In the two library-design problems examined here, the use of multiple DCs produces libraries that very nearly cover the set of desired AAs while still staying within the experimental size limits. Surprisingly, the algorithm is able to find near-perfect libraries where the ratio of amino-acid sequences to nucleic-acid sequences approaches 1; it effectively side-steps the degeneracy of the genetic code. Our algorithm is freely available through our web server and solves most design problems in about a second. PMID:25539925

  6. Mechanisms of the tRNA wobble cytidine modification essential for AUA codon decoding in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Numata, Tomoyuki

    2015-03-01

    Bacteria and archaea have 2-lysylcytidine (L or lysidine) and 2-agmatinylcytidine (agm(2)C or agmatidine), respectively, at the first (wobble) position of the anticodon of the AUA codon-specific tRNA(Ile). These lysine- or agmatine-conjugated cytidine derivatives are crucial for the precise decoding of the genetic code. L is synthesized by tRNA(Ile)-lysidine synthetase (TilS), which uses l-lysine and ATP as substrates. Agm(2)C formation is catalyzed by tRNA(Ile)-agm(2)C synthetase (TiaS), which uses agmatine and ATP for the reaction. Despite the fact that TilS and TiaS synthesize structurally similar cytidine derivatives, these enzymes belong to non-related protein families. Therefore, these enzymes modify the wobble cytidine by distinct catalytic mechanisms, in which TilS activates the C2 carbon of the wobble cytidine by adenylation, while TiaS activates it by phosphorylation. In contrast, TilS and TiaS share similar tRNA recognition mechanisms, in which the enzymes recognize the tRNA acceptor stem to discriminate tRNA(Ile) and tRNA(Met). PMID:25348586

  7. Regulation of the threonine operon: tandem threonine and isoleucine codons in the control region and translational control of transcription termination.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, J F

    1979-01-01

    The DNA sequence of 178 base pairs preceding the first structural gene of the threonine operon of Escherichia coli has been determined. A region of perfect 2-fold rotational symmetry, involving 28 base pairs, precedes the first structural gene. The structural similarity of this sequence to known RNA polymerase termination sites suggests that this region is the termination site of the threonine operon leader RNA. Moreover a mutation (thr 79-20), which confers a depressed, constitutive phenotype, was sequenced and found to be a G.C insertion in the putative terminator. A potential coding region for a 21-amino acid leader peptide ends approximately 18 base pairs before the terminator. This peptide contains eight threonine and four isoleucine codons. Eleven of these codons are in tandem. A model for threonine operon regulation, involving alternative secondary RNA structures and translation of leader RNA, is discussed. Images PMID:287010

  8. The first report of a homozygous codons 9/10 (+T) ?-thalassemia mutation in a Turkish patient.

    PubMed

    Unal, Sule; Chui, David H K; Luo, Hong-Yuan; Okur, Hamza; Oymak, Yesim; Gumruk, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    For the first time in Turkey, we report a thalassemic patient with a homozygous codons 9/10 (+T) genotype. Currently, the patient is 3 years and 2 months old and received an initial transfusion at the age of 18 months. After being alloimmunized following this transfusion, he required frequent transfusions, every week to every other week. Although alloimmunization was controlled after methyl-prednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis and rituximab, the transfusion requirements continued related to hypersplenism. Subsequent to splenectomy, transfusion requirements disappeared with average hemoglobin (Hb) levels around 11.0 g/dL. The mother underwent prenatal diagnosis (PND) when she became pregnant for the third time; this revealed a heterozygous codons 9/10 fetus. PMID:25572182

  9. Isoniazid resistance and the point mutation of codon 463 of katG gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Shim, T S; Yoo, C G; Han, S K; Shim, Y S; Kim, Y W

    1997-04-01

    It has long been known that almost all isoniazid (INH) resistant mycobacteria lose the catalase and peroxidase activities along with reduced or no virulence for guinea pigs. Recently resistance to INH has become known to be associated with mutations of katG gene encoding the HPI (Hydroperoxidase I) type catalase and peroxidase. Among these mutations, the point mutation of codon 463 of katG gene is found frequently, and is suggested as being associated with INH resistance. Therefore we performed this study in order to confirm the correlation between the point mutation of codon 463 of the katG gene and INH resistance of M. tuberculosis in Korea. Fifty isolates, 32 of which were resistant to INH, and 18 of which were sensitive to INH, were selected for this study. We used PCR-SSCP and RFLP analysis to detect the point mutation of the codon 463 of katG gene and confirmed the CGG (arginine) to CTG (leucine) mutation by direct sequencing analysis. Among 32 resistant isolates, 7 isolates (22%) had the same restriction pattern compared with that of the reference strain (H37Rv), and 25 isolates (78%) showed a different restriction pattern. Among 18 sensitive isolates, 7 isolates (39%) had the same restriction pattern compared with that of H37Rv, and 11 isolates (61%) showed a different restriction pattern. These results suggest that the CGG to CTG change of codon 463 of katG gene of M. tuberculosis may be a polymorphism not related with INH resistance. PMID:9170012

  10. Role of glutathione- S -transferase and codon 72 of P53 genotypes in epithelial ovarian cancer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine Cristina Morari; Andre Bacellar Costa Lima; Natassia Elena Bufalo; Janaina Luisa Leite; Fabiana Granja; Laura Sterian Ward

    2006-01-01

    Purpose\\u000a . A series of polymorphisms in germ-line DNA have been investigated in an effort to delineate polygenic models of cancer susceptibility and prognosis. As low-penetrance susceptibility genes may combine additively or multiplicatively and contribute to cancer incidence and to the response to chemotherapy, we studied GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTO2, GSTP1 and codon 72 of p53 genotype profiles in ovarian cancer

  11. Discrimination of 5?-terminal start codons by translation initiation factor 3 is mediated by ribosomal protein S1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabella Moll; Armin Resch; Udo Bläsi

    1998-01-01

    The interrelation between ribosomal protein S1 and IF3 in recognition\\/discrimination of 5?-terminal start codons by 30S ribosomes has been studied using in vitro toeprinting. The study has been performed with two naturally occurring leaderless mRNAs, ? cI and phage r1t rro mRNA, as well as with an artificial leaderless mRNA derived from the E. coli ompA gene. We show that

  12. Functional analysis of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism in black South Africans with rheumatoid arthritis—a pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devapregasan Moodley; Girish M. Mody; Anil A. Chuturgoon

    2010-01-01

    The p53 tumor-suppressor protein plays an integral role in apoptosis. Perturbations in peripheral lymphocyte (PL) apoptosis\\u000a may be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Polymorphisms at codon 72 of p53 (arginine (Arg72) to proline transition)\\u000a confers differences in mitochondrial translocation and apoptosis inducing capabilities of p53 in vitro. We examined associations\\u000a of this polymorphism with PL apoptosis, mitochondrial depolarization, and clinical

  13. Folding of an mRNA Pseudoknot Required for Stop Codon Readthrough:  Effects of Mono and Divalent Ions on Stability †

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas C. Gluick; Norma M. Wills; Raymond F. Gesteland; David E. Draper

    1997-01-01

    Unfolding of an mRNA pseudoknot that induces ribosome suppression of the gag gene stop codon in Moloney murine leukemia virus has been studied by UV hyperchromicity and calorimetry. The pseudoknot melts in two steps, corresponding to its two helical stems. The total enthalpy of denaturation is170 kcal\\/mol, approximately the value expected for the secondary structure. At low salt concentrations (<50

  14. Severe nemaline myopathy caused by mutations of the stop codon of the skeletal muscle alpha actin gene ( ACTA1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Wallefeld; Sabine Krause; Kristen J. Nowak; Danielle Dye; Rita Horváth; Zoltán Molnár; Miklós Szabó; Kazuhiro Hashimoto; Cristina Reina; Jose De Carlos; Jordi Rosell; Ana Cabello; Carmen Navarro; Ichizo Nishino; Hanns Lochmüller; Nigel G. Laing

    2006-01-01

    Most nemaline myopathy patients have mutations in the nebulin (NEB) or skeletal muscle ?-actin (ACTA1) genes. Here we report for the first time three patients with severe nemaline myopathy and mutations of the ACTA1 stop codon: TAG>TAT (tyrosine), TAG>CAG (glutamine) and TAG>TGG (tryptophan). All three mutations will cause inclusion of an additional 47 amino acids, translated from the 3? UTR

  15. Frequency and spectrum of mutations at codons 12 and 13 of the C-K-ras gene in human tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Capella; S. Cronauer-Mitra; M. A. Peinado; M. Perucho

    1991-01-01

    The frequency of point mutations at codons 12 and 13 of the c-K-ras gene has been determined in a panel of more than 400 human tumors. Mutant c-K-ras genes were detected in about 75% of adenocarcinomas of the pancreas; 40% of adenomas and carcinomas of the colon and rectum; 30% of carcinomas of the bile duct; 25% of carcinomas of

  16. Synonymous Codon Bias Is Not Caused by Mutation Bias in G1C-Rich Genes in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick G. C. Smith; Adam Eyre-Walker

    It is has been suggested that synonymous codon bias is a consequence of mutation bias in mammals. We tested this hypothesis in humans using single-nucleotide polymorphism data. We found a pattern of polymorphism which was inconsistent with the mutation bias hypothesis in G1C-rich genes. However, the data were consistent with the action of natural selection or biased gene conversion. Similar

  17. The association of a codon 136 PrP gene variant with the occurrence of natural scrapie

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Hunter; W. Goldmann; G. Smith; J. Hope

    1994-01-01

    Summary Incidence of both experimental and natural scrapie in sheep has been associated with polymorphisms of the PrP gene. In case\\/ control studies the PrP allele which encodes valine at codon 136 (Val136) is found in 96–100% of naturally infected scrapie sheep of Shetland, Scottish Halfbred and Bleu du Maine breeds. In contrast, in healthy animals from the same flocks,

  18. Association Between HIV-1 Coreceptor Usage and Resistance to Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Hauke; Lengauer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recently discovered broadly neutralizing antibodies have revitalized hopes of developing a universal vaccine against HIV-1. Mainly responsible for new infections are variants only using CCR5 for cell entry, whereas CXCR4-using variants can become dominant in later infection stages. Methods: We performed a statistical analysis on two different previously published data sets. The first data set was a panel of 199 diverse HIV-1 isolates for which IC50 neutralization titers were determined for the broadly neutralizing antibodies VRC01, VRC-PG04, PG9, and PG16. The second data set contained env sequences of viral variants extracted from HIV-1–infected humanized mice treated with the antibody PGT128 and from untreated control mice. Results: For the panel of 199 diverse HIV-1 isolates, we found a statistically significant association between viral resistance to PG9 and PG16 and CXCR4 coreceptor usage (P = 0.0011 and P = 0.0010, respectively). Our analysis of viral variants from HIV-1–infected humanized mice under treatment with the broadly neutralizing antibody PGT128 indicated that certain antibodies might drive a viral population toward developing CXCR4 coreceptor usage capability (P = 0.0011 for the comparison between PGT128 and control measurement). Conclusions: These analyses highlight the importance of accounting for a possible coreceptor usage bias pertaining to the effectiveness of an HIV vaccine and to passive antibody transfer as therapeutic approach. PMID:25072615

  19. Extensive alternate exon usage at the 5' end of the sheep tropoelastin gene.

    PubMed

    Mauch, J C; Sandberg, L B; Roos, P J; Jimenez, F; Christiano, A M; Deak, S B; Boyd, C D

    1995-10-01

    Several overlapping cDNA clones were isolated from a lambda gt10 cDNA library constructed using poly A+ RNA from neonatal sheep lung. DNA sequence analysis of these cDNA recombinants revealed the complete derived amino acid sequence of sheep tropoelastin. A comparison of DNA sequences from individual sheep tropoelastin cDNA also confirmed the presence of several tropoelastin mRNA isoforms in neonatal lung tissue. Coding domains corresponding to exons 13, 14 and 33 were present in several of the sheep tropoelastin cDNA fragments but absent in others. The relative amount of alternate usage of these exons was quantitated by polymerase chain amplification. In confirmation of previous studies in other mammalian species, extensive alternate usage of exon 33 was observed in total RNA isolated from aorta, nuchal ligament and pulmonary artery from neonatal sheep. In striking contrast to all previous studies, however, exons 13 and 14 were shown to be subject to almost the same level of alternate usage as exon 33 in all three neonatal sheep tissues examined. PMID:9057813

  20. XPC codon 939 polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to DNA damage induced by aflatoxin B1 exposure

    PubMed Central

    Long, Xi-Dai; Huang, Hong-Dong; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Yao, Jin-Guang; Xia, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), resulting in the formation of AFB1-DNA adducts, is a known human carcinogen. AFB1-exposure individuals with inherited susceptible carcinogen-repairing genotypes may experience an increased risk of genotoxicity. This study was aimed to investigate whether DNA repair gene xerodermapigmentosum complementation group C codon 939 polymorphism (rs2228001) affected the levels of AFB1-DNA adducts in Guangxi Population (n = 2558), from an AFB1-exposure area. AFB1-DNA adducts were measured by ELISA, and XPC codon 939 genotypes were identified by TaqMan-PCR. We found that longer AFB1-exposure years significantly increased XPC genotypes with codon 939 Gln alleles (namely, XPC-LG and -GG, odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] were 1.37 (1.15-1.63) and 1.99 (1.55-2.55), respectively) was significantly associated with higher levels of AFB1-DNA adducts. Furthermore, there was a positive joint effect between XPC genotypes and long-year AFB1 exposure in the formation of AFB1-DNA adducts. These results suggest that individuals with susceptible genotypes XPC-LG and -GG may experience an increased risk of DNA damage elicited by AFB1 exposure. PMID:25785113

  1. IS870 requires a 5'-CTAG-3' target sequence to generate the stop codon for its large ORF1.

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, P; Paulus, F; Otten, L

    1993-01-01

    The TB regions of the Agrobacterium vitis octopine/cucumopine Ti plasmids constitute a family of related structures. All contain a bacterial insertion element downstream of the TB-iaaM gene, IS870.1. Whereas 43 isolates with octopine/cucumopine Ti plasmids carry only one IS870 copy, strain Ag57 carries a second copy (IS870.2) 3.9 kb to the right of IS870.1 and part of the same TB region. Two other octopine/cucumopine strains carry an IS870 copy on their chromosome (IS870.3). A study of the unmodified insertion sites of IS870.2 and IS870.3, cloned from closely related strains, enabled us to delimit the IS870 elements. IS870 has a size of 1,152 bp and is terminated by inverted repeats. It contains a large open reading frame without a stop codon. However, a stop codon is generated by insertion into the target sequence 5'-CTAG-3'. IS870 is related to five other insertion sequence elements. For two of these, the stop codon of the largest open reading frame is also created by insertion into a CTAG target site. PMID:8387998

  2. Phylotranscriptomics: Saturated Third Codon Positions Radically Influence the Estimation of Trees Based on Next-Gen Data

    PubMed Central

    Breinholt, Jesse W.; Kawahara, Akito Y.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in molecular sequencing techniques have led to a surge in the number of phylogenetic studies that incorporate large amounts of genetic data. We test the assumption that analyzing large number of genes will lead to improvements in tree resolution and branch support using moths in the superfamily Bombycoidea, a group with some interfamilial relationships that have been difficult to resolve. Specifically, we use a next-gen data set that included 19 taxa and 938 genes (?1.2M bp) to examine how codon position and saturation might influence resolution and node support among three key families. Maximum likelihood, parsimony, and species tree analysis using gene tree parsimony, on different nucleotide and amino acid data sets, resulted in largely congruent topologies with high bootstrap support compared with prior studies that included fewer loci. However, for a few shallow nodes, nucleotide and amino acid data provided high support for conflicting relationships. The third codon position was saturated and phylogenetic analysis of this position alone supported a completely different, potentially misleading sister group relationship. We used the program RADICAL to assess the number of genes needed to fix some of these difficult nodes. One such node originally needed a total of 850 genes but only required 250 when synonymous signal was removed. Our study shows that, in order to effectively use next-gen data to correctly resolve difficult phylogenetic relationships, it is necessary to assess the effects of synonymous substitutions and third codon positions. PMID:24148944

  3. Novel integration strategy coupling codon and fermentation optimization for efficiently enhancing sarcosine oxidase (SOX) production in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yanjun; Yang, Hailin; Xin, Yu; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Wu

    2015-05-01

    Sarcosine oxidase (SOX) was an important diagnostic enzyme in the renal function examination. An integrated strategy coupling codon and fermentation optimization was firstly proposed for improving SOX production from recombinant E. coli in 3-L fermentor. The expression suppression (gene phase) and poor balance between SOX expression and cell growth (fermentation phase) in the traditional SOX production were respectively improved by the multiple strategies. Based on the codon bias, the expression suppression was weakened via codon optimization and SOX activity reached 1,521 U/L. The induction toxicity was reduced with the optimal induction condition and SOX production increased to 4,015 U/L. Based on the kinetic analysis of ? x and ? p , a better balance between cell growth and expression was achieved by the two-stage pH-stat control strategy. The SOX activity was further improved to 8,490 U/L and fermentation cycle was also significantly shortened from 44 to 32 h. The substrate inhibition was weakened with a constant feeding fed-batch. With the assistance of integrated strategy, the activity and productivity reached 12,466 U/L and 389.6 U/(L h), respectively, or 3.1-fold and 4.3-fold of the uncontrolled fermentation. The strategy would be also useful in the industrial application of other similar enzymes. PMID:25809734

  4. Codon 104 variation of p53 gene provides adaptive apoptotic responses to extreme environments in mammals of the Tibet plateau

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Ren, Ji-Long; Wang, Ming-Yang; Zhang, Sheng-Ting; Liu, Yu; Li, Min; Cao, Yi-Bin; Zu, Hu-Yue; Chen, Xiao-Cheng; Wu, Chung-I; Nevo, Eviatar; Chen, Xue-Qun; Du, Ji-Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Mutational changes in p53 correlate well with tumorigenesis. Remarkably, however, relatively little is known about the role that p53 variations may play in environmental adaptation. Here we report that codon asparagine-104 (104N) and glutamic acid-104 (104E), respectively, of the p53 gene in the wild zokor (Myospalax baileyi) and root vole (Microtus oeconomus) are adaptively variable, meeting the environmental stresses of the Tibetan plateau. They differ from serine-104 (104S) seen in other rodents, including the lowland subterranean zokor Myospalax cansus, and from serine 106 (106S) in humans. Based on site-directed mutational analysis in human cell lines, the codon 104N variation in M. baileyi is responsible for the adaptive balance of the transactivation of apoptotic genes under hypoxia, cold, and acidic stresses. The 104E p53 variant in Microtus oeconomus suppresses apoptotic gene transactivation and cell apoptosis. Neither 104N nor 104E affects the cell-cycle genes. We propose that these variations in p53 codon 104 are an outcome of environmental adaptation and evolutionary selection that enhance cellular strategies for surviving the environmental stresses of hypoxia and cold (in M. baileyi and M. oeconomus) and hypercapnia (in M. baileyi) in the stressful environments of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. PMID:24297887

  5. Codon modification for the DNA sequence of a single-chain Fv antibody against clenbuterol and expression in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jie-Xian; Xie, Xi; Hu, Da-Wei; Chen, Shu-Chi; He, Yong-Sheng; Beier, Ross C; Shen, Yu-Dong; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Xu, Zhen-Lin; Wang, Hong; Yang, Jin-Yi

    2014-04-01

    The expression efficiency was improved for the recombinant single-chain variable fragment (scFv) against clenbuterol (CBL) obtained from mouse and expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris GS115, by redesigning and synthesizing the DNA sequence encoding for CBL-scFv based on the codon bias of P. pastoris. The codons encoding 124 amino acids were optimized, in which a total of 156 nucleotides were changed, and the G+C ratio was simultaneously decreased from 53 to 47.2 %. Under the optimized expression conditions, the yield of the recombinant CBL-scFv (41 kDa) antibodies was 0.223 g L?¹ in shake culture. Compared to the non-optimized control, the expression level of the optimized recombinant CBL-scFv based on preferred codons in P. pastoris demonstrated a 2.35-fold higher yield. Furthermore, the recombinant CBL-scFv was purified by Ni-NTA column chromatography, and the purity was 95 %. The purified CBL-scFv showed good CBL recognition by a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay. The average concentration required for 50 % inhibition of binding and the limit of detection for the assay were 5.82 and 0.77 ng mL?¹, respectively. PMID:24190495

  6. The Highly Conserved Codon following the Slippery Sequence Supports ?1 Frameshift Efficiency at the HIV-1 Frameshift Site

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Suneeth F.; Crowe-McAuliffe, Caillan; Graves, Ryan; Cardno, Tony S.; McKinney, Cushla; Poole, Elizabeth S.; Tate, Warren P.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 utilises ?1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting to translate structural and enzymatic domains in a defined proportion required for replication. A slippery sequence, U UUU UUA, and a stem-loop are well-defined RNA features modulating ?1 frameshifting in HIV-1. The GGG glycine codon immediately following the slippery sequence (the ‘intercodon’) contributes structurally to the start of the stem-loop but has no defined role in current models of the frameshift mechanism, as slippage is inferred to occur before the intercodon has reached the ribosomal decoding site. This GGG codon is highly conserved in natural isolates of HIV. When the natural intercodon was replaced with a stop codon two different decoding molecules—eRF1 protein or a cognate suppressor tRNA—were able to access and decode the intercodon prior to ?1 frameshifting. This implies significant slippage occurs when the intercodon is in the (perhaps distorted) ribosomal A site. We accommodate the influence of the intercodon in a model of frame maintenance versus frameshifting in HIV-1. PMID:25807539

  7. Application Examples for Handle System Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toussaint, F.; Weigel, T.; Thiemann, H.; Höck, H.; Stockhause, M.; Lautenschlager, M.

    2012-12-01

    Besides the well-known DOI (Digital Object Identifiers) as a special form of Handles that resolve to scientific publications there are various other applications in use. Others perhaps are just not yet. We present some examples for the existing ones and some ideas for the future. The national German project C3-Grid provides a framework to implement a first solution for provenance tracing and explore unforeseen implications. Though project-specific, the high-level architecture is generic and represents well a common notion of data derivation. Users select one or many input datasets and a workflow software module (an agent in this context) to execute on the data. The output data is deposited in a repository to be delivered to the user. All data is accompanied by an XML metadata document. All input and output data, metadata and the workflow module receive Handles and are linked together to establish a directed acyclic graph of derived data objects and involved agents. Data that has been modified by a workflow module is linked to its predecessor data and the workflow module involved. Version control systems such as svn or git provide Internet access to software repositories using URLs. To refer to a specific state of the source code of for instance a C3 workflow module, it is sufficient to reference the URL to the svn revision or git hash. In consequence, individual revisions and the repository as a whole receive PIDs. Moreover, the revision specific PIDs are linked to their respective predecessors and become part of the provenance graph. Another example for usage of PIDs in a current major project is given in EUDAT (European Data Infrastructure) which will link scientific data of several research communities together. In many fields it is necessary to provide data objects at multiple locations for a variety of applications. To ensure consistency, not only the master of a data object but also its copies shall be provided with a PID. To verify transaction safety and to keep all copies consistent requires that the chain from master to copy and vice versa has to be resolvable, preferably through PIDs directly. As part of EUDAT necessary services are created on the basis of iRODS. These form the core structure of the data infrastructure developed within EUDAT. Though many implementations of PID systems already exist, many valuable web accessible data sources come with unresolvable identifiers like UUIDs, with instable recognition patterns like URLs, or even with proprietary implementations. However, other data collections would like to link to them in the data descriptions of their metadata. In addition, by usage of PIDs one can decouple the responsibilities for data and MD in projects where necessary. For some metadata entities like persons or even institutes it makes sense to give them single PIDs that point to contact and/or location information. ORCID (Open Researcher & Contributor ID), e.g., keeps track of persons working in scholarly fields, independent of name changes and linguistic variances. The ISO 27729 based International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI) also identifies legal entities and fictional characters besides natural persons. Other systems exist that, e.g., reference geographic localities. IDs of this kind may resolve to a URL where detailed information is given.

  8. Energy Usage Optimisation in South African Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Ali; Twala, Bhekisipho; Ouahada, Khmaies; Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, South Africa has encountered a critical electricity supply which necessitated the implementation of demand-side management (DSM) projects. Load shifting and energy (EE) efficiency projects were introduced in mining sector to reduce the electricity usage during day peak time. As the compressed air networks and the water pumping systems are using large amounts of the mines' electricity, possible ways were investigated and implemented to improve and optimise the energy consumption and to reduce the costs. Implementing DSM and EE in four different mines resulted in achieving the desired energy savings and load-shifting. W ostatnich latach w Po?udniowej Afryce zanotowano pewne trudno?ci z dostawami energii elektrycznej, co wymusi?o wdro?enie dzia?a? maj?cych na celu skuteczne zarz?dzanie zagadnieniami energetycznymi. Wprowadzono dzia?ania maj?ce na celu zmian? systemu obci??e? roboczych i bardziej efektywne wykorzystanie energii tak, by obni?y? zapotrzebowanie na energi? w trakcie szczytowych godzin w ci?gu dnia. Sieci dostarczaj?ce spr??one powietrze oraz stacje pomp zu?ywaj? znaczne ilo?ci energii w kopalni, przeanalizowano wi?c mo?liwe sposoby redukcji i optymalizacji zapotrzebowania na energi? i tym samym obni?enia kosztów produkcji. Wdro?enie odpowiednich projektów nakierowanych na oszcz?dno?ci i optymalizacj? w czterech kopalniach doprowadzi?o do oczekiwanych oszcz?dno?ci energii i umo?liwi?o zmian? systemu obci??e? roboczych w trakcie procesu produkcji.

  9. Resolving Discrepancy between Nucleotides and Amino Acids in Deep-Level Arthropod Phylogenomics: Differentiating Serine Codons in 21-Amino-Acid Models

    E-print Network

    Zwick, Andreas; Regier, Jerome C.; Zwickl, Derrick J.

    2012-11-20

    amino acids. This study investigates the cause of that discrepancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINIDINGS: The hypothesis is tested that failure to distinguish the serine residues encoded by two disjunct clusters of codons (TCN, AGY) in amino acid analyses...

  10. Low incidence of point mutation at codon 12 of K-ras proto-oncogene in squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract.

    PubMed

    Hirano, T; Steele, P E; Gluckman, J L

    1991-07-01

    Forty-two cases of squamous cell carcinoma arising in the upper aerodigestive tract were examined to determine the incidence and type of point mutation in codon 12 of the c-K-ras gene by using the polymerase chain reaction and oligonucleotide hybridization techniques on DNA extracted from paraffin blocks. DNA sequencing, in addition, was performed in 4 cases. No point mutation was detected in codon 12 of c-K-ras in the 42 squamous cell carcinomas we examined. According to the results of DNA sequencing of 4 cases, codon 13 also revealed no point mutation. Thus, point mutational activation of codon 12 of c-K-ras oncogene is an uncommon event in human upper aerodigestive tract squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:2064275

  11. 1. Cooling water is one-third of US water usage Basic approach: (a) estimate power consumption, from which you estimate cooling water usage

    E-print Network

    Nimmo, Francis

    1. Cooling water is one-third of US water usage Basic approach: (a) estimate power consumption) Water for power consumption I happen to know that total energy usage is roughly 10 kW per person, from which you estimate cooling water usage and compare with (b) estimate of other water usage. (a

  12. The MSPDBL2 Codon 591 Polymorphism Is Associated with Lumefantrine In Vitro Drug Responses in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Kilifi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ochola-Oyier, Lynette Isabella; Okombo, John; Mwai, Leah; Kiara, Steven M; Pole, Lewa; Tetteh, Kevin K A; Nzila, Alexis; Marsh, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    The mechanisms of drug resistance development in the Plasmodium falciparum parasite to lumefantrine (LUM), commonly used in combination with artemisinin, are still unclear. We assessed the polymorphisms of Pfmspdbl2 for associations with LUM activity in a Kenyan population. MSPDBL2 codon 591S was associated with reduced susceptibility to LUM (P = 0.04). The high frequency of Pfmspdbl2 codon 591S in Kenya may be driven by the widespread use of lumefantrine in artemisinin combination therapy (Coartem). PMID:25534732

  13. Contribution of AGC to ACC and other mutations at codon 315 of the katG gene in isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Suhail; Mokaddas, Eiman

    2004-05-01

    The presence of ACC and other mutations at codon 315 in the katG gene was detected by PCR amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) generated with restriction enzymes Msp I and MspA1 I in 37 isoniazid-resistant and 22-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Kuwait obtained in 2001. The mutation AGC to ACC was detected in 22 (60%) isolates while any mutation at codon 315 of the katG gene was present in 24 (65%) of 37 isoniazid-resistant isolates. The typing studies showed that majority of the isolates carrying mutations at codon 315 exhibited unique DNA banding patterns. The results were extended by additional analysis of 67, 28 and 17 isoniazid-resistant and 18, seven and six-susceptible M. tuberculosis isolates from Kuwait, Dubai and Beirut, respectively, that were analyzed previously for ACC mutation alone. These studies showed that one of 21, one of 10 and two of 11 isolates (all recovered from patients of Middle Eastern origin) with no AGC to ACC mutation from Kuwait, Dubai and Beirut, respectively, contained other mutations at codon 315 of the katG gene. None of the susceptible strains contained any mutation at codon 315. The PCR-RFLP with MspA1 I that detects all mutations at codon 315, compared with Msp I that detects only ACC mutation, identified more isoniazid-resistant strains with mutations at codon 315 in the katG gene. The data also showed that mutations other than AGC to ACC at codon 315 in the katG gene occur frequently in M. tuberculosis isolates recovered from Middle Eastern patients and should be incorporated in a rapid screen for the detection of mutations for isoniazid-resistance in the katG gene from this ethnic group. PMID:15120726

  14. Differential factor requirement to assemble translation initiation complexes at the alternative start codons of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DMITRI E. ANDREEV; OLGA FERNANDEZ-MIRAGALL; JORGE RAMAJO; SERGEY E. DMITRIEV; ILYA M. TERENIN; ENCARNA MARTINEZ-SALAS; IVAN N. SHATSKY

    2007-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA contains two in-frame AUG codons separated by 84 nt that direct translation initiation of the viral polyprotein. The mechanism of initiation at the IRES-proximal AUG codon (AUG1) has been previously analyzed, whereas no data on factor requirements for AUG2 have been reported. Here, using the method of 48S translation initiation complex reconstitution, we show

  15. The C domain of translation termination factor eRF1 is close to the stop codon in the A site of the 80S ribosome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. N. Bulygin; E. A. Popugaeva; M. N. Repkova; M. I. Meschaninova; A. G. Ven’yaminova; D. M. Graifer; L. Yu. Frolova; G. G. Karpova

    2007-01-01

    The arrangement of the stop codon and its 3?-flanking codon relative to the components of translation termination complexes\\u000a of human 80S ribosomes was studied using mRNA analogs containing the stop signal UPuPuPu (Pu is A or G) and the photoreactive\\u000a perfluoroarylazido group, which was linked to a stop-signal or 3?-flanking nucleotide (positions from +4 to +9 relative to\\u000a the first

  16. Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gladys Block; Christopher D Jensen; Edward P Norkus; Tapashi B Dalvi; Les G Wong; Jamie F McManus; Mark L Hudes

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin\\/mineral supplement users. METHODS: Using

  17. A Leu to Ile but not Leu to Val change at HIV-1 reverse transcriptase codon 74 in the background of K65R mutation leads to an increased processivity of K65R+L74I enzyme and a replication competent virus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The major hurdle in the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) includes the development of drug resistance-associated mutations in the target regions of the virus. Since reverse transcriptase (RT) is essential for HIV-1 replication, several nucleoside analogues have been developed to target RT of the virus. Clinical studies have shown that mutations at RT codon 65 and 74 which are located in ?3-?4 linkage group of finger sub-domain of RT are selected during treatment with several RT inhibitors, including didanosine, deoxycytidine, abacavir and tenofovir. Interestingly, the co-selection of K65R and L74V is rare in clinical settings. We have previously shown that K65R and L74V are incompatible and a R?K reversion occurs at codon 65 during replication of the virus. Analysis of the HIV resistance database has revealed that similar to K65R+L74V, the double mutant K65R+L74I is also rare. We sought to compare the impact of L?V versus L?I change at codon 74 in the background of K65R mutation, on the replication of doubly mutant viruses. Methods Proviral clones containing K65R, L74V, L74I, K65R+L74V and K65R+L74I RT mutations were created in pNL4-3 backbone and viruses were produced in 293T cells. Replication efficiencies of all the viruses were compared in peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells in the absence of selection pressure. Replication capacity (RC) of mutant viruses in relation to wild type was calculated on the basis of antigen p24 production and RT activity, and paired analysis by student t-test was performed among RCs of doubly mutant viruses. Reversion at RT codons 65 and 74 was monitored during replication in PBM cells. In vitro processivity of mutant RTs was measured to analyze the impact of amino acid changes at RT codon 74. Results Replication kinetics plot showed that all of the mutant viruses were attenuated as compared to wild type (WT) virus. Although attenuated in comparison to WT virus and single point mutants K65R, L74V and L74I; the double mutant K65R+L74I replicated efficiently in comparison to K65R+L74V mutant. The increased replication capacity of K65R+L74I viruses in comparison to K65R+L74V viruses was significant at multiplicity of infection 0.01 (p = 0.0004). Direct sequencing and sequencing after population cloning showed a more pronounced reversion at codon 65 in viruses containing K65R+L74V mutations in comparison to viruses with K65R+L74I mutations. In vitro processivity assays showed increased processivity of RT containing K65R+L74I in comparison to K65R+L74V RT. Conclusions The improved replication kinetics of K65R+L74I virus in comparison to K65R+L74V viruses was due to an increase in the processivity of RT containing K65R+L74I mutations. These observations support the rationale behind structural functional analysis to understand the interactions among unique RT mutations that may emerge during the treatment with specific drug regimens. PMID:21255423

  18. Proteomics-based Refinement of Deinococcus deserti Genome Annotation Reveals an Unwonted Use of Non-canonical Translation Initiation Codons*

    PubMed Central

    Baudet, Mathieu; Ortet, Philippe; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Fernandez, Bernard; Guérin, Philippe; Enjalbal, Christine; Subra, Gilles; de Groot, Arjan; Barakat, Mohamed; Dedieu, Alain; Armengaud, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Deinococcaceae are a family of extremely radiation-tolerant bacteria that are currently subjected to numerous studies aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms for such radiotolerance. To achieve a comprehensive and accurate annotation of the Deinococcus deserti genome, we performed an N terminus-oriented characterization of its proteome. For this, we used a labeling reagent, N-tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphonium acetyl succinimide, to selectively derivatize protein N termini. The large scale identification of N-tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphonium acetyl succinimide-modified N-terminal-most peptides by shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis led to the validation of 278 and the correction of 73 translation initiation codons in the D. deserti genome. In addition, four new genes were detected, three located on the main chromosome and one on plasmid P3. We also analyzed signal peptide cleavages on a genome-wide scale. Based on comparative proteogenomics analysis, we propose a set of 137 corrections to improve Deinococcus radiodurans and Deinococcus geothermalis gene annotations. Some of these corrections affect important genes involved in DNA repair mechanisms such as polA, ligA, and ddrB. Surprisingly, experimental evidences were obtained indicating that DnaA (the protein involved in the DNA replication initiation process) and RpsL (the S12 ribosomal conserved protein) translation is initiated in Deinococcaceae from non-canonical codons (ATC and CTG, respectively). Such use may be the basis of specific regulation mechanisms affecting replication and translation. We also report the use of non-conventional translation initiation codons for two other genes: Deide_03051 and infC. Whether such use of non-canonical translation initiation codons is much more frequent than for other previously reported bacterial phyla or restricted to Deinococcaceae remains to be investigated. Our results demonstrate that predicting translation initiation codons is still difficult for some bacteria and that proteomics-based refinement of genome annotations may be helpful in such cases. PMID:19875382

  19. Toward a Rationale for the PTC124 (Ataluren) Promoted Readthrough of Premature Stop Codons: A Computational Approach and GFP-Reporter Cell-Based Assay

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The presence in the mRNA of premature stop codons (PTCs) results in protein truncation responsible for several inherited (genetic) diseases. A well-known example of these diseases is cystic fibrosis (CF), where approximately 10% (worldwide) of patients have nonsense mutations in the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene. PTC124 (3-(5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-benzoic acid), also known as Ataluren, is a small molecule that has been suggested to allow PTC readthrough even though its target has yet to be identified. In the lack of a general consensus about its mechanism of action, we experimentally tested the ability of PTC124 to promote the readthrough of premature termination codons by using a new reporter. The reporter vector was based on a plasmid harboring the H2B histone coding sequence fused in frame with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) cDNA, and a TGA stop codon was introduced in the H2B-GFP gene by site-directed mutagenesis. Additionally, an unprecedented computational study on the putative supramolecular interaction between PTC124 and an 11-codon (33-nucleotides) sequence corresponding to a CFTR mRNA fragment containing a central UGA nonsense mutation showed a specific interaction between PTC124 and the UGA codon. Altogether, the H2B-GFP-opal based assay and the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation support the hypothesis that PTC124 is able to promote the specific readthrough of internal TGA premature stop codons. PMID:24483936

  20. Toward a rationale for the PTC124 (Ataluren) promoted readthrough of premature stop codons: a computational approach and GFP-reporter cell-based assay.

    PubMed

    Lentini, Laura; Melfi, Raffaella; Di Leonardo, Aldo; Spinello, Angelo; Barone, Giampaolo; Pace, Andrea; Palumbo Piccionello, Antonio; Pibiri, Ivana

    2014-03-01

    The presence in the mRNA of premature stop codons (PTCs) results in protein truncation responsible for several inherited (genetic) diseases. A well-known example of these diseases is cystic fibrosis (CF), where approximately 10% (worldwide) of patients have nonsense mutations in the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene. PTC124 (3-(5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-benzoic acid), also known as Ataluren, is a small molecule that has been suggested to allow PTC readthrough even though its target has yet to be identified. In the lack of a general consensus about its mechanism of action, we experimentally tested the ability of PTC124 to promote the readthrough of premature termination codons by using a new reporter. The reporter vector was based on a plasmid harboring the H2B histone coding sequence fused in frame with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) cDNA, and a TGA stop codon was introduced in the H2B-GFP gene by site-directed mutagenesis. Additionally, an unprecedented computational study on the putative supramolecular interaction between PTC124 and an 11-codon (33-nucleotides) sequence corresponding to a CFTR mRNA fragment containing a central UGA nonsense mutation showed a specific interaction between PTC124 and the UGA codon. Altogether, the H2B-GFP-opal based assay and the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation support the hypothesis that PTC124 is able to promote the specific readthrough of internal TGA premature stop codons. PMID:24483936

  1. Life without tRNAArg–adenosine deaminase TadA: evolutionary consequences of decoding the four CGN codons as arginine in Mycoplasmas and other Mollicutes

    PubMed Central

    Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Kitamura, Aya; Grosjean, Henri; Bessho, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    In most bacteria, two tRNAs decode the four arginine CGN codons. One tRNA harboring a wobble inosine (tRNAArgICG) reads the CGU, CGC and CGA codons, whereas a second tRNA harboring a wobble cytidine (tRNAArgCCG) reads the remaining CGG codon. The reduced genomes of Mycoplasmas and other Mollicutes lack the gene encoding tRNAArgCCG. This raises the question of how these organisms decode CGG codons. Examination of 36 Mollicute genomes for genes encoding tRNAArg and the TadA enzyme, responsible for wobble inosine formation, suggested an evolutionary scenario where tadA gene mutations first occurred. This allowed the temporary accumulation of non-deaminated tRNAArgACG, capable of reading all CGN codons. This hypothesis was verified in Mycoplasma capricolum, which contains a small fraction of tRNAArgACG with a non-deaminated wobble adenosine. Subsets of Mollicutes continued to evolve by losing both the mutated tRNAArgCCG and tadA, and then acquired a new tRNAArgUCG. This permitted further tRNAArgACG mutations with tRNAArgGCG or its disappearance, leaving a single tRNAArgUCG to decode the four CGN codons. The key point of our model is that the A-to-I deamination activity had to be controlled before the loss of the tadA gene, allowing the stepwise evolution of Mollicutes toward an alternative decoding strategy. PMID:23658230

  2. Comparisons of infant Escherichia coli isolates link genomic profiles with adaptation to the ecological niche

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite being one of the most intensely studied model organisms, many questions still remain about the evolutionary biology and ecology of Escherichia coli. An important step toward achieving a more complete understanding of E.coli biology entails elucidating relationships between gene content and adaptation to the ecological niche. Results Here, we present genome comparisons of 16 E.coli strains that represent commensals and pathogens isolated from infants during a specific time period in Trondheim, Norway. Using differential gene content, we characterized enrichment profiles of the collection of strains relating to phylogeny, early vs. late colonization, pathogenicity and growth rate. We found clear gene content distinctions relating to the various grouping criteria. We also found that different categories of strains use different genetic elements for similar biological processes. The sequenced genomes included two pairs of strains where each pair was isolated from the same infant at different time points. One pair, in which the strains were isolated four months apart, showed maintenance of an early colonizer genome profile but also gene content and codon usage changes toward the late colonizer profile. Lastly, we placed our sequenced isolates into a broader genomic context by comparing them with 25 published E.coli genomes that represent a variety of pathotypes and commensal strains. This analysis demonstrated the importance of geography in shaping strain level gene content profiles. Conclusions Our results indicate a general pattern where alternative genetic pathways lead toward a consistent ecological role for E.coli as a species. Within this framework however, we saw selection shaping the coding repertoire of E.coli strains toward distinct ecotypes with different phenotypic properties. PMID:23384204

  3. Caenorhabditis elegans SMG-2 Selectively Marks mRNAs Containing Premature Translation Termination Codons? †

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Lisa; Grimson, Andrew; Kuchma, Sherry L.; Newman, Carrie Loushin; Anderson, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Eukaryotic mRNAs containing premature translation termination codons (PTCs) are rapidly degraded by a process termed “nonsense-mediated mRNA decay” (NMD). We examined protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions among Caenorhabditis elegans proteins required for NMD. SMG-2, SMG-3, and SMG-4 are orthologs of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mammalian Upf1, Upf2, and Upf3, respectively. A combination of immunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid experiments indicated that SMG-2 interacts with SMG-3, SMG-3 interacts with SMG-4, and SMG-2 interacts indirectly with SMG-4 via shared interactions with SMG-3. Such interactions are similar to those observed in yeast and mammalian cells. SMG-2-SMG-3-SMG-4 interactions require neither SMG-2 phosphorylation, which is abolished in smg-1 mutants, nor SMG-2 dephosphorylation, which is reduced or eliminated in smg-5 mutants. SMG-2 preferentially associates with PTC-containing mRNAs. We monitored the association of SMG-2, SMG-3, and SMG-4 with mRNAs of five endogenous genes whose mRNAs are alternatively spliced to either contain or not contain PTCs. SMG-2 associates with both PTC-free and PTC-containing mRNPs, but it strongly and preferentially associates with (“marks”) those containing PTCs. SMG-2 marking of PTC-mRNPs is enhanced by SMG-3 and SMG-4, but SMG-3 and SMG-4 are not detectably associated with the same mRNPs. Neither SMG-2 phosphorylation nor dephosphorylation is required for selective association of SMG-2 with PTC-containing mRNPs, indicating that SMG-2 is phosphorylated only after premature terminations have been discriminated from normal terminations. We discuss these observations with regard to the functions of SMG-2 and its phosphorylation during NMD. PMID:17562857

  4. Analytical expression of the purine/pyrimidine codon probability after and before random mutations.

    PubMed

    Arquès, D G; Michel, C J

    1993-11-01

    Recently, we proposed a new model of DNA sequence evolution (Arquès and Michel. 1990b. Bull. math. Biol. 52, 741-772) according to which actual genes on the purine/pyrimidine (R/Y) alphabet (R = purine = adenine or guanine, Y = pyrimidine = cytosine or thymine) are the result of two successive evolutionary genetic processes: (i) a mixing (independent) process of non-random oligonucleotides (words of base length less than 10: YRY(N)6, YRYRYR and YRYYRY are so far identified; N = R or Y) leading to primitive genes (words of several hundreds of base length) and followed by (ii) a random mutation process, i.e., transformations of a base R (respectively Y) into the base Y (respectively R) at random sites in these primitive genes. Following this model the problem investigated here is the study of the variation of the 8 R/Y codon probabilities RRR, ..., YYY under random mutations. Two analytical expressions solved here allow analysis of this variation in the classical evolutionary sense (from the past to the present, i.e., after random mutations), but also in the inverted evolutionary sense (from the present to the past, i.e., before random mutations). Different properties are also derived from these formulae. Finally, a few applications of these formulae are presented. They prove the proposition in Arquès and Michel (1990b. Bull. math. Biol. 52, 741-772), Section 3.3.2, with the existence of a maximal mean number of random mutations per base of the order 0.3 in the protein coding genes. They also confirm the mixing process of oligonucleotides by excluding the purine/pyrimidine contiguous and alternating tracts from the formation process of primitive genes. PMID:8281128

  5. Specific VpU codon changes were significantly associated with gp120 V3 tropic signatures in HIV-1 B-subtype.

    PubMed

    Dimonte, Salvatore; Babakir-Mina, Muhammed; Aquaro, Stefano; Perno, Carlo-Federico

    2012-12-01

    After infection and integration steps, HIV-1 transcriptions increase sharply and singly-spliced mRNAs are produced. These encode Env (gp120 and gp41) and auxiliary proteins Vif, Vpr and VpU. The same localization within the unique structure of the mRNAs suggests that the VpU sequence prior to the Env could affect the Env polyprotein expression.The HIV-1 infection process begins when the gp120 subunit of the envelope glycoprotein complex interacts with its receptor(s) on the target cell. The V3 domain of gp120 is the major determinant of cellular co-receptor binding. According to phenotypic information of HIV-1 isolates, sequences from the VpU to V3 regions (119 in R5- and 120 X4-tropic viruses; one per patient) were analysed. The binomial correlation phi coefficient was used to assess covariation among VpU and gp120(V3) signatures. Subsequently, average linkage hierarchical agglomerative clustering was performed. Beyond the classical V3 signatures (R5-viruses: S11, E25D; X4-viruses: S11KR, E25KRQ), other specific V3 and novel VpU signatures were found to be statistically associated with co-receptor usage. Several statistically significant associations between V3 and VpU mutations were also observed. The dendrogram showed two distinct large clusters: one associated with R5-tropic sequences (bootstrap=0.94), involving: (a) H13NP(V3), E25D(V3), S11(V3), T22A(V3) and Q61H(VpU), (b) E25A(V3) and L12F(VpU), (c) D44E(VpU), R18Q(V3) and D80N(VpU); and another associated with X4-tropic sequences (bootstrap=0.97), involving: (i) E25I(V3) and V10A(VpU), (ii) 0-1insV(VpU), H13R(V3), I46L(VpU), I30M(V3) and 60-62del(VpU), (iii) S11KR(V3) and E25KRQ(V3). Some of these pairs of mutations were encoded always by one specific codon. These data indicate the possible VpU mutational patterns contributing to regulation of HIV-1 tropism. PMID:23271577

  6. 48 CFR 52.208-8 - Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data. 52.208-8...208-8 Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data. As prescribed...clause: Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data (APR 2002)...

  7. Trends in Building Energy Usage in Texas State Agencies

    E-print Network

    Murphy, W. E.; Turner, W. D.; O'Neal, D. L.; Seshan, S.

    1985-01-01

    In late 1983, a cost containment program was initiated out of the governor's office directed at the major state agencies. The Energy Management Group at Texas A&M University provided technical expertise in obtaining agency energy usage and cost...

  8. A Multilingual Usage Consultation Tool Based on Internet Searching

    E-print Network

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    which verb is used with "jet lag" in English, he can simply type "jet lag" into a search en- gine and obtain usages such as "avoid jet lag" and "recover from jet lag" among various snippets of information

  9. Memory Usage Inference for Object-Oriented Programs

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Huu Hai

    We present a type-based approach to statically derive symbolic closed-form formulae that characterize the bounds of heap memory usages of programs written in object-oriented languages. Given a program with size and alias ...

  10. Reduction of Utility Usage in a Glyphosate Intermediate (GI) Unit

    E-print Network

    Sander, M. L.

    2006-01-01

    Reduction of Utility Usage in a Glyphosate Intermediate (GI) Unit Michael L. Sander Manufacturing Technologist Monsanto Company Luling, Louisiana Plant ABSTRACT The Monsanto Company Luling Plant produces glyphosate intermediate (GI...

  11. A semantically enriched web usage based recommendation model

    E-print Network

    Ramesh, C; Govardhan, A

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid growth of internet technologies, Web has become a huge repository of information and keeps growing exponentially under no editorial control. However the human capability to read, access and understand Web content remains constant. This motivated researchers to provide Web personalized online services such as Web recommendations to alleviate the information overload problem and provide tailored Web experiences to the Web users. Recent studies show that Web usage mining has emerged as a popular approach in providing Web personalization. However conventional Web usage based recommender systems are limited in their ability to use the domain knowledge of the Web application. The focus is only on Web usage data. As a consequence the quality of the discovered patterns is low. In this paper, we propose a novel framework integrating semantic information in the Web usage mining process. Sequential Pattern Mining technique is applied over the semantic space to discover the frequent sequential patterns. Th...

  12. On the usage of XML file format in geodynamic calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choliy, V.

    2012-12-01

    We recommend the extended usage of XML data format for the representation of geodynamic observations and processing results. A short introduction to the technology and a simple example for a Consolidated Laser Ranging Data Format (CRD) data file are presented.

  13. An Overview of Anonymity Technology Usage Bingdong Lia

    E-print Network

    Gunes, Mehmet Hadi

    in facilitating on-line crimes such as piracy, information and identity theft, spam, cyber- stalking and even issue in both social life and cyber space. On one view, anonymity technologies provide legitimate usage

  14. An Analysis of Anonymity Technology Usage Bingdong Li1

    E-print Network

    Gunes, Mehmet Hadi

    in facilitating on- line crimes such as spam, piracy, information and identity theft, cyber-stalking and even techniques provide legitimate usage such as pri- vacy and freedom of speech, but are also used by cyber

  15. Analysis of the usage of polymer building materials in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hai-yang; Liu, Su-fang

    2014-08-01

    According to search and working practice, this article analyses the usage of polymer building materials in China, and then points out some problems that need to be solved, for which this article indicates the specific solution.

  16. Improved production of (R)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol by a codon-optimized R-specific carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rongzhen; Xu, Yan; Geng, Yawei; Wang, Shanshan; Sun, Ying; Xiao, Rong

    2010-03-01

    An R-specific carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis (CprCR) catalyzes the transformation of (R)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol from 2-hydroxyacetophenone. The gene rcr coding CprCR contains a few codons rarely used by Escherichia coli. In order to improve chiral alcohol production, three codon variants Delta24, aRCR, and mRCR of CprCR were designed through truncation of 4-27 bp disorder sequence at the 5'-terminus or/and adaption of nine rare codons. The effects of codon optimization on enzyme activity, protein production, and biotransformation were studied. Among these three types, the disorder sequence-truncated and rare codon-adapted variant mRCR presents the highest enzyme activity. When compared with CprCR, mRCR showed an increase of 35.6% in the total activity of cell-free extracts. The specific activity of mRCR presented similar increase in the cell-free extract with purified protein, which suggested that the codon optimization caused positive effect on protein productivity of variant enzyme. When microbial cells concentration was 30% (w/v), the molar conversion yield and enantiomeric excess of the mRCR variant reached 86.4% and 93.6%, which were increased 36.5% and 15.8% than those of wild-type at a high substrate concentration of 5 g/L. The work will supply a new method for improving chiral alcohol preparation with codon engineered microorganisms. PMID:19205628

  17. An asymmetric underlying rule in the assignment of codons: Possible clue to a quick early evolution of the genetic code via successive binary choices

    PubMed Central

    Delarue, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are responsible for creating the pool of correctly charged aminoacyl-tRNAs that are necessary for the translation of genetic information (mRNA) by the ribosome. Each aaRS belongs to either one of only two classes with two different mechanisms of aminoacylation, making use of either the 2?OH (Class I) or the 3?OH (Class II) of the terminal A76 of the tRNA and approaching the tRNA either from the minor groove (2?OH) or the major groove (3?OH). Here, an asymmetric pattern typical of differentiation is uncovered in the partition of the codon repertoire, as defined by the mechanism of aminoacylation of each corresponding tRNA. This pattern can be reproduced in a unique cascade of successive binary decisions that progressively reduces codon ambiguity. The deduced order of differentiation is manifestly driven by the reduction of translation errors. A simple rule can be defined, decoding each codon sequence in its binary class, thereby providing both the code and the key to decode it. Assuming that the partition into two mechanisms of tRNA aminoacylation is a relic that dates back to the invention of the genetic code in the RNA World, a model for the assignment of amino acids in the codon table can be derived. The model implies that the stop codon was always there, as the codon whose tRNA cannot be charged with any amino acid, and makes the prediction of an ultimate differentiation step, which is found to correspond to the codon assignment of the 22nd amino acid pyrrolysine in archaebacteria. PMID:17164478

  18. Effect of ATG initiation codon context motifs on the efficiency of translation of mRNA derived from exogenous genes in the transgenic silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Tatematsu, Ken-Ichiro; Uchino, Keiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki

    2014-01-01

    The context sequence motif surrounding the ATG initiation codon influences mRNA translation efficiency and affects protein production; however, the optimal sequence differs among species. To determine the optimal sequence for production of recombinant proteins in a transgenic silkworm, we compared 14-nucleotide context motifs around the ATG (ATG-context) in 50 silkworm genes and found the following consensus: (A/T)AN(A/T)ATCAAAatgN. We were also able to define the least-common motif: CCN(C/G)CGN(C/T/G)(G/C/T)(T/G)atgC, which served as a negative control. To examine the regulatory role of these motifs in protein expression, we constructed reporter plasmids containing different ATG-context motifs together with either the luciferase gene or an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. These constructs were then used for comparison of luciferase reporter activity and EGFP production in BmN4 cells in vitro as well as in transgenic silkworms in vivo. We detected 10-fold higher luciferase activity in BmN4 cells transfected with the consensus ATG-context motif construct, compared to the negative control plasmid. ELISA measurements of EGFP translation products with the corresponding constructs in BmN4 cells showed consistently similar results. Interestingly, the translation efficiency of the novel consensus ATG-context motif did not show the highest activity in the transgenic silkworms in vivo, except for the fat body. The highest efficiency in the middle and posterior silk glands was produced by the sericin 1 context. Our results show that the ATG-context motifs differ among silkworm tissues. This result is important for the further improvement of the transgenic silkworm system for the production of recombinant proteins. PMID:25674439

  19. The silent codon change I507-ATC?ATT contributes to the severity of the ?F508 CFTR channel dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lazrak, Ahmed; Fu, Lianwu; Bali, Vedrana; Bartoszewski, Rafal; Rab, Andras; Havasi, Viktoria; Keiles, Steve; Kappes, John; Kumar, Ranjit; Lefkowitz, Elliot; Sorscher, Eric J.; Matalon, Sadis; Collawn, James F.; Bebok, Zsuzsanna

    2013-01-01

    The most common disease-causing mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene is the out-of-frame deletion of 3 nucleotides (CTT). This mutation leads to the loss of phenylalanine-508 (?F508) and a silent codon change (SCC) for isoleucine-507 (I507-ATC?ATT). ?F508 CFTR is misfolded and degraded by endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). We have demonstrated that the I507-ATC?ATT SCC alters ?F508 CFTR mRNA structure and translation dynamics. By comparing the biochemical and functional properties of the I507-ATT and I507-ATC ?F508 CFTR, we establish that the I507-ATC?ATT SCC contributes to the cotranslational misfolding, ERAD, and to the functional defects associated with ?F508 CFTR. We demonstrate that the I507-ATC ?F508 CFTR is less susceptible to the ER quality-control machinery during translation than the I507-ATT, although 27°C correction is necessary for sufficient cell-surface expression. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings indicate sustained, thermally stable cAMP-activated Cl? transport through I507-ATC and unstable function of the I507-ATT ?F508 CFTR. Single-channel recordings reveal improved gating properties of the I507-ATC compared to I507-ATT ?F508 CFTR (NPo=0.45±0.037 vs. NPo=0.09±0.002; P<0.001). Our results signify the role of the I507-ATC?ATT SCC in the ?F508 CFTR defects and support the importance of synonymous codon choices in determining the function of gene products.—Lazrak, A., Fu, L., Bali, V., Bartoszewski, R., Rab, A., Havasi, V., Keiles, S., Kappes, J., Kumar, R., Lefkowitz, E., Sorscher, E. J., Matalon, S., Collawn, J. F., Bebok, Z. The silent codon change I507-ATC?ATT contributes to the severity of the ?F508 CFTR. PMID:23907436

  20. Codon 972 polymorphism in the insulin receptor substrate-1 gene, obesity, and risk of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    SciTech Connect

    Sigal, R.J.; Doria, A.; Warram, J.H.; Krolewski, A.S. [Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA (United States)] [Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Because of the role of insulin receptor substrate-1 in insulin action, the insulin receptor substrate-1 gene is a candidate gene for noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Modest associations between NIDDM and a GGG-AGG single base substitution (corresponding to a glycine-arginine amino acid substitution) in codon 972 of the gene have been found, but none reached statistical significance. To examine further how large a proportion of NIDDM cases could be caused by the mutation, we performed a stratified analysis combining the results from the 6 earlier studies and those from our panel of 192 unrelated NIDDM subjects and 104 healthy controls. In addition, we looked for a possibility that the codon 972 mutation plays a role only in the presence of certain conditions. Genomic DNA samples obtained from NIDDM cases and healthy controls were genotyped using a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism protocol modified for genomic DNA. The GGG{r_arrow}AGG substitution was found in 5.7% of the diabetic subjects (11 of 192) and 6.9% of the controls (7 of 104). The difference between groups was not statistically significant, and it was not different from the results of other studies. The Mantel-Haenszel summary odds ratio across all studies was 1.49 (P < 0.05; 95% confidence intervals, 1.01-2.2). This summary odds ratio is consistent with a small proportion of NIDDM cases ({approximately}3%) being caused by the mutation. Exploratory subgroup analyses on our panel suggested a clustering of NIDDM, the codon 972 mutation, and overweight, raising the hypothesis that the mutation may predispose to NIDDM only in the presence of excess body weight. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Transfer RNA structural change is a key element in the reassignment of the CUG codon in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Santos, M A; Perreau, V M; Tuite, M F

    1996-09-16

    The human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans and a number of other Candida species translate the standard leucine CUG codon as serine. This is the latest addition to an increasing number of alterations to the standard genetic code which invalidate the theory that the code is frozen and universal. The unexpected finding that some organisms evolved alternative genetic codes raises two important questions: how have these alternative codes evolved and what evolutionary advantages could they create to allow for their selection? To address these questions in the context of serine CUG translation in C.albicans, we have searched for unique structural features in seryl-tRNA(CAG), which translates the leucine CUG codon as serine, and attempted to reconstruct the early stages of this genetic code switch in the closely related yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that a purine at position 33 (G33) in the C.albicans Ser-tRNA(CAG) anticodon loop, which replaces a conserved pyrimidine found in all other tRNAs, is a key structural element in the reassignment of the CUG codon from leucine to serine in that it decreases the decoding efficiency of the tRNA, thereby allowing cells to survive low level serine CUG translation. Expression of this tRNA in S.cerevisiae induces the stress response which allows cells to acquire thermotolerance. We argue that acquisition of thermotolerance may represent a positive selection for this genetic code change by allowing yeasts to adapt to sudden changes in environmental conditions and therefore colonize new ecological niches. PMID:8890179

  2. Mutational analysis of FOXL2 codon 134 in granulosa cell tumour of ovary and other human cancers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Sung; Hur, Soo Young; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2010-06-01

    A missense somatic mutation in the FOXL2 gene affecting codon 134 has recently been reported in granulosa cell tumour (GCT) and thecoma of the ovary. Such a recurrent nature of the mutation strongly suggests that the FOXL2 mutation may play an important role in the development of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumours. The aim of this study was to characterize the FOXL2 mutation in human tumour tissues. We analysed 1353 tumour tissues from various origins, including ovarian tumours and other common cancers, by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. We found the FOXL2 codon 134 missense mutation in 53 of 56 adult GCTs (94.6%) and two of the 16 thecomas (12.5%), but none in other tumours. Histologically, FOXL2 mutation-negative adult GCT showed that GCT cells were admixed with fibrothecomatous cells, and FOXL2 mutation-positive thecomas showed that luteinized theca cells were predominant. However, immunostaining of either inhibin alpha or FOXL2 did not differentiate the FOXL2 mutation status of adult GCTs and thecomas. There was no FOXL1 mutation and no common oncogenic mutation in the adult GCTs and thecomas. Our data indicate that the FOXL2 codon 134 mutation occurs exclusively in GCT and thecoma, and suggest the possibility that the development of most GCTs and a fraction of thecomas may be dependent on this mutation. Our data also suggest that the FOXL2 mutation status, as well as some histological features, may be important in the diagnosis of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumours. PMID:20198651

  3. Ribosome Rescue and Translation Termination at Non-Standard Stop Codons by ICT1 in Mammalian Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Akabane, Shiori; Ueda, Takuya; Nierhaus, Knud H.; Takeuchi, Nono

    2014-01-01

    Release factors (RFs) govern the termination phase of protein synthesis. Human mitochondria harbor four different members of the class 1 RF family: RF1Lmt/mtRF1a, RF1mt, C12orf65 and ICT1. The homolog of the essential ICT1 factor is widely distributed in bacteria and organelles and has the peculiar feature in human mitochondria to be part of the ribosome as a ribosomal protein of the large subunit. The factor has been suggested to rescue stalled ribosomes in a codon-independent manner. The mechanism of action of this factor was obscure and is addressed here. Using a homologous mitochondria system of purified components, we demonstrate that the integrated ICT1 has no rescue activity. Rather, purified ICT1 binds stoichiometrically to mitochondrial ribosomes in addition to the integrated copy and functions as a general rescue factor, i.e. it releases the polypeptide from the peptidyl tRNA from ribosomes stalled at the end or in the middle of an mRNA or even from non-programmed ribosomes. The data suggest that the unusual termination at a sense codon (AGA/G) of the oxidative-phosphorylation enzymes CO1 and ND6 is also performed by ICT1 challenging a previous model, according to which RF1Lmt/mtRF1a is responsible for the translation termination at non-standard stop codons. We also demonstrate by mutational analyses that the unique insertion sequence present in the N-terminal domain of ICT1 is essential for peptide release rather than for ribosome binding. The function of RF1mt, another member of the class1 RFs in mammalian mitochondria, was also examined and is discussed. PMID:25233460

  4. Nonsense suppression by near-cognate tRNAs employs alternative base pairing at codon positions 1 and 3.

    PubMed

    Roy, Bijoyita; Leszyk, John D; Mangus, David A; Jacobson, Allan

    2015-03-10

    Premature termination codons (PTCs) in an mRNA ORF inactivate gene function by causing production of a truncated protein and destabilization of the mRNA. Readthrough of a PTC allows ribosomal A-site insertion of a near-cognate tRNA, leading to synthesis of a full-length protein from otherwise defective mRNA. To understand the mechanism of such nonsense suppression, we developed a yeast system that allows purification and sequence analysis of full-length readthrough products arising as a consequence of endogenous readthrough or the compromised termination fidelity attributable to the loss of Upf (up-frameshift) factors, defective release factors, or the presence of the aminoglycoside gentamicin. Unlike classical "wobble" models, our analyses showed that three of four possible near-cognate tRNAs could mispair at position 1 or 3 of nonsense codons and that, irrespective of whether readthrough is endogenous or induced, the same sets of amino acids are inserted. We identified the insertion of Gln, Tyr, and Lys at UAA and UAG, whereas Trp, Arg, and Cys were inserted at UGA, and the frequency of insertion of individual amino acids was distinct for specific nonsense codons and readthrough-inducing agents. Our analysis suggests that the use of genetic or chemical means to increase readthrough does not promote novel or alternative mispairing events; rather, readthrough effectors cause quantitative enhancement of endogenous mistranslation events. Knowledge of the amino acids incorporated during readthrough not only elucidates the decoding process but also may allow predictions of the functionality of readthrough protein products. PMID:25733896

  5. Modulation of Stop Codon Read-Through Efficiency and Its Effect on the Replication of Murine Leukemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Csibra, Eszter; Brierley, Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Translational readthrough—suppression of termination at a stop codon—is exploited in the replication cycles of several viruses and represents a potential target for antiviral intervention. In the gammaretroviruses, typified by Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV), gag and pol are in the same reading frame, separated by a UAG stop codon, and termination codon readthrough is required for expression of the viral Gag-Pol fusion protein. Here, we investigated the effect on MuLV replication of modulating readthrough efficiency. We began by manipulating the readthrough signal in the context of an infectious viral clone to generate a series of MuLV variants in which readthrough was stimulated or reduced. In carefully controlled infectivity assays, it was found that reducing the MuLV readthrough efficiency only 4-fold led to a marked defect and that a 10-fold reduction essentially abolished replication. However, up to an ?8.5-fold stimulation of readthrough (up to 60% readthrough) was well tolerated by the virus. These high levels of readthrough were achieved using a two-plasmid system, with Gag and Gag-Pol expressed from separate infectious clones. We also modulated readthrough by silencing expression of eukaryotic release factors 1 and 3 (eRF1 and eRF3) or by introducing aminoglycosides into the cells. The data obtained indicate that gammaretroviruses tolerate a substantial excess of viral Gag-Pol synthesis but are very sensitive to a reduction in levels of this polyprotein. Thus, as is also the case for ribosomal frameshifting, antiviral therapies targeting readthrough with inhibitory agents are likely to be the most beneficial. IMPORTANCE Many pathogenic RNA viruses and retroviruses use ribosomal frameshifting or stop codon readthrough to regulate expression of their replicase enzymes. These translational “recoding” processes are potential targets for antiviral intervention, but we have only a limited understanding of the consequences to virus replication of modulating the efficiency of recoding, particularly for those viruses employing readthrough. In this paper, we describe the first systematic analysis of the effect of increasing or decreasing readthrough efficiency on virus replication using the gammaretrovirus MuLV as a model system. We find unexpectedly that MuLV replication is only slightly inhibited by substantial increases in readthrough frequency, but as with other viruses that use recoding strategies, replication is quite sensitive to even modest reductions. These studies provide insights into both the readthrough process and MuLV replication and have implications for the selection of antivirals against gammaretroviruses. PMID:24991001

  6. Introduction of translation stop codons into the viral glycoprotein gene in a fish DNA vaccine eliminates induction of protective immunity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garver, K.A.; Conway, C.M.; Kurath, G.

    2006-01-01

    A highly efficacious DNA vaccine against a fish rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), was mutated to introduce two stop codons to prevent glycoprotein translation while maintaining the plasmid DNA integrity and RNA transcription ability. The mutated plasmid vaccine, denoted pIHNw-G2stop, when injected intramuscularly into fish at high doses, lacked detectable glycoprotein expression in the injection site muscle, and did not provide protection against lethal virus challenge 7 days post-vaccination. These results suggest that the G-protein itself is required to stimulate the early protective antiviral response observed after vaccination with the nonmutated parental DNA vaccine. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006.

  7. Association of DRD4 uVNTR and TP53 codon 72 polymorphisms with schizophrenia: a case-control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    For-Wey Lung; Bih-Ching Shu; Wei-Tsung Kao; C Nathan Chen; Yu-Chi Ku; Dong-Sheng Tzeng

    2009-01-01

    Background  The tumour supressor gene TP53 is thought to be involved in neural apoptosis. The polymorphism at codon 72 in TP53 and the\\u000a long form variants of the upstream variable number of tandem repeats (uVNTR) polymorphism in the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4)\\u000a gene are reported to confer susceptibility to schizophrenia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We recruited 934 patients with schizophrenia and 433 healthy individuals, and

  8. 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgeon, Richard W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-27

    This report provides the results of the 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources (RMUS), which was updated by the Environmental Protection (ENV) Division's Environmental Stewardship (ES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ES classifies LANL emission sources into one of four Tiers, based on the potential effective dose equivalent (PEDE) calculated for each point source. Detailed descriptions of these tiers are provided in Section 3. The usage survey is conducted annually; in odd-numbered years the survey addresses all monitored and unmonitored point sources and in even-numbered years it addresses all Tier III and various selected other sources. This graded approach was designed to ensure that the appropriate emphasis is placed on point sources that have higher potential emissions to the environment. For calendar year (CY) 2011, ES has divided the usage survey into two distinct reports, one covering the monitored point sources (to be completed later this year) and this report covering all unmonitored point sources. This usage survey includes the following release points: (1) all unmonitored sources identified in the 2010 usage survey, (2) any new release points identified through the new project review (NPR) process, and (3) other release points as designated by the Rad-NESHAP Team Leader. Data for all unmonitored point sources at LANL is stored in the survey files at ES. LANL uses this survey data to help demonstrate compliance with Clean Air Act radioactive air emissions regulations (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). The remainder of this introduction provides a brief description of the information contained in each section. Section 2 of this report describes the methods that were employed for gathering usage survey data and for calculating usage, emissions, and dose for these point sources. It also references the appropriate ES procedures for further information. Section 3 describes the RMUS and explains how the survey results are organized. The RMUS Interview Form with the attached RMUS Process Form(s) provides the radioactive materials survey data by technical area (TA) and building number. The survey data for each release point includes information such as: exhaust stack identification number, room number, radioactive material source type (i.e., potential source or future potential source of air emissions), radionuclide, usage (in curies) and usage basis, physical state (gas, liquid, particulate, solid, or custom), release fraction (from Appendix D to 40 CFR 61, Subpart H), and process descriptions. In addition, the interview form also calculates emissions (in curies), lists mrem/Ci factors, calculates PEDEs, and states the location of the critical receptor for that release point. [The critical receptor is the maximum exposed off-site member of the public, specific to each individual facility.] Each of these data fields is described in this section. The Tier classification of release points, which was first introduced with the 1999 usage survey, is also described in detail in this section. Section 4 includes a brief discussion of the dose estimate methodology, and includes a discussion of several release points of particular interest in the CY 2011 usage survey report. It also includes a table of the calculated PEDEs for each release point at its critical receptor. Section 5 describes ES's approach to Quality Assurance (QA) for the usage survey. Satisfactory completion of the survey requires that team members responsible for Rad-NESHAP (National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) compliance accurately collect and process several types of information, including radioactive materials usage data, process information, and supporting information. They must also perform and document the QA reviews outlined in Section 5.2.6 (Process Verification and Peer Review) of ES-RN, 'Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Rad-NESHAP Compliance Project' to verify that all information is complete and correct.

  9. Prevalence of mutations at codon 463 of katG gene in MDR and XDR clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Belarus and application of the method in rapid diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Arjomandzadegan, M; Owlia, P; Ranjbar, R; Farazi, A A; Sofian, Masume; Sadrnia, Maryam; Ghaznavi-Rad, E; Surkova, Larisa K; Titov, L P

    2011-03-01

    Isoniazid (INH) is a central component of drug regimens used worldwide to treat tuberculosis. In respect to high GC content of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nonsynonymous mutations are dominant in this group. In this study a collection of 145 M. tuberculosis isolates was used to evaluate the conferring mutations in nucleotide 1388 of katG gene (KatG463) in resistance to isoniazid. A PCR-RFLP method was applied in comparison with DNA sequencing and anti-mycobacterial susceptibility testing. From all studied patients, 98 (67.6%) were men, 47 (32.4%) were women, 3% were <15 and 9% were >65 years old; male to female ratio was 1:2.4. PCR result of katG for a 620-bp amplicon was successful for all purified M. tuberculosis isolates and there was no positive M. tuberculosis culture with PCR negative results (100% specificity). Subsequent PCR RFLP of the katG identified mutation at KatG463 in 33.3%, 57.8% and 59.2% of our clinically susceptible, multidrug resistant TB (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) isolates, respectively. Strains of H37Rv and Academic had no any mutations in this codon. M. bovis was used as a positive control for mutation in KatG463. Automated DNA sequencing of the katG amplicon from randomly selected INH-susceptible and resistant isolates verified 100% sequence accuracy of the point mutations detected by PCR-RFLP. We concluded that codon 463 was a polymorphic site that is associated to INH resistance (a missense or "quiet" mutation). RFLP results of katG amplicons were identical to those of sequence method. Our PCR-RFLP method has a potential application for rapid diagnosis of M. tuberculosis with a high specificity. PMID:21450555

  10. MESUR: USAGE-BASED METRICS OF SCHOLARLY IMPACT

    SciTech Connect

    BOLLEN, JOHAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; RODRIGUEZ, MARKO A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; VAN DE SOMPEL, HERBERT [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-30

    The evaluation of scholarly communication items is now largely a matter of expert opinion or metrics derived from citation data. Both approaches can fail to take into account the myriad of factors that shape scholarly impact. Usage data has emerged as a promising complement to existing methods o fassessment but the formal groundwork to reliably and validly apply usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact is lacking. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded MESUR project constitutes a systematic effort to define, validate and cross-validate a range of usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact by creating a semantic model of the scholarly communication process. The constructed model will serve as the basis of a creating a large-scale semantic network that seamlessly relates citation, bibliographic and usage data from a variety of sources. A subsequent program that uses the established semantic network as a reference data set will determine the characteristics and semantics of a variety of usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact. This paper outlines the architecture and methodology adopted by the MESUR project and its future direction.

  11. A single internal ribosome entry site containing a G quartet RNA structure drives fibroblast growth factor 2 gene expression at four alternative translation initiation codons.

    PubMed

    Bonnal, Sophie; Schaeffer, Céline; Créancier, Laurent; Clamens, Simone; Moine, Hervé; Prats, Anne-Catherine; Vagner, Stéphan

    2003-10-10

    The 484-nucleotide (nt) alternatively translated region (ATR) of the human fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) mRNA contains four CUG and one AUG translation initiation codons. Although the 5'-end proximal CUG codon is initiated by a cap-dependent translation process, the other four initiation codons are initiated by a mechanism of internal entry of ribosomes. We undertook here a detailed analysis of the cis-acting elements defining the FGF-2 internal ribosome entry site (IRES). A thorough deletion analysis study within the 5'-ATR led us to define a 176-nt region as being necessary and sufficient for IRES function at four codons present in a downstream 308-nt RNA segment. Unexpectedly, a single IRES module is therefore responsible for translation initiation at four distantly localized codons. The determination of the FGF-2 5'-ATR RNA secondary structure by enzymatic and chemical probing experiments showed that the FGF-2 IRES contained two stem-loop regions and a G quartet motif that constitute novel structural determinants of IRES function. PMID:12857733

  12. A Framework for Personal Web Usage Mining Yongjian Fu MingYi Shih

    E-print Network

    Fu, Yongjian

    A Framework for Personal Web Usage Mining Yongjian Fu Ming­Yi Shih Department of Computer Science­0350 Rolla, MO 65409­0350 yongjian@umr.edu mingyi@umr.edu Abstract In this paper, we propose to mine Web usage data on client side, or personal Web usage mining, as a complement to the server side Web usage

  13. A Framework for Personal Web Usage Mining Yongjian Fu Ming-Yi Shih

    E-print Network

    Fu, Yongjian

    A Framework for Personal Web Usage Mining Yongjian Fu Ming-Yi Shih Department of Computer Science-0350 Rolla, MO 65409-0350 yongjian@umr.edu mingyi@umr.edu Abstract In this paper, we propose to mine Web usage data on client side, or personal Web usage mining, as a complement to the server side Web usage

  14. Using ultradeep pyrosequencing to study HIV-1 coreceptor usage in primary and dual infection.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Gabriel A; Pacold, Mary E; Vigil, Edgar; Caballero, Gemma; Morris, Sheldon R; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Little, Susan J; Richman, Douglas D; Gianella, Sara; Smith, Davey M

    2013-07-15

    HIV-1 dual infection (DI) and CXCR4 (X4) coreceptor usage are associated with accelerated disease progression but frequency and dynamics of coreceptor usage during DI is unknown. Ultradeep sequencing was used to interrogate for DI and infer coreceptor usage in longitudinal blood samples of 102 subjects. At baseline, X4 usage was high (23 subjects harbored X4 variants) and was not associated with infection duration or DI. Coreceptor usage changed over time in 12 of 47 participants, and X4 usage emerged in 4 of 41 monoinfections vs 2 of 5 superinfections (P = .12), suggesting a weak statistical trend toward occurrence of superinfection and acquiring X4 usage. PMID:23599311

  15. Codon optimization, promoter and expression system selection that achieved high-level production of Yarrowia lipolytica lipase in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Jing; Yang, Jiang-Ke; Mao, Lin; Miao, Li-Hong

    2015-04-01

    Lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) stands amongst the most important and promising biocatalysts for industrial applications. In this study, in order to realize a high-level expression of the Yarrowia lipolytica lipase gene in Pichia pastoris, we optimized the codon of LIP2 by de novo gene design and synthesis, which significantly improved the lipase expression when compared to the native lip2 gene. We also comparatively analyzed the effects of the promoter types (PAOX1 and PFLD1) and the Pichia expression systems, including the newly developed PichiaPink system, on lipase production and obtained the optimal recombinants. Bench-top scale fermentation studies indicated that the recombinant carrying the codon-optimized lipase gene syn-lip under the control of promoter PAOX1 has a significantly higher lipase production capacity in the fermenter than other types of recombinants. After undergoing methanol inducible expression for 96h, the wet cell weight of Pichia, the lipase activity and the protein content in the fermentation broth reached their highest values of 262g/L, 38,500U/mL and 2.82g/L, respectively. This study has not only greatly facilitated the bioapplication of lipase in industrial fields but the strategies utilized, such as de novo gene design and synthesis, the comparative analysis among promoters and different generations of Pichia expression systems will also be useful as references for future work in this field. PMID:25765312

  16. A yeast tRNA mutant that causes pseudohyphal growth exhibits reduced rates of CAG codon translation

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Alain J; Betney, Russell; Ciandrini, Luca; Schwenger, Alexandra C M; Romano, M Carmen; Stansfield, Ian

    2013-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the SUP70 gene encodes the CAG-decoding tRNAGlnCUG. A mutant allele, sup70-65, induces pseudohyphal growth on rich medium, an inappropriate nitrogen starvation response. This mutant tRNA is also a UAG nonsense suppressor via first base wobble. To investigate the basis of the pseudohyphal phenotype, 10 novel sup70 UAG suppressor alleles were identified, defining positions in the tRNAGlnCUG anticodon stem that restrict first base wobble. However, none conferred pseudohyphal growth, showing altered CUG anticodon presentation cannot itself induce pseudohyphal growth. Northern blot analysis revealed the sup70-65 tRNAGlnCUG is unstable, inefficiently charged, and 80% reduced in its effective concentration. A stochastic model simulation of translation predicted compromised expression of CAG-rich ORFs in the tRNAGlnCUG-depleted sup70-65 mutant. This prediction was validated by demonstrating that luciferase expression in the mutant was 60% reduced by introducing multiple tandem CAG (but not CAA) codons into this ORF. In addition, the sup70-65 pseudohyphal phenotype was partly complemented by overexpressing CAA-decoding tRNAGlnUUG, an inefficient wobble-decoder of CAG. We thus show that introducing codons decoded by a rare tRNA near the 5? end of an ORF can reduce eukaryote translational expression, and that the mutant tRNACUGGln constitutive pseudohyphal differentiation phenotype correlates strongly with reduced CAG decoding efficiency. PMID:23146061

  17. A newly identified missense mutation in RET codon 666 is associated with the development of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masanori; Hanamura, Toru; Ito, Ken-ichi; Uchino, Shinya; Sakurai, Akihiro; Komatsu, Mitsuhisa

    2014-11-28

    A 38-year-old woman with a thyroid nodule measuring approximately 2 cm was suspected to have medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) because of markedly elevated serum calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen levels. There were no signs of pheochromocytoma, whereas primary hyperparathyroidism was suspected based on the findings of inappropriate hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone although no parathyroid tumor was detected with imaging studies. RET mutation analysis revealed a novel germline missense mutation in codon 666, c.1997A>G (p.K666R). She underwent total thyroidectomy with lymphadenectomy and simultaneous total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation of parathyroid tissue. She was given calcium lactate and alfacalcidol to prevent postoperative hypocalcemia. Pathological findings of the thyroid tumor were compatible with MTC, but the resected parathyroid glands were intact. To our knowledge, c.1997A>G (p.K666R) is a new RET mutation. This is a minor variant, but it is significant because of the possible pathogenicity in tumor formation. It is often difficult to determine whether MTC is generated as part of MEN2-related disease or familial MTC when it is a unique manifestation. In addition, it is still unclear whether all missense mutations in this codon reported previously will lead to the same clinical course and prognosis. Further careful observations of clinical presentation are required to determine the clinical features associated with this variant. PMID:25319874

  18. Functional analysis of a proline to serine mutation in codon 453 of the thyroid hormone receptor {beta}1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Ozata, M.; Suzuki, Satoru; Takeda, Teiji [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [and others] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); and others

    1995-10-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding human thyroid hormone receptor {beta}(hTR{beta}) have been associated with generalized resistance to thyroid hormone (GRTH). This disorder is associated with significant behavoral abnormalities. We examined the hTR{beta} gene in a family with members who manifest inappropriately normal TSH, elevated free T{sub 4}, and free and total T{sub 3}. Sequence analysis showed a cytosine to thymine transition at nucleotide 1642 in one allele of the index patient`s genomic DNA. This altered proline to serine at codon 453. The resulting mutant receptor when expressed in vitro bound DNA with high affinity, but the T{sub 3} affinity of the receptor was impaired. The mutant TR demonstrated a dominant negative effect when cotransfected with two isoforms of wild-type receptor and also in the presence of TR variant {alpha}2 in COS-1 cells. Mutations of codon 453 occur more frequently than at other sites, and four different amino acid substitutions have been reported. Significant differences in phenotype occur among affected individuals, varying from normality to moderately severe GRTH. There is no clear correlation between K{sub a} or in vitro function of the mutant receptor, and phenotype. This study extends the association between GRTH and illness, and indicates that early diagnosis and counseling are needed in families with TR{beta}1 abnormalities. 34 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Frequency and spectrum of mutations at codons 12 and 13 of the C-K-ras gene in human tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Capella, G.; Cronauer-Mitra, S.; Peinado, M.A.; Perucho, M. (California Institute of Biological Research, La Jolla (United States))

    1991-06-01

    The frequency of point mutations at codons 12 and 13 of the c-K-ras gene has been determined in a panel of more than 400 human tumors. Mutant c-K-ras genes were detected in about 75% of adenocarcinomas of the pancreas; 40% of adenomas and carcinomas of the colon and rectum; 30% of carcinomas of the bile duct; 25% of carcinomas of the lung, and in lower frequency in other carcinomas, including liver, stomach, and kidney. No mutations were found in carcinomas of the breast, prostate, esophagus, and gall bladder, among others. Comparative analysis of the spectrum of mutations show that while G to A transitions were the most frequent mutations in pancreatic and colo-rectal tumors, G to T transversions were more prevalent in lung carcinomas. The aspartic acid mutation at codon 13 (GGC {r arrow} GAC) was relatively frequent in colo-rectal tumors but rare in pancreatic and lung carcinomas. The differences in the mutation spectrum of the c-K-ras gene in cancers of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are suggestive of differential exposure to genotoxic agents.

  20. Murine model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa generated by targeted deletion at codon 307 of the rds-peripherin gene.

    PubMed

    McNally, Niamh; Kenna, Paul F; Rancourt, Derrick; Ahmed, Tanweer; Stitt, Alan; Colledge, William H; Lloyd, David G; Palfi, Arpad; O'Neill, Brian; Humphries, Marian M; Humphries, Peter; Farrar, G Jane

    2002-05-01

    We introduced a targeted single base deletion at codon 307 of the rds-peripherin gene in mice, similar mutations being known to cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in man. Histopathological and electroretinographic analysis indicate that the retinopathy in mice homozygous for the codon 307 mutation appears more rapid than that in the naturally occurring null mutant, the rds(-/-) mouse, suggesting that the rds-307 mutation displays a dominant negative phenotype in combination with that due to haplosufficiency. RP is the most prevalent cause of registered visual handicap in those of working age in developed countries, the 50 or so mutations so far identified within the RDS-peripherin gene accounting for up to 10% of dominant cases of the disease. Given the sequence homologies that exist between the murine rds-peripherin and the human RDS-peripherin gene, this disease model, the first to be generated for peripherin-based RP using gene targeting techniques, should in principle be of value in the work-up in mice of therapeutics capable of targeting transcripts derived from the human gene. PMID:11978760