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Sample records for codon usage comparison

  1. Synonymous Codon Usage in TTSuV2: Analysis and Comparison with TTSuV1

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Dingzhen

    2013-01-01

    Two species of the DNA virus Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), TTSuV1 and TTSuV2, have become widely distributed in pig-farming countries in recent years. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of synonymous codon usage bias in 41 available TTSuV2 coding sequences (CDS), and compared the codon usage patterns of TTSuV2 and TTSuV1. TTSuV codon usage patterns were found to be phylogenetically conserved. Values for the effective number of codons (ENC) indicated that the overall extent of codon usage bias in both TTSuV2 and TTSuV1 was not significant, the most frequently occurring codons had an A or C at the third codon position. Correspondence analysis (COA) was performed and TTSuV2 and TTSuV1 sequences were located in different quadrants of the first two major axes. A plot of the ENC revealed that compositional constraint was the major factor determining the codon usage bias for TTSuV2. In addition, hierarchical cluster analysis of 41 TTSuV2 isolates based on relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) values suggested that there was no association between geographic distribution and codon bias of TTSuV2 sequences. Finally, the comparison of RSCU for TTSuV2, TTSuV1 and the corresponding host sequence indicated that the codon usage pattern of TTSuV2 was similar to that of TTSuV1. However the similarity was low for each virus and its host. These conclusions provide important insight into the synonymous codon usage pattern of TTSuV2, as well as better understangding of the molecular evolution of TTSuV2 genomes. PMID:24303050

  2. Codon usage in plant genes.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, E E; Lotzer, J; Eberle, M

    1989-01-01

    We have examined codon bias in 207 plant gene sequences collected from Genbank and the literature. When this sample was further divided into 53 monocot and 154 dicot genes, the pattern of relative use of synonymous codons was shown to differ between these taxonomic groups, primarily in the use of G + C in the degenerate third base. Maize and soybean codon bias were examined separately and followed the monocot and dicot codon usage patterns respectively. Codon preference in ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate and chlorophyll a/b binding protein, two of the most abundant proteins in leaves was investigated. These highly expressed are more restricted in their codon usage than plant genes in general. PMID:2644621

  3. Divergence in codon usage of Lactobacillus species.

    PubMed Central

    Pouwels, P H; Leunissen, J A

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed codon usage patterns of 70 sequenced genes from different Lactobacillus species. Codon usage in lactobacilli is highly biased. Both inter-species and intra-species heterogeneity of codon usage bias was observed. Codon usage in L. acidophilus is similar to that in L. helveticus, but dissimilar to that in L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. pentosus and L. plantarum. Codon usage in the latter three organisms is not significantly different, but is different from that in L. bulgaricus. Inter-species differences in codon usage can, at least in part, be explained by differences in mutational drift. L. bulgaricus shows GC drift, whereas all other species show AT drift. L. acidophilus and L. helveticus rarely use NNG in family-box (a set of synonymous) codons, in contrast to all other species. This result may be explained by assuming that L. acidophilus and L. helveticus, but not other species examined, use a single tRNA species for translation of family-box codons. Differences in expression level of genes are positively correlated with codon usage bias. Highly expressed genes show highly biased codon usage, whereas weakly expressed genes show much less biased codon usage. Codon usage patterns at the 5'-end of Lactobacillus genes is not significantly different from that of entire genes. The GC content of codons 2-6 is significantly reduced compared with that of the remainder of the gene. The possible implications of a reduced GC content for the control of translation efficiency are discussed. PMID:8152923

  4. Comparative Analysis of Codon Usage Bias and Codon Context Patterns between Dipteran and Hymenopteran Sequenced Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Behura, Susanta K.; Severson, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Codon bias is a phenomenon of non-uniform usage of codons whereas codon context generally refers to sequential pair of codons in a gene. Although genome sequencing of multiple species of dipteran and hymenopteran insects have been completed only a few of these species have been analyzed for codon usage bias. Methods and Principal Findings Here, we use bioinformatics approaches to analyze codon usage bias and codon context patterns in a genome-wide manner among 15 dipteran and 7 hymenopteran insect species. Results show that GAA is the most frequent codon in the dipteran species whereas GAG is the most frequent codon in the hymenopteran species. Data reveals that codons ending with C or G are frequently used in the dipteran genomes whereas codons ending with A or T are frequently used in the hymenopteran genomes. Synonymous codon usage orders (SCUO) vary within genomes in a pattern that seems to be distinct for each species. Based on comparison of 30 one-to-one orthologous genes among 17 species, the fruit fly Drosophila willistoni shows the least codon usage bias whereas the honey bee (Apis mellifera) shows the highest bias. Analysis of codon context patterns of these insects shows that specific codons are frequently used as the 3′- and 5′-context of start and stop codons, respectively. Conclusions Codon bias pattern is distinct between dipteran and hymenopteran insects. While codon bias is favored by high GC content of dipteran genomes, high AT content of genes favors biased usage of synonymous codons in the hymenopteran insects. Also, codon context patterns vary among these species largely according to their phylogeny. PMID:22912801

  5. Nucleotide sequence comparisons between several strains and isolates of human cytomegalovirus reveal alternate start codon usage.

    PubMed

    Brondke, H; Schmitz, B; Doerfler, W

    2007-01-01

    Mutations abound in all viral populations, which are thus rendered adaptable to changes in environmental conditions. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important human pathogen for investigating nucleotide sequence variations because they can affect its potential to cause disease. We have determined part of the nucleotide sequence of the Toledo strain and compared it to the published sequences of the strains AD169, Toledo, and Towne and of three clinical isolates. Overall nucleotide sequence divergence between strains AD169 and Toledo amounts to roughly 2%, with considerable variations across the viral genome. In aligning the Toledo nucleotide sequences with those of the other strains and clinical isolates, numerous amino-terminal extensions of the known open reading frames (ORFs) have been noted. These extensions carry additional AUG or non-canonical CUG or GUG translational initiation codons. CUG and GUG have previously been shown to serve as translational start codons in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Six of the more closely inspected extensions start with an AUG, 26 with a CUG, and 26 with a GUG. Some of these extended sequences might bestow altered biological properties upon HCMV proteins. These ORF extensions are common to the sequenced genomes of most of the HCMV strains or isolates. Supporting evidence for their functionality comes from studies on HCMV mRNAs that were isolated from HCMV-infected human cells. Several of these viral mRNA sequences carry the identified ORF extensions. Moreover, in the amino-terminal ORF extensions, codon usage in general resembles that in the main parts of several of the HCMV genes analyzed for this property. PMID:17653620

  6. Codon Usage in Higher Plants, Green Algae, and Cyanobacteria 1

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Wilbur H.; Gowri, G.

    1990-01-01

    Codon usage is the selective and nonrandom use of synonymous codons by an organism to encode the amino acids in the genes for its proteins. During the last few years, a large number of plant genes have been cloned and sequenced, which now permits a meaningful comparison of codon usage in higher plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. For the nuclear and organellar genes of these organisms, a small set of preferred codons are used for encoding proteins. Codon usage is different for each genome type with the variation mainly occurring in choices between codons ending in cytidine (C) or guanosine (G) versus those ending in adenosine (A) or uridine (U). For organellar genomes, chloroplastic and mitochrondrial proteins are encoded mainly with codons ending in A or U. In most cyanobacteria and the nuclei of green algae, proteins are encoded preferentially with codons ending in C or G. Although only a few nuclear genes of higher plants have been sequenced, a clear distinction between Magnoliopsida (dicot) and Liliopsida (monocot) codon usage is evident. Dicot genes use a set of 44 preferred codons with a slight preference for codons ending in A or U. Monocot codon usage is more restricted with an average of 38 codons preferred, which are predominantly those ending in C or G. But two classes of genes can be recognized in monocots. One set of monocot genes uses codons similar to those in dicots, while the other genes are highly biased toward codons ending in C or G with a pattern similar to nuclear genes of green algae. Codon usage is discussed in relation to evolution of plants and prospects for intergenic transfer of particular genes. PMID:16667228

  7. Codon usage pattern in human SPANX genes

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Monisha Nath; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    Background: SPANX (sperm protein coupled with the nucleus in the X chromosome) genes play a crucial role in human spermatogenesis. Codon usage bias (CUB) is a well-known phenomenon that exists in many genomes and mainly determined by mutation and selection. CUB is species specific and a unique characteristic of a genome. Analysis of compositional features and codon usage pattern of SPANX genes in human has contributed to explore the molecular biology of this gene. In our current study, we have retrieved the sequences of different variants of SPANX gene from NCBI using accession number and a perl script was used to analyze the nucleotide composition and the parameters for codon usage bias. Results: Our results showed that codon usage bias is low as measured by codon bias index (CBI) and most of the GC ending codons were positively correlated with GC bias as indicated by GC3. That mutation pressure and natural selection affect the codon usage pattern were revealed by correspondence analysis (COA) and neutrality plot. Moreover, the neutrality plot further suggested that the role of natural selection is higher than mutation pressure on SPANX genes. Conclusions: The codon usage bias in SPANX genes is not very high and the role of natural selection dominates over mutation pressure in the codon usage of human SPANX genes. PMID:26664029

  8. Rapid divergence of codon usage patterns within the rice genome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huai-Chun; Hickey, Donal A

    2007-01-01

    Background Synonymous codon usage varies widely between genomes, and also between genes within genomes. Although there is now a large body of data on variations in codon usage, it is still not clear if the observed patterns reflect the effects of positive Darwinian selection acting at the level of translational efficiency or whether these patterns are due simply to the effects of mutational bias. In this study, we have included both intra-genomic and inter-genomic comparisons of codon usage. This allows us to distinguish more efficiently between the effects of nucleotide bias and translational selection. Results We show that there is an extreme degree of heterogeneity in codon usage patterns within the rice genome, and that this heterogeneity is highly correlated with differences in nucleotide content (particularly GC content) between the genes. In contrast to the situation observed within the rice genome, Arabidopsis genes show relatively little variation in both codon usage and nucleotide content. By exploiting a combination of intra-genomic and inter-genomic comparisons, we provide evidence that the differences in codon usage among the rice genes reflect a relatively rapid evolutionary increase in the GC content of some rice genes. We also noted that the degree of codon bias was negatively correlated with gene length. Conclusion Our results show that mutational bias can cause a dramatic evolutionary divergence in codon usage patterns within a period of approximately two hundred million years. The heterogeneity of codon usage patterns within the rice genome can be explained by a balance between genome-wide mutational biases and negative selection against these biased mutations. The strength of the negative selection is proportional to the length of the coding sequences. Our results indicate that the large variations in synonymous codon usage are not related to selection acting on the translational efficiency of synonymous codons. PMID:17288579

  9. Overall codon usage pattern of enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Ma, M R; Hui, L; Wang, M L; Tang, Y; Chang, Y W; Jia, Q H; Wang, X H; Yan, W; Ha, X Q

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a systemic illness in children and is usually caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71). To provide new insights into the genetic features of EV71 and the relationship between the overall codon usage pattern of this virus and that of humans, values for relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), effective number of codons (ENC), codon adaptation index (CAI), and nucleotide composition were calculated and analyzed. The relationship between ENC values and (G+C)?% suggests that, although nucleotide composition plays an important role in shaping the overall codon usage pattern of this virus, other factors also affect this pattern. In addition, the negative correlation between the CAI value and (G+C)?% suggests that the secondary structure of the EV71 coding sequence caused by its nucleotide composition can affect gene expression. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between ENC and CAI, suggesting that gene expression does not play a role in shaping the overall codon usage pattern of EV71. The overall codon usage pattern of the EV71 virus is only partly similar to the general codon pattern of human, suggesting that, although EV71 has co-evolved with humans for extended periods, mutation pressure played an important role in shaping the virus's overall codon usage pattern. These results revealed that the EV71 virus has developed a subtle strategy during evolution for adapting to environmental changes in its host cells solely by means of mutation pressure. PMID:24535860

  10. Analysis of synonymous codon usage and evolution of begomoviruses*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-zhong; Liu, Qing-po; Fan, Long-jiang; Cui, Xiao-feng; Zhou, Xue-ping

    2008-01-01

    Begomoviruses are single-stranded DNA viruses and cause severe diseases in major crop plants worldwide. Based on current genome sequence analyses, we found that synonymous codon usage variations in the protein-coding genes of begomoviruses are mainly influenced by mutation bias. Base composition analysis suggested that the codon usage bias of AV1 and BV1 genes is significant and their expressions are high. Fourteen codons were determined as translational optimal ones according to the comparison of codon usage patterns between highly and lowly expressed genes. Interestingly the codon usages between begomoviruses from the Old and the New Worlds are apparently different, which supports the idea that the bipartite begomoviruses of the New World might originate from bipartite ones of the Old World, whereas the latter evolve from the Old World monopartite begomoviruses. PMID:18763298

  11. Universality and Shannon entropy of codon usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frappat, L.; Minichini, C.; Sciarrino, A.; Sorba, P.

    2003-12-01

    The distribution functions of codon usage probabilities, computed over all the available GenBank data for 40 eukaryotic biological species and five chloroplasts, are best fitted by the sum of a constant, an exponential, and a linear function in the rank of usage. For mitochondria the analysis is not conclusive. These functions are characterized by parameters that strongly depend on the total guanine and cytosine (GC) content of the coding regions of biological species. It is predicted that the codon usage is the same in all exonic genes with the same GC content. The Shannon entropy for codons, also strongly dependent on the exonic GC content, is computed.

  12. Universality and Shannon entropy of codon usage.

    PubMed

    Frappat, L; Minichini, C; Sciarrino, A; Sorba, P

    2003-12-01

    The distribution functions of codon usage probabilities, computed over all the available GenBank data for 40 eukaryotic biological species and five chloroplasts, are best fitted by the sum of a constant, an exponential, and a linear function in the rank of usage. For mitochondria the analysis is not conclusive. These functions are characterized by parameters that strongly depend on the total guanine and cytosine (GC) content of the coding regions of biological species. It is predicted that the codon usage is the same in all exonic genes with the same GC content. The Shannon entropy for codons, also strongly dependent on the exonic GC content, is computed. PMID:14754237

  13. Codon catalog usage and the genome hypothesis.

    PubMed Central

    Grantham, R; Gautier, C; Gouy, M; Mercier, R; Pav, A

    1980-01-01

    Frequencies for each of the 61 amino acid codons have been determined in every published mRNA sequence of 50 or more codons. The frequencies are shown for each kind of genome and for each individual gene. A surprising consistency of choices exists among genes of the same or similar genomes. Thus each genome, or kind of genome, appears to possess a "system" for choosing between codons. Frameshift genes, however, have widely different choice strategies from normal genes. Our work indicates that the main factors distinguishing between mRNA sequences relate to choices among degenerate bases. These systematic third base choices can therefore be used to establish a new kind of genetic distance, which reflects differences in coding strategy. The choice patterns we find seem compatible with the idea that the genome and not the individual gene is the unit of selection. Each gene in a genome tends to conform to its species' usage of the codon catalog; this is our genome hypothesis. PMID:6986610

  14. Multiple Evolutionary Selections Involved in Synonymous Codon Usages in the Streptococcus agalactiae Genome.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan-Ping; Ke, Hao; Liang, Zhi-Ling; Liu, Zhen-Xing; Hao, Le; Ma, Jiang-Yao; Li, Yu-Gu

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an important human and animal pathogen. To better understand the genetic features and evolution of S. agalactiae, multiple factors influencing synonymous codon usage patterns in S. agalactiae were analyzed in this study. A- and U-ending rich codons were used in S. agalactiae function genes through the overall codon usage analysis, indicating that Adenine (A)/Thymine (T) compositional constraints might contribute an important role to the synonymous codon usage pattern. The GC3% against the effective number of codon (ENC) value suggested that translational selection was the important factor for codon bias in the microorganism. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that (i) mutational pressure was the most important factor in shaping codon usage of all open reading frames (ORFs) in the S. agalactiae genome; (ii) strand specific mutational bias was not capable of influencing the codon usage bias in the leading and lagging strands; and (iii) gene length was not the important factor in synonymous codon usage pattern in this organism. Additionally, the high correlation between tRNA adaptation index (tAI) value and codon adaptation index (CAI), frequency of optimal codons (Fop) value, reinforced the role of natural selection for efficient translation in S. agalactiae. Comparison of synonymous codon usage pattern between S. agalactiae and susceptible hosts (human and tilapia) showed that synonymous codon usage of S. agalactiae was independent of the synonymous codon usage of susceptible hosts. The study of codon usage in S. agalactiae may provide evidence about the molecular evolution of the bacterium and a greater understanding of evolutionary relationships between S. agalactiae and its hosts. PMID:26927064

  15. Nonoptimal codon usage influences protein structure in intrinsically disordered regions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mian; Wang, Tao; Fu, Jingjing; Xiao, Guanghua; Liu, Yi

    2015-09-01

    Synonymous codons are not used with equal frequencies in most genomes. Codon usage has been proposed to play a role in regulating translation kinetics and co-translational protein folding. The relationship between codon usage and protein structures and the in vivo role of codon usage in eukaryotic protein folding is not clear. Here, we show that there is a strong codon usage bias in the filamentous fungus Neurospora. Importantly, we found genome-wide correlations between codon choices and predicted protein secondary structures: Nonoptimal codons are preferentially used in intrinsically disordered regions, and more optimal codons are used in structured domains. The functional importance of such correlations in vivo was confirmed by structure-based codon manipulation of codons in the Neurospora circadian clock gene frequency (frq). The codon optimization of the predicted disordered, but not well-structured regions of FRQ impairs clock function and altered FRQ structures. Furthermore, the correlations between codon usage and protein disorder tendency are conserved in other eukaryotes. Together, these results suggest that codon choices and protein structures co-evolve to ensure proper protein folding in eukaryotic organisms. PMID:26032251

  16. Characterization of Codon usage bias in the newly identified DEV UL18 gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiwen; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Xiang, Jun

    2011-10-01

    In this study, Codon usage bias (CUB) of DEV UL18 gene was analyzed, the results showed that codon usage bias in the DEV UL18 gene was strong bias towards the synonymous codons with A and T at the third codon position. Phylogenetic tree based on the amino acid sequences of the DEV UL18 gene and the 27 other herpesviruses revealed that UL18 gene of the DEV CHv strain and some fowl herpesviruses such as MeHV-1, GaHV-2 and GaHV-3 were clustered within a monophyletic clade and grouped within alphaherpesvirinae. The ENC-GC3S plot indicated that codon usage bias has strong species-specificity between DEV and 27 reference herpesviruses, and suggests that factors other than gene composition, such as translational selection leading to the codon usage variation among genes in different organisms, contribute to the codon usage among the different herpesviruses. Comparison of codon preferences of DEV UL18 gene with those of E. coli , yeast and humans showed that there were 20 codons showing distinct usage differences between DEV UL18 and yeast, 22 between DEV UL18 and humans, 23 between DEV UL18 and E.coli, which indicated the codon usage bias pattern in the DEV UL18 gene was similar to that of yeast. It is infered that the yeast expression system may be more suitable for the DEV UL18 expression.

  17. Codon usage domains over bacterial chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Bailly-Bechet, Marc; Danchin, Antoine; Iqbal, Mudassar; Marsili, Matteo; Vergassola, Massimo

    2006-04-01

    The geography of codon bias distributions over prokaryotic genomes and its impact upon chromosomal organization are analyzed. To this aim, we introduce a clustering method based on information theory, specifically designed to cluster genes according to their codon usage and apply it to the coding sequences of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. One of the clusters identified in each of the organisms is found to be related to expression levels, as expected, but other groups feature an over-representation of genes belonging to different functional groups, namely horizontally transferred genes, motility, and intermediary metabolism. Furthermore, we show that genes with a similar bias tend to be close to each other on the chromosome and organized in coherent domains, more extended than operons, demonstrating a role of translation in structuring bacterial chromosomes. It is argued that a sizeable contribution to this effect comes from the dynamical compartimentalization induced by the recycling of tRNAs, leading to gene expression rates dependent on their genomic and expression context. PMID:16683018

  18. Genome-wide analysis of codon usage bias in Ebolavirus.

    PubMed

    Cristina, Juan; Moreno, Pilar; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Musto, Hctor

    2015-01-22

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is a member of the family Filoviridae and its genome consists of a 19-kb, single-stranded, negative sense RNA. EBOV is subdivided into five distinct species with different pathogenicities, being Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) the most lethal species. The interplay of codon usage among viruses and their hosts is expected to affect overall viral survival, fitness, evasion from host's immune system and evolution. In the present study, we performed comprehensive analyses of codon usage and composition of ZEBOV. Effective number of codons (ENC) indicates that the overall codon usage among ZEBOV strains is slightly biased. Different codon preferences in ZEBOV genes in relation to codon usage of human genes were found. Highly preferred codons are all A-ending triplets, which strongly suggests that mutational bias is a main force shaping codon usage in ZEBOV. Dinucleotide composition also plays a role in the overall pattern of ZEBOV codon usage. ZEBOV does not seem to use the most abundant tRNAs present in the human cells for most of their preferred codons. PMID:25445348

  19. The Selective Advantage of Synonymous Codon Usage Bias in Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Brandis, Gerrit; Hughes, Diarmaid

    2016-01-01

    The genetic code in mRNA is redundant, with 61 sense codons translated into 20 different amino acids. Individual amino acids are encoded by up to six different codons but within codon families some are used more frequently than others. This phenomenon is referred to as synonymous codon usage bias. The genomes of free-living unicellular organisms such as bacteria have an extreme codon usage bias and the degree of bias differs between genes within the same genome. The strong positive correlation between codon usage bias and gene expression levels in many microorganisms is attributed to selection for translational efficiency. However, this putative selective advantage has never been measured in bacteria and theoretical estimates vary widely. By systematically exchanging optimal codons for synonymous codons in the tuf genes we quantified the selective advantage of biased codon usage in highly expressed genes to be in the range 0.2–4.2 x 10−4 per codon per generation. These data quantify for the first time the potential for selection on synonymous codon choice to drive genome-wide sequence evolution in bacteria, and in particular to optimize the sequences of highly expressed genes. This quantification may have predictive applications in the design of synthetic genes and for heterologous gene expression in biotechnology. PMID:26963725

  20. Selective pressure dominates the synonymous codon usage in parvoviridae.

    PubMed

    Shi, Sheng-Lin; Jiang, Yi-Ren; Liu, Yan-Qun; Xia, Run-Xi; Qin, Li

    2013-02-01

    Parvoviridae is a family of small non-enveloped viruses and divided into two subfamilies. The family members infect a wide range of organisms from insects to humans and some of the members (e.g., nonpathogenic adeno-associated viruses) are effective gene therapy delivery vectors. We detailed the synonymous codon usage pattern of Parvoviridae family from the available 58 sequenced genomes through multivariate statistical methods. Our results revealed that nine viruses showed some degree of strong codon bias, and the others possessed a general weak trend of codon bias. ENc-plot and neutrality plot results showed that selective pressure dominated over mutation in shapes coding sequence's composition. The overall GC content and GC content at the third synonymous codon position were the principal determinants behind the variations within the codon usage patterns, as they both significantly correlated with the first axis of correspondence analysis. In addition, gene length had no direct influence on the codon usage pattern. Densovirinae subfamily and Parvovirinae subfamily possessed nine identical preferred codons, though most of the two subfamilies codon usage frequencies were significantly different. The result of cluster analysis based on synonymous codon usage was discordant with that of taxonomic classification. Adeno-associated viruses formed a separated clade far from other Parvoviridae members in the dendrogram. Thus, we concluded that natural selection rather than mutation pressure accounts for the main factor that affects the codon bias in Parvoviridae family. PMID:22996735

  1. Analysis of amino acid and codon usage in Paramecium bursaria.

    PubMed

    Dohra, Hideo; Fujishima, Masahiro; Suzuki, Haruo

    2015-10-01

    The ciliate Paramecium bursaria harbors the green-alga Chlorella symbionts. We reassembled the P. bursaria transcriptome to minimize falsely fused transcripts, and investigated amino acid and codon usage using the transcriptome data. Surface proteins preferentially use smaller amino acid residues like cysteine. Unusual synonymous codon and amino acid usage in highly expressed genes can reflect a balance between translational selection and other factors. A correlation of gene expression level with synonymous codon or amino acid usage is emphasized in genes down-regulated in symbiont-bearing cells compared to symbiont-free cells. Our results imply that the selection is associated with P. bursaria-Chlorella symbiosis. PMID:26341535

  2. A Comprehensive Analysis of Codon Usage Patterns in Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) Based on RNA-Seq Data

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaoke; Yi, Shaokui; Guo, Xianwu; Wang, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is an important fish species for its delicacy and high economic value in China. Codon usage analysis could be helpful to understand its codon biology, mRNA translation and vertebrate evolution. Based on RNA-Seq data for M. amblycephala, high-frequency codons (CUG, AGA, GUG, CAG and GAG), as well as low-frequency ones (NUA and NCG codons) were identified. A total of 724 high-frequency codon pairs were observed. Meanwhile, 14 preferred and 199 avoided neighboring codon pairs were also identified, but bias was almost not shown with one or more intervening codons inserted between the same pairs. Codon usage bias in the regions close to start and stop codons indicated apparent heterogeneity, which even occurs in the flanking nucleotide sequence. Codon usage bias (RSCU and SCUO) was related to GC3 (GC content of 3rd nucleotide in codon) bias. Six GO (Gene ontology) categories and the number of methylation targets were influenced by GC3. Codon usage patterns comparison among 23 vertebrates showed species specificities by using GC contents, codon usage and codon context analysis. This work provided new insights into fish biology and new information for breeding projects. PMID:26016504

  3. A Comprehensive Analysis of Codon Usage Patterns in Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) Based on RNA-Seq Data.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoke; Yi, Shaokui; Guo, Xianwu; Wang, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is an important fish species for its delicacy and high economic value in China. Codon usage analysis could be helpful to understand its codon biology, mRNA translation and vertebrate evolution. Based on RNA-Seq data for M. amblycephala, high-frequency codons (CUG, AGA, GUG, CAG and GAG), as well as low-frequency ones (NUA and NCG codons) were identified. A total of 724 high-frequency codon pairs were observed. Meanwhile, 14 preferred and 199 avoided neighboring codon pairs were also identified, but bias was almost not shown with one or more intervening codons inserted between the same pairs. Codon usage bias in the regions close to start and stop codons indicated apparent heterogeneity, which even occurs in the flanking nucleotide sequence. Codon usage bias (RSCU and SCUO) was related to GC3 (GC content of 3rd nucleotide in codon) bias. Six GO (Gene ontology) categories and the number of methylation targets were influenced by GC3. Codon usage patterns comparison among 23 vertebrates showed species specificities by using GC contents, codon usage and codon context analysis. This work provided new insights into fish biology and new information for breeding projects. PMID:26016504

  4. Codon usage bias in human cytomegalovirus and its biological implication.

    PubMed

    Hu, Changyuan; Chen, Jing; Ye, Lulu; Chen, Renpin; Zhang, Lifang; Xue, Xiangyang

    2014-07-15

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, a worldwide contagion, causes a serious disorder in infected individuals. Analysis of codon usage can reveal much molecular information about this virus. The effective number of codon (ENC) values, relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) values, codon adaptation index (CAI), and nucleotide contents was investigated in approximately 160 coding sequences (CDS) among 17 human cytomegalovirus genomes using the software CodonW. Linear regression analysis and logistic regression were performed to explore the preliminary data. The results showed that, overall, HCMV genomes had low codon usage bias (mean ENC=47.619). However, the ENC of individual CDS varied widely and was distributed unevenly between host-related genes and viral-self-function genes (P=0.002, odds ratio (OR)=3.194), as did the GC content (P=0.016, OR=2.178). The ENC values correlated with CAI, GC content, and the nucleotide composing at the 3rd codon position (GC3s) (P<0.001). There was a significant variation in the codon preference that depended on the RSCU data. The predicted ENC curve suggested that mutational pressure, rather than natural selection, was one of the main factors that determined the codon usage bias in HCMV. Among 123 genes with known function, the genes related to viral self-replication and viral-host interaction showed different ENC and CAI values, and GC and GC3s contents. In conclusion, the detailed codon usage bias theoretically revealed information concerning HCMV evolution and could be a valuable additional parameter for HCMV gene function research. PMID:24814188

  5. [Codon usage bias in the straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; L, Beibei; He, Jianhua; Wang, Jinbin; Wu, Xiao; Wu, Guogan; Bao, Dapeng; Chen, Mingjie; Zhang, Jinsong; Tan, Qi; Tang, Xueming

    2014-09-01

    We analyzed the whole genome coding sequence of Volvariella volvacea to study the pattern utilization of codons by Codon W 1.4.2. As results, 24 optimal codons were identified. Moreover, the frequency of codons usage was calculated by CUSP program. We compared the frequency of codons usage of V. volvacea with other organisms including 6 modal value species (Homo sapiens, Saccharomys cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thalian, Mus musculus, Danio rerio and Drosophila melanogaster) and 4 edible fungi (Coprinopsis cinerea, Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus). We found that there were less differences in 3 edible fungi (excluding Pleurotus ostreatus) than 6 modal value species, comparing with the frequency of codons usage of V. volvacea. With software SPSS16.0, cluster analysis which showed differences in the size of codon bias, reflects the evolutionary relationships between species, which can be used as a reference of evolutionary relationships of species. This was the first time for analysis the codon preference among the whole coding sequences of edible fungi, serving as theoretical basis to apply genetic engineering of V. volvacea. PMID:25720157

  6. Codon usage in bacteria: correlation with gene expressivity.

    PubMed Central

    Gouy, M; Gautier, C

    1982-01-01

    The nucleic acid sequence bank now contains over 600 protein coding genes of which 107 are from prokaryotic organisms. Codon frequencies in each new prokaryotic gene are given. Analysis of genetic code usage in the 83 sequenced genes of the Escherichia coli genome (chromosome, transposons and plasmids) is presented, taking into account new data on gene expressivity and regulation as well as iso-tRNA specificity and cellular concentration. The codon composition of each gene is summarized using two indexes: one is based on the differential usage of iso-tRNA species during gene translation, the other on choice between Cytosine and Uracil for third base. A strong relationship between codon composition and mRNA expressivity is confirmed, even for genes transcribed in the same operon. The influence of codon use of peptide elongation rate and protein yield is discussed. Finally, the evolutionary aspect of codon selection in mRNA sequences is studied. PMID:6760125

  7. Codon usage in Kluyveromyces lactis and in yeast cytochrome c-encoding genes.

    PubMed

    Freire-Picos, M A; Gonzlez-Siso, M I; Rodrguez-Belmonte, E; Rodrguez-Torres, A M; Ramil, E; Cerdn, M E

    1994-02-11

    Codon usage (CU) in Kluyveromyces lactis has been studied. Comparison of CU in highly and lowly expressed genes reveals the existence of 21 optimal codons; 18 of them are also optimal in other yeasts like Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Candida albicans. Codon bias index (CBI) values have been recalculated with reference to the assignment of optimal codons in K. lactis and compared to those previously reported in the literature taking as reference the optimal codons from S. cerevisiae. A new index, the intrinsic codon deviation index (ICDI), is proposed to estimate codon bias of genes from species in which optimal codons are not known; its correlation with other index values, like CBI or effective number of codons (Nc), is high. A comparative analysis of CU in six cytochrome-c-encoding genes (CYC) from five yeasts is also presented and the differences found in the codon bias of these genes are discussed in relation to the metabolic type to which the corresponding yeasts belong. Codon bias in the CYC from K. lactis and S. cerevisiae is correlated to mRNA levels. PMID:8112587

  8. Codon Usage Bias and Determining Forces in Taenia solium Genome

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xing; Ma, Xusheng; Luo, Xuenong; Ling, Houjun; Zhang, Xichen; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-01-01

    The tapeworm Taenia solium is an important human zoonotic parasite that causes great economic loss and also endangers public health. At present, an effective vaccine that will prevent infection and chemotherapy without any side effect remains to be developed. In this study, codon usage patterns in the T. solium genome were examined through 8,484 protein-coding genes. Neutrality analysis showed that T. solium had a narrow GC distribution, and a significant correlation was observed between GC12 and GC3. Examination of an NC (ENC vs GC3s)-plot showed a few genes on or close to the expected curve, but the majority of points with low-ENC (the effective number of codons) values were detected below the expected curve, suggesting that mutational bias plays a major role in shaping codon usage. The Parity Rule 2 plot (PR2) analysis showed that GC and AT were not used proportionally. We also identified 26 optimal codons in the T. solium genome, all of which ended with either a G or C residue. These optimal codons in the T. solium genome are likely consistent with tRNAs that are highly expressed in the cell, suggesting that mutational and translational selection forces are probably driving factors of codon usage bias in the T. solium genome. PMID:26797435

  9. Codon Usage Bias and Determining Forces in Taenia solium Genome.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xing; Ma, Xusheng; Luo, Xuenong; Ling, Houjun; Zhang, Xichen; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-12-01

    The tapeworm Taenia solium is an important human zoonotic parasite that causes great economic loss and also endangers public health. At present, an effective vaccine that will prevent infection and chemotherapy without any side effect remains to be developed. In this study, codon usage patterns in the T. solium genome were examined through 8,484 protein-coding genes. Neutrality analysis showed that T. solium had a narrow GC distribution, and a significant correlation was observed between GC12 and GC3. Examination of an NC (ENC vs GC3s)-plot showed a few genes on or close to the expected curve, but the majority of points with low-ENC (the effective number of codons) values were detected below the expected curve, suggesting that mutational bias plays a major role in shaping codon usage. The Parity Rule 2 plot (PR2) analysis showed that GC and AT were not used proportionally. We also identified 26 optimal codons in the T. solium genome, all of which ended with either a G or C residue. These optimal codons in the T. solium genome are likely consistent with tRNAs that are highly expressed in the cell, suggesting that mutational and translational selection forces are probably driving factors of codon usage bias in the T. solium genome. PMID:26797435

  10. Patterns of codon usage bias in Silene latifolia.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Suo; Bergero, Roberta; Zeng, Kai; Charlesworth, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of codon usage bias (CUB) convey useful information about the selection on synonymous codons induced by gene expression and contribute to an understanding of substitution patterns observed at synonymous sites. They can also be informative about the distinctive evolutionary properties of sex chromosomes such as genetic degeneration of the Y chromosome, dosage compensation, and hemizygosity of the X chromosome in males, which can affect the selection on codon usage. Here, we study CUB in Silene latifolia, a species of interest for studying the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. We have obtained a large expressed sequence tag data set containing more than 1,608 sequence fragments by 454 sequencing. Using three different methods, we conservatively define 21 preferred codons. Interestingly, the preferred codons in S. latifolia are almost identical to those in Arabidopsis thaliana, despite their long divergence time (we estimate average nonsynonymous site divergence to be 0.216, and synonymous sites are saturated). The agreement suggests that the nature of selection on codon usage has not changed significantly during the long evolutionary time separating the two species. As in many other organisms, the frequency of preferred codons is negatively correlated with protein length. For the 43 genes with both exon and intron sequences, we find a positive correlation between gene expression levels and GC content at third codon positions, but a strong negative correlation between expression and intron GC content, suggesting that the CUB we detect in S. latifolia is more likely to be due to natural selection than to mutational bias. Using polymorphism data, we detect evidence of ongoing natural selection on CUB, but we find little support for effects of biased gene conversion. An analysis of ten sex-linked genes reveals that the X chromosome has experienced significantly more unpreferred to preferred than preferred to unpreferred substitutions, suggesting that it may be evolving higher CUB. In contrast, numbers of substitutions between preferred and unpreferred codons are similar in both directions in the Y-linked genes, contrary to the expectation of genetic degeneration. PMID:20855431

  11. Codon usage patterns in Nematoda: analysis based on over 25 million codons in thirty-two species

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background Codon usage has direct utility in molecular characterization of species and is also a marker for molecular evolution. To understand codon usage within the diverse phylum Nematoda, we analyzed a total of 265,494 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from 30 nematode species. The full genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae were also examined. A total of 25,871,325 codons were analyzed and a comprehensive codon usage table for all species was generated. This is the first codon usage table available for 24 of these organisms. Results Codon usage similarity in Nematoda usually persists over the breadth of a genus but then rapidly diminishes even within each clade. Globodera, Meloidogyne, Pristionchus, and Strongyloides have the most highly derived patterns of codon usage. The major factor affecting differences in codon usage between species is the coding sequence GC content, which varies in nematodes from 32% to 51%. Coding GC content (measured as GC3) also explains much of the observed variation in the effective number of codons (R = 0.70), which is a measure of codon bias, and it even accounts for differences in amino acid frequency. Codon usage is also affected by neighboring nucleotides (N1 context). Coding GC content correlates strongly with estimated noncoding genomic GC content (R = 0.92). On examining abundant clusters in five species, candidate optimal codons were identified that may be preferred in highly expressed transcripts. Conclusion Evolutionary models indicate that total genomic GC content, probably the product of directional mutation pressure, drives codon usage rather than the converse, a conclusion that is supported by examination of nematode genomes. PMID:26271136

  12. Genome-Wide Analysis of Codon Usage and Influencing Factors in Chikungunya Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yigang

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus of the family Togaviridae that is transmitted to humans by Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Its genome comprises a 12 kb single-strand positive-sense RNA. In the present study, we report the patterns of synonymous codon usage in 141 CHIKV genomes by calculating several codon usage indices and applying multivariate statistical methods. Relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis showed that the preferred synonymous codons were G/C and A-ended. A comparative analysis of RSCU between CHIKV and its hosts showed that codon usage patterns of CHIKV are a mixture of coincidence and antagonism. Similarity index analysis showed that the overall codon usage patterns of CHIKV have been strongly influenced by Pan troglodytes and Aedes albopictus during evolution. The overall codon usage bias was low in CHIKV genomes, as inferred from the analysis of effective number of codons (ENC) and codon adaptation index (CAI). Our data suggested that although mutation pressure dominates codon usage in CHIKV, patterns of codon usage in CHIKV are also under the influence of natural selection from its hosts and geography. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report describing codon usage analysis in CHIKV genomes. The findings from this study are expected to increase our understanding of factors involved in viral evolution, and fitness towards hosts and the environment. PMID:24595095

  13. Genome-wide analysis of synonymous codon usage in Huaiyangshan virus and other bunyaviruses.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xuelian; Liu, Qingzhen; Xiong, Yanwen; Ye, Changyun; Jin, Dong; Xu, Jianguo

    2015-12-01

    Huaiyangshan virus (HYSV) is a newly discovered bunyavirus, which is transmitted by ticks and causes hemorrhagic fever-like illness in human. The interplay of codon usage among viruses and their hosts is expected to affect viral survival, evasion from host's immune system and evolution. However, little is known about the codon usage in HYSV genome. In the present study, we analyzed synonymous codon usage in 120 available full-length HYSV sequences and performed a comparative analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in HYSV and 42 other bunyaviruses. The relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis showed that the preferred synonymous codons were G/C-ended. A comparative analysis of RSCU between HYSV and its hosts reflected that codon usage patterns of HYSV were mostly coincident with that of its hosts. Our data suggested that although mutational bias dominated codon usage, patterns of codon usage in HYSV were also under the influence of nature selection. Phylogenetic analysis based on RSCU values across different HYSV strains and 42 other bunyaviruses suggested that codon usage pattern in HYSV was the most similar with that of Uukuniemi virus among these bunyaviruses and that viruses belonged to Phlebovirus showed a diversity of codon usage patterns. PMID:26173646

  14. Unusual codon usage bias in low expression genes of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Basak, Surajit; Mukherjee, Indranuj; Choudhury, Mayukh; Das, Santasabuj

    2008-01-01

    Positive correlation between gene expression and synonymous codon usage bias is well documented in the literature. However, in the present study of Vibrio cholerae genome, we have identified a group of genes having unusually high codon usage bias despite being low potential expressivity. Our results suggest that codon usage in lowly expressed genes might also be selected on to preferably use non-optimal codons to maintain a low cellular concentration of the proteins that they encode. This would predict that lowly expressed genes are also biased in codon usage, but in a way that is opposite to the bias of highly expressed genes. PMID:19255636

  15. Bioinformatics analysis of codon usage patterns and influencing factors in Penaeus monodon nudivirus.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Anuj; Singh, Niraj K; Gurtler, Volker; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2016-02-01

    Penaeus monodon nudivirus (PmNV) is one of the most important and most commonly reported shrimp viruses. In the present study, codon usage of PmNV was studied in detail. Based on effective number of codons (ENC) values, strong to low codon usage bias was observed in PmNV genes. Nucleotide composition-ENC correlation analysis and the GC3 versus ENC relationship indicated that compositional constraint has a major effect on codon usage of PmNV. At the whole-genome level, relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis showed almost complete antagonism between the codon usage pattern of PmNV and its host P. monodon. However, codon adaptive index (CAI) values indicated that forces of selective/translational constraints have been able to overcome this antagonism in some genes. PMID:26586333

  16. Patterns of synonymous codon usage on human metapneumovirus and its influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qiao; Xu, Weidong; Wu, Yuanjian; Xu, Hongxing

    2012-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important agent of acute respiratory tract infection in children, while its pathogenicity and molecular evolution are lacking. Herein, we firstly report the synonymous codon usage patterns of HMPV genome. The relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) values, effective number of codon (ENC) values, nucleotide contents, and correlation analysis were performed among 17 available whole genome of HMPV, including different genotypes. All preferred codons in HMPV are ended with A/U nucleotide and exhibited a great association with its high proportion of these two nucleotides in their genomes. Mutation pressure rather than natural selection is the main influence factor that determines the bias of synonymous codon usage in HMPV. The complementary pattern of codon usage bias between HMPV and human cell was observed, and this phenomenon suggests that host cells might be also act as an important factor to affect the codon usage bias. Moreover, the codon usage biases in each HMPV genotypes are separated into different clades, which suggest that phylogenetic distance might involve in codon usage bias formation as well. These analyses of synonymous codon usage bias in HMPV provide more information for better understanding its evolution and pathogenicity. PMID:23193361

  17. Analysing codon usage bias of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 and adaptation of this virus to the hosts.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y P; Liu, Z X; Hao, L; Ma, J Y; Liang, Z L; Li, Y G; Ke, H

    2015-07-01

    The codon usage patterns of open reading frames (ORFs) in cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) have been investigated in this study. The high correlation between GC12 % and GC3 % suggests that mutational pressure rather than natural selection is the main factor that determines the codon usage and base component in the CyHV-3, while mutational pressure effect results from the high correlation between GC3 % and the first principal axis of principle component analysis (Axis 1) on the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) value of the viral functional genes. However, the interaction between the absolute codon usage bias and GC3 % suggests that other selections take part in the formation of codon usage, except for the mutational pressure. It is noted that the similarity degree of codon usage between the CyHV-3 and goldfish, Carassius auratus (L.), is higher than that between the virus and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., suggesting that the goldfish plays a more important role than the common carp in codon usage pattern of the CyHV-3. The study of codon usage in CyHV-3 can provide some evidence about the molecular evolution of the virus. It can also enrich our understanding about the relationship between the CyHV-3 and its hosts by analysing their codon usage patterns. PMID:25491502

  18. Protein Synthesis in E. coli: Dependence of Codon-Specific Elongation on tRNA Concentration and Codon Usage

    PubMed Central

    Rudorf, Sophia; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    To synthesize a protein, a ribosome moves along a messenger RNA (mRNA), reads it codon by codon, and takes up the corresponding ternary complexes which consist of aminoacylated transfer RNAs (aa-tRNAs), elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), and GTP. During this process of translation elongation, the ribosome proceeds with a codon-specific rate. Here, we present a general theoretical framework to calculate codon-specific elongation rates and error frequencies based on tRNA concentrations and codon usages. Our theory takes three important aspects of in-vivo translation elongation into account. First, non-cognate, near-cognate and cognate ternary complexes compete for the binding sites on the ribosomes. Second, the corresponding binding rates are determined by the concentrations of free ternary complexes, which must be distinguished from the total tRNA concentrations as measured in vivo. Third, for each tRNA species, the difference between total tRNA and ternary complex concentration depends on the codon usages of the corresponding cognate and near-cognate codons. Furthermore, we apply our theory to two alternative pathways for tRNA release from the ribosomal E site and show how the mechanism of tRNA release influences the concentrations of free ternary complexes and thus the codon-specific elongation rates. Using a recently introduced method to determine kinetic rates of in-vivo translation from in-vitro data, we compute elongation rates for all codons in Escherichia coli. We show that for some tRNA species only a few tRNA molecules are part of ternary complexes and, thus, available for the translating ribosomes. In addition, we find that codon-specific elongation rates strongly depend on the overall codon usage in the cell, which could be altered experimentally by overexpression of individual genes. PMID:26270805

  19. Comparative Analysis of Codon Usage Bias Patterns in Microsporidian Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Heng; Zhang, Ruizhi; Butler, Robert R.; Liu, Tie; Zhang, Li; Pombert, Jean-François; Zhou, Zeyang

    2015-01-01

    The sub-3 Mbp genomes from microsporidian species of the Encephalitozoon genus are the smallest known among eukaryotes and paragons of genomic reduction and compaction in parasites. However, their diminutive stature is not characteristic of all Microsporidia, whose genome sizes vary by an order of magnitude. This large variability suggests that different evolutionary forces are applied on the group as a whole. In this study, we have compared the codon usage bias (CUB) between eight taxonomically distinct microsporidian genomes: Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Spraguea lophii, Trachipleistophora hominis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Nematocida parisii, Nosema bombycis and Nosema ceranae. While the CUB was found to be weak in all eight Microsporidia, nearly all (98%) of the optimal codons in S. lophii, T. hominis, E. bieneusi, N. parisii, N. bombycis and N. ceranae are fond of A/U in third position whereas most (64.6%) optimal codons in the Encephalitozoon species E. intestinalis and E. cuniculi are biased towards G/C. Although nucleotide composition biases are likely the main factor driving the CUB in Microsporidia according to correlation analyses, directed mutational pressure also likely affects the CUB as suggested by ENc-plots, correspondence and neutrality analyses. Overall, the Encephalitozoon genomes were found to be markedly different from the other microsporidians and, despite being the first sequenced representatives of this lineage, are uncharacteristic of the group as a whole. The disparities observed cannot be attributed solely to differences in host specificity and we hypothesize that other forces are at play in the lineage leading to Encephalitozoon species. PMID:26057384

  20. Codon usage in yeast: cluster analysis clearly differentiates highly and lowly expressed genes.

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, P M; Tuohy, T M; Mosurski, K R

    1986-01-01

    Codon usage data has been compiled for 110 yeast genes. Cluster analysis on relative synonymous codon usage revealed two distinct groups of genes. One group corresponds to highly expressed genes, and has much more extreme synonymous codon preference. The pattern of codon usage observed is consistent with that expected if a need to match abundant tRNAs, and intermediacy of tRNA-mRNA interaction energies are important selective constraints. Thus codon usage in the highly expressed group shows a higher correlation with tRNA abundance, a greater degree of third base pyrimidine bias, and a lesser tendency to the A+T richness which is characteristic of the yeast genome. The cluster analysis can be used to predict the likely level of gene expression of any gene, and identifies the pattern of codon usage likely to yield optimal gene expression in yeast. PMID:3526280

  1. Analysis of synonymous codon usage in spike protein gene of infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Makhija, Aditi; Kumar, Sachin

    2015-12-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is responsible for causing respiratory, renal, and urogenital diseases in poultry. IBV infection in poultry leads to high mortality rates in affected flocks and to severe economic losses due to a drop in egg production and a reduced gain in live weight of the broiler birds. IBV-encoded spike protein (S) is the major protective immunogen for the host. Although the functions of the S protein have been well studied, the factors shaping synonymous codon usage bias and nucleotide composition in the S gene have not been reported yet. In the present study, we analyzed the relative synonymous codon usage and effective number of codons (Nc) using the 53 IBV S genes. The major trend in codon usage variation was studied using correspondence analysis. The plot of Nc values against GC3 as well as the correlation between base composition and codon usage bias suggest that mutational pressure rather than natural selection is the main factor that determines the codon usage bias in the S gene. Interestingly, no association of aromaticity, degree of hydrophobicity, and aliphatic index was observed with the codon usage variation in IBV S genes. The study represents a comprehensive analysis of IBV S gene codon usage patterns and provides a basic understanding of the codon usage bias. PMID:26452019

  2. Genomic adaptation of the ISA virus to Salmo salar codon usage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ISA virus (ISAV) is an Orthomyxovirus whose genome encodes for at least 10 proteins. Low protein identity and lack of genetic tools have hampered the study of the molecular mechanism behind its virulence. It has been shown that viral codon usage controls several processes such as translational efficiency, folding, tuning of protein expression, antigenicity and virulence. Despite this, the possible role that adaptation to host codon usage plays in virulence and viral evolution has not been studied in ISAV. Methods Intergenomic adaptation between viral and host genomes was calculated using the codon adaptation index score with EMBOSS software and the Kazusa database. Classification of host genes according to GeneOnthology was performed using Blast2go. A non parametric test was applied to determine the presence of significant correlations among CAI, mortality and time. Results Using the codon adaptation index (CAI) score, we found that the encoding genes for nucleoprotein, matrix protein M1 and antagonist of Interferon I signaling (NS1) are the ISAV genes that are more adapted to host codon usage, in agreement with their requirement for production of viral particles and inactivation of antiviral responses. Comparison to host genes showed that ISAV shares CAI values with less than 0.45% of Salmo salar genes. GeneOntology classification of host genes showed that ISAV genes share CAI values with genes from less than 3% of the host biological process, far from the 14% shown by Influenza A viruses and closer to the 5% shown by Influenza B and C. As well, we identified a positive correlation (p<0.05) between CAI values of a virus and the duration of the outbreak disease in given salmon farms, as well as a weak relationship between codon adaptation values of PB1 and the mortality rates of a set of ISA viruses. Conclusions Our analysis shows that ISAV is the least adapted viral Salmo salar pathogen and Orthomyxovirus family member less adapted to host codon usage, avoiding the general behavior of host genes. This is probably due to its recent emergence among farmed Salmon populations. PMID:23829271

  3. Importance of codon usage for the temporal regulation of viral gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Young C.; Bischof, Georg F.; Lauer, William A.; Desrosiers, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    The glycoproteins of herpesviruses and of HIV/SIV are made late in the replication cycle and are derived from transcripts that use an unusual codon usage that is quite different from that of the host cell. Here we show that the actions of natural transinducers from these two different families of persistent viruses (Rev of SIV and ORF57 of the rhesus monkey rhadinovirus) are dependent on the nature of the skewed codon usage. In fact, the transinducibility of expression of these glycoproteins by Rev and by ORF57 can be flipped simply by changing the nature of the codon usage. Even expression of a luciferase reporter could be made Rev dependent or ORF57 dependent by distinctive changes to its codon usage. Our findings point to a new general principle in which different families of persisting viruses use a poor codon usage that is skewed in a distinctive way to temporally regulate late expression of structural gene products. PMID:26504241

  4. Multiscale Modeling of Metabolism and Macromolecular Synthesis in E. coli and Its Application to the Evolution of Codon Usage

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Ines; Fleming, Ronan M. T.; Que, Richard; Bordbar, Aarash; Diep, Dinh; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2012-01-01

    Biological systems are inherently hierarchal and multiscale in time and space. A major challenge of systems biology is to describe biological systems as a computational model, which can be used to derive novel hypothesis and drive experiments leading to new knowledge. The constraint-based reconstruction and analysis approach has been successfully applied to metabolism and to the macromolecular synthesis machinery assembly. Here, we present the first integrated stoichiometric multiscale model of metabolism and macromolecular synthesis for Escherichia coli K12 MG1655, which describes the sequence-specific synthesis and function of almost 2000 gene products at molecular detail. We added linear constraints, which couple enzyme synthesis and catalysis reactions. Comparison with experimental data showed improvement of growth phenotype prediction with the multiscale model over E. colis metabolic model alone. Many of the genes covered by this integrated model are well conserved across enterobacters and other, less related bacteria. We addressed the question of whether the bias in synonymous codon usage could affect the growth phenotype and environmental niches that an organism can occupy. We created two classes of in silico strains, one with more biased codon usage and one with more equilibrated codon usage than the wildtype. The reduced growth phenotype in biased strains was caused by tRNA supply shortage, indicating that expansion of tRNA gene content or tRNA codon recognition allow E. coli to respond to changes in codon usage bias. Our analysis suggests that in order to maximize growth and to adapt to new environmental niches, codon usage and tRNA content must co-evolve. These results provide further evidence for the mutation-selection-drift balance theory of codon usage bias. This integrated multiscale reconstruction successfully demonstrates that the constraint-based modeling approach is well suited to whole-cell modeling endeavors. PMID:23029152

  5. Analysis of codon usage patterns in Taenia pisiformis through annotated transcriptome data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Liu, Tianfei; Yang, Deying; Nong, Xiang; Xie, Yue; Fu, Yan; Wu, Xuhang; Huang, Xing; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-25

    Taenia pisiformis (Cestoidea; Cyclophyllidea; Taeniidae) tapeworms infect the small intestine of canids and felines, such as dogs and foxes. Synonymous codon usage in T. pisiformis was examined through 8118 reconstructed annotations of transcriptome sequences. The mean value of GC content for the reconstructed genes was 49.48%. Twenty-four codons were determined as "optimal codons". Approximately all translational optimal codons (except CGU) ended on G or C. The gene positions on the primary axis were strongly positively correlated with GC content at the third codon positions and GC content of individual genes. At the same time, the gene expression level assessed by the CAI, the hydrophobicity and aromaticity of encoded proteins were correlated with the GC content at the third codon positions and the effective number of codons (ENC), respectively. We infer that the gene expression level, the hydrophobicity and the aromaticity of the encoded proteins also influenced codon usage in T. pisiformis. Knowledge of the codon usage pattern in T. pisiformis can improve our understanding of the mechanisms of biased usage of synonymous codons and can help in selecting appropriate host expression systems for potential vaccine genes of T. pisiformis. PMID:23268345

  6. The influence of anticodon-codon interactions and modified bases on codon usage bias in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ran, Wenqi; Higgs, Paul G

    2010-09-01

    Most transfer RNAs (tRNAs) can translate more than one synonymous codon, and most codons can be translated by more than one isoacceptor tRNA. The rates of translation of synonymous codons are dependent on the concentrations of the tRNAs and on the rates of pairing of each anticodon-codon combination. Translational selection causes a significant bias in codon frequencies in highly expressed genes in most bacteria. By comparing codon frequencies in high and low-expression genes, we determine which codons are preferred for each amino acid in a large sample of bacterial genomes. We relate this to the number of copies of each tRNA gene in each genome. In two-codon families, preferred codons have Watson-Crick pairs (GC and AU) between the third codon base and the wobble base of the anticodon rather than GU pairs. This suggests that these combinations are more rapidly recognized by the ribosome. In contrast, in four-codon families, preferred codons do not correspond to Watson-Crick rules. In some cases, a wobble-U tRNA can pair with all four codons. In these cases, A and U codons are preferred over G and C. This indicates that the nonstandard UU combination appears to be translated surprisingly well. Differences in modified bases at the wobble position of the anticodon appear to be responsible for the differences in behavior of tRNAs in two- and four-codon families. We discuss the way changes in the bases in the anticodon influence both the speed and the accuracy of translation. The number of tRNA gene copies and the strength of translational selection correlate with the growth rate of the organism, as we would expect if the primary cause of translational selection in bacteria is the requirement to optimize the speed of protein production. PMID:20403966

  7. Codon Usage Influences the Local Rate of Translation Elongation to Regulate Co-translational Protein Folding.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chien-Hung; Dang, Yunkun; Zhou, Zhipeng; Wu, Cheng; Zhao, Fangzhou; Sachs, Matthew S; Liu, Yi

    2015-09-01

    Codon usage bias is a universal feature of eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes and has been proposed to regulate translation efficiency, accuracy, and protein folding based on the assumption that codon usage affects translation dynamics. The roles of codon usage in translation, however, are not clear and have been challenged by recent ribosome profiling studies. Here we used a Neurospora cell-free translation system to directly monitor the velocity of mRNA translation. We demonstrated that the preferred codons enhance the rate of translation elongation, whereas non-optimal codons slow elongation. Codon usage also controls ribosome traffic on mRNA. These conclusions were supported by ribosome profiling results invitro and invivo with template mRNAs designed to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. Finally, we demonstrate that codon usage regulates protein function byaffecting co-translational protein folding. These results resolve a long-standing fundamental question and suggest the existence of a codon usage code for protein folding. PMID:26321254

  8. Factors influencing synonymous codon and amino acid usage biases in Mimivirus.

    PubMed

    Sau, K; Gupta, S K; Sau, S; Mandal, S C; Ghosh, T C

    2006-08-01

    Synonymous codon and amino acid usage biases have been investigated in 903 Mimivirus protein-coding genes in order to understand the architecture and evolution of Mimivirus genome. As expected for an AT-rich genome, third codon positions of the synonymous codons of Mimivirus carry mostly A or T bases. It was found that codon usage bias in Mimivirus genes is dictated both by mutational pressure and translational selection. Evidences show that four factors such as mean molecular weight (MMW), hydropathy, aromaticity and cysteine content are mostly responsible for the variation of amino acid usage in Mimivirus proteins. Based on our observation, we suggest that genes involved in translation, DNA repair, protein folding, etc., have been laterally transferred to Mimivirus a long ago from living organism and with time these genes acquire the codon usage pattern of other Mimivirus genes under selection pressure. PMID:16442213

  9. Estimating Selection Intensity on Synonymous Codon Usage in a Nonequilibrium Population

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Kai; Charlesworth, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Codon usage bias is the nonrandom use of synonymous codons for the same amino acid. Most population genetic models of codon usage evolution assume that the population is at mutationselectiondrift equilibrium. Natural populations, however, frequently deviate from equilibrium, often because of recent demographic changes. Here, we construct a matrix model that includes the effects of a recent change in population size on estimates of selection on preferred vs. unpreferred codons. Our results suggest that patterns of synonymous polymorphisms affecting codon usage can be quite erratic after such a change; statistical methods that fail to take demographic effects into account can then give incorrect estimates of important parameters. We propose a new method that can accurately estimate both demographic and codon usage parameters. The method also provides a simple way of testing for the effects of covariates such as gene length and level of gene expression on the intensity of selection, which we apply to a large Drosophila melanogaster polymorphism data set. Our analyses of twofold degenerate codons reveal that (i) selection acts in favor of preferred codons, (ii) there is mutational bias in favor of unpreferred codons, (iii) shorter genes and genes with higher expression levels are under stronger selection, and (iv) there is little evidence for a recent change in population size in the Zimbabwe population of D. melanogaster. PMID:19620398

  10. Analysis of codon usage pattern evolution in avian rotaviruses and their preferred host.

    PubMed

    Kattoor, Jobin Jose; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Sasidharan, Aravind; Rajan, Vishnuraj Mangalathu; Dhama, Kuldeep; Ghosh, Souvik; Bnyai, Krisztin; Kobayashi, Nobumichi; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Rotavirus infection is a worldwide problem, with occurrence of highly divergent viruses classified in 8 species (A-H). We report here the evolution assessment of codon usage patterns in virus-host system in avian rotavirus (AvRV) of species RVA, RVD, RVF and RVG (preferentially affecting birds). The nucleotide contents, codon usage bias (CUB), relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), and effective number of codons (ENCs) values were investigated targeting overexpressing major inner capsid viral protein (VP6) of these AvRV species. The results confirm that the evolutionary characteristics influences the rotavirus (RV) genetic diversity and impact of host's natural selection on the AvRVs codons. Synonymous codon usage patterns were evaluated following multivariate statistical procedures on all available AvRV coding gene sequences. RSCU trees accommodated all AvRV species and preferred host sequences in one topology confirming greater imminence of AvRVs with the host chicken cell genes. Similarly, the codon adaptation index (CAI) results also displayed a higher adaptation of AvRVs to its chicken host. The codon preference analysis of RVs revealed that VP6 gene express more proficiently in the yeast system, whereas, codon optimization might be required for the effectual expression in Escherichia coli and Homo sapiens. The findings provide basic evidence on the dynamics of AvRV evolution and its host adaptation, which could be exploited for additional research on avian species in future. PMID:26086995

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Synonymous Codon Usage Bias Pattern in Human Albumin Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Mirsafian, Hoda; Mat Ripen, Adiratna; Singh, Aarti; Teo, Phaik Hwan; Merican, Amir Feisal; Mohamad, Saharuddin Bin

    2014-01-01

    Synonymous codon usage bias is an inevitable phenomenon in organismic taxa across the three domains of life. Though the frequency of codon usage is not equal across species and within genome in the same species, the phenomenon is non random and is tissue-specific. Several factors such as GC content, nucleotide distribution, protein hydropathy, protein secondary structure, and translational selection are reported to contribute to codon usage preference. The synonymous codon usage patterns can be helpful in revealing the expression pattern of genes as well as the evolutionary relationship between the sequences. In this study, synonymous codon usage bias patterns were determined for the evolutionarily close proteins of albumin superfamily, namely, albumin, α-fetoprotein, afamin, and vitamin D-binding protein. Our study demonstrated that the genes of the four albumin superfamily members have low GC content and high values of effective number of codons (ENC) suggesting high expressivity of these genes and less bias in codon usage preferences. This study also provided evidence that the albumin superfamily members are not subjected to mutational selection pressure. PMID:24707212

  12. Evolutionary characterization of Tembusu virus infection through identification of codon usage patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Yan, Bing; Chen, Shun; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Cheng, Anchun

    2015-10-01

    Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus. As reported, TMUV infection has resulted in significant poultry losses, and the virus may also pose a threat to public health. To characterize TMUV evolutionarily and to understand the factors accounting for codon usage properties, we performed, for the first time, a comprehensive analysis of codon usage bias for the genomes of 60 TMUV strains. The most recently published TMUV strains were found to be widely distributed in coastal cities of southeastern China. Codon preference among TMUV genomes exhibits a low bias (effective number of codons (ENC)=53.287) and is maintained at a stable level. ENC-GC3 plots and the high correlation between composition constraints and principal component factor analysis of codon usage demonstrated that mutation pressure dominates over natural selection pressure in shaping the TMUV coding sequence composition. The high correlation between the major components of the codon usage pattern and hydrophobicity (Gravy) or aromaticity (Aromo) was obvious, indicating that properties of viral proteins also account for the observed variation in TMUV codon usage. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that CQW1 isolated from Chongqing may have evolved from GX2013H or GX2013G isolated from Guangxi, thus indicating that TMUV likely disseminated from southeastern China to the mainland. Moreover, the preferred codons encoding eight amino acids were consistent with the optimal codons for human cells, indicating that TMUV may pose a threat to public health due to possible cross-species transmission (birds to birds or birds to humans). The results of this study not only have theoretical value for uncovering the characteristics of synonymous codon usage patterns in TMUV genomes but also have significant meaning with regard to the molecular evolutionary tendencies of TMUV. PMID:26205688

  13. A Major Controversy in Codon-Anticodon Adaptation Resolved by a New Codon Usage Index

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xuhua

    2015-01-01

    Two alternative hypotheses attribute different benefits to codon-anticodon adaptation. The first assumes that protein production is rate limited by both initiation and elongation and that codon-anticodon adaptation would result in higher elongation efficiency and more efficient and accurate protein production, especially for highly expressed genes. The second claims that protein production is rate limited only by initiation efficiency but that improved codon adaptation and, consequently, increased elongation efficiency have the benefit of increasing ribosomal availability for global translation. To test these hypotheses, a recent study engineered a synthetic library of 154 genes, all encoding the same protein but differing in degrees of codon adaptation, to quantify the effect of differential codon adaptation on protein production in Escherichia coli. The surprising conclusion that codon bias did not correlate with gene expression and that translation initiation, not elongation, is rate-limiting for gene expression contradicts the conclusion reached by many other empirical studies. In this paper, I resolve the contradiction by reanalyzing the data from the 154 sequences. I demonstrate that translation elongation accounts for about 17% of total variation in protein production and that the previous conclusion is due to the use of a codon adaptation index (CAI) that does not account for the mutation bias in characterizing codon adaptation. The effect of translation elongation becomes undetectable only when translation initiation is unrealistically slow. A new index of translation elongation ITE is formulated to facilitate studies on the efficiency and evolution of the translation machinery. PMID:25480780

  14. GC-Content of Synonymous Codons Profoundly Influences Amino Acid Usage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Zhou, Jun; Wu, Ying; Yang, Sihai; Tian, Dacheng

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids typically are encoded by multiple synonymous codons that are not used with the same frequency. Codon usage bias has drawn considerable attention, and several explanations have been offered, including variation in GC-content between species. Focusing on a simple parameter—combined GC proportion of all the synonymous codons for a particular amino acid, termed GCsyn—we try to deepen our understanding of the relationship between GC-content and amino acid/codon usage in more details. We analyzed 65 widely distributed representative species and found a close association between GCsyn, GC-content, and amino acids usage. The overall usages of the four amino acids with the greatest GCsyn and the five amino acids with the lowest GCsyn both vary with the regional GC-content, whereas the usage of the remaining 11 amino acids with intermediate GCsyn is less variable. More interesting, we discovered that codon usage frequencies are nearly constant in regions with similar GC-content. We further quantified the effects of regional GC-content variation (low to high) on amino acid usage and found that GC-content determines the usage variation of amino acids, especially those with extremely high GCsyn, which accounts for 76.7% of the changed GC-content for those regions. Our results suggest that GCsyn correlates with GC-content and has impact on codon/amino acid usage. These findings suggest a novel approach to understanding the role of codon and amino acid usage in shaping genomic architecture and evolutionary patterns of organisms. PMID:26248983

  15. Gaining Insights into the Codon Usage Patterns of TP53 Gene across Eight Mammalian Species

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Tarikul Huda; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    TP53 gene is known as the “guardian of the genome” as it plays a vital role in regulating cell cycle, cell proliferation, DNA damage repair, initiation of programmed cell death and suppressing tumor growth. Non uniform usage of synonymous codons for a specific amino acid during translation of protein known as codon usage bias (CUB) is a unique property of the genome and shows species specific deviation. Analysis of codon usage bias with compositional dynamics of coding sequences has contributed to the better understanding of the molecular mechanism and the evolution of a particular gene. In this study, the complete nucleotide coding sequences of TP53 gene from eight different mammalian species were used for CUB analysis. Our results showed that the codon usage patterns in TP53 gene across different mammalian species has been influenced by GC bias particularly GC3 and a moderate bias exists in the codon usage of TP53 gene. Moreover, we observed that nature has highly favored the most over represented codon CTG for leucine amino acid but selected against the ATA codon for isoleucine in TP53 gene across all mammalian species during the course of evolution. PMID:25807269

  16. Explaining complex codon usage patterns with selection for translational efficiency, mutation bias, and genetic drift.

    PubMed

    Shah, Premal; Gilchrist, Michael A

    2011-06-21

    The genetic code is redundant with most amino acids using multiple codons. In many organisms, codon usage is biased toward particular codons. Understanding the adaptive and nonadaptive forces driving the evolution of codon usage bias (CUB) has been an area of intense focus and debate in the fields of molecular and evolutionary biology. However, their relative importance in shaping genomic patterns of CUB remains unsolved. Using a nested model of protein translation and population genetics, we show that observed gene level variation of CUB in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be explained almost entirely by selection for efficient ribosomal usage, genetic drift, and biased mutation. The correlation between observed codon counts within individual genes and our model predictions is 0.96. Although a variety of factors shape patterns of CUB at the level of individual sites within genes, our results suggest that selection for efficient ribosome usage is a central force in shaping codon usage at the genomic scale. In addition, our model allows direct estimation of codon-specific mutation rates and elongation times and can be readily applied to any organism with high-throughput expression datasets. More generally, we have developed a natural framework for integrating models of molecular processes to population genetics models to quantitatively estimate parameters underlying fundamental biological processes, such a protein translation. PMID:21646514

  17. Comprehensive Analysis of Stop Codon Usage in Bacteria and Its Correlation with Release Factor Abundance*

    PubMed Central

    Korkmaz, Gürkan; Holm, Mikael; Wiens, Tobias; Sanyal, Suparna

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of stop codon usage in bacteria by analyzing over eight million coding sequences of 4684 bacterial sequences. Using a newly developed program called “stop codon counter,” the frequencies of the three classical stop codons TAA, TAG, and TGA were analyzed, and a publicly available stop codon database was built. Our analysis shows that with increasing genomic GC content the frequency of the TAA codon decreases and that of the TGA codon increases in a reciprocal manner. Interestingly, the release factor 1-specific codon TAG maintains a more or less uniform frequency (∼20%) irrespective of the GC content. The low abundance of TAG is also valid with respect to expression level of the genes ending with different stop codons. In contrast, the highly expressed genes predominantly end with TAA, ensuring termination with either of the two release factors. Using three model bacteria with different stop codon usage (Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Bacillus subtilis), we show that the frequency of TAG and TGA codons correlates well with the relative steady state amount of mRNA and protein for release factors RF1 and RF2 during exponential growth. Furthermore, using available microarray data for gene expression, we show that in both fast growing and contrasting biofilm formation conditions, the relative level of RF1 is nicely correlated with the expression level of the genes ending with TAG. PMID:25217634

  18. Codon Usage Patterns in Corynebacterium glutamicum: Mutational Bias, Natural Selection and Amino Acid Conservation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guiming; Wu, Jinyu; Yang, Huanming; Bao, Qiyu

    2010-01-01

    The alternative synonymous codons in Corynebacterium glutamicum, a well-known bacterium used in industry for the production of amino acid, have been investigated by multivariate analysis. As C. glutamicum is a GC-rich organism, G and C are expected to predominate at the third position of codons. Indeed, overall codon usage analyses have indicated that C and/or G ending codons are predominant in this organism. Through multivariate statistical analysis, apart from mutational selection, we identified three other trends of codon usage variation among the genes. Firstly, the majority of highly expressed genes are scattered towards the positive end of the first axis, whereas the majority of lowly expressed genes are clustered towards the other end of the first axis. Furthermore, the distinct difference in the two sets of genes was that the C ending codons are predominate in putatively highly expressed genes, suggesting that the C ending codons are translationally optimal in this organism. Secondly, the majority of the putatively highly expressed genes have a tendency to locate on the leading strand, which indicates that replicational and transciptional selection might be invoked. Thirdly, highly expressed genes are more conserved than lowly expressed genes by synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions among orthologous genes fromthe genomes of C. glutamicum and C. diphtheriae. We also analyzed other factors such as the length of genes and hydrophobicity that might influence codon usage and found their contributions to be weak. PMID:20445740

  19. Mutation and selection cause codon usage and bias in mitochondrial genomes of ribbon worms (Nemertea).

    PubMed

    Chen, Haixia; Sun, Shichun; Norenburg, Jon L; Sundberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of codon usage bias is known to exist in many genomes and it is mainly determined by mutation and selection. To understand the patterns of codon usage in nemertean mitochondrial genomes, we use bioinformatic approaches to analyze the protein-coding sequences of eight nemertean species. Neutrality analysis did not find a significant correlation between GC12 and GC3. ENc-plot showed a few genes on or close to the expected curve, but the majority of points with low-ENc values are below it. ENc-plot suggested that mutational bias plays a major role in shaping codon usage. The Parity Rule 2 plot (PR2) analysis showed that GC and AT were not used proportionally and we propose that codons containing A or U at third position are used preferentially in nemertean species, regardless of whether corresponding tRNAs are encoded in the mitochondrial DNA. Context-dependent analysis indicated that the nucleotide at the second codon position slightly affects synonymous codon choices. These results suggested that mutational and selection forces are probably acting to codon usage bias in nemertean mitochondrial genomes. PMID:24454907

  20. Mutation and Selection Cause Codon Usage and Bias in Mitochondrial Genomes of Ribbon Worms (Nemertea)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haixia; Sun, Shichun; Norenburg, Jon L.; Sundberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of codon usage bias is known to exist in many genomes and it is mainly determined by mutation and selection. To understand the patterns of codon usage in nemertean mitochondrial genomes, we use bioinformatic approaches to analyze the protein-coding sequences of eight nemertean species. Neutrality analysis did not find a significant correlation between GC12 and GC3. ENc-plot showed a few genes on or close to the expected curve, but the majority of points with low-ENc values are below it. ENc-plot suggested that mutational bias plays a major role in shaping codon usage. The Parity Rule 2 plot (PR2) analysis showed that GC and AT were not used proportionally and we propose that codons containing A or U at third position are used preferentially in nemertean species, regardless of whether corresponding tRNAs are encoded in the mitochondrial DNA. Context-dependent analysis indicated that the nucleotide at the second codon position slightly affects synonymous codon choices. These results suggested that mutational and selection forces are probably acting to codon usage bias in nemertean mitochondrial genomes. PMID:24454907

  1. Codon usage bias analysis for the spermidine synthase gene from Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze.

    PubMed

    You, E; Wang, Y; Ding, Z T; Zhang, X F; Pan, L L; Zheng, C

    2015-01-01

    The spermidine synthase (SPDS) gene exists widely in all types of plants. In this paper, the codon usage of the SPDS gene from Camellia sinensis (CsSPDS) was analyzed. The results showed that the codon usage of the CsSPDS gene is biased towards the T-ended or A-ended codons, which is similar to that observed in 73 genes selected from the C. sinensis genome. An ENC-plot for 15 SPDS genes from various plant species suggested that mutational bias was the major factor in shaping codon usage in these genes. Codon usage frequency analysis indicated that there was little difference between the CsSPDS gene and dicot genomes, such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum, but significant differences in codon usage were observed between the CsSPDS gene and monocot genomes, such as Triticum aestivum and Zea mays. Therefore, A. thaliana and N. tabacum expression systems may be more suitable for the expression of the CsSPDS gene. PMID:26214415

  2. Analysis of Codon Usage Patterns in Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) Based on Transcriptome Data

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanqing; Zhao, Daqiu; Tao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Codon usage bias, which exists in many genomes, is mainly determined by mutation and selection. To elucidate the genetic features and evolutionary history of herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora), a well-known symbol of prosperity in China, we examined synonymous codon usage in 24,216 reconstructed genes from the P. lactiflora transcriptome. The mean GC content was 44.4%, indicating that the nucleotide content of P. lactiflora genes is slightly AT rich and GC poor. The P. lactiflora genome has a wide range of GC3 (GC content at the third synonymous codon position) distribution, with a significant correlation between GC12 and GC3. ENC (effective number of codons) analysis suggested that mutational bias played a major role in shaping codon usage. Parity Rule 2 (PR2) analysis revealed that GC and AU were not used proportionally. We identified 22 “optimal codons”, most ending with an A or U. Our results suggested that nucleotide composition mutation bias and translational selection were the main driving factors of codon usage bias in P. lactiflora. These results lay the foundation for exploring the evolutionary mechanisms and heterologous expression of functionally-important proteins in P. lactiflora. PMID:26506393

  3. Translation initiation AUG context varies with codon usage bias and gene length in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, Hitoshi

    2002-07-01

    The relationship between the codon usage bias and the sequence context surrounding the AUG translation initiation codon was examined in 1100 Drosophila melanogaster mRNA sequences. The codon usage bias measured by the "codon adaptation index" (CAI), and the effectiveness of the AUG context for translation initiation assessed by the "AUG context adaptation index" (AUGCAI), showed a significant positive relationship (correlation coefficient: r = 0.34, p <0.0001), indicating that these two factors are evolutionally under a similar natural selection constraint at the translational level. The importance of each position of the AUG context in relation to codon usage bias was examined, and the preference for the nucleotide at the -13, -12, -11, -10, -7, -6, -5, -4, -3, -2, and -1 positions showed a significant positive correlation to the codon usage bias, suggesting the action of natural selection on these very specific positions of the Drosophila genome. The relationship between AUGCAI value and gene length was also examined, and a significant negative relationship was found (r = -0.15, p <0.0001), suggesting a general tendency of higher expressivity of shorter genes, and of lower expressivity of longer genes in D. melanogaster. PMID:12165842

  4. Codon and Amino Acid Usage Are Shaped by Selection Across Divergent Model Organisms of the Pancrustacea.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Carrie A; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2015-11-01

    In protein-coding genes, synonymous codon usage and amino acid composition correlate to expression in some eukaryotes, and may result from translational selection. Here, we studied large-scale RNA-seq data from three divergent arthropod models, including cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus), milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus), and the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis, and tested for optimization of codon and amino acid usage relative to expression level. We report strong signals of AT3 optimal codons (those favored in highly expressed genes) in G. bimaculatus and O. fasciatus, whereas weaker signs of GC3 optimal codons were found in P. hawaiensis, suggesting selection on codon usage in all three organisms. Further, in G. bimaculatus and O. fasciatus, high expression was associated with lowered frequency of amino acids with large size/complexity (S/C) scores in favor of those with intermediate S/C values; thus, selection may favor smaller amino acids while retaining those of moderate size for protein stability or conformation. In P. hawaiensis, highly transcribed genes had elevated frequency of amino acids with large and small S/C scores, suggesting a complex dynamic in this crustacean. In all species, the highly transcribed genes appeared to favor short proteins, high optimal codon usage, specific amino acids, and were preferentially involved in cell-cycling and protein synthesis. Together, based on examination of 1,680,067, 1,667,783, and 1,326,896 codon sites in G. bimaculatus, O. fasciatus, and P. hawaiensis, respectively, we conclude that translational selection shapes codon and amino acid usage in these three Pancrustacean arthropods. PMID:26384771

  5. Codon and Amino Acid Usage Are Shaped by Selection Across Divergent Model Organisms of the Pancrustacea

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Carrie A.; Extavour, Cassandra G.

    2015-01-01

    In protein-coding genes, synonymous codon usage and amino acid composition correlate to expression in some eukaryotes, and may result from translational selection. Here, we studied large-scale RNA-seq data from three divergent arthropod models, including cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus), milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus), and the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis, and tested for optimization of codon and amino acid usage relative to expression level. We report strong signals of AT3 optimal codons (those favored in highly expressed genes) in G. bimaculatus and O. fasciatus, whereas weaker signs of GC3 optimal codons were found in P. hawaiensis, suggesting selection on codon usage in all three organisms. Further, in G. bimaculatus and O. fasciatus, high expression was associated with lowered frequency of amino acids with large size/complexity (S/C) scores in favor of those with intermediate S/C values; thus, selection may favor smaller amino acids while retaining those of moderate size for protein stability or conformation. In P. hawaiensis, highly transcribed genes had elevated frequency of amino acids with large and small S/C scores, suggesting a complex dynamic in this crustacean. In all species, the highly transcribed genes appeared to favor short proteins, high optimal codon usage, specific amino acids, and were preferentially involved in cell-cycling and protein synthesis. Together, based on examination of 1,680,067, 1,667,783, and 1,326,896 codon sites in G. bimaculatus, O. fasciatus, and P. hawaiensis, respectively, we conclude that translational selection shapes codon and amino acid usage in these three Pancrustacean arthropods. PMID:26384771

  6. Recurrent positive selection and heterogeneous codon usage bias events leading to coexistence of divergent pigeon circoviruses.

    PubMed

    Liao, Pei-Chun; Wang, Kung-Kai; Tsai, Shinn-Shyong; Liu, Hung-Jen; Huang, Bing-Hong; Chuang, Kuo-Pin

    2015-08-01

    The capsid genes from 14 pigeon circovirus (PiCV) sequences, collected from Taiwan between 2009 and 2010, were sequenced and compared with 14 PiCV capsid gene sequences from GenBank. Based on pairwise comparison, PiCV strains from Taiwan shared 73.9-100% nucleotide identity and 72-100% amino acid identity with those of the 14 reported PiCV sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Taiwanese PiCV isolates can be grouped into two clades: clade 1 comprising isolates from Belgium, Australia, USA, Italy and China, and clade 2 showing close relation to isolates from Germany and France. Recurrent positive selection was detected in clade 1 PiCV lineages, which may contribute to the diversification of predominant PiCV sequences in Taiwan. Further observations suggest that synonymous codon usage variations between PiCV clade 1 and clade 2 may reflect the adaptive divergence on translation efficiency of capsid genes in infectious hosts. Variation in selective pressures acting on the evolutionary divergence and codon usage bias of both clades explains the regional coexistence of virus sequences congeners prevented from competitive exclusion within an island such as Taiwan. Our genotyping results also provide insight into the aetiological agents of PiCV outbreak in Taiwan and we present a comparative analysis of the central coding region of PiCV genome. From the sequence comparison results of 28 PiCVs which differs in regard to the geographical origin and columbid species, we identified conserved regions within the capsid gene that are likely to be suitable for primer selection and vaccine development. PMID:25911731

  7. A codon model of nucleotide substitution with selection on synonymous codon usage.

    PubMed

    Kubatko, Laura; Shah, Premal; Herbei, Radu; Gilchrist, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    The quality of phylogenetic inference made from protein-coding genes depends, in part, on the realism with which the codon substitution process is modeled. Here we propose a new mechanistic model that combines the standard M0 substitution model of Yang (1997) with a simplified model from Gilchrist (2007) that includes selection on synonymous substitutions as a function of codon-specific nonsense error rates. We tested the newly proposed model by applying it to 104 protein-coding genes in brewer's yeast, and compared the fit of the new model to the standard M0 model and to the mutation-selection model of Yang and Nielsen (2008) using the AIC. Our new model provided significantly better fit in approximately 85% of the cases considered for the basic M0 model and in approximately 25% of the cases for the M0 model with estimated codon frequencies, but only in a few cases when the mutation-selection model was considered. However, our model includes a parameter that can be interpreted as a measure of the rate of protein production, and the estimates of this parameter were highly correlated with an independent measure of protein production for the yeast genes considered here. Finally, we found that in some cases the new model led to the preference of a different phylogeny for a subset of the genes considered, indicating that substitution model choice may have an impact on the estimated phylogeny. PMID:26358614

  8. Coupling Between Protein Level Selection and Codon Usage Optimization in the Evolution of Bacteria and Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Wenqi; Kristensen, David M.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The relationship between the selection affecting codon usage and selection on protein sequences of orthologous genes in diverse groups of bacteria and archaea was examined by using the Alignable Tight Genome Clusters database of prokaryote genomes. The codon usage bias is generally low, with 57.5% of the gene-specific optimal codon frequencies (Fopt) being below 0.55. This apparent weak selection on codon usage contrasts with the strong purifying selection on amino acid sequences, with 65.8% of the gene-specific dN/dS ratios being below 0.1. For most of the genomes compared, a limited but statistically significant negative correlation between Fopt and dN/dS was observed, which is indicative of a link between selection on protein sequence and selection on codon usage. The strength of the coupling between the protein level selection and codon usage bias showed a strong positive correlation with the genomic GC content. Combined with previous observations on the selection for GC-rich codons in bacteria and archaea with GC-rich genomes, these findings suggest that selection for translational fine-tuning could be an important factor in microbial evolution that drives the evolution of genome GC content away from mutational equilibrium. This type of selection is particularly pronounced in slowly evolving, “high-status” genes. A significantly stronger link between the two aspects of selection is observed in free-living bacteria than in parasitic bacteria and in genes encoding metabolic enzymes and transporters than in informational genes. These differences might reflect the special importance of translational fine-tuning for the adaptability of gene expression to environmental changes. The results of this work establish the coupling between protein level selection and selection for translational optimization as a distinct and potentially important factor in microbial evolution. PMID:24667707

  9. Selection for minimization of translational frameshifting errors as a factor in the evolution of codon usage

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yang; Koonin, Eugene V.; Lipman, David J.; Przytycka, Teresa M.

    2009-01-01

    In a wide range of genomes, it was observed that the usage of synonymous codons is biased toward specific codons and codon patterns. Factors that are implicated in the selection for codon usage include facilitation of fast and accurate translation. There are two types of translational errors: missense errors and processivity errors. There is considerable evidence in support of the hypothesis that codon usage is optimized to minimize missense errors. In contrast, little is known about the relationship between codon usage and frameshifting errors, an important form of processivity errors, which appear to occur at frequencies comparable to the frequencies of missense errors. Based on the recently proposed pause-and-slip model of frameshifting, we developed Frameshifting Robustness Score (FRS). We used this measure to test if the pattern of codon usage indicates optimization against frameshifting errors. We found that the FRS values of protein-coding sequences from four analyzed genomes (the bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, and the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyce pombe) were typically higher than expected by chance. Other properties of FRS patterns observed in B. subtilis, S. cerevisiae and S. pombe, such as the tendency of FRS to increase from the 5′- to 3′-end of protein-coding sequences, were also consistent with the hypothesis of optimization against frameshifting errors in translation. For E. coli, the results of different tests were less consistent, suggestive of a much weaker optimization, if any. Collectively, the results fit the concept of selection against mistranslation-induced protein misfolding being one of the factors shaping the evolution of both coding and non-coding sequences. PMID:19745054

  10. Codon usage biases of transposable elements and host nuclear genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jia; Xue, Qingzhong

    2009-12-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic entities ubiquitously distributed in nearly all genomes. High frequency of codons ending in A/T in TEs has been previously observed in some species. In this study, the biases in nucleotide composition and codon usage of TE transposases and host nuclear genes were investigated in the AT-rich genome of Arabidopsis thaliana and the GC-rich genome of Oryza sativa. Codons ending in A/T are more frequently used by TEs compared with their host nuclear genes. A remarkable positive correlation between highly expressed nuclear genes and C/G-ending codons were detected in O. sativa (r=0.944 and 0.839, respectively, P<0.0001) but not in A. thaliana, indicating a close association between the GC content and gene expression level in monocot species. In both species, TE codon usage biases are similar to that of weakly expressed genes. The expression and activity of TEs may be strictly controlled in plant genomes. Mutation bias and selection pressure have simultaneously acted on the TE evolution in A. thaliana and O. sativa. The consistently observed biases of nucleotide composition and codon usage of TEs may also provide a useful clue to accurately detect TE sequences in different species. PMID:20172490

  11. Non-optimal codon usage is a mechanism to achieve circadian clock conditionality.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yao; Ma, Peijun; Shah, Premal; Rokas, Antonis; Liu, Yi; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2013-03-01

    Circadian rhythms are oscillations in biological processes that function as a key adaptation to the daily rhythms of most environments. In the model cyanobacterial circadian clock system, the core oscillator proteins are encoded by the gene cluster kaiABC. Genes with high expression and functional importance, such as the kai genes, are usually encoded by optimal codons, yet the codon-usage bias of the kaiBC genes is not optimized for translational efficiency. We discovered a relationship between codon usage and a general property of circadian rhythms called conditionality; namely, that endogenous rhythmicity is robustly expressed under some environmental conditions but not others. Despite the generality of circadian conditionality, however, its molecular basis is unknown for any system. Here we show that in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongate, non-optimal codon usage was selected as a post-transcriptional mechanism to switch between circadian and non-circadian regulation of gene expression as an adaptive response to environmental conditions. When the kaiBC sequence was experimentally optimized to enhance expression of the KaiB and KaiC proteins, intrinsic rhythmicity was enhanced at cool temperatures that are experienced by this organism in its natural habitat. However, fitness at those temperatures was highest in cells in which the endogenous rhythms were suppressed at cool temperatures as compared with cells exhibiting high-amplitude rhythmicity. These results indicate natural selection against circadian systems in cyanobacteria that are intrinsically robust at cool temperatures. Modulation of circadian amplitude is therefore crucial to its adaptive significance. Moreover, these results show the direct effects of codon usage on a complex phenotype and organismal fitness. Our work also challenges the long-standing view of directional selection towards optimal codons, and provides a key example of natural selection against optimal codons to achieve adaptive responses to environmental changes. PMID:23417065

  12. Analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in sixty-four different bivalve species

    PubMed Central

    De Moro, Gianluca; Venier, Paola; Pallavicini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Synonymous codon usage bias (CUB) is a defined as the non-random usage of codons encoding the same amino acid across different genomes. This phenomenon is common to all organisms and the real weight of the many factors involved in its shaping still remains to be fully determined. So far, relatively little attention has been put in the analysis of CUB in bivalve mollusks due to the limited genomic data available. Taking advantage of the massive sequence data generated from next generation sequencing projects, we explored codon preferences in 64 different species pertaining to the six major evolutionary lineages in Bivalvia. We detected remarkable differences across species, which are only partially dependent on phylogeny. While the intensity of CUB is mild in most organisms, a heterogeneous group of species (including Arcida and Mytilida, among the others) display higher bias and a strong preference for AT-ending codons. We show that the relative strength and direction of mutational bias, selection for translational efficiency and for translational accuracy contribute to the establishment of synonymous codon usage in bivalves. Although many aspects underlying bivalve CUB still remain obscure, we provide for the first time an overview of this phenomenon in this large, commercially and environmentally important, class of marine invertebrates. PMID:26713259

  13. Codon usage suggests that translational selection has a major impact on protein expression in trypanosomatids

    PubMed Central

    Horn, David

    2008-01-01

    Background Different proteins are required in widely different quantities to build a living cell. In most organisms, transcription control makes a major contribution to differential expression. This is not the case in trypanosomatids where most genes are transcribed at an equivalent rate within large polycistronic clusters. Thus, trypanosomatids must use post-transcriptional control mechanisms to balance gene expression requirements. Results Here, the evidence for translational selection, the enrichment of 'favoured' codons in more highly expressed genes, is explored. A set of highly expressed, tandem-repeated genes display codon bias in Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania major. The tRNA complement reveals forty-five of the sixty-one possible anticodons indicating widespread use of 'wobble' tRNAs. Consistent with translational selection, cognate tRNA genes for favoured codons are over-represented. Importantly, codon usage (Codon Adaptation Index) correlates with predicted and observed expression level. In addition, relative codon bias is broadly conserved among syntenic genes from different trypanosomatids. Conclusion Synonymous codon bias is correlated with tRNA gene copy number and with protein expression level in trypanosomatids. Taken together, the results suggest that translational selection is the dominant mechanism underlying the control of differential protein expression in these organisms. The findings reveal how trypanosomatids may compensate for a paucity of canonical Pol II promoters and subsequent widespread constitutive RNA polymerase II transcription. PMID:18173843

  14. The 'weighted sum of relative entropy': a new index for synonymous codon usage bias.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Haruo; Saito, Rintaro; Tomita, Masaru

    2004-06-23

    Shannon entropy from information theory has been applied to estimate the degree of deviation from equal usage of synonymous codons; however, previous attempts have failed to take into account all three aspects of amino acid usage, i.e. (i) the number of distinct amino acids, (ii) their relative frequencies, and (iii) their degree of codon degeneracy. A new index taking into account all of these aspects is proposed. The index, designated as the 'weighted sum of relative entropy' (E(w)), is defined as the sum of the relative entropy of each amino acid weighted by its relative frequency in the sequence. In this paper, we demonstrate that E(w) allows us to avoid some amino acid usage biases and can yield results contradictory to those obtained by previous methods. PMID:15194186

  15. Selection for efficient translation initiation biases codon usage at second amino acid position in secretory proteins.

    PubMed

    Zalucki, Yaramah M; Power, Peter M; Jennings, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    The definition of a typical sec-dependent bacterial signal peptide contains a positive charge at the N-terminus, thought to be required for membrane association. In this study the amino acid distribution of all Escherichia coli secretory proteins were analysed. This revealed that there was a statistically significant bias for lysine at the second codon position (P2), consistent with a role for the positive charge in secretion. Removal of the positively charged residue P2 in two different model systems revealed that a positive charge is not required for protein export. A well-characterized feature of large amino acids like lysine at P2 is inhibition of N-terminal methionine removal by methionyl amino-peptidase (MAP). Substitution of lysine at P2 for other large or small amino acids did not affect protein export. Analysis of codon usage revealed that there was a bias for the AAA lysine codon at P2, suggesting that a non-coding function for the AAA codon may be responsible for the strong bias for lysine at P2 of secretory signal sequences. We conclude that the selection for high translation initiation efficiency maybe the selective pressure that has led to codon and consequent amino acid usage at P2 of secretory proteins. PMID:17717002

  16. Effective population size does not predict codon usage bias in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Michael D; Dean, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Synonymous codons are not used at equal frequency throughout the genome, a phenomenon termed codon usage bias (CUB). It is often assumed that interspecific variation in the intensity of CUB is related to species differences in effective population sizes (Ne), with selection on CUB operating less efficiently in species with small Ne. Here, we specifically ask whether variation in Ne predicts differences in CUB in mammals and report two main findings. First, across 41 mammalian genomes, CUB was not correlated with two indirect proxies of Ne (body mass and generation time), even though there was statistically significant evidence of selection shaping CUB across all species. Interestingly, autosomal genes showed higher codon usage bias compared to X-linked genes, and high-recombination genes showed higher codon usage bias compared to low recombination genes, suggesting intraspecific variation in Ne predicts variation in CUB. Second, across six mammalian species with genetic estimates of Ne (human, chimpanzee, rabbit, and three mouse species: Mus musculus, M. domesticus, and M. castaneus), Ne and CUB were weakly and inconsistently correlated. At least in mammals, interspecific divergence in Ne does not strongly predict variation in CUB. One hypothesis is that each species responds to a unique distribution of selection coefficients, confounding any straightforward link between Ne and CUB. PMID:25505518

  17. Synonymous codon usage affects the expression of wild type and F508del CFTR.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kalpit; Cheng, Yi; Hahn, Brian; Bridges, Robert; Bradbury, Neil A; Mueller, David M

    2015-03-27

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel composed of 1480 amino acids. The major mutation responsible for cystic fibrosis results in loss of amino acid residue, F508 (F508del). Loss of F508 in CFTR alters the folding pathway resulting in endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation. This study investigates the role of synonymous codon in the expression of CFTR and CFTR F508del in human HEK293 cells. DNA encoding the open reading frame (ORF) for CFTR containing synonymous codon replacements was expressed using a heterologous vector integrated into the genome. The results indicate that the codon usage greatly affects the expression of CFTR. While the promoter strength driving expression of the ORFs was largely unchanged and the mRNA half-lives were unchanged, the steady-state levels of the mRNA varied by as much as 30-fold. Experiments support that this apparent inconsistency is attributed to nonsense mediated decay independent of exon junction complex. The ratio of CFTR/mRNA indicates that mRNA containing native codons was more efficient in expressing mature CFTR as compared to mRNA containing synonymous high-expression codons. However, when F508del CFTR was expressed after codon optimization, a greater percentage of the protein escaped endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation resulting in considerable levels of mature F508del CFTR on the plasma membrane, which showed channel activity. These results indicate that codon usage has an effect on mRNA levels and protein expression, for CFTR, and likely on chaperone-assisted folding pathway, for F508del CFTR. PMID:25676312

  18. Evidence of codon usage in the nearest neighbor spacing distribution of bases in bacterial genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higareda, M. F.; Geiger, O.; Mendoza, L.; Mndez-Snchez, R. A.

    2012-02-01

    Statistical analysis of whole genomic sequences usually assumes a homogeneous nucleotide density throughout the genome, an assumption that has been proved incorrect for several organisms since the nucleotide density is only locally homogeneous. To avoid giving a single numerical value to this variable property, we propose the use of spectral statistics, which characterizes the density of nucleotides as a function of its position in the genome. We show that the cumulative density of bases in bacterial genomes can be separated into an average (or secular) plus a fluctuating part. Bacterial genomes can be divided into two groups according to the qualitative description of their secular part: linear and piecewise linear. These two groups of genomes show different properties when their nucleotide spacing distribution is studied. In order to analyze genomes having a variable nucleotide density, statistically, the use of unfolding is necessary, i.e., to get a separation between the secular part and the fluctuations. The unfolding allows an adequate comparison with the statistical properties of other genomes. With this methodology, four genomes were analyzed Burkholderia, Bacillus, Clostridium and Corynebacterium. Interestingly, the nearest neighbor spacing distributions or detrended distance distributions are very similar for species within the same genus but they are very different for species from different genera. This difference can be attributed to the difference in the codon usage.

  19. Could protein tertiary structure influence mammary transgene expression more than tissue specific codon usage?

    PubMed Central

    He, Zuyong; Zhao, Yiqiang; Mei, Gui; Li, Ning

    2010-01-01

    Animal mammary glands have been successfully employed to produce therapeutic recombinant human proteins. However, considerable variation in animal mammary transgene expression efficiency has been reported. We now consider whether aspects of codon usage and/or protein tertiary structure underlie this variation in mammary transgene expression. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11248-010-9411-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20563642

  20. Bayesian Comparisons of Codon Substitution Models

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigue, Nicolas; Lartillot, Nicolas; Philippe, Herv

    2008-01-01

    In 1994, Muse and Gaut (MG) and Goldman and Yang (GY) proposed evolutionary models that recognize the coding structure of the nucleotide sequences under study, by defining a Markovian substitution process with a state space consisting of the 61 sense codons (assuming the universal genetic code). Several variations and extensions to their models have since been proposed, but no general and flexible framework for contrasting the relative performance of alternative approaches has yet been applied. Here, we compute Bayes factors to evaluate the relative merit of several MG and GY styles of codon substitution models, including recent extensions acknowledging heterogeneous nonsynonymous rates across sites, as well as selective effects inducing uneven amino acid or codon preferences. Our results on three real data sets support a logical model construction following the MG formulation, allowing for a flexible account of global amino acid or codon preferences, while maintaining distinct parameters governing overall nucleotide propensities. Through posterior predictive checks, we highlight the importance of such a parameterization. Altogether, the framework presented here suggests a broad modeling project in the MG style, stressing the importance of combining and contrasting available model formulations and grounding developments in a sound probabilistic paradigm. PMID:18791235

  1. Codon Usage in Signal Sequences Affects Protein Expression and Secretion Using Baculovirus/Insect Cell Expression System

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Shiheng; Chen, Hongying

    2015-01-01

    By introducing synonymous mutations into the coding sequences of GP64sp and FibHsp signal peptides, the influences of mRNA secondary structure and codon usage of signal sequences on protein expression and secretion were investigated using baculovirus/insect cell expression system. The results showed that mRNA structural stability of the signal sequences was not correlated with the protein production and secretion levels, and FibHsp was more tolerable to codon changes than GP64sp. Codon bias analyses revealed that codons for GP64sp were well de-optimized and contained more non-optimal codons than FibHsp. Synonymous mutations in GP64sp sufficiently increased its average codon usage frequency and resulted in dramatic reduction of the activity and secretion of luciferase. Protein degradation inhibition assay with MG-132 showed that higher codon usage frequency in the signal sequence increased the production as well as the degradation of luciferase protein, indicating that the synonymous codon substitutions in the signal sequence caused misfolding of luciferase instead of slowing down the protein production. Meanwhile, we found that introduction of more non-optimal codons into FibHsp could increase the production and secretion levels of luciferase, which suggested a new strategy to improve the production of secretory proteins in insect cells. PMID:26697848

  2. Predicting Gene Expression Level from Relative Codon Usage Bias: An Application to Escherichia coli Genome

    PubMed Central

    Roymondal, Uttam; Das, Shibsankar; Sahoo, Satyabrata

    2009-01-01

    We present an expression measure of a gene, devised to predict the level of gene expression from relative codon bias (RCB). There are a number of measures currently in use that quantify codon usage in genes. Based on the hypothesis that gene expressivity and codon composition is strongly correlated, RCB has been defined to provide an intuitively meaningful measure of an extent of the codon preference in a gene. We outline a simple approach to assess the strength of RCB (RCBS) in genes as a guide to their likely expression levels and illustrate this with an analysis of Escherichia coli (E. coli) genome. Our efforts to quantitatively predict gene expression levels in E. coli met with a high level of success. Surprisingly, we observe a strong correlation between RCBS and protein length indicating natural selection in favour of the shorter genes to be expressed at higher level. The agreement of our result with high protein abundances, microarray data and radioactive data demonstrates that the genomic expression profile available in our method can be applied in a meaningful way to the study of cell physiology and also for more detailed studies of particular genes of interest. PMID:19131380

  3. Environmental shaping of codon usage and functional adaptation across microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Roller, Masa; Luci?, Vedran; Nagy, Istvn; Perica, Tina; Vlahovicek, Kristian

    2013-10-01

    Microbial communities represent the largest portion of the Earth's biomass. Metagenomics projects use high-throughput sequencing to survey these communities and shed light on genetic capabilities that enable microbes to inhabit every corner of the biosphere. Metagenome studies are generally based on (i) classifying and ranking functions of identified genes; and (ii) estimating the phyletic distribution of constituent microbial species. To understand microbial communities at the systems level, it is necessary to extend these studies beyond the species' boundaries and capture higher levels of metabolic complexity. We evaluated 11 metagenome samples and demonstrated that microbes inhabiting the same ecological niche share common preferences for synonymous codons, regardless of their phylogeny. By exploring concepts of translational optimization through codon usage adaptation, we demonstrated that community-wide bias in codon usage can be used as a prediction tool for lifestyle-specific genes across the entire microbial community, effectively considering microbial communities as meta-genomes. These findings set up a 'functional metagenomics' platform for the identification of genes relevant for adaptations of entire microbial communities to environments. Our results provide valuable arguments in defining the concept of microbial species through the context of their interactions within the community. PMID:23921637

  4. Environmental shaping of codon usage and functional adaptation across microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Roller, Maa; Luci?, Vedran; Nagy, Istvn; Perica, Tina; Vlahovi?ek, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communities represent the largest portion of the Earths biomass. Metagenomics projects use high-throughput sequencing to survey these communities and shed light on genetic capabilities that enable microbes to inhabit every corner of the biosphere. Metagenome studies are generally based on (i) classifying and ranking functions of identified genes; and (ii) estimating the phyletic distribution of constituent microbial species. To understand microbial communities at the systems level, it is necessary to extend these studies beyond the species boundaries and capture higher levels of metabolic complexity. We evaluated 11 metagenome samples and demonstrated that microbes inhabiting the same ecological niche share common preferences for synonymous codons, regardless of their phylogeny. By exploring concepts of translational optimization through codon usage adaptation, we demonstrated that community-wide bias in codon usage can be used as a prediction tool for lifestyle-specific genes across the entire microbial community, effectively considering microbial communities as meta-genomes. These findings set up a functional metagenomics platform for the identification of genes relevant for adaptations of entire microbial communities to environments. Our results provide valuable arguments in defining the concept of microbial species through the context of their interactions within the community. PMID:23921637

  5. On relevance of codon usage to expression of synthetic and natural genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Supek, Fran; muc, Tomislav

    2010-07-01

    A recent investigation concluded that codon bias did not affect expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) variants in Escherichia coli, while stability of an mRNA secondary structure near the 5' end played a dominant role. We demonstrate that combining the two variables using regression trees or support vector regression yields a biologically plausible model with better support in the GFP data set and in other experimental data: codon usage is relevant for protein levels if the 5' mRNA structures are not strong. Natural E. coli genes had weaker 5' mRNA structures than the examined set of GFP variants and did not exhibit a correlation between the folding free energy of 5' mRNA structures and protein expression. PMID:20421604

  6. Large-Scale Genomic Analysis of Codon Usage in Dengue Virus and Evaluation of Its Phylogenetic Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Ramrez, Edgar E.; Salazar, Ma Isabel; Lpez-Lpez, Mara de Jess; Salas-Benito, Juan Santiago; Snchez-Varela, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of dengue virus (DENV) genome sequences available allows identifying the contributing factors to DENV evolution. In the present study, the codon usage in serotypes 14 (DENV14) has been explored for 3047 sequenced genomes using different statistics methods. The correlation analysis of total GC content (GC) with GC content at the three nucleotide positions of codons (GC1, GC2, and GC3) as well as the effective number of codons (ENC, ENCp) versus GC3 plots revealed mutational bias and purifying selection pressures as the major forces influencing the codon usage, but with distinct pressure on specific nucleotide position in the codon. The correspondence analysis (CA) and clustering analysis on relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) within each serotype showed similar clustering patterns to the phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences for DENV14. These clustering patterns are strongly related to the virus geographic origin. The phylogenetic dependence analysis also suggests that stabilizing selection acts on the codon usage bias. Our analysis of a large scale reveals new feature on DENV genomic evolution. PMID:25136631

  7. Codon usage bias from tRNA's point of view: redundancy, specialization, and efficient decoding for translation optimization.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Eduardo P C

    2004-11-01

    The selection-mutation-drift theory of codon usage plays a major role in the theory of molecular evolution by explaining the co-evolution of codon usage bias and tRNA content in the framework of translation optimization. Because most studies have focused only on codon usage, we analyzed the tRNA gene pool of 102 bacterial species. We show that as minimal generation times get shorter, the genomes contain more tRNA genes, but fewer anticodon species. Surprisingly, despite the wide G+C variation of bacterial genomes these anticodons are the same in most genomes. This suggests an optimization of the translation machinery to use a small subset of optimal codons and anticodons in fast-growing bacteria and in highly expressed genes. As a result, the overrepresented codons in highly expressed genes tend to be the same in very different genomes to match the same most-frequent anticodons. This is particularly important in fast-growing bacteria, which have higher codon usage bias in these genes. Three models were tested to understand the choice of codons recognized by the same anticodons, all providing significant fit, but under different classes of genes and genomes. Thus, co-evolution of tRNA gene composition and codon usage bias in genomes seen from tRNA's point of view agrees with the selection-mutation-drift theory. However, it suggests a much more universal trend in the evolution of anticodon and codon choice than previously thought. It also provides new evidence that a selective force for the optimization of the translation machinery is the maximization of growth. PMID:15479947

  8. Significance of nucleotide sequence alignments: a method for random sequence permutation that preserves dinucleotide and codon usage.

    PubMed

    Altschul, S F; Erickson, B W

    1985-11-01

    The similarity of two nucleotide sequences is often expressed in terms of evolutionary distance, a measure of the amount of change needed to transform one sequence into the other. Given two sequences with a small distance between them, can their similarity be explained by their base composition alone? The nucleotide order of these sequences contributes to their similarity if the distance is much smaller than their average permutation distance, which is obtained by calculating the distances for many random permutations of these sequences. To determine whether their similarity can be explained by their dinucleotide and codon usage, random sequences must be chosen from the set of permuted sequences that preserve dinucleotide and codon usage. The problem of choosing random dinucleotide and codon-preserving permutations can be expressed in the language of graph theory as the problem of generating random Eulerian walks on a directed multigraph. An efficient algorithm for generating such walks is described. This algorithm can be used to choose random sequence permutations that preserve (1) dinucleotide usage, (2) dinucleotide and trinucleotide usage, or (3) dinucleotide and codon usage. For example, the similarity of two 60-nucleotide DNA segments from the human beta-1 interferon gene (nucleotides 196-255 and 499-558) is not just the result of their nonrandom dinucleotide and codon usage. PMID:3870875

  9. Stress induced MAPK genes show distinct pattern of codon usage in Arabidopsis thaliana, Glycine max and Oryza sativa

    PubMed Central

    Singha, H Surachandra; Chakraborty, Supriyo; Deka, Himangshu

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) genes provide resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Codon usage profiling of the genes reveals the characteristic features of the genes like nucleotide composition, gene expressivity, optimal codons etc. The present study is a comparative analysis of codon usage patterns for different MAPK genes in three organisms, viz. Arabidopsis thaliana, Glycine max (soybean) and Oryza sativa (rice). The study has revealed a high AT content in MAPK genes of Arabidopsis and soybean whereas in rice a balanced AT-GC content at the third synonymous position of codon. The genes show a low bias in codon usage profile as reflected in the higher values (50.83 to 56.55) of effective number of codons (Nc). The prediction of gene expression profile in the MAPK genes revealed that these genes might be under the selective pressure of translational optimization as reflected in the low codon adaptation index (CAI) values ranging from 0.147 to 0.208. PMID:25187684

  10. Codon usage trajectories and 7-cluster structure of 143 complete bacterial genomic sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorban, Alexander; Popova, Tatyana; Zinovyev, Andrey

    2005-08-01

    Three results are presented. First, we prove the existence of a universal 7-cluster structure in all 143 completely sequenced bacterial genomes available in Genbank in August 2004, and explained its properties. The 7-cluster structure is responsible for the main part of sequence heterogeneity in bacterial genomes. In this sense, our 7 clusters is the basic model of bacterial genome sequence. We demonstrated that there are four basic pure types of this model, observed in nature: parallel triangles, perpendicular triangles, degenerated case and the flower-like type. Second, we answered the question: how big are the position-specific information and the contribution connected with correlations between nucleotide. The accuracy of the mean-field (context-free) approximation is estimated for bacterial genomes. We show that codon usage of bacterial genomes is a multi-linear function of their genomic G+C-content with high accuracy (more precisely, by two similar functions, one for eubacterial genomes and the other one for archaea). Description of these two codon-usage trajectories is the third result. All 143 cluster animated 3D-scatters are collected in a database and is made available on our web-site: http://www.ihes.fr/ ?zinovyev/7clusters .

  11. AT2-AT3-profiling: a new look at synonymous codon usage.

    PubMed

    Pluhar, Wolfgang

    2006-12-01

    The teleology of synonymous codon usage (SCU) still awaits a unifying concept. Here the 2nd codon letter of human mRNA-codons was graphically, aided by a computer program, put in relation to the 3rd codon letter, the carrier of SCU: AT2, the density of A+T in 2nd codon position, behaves to AT3, the analogous density of the 3rd codon position, mostly in an inverse fashion that can be expressed as typical figures: mRNAs with an overall AT-density below 50% have a tendency to produce bulky figures called "red dragons" (when redness is attributed to graph-areas, where AT3< AT2), while mRNAs with an AT-density above 50% produce a pattern called "harlequin" consisting of alternating red and blue (blueness, in analogy, when AT3>AT2) diamonds. With more diversion of AT3 from AT2, the harlequin patterns can assume the pattern of a "blue dragon". By analysing the mRNA of known proteins, these patterns can be correlated with certain functional regions: proteins with multiple transmembrane passages show bulky "red dragons", structural proteins with a high glycine- and proline content such as collagen result in "blue dragons". Non-coding mRNAs tend to show a balance between AT2 and AT3 and hence "harlequin patterns". Signal peptides usually code red due to a low AT3 with an AT2-density at the expectance level. With this technique DNA-sequences of as yet unknown functional meaning were scanned. When stretches of harlequin patterns appear interrupted by red or blue dragons, closer scrutiny of these stretches can reveal ORFs which deserve to be looked at more closely for their protein-informational content. At least in humans, SCU appears to follow protein-dependent AT2-density in a reciprocal fashion and does not seem to serve the purpose of influencing mRNA secondary structure which is discussed in depth. PMID:16930630

  12. Dissecting the contributions of GC content and codon usage to gene expression in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Barahimipour, Rouhollah; Strenkert, Daniela; Neupert, Juliane; Schroda, Michael; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Bock, Ralph

    2015-11-01

    The efficiency of gene expression in all organisms depends on the nucleotide composition of the coding region. GC content and codon usage are the two key sequence features known to influence gene expression, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not entirely clear. Here we have determined the relative contributions of GC content and codon usage to the efficiency of nuclear gene expression in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. By comparing gene variants that encode an identical amino acid sequence but differ in their GC content and/or codon usage, we show that codon usage is the key factor determining translational efficiency and, surprisingly, also mRNA stability. By contrast, unfavorable GC content affects gene expression at the level of the chromatin structure by triggering heterochromatinization. We further show that mutant algal strains that permit high-level transgene expression are less susceptible to epigenetic transgene suppression and do not establish a repressive chromatin structure at the transgenic locus. Our data disentangle the relationship between GC content and codon usage, and suggest simple strategies to overcome the transgene expression problem in Chlamydomonas. PMID:26402748

  13. Contrasts in codon usage of latent versus productive genes of Epstein-Barr virus: data and hypotheses.

    PubMed Central

    Karlin, S; Blaisdell, B E; Schachtel, G A

    1990-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has two different modes of existence: latent and productive. There are eight known genes expressed during latency (and hardly at all during the productive phase) and about 70 other ("productive") genes. It is shown that the EBV genes known to be expressed during latency display codon usage strikingly different from that of genes that are expressed during lytic growth. In particular, the percentage of S3 (G or C in codon site 3) is persistently lower (about 20%) in all latent genes than in nonlatent genes. Moreover, S3 is lower in each multicodon amino acid form. Also, the percentage of S in silent codon sites 1 of leucine and arginine is lower in latent than in nonlatent genes. The largest absolute differences in amino acid usage between latent and nonlatent genes emphasize codon types SSN and WWN (W means nucleotide A or T and N is any nucleotide). Two principal explanations to account for the EBV latent versus productive gene codon disparity are proposed. Latent genes have codon usage substantially different from that of host cell genes to minimize the deleterious consequences to the host of viral gene expression during latency. (Productive genes are not so constrained.) It is also proposed that the latency genes of EBV were acquired recently by the viral genome. Evidence and arguments for these proposals are presented. PMID:2166815

  14. Measuring and detecting molecular adaptation in codon usage against nonsense errors during protein translation.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Michael A; Shah, Premal; Zaretzki, Russell

    2009-12-01

    Codon usage bias (CUB) has been documented across a wide range of taxa and is the subject of numerous studies. While most explanations of CUB invoke some type of natural selection, most measures of CUB adaptation are heuristically defined. In contrast, we present a novel and mechanistic method for defining and contextualizing CUB adaptation to reduce the cost of nonsense errors during protein translation. Using a model of protein translation, we develop a general approach for measuring the protein production cost in the face of nonsense errors of a given allele as well as the mean and variance of these costs across its coding synonyms. We then use these results to define the nonsense error adaptation index (NAI) of the allele or a contiguous subset thereof. Conceptually, the NAI value of an allele is a relative measure of its elevation on a specific and well-defined adaptive landscape. To illustrate its utility, we calculate NAI values for the entire coding sequence and across a set of nonoverlapping windows for each gene in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c genome. Our results provide clear evidence of adaptation to reduce the cost of nonsense errors and increasing adaptation with codon position and expression. The magnitude and nature of this adaptation are also largely consistent with simulation results in which nonsense errors are the only selective force driving CUB evolution. Because NAI is derived from mechanistic models, it is both easier to interpret and more amenable to future refinement than other commonly used measures of codon bias. Further, our approach can also be used as a starting point for developing other mechanistically derived measures of adaptation such as for translational accuracy. PMID:19822731

  15. A Novel Method to Predict Highly Expressed Genes Based on Radius Clustering and Relative Synonymous Codon Usage.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tuan-Anh; Vo, Nam Tri; Nguyen, Hoang Duc; Pham, Bao The

    2015-12-01

    Recombinant proteins play an important role in many aspects of life and have generated a huge income, notably in the industrial enzyme business. A gene is introduced into a vector and expressed in a host organism-for example, E. coli-to obtain a high productivity of target protein. However, transferred genes from particular organisms are not usually compatible with the host's expression system because of various reasons, for example, codon usage bias, GC content, repetitive sequences, and secondary structure. The solution is developing programs to optimize for designing a nucleotide sequence whose origin is from peptide sequences using properties of highly expressed genes (HEGs) of the host organism. Existing data of HEGs determined by practical and computer-based methods do not satisfy for qualifying and quantifying. Therefore, the demand for developing a new HEG prediction method is critical. We proposed a new method for predicting HEGs and criteria to evaluate gene optimization. Codon usage bias was weighted by amplifying the difference between HEGs and non-highly expressed genes (non-HEGs). The number of predicted HEGs is 5% of the genome. In comparison with Puigb's method, the result is twice as good as Puigb's one, in kernel ratio and kernel sensitivity. Concerning transcription/translation factor proteins (TF), the proposed method gives low TF sensitivity, while Puigb's method gives moderate one. In summary, the results indicated that the proposed method can be a good optional applying method to predict optimized genes for particular organisms, and we generated an HEG database for further researches in gene design ( Supplementary Material ). PMID:26540560

  16. Changes in body temperature pattern in vertebrates do not influence the codon usages of alpha-globin genes.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Kazuo; Horiike, Tokumasa; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Ota, Hidetoshi; Yatogo, Takayuki; Okada, Kazuhisa; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Shinozawa, Takao

    2002-06-01

    Codon usages are known to vary among vertebrates chiefly due to variations in isochore structure. Under the assumption that marked differences exist in isochore structure between warm-blooded and cold-blooded animals, the variations among vertebrates were previously attributed to an adaptation to homeothermy. However, based on data from a turtle species and a crocodile (Archosauromorpha), it was recently proposed that the common ancestors of mammals, birds and extent reptiles already had the "warm-blooded" isochore structure. We determined the nucleotide sequences of alpha-globin genes from two species of heterotherms, cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) and bat (Pipistrellus abramus), and three species of snakes (Lepidosauromorpha), Naja kaouthia from a tropical terrestrial habitat, Elaphe climacophora from a temperate terrestrial habitat, and Hydrophis melanocephalus from a tropical marine habitat. Our purposes were to assess the influence of differential body temperature patterns on codon usage and GC content at the third position of a codon (GC3), and to test the hypothesis concerning the phylogenetic position at which GC contents had increased in vertebrates. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) using the present data and data for other taxa from GenBank indicate that the primary difference in codon usage in globin genes among amniotes and other vertebrates lies in GC3. The codon usages (and GC3) in alpha-globin genes from two heterotherms and three snakes are similar to those in alpha-globin genes from warm-blooded vertebrates. These results refute the influence of body temperature pattern upon codon usages (and GC3) in alpha-globin genes, and support the hypothesis that the increase in GC content in the genome occurred in the common ancestor of amniotes. PMID:12207041

  17. Enhanced production of recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in Escherichia coli by replacement of low-usage codons.

    PubMed

    Lakey, D L; Voladri, R K; Edwards, K M; Hager, C; Samten, B; Wallis, R S; Barnes, P F; Kernodle, D S

    2000-01-01

    A major obstacle to development of subunit vaccines and diagnostic reagents for tuberculosis is the inability to produce large quantities of these proteins. To test the hypothesis that poor expression of some mycobacterial genes in Escherichia coli is due, in part, to the presence of low-usage E. coli codons, we used site-directed mutagenesis to convert low-usage codons to high-usage codons for the same amino acid in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes for antigens 85A and 85B and superoxide dismutase. Replacement of five codons in the wild-type gene for antigen 85B increased recombinant protein production in E. coli 54-fold. The recombinant antigen elicited proliferation and gamma interferon production by lymphocytes from healthy tuberculin reactors and was recognized by monoclonal antibodies to native antigen 85, indicating that the recombinant antigen contained T-cell and B-cell epitopes. Northern blotting demonstrated only a 1.7- to 2.5-fold increase in antigen 85B mRNA, suggesting that the enhanced protein production was due primarily to enhanced efficiency of translation. Codon replacement in the genes encoding antigen 85A and superoxide dismutase yielded four- to sixfold increases in recombinant protein production, suggesting that this strategy may be generally applicable to overexpression of mycobacterial genes in E. coli. PMID:10603393

  18. Unexpected correlations between gene expression and codon usage bias from microarray data for the whole Escherichia coli K-12 genome

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Mario; Wernisch, Lorenz; Savva, Renos

    2003-01-01

    Escherichia coli has long been regarded as a model organism in the study of codon usage bias (CUB). However, most studies in this organism regarding this topic have been computational or, when experimental, restricted to small datasets; particularly poor attention has been given to genes with low CUB. In this work, correspondence analysis on codon usage is used to classify E.coli genes into three groups, and the relationship between them and expression levels from microarray experiments is studied. These groups are: group 1, highly biased genes; group 2, moderately biased genes; and group 3, AT-rich genes with low CUB. It is shown that, surprisingly, there is a negative correlation between codon bias and expression levels for group 3 genes, i.e. genes with extremely low codon adaptation index (CAI) values are highly expressed, while group 2 show the lowest average expression levels and group 1 show the usual expected positive correlation between CAI and expression. This trend is maintained over all functional gene groups, seeming to contradict the E.coliyeast paradigm on CUB. It is argued that these findings are still compatible with the mutationselection balance hypothesis of codon usage and that E.coli genes form a dynamic system shaped by these factors. PMID:14627830

  19. Organization and codon usage of the streptomycin operon in Micrococcus luteus, a bacterium with a high genomic G + C content.

    PubMed Central

    Ohama, T; Yamao, F; Muto, A; Osawa, S

    1987-01-01

    The DNA sequence of the Micrococcus luteus str operon, which includes genes for ribosomal proteins S12 (str or rpsL) and S7 (rpsG) and elongation factors (EF) G (fus) and Tu (tuf), has been determined and compared with the corresponding sequence of Escherichia coli to estimate the effect of high genomic G + C content (74%) of M. luteus on the codon usage pattern. The gene organization in this operon and the deduced amino acid sequence of each corresponding protein are well conserved between the two species. The mean G + C content of the M. luteus str operon is 67%, which is much higher than that of E. coli (51%). The codon usage pattern of M. luteus is very different from that of E. coli and extremely biased to the use of G and C in silent positions. About 95% (1,309 of 1,382) of codons have G or C at the third position. Codon GUG is used for initiation of S12, EF-G, and EF-Tu, and AUG is used only in S7, whereas GUG initiates only one of the EF-Tu's in E. coli. UGA is the predominant termination codon in M. luteus, in contrast to UAA in E. coli. PMID:3654584

  20. Cancer, Warts, or Asymptomatic Infections: Clinical Presentation Matches Codon Usage Preferences in Human Papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Félez-Sánchez, Marta; Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Bedhomme, Stéphanie; González-Bravo, Maria Isabel; Kamp, Christel; Bravo, Ignacio G

    2015-08-01

    Viruses rely completely on the hosts' machinery for translation of viral transcripts. However, for most viruses infecting humans, codon usage preferences (CUPrefs) do not match those of the host. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a showcase to tackle this paradox: they present a large genotypic diversity and a broad range of phenotypic presentations, from asymptomatic infections to productive lesions and cancer. By applying phylogenetic inference and dimensionality reduction methods, we demonstrate first that genes in HPVs are poorly adapted to the average human CUPrefs, the only exception being capsid genes in viruses causing productive lesions. Phylogenetic relationships between HPVs explained only a small proportion of CUPrefs variation. Instead, the most important explanatory factor for viral CUPrefs was infection phenotype, as orthologous genes in viruses with similar clinical presentation displayed similar CUPrefs. Moreover, viral genes with similar spatiotemporal expression patterns also showed similar CUPrefs. Our results suggest that CUPrefs in HPVs reflect either variations in the mutation bias or differential selection pressures depending on the clinical presentation and expression timing. We propose that poor viral CUPrefs may be central to a trade-off between strong viral gene expression and the potential for eliciting protective immune response. PMID:26139833

  1. Cancer, Warts, or Asymptomatic Infections: Clinical Presentation Matches Codon Usage Preferences in Human Papillomaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Félez-Sánchez, Marta; Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Bedhomme, Stéphanie; González-Bravo, Maria Isabel; Kamp, Christel; Bravo, Ignacio G.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses rely completely on the hosts’ machinery for translation of viral transcripts. However, for most viruses infecting humans, codon usage preferences (CUPrefs) do not match those of the host. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a showcase to tackle this paradox: they present a large genotypic diversity and a broad range of phenotypic presentations, from asymptomatic infections to productive lesions and cancer. By applying phylogenetic inference and dimensionality reduction methods, we demonstrate first that genes in HPVs are poorly adapted to the average human CUPrefs, the only exception being capsid genes in viruses causing productive lesions. Phylogenetic relationships between HPVs explained only a small proportion of CUPrefs variation. Instead, the most important explanatory factor for viral CUPrefs was infection phenotype, as orthologous genes in viruses with similar clinical presentation displayed similar CUPrefs. Moreover, viral genes with similar spatiotemporal expression patterns also showed similar CUPrefs. Our results suggest that CUPrefs in HPVs reflect either variations in the mutation bias or differential selection pressures depending on the clinical presentation and expression timing. We propose that poor viral CUPrefs may be central to a trade-off between strong viral gene expression and the potential for eliciting protective immune response. PMID:26139833

  2. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of early land plants: mitigating the effects of saturation, compositional heterogeneity, and codon-usage bias.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Cox, Cymon J; Wang, Wei; Goffinet, Bernard

    2014-11-01

    Phylogenetic analyses using concatenation of genomic-scale data have been seen as the panacea for resolving the incongruences among inferences from few or single genes. However, phylogenomics may also suffer from systematic errors, due to the, perhaps cumulative, effects of saturation, among-taxa compositional (GC content) heterogeneity, or codon-usage bias plaguing the individual nucleotide loci that are concatenated. Here, we provide an example of how these factors affect the inferences of the phylogeny of early land plants based on mitochondrial genomic data. Mitochondrial sequences evolve slowly in plants and hence are thought to be suitable for resolving deep relationships. We newly assembled mitochondrial genomes from 20 bryophytes, complemented these with 40 other streptophytes (land plants plus algal outgroups), compiling a data matrix of 60 taxa and 41 mitochondrial genes. Homogeneous analyses of the concatenated nucleotide data resolve mosses as sister-group to the remaining land plants. However, the corresponding translated amino acid data support the liverwort lineage in this position. Both results receive weak to moderate support in maximum-likelihood analyses, but strong support in Bayesian inferences. Tests of alternative hypotheses using either nucleotide or amino acid data provide implicit support for their respective optimal topologies, and clearly reject the hypotheses that bryophytes are monophyletic, liverworts and mosses share a unique common ancestor, or hornworts are sister to the remaining land plants. We determined that land plant lineages differ in their nucleotide composition, and in their usage of synonymous codon variants. Composition heterogeneous Bayesian analyses employing a nonstationary model that accounts for variation in among-lineage composition, and inferences from degenerated nucleotide data that avoid the effects of synonymous substitutions that underlie codon-usage bias, again recovered liverworts being sister to the remaining land plants but without support. These analyses indicate that the inference of an early-branching moss lineage based on the nucleotide data is caused by convergent compositional biases. Accommodating among-site amino acid compositional heterogeneity (CAT-model) yields no support for the optimal resolution of liverwort as sister to the rest of land plants, suggesting that the robust inference of the liverwort position in homogeneous analyses may be due in part to compositional biases among sites. All analyses support a paraphyletic bryophytes with hornworts composing the sister-group to tracheophytes. We conclude that while genomic data may generate highly supported phylogenetic trees, these inferences may be artifacts. We suggest that phylogenomic analyses should assess the possible impact of potential biases through comparisons of protein-coding gene data and their amino acid translations by evaluating the impact of substitutional saturation, synonymous substitutions, and compositional biases through data deletion strategies and by analyzing the data using heterogeneous composition models. We caution against relying on any one presentation of the data (nucleotide or amino acid) or any one type of analysis even when analyzing large-scale data sets, no matter how well-supported, without fully exploring the effects of substitution models. PMID:25070972

  3. RCPdb: An evolutionary classification and codon usage database for repeat-containing proteins

    PubMed Central

    Faux, Noel G.; Huttley, Gavin A.; Mahmood, Khalid; Webb, Geoffrey I.; Garcia de la Banda, Maria; Whisstock, James C.

    2007-01-01

    Over 3% of human proteins contain single amino acid repeats (repeat-containing proteins, RCPs). Many repeats (homopeptides) localize to important proteins involved in transcription, and the expansion of certain repeats, in particular poly-Q and poly-A tracts, can also lead to the development of neurological diseases. Previous studies have suggested that the homopeptide makeup is a result of the presence of G+C-rich tracts in the encoding genes and that expansion occurs via replication slippage. Here, we have performed a large-scale genomic analysis of the variation of the genes encoding RCPs in 13 species and present these data in an online database (http://repeats.med.monash.edu.au/genetic_analysis/). This resource allows rapid comparison and analysis of RCPs, homopeptides, and their underlying genetic tracts across the eukaryotic species considered. We report three major findings. First, there is a bias for a small subset of codons being reiterated within homopeptides, and there is no G+C or A+T bias relative to the organism’s transcriptome. Second, single base pair transversions from the homocodon are unusually common and may represent a mechanism of reducing the rate of homopeptide mutations. Third, homopeptides that are conserved across different species lie within regions that are under stronger purifying selection in contrast to nonconserved homopeptides. PMID:17567984

  4. Codon catalog usage is a genome strategy modulated for gene expressivity

    PubMed Central

    Grantham, R.; Gautier, C.; Gouy, M.; Jacobzone, M.; Mercier, R.

    1981-01-01

    The nucleic acid sequence bank now contains 161 mRNAs, 43 new genes are added. One sequence, that of B. mori fibroin, is dropped due to uncertainty on the starting point for translation. Frequencies of all codons are given for each gene added and for each genome type in the total bank. A new series of correspondence analyses on codon use is presented, substantiating the genome hypothesis. Internal regulation of mRNA expression by different third base choices between quartet and duet codons is proposed for bacterial genes. PMID:7208352

  5. Shannon information theoretic computation of synonymous codon usage biases in coding regions of human and mouse genomes.

    PubMed

    Zeeberg, Barry

    2002-06-01

    Exonic GC of human mRNA reference sequences (RefSeqs), as well as A, C, G, and T in codon position 3 are linearly correlated with genomic GC. These observations utilize information from the completed human genome sequence and a large, high-quality set of human and mouse coding sequences, and are in accord with similar determinations published by others. A Shannon Information Theoretic measure of bias in synonymous codon usage was developed. When applied to either human or mouse RefSeqs, this measure is nonlinearly correlated with genomic, exonic, and third codon position A, C, G, and T. Information values between orthologous mouse and human RefSeqs are linearly correlated: mouse = 0.092 + 0.55 human. Mouse genes were consistently placed in genomic regions whose GC content was closer to 50% than was the GC content of the human ortholog. Since the (nonlinear) information versus percent GC curve has a minimum at 50% GC and monotonically increases with increasing distance from 50% GC, this phenomenon directly results in the low slope of 0.55. This appears to be a manifestation of an evolutionary strategy for placement of genes in regions of the genome with a GC content that relates synonymous codon bias and protein folding. PMID:12045147

  6. Synonymous Codon Usage Bias in Plant Mitochondrial Genes Is Associated with Intron Number and Mirrors Species Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mingming; Yin, Xunhao; Xia, Guangmin; Wang, Mengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Synonymous codon usage bias (SCUB) is a common event that a non-uniform usage of codons often occurs in nearly all organisms. We previously found that SCUB is correlated with both intron number and exon position in the plant nuclear genome but not in the plastid genome; SCUB in both nuclear and plastid genome can mirror the evolutionary specialization. However, how about the rules in the mitochondrial genome has not been addressed. Here, we present an analysis of SCUB in the mitochondrial genome, based on 24 plant species ranging from algae to land plants. The frequencies of NNA and NNT (A- and T-ending codons) are higher than those of NNG and NNC, with the strongest preference in bryophytes and the weakest in land plants, suggesting an association between SCUB and plant evolution. The preference for NNA and NNT is more evident in genes harboring a greater number of introns in land plants, but the bias to NNA and NNT exhibits even among exons. The pattern of SCUB in the mitochondrial genome differs in some respects to that present in both the nuclear and plastid genomes. PMID:26110418

  7. Synonymous Codon Usage Bias in the Plastid Genome is Unrelated to Gene Structure and Shows Evolutionary Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yueying; Xu, Wenjing; Xing, Tian; Zhao, Mingming; Li, Nana; Yan, Li; Xia, Guangmin; Wang, Mengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Synonymous codon usage bias (SCUB) is the nonuniform usage of codons, occurring often in nearly all organisms. Our previous study found that SCUB is correlated with intron number, is unequal among exons in the plant nuclear genome, and mirrors evolutionary specialization. However, whether this rule exists in the plastid genome has not been addressed. Here, we present an analysis of SCUB in the plastid genomes of 25 species from lower to higher plants (algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, and spermatophytes). We found NNA and NNT (A- and T-ending codons) are preferential in the plastid genomes of all plants. Interestingly, this preference is heterogeneous among taxonomies of plants, with the strongest preference in bryophytes and the weakest in pteridophytes, suggesting an association between SCUB and plant evolution. In addition, SCUB frequencies are consistent among genes with varied introns and among exons, indicating that the bias of NNA and NNT is unrelated to either intron number or exon position. Further, SCUB is associated with DNA methylation–induced conversion of cytosine to thymine in the vascular plants but not in algae or bryophytes. These data demonstrate that these SCUB profiles in the plastid genome are distinctly different compared with the nuclear genome. PMID:25922569

  8. Codon usage between genomes is constrained by genome-wide mutational processes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Swaine L.; Lee, William; Hottes, Alison K.; Shapiro, Lucy; McAdams, Harley H.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of genome-wide codon bias shows that only two parameters effectively differentiate the genome-wide codon bias of 100 eubacterial and archaeal organisms. The first parameter correlates with genome GC content, and the second parameter correlates with context-dependent nucleotide bias. Both of these parameters may be calculated from intergenic sequences. Therefore, genome-wide codon bias in eubacteria and archaea may be predicted from intergenic sequences that are not translated. When these two parameters are calculated for genes from nonmammalian eukaryotic organisms, genes from the same organism again have similar values, and genome-wide codon bias may also be predicted from intergenic sequences. In mammals, genes from the same organism are similar only in the second parameter, because GC content varies widely among isochores. Our results suggest that, in general, genome-wide codon bias is determined primarily by mutational processes that act throughout the genome, and only secondarily by selective forces acting on translated sequences. PMID:14990797

  9. Combinatorial codons: a computer program to approximate amino acid probabilities with biased nucleotide usage.

    PubMed

    Wolf, E; Kim, P S

    1999-03-01

    Using techniques from optimization theory, we have developed a computer program that approximates a desired probability distribution for amino acids by imposing a probability distribution on the four nucleotides in each of the three codon positions. These base probabilities allow for the generation of biased codons for use in mutational studies and in the design of biologically encoded libraries. The dependencies between codons in the genetic code often makes the exact generation of the desired probability distribution for amino acids impossible. Compromises are often necessary. The program, therefore, not only solves for the "optimal" approximation to the desired distribution (where the definition of "optimal" is influenced by several types of parameters entered by the user), but also solves for a number of "sub-optimal" solutions that are classified into families of similar solutions. A representative of each family is presented to the program user, who can then choose the type of approximation that is best for the intended application. The Combinatorial Codons program is available for use over the web from http://www.wi.mit.edu/kim/computing.html. PMID:10091671

  10. Viral Proteins Originated De Novo by Overprinting Can Be Identified by Codon Usage: Application to the “Gene Nursery” of Deltaretroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Pavesi, Angelo; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Karlin, David G.

    2013-01-01

    A well-known mechanism through which new protein-coding genes originate is by modification of pre-existing genes, e.g. by duplication or horizontal transfer. In contrast, many viruses generate protein-coding genes de novo, via the overprinting of a new reading frame onto an existing (“ancestral”) frame. This mechanism is thought to play an important role in viral pathogenicity, but has been poorly explored, perhaps because identifying the de novo frames is very challenging. Therefore, a new approach to detect them was needed. We assembled a reference set of overlapping genes for which we could reliably determine the ancestral frames, and found that their codon usage was significantly closer to that of the rest of the viral genome than the codon usage of de novo frames. Based on this observation, we designed a method that allowed the identification of de novo frames based on their codon usage with a very good specificity, but intermediate sensitivity. Using our method, we predicted that the Rex gene of deltaretroviruses has originated de novo by overprinting the Tax gene. Intriguingly, several genes in the same genomic region have also originated de novo and encode proteins that regulate the functions of Tax. Such “gene nurseries” may be common in viral genomes. Finally, our results confirm that the genomic GC content is not the only determinant of codon usage in viruses and suggest that a constraint linked to translation must influence codon usage. PMID:23966842

  11. The Effects of the Context-Dependent Codon Usage Bias on the Structure of the nsp1? of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yao-zhong; You, Ya-nan; Sun, Dong-jie; Chen, Hao-tai; Wang, Yong-lu; Chang, Hui-yun; Pan, Li; Fang, Yu-zhen; Zhang, Zhong-wang; Zhou, Peng; Lv, Jian-liang; Liu, Xin-sheng; Shao, Jun-jun; Zhao, Fu-rong; Lin, Tong; Stipkovits, Laszlo; Pejsak, Zygmunt; Zhang, Yong-guang; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    The information about the crystal structure of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader protease nsp1? is available to analyze the roles of tRNA abundance of pigs and codon usage of the nsp1? gene in the formation of this protease. The effects of tRNA abundance of the pigs and the synonymous codon usage and the context-dependent codon bias (CDCB) of the nsp1? on shaping the specific folding units (?-helix, ?-strand, and the coil) in the nsp1? were analyzed based on the structural information about this protease from protein data bank (PDB: 3IFU) and the nsp1? of the 191 PRRSV strains. By mapping the overall tRNA abundance along the nsp1?, we found that there is no link between the fluctuation of the overall tRNA abundance and the specific folding units in the nsp1?, and the low translation speed of ribosome caused by the tRNA abundance exists in the nsp1?. The strong correlation between some synonymous codon usage and the specific folding units in the nsp1? was found, and the phenomenon of CDCB exists in the specific folding units of the nsp1?. These findings provide an insight into the roles of the synonymous codon usage and CDCB in the formation of PRRSV nsp1? structure. PMID:25162025

  12. Phylogeny and synonymous codon usage pattern of Papaya ringspot virus coat protein gene in the sub-Himalayan region of north-east India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Prosenjit; Das, Shibu; Saha, Bikram; Sarkar, Piyali; Karmakar, Arup; Saha, Arnab; Saha, Dipanwita; Saha, Aniruddha

    2015-08-01

    Sub-Himalayan West Bengal is favorable for the production of several fruits and vegetables. Papaya is one of the common plants cultivated in the area. Most of the papaya plants of the area are susceptible to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Coat protein genes of 6 PRSV isolates of the area were sequenced following RT-PCR. Phylogenetic study of the PRSV isolates showed about 80%-90% similarity with Cuban isolates. The codon usage pattern of our isolates was also analyzed, along with several other isolates. PRSV isolates of our study showed a preference for 8 putative optimal codons. Correspondence analysis of the genes of different isolates along the first 2 major axes were done, as the first 2 axes contributed more in shaping codon usage pattern. In the phylogenetic tree constructed by the neighbour-joining method, our isolates clustered together with the east Indian, north Indian, and Bangladeshi isolates. The diversity and codon usage pattern of the PRSV isolates of different regions were studied, and it was observed that the codon usage pattern of PRSV isolates is probably influenced by translational selection along with mutational bias. PMID:26114545

  13. Codon usage determines the mutational robustness, evolutionary capacity, and virulence of an RNA virus.

    PubMed

    Lauring, Adam S; Acevedo, Ashley; Cooper, Samantha B; Andino, Raul

    2012-11-15

    RNA viruses exist as dynamic and diverse populations shaped by constant mutation and selection. Yet little is known about how the mutant spectrum contributes to virus evolvability and pathogenesis. Because several codon choices are available for a given amino acid, a central question concerns whether viral sequences have evolved to optimize not only the protein coding consensus, but also the DNA/RNA sequences accessible through mutation. Here we directly test this hypothesis by comparing wild-type poliovirus to synthetic viruses carrying re-engineered capsid sequences with hundreds of synonymous mutations. Strikingly, such rewiring of the population's mutant network reduced its robustness and attenuated the virus in an animal model of infection. We conclude that the position of a virus in sequence space defines its mutant spectrum, evolutionary trajectory, and pathogenicity. This organizing principle for RNA virus populations confers tolerance to mutations and facilitates replication and spread within the dynamic host environment. PMID:23159052

  14. Bicluster Pattern of Codon Context Usages between Flavivirus and Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti: Relevance to Infection and Transcriptional Response of Mosquito Genes

    PubMed Central

    Behura, Susanta K.; Severson, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue virus (DENV) infection in most of the subtropical and tropical countries. Besides DENV, yellow fever virus (YFV) is also transmitted by A. aegypti. Susceptibility of A. aegypti to West Nile virus (WNV) has also been confirmed. Although studies have indicated correlation of codon bias between flaviviridae and their animal/insect hosts, it is not clear if codon sequences have any relation to susceptibility of A. aegypti to DENV, YFV and WNV. In the current study, usages of codon context sequences (codon pairs for neighboring amino acids) of the vector (A. aegypti) genome as well as the flaviviral genomes are investigated. We used bioinformatics methods to quantify codon context bias in a genome-wide manner of A. aegypti as well as DENV, WNV and YFV sequences. Mutual information statistics was applied to perform bicluster analysis of codon context bias between vector and flaviviral sequences. Functional relevance of the bicluster pattern was inferred from published microarray data. Our study shows that codon context bias of DENV, WNV and YFV sequences varies in a bicluster manner with that of specific sets of genes of A. aegypti. Many of these mosquito genes are known to be differentially expressed in response to flaviviral infection suggesting that codon context sequences of A. aegypti and the flaviviruses may play a role in the susceptible interaction between flaviviruses and this mosquito. The bias inusages of codon context sequences likely has a functional association with susceptibility of A. aegypti to flaviviral infection. The results from this study will allow us to conduct hypothesis driven tests to examine the role of codon contexts bias in evolution of vector-virus interactions at the molecular level. PMID:24838953

  15. Inefficient Codon Usage Impairs mRNA Accumulation: the Case of the v-FLIP Gene of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Bellare, Priya; Dufresne, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Latent Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) genomes encode a homolog of cellular FLICE-inhibitory proteins (termed v-FLIP) that activates NF-?B and can trigger important proinflammatory and antiapoptotic changes in latently infected cells. The protein is present at very low levels in infection and has generally been difficult to efficiently express in recombinant vectors. Here we show that codon usage in the v-FLIP gene is strikingly suboptimal. Optimization of codon use in expression vectors, as expected, restores efficient protein expression. Surprisingly, however, it also dramatically increases the steady-state level of v-FLIP mRNA, at least in part by increasing mRNA stability. When codon-optimized v-FLIP sequences are reintroduced into intact KSHV genomes, the resulting virus expresses readily detectable monocistronic v-FLIP mRNAs that are undetectable in wild-type (WT) infection by blot hybridization, suggesting that such RNAs are in fact transcribed in WT infection but fail to accumulate. The overexpression of v-FLIP by codon-optimized latent genomes results in a 5- to 7-fold decrement in virus production following lytic induction, indicating that maximizing NF-?B signaling is deleterious to induction. These studies provide a clear explanation for the evolution of inefficient codon usage in this gene and point to a strong connection between translational efficiency and RNA accumulation in mammalian cells. IMPORTANCE This study reports that inefficient codon usage in a herpesviral gene is strikingly correlated with the inability of its mRNA to accumulate in cells; correction of efficient translatability restores RNA abundance. A similar correlation has been reported in yeast species, but the mechanisms operating in mammalian cells appear substantially different. PMID:25926644

  16. Secretory expression and purification of a soluble NADH cytochrome b5 reductase enzyme from Mucor racemosus in Pichia pastoris based on codon usage adaptation.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, S A; Yazdi, M Tabatabaei; Sepehrizadeh, Z

    2010-11-01

    The genome of Mucor racemosus was analyzed to determine the relative levels of codon usage. The codon bias differed from that of Escherichia coli. The active, soluble isoform of NADH cytochrome b5 reductase containing 228 amino acids was successfully overexpressed and secreted using alpha factor in Pichia pastoris under the control of the alcohol oxidase promoter and finally purified. The culture medium and incubation time were optimized, and the maximum expression level observed was about 23 U/ml using X-33 recombinant yeast grown for 120 h with 0.5% (v/v) methanol in complex media. PMID:20623315

  17. Nucleotide sequence of a macronuclear DNA molecule coding for alpha-tubulin from the ciliate Stylonychia lemnae. Special codon usage: TAA is not a translation termination codon.

    PubMed Central

    Helftenbein, E

    1985-01-01

    The gene-sized macronuclear DNA of the hypotrichous ciliate Stylonychia lemnae contains two size classes of DNA molecules (1.85 and 1.73 kbp) coding for alpha-tubulin. Each macronucleus contains about 55000 copies of the 1.85 kbp molecules and about 17000 copies of the 1.73 kbp DNA molecules. Five macronuclear molecules of these sequences were cloned and sequenced, one, from the 1.85 kbp size class in its entirety. The 5 sequences fell into two classes suggesting that Stylonychia lemnae contains at least two different alpha-tubulin genes. All 5 clones show the codon TAA in the same nucleotide positions of the coding region. In this position the TAA codon cannot function as a translational stop codon and we suggest that this codon codes for the amino acid glutamine. The nucleotide sequence of the coding region as well as the encoded amino acid sequence is highly conserved compared to alpha-tubulin genes from vertebrates. The noncoding regions show several putative transcription-regulatory sequences as well as sequences presumably functioning as replication origins. Images PMID:2987795

  18. B cell variable genes have evolved their codon usage to focus the targeted patterns of somatic mutation on the complementarity determining regions.

    PubMed

    Saini, Jasmine; Hershberg, Uri

    2015-05-01

    The exceptional ability of B cells to diversify through somatic mutation and improve affinity of the repertoire toward the antigens is the cornerstone of adaptive immunity. Somatic mutation is not evenly distributed and exhibits certain micro-sequence specificities. We show here that the combination of somatic mutation targeting and the codon usage in human B cell receptor (BCR) Variable (V) genes create expected patterns of mutation and post mutation changes that are focused on their complementarity determining regions (CDR). T cell V genes are also skewed in targeting mutations but to a lesser extent and are lacking the codon usage bias observed in BCRs. This suggests that the observed skew in T cell receptors is due to their amino acid usage, which is similar to that of BCRs. The mutation targeting and the codon bias allow B cell CDRs to diversify by specifically accumulating nonconservative changes. We counted the distribution of mutations to CDR in 4 different human datasets. In all four cases we found that the number of actual mutations in the CDR correlated significantly with the V gene mutation biases to the CDR predicted by our models. Finally, it appears that the mutation bias in V genes indeed relates to their long-term survival in actual human repertoires. We observed that resting repertoires of B cells overexpressed V genes that were especially biased toward focused mutation and change in the CDR. This bias in V gene usage was somewhat relaxed at the height of the immune response to a vaccine, presumably because of the need for a wider diversity in a primary response. However, older patients did not retain this flexibility and were biased toward using only highly skewed V genes at all stages of their response. PMID:25660968

  19. Changing the Codon Usage of hfq Gene has Profound Effect on Phenotype and Pathogenicity of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Behera, Parthasarathi; Kutty, V H Muhammed; Kumar, Ajeet; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2016-03-01

    Genome recoding with bias codons (synonymous rare codons) or codon pair bias is being used as a method to attenuate virulence mostly in viruses. The target gene chosen for attenuation in general in bacteria is mostly toxin or virulence gene. We have used RNA chaperone hfq, a global post-transcriptional regulator of bacterial gene expression that regulates about 20% genes in Salmonella, as the target of recoding. The hfq gene was recoded by replacing the codons of hfq gene with synonymous rare codons. Recoding decreased the expression of Hfq protein about two-fold in the mutant as compared to the parent strain. Recoding did not affect growth kinetics, but in growth competition the mutant strain was outcompeted by the parent strain. There was significant decrease in survivability of mutant strain in macrophage as compared to the parent strain. The biofilm formation was significantly impaired in case of recoded mutant. The mutants were also less motile as compared to the parent strain. Intraperitoneal infection of mice with the mutant strain had shown better survival as compared to parent strain. The results show that recoding is an effective method of reducing virulence. PMID:26620536

  20. Optimized codon usage enhances the expression and immunogenicity of DNA vaccine encoding Taenia solium oncosphere TSOL18 gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Chang, Xue-Lian; Tao, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Li; Jiao, Yu-Meng; Chen, Yong; Qi, Wen-Juan; Xia, Hui; Yang, Xiao-Di; Sun, Xin; Shen, Ji-Long; Fang, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Cysticercosis due to larval cysts of Taenia solium, is a serious public health problem affecting humans in numerous regions worldwide. The oncospheral stage-specific TSOL18 antigen is a promising candidate for an anti-cysticercosis vaccine. It has been reported that the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine may be enhanced through codon optimization of candidate genes. The aim of the present study was to further increase the efficacy of the cysticercosis DNA vaccine; therefore, a codon optimized recombinant expression plasmid pVAX1/TSOL18 was developed in order to enhance expression and immunogenicity of TSOL18. The gene encoding TSOL18 of Taenia solium was optimized, and the resulting opt-TSOL18 gene was amplified and expressed. The results of the present study showed that the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene was successfully expressed in CHO-K1 cells, and immunized mice vaccinated with opt-TSOL18 recombinant expression plasmids demonstrated opt‑TSOL18 expression in muscle fibers, as determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene produced a significantly greater effect compared with that of TSOL18 and active spleen cells were markedly stimulated in vaccinated mice. 3H-thymidine incorporation was significantly greater in the opt-TSOL18 group compared with that of the TSOL18, pVAX and blank control groups (P<0.01). In conclusion, the eukaryotic expression vector containing the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene was successfully constructed and was confirmed to be expressed in vivo and in vitro. The expression and immunogenicity of the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene were markedly greater compared with that of the un-optimized gene. Therefore, these results may provide the basis for an optimized TSOL18 gene vaccine against cysticercosis. PMID:25738605

  1. High-level accumulation of recombinant miraculin protein in transgenic tomatoes expressing a synthetic miraculin gene with optimized codon usage terminated by the native miraculin terminator.

    PubMed

    Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Nyarubona, Mpanja; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Kato, Kazuhisa; Ichikawa, Takanari; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    In our previous study, a transgenic tomato line that expressed the MIR gene under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the nopaline synthase terminator (tNOS) produced the taste-modifying protein miraculin (MIR). However, the concentration of MIR in the tomatoes was lower than that in the MIR gene's native miracle fruit. To increase MIR production, the native MIR terminator (tMIR) was used and a synthetic gene encoding MIR protein (sMIR) was designed to optimize its codon usage for tomato. Four different combinations of these genes and terminators (MIR-tNOS, MIR-tMIR, sMIR-tNOS and sMIR-tMIR) were constructed and used for transformation. The average MIR concentrations in MIR-tNOS, MIR-tMIR, sMIR-tNOS and sMIR-tMIR fruits were 131, 197, 128 and 287 μg/g fresh weight, respectively. The MIR concentrations using tMIR were higher than those using tNOS. The highest MIR accumulation was detected in sMIR-tMIR fruits. On the other hand, the MIR concentration was largely unaffected by sMIR-tNOS. The expression levels of both MIR and sMIR mRNAs terminated by tMIR tended to be higher than those terminated by tNOS. Read-through mRNA transcripts terminated by tNOS were much longer than those terminated by tMIR. These results suggest that tMIR enhances mRNA expression and permits the multiplier effect of optimized codon usage. PMID:21076835

  2. Coadaptation of isoacceptor tRNA genes and codon usage bias for translation efficiency in Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Behura, Susanta K.; Severson, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The transfer RNAs (tRNA) are essential components of translational machinery. We determined that tRNA isoacceptors (tRNAs with different anticodons but incorporating the same amino acid in protein synthesis) show differential copy number abundance, genomic distribution patterns and sequence evolution between Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. The tRNA-Ala genes are present in unusually high copy number in the Ae. aegypti genome but not in An. gambiae. Many of the tRNA-Ala genes of Ae. aegypti are flanked by a highly conserved sequence that is not observed in An. gambiae. The relative abundance of tRNA isoacceptor genes is correlated with preferred (or optimal) and non-preferred (or rare) codons for ~24% of the predicted protein coding genes in both species. The majority (~ 7485%) of these genes are related to pathways involved with translation, energy metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism. Our results suggest these genes and the related pathways may be under translational selection in these mosquitoes. PMID:21040044

  3. Origin of the 1918 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus as studied by codon usage patterns and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Anhlan, Darisuren; Grundmann, Norbert; Makalowski, Wojciech; Ludwig, Stephan; Scholtissek, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The pandemic of 1918 was caused by an H1N1 influenza A virus, which is a negative strand RNA virus; however, little is known about the nature of its direct ancestral strains. Here we applied a broad genetic and phylogenetic analysis of a wide range of influenza virus genes, in particular the PB1 gene, to gain information about the phylogenetic relatedness of the 1918 H1N1 virus. We compared the RNA genome of the 1918 strain to many other influenza strains of different origin by several means, including relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), effective number of codons (ENC), and phylogenetic relationship. We found that the PB1 gene of the 1918 pandemic virus had ENC values similar to the H1N1 classical swine and human viruses, but different ENC values from avian as well as H2N2 and H3N2 human viruses. Also, according to the RSCU of the PB1 gene, the 1918 virus grouped with all human isolates and "classical" swine H1N1 viruses. The phylogenetic studies of all eight RNA gene segments of influenza A viruses may indicate that the 1918 pandemic strain originated from a H1N1 swine virus, which itself might be derived from a H1N1 avian precursor, which was separated from the bulk of other avian viruses in toto a long time ago. The high stability of the RSCU pattern of the PB1 gene indicated that the integrity of RNA structure is more important for influenza virus evolution than previously thought. PMID:21068184

  4. Comparison of two codon optimization strategies enhancing recombinant Sus scrofa lysozyme production in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhu, D; Cai, G; Wu, D; Lu, J

    2015-01-01

    Lysozyme has played an important role in animal feed additive industry, food additive industry and biological engineering. For improving expression efficiency of recombinant lysozyme from Sus scrofa, two genes respectively designed by the most used codon optimization strategies, "one amino acid one codon" and "codon randomization", were synthesized and expressed in Pichia pastoris X33. At shaking flask level, Sus scrofa lysozyme (SSL) under two conditions had a highest activity of 153.3310.41 and 538.3315.18 U/mL after a 5 days induction of 1% methanol, with secreted protein concentration 80.031.94 and 239.604.16 mg/L, respectively. Compared with the original SSL gene, the expression of optimized SSL gene by the second strategy showed a 2.6 fold higher level, while the first method had no obvious improvement in production. In total secreted protein, the proportions of recombinant SSL encoded by the original gene, first method optimized gene and the secondstrategy optimized one were 75.060.25%, 74.560.14% and 79.000.14%, respectively, with the same molecular weight about 18 kDa, optimum acidity pH 6.0 and optimum temperature 35degC. PMID:26025401

  5. Optimal codons in Tremella fuciformis end in C/G, a strong difference with known Tremella species.

    PubMed

    Deng, Youjin; Huang, Xiaoxing; Ruan, Banzhan; Xie, Baogui; van Peer, Arend Frans; Jiang, Yuji

    2015-11-01

    Tremella fuciformis is a popular edible fungus with fruiting bodies that can be produced in large quantities at low costs, while it is easy to transform and cultivate as yeast. This makes it an attractive potential bioreactor. Enhanced heterologous gene expression through codon optimization would be useful, but until now codon usage preferences in T. fuciformis remain unknown. To precisely determine the preferred codon usage of T. fuciformis we sequenced the genome of strain Tr26 resulting in a 24.2 Mb draft genome with 10,040 predicted genes. 3288 of the derived predicted proteins matched the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot databases with 40% or more similarity. Corresponding gene models of this subset were subsequently optimized through repetitive comparison of alternative start codons and selection of best length matching gene models. For experimental confirmation of gene models, 96 random clones from an existing T. fuciformis cDNA library were sequenced, generating 80 complete CDSs. Calculated optimal codons for the 3288 predicted and the 80 cloned CDSs were highly similar, indicating sufficient accuracy of predicted gene models for codon usage analysis. T. fuciformis showed a strong preference for C and then G at the third base pair position of used codons, while average GC content of predicted genes was slightly higher than the total genome sequence average. Most optimal codons ended in C or G except for one, and an increased frequency of C ending codons was observed in genes with higher expression levels. Surprisingly, the preferred codon usage in T. fuciformis strongly differed from T. mesenterica and C. neoformans. Instead, optimal codon usage was similar to more distant related species such as Ustilago maydis and Neurospora crassa. Despite much higher overall sequence homology between T. fuciformis and T. mesenterica, only 7 out of 21 optimal codons were equal, whereas T. fuciformis shared up to 20 out of 21 optimal codons with other species. Clearly, codon usage in Tremella can differ largely and should be estimated for individual species. The precise identification of optimal and high expression related codons is therefore an important step in the development of T. fuciformis as a bioreactor system. PMID:26253954

  6. Translation attenuation via 3' terminal codon usage in bovine csn1s2 is responsible for the difference in αs2- and β-casein profile in milk.

    PubMed

    Kim, Julie J; Yu, Jaeju; Bag, Jnanankur; Bakovic, Marica; Cant, John P

    2015-01-01

    The rate of secretion of αs2-casein into bovine milk is approximately 25% of that of β-casein, yet mammary expression of their respective mRNA transcripts (csn1s2 and csn2) is not different. Our objective was to identify molecular mechanisms that explain the difference in translation efficiency between csn1s2 and csn2. Cell-free translational efficiency of csn2 was 5 times that of csn1s2. Transcripts of csn1s2 distributed into heavier polysomes than csn2 transcripts, indicating an attenuation of elongation and/or termination. Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of the 5' and 3' UTRs on translational efficiency were different with luciferase and casein sequences in the coding regions. Substituting the 5' and 3' UTRs from csn2 into csn1s2 did not improve csn1s2 translation, implicating the coding region itself in the translation difference. Deletion of a 28-codon fragment from the 3' terminus of the csn1s2 coding region, which displays codons with low correlations to cell fitness, increased translation to a par with csn2. We conclude that the usage of the last 28 codons of csn1s2 is the main regulatory element that attenuates its expression and is responsible for the differential translational expression of csn1s2 and csn2. PMID:25826667

  7. Codon frequencies in 119 individual genes confirm consistent choices of degenerate bases according to genome type.

    PubMed Central

    Grantham, R; Gautier, C; Gouy, M

    1980-01-01

    The poor printing of our previous Figure 2 (1) is corrected. Codon usage in mRNA sequences just published is also given. A new correspondence analysis is done, based on simultaneous comparison in all mRNA of use of the 61 codons. This analysis reinforces our claim that most genes in a genome, or genome type, have the same coding strategy; that is, they show similar choices among synonymous codons, or among degenerate bases (2). Like analysis on frequency variation in the amino acids coded reveals an entirely different pattern. PMID:6159596

  8. An improved implementation of effective number of codons (nc).

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Yang, Qun; Xia, Xuhua

    2013-01-01

    The effective number of codons (N(c)) is a widely used index for characterizing codon usage bias because it does not require a set of reference genes as does codon adaptation index (CAI) and because of the freely available computational tools such as CodonW. However, N(c), as originally formulated has many problems. For example, it can have values far greater than the number of sense codons; it treats a 6-fold compound codon family as a single-codon family although it is made of a 2-fold and a 4-fold codon family that can be under dramatically different selection for codon usage bias; the existing implementations do not handle all different genetic codes; it is often biased by codon families with a small number of codons. We developed a new N(c) that has a number of advantages over the original N(c). Its maximum value equals the number of sense codons when all synonymous codons are used equally, and its minimum value equals the number of codon families when exactly one codon is used in each synonymous codon family. It handles all known genetic codes. It breaks the compound codon families (e.g., those involving amino acids coded by six synonymous codons) into 2-fold and 4-fold codon families. It reduces the effect of codon families with few codons by introducing pseudocount and weighted averages. The new N(c) has significantly improved correlation with CAI than the original N(c) from CodonW based on protein-coding genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, and Mycoplasma genitalium. It also correlates better with protein abundance data from the yeast than the original N(c). PMID:22915832

  9. Negative Consequences of Undergraduate Alcohol Usage: A Multivariate Gender Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leonald D.

    This study examined whether female undergraduate students who share with male undergraduates similar demographics, perceptions, and alcohol use locations, also share similar alcohol usage patterns, negative consequences, and predictors for both. Secondary analysis was conducted using 1992 and 1993 U.S. Department of Education Core Survey data

  10. Cellular immunity survey against urinary tract infection using pVAX/fimH cassette with mammalian and wild type codon usage as a DNA vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Bagherpour, Ghasem; Khoramabadi, Nima; Fallah Mehrabadi, Jalil; Mahdavi, Mehdi; Halabian, Raheleh; Amin, Mohsen; Izadi Mobarakeh, Jalal; Einollahi, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose FimH (the adhesion fragment of type 1 fimbriae) is implicated in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) attachment to epithelial cells through interaction with mannose. Recently, some studies have found that UPEC can thrive intracellularly causing recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Almost all vaccines have been designed to induce antibodies against UPEC. Yet, the humoral immune response is not potent enough to overcome neither the primary UTI nor recurrent infections. However, DNA vaccines offer the possibility of inducing cell mediated immune responses and may be a promising preventive tool. Materials and Methods In this study, we employed two different open reading frames within mammalian (mam) and wild type (wt) codons of fimH gene. Optimized fragments were cloned in pVAX-1. Expression of the protein in COS-7 was confirmed by western blot analysis after assessing pVAX/fimH(mam) and pVAX/fimH(wt). The constructs were injected to BALB/c mice at plantar surface of feet followed by electroporation. Results The mice immunized with both constructs following booster injection with recombinant FimH showed increased interferon-? and interleukin-12 responses significantly higher than non-immunized ones (p<0.05). The immunized mice were challenged with UPEC and then the number of bacteria recovered from the immunized mice was compared with the non-immunized ones. Decreased colony count in immunized mice along with cytokine responses confirmed the promising immune response by the DNA vaccines developed in this study. Conclusion In conclusion, DNA vaccines of UPEC proteins may confer some levels of protection which can be improved by multiple constructs or boosters. PMID:25003092

  11. A codon-usage variant in the (GGN){sub n} trinucleotide polymorphism of the androgen receptor gene as an aid in the prenatal diagnosis of ambiguous genitalia due to partial androgen insensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Lumbroso, R.; Vasiliou, M.; Beitel, L.K.

    1994-09-01

    Exon 1 at the X-linked androgen receptor (AR) locus encodes an N-terminal modulatory domain that contains two large homopolyamino acid tracts: (CAG;glutamine;Gln){sub 11-33} and (GGN;Glycine;Cly){sub 15-27}. Certain AR mutations cause partial androgen insensitivity (PAI) with frank genital ambiguity that may engender appreciable parental anxiety and patient morbidity. If the AR mutation in a PAI family is unknown, the AR`s intragenic trinucleotide repeat polymorphisms may be used for prenatal diagnosis. However, intergenerational instability of repeat-size may be worrisome, particularly when the information alleles differ by only a few repeats. Here, we report the discovery of a codon-usage (silent substitution) variant in the GGN repeat, and describe its use as a source of complementary information for prenatal diagnosis. The standard sense sequence of the (GGN){sub n} tract is (GGT){sub 3} GGG(GGT){sub 2} (GGC){sub 9-21}. On 4 of 27 X chromosomes we noted that the internal GGT sequence was expanded to 3 or 4 repeats. We used an internal (GGT){sub 4} repeat in a total (GGN){sub 24} tract together with a (CAG){sub 20} tract to distinguish an X chromosome with a mutant AR allele from another X chromosome, bearing a normal allele, that had an internal (GGT){sub 2} repeat in a total (GGN){sub 23} tract together with a (CAG){sub 21} tract. Subsequently, we found the base change leading to a pathogenic amino acid substitution (M779I) in codon 6 of the mutant AR gene in an affected maternal aunt and the fetus at risk. This confirmed the prenatal diagnosis based on the intragenic trinucleotide repeat polymorphisms, and it strengthened the prediction of external genital ambiguity using our previous experience with M779I in another family.

  12. Negative comparisons about one's appearance mediate the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns.

    PubMed

    Fardouly, Jasmine; Vartanian, Lenny R

    2015-01-01

    Use of social media, such as Facebook, is pervasive among young women. Body dissatisfaction is also highly prevalent in this demographic. The present study examined the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns among female university students (N=227), and tested whether appearance comparisons on Facebook in general, or comparisons to specific female target groups (family members, close friends, distant peers [women one may know but do not regularly socialize with], celebrities) mediated this relationship. Results showed a positive relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns, which was mediated by appearance comparisons in general, frequency of comparisons to close friends and distant peers, and by upward comparisons (judging one's own appearance to be worse) to distant peers and celebrities. Thus, young women who spend more time on Facebook may feel more concerned about their body because they compare their appearance to others (especially to peers) on Facebook. PMID:25462886

  13. ICT Usage of Pre-service Teachers: Cultural Comparison for Turkey and Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirli, Cihad

    2013-01-01

    The importance of ICTs has become the undisputed in the present century. Studies have been conducted to investigate the use of ICTs with the goal of increase in quality of teacher education for a long time. This study is a cross-cultural comparison in terms of pre-service teachers' level of ICT usage, ICT knowledge and attitudes. The study…

  14. The comparison of usage and availability measurements for evaluating resource preference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Modern ecological research often involves the comparison of the usage of habitat types or food items to the availability of those resources to the animal. Widely used methods of determining preference from measurements of usage and availability depend critically on the array of components that the researcher, often with a degree of arbitrariness, deems available to the animal. This paper proposes a new method, based on ranks of components by usage and by availability. A virtue of the rank procedure is that it provides comparable results whether a questionable component is included or excluded from consideration. Statistical tests of significance are given for the method.The paper also offers a hierarchical ordering of selection processes. This hierarchy resolves certain inconsistencies among studies of selection and is compatible with the analytic technique offered in the paper.

  15. The Distribution of Synonymous Codon Choice in the Translation Initiation Region of Dengue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian-hua; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Dong-jie; Ma, Qi; Chen, Hao-tai; Ma, Li-na; Ding, Yao-zhong; Liu, Yong-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is the most common arthropod-borne viral (Arboviral) illness in humans. The genetic features concerning the codon usage of dengue virus (DENV) were analyzed by the relative synonymous codon usage, the effective number of codons and the codon adaptation index. The evolutionary distance between DENV and the natural hosts (Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti) was estimated by a novel formula. Finally, the synonymous codon usage preference for the translation initiation region of this virus was also analyzed. The result indicates that the general trend of the 59 synonymous codon usage of the four genotypes of DENV are similar to each other, and this pattern has no link with the geographic distribution of the virus. The effect of codon usage pattern of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti on the formation of codon usage of DENV is stronger than that of the two primates. Turning to the codon usage preference of the translation initiation region of this virus, some codons pairing to low tRNA copy numbers in the two primates have a stronger tendency to exist in the translation initiation region than those in the open reading frame of DENV. Although DENV, like other RNA viruses, has a high mutation to adapt its hosts, the regulatory features about the synonymous codon usage have been ‘branded’ on the translation initiation region of this virus in order to hijack the translational mechanisms of the hosts. PMID:24204777

  16. On Ribosome Load, Codon Bias and Protein Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Stefan; Dong, Jiajia; Hwa, Terence

    2012-01-01

    Different codons encoding the same amino acid are not used equally in protein-coding sequences. In bacteria, there is a bias towards codons with high translation rates. This bias is most pronounced in highly expressed proteins, but a recent study of synthetic GFP-coding sequences did not find a correlation between codon usage and GFP expression, suggesting that such correlation in natural sequences is not a simple property of translational mechanisms. Here, we investigate the effect of evolutionary forces on codon usage. The relation between codon bias and protein abundance is quantitatively analyzed based on the hypothesis that codon bias evolved to ensure the efficient usage of ribosomes, a precious commodity for fast growing cells. An explicit fitness landscape is formulated based on bacterial growth laws to relate protein abundance and ribosomal load. The model leads to a quantitative relation between codon bias and protein abundance, which accounts for a substantial part of the observed bias for E. coli. Moreover, by providing an evolutionary link, the ribosome load model resolves the apparent conflict between the observed relation of protein abundance and codon bias in natural sequences and the lack of such dependence in a synthetic gfp library. Finally, we show that the relation between codon usage and protein abundance can be used to predict protein abundance from genomic sequence data alone without adjustable parameters. PMID:23144899

  17. Selection on codon bias in yeast: a transcriptional hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Trotta, Edoardo

    2013-01-01

    Codons that code for the same amino acid are often used with unequal frequencies. This phenomenon is termed codon bias. Here, we report a computational analysis of codon bias in yeast using experimental and theoretical genome-wide data. We show that the most used codons in highly expressed genes can be predicted by mRNA structural data and that the codon choice at each synonymous site within an mRNA is not random with respect to the local secondary structure. Because we also found that the folding stability of intron sequences is strongly correlated with codon bias and mRNA level, our results suggest that codon bias is linked to mRNA folding structure through a mechanism that, at least partially, operates before pre-mRNA splicing. Consistent with this, we report evidence supporting the adaptation of the tRNA pool to the codon profile of the most expressed genes rather than vice versa. We show that the correlation of codon usage with the gene expression level also includes the stop codons that are normally not decoded by aminoacyl-tRNAs. The results reported here are consistent with a role for transcriptional forces in driving codon usage bias via a mechanism that improves gene expression by optimizing mRNA folding structures. PMID:23945943

  18. Conserved codon composition of ribosomal protein coding genes in Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae: lessons from supervised machine learning in functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kui; Kuang, Yuyu; Joseph, Jeremiah S; Kolatkar, Prasanna R

    2002-06-01

    Genomics projects have resulted in a flood of sequence data. Functional annotation currently relies almost exclusively on inter-species sequence comparison and is restricted in cases of limited data from related species and widely divergent sequences with no known homologs. Here, we demonstrate that codon composition, a fusion of codon usage bias and amino acid composition signals, can accurately discriminate, in the absence of sequence homology information, cytoplasmic ribosomal protein genes from all other genes of known function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis using an implementation of support vector machines, SVM(light). Analysis of these codon composition signals is instructive in determining features that confer individuality to ribosomal protein genes. Each of the sets of positively charged, negatively charged and small hydrophobic residues, as well as codon bias, contribute to their distinctive codon composition profile. The representation of all these signals is sensitively detected, combined and augmented by the SVMs to perform an accurate classification. Of special mention is an obvious outlier, yeast gene RPL22B, highly homologous to RPL22A but employing very different codon usage, perhaps indicating a non-ribosomal function. Finally, we propose that codon composition be used in combination with other attributes in gene/protein classification by supervised machine learning algorithms. PMID:12034849

  19. A critical analysis of codon optimization in human therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Vincent P.; Chappell, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Codon-optimization describes gene engineering approaches that use synonymous codon changes to increase protein production. Applications for codon-optimization include recombinant protein drugs and nucleic acid therapies, including gene therapy, mRNA therapy, and DNA/RNA vaccines. However, recent reports indicate that codon-optimization can affect protein conformation and function, increase immunogenicity, and reduce efficacy. We critically review this subject, identifying additional potential hazards including some unique to nucleic acid therapies. This analysis highlights the evolved complexity of codon usage and challenges the scientific bases for codon-optimization. Consequently, codon-optimization may not provide the optimal strategy for increasing protein production and may decrease the safety and efficacy of biotech therapeutics. We suggest that the use of this approach is reconsidered, particularly for in vivo applications. PMID:25263172

  20. A critical analysis of codon optimization in human therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Vincent P; Chappell, Stephen A

    2014-11-01

    Codon optimization describes gene engineering approaches that use synonymous codon changes to increase protein production. Applications for codon optimization include recombinant protein drugs and nucleic acid therapies, including gene therapy, mRNA therapy, and DNA/RNA vaccines. However, recent reports indicate that codon optimization can affect protein conformation and function, increase immunogenicity, and reduce efficacy. We critically review this subject, identifying additional potential hazards including some unique to nucleic acid therapies. This analysis highlights the evolved complexity of codon usage and challenges the scientific bases for codon optimization. Consequently, codon optimization may not provide the optimal strategy for increasing protein production and may decrease the safety and efficacy of biotech therapeutics. We suggest that the use of this approach is reconsidered, particularly for in vivo applications. PMID:25263172

  1. The gene-specific codon counting database: a genome-based catalog of one-, two-, three-, four- and five-codon combinations present in Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes

    PubMed Central

    Tumu, Sudheer; Patil, Ashish; Towns, William; Dyavaiah, Madhu; Begley, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    A codon consists of three nucleotides and functions during translation to dictate the insertion of a specific amino acid in a growing peptide or, in the case of stop codons, to specify the completion of protein synthesis. There are 64 possible single codons and there are 4096 double, 262?144 triple, 16?777?216 quadruple and 1?073?741?824 quintuple codon combinations available for use by specific genes and genomes. In order to evaluate the use of specific single, double, triple, quadruple and quintuple codon combinations in genes and gene networks, we have developed a codon counting tool and employed it to analyze 5780 Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes. We have also developed visualization approaches, including codon painting, combination and bar graphs, and have used them to identify distinct codon usage patterns in specific genes and groups of genes. Using our developed Gene-Specific Codon Counting Database, we have identified extreme codon runs in specific genes. We have also demonstrated that specific codon combinations or usage patterns are over-represented in genes whose corresponding proteins belong to ribosome or translation-associated biological processes. Our resulting database provides a mineable list of multi-codon data and can be used to identify unique sequence runs and codon usage patterns in individual and functionally linked groups of genes. Database URL: http://www.cs.albany.edu/~tumu/GSCC.html PMID:22323063

  2. [Codon optimization and expression in Pichia pastoris of E2 gene of classical swine fever virus].

    PubMed

    Han, Xueqing; Liu, Xiangtao; Zhang, Yongguo; Zhangyong; Xie, Qingge

    2003-10-01

    Codon bias was one of the important parameter which influence heterogenous gene expression, optimizing codon sequence could improve expression level of heterogenous gene. In the preview study, wildtype E2 gene was expressed poorly in Pichia pastoris, in order to improve the expression level of E2 gene in Pichia pastoris, the low usage codons of E2 gene were mutated into high usage codons in Pichia pastoris by directed-mutagenesis based on PCR. The result showed that, compared with the results reported in preview study, the expression level of E2 gene in Pichia pastoris was improved observably by substituting 24 low usage codons of E2 gene for the high usage synonymous codons. It suggested the stragety to improve the expression of E2 gene in Pichia pastoris by codon optimization was successful. PMID:16281552

  3. Clustering of classical swine fever virus isolates by codon pair bias

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The genetic code consists of non-random usage of synonymous codons for the same amino acids, termed codon bias or codon usage. Codon juxtaposition is also non-random, referred to as codon context bias or codon pair bias. The codon and codon pair bias vary among different organisms, as well as with viruses. Reasons for these differences are not completely understood. For classical swine fever virus (CSFV), it was suggested that the synonymous codon usage does not significantly influence virulence, but the relationship between variations in codon pair usage and CSFV virulence is unknown. Virulence can be related to the fitness of a virus: Differences in codon pair usage influence genome translation efficiency, which may in turn relate to the fitness of a virus. Accordingly, the potential of the codon pair bias for clustering CSFV isolates into classes of different virulence was investigated. Results The complete genomic sequences encoding the viral polyprotein of 52 different CSFV isolates were analyzed. This included 49 sequences from the GenBank database (NCBI) and three newly sequenced genomes. The codon usage did not differ among isolates of different virulence or genotype. In contrast, a clustering of isolates based on their codon pair bias was observed, clearly discriminating highly virulent isolates and vaccine strains on one side from moderately virulent strains on the other side. However, phylogenetic trees based on the codon pair bias and on the primary nucleotide sequence resulted in a very similar genotype distribution. Conclusion Clustering of CSFV genomes based on their codon pair bias correlate with the genotype rather than with the virulence of the isolates. PMID:22126254

  4. GC constituents and relative codon expressed amino acid composition in cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins.

    PubMed

    Kannaujiya, Vinod K; Rastogi, Rajesh P; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2014-08-10

    The genomic as well as structural relationship of phycobiliproteins (PBPs) in different cyanobacterial species are determined by nucleotides as well as amino acid composition. The genomic GC constituents influence the amino acid variability and codon usage of particular subunit of PBPs. We have analyzed 11 cyanobacterial species to explore the variation of amino acids and causal relationship between GC constituents and codon usage. The study at the first, second and third levels of GC content showed relatively more amino acid variability on the levels of G3+C3 position in comparison to the first and second positions. The amino acid encoded GC rich level including G rich and C rich or both correlate the codon variability and amino acid availability. The fluctuation in amino acids such as Arg, Ala, His, Asp, Gly, Leu and Glu in ? and ? subunits was observed at G1C1 position; however, fluctuation in other amino acids such as Ser, Thr, Cys and Trp was observed at G2C2 position. The coding selection pressure of amino acids such as Ala, Thr, Tyr, Asp, Gly, Ile, Leu, Asn, and Ser in ? and ? subunits of PBPs was more elaborated at G3C3 position. In this study, we observed that each subunit of PBPs is codon specific for particular amino acid. These results suggest that genomic constraint linked with GC constituents selects the codon for particular amino acids and furthermore, the codon level study may be a novel approach to explore many problems associated with genomics and proteomics of cyanobacteria. PMID:24933001

  5. Extraordinarily high evolutionary rate of pseudogenes: evidence for the presence of selective pressure against changes between synonymous codons.

    PubMed

    Miyata, T; Hayashida, H

    1981-09-01

    Comparisons of nucleotide sequences of several pseudogenes described to date, including alpha- and beta-globin and immunoglobulin kappa-type variable domain pseudogenes, with those of functional counterparts revealed that pseudogenes accumulate mutations at an extremely high rate uniformly over their entirety. It is remarkable that the evolutionary rate exceeds the rate of changes between synonymous codons, the highest known rate, in functional genes. Because no pseudogenes appear to function, this result strongly supports the neutral theory. In addition this result apparently indicates the presence of selective pressure against changes between synonymous codons in functional genes. Close examinations of codon utilization patterns in pseudogenes and functional genes revealed a significant correlation between the rate of changes at synonymous codon sites and the strength of bias in code word usage. This implies that even synonymous codon changes are not completely free from selective pressure but are constrained in part, although presumably weakly, depending on the degree of bias in code word usage. We also reexamined alignment between mouse beta h3 (pseudogene) and beta maj sequences and found a unique structure of the beta h3 that is homologous in sequence to the beta maj gene overall but contains a long deletion (about 150 base pairs) in the middle of the gene. PMID:6795634

  6. Differential Codon Adaptation between dsDNA and ssDNA Phages in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Chithambaram, Shivapriya; Prabhakaran, Ramanandan; Xia, Xuhua

    2014-01-01

    Because phages use their host translation machinery, their codon usage should evolve toward that of highly expressed host genes. We used two indices to measure codon adaptation of phages to their host, rRSCU (the correlation in relative synonymous codon usage [RSCU] between phages and their host) and Codon Adaptation Index (CAI) computed with highly expressed host genes as the reference set (because phage translation depends on host translation machinery). These indices used for this purpose are appropriate only when hosts exhibit little mutation bias, so only phages parasitizing Escherichia coli were included in the analysis. For double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) phages, both rRSCU and CAI decrease with increasing number of transfer RNA genes encoded by the phage genome. rRSCU is greater for dsDNA phages than for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) phages, and the low rRSCU values are mainly due to poor concordance in RSCU values for Y-ending codons between ssDNA phages and the E. coli host, consistent with the predicted effect of C?T mutation bias in the ssDNA phages. Strong C?T mutation bias would improve codon adaptation in codon families (e.g., Gly) where U-ending codons are favored over C-ending codons (U-friendly codon families) by highly expressed host genes but decrease codon adaptation in other codon families where highly expressed host genes favor C-ending codons against U-ending codons (U-hostile codon families). It is remarkable that ssDNA phages with increasing C?T mutation bias also increased the usage of codons in the U-friendly codon families, thereby achieving CAI values almost as large as those of dsDNA phages. This represents a new type of codon adaptation. PMID:24586046

  7. Synonymous Codons Direct Cotranslational Folding toward Different Protein Conformations.

    PubMed

    Buhr, Florian; Jha, Sujata; Thommen, Michael; Mittelstaet, Joerg; Kutz, Felicitas; Schwalbe, Harald; Rodnina, Marina V; Komar, Anton A

    2016-02-01

    In all genomes, most amino acids are encoded by more than one codon. Synonymous codons can modulate protein production and folding, but the mechanism connecting codon usage to protein homeostasis is not known. Here we show that synonymous codon variants in the gene encoding gamma-B crystallin, a mammalian eye-lens protein, modulate the rates of translation and cotranslational folding of protein domains monitored in real time by Frster resonance energy transfer and fluorescence-intensity changes. Gamma-B crystallins produced from mRNAs with changed codon bias have the same amino acid sequence but attain different conformations, as indicated by altered invivo stability and invitro protease resistance. 2D NMR spectroscopic data suggest that structural differences are associated with different cysteine oxidation states of the purified proteins, providing a link between translation, folding, and the structures of isolated proteins. Thus, synonymous codons provide a secondary code for protein folding in the cell. PMID:26849192

  8. Impact of rare codons and the functional coproduction of rate-limiting tRNAs on recombinant protein production in Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Finger, Constanze; Gamer, Martin; Klunkelfuß, Saskia; Bunk, Boyke; Biedendieck, Rebekka

    2015-11-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium was systematically developed for the plasmid-based production of recombinant proteins at the gram-per-liter scale. The amount of protein produced per cell was found strongly correlated to the codon usage of the heterologous gene of interest in comparison to the codon usage of B. megaterium. For analyzing the influence of rare codons on the translational efficiency and protein production in B. megaterium, a test system using the gene for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as reporter was established. For this purpose, four consecutive identical codons were introduced into the 5' end of gfp and the resulting variations in GFP formation were quantified. Introduction of the rare codons GCC, CGG, and ACC for alanine, arginine, and threonine reduced GFP production 2.1-, 3.3-, and 1.7-fold in comparison to the favored codons GCU, CGU, and ACA, respectively. Coexpression of the corresponding rare codon tRNA (rctRNA) genes improved GFP production 4.2-, 2.7-, and 1.7-fold, respectively. The system was applied to the production of a formate dehydrogenase (FDH) from Mycobacterium vaccae and an extracellular hydrolase (TFH) from Thermobifida fusca. Coexpression of one to three different rctRNA genes resulted in an up to 18-fold increased protein production. Interestingly, rctRNA gene coexpression also elevated the production of M. vaccae FDH and T. fusca TFH from codon optimized genes, indicating a general positive effect by rctRNA gene overexpression on the protein production in B. megaterium. Thus, the basis for a B. megaterium enhanced production strain coexpressing rctRNA genes was laid. PMID:26138251

  9. Codon Bias Patterns of E. coli’s Interacting Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dilucca, Maddalena; Cimini, Giulio; Semmoloni, Andrea; Deiana, Antonio; Giansanti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Synonymous codons, i.e., DNA nucleotide triplets coding for the same amino acid, are used differently across the variety of living organisms. The biological meaning of this phenomenon, known as codon usage bias, is still controversial. In order to shed light on this point, we propose a new codon bias index, CompAI, that is based on the competition between cognate and near-cognate tRNAs during translation, without being tuned to the usage bias of highly expressed genes. We perform a genome-wide evaluation of codon bias for E.coli, comparing CompAI with other widely used indices: tAI, CAI, and Nc. We show that CompAI and tAI capture similar information by being positively correlated with gene conservation, measured by the Evolutionary Retention Index (ERI), and essentiality, whereas, CAI and Nc appear to be less sensitive to evolutionary-functional parameters. Notably, the rate of variation of tAI and CompAI with ERI allows to obtain sets of genes that consistently belong to specific clusters of orthologous genes (COGs). We also investigate the correlation of codon bias at the genomic level with the network features of protein-protein interactions in E.coli. We find that the most densely connected communities of the network share a similar level of codon bias (as measured by CompAI and tAI). Conversely, a small difference in codon bias between two genes is, statistically, a prerequisite for the corresponding proteins to interact. Importantly, among all codon bias indices, CompAI turns out to have the most coherent distribution over the communities of the interactome, pointing to the significance of competition among cognate and near-cognate tRNAs for explaining codon usage adaptation. Notably, CompAI may potentially correlate with translation speed measurements, by accounting for the specific delay induced by wobble-pairing between codons and anticodons. PMID:26566157

  10. Codon Bias Patterns of E. coli's Interacting Proteins.

    PubMed

    Dilucca, Maddalena; Cimini, Giulio; Semmoloni, Andrea; Deiana, Antonio; Giansanti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Synonymous codons, i.e., DNA nucleotide triplets coding for the same amino acid, are used differently across the variety of living organisms. The biological meaning of this phenomenon, known as codon usage bias, is still controversial. In order to shed light on this point, we propose a new codon bias index, CompAI, that is based on the competition between cognate and near-cognate tRNAs during translation, without being tuned to the usage bias of highly expressed genes. We perform a genome-wide evaluation of codon bias for E.coli, comparing CompAI with other widely used indices: tAI, CAI, and Nc. We show that CompAI and tAI capture similar information by being positively correlated with gene conservation, measured by the Evolutionary Retention Index (ERI), and essentiality, whereas, CAI and Nc appear to be less sensitive to evolutionary-functional parameters. Notably, the rate of variation of tAI and CompAI with ERI allows to obtain sets of genes that consistently belong to specific clusters of orthologous genes (COGs). We also investigate the correlation of codon bias at the genomic level with the network features of protein-protein interactions in E.coli. We find that the most densely connected communities of the network share a similar level of codon bias (as measured by CompAI and tAI). Conversely, a small difference in codon bias between two genes is, statistically, a prerequisite for the corresponding proteins to interact. Importantly, among all codon bias indices, CompAI turns out to have the most coherent distribution over the communities of the interactome, pointing to the significance of competition among cognate and near-cognate tRNAs for explaining codon usage adaptation. Notably, CompAI may potentially correlate with translation speed measurements, by accounting for the specific delay induced by wobble-pairing between codons and anticodons. PMID:26566157

  11. Forces that influence the evolution of codon bias

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Paul M.; Emery, Laura R.; Zeng, Kai

    2010-01-01

    The frequencies of alternative synonymous codons vary both among species and among genes from the same genome. These patterns have been inferred to reflect the action of natural selection. Here we evaluate this in bacteria. While intragenomic variation in many species is consistent with selection favouring translationally optimal codons, much of the variation among species appears to be due to biased patterns of mutation. The strength of selection on codon usage can be estimated by two different approaches. First, the extent of bias in favour of translationally optimal codons in highly expressed genes, compared to that in genes where selection is weak, reveals the long-term effectiveness of selection. Here we show that the strength of selected codon usage bias is highly correlated with bacterial growth rate, suggesting that selection has favoured translational efficiency. Second, the pattern of bias towards optimal codons at polymorphic sites reveals the ongoing action of selection. Using this approach we obtained results that were completely consistent with the first method; importantly, the frequency spectra of optimal codons at polymorphic sites were similar to those predicted under an equilibrium model. Highly expressed genes in Escherichia coli appear to be under continuing strong selection, whereas selection is very weak in genes expressed at low levels. PMID:20308095

  12. Stop codons in bacteria are not selectively equivalent

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The evolution and genomic stop codon frequencies have not been rigorously studied with the exception of coding of non-canonical amino acids. Here we study the rate of evolution and frequency distribution of stop codons in bacterial genomes. Results We show that in bacteria stop codons evolve slower than synonymous sites, suggesting the action of weak negative selection. However, the frequency of stop codons relative to genomic nucleotide content indicated that this selection regime is not straightforward. The frequency of TAA and TGA stop codons is GC-content dependent, with TAA decreasing and TGA increasing with GC-content, while TAG frequency is independent of GC-content. Applying a formal, analytical model to these data we found that the relationship between stop codon frequencies and nucleotide content cannot be explained by mutational biases or selection on nucleotide content. However, with weak nucleotide content-dependent selection on TAG, -0.5?codon is universally associated with lower fitness, with TAA being the optimal for G-content??16% TGA has a higher fitness than TAG. Conclusions Our data indicate that TAG codon is universally suboptimal in the bacterial lineage, such that TAA is likely to be the preferred stop codon for low GC content while the TGA is the preferred stop codon for high GC content. The optimization of stop codon usage may therefore be useful in genome engineering or gene expression optimization applications. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Michail Gelfand, Arcady Mushegian and Shamil Sunyaev. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers Comments section. PMID:22974057

  13. Species-Specific Codon Context Rules Unveil Non-Neutrality Effects of Synonymous Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Gabriela R.; Pinheiro, Miguel; Freitas, Adelaide; Oliveira, José L.; Frommlet, Jörg C.; Carreto, Laura; Soares, Ana R.; Bezerra, Ana R.; Santos, Manuel A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Codon pair usage (codon context) is a species specific gene primary structure feature whose evolutionary and functional roles are poorly understood. The data available show that codon-context has direct impact on both translation accuracy and efficiency, but one does not yet understand how it affects these two translation variables or whether context biases shape gene evolution. Methodologies/Principal Findings Here we study codon-context biases using a set of 72 orthologous highly conserved genes from bacteria, archaea, fungi and high eukaryotes to identify 7 distinct groups of codon context rules. We show that synonymous mutations, i.e., neutral mutations that occur in synonymous codons of codon-pairs, are selected to maintain context biases and that non-synonymous mutations, i.e., non-neutral mutations that alter protein amino acid sequences, are also under selective pressure to preserve codon-context biases. Conclusions Since in vivo studies provide evidence for a role of codon context on decoding fidelity in E. coli and for decoding efficiency in mammalian cells, our data support the hypothesis that, like codon usage, codon context modulates the evolution of gene primary structure and fine tunes the structure of open reading frames for high genome translational fidelity and efficiency in the 3 domains of life. PMID:22046369

  14. Codons and Hypercycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y?as, Martynas

    1999-01-01

    Several hypotheses on the origin of codon assignments imply that the present protein synthesizing machinery was already in place when the assignments were made. These are examined by computer modeling. The results do not suggest that assignments were optimized for resistance to reading and mutation errors, nor that the assignments are random. It is improbable that the number of species of amino acids increased in the course of evolution. An originally ambiguous dictionary is likely to have been subject to error catastrophe and is improbable. A relation between amino acid properties and their codons exists, and suggests that the codon assignments were established at the time of origin of the hypercycle, i.e. a system of aminoacyl synthetases which attaches amino acids to tRNA, and before the present protein synthesizing machinery was in place. The origin of a hypercycle is only possible if the system began with components which were catalytically active even when they did not form a self-replicating system. A model of such a system is proposed.

  15. Enhanced expression of codon optimized Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens in Lactobacillus salivarius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously identified the mycobacterial high G+C codon usage bias as a limiting factor in heterologous expression of MAP proteins from Lb.salivarius, and demonstrated that codon optimisation of a synthetic coding gene greatly enhances MAP protein production. Here, we effectively demonstrate ...

  16. Codon bias and gene expression of mitochondrial ND2 gene in chordates

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Arif; Mazumder, Tarikul Huda; Choudhury, Monisha Nath; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mitochondrial ND gene, which encodes NADH dehydrogenase, is the first enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Leigh syndrome, a neurodegenerative disease caused by mutation in the ND2 gene (T4681C), is associated with bilateral symmetric lesions in basal ganglia and subcortical brain regions. Therefore, it is of interest to analyze mitochondrial DNA to glean information for evolutionary relationship. This study highlights on the analysis of compositional dynamics and selection pressure in shaping the codon usage patterns in the coding sequence of MT-ND2 gene across pisces, aves and mammals by using bioinformatics tools like effective number of codons (ENC), codon adaptation index (CAI), relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) etc. Results: We observed a low codon usage bias as reflected by high ENC values in MT-ND2 gene among pisces, aves and mammals. The most frequently used codons were ending with A/C at the 3rd position of codon and the gene was AT rich in all the three classes. The codons TCA, CTA, CGA and TGA were over represented in all three classes. The F1 correspondence showed significant positive correlation with G, T3 and CAI while the F2 axis showed significant negative correlation with A and T but significant positive correlation with G, C, G3, C3, ENC, GC, GC1, GC2 and GC3. Conclusions: The codon usage bias in MTND2 gene is not associated with expression level. Mutation pressure and natural selection affect the codon usage pattern in MT-ND 2 gene. PMID:26420922

  17. First impression versus extended usage: a comparison of product testing methodologies for perfume.

    PubMed

    Shalofsky, I

    1993-04-01

    Synopsis In the fine fragrance industry, unlike many other fast moving consumer goods (fmcg) industries, systematic consumer product-testing has usually been conspicuous by its absence. The reasons are varied, including perfume's own traditions rooted in fashion rather than in marketing, the reluctance of perfumers to see their creations tested, the frequently (and perhaps, surprisingly) short lead times accorded for new product development and, of course, costs. When consumer product-testing is carried out, it is often limited for these same reasons, to 'sniff-testing', which, in the perfume industry, is equivalent to 'first impression' testing. This paper suggests that such sniff-testing may not only be unreliable, but perhaps more unreliable for the perfume category than has been realized hitherto. Reference is made to two consumer research studies on perfume, a qualitative project in France, followed by a quantitative exercise in the UK. A comparison is made between in-home test and sniff-test results for the same set of perfumes, which illustrates the limitations of sniff-testing in general, and the misleading results that it may produce, in particular. A major implication is that perfume is one product category which should be tested in extended usage, and not just for 'first impressions'. Résumé Dans l'industrie de la parfumerie fine, contrairement aux autres industries de produits de grande consommation, les tests consommateurs systématiques sont rarement utilisés. Les raisons sont diverses; les traditions propres du parfum tournées vers la mode plutôt que vers le marketing, le refus des parfumeurs de voir leurs créations subir des tests, les délais étonnamment courts pour le développement d'un nouveau produit et, bien sûr, le coût. Lorsqu'un test consommateurs est effectué, il se résume généralement pour ces mêmes raisons, en un test 'sniff', ce qui, dans l'industrie du parfum équivaut à un test de 'première impression'. Cet article montre que ces tests 'sniff' sont encore moins fiables pour le parfum que l'on avait pensé jusqu'à maintenant. Il est fait référence à deux tests consommateurs sur le parfum, un projet qualitatif en France, suivi par un exercice quantitatif effectué en Grande Bretagne. La comparaison entre les tests réalisés à domicile d'une part, et en sale d'autre part, montre que, pour les mêmes parfums, les résultats obtenus peuvent être erronés. Une des conclusions principales est que le parfum est un produit qui devrait être testé sur une longue période et non pas sur une première impression. PMID:19272121

  18. The importance of start codon of nosM in nosiheptide production.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Xue, Yan-Jiu; Liu, Wei-Ying; Ma, Min; Wu, Xu-Ri; Wang, Shu-Zhen; Chen, Yi-Jun

    2015-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of start codon of nosM on the biosynthesis of nosiheptide. Target genes were amplified by overlap PCR. After homologous recombination to construct engineered strains, nosiheptide production was analyzed by HPLC. Three mutants with different start codon of nosM were constructed, and nosiheptide production of each mutant was analyzed and compared. Replacement of the start codon of nosM significantly decreased the production of nosiheptide. In conclusion, start codon usage could greatly affect the biosynthetic efficiency in the biosynthetic gene cluster of nosiheptide. PMID:26614460

  19. A Generalized Mechanistic Codon Model

    PubMed Central

    Zaheri, Maryam; Dib, Linda; Salamin, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Models of codon evolution have attracted particular interest because of their unique capabilities to detect selection forces and their high fit when applied to sequence evolution. We described here a novel approach for modeling codon evolution, which is based on Kronecker product of matrices. The 61 61 codon substitution rate matrix is created using Kronecker product of three 4 4 nucleotide substitution matrices, the equilibrium frequency of codons, and the selection rate parameter. The entities of the nucleotide substitution matrices and selection rate are considered as parameters of the model, which are optimized by maximum likelihood. Our fully mechanistic model allows the instantaneous substitution matrix between codons to be fully estimated with only 19 parameters instead of 3,721, by using the biological interdependence existing between positions within codons. We illustrate the properties of our models using computer simulations and assessed its relevance by comparing the AICc measures of our model and other models of codon evolution on simulations and a large range of empirical data sets. We show that our model fits most biological data better compared with the current codon models. Furthermore, the parameters in our model can be interpreted in a similar way as the exchangeability rates found in empirical codon models. PMID:24958740

  20. Stop Codon Reassignment in the Wild

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, Natalia; Schwientek, Patrick; Tripp, H. James; Rinke, Christian; Pati, Amrita; Huntemann, Marcel; Visel, Axel; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos; Rubin, Edward

    2014-03-21

    Since the discovery of the genetic code and protein translation mechanisms (1), a limited number of variations of the standard assignment between unique base triplets (codons) and their encoded amino acids and translational stop signals have been found in bacteria and phages (2-3). Given the apparent ubiquity of the canonical genetic code, the design of genomically recoded organisms with non-canonical codes has been suggested as a means to prevent horizontal gene transfer between laboratory and environmental organisms (4). It is also predicted that genomically recoded organisms are immune to infection by viruses, under the assumption that phages and their hosts must share a common genetic code (5). This paradigm is supported by the observation of increased resistance of genomically recoded bacteria to phages with a canonical code (4). Despite these assumptions and accompanying lines of evidence, it remains unclear whether differential and non-canonical codon usage represents an absolute barrier to phage infection and genetic exchange between organisms. Our knowledge of the diversity of genetic codes and their use by viruses and their hosts is primarily derived from the analysis of cultivated organisms. Advances in single-cell sequencing and metagenome assembly technologies have enabled the reconstruction of genomes of uncultivated bacterial and archaeal lineages (6). These initial findings suggest that large scale systematic studies of uncultivated microorganisms and viruses may reveal the extent and modes of divergence from the canonical genetic code operating in nature. To explore alternative genetic codes, we carried out a systematic analysis of stop codon reassignments from the canonical TAG amber, TGA opal, and TAA ochre codons in assembled metagenomes from environmental and host-associated samples, single-cell genomes of uncultivated bacteria and archaea, and a collection of phage sequences

  1. New insights into the interplay between codon bias determinants in plants.

    PubMed

    Camiolo, S; Melito, S; Porceddu, A

    2015-12-01

    Codon bias is the non-random use of synonymous codons, a phenomenon that has been observed in species as diverse as bacteria, plants and mammals. The preferential use of particular synonymous codons may reflect neutral mechanisms (e.g. mutational bias, G|C-biased gene conversion, genetic drift) and/or selection for mRNA stability, translational efficiency and accuracy. The extent to which these different factors influence codon usage is unknown, so we dissected the contribution of mutational bias and selection towards codon bias in genes from 15 eudicots, 4 monocots and 2 mosses. We analysed the frequency of mononucleotides, dinucleotides and trinucleotides and investigated whether the compositional genomic background could account for the observed codon usage profiles. Neutral forces such as mutational pressure and G|C-biased gene conversion appeared to underlie most of the observed codon bias, although there was also evidence for the selection of optimal translational efficiency and mRNA folding. Our data confirmed the compositional differences between monocots and dicots, with the former featuring in general a lower background compositional bias but a higher overall codon bias. PMID:26546225

  2. New insights into the interplay between codon bias determinants in plants

    PubMed Central

    Camiolo, S.; Melito, S.; Porceddu, A.

    2015-01-01

    Codon bias is the non-random use of synonymous codons, a phenomenon that has been observed in species as diverse as bacteria, plants and mammals. The preferential use of particular synonymous codons may reflect neutral mechanisms (e.g. mutational bias, G|C-biased gene conversion, genetic drift) and/or selection for mRNA stability, translational efficiency and accuracy. The extent to which these different factors influence codon usage is unknown, so we dissected the contribution of mutational bias and selection towards codon bias in genes from 15 eudicots, 4 monocots and 2 mosses. We analysed the frequency of mononucleotides, dinucleotides and trinucleotides and investigated whether the compositional genomic background could account for the observed codon usage profiles. Neutral forces such as mutational pressure and G|C-biased gene conversion appeared to underlie most of the observed codon bias, although there was also evidence for the selection of optimal translational efficiency and mRNA folding. Our data confirmed the compositional differences between monocots and dicots, with the former featuring in general a lower background compositional bias but a higher overall codon bias. PMID:26546225

  3. Functional Significance of an Evolutionarily Conserved Alanine (GCA) Resume Codon in tmRNA in Escherichia coli?

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Suman; Samhita, Laasya; Varshney, Umesh

    2011-01-01

    Occasionally, ribosomes stall on mRNAs prior to the completion of the polypeptide chain. In Escherichia coli and other eubacteria, tmRNA-mediated trans-translation is a major mechanism that recycles the stalled ribosomes. The tmRNA possesses a tRNA-like domain and a short mRNA region encoding a short peptide (ANDENYALAA in E. coli) followed by a termination codon. The first amino acid (Ala) of this peptide encoded by the resume codon (GCN) is highly conserved in tmRNAs in different species. However, reasons for the high evolutionary conservation of the resume codon identity have remained unclear. In this study, we show that changing the E. coli tmRNA resume codon to other efficiently translatable codons retains efficient functioning of the tmRNA. However, when the resume codon was replaced with the low-usage codons, its function was adversely affected. Interestingly, expression of tRNAs decoding the low-usage codon from plasmid-borne gene copies restored efficient utilization of tmRNA. We discuss why in E. coli, the GCA (Ala) is one of the best codons and why all codons in the short mRNA of the tmRNA are decoded by the abundant tRNAs. PMID:21602351

  4. The Levels of Speech Usage Rating Scale: Comparison of Client Self-Ratings with Speech Pathologist Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Christina; Baylor, Carolyn; Eadie, Tanya; Kendall, Diane; Yorkston, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Background: The term "speech usage" refers to what people want or need to do with their speech to fulfil the communication demands in their life roles. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) need to know about clients' speech usage to plan appropriate interventions to meet their life participation goals. The Levels of Speech Usage is a categorical

  5. Control of ribosome traffic by position-dependent choice of synonymous codons.

    PubMed

    Mitarai, Namiko; Pedersen, Steen

    2013-10-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) encodes a sequence of amino acids by using codons. For most amino acids, there are multiple synonymous codons that can encode the amino acid. The translation speed can vary from one codon to another, thus there is room for changing the ribosome speed while keeping the amino acid sequence and hence the resulting protein. Recently, it has been noticed that the choice of the synonymous codon, via the resulting distribution of slow- and fast-translated codons, affects not only on the average speed of one ribosome translating the mRNA but also might have an effect on nearby ribosomes by affecting the appearance of 'traffic jams' where multiple ribosomes collide and form queues. To test this 'context effect' further, we here investigate the effect of the sequence of synonymous codons on the ribosome traffic by using a ribosome traffic model with codon-dependent rates, estimated from experiments. We compare the ribosome traffic on wild-type (WT) sequences and sequences where the synonymous codons were swapped randomly. By simulating translation of 87 genes, we demonstrate that the WT sequences, especially those with a high bias in codon usage, tend to have the ability to reduce ribosome collisions, hence optimizing the cellular investment in the translation apparatus. The magnitude of such reduction of the translation time might have a significant impact on the cellular growth rate and thereby have importance for the survival of the species. PMID:24104350

  6. Control of ribosome traffic by position-dependent choice of synonymous codons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitarai, Namiko; Pedersen, Steen

    2013-10-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) encodes a sequence of amino acids by using codons. For most amino acids, there are multiple synonymous codons that can encode the amino acid. The translation speed can vary from one codon to another, thus there is room for changing the ribosome speed while keeping the amino acid sequence and hence the resulting protein. Recently, it has been noticed that the choice of the synonymous codon, via the resulting distribution of slow- and fast-translated codons, affects not only on the average speed of one ribosome translating the mRNA but also might have an effect on nearby ribosomes by affecting the appearance of traffic jams where multiple ribosomes collide and form queues. To test this context effect further, we here investigate the effect of the sequence of synonymous codons on the ribosome traffic by using a ribosome traffic model with codon-dependent rates, estimated from experiments. We compare the ribosome traffic on wild-type (WT) sequences and sequences where the synonymous codons were swapped randomly. By simulating translation of 87 genes, we demonstrate that the WT sequences, especially those with a high bias in codon usage, tend to have the ability to reduce ribosome collisions, hence optimizing the cellular investment in the translation apparatus. The magnitude of such reduction of the translation time might have a significant impact on the cellular growth rate and thereby have importance for the survival of the species.

  7. Translationally optimal codons associate with aggregation-prone sites in proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yaelim; Zhou, Tong; Tartaglia, Gian Gaetano; Vendruscolo, Michele; Wilke, Claus O.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between codon usage bias and residue aggregation propensity in the genomes of four model organisms, E. coli, yeast, fly, and mouse, as well as the archaeon Halobacterium species NRC-1. Using the Mantel-Haenszel procedure, we find that translationally optimal codons associate with aggregation-prone residues. Our results are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those of an earlier study where we found an association between translationally optimal codons and buried residues. We also combine the aggregation-propensity data with solvent-accessibility data. Even though the resulting data set is small, and hence statistical power low, results indicate that the association between optimal codons and aggregation-prone residues exists both at buried and at exposed sites. By comparing codon usage at different combinations of sites (exposed, aggregation-prone sites vs. buried, non-aggregation-prone sites; buried, aggregation-prone sites vs. exposed, non-aggregation-prone sites), we find that aggregation propensity and solvent accessibility seem to have independent effects of (on average) comparable magnitude on codon usage. Finally, in fly, we assess whether optimal codons associate with sites at which amino-acid substitutions lead to an increase in aggregation propensity, and find only a very weak effect. These results suggest that optimal codons may be required to reduce the frequency of translation errors at aggregation-prone sites that coincide with certain functional sites, such as proteinprotein interfaces. Alternatively, optimal codons may be required for rapid translation of aggregation-prone regions. PMID:21046618

  8. Exploring codon context bias for synthetic gene design of a thermostable invertase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pek, Han Bin; Klement, Maximilian; Ang, Kok Siong; Chung, Bevan Kai-Sheng; Ow, Dave Siak-Wei; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2015-01-01

    Various isoforms of invertases from prokaryotes, fungi, and higher plants has been expressed in Escherichia coli, and codon optimisation is a widely-adopted strategy for improvement of heterologous enzyme expression. Successful synthetic gene design for recombinant protein expression can be done by matching its translational elongation rate against heterologous host organisms via codon optimization. Amongst the various design parameters considered for the gene synthesis, codon context bias has been relatively overlooked compared to individual codon usage which is commonly adopted in most of codon optimization tools. In addition, matching the rates of transcription and translation based on secondary structure may lead to enhanced protein folding. In this study, we evaluated codon context fitness as design criterion for improving the expression of thermostable invertase from Thermotoga maritima in Escherichia coli and explored the relevance of secondary structure regions for folding and expression. We designed three coding sequences by using (1) a commercial vendor optimized gene algorithm, (2) codon context for the whole gene, and (3) codon context based on the secondary structure regions. Then, the codon optimized sequences were transformed and expressed in E. coli. From the resultant enzyme activities and protein yield data, codon context fitness proved to have the highest activity as compared to the wild-type control and other criteria while secondary structure-based strategy is comparable to the control. Codon context bias was shown to be a relevant parameter for enhancing enzyme production in Escherichia coli by codon optimization. Thus, we can effectively design synthetic genes within heterologous host organisms using this criterion. PMID:26047917

  9. CUE USAGE IN VOLLEYBALL: A TIME COURSE COMPARISON OF ELITE, INTERMEDIATE AND NOVICE FEMALE PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Vaeyens, R; Zeuwts, L; Philippaerts, R; Lenoir, M

    2014-01-01

    This study compared visual search strategies in adult female volleyball players of three levels. Video clips of the attack of the opponent team were presented on a large screen and participants reacted to the final pass before the spike. Reaction time, response accuracy and eye movement patterns were measured. Elite players had the highest response accuracy (97.50 ± 3.5%) compared to the intermediate (91.50 ± 4.7%) and novice players (83.50 ± 17.6%; p<0.05). Novices had a remarkably high range of reaction time but no significant differences were found in comparison to the reaction time of elite and intermediate players. In general, the three groups showed similar gaze behaviour with the apparent use of visual pivots at moments of reception and final pass. This confirms the holistic model of image perception for volleyball and suggests that expert players extract more information from parafoveal regions. PMID:25609887

  10. Kenyan medicinal plants used as antivenin: a comparison of plant usage

    PubMed Central

    Owuor, Bethwell O; Kisangau, Daniel P

    2006-01-01

    The success of snake bite healers is vaguely understood in Kenya, partly due to their unknown materia medica and occult-mystical nature of their practice. A comparison is made of plants used in snake bite treatments by two culturally distinct African groups (the Kamba and Luo). Thirty two plants used for snakebite treatment are documented. The majority of the antidotes are prepared from freshly collected plant material frequently leaves. Though knowledge of snake bite conditions etiological perceptions of the ethnic groups is similar, field ethnobotanical data suggests that plant species used by the two ethnic groups are independently derived. Antivenin medicinal plants effectively illustrate the cultural context of medicine. Randomness or the use of a variety of species in different families appears to be a feature of traditional snake bite treatments. A high degree of informant consensus for the species was observed. The study indicates rural Kenya inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for healthcare. PMID:16451723

  11. Intercultural Usage of Mori Folium: Comparison Review from a Korean Medical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Joh, Byungjin; Jeon, Eun Sang; Lim, Su Hye; Park, Yu Lee; Park, Wansu; Chae, Han

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. A review on studies related to the use of Mori folium, the leaves of Morus alba, was conducted with the goal of identifying new clinical applications in Korean medicine. Methods. Global literature search was conducted using three electronic databases up to January 2015 with the term Morus alba and its Korean terms. KM literatures including textbooks and standard pharmacopoeia were separately hand-searched and reviewed to provide comparison. Data were extracted according to predetermined criteria, and clinical uses were standardized with ICD-10 categories. Results. 159 potentially relevant studies were identified, and 18 articles including 12 ethnopharmacologic and 6 clinical studies were finally included in this analysis. Ethnopharmacologic studies from 8 countries provided 17 clinical uses. We found that five out of six clinical trials were related to diabetes and suggested a moderate short-term to mild long-term effect. And 43 Korean texts also provided 156 clinical uses in 35 categories including ocular and respiratory disorders. Discussion and Conclusions. Though majority of the clinical uses were also found in Korean medicine literature, treatment of infertility, jaundice, cognitive disorder, and hyperpigmentation was found to be effective and diabetes with Morus alba was recognized to have clinical importance. PMID:26539223

  12. Intercultural Usage of Mori Folium: Comparison Review from a Korean Medical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Joh, Byungjin; Jeon, Eun Sang; Lim, Su Hye; Park, Yu Lee; Park, Wansu; Chae, Han

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. A review on studies related to the use of Mori folium, the leaves of Morus alba, was conducted with the goal of identifying new clinical applications in Korean medicine. Methods. Global literature search was conducted using three electronic databases up to January 2015 with the term Morus alba and its Korean terms. KM literatures including textbooks and standard pharmacopoeia were separately hand-searched and reviewed to provide comparison. Data were extracted according to predetermined criteria, and clinical uses were standardized with ICD-10 categories. Results. 159 potentially relevant studies were identified, and 18 articles including 12 ethnopharmacologic and 6 clinical studies were finally included in this analysis. Ethnopharmacologic studies from 8 countries provided 17 clinical uses. We found that five out of six clinical trials were related to diabetes and suggested a moderate short-term to mild long-term effect. And 43 Korean texts also provided 156 clinical uses in 35 categories including ocular and respiratory disorders. Discussion and Conclusions. Though majority of the clinical uses were also found in Korean medicine literature, treatment of infertility, jaundice, cognitive disorder, and hyperpigmentation was found to be effective and diabetes with Morus alba was recognized to have clinical importance. PMID:26539223

  13. Usage Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoletti, Massimo

    Usage automata are an extension of finite stata automata, with some additional features (e.g. parameters and guards) that improve their expressivity. Usage automata are expressive enough to model security requirements of real-world applications; at the same time, they are simple enough to be statically amenable, e.g. they can be model-checked against abstractions of program usages. We study here some foundational aspects of usage automata. In particular, we discuss about their expressive power, and about their effective use in run-time mechanisms for enforcing usage policies.

  14. Vertebrate codon bias indicates a highly GC-rich ancestral genome.

    PubMed

    Nabiyouni, Maryam; Prakash, Ashwin; Fedorov, Alexei

    2013-04-25

    Two factors are thought to have contributed to the origin of codon usage bias in eukaryotes: 1) genome-wide mutational forces that shape overall GC-content and create context-dependent nucleotide bias, and 2) positive selection for codons that maximize efficient and accurate translation. Particularly in vertebrates, these two explanations contradict each other and cloud the origin of codon bias in the taxon. On the one hand, mutational forces fail to explain GC-richness (~60%) of third codon positions, given the GC-poor overall genomic composition among vertebrates (~40%). On the other hand, positive selection cannot easily explain strict regularities in codon preferences. Large-scale bioinformatic assessment, of nucleotide composition of coding and non-coding sequences in vertebrates and other taxa, suggests a simple possible resolution for this contradiction. Specifically, we propose that the last common vertebrate ancestor had a GC-rich genome (~65% GC). The data suggest that whole-genome mutational bias is the major driving force for generating codon bias. As the bias becomes prominent, it begins to affect translation and can result in positive selection for optimal codons. The positive selection can, in turn, significantly modulate codon preferences. PMID:23376453

  15. Synonymous codon changes in the oncogenes of the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus lead to increased oncogenicity and immunogenicity of the virus

    PubMed Central

    Cladel, Nancy M.; Budgeon, Lynn R.; Hu, Jiafen; Balogh, Karla K.; Christensen, Neil D.

    2013-01-01

    Papillomaviruses use rare codons with respect to the host. The reasons for this are incompletely understood but among the hypotheses is the concept that rare codons result in low protein production and this allows the virus to escape immune surveillance. We changed rare codons in the oncogenes E6 and E7 of the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus to make them more mammalian-like and tested the mutant genomes in our in vivo animal model. While the amino acid sequences of the proteins remained unchanged, the oncogenic potential of some of the altered genomes increased dramatically. In addition, increased immunogenicity, as measured by spontaneous regression, was observed as the numbers of codon changes increased. This work suggests that codon usage may modify protein production in ways that influence disease outcome and that evaluation of synonymous codons should be included in the analysis of genetic variants of infectious agents and their association with disease. PMID:23433866

  16. Inducible suppression of global translation by overuse of rare codons.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hideki

    2015-04-01

    Recently, artificial gene networks have been developed in synthetic biology to control gene expression and make organisms as controllable as robots. Here, I present an artificial posttranslational gene-silencing system based on the codon usage bias and low tRNA content corresponding to minor codons. I engineered the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene to inhibit translation indirectly with the lowest-usage codons to monopolize various minor tRNAs (lgfp). The expression of lgfp interfered nonspecifically with the growth of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, human HeLa cervical cancer cells, MCF7 breast cancer cells, and HEK293 kidney cells, as well as phage and adenovirus expansion. Furthermore, insertion of lgfp downstream of a phage response promoter conferred phage resistance on E. coli. Such engineered gene silencers could act as components of biological networks capable of functioning with suitable promoters in E. coli, S. cerevisiae, and human cells to control gene expression. The results presented here show general suppressor artificial genes for live cells and viruses. This robust system provides a gene expression or cell growth control device for artificially synthesized gene networks. PMID:25636849

  17. Inducible Suppression of Global Translation by Overuse of Rare Codons

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recently, artificial gene networks have been developed in synthetic biology to control gene expression and make organisms as controllable as robots. Here, I present an artificial posttranslational gene-silencing system based on the codon usage bias and low tRNA content corresponding to minor codons. I engineered the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene to inhibit translation indirectly with the lowest-usage codons to monopolize various minor tRNAs (lgfp). The expression of lgfp interfered nonspecifically with the growth of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, human HeLa cervical cancer cells, MCF7 breast cancer cells, and HEK293 kidney cells, as well as phage and adenovirus expansion. Furthermore, insertion of lgfp downstream of a phage response promoter conferred phage resistance on E. coli. Such engineered gene silencers could act as components of biological networks capable of functioning with suitable promoters in E. coli, S. cerevisiae, and human cells to control gene expression. The results presented here show general suppressor artificial genes for live cells and viruses. This robust system provides a gene expression or cell growth control device for artificially synthesized gene networks. PMID:25636849

  18. Systeme, norme, usage: Etudes contrastives (System, Norm, Usage: Contrastive Studies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gak, Victor

    1989-01-01

    The comparison of languages can be an effective instructional technique if used well. The comparison of isolated elements is less effective than the examination of languages at several levels: system, norm, and usage. (MSE)

  19. Selection on synonymous codons in mammalian rhodopsins: a possible role in optimizing translational processes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Synonymous codon usage can affect many cellular processes, particularly those associated with translation such as polypeptide elongation and folding, mRNA degradation/stability, and splicing. Highly expressed genes are thought to experience stronger selection pressures on synonymous codons. This should result in codon usage bias even in species with relatively low effective population sizes, like mammals, where synonymous site selection is thought to be weak. Here we use phylogenetic codon-based likelihood models to explore patterns of codon usage bias in a dataset of 18 mammalian rhodopsin sequences, the protein mediating the first step in vision in the eye, and one of the most highly expressed genes in vertebrates. We use these patterns to infer selection pressures on key translational mechanisms including polypeptide elongation, protein folding, mRNA stability, and splicing. Results Overall, patterns of selection in mammalian rhodopsin appear to be correlated with post-transcriptional and translational processes. We found significant evidence for selection at synonymous sites using phylogenetic mutation-selection likelihood models, with C-ending codons found to have the highest relative fitness, and to be significantly more abundant at conserved sites. In general, these codons corresponded with the most abundant tRNAs in mammals. We found significant differences in codon usage bias between rhodopsin loops versus helices, though there was no significant difference in mean synonymous substitution rate between these motifs. We also found a significantly higher proportion of GC-ending codons at paired sites in rhodopsin mRNA secondary structure, and significantly lower synonymous mutation rates in putative exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) regions than in non-ESE regions. Conclusions By focusing on a single highly expressed gene we both distinguish synonymous codon selection from mutational effects and analytically explore underlying functional mechanisms. Our results suggest that codon bias in mammalian rhodopsin arises from selection to optimally balance high overall translational speed, accuracy, and proper protein folding, especially in structurally complicated regions. Selection at synonymous sites may also be contributing to mRNA stability and splicing efficiency at exonic-splicing-enhancer (ESE) regions. Our results highlight the importance of investigating highly expressed genes in a broader phylogenetic context in order to better understand the evolution of synonymous substitutions. PMID:24884412

  20. The Effect of an Alternate Start Codon on Heterologous Expression of a PhoA Fusion Protein in Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    PubMed Central

    Panicker, Indu S.; Browning, Glenn F.; Markham, Philip F.

    2015-01-01

    While the genomes of many Mycoplasma species have been sequenced, there are no collated data on translational start codon usage, and the effects of alternate start codons on gene expression have not been studied. Analysis of the annotated genomes found that ATG was the most prevalent translational start codon among Mycoplasma spp. However in Mycoplasma gallisepticum a GTG start codon is commonly used in the vlhA multigene family, which encodes a highly abundant, phase variable lipoprotein adhesin. Therefore, the effect of this alternate start codon on expression of a reporter PhoA lipoprotein was examined in M. gallisepticum. Mutation of the start codon from ATG to GTG resulted in a 2.5 fold reduction in the level of transcription of the phoA reporter, but the level of PhoA activity in the transformants containing phoA with a GTG start codon was only 63% of that of the transformants with a phoA with an ATG start codon, suggesting that GTG was a more efficient translational initiation codon. The effect of swapping the translational start codon in phoA reporter gene expression was less in M. gallisepticum than has been seen previously in Escherichia coli or Bacillus subtilis, suggesting the process of translational initiation in mycoplasmas may have some significant differences from those used in other bacteria. This is the first study of translational start codon usage in mycoplasmas and the impact of the use of an alternate start codon on expression in these bacteria. PMID:26010086

  1. The effect of rare codons following the ATG start codon on expression of human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Zeinab; Nezafat, Navid; Negahdaripour, Manica; Berenjian, Aydin; Hemmati, Shiva; Ghasemi, Younes

    2015-10-01

    Presence of the rare codons resulted from the difference in codon usages among organisms is considered as an obstacle to heterologous gene expression. This is especially important for the expression of the genes with eukaryotic origin in Escherichia coli. The N-terminus of human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (hG-CSF) contains amino acids whose coding sequences belong to the rare codons in E. coli. In this study, the effect of rare codons on hG-CSF expression level was evaluated through introducing silent mutations in the 5'-end of the coding sequence. E. coli BL21 (DE3) was used as an expression host. The constructs with the rare codons at the positions following the ATG initiation site of hG-CSF elevated the expression level up to 53-56% of the total cell proteins. This effect may be explained either by the rare codons effects on the early elongation region to reduce ribosome traffic jams in the rest of transcript or by their impacts on reduction of GC content at the beginning region. Mfold RNA server and prediction of the 5' mRNA secondary structure showed the less stable mRNA secondary structure is, the more hG-CSF expression level would be. However, the minimum free energy of the secondary structure individually, could not indicate this correlation between all constructs. This finding seems empirically important in designing the synthetic genes for production of the recombinant protein in E. coli. PMID:26118697

  2. COStar: a D-star Lite-based dynamic search algorithm for codon optimization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaowu; Deng, Riqiang; Wang, Jinwen; Wang, Xunzhang

    2014-03-01

    Codon optimized genes have two major advantages: they simplify de novo gene synthesis and increase the expression level in target hosts. Often they achieve this by altering codon usage in a given gene. Codon optimization is complex because it usually needs to achieve multiple opposing goals. In practice, finding an optimal sequence from the massive number of possible combinations of synonymous codons that can code for the same amino acid sequence is a challenging task. In this article, we introduce COStar, a D-star Lite-based dynamic search algorithm for codon optimization. The algorithm first maps the codon optimization problem into a weighted directed acyclic graph using a sliding window approach. Then, the D-star Lite algorithm is used to compute the shortest path from the start site to the target site in the resulting graph. Optimizing a gene is thus converted to a search in real-time for a shortest path in a generated graph. Using in silico experiments, the performance of the algorithm was shown by optimizing the different genes including the human genome. The results suggest that COStar is a promising codon optimization tool for de novo gene synthesis and heterologous gene expression. PMID:24316385

  3. The Code of Silence: Widespread Associations Between Synonymous Codon Biases and Gene Function.

    PubMed

    Supek, Fran

    2016-01-01

    Some mutations in gene coding regions exchange one synonymous codon for another, and thus do not alter the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein. Even though they are often called 'silent,' these mutations may exhibit a plethora of effects on the living cell. Therefore, they are often selected during evolution, causing synonymous codon usage biases in genomes. Comparative analyses of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and human cancer genomes have found many links between a gene's biological role and the accrual of synonymous mutations during evolution. In particular, highly expressed genes in certain functional categories are enriched with optimal codons, which are decoded by the abundant tRNAs, thus enhancing the speed and accuracy of the translating ribosome. The set of genes exhibiting codon adaptation differs between genomes, and these differences show robust associations to organismal phenotypes. In addition to selection for translation efficiency, other distinct codon bias patterns have been found in: amino acid starvation genes, cyclically expressed genes, tissue-specific genes in animals and plants, oxidative stress response genes, cellular differentiation genes, and oncogenes. In addition, genomes of organisms harboring tRNA modifications exhibit particular codon preferences. The evolutionary trace of codon bias patterns across orthologous genes may be examined to learn about a gene's relevance to various phenotypes, or, more generally, its function in the cell. PMID:26538122

  4. Influence of Codon Bias on Heterologous Production of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Major Structural Protein L1 in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Norkiene, Milda; Gedvilaite, Alma

    2012-01-01

    Heterologous gene expression is dependent on multistep processes involving regulation at the level of transcription, mRNA turnover, protein translation, and posttranslational modifications. Codon bias has a significant influence on protein yields. However, sometimes it is not clear which parameter causes observed differences in heterologous gene expression as codon adaptation typically optimizes many sequence properties at once. In the current study, we evaluated the influence of codon bias on heterologous production of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) major structural protein L1 in yeast by expressing five variants of codon-modified open reading frames (OFRs) encoding HPV-16 L1 protein. Our results showed that despite the high toleration of various codons used throughout the length of the sequence of heterologously expressed genes in transformed yeast, there was a significant positive correlation between the gene's expression level and the degree of its codon bias towards the favorable codon usage. The HPV-16 L1 protein expression in yeast can be optimized by adjusting codon composition towards the most preferred codon adaptation, and this effect most probably is dependent on the improved translational elongation. PMID:22645496

  5. Nucleotide sequence conservation in paramyxoviruses; the concept of codon constellation.

    PubMed

    Rima, Bert K

    2015-05-01

    The stability and conservation of the sequences of RNA viruses in the field and the high error rates measured in vitro are paradoxical. The field stability indicates that there are very strong selective constraints on sequence diversity. The nature of these constraints is discussed. Apart from constraints on variation in cis-acting RNA and the amino acid sequences of viral proteins, there are other ones relating to the presence of specific dinucleotides such CpG and UpA as well as the importance of RNA secondary structures and RNA degradation rates. Recent other constraints identified in other RNA viruses, such as effects of secondary RNA structure on protein folding or modification of cellular tRNA complements, are also discussed. Using the family Paramyxoviridae, I show that the codon usage pattern (CUP) is (i) specific for each virus species and (ii) that it is markedly different from the host - it does not vary even in vaccine viruses that have been derived by passage in a number of inappropriate host cells. The CUP might thus be an additional constraint on variation, and I propose the concept of codon constellation to indicate the informational content of the sequences of RNA molecules relating not only to stability and structure but also to the efficiency of translation of a viral mRNA resulting from the CUP and the numbers and position of rare codons. PMID:25406175

  6. A new measure to study phylogenetic relations in the brown algal order Ectocarpales: the "codon impact parameter".

    PubMed

    Das, Smarajit; Chakrabarti, Jayprokas; Ghosh, Zhumur; Sahoo, Satyabrata; Mallick, Bibekanand

    2005-12-01

    We analyse forty-seven chloroplast genes of the large subunit of RuBisCO, from the algal order Ectocarpales, sourced from GenBank. Codon-usage weighted by the nucleotide base-bias defines our score called the codon-impact-parameter. This score is used to obtain phylogenetic relations amongst the 47 Ectocarpales. We compare our classification with the ones done earlier. PMID:16388144

  7. A Comparison of the Usage of Tablet PC, Lecture Capture, and Online Homework in an Introductory Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revell, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Three emerging technologies were used in a large introductory chemistry class: a tablet PC, a lecture capture and replay software program, and an online homework program. At the end of the semester, student usage of the lecture replay and online homework systems was compared to course performance as measured by course grade and by a standardized

  8. Comparison of Turkish and US Pre-Service Teachers' Web 2.0 Tools Usage Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiyici, Mubin; Akyeampong, Albert; Balkan Kiyici, Fatime

    2013-01-01

    As the Internet and computer develop, the world is changing dramatically and fantastically. Usage of technological tools is increased day by day in daily life besides ICT. All the technological tools shape individual behavior, life style and learning style as well as individual lives. Today's child use different tools and different way to…

  9. "To Tweet or Not to Tweet?" A Comparison of Academics' and Students' Usage of Twitter in Academic Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Charles G.; Kaye, Linda K.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of social media as a new channel for communication and collaboration has led educators to hope that they may enhance the student experience and provide a pedagogical tool within Higher Education (HE). This paper explores academics' and undergraduates' usage of Twitter within a post-92 university. It argues that the observed disparity…

  10. Diverse expression levels of two codon-optimized genes that encode human papilloma virus type 16 major protein L1 in Hansenula polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cunbao; Yang, Xu; Yao, Yufeng; Huang, Weiwei; Sun, Wenjia; Ma, Yanbing

    2014-05-01

    Two versions of an optimized gene that encodes human papilloma virus type 16 major protein L1 were designed according to the codon usage frequency of Pichia pastoris. Y16 was highly expressed in both P. pastoris and Hansenula polymorpha. M16 expression was as efficient as that of Y16 in P. pastoris, but merely detectable in H. polymorpha even though transcription levels of M16 and Y16 were similar. H. polymorpha had a unique codon usage frequency that contains many more rare codons than Saccharomyces cerevisiae or P. pastoris. These findings indicate that even codon-optimized genes that are expressed well in S. cerevisiae and P. pastoris may be inefficiently expressed in H. polymorpha; thus rare codons must be avoided when universal optimized gene versions are designed to facilitate expression in a variety of yeast expression systems, especially H. polymorpha is involved. PMID:24563290

  11. Codon influence on protein expression in E. coli correlates with mRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Bol, Grgory; Letso, Reka; Neely, Helen; Price, W Nicholson; Wong, Kam-Ho; Su, Min; Luff, Jon D; Valecha, Mayank; Everett, John K; Acton, Thomas B; Xiao, Rong; Montelione, Gaetano T; Aalberts, Daniel P; Hunt, John F

    2016-01-21

    Degeneracy in the genetic code, which enables a single protein to be encoded by a multitude of synonymous gene sequences, has an important role in regulating protein expression, but substantial uncertainty exists concerning the details of this phenomenon. Here we analyse the sequence features influencing protein expression levels in 6,348 experiments using bacteriophage T7 polymerase to synthesize messenger RNA in Escherichia coli. Logistic regression yields a new codon-influence metric that correlates only weakly with genomic codon-usage frequency, but strongly with global physiological protein concentrations and also mRNA concentrations and lifetimes in vivo. Overall, the codon content influences protein expression more strongly than mRNA-folding parameters, although the latter dominate in the initial ~16 codons. Genes redesigned based on our analyses are transcribed with unaltered efficiency but translated with higher efficiency in vitro. The less efficiently translated native sequences show greatly reduced mRNA levels in vivo. Our results suggest that codon content modulates a kinetic competition between protein elongation and mRNA degradation that is a central feature of the physiology and also possibly the regulation of translation in E. coli. PMID:26760206

  12. Transfer RNA misidentification scrambles sense codon recoding

    PubMed Central

    Krishnakumar, Radha; Prat, Laure; Aerni, Hans; Ling, Jiqiang; Merryman, Chuck

    2013-01-01

    Sense codon recoding is the basis for genetic code expansion with more than two different noncanonical amino acids. It requires an unused or rarely used codon, and an orthogonal tRNA synthetase:tRNA pair with the complementary anticodon. Mycoplasma capricolum contains only 6 CGG arginine codons without a dedicated tRNAArg. We wanted to reassign this codon to pyrrolysine by providing M. capricolum with pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase, a synthetic tRNA with a CCG anticodon (tRNAPylCCG), and the genes for pyrrolysine biosynthesis. Here we show that tRNAPylCCG is efficiently recognized by the endogenous arginyl-tRNA synthetase, presumably at the anticodon. Mass spectrometry reveals that in the presence of tRNAPylCCG, CGG codons are translated as arginine. This result is not unexpected as most tRNA synthetases use the anticodon as a recognition element. The data suggest that tRNA misidentification by endogenous aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases needs to be overcome for sense codon recoding. PMID:24000185

  13. Assessment of work-integrated learning: comparison of the usage of a grading rubric by supervising radiographers and teachers.

    PubMed

    Kilgour, Andrew J; Kilgour, Peter W; Gerzina, Tania; Christian, Beverly

    2014-02-01

    IntroductionProfessional work-integrated learning (WIL) that integrates the academic experience with off-campus professional experience placements is an integral part of many tertiary courses. Issues with the reliability and validity of assessment grades in these placements suggest that there is a need to strengthen the level of academic rigour of placements in these programmes. This study aims to compare the attitudes to the usage of assessment rubrics of radiographers supervising medical imaging students and teachers supervising pre-service teachers. MethodsWIL placement assessment practices in two programmes, pre-service teacher training (Avondale College of Higher Education, NSW) and medical diagnostic radiography (Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, NSW), were compared with a view to comparing assessment strategies across these two different educational domains. Educators (course coordinators) responsible for teaching professional development placements of teacher trainees and diagnostic radiography students developed a standards-based grading rubric designed to guide assessment of students' work during WIL placement by assessors. After ?12 months of implementation of the rubrics, assessors' reaction to the effectiveness and usefulness of the grading rubric was determined using a specially created survey form. Data were collected over the period from March to June 2011. Quantitative and qualitative data found that assessors in both programmes considered the grading rubric to be a vital tool in the assessment process, though teacher supervisors were more positive about the benefits of its use than the radiographer supervisors. ResultsBenefits of the grading rubric included accuracy and consistency of grading, ability to identify specific areas of desired development and facilitation of the provision of supervisor feedback. The use of assessment grading rubrics is of benefit to assessors in WIL placements from two very different teaching programmes. ConclusionRadiographers appear to need more training in the rubric's use, whereas teachers are found to generally use it appropriately. There are implications drawn from this finding that are applicable to health science and medical education in general. PMID:26229632

  14. Assessment of work-integrated learning: comparison of the usage of a grading rubric by supervising radiographers and teachers

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgour, Andrew J; Kilgour, Peter W; Gerzina, Tania; Christian, Beverly

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Professional work-integrated learning (WIL) that integrates the academic experience with off-campus professional experience placements is an integral part of many tertiary courses. Issues with the reliability and validity of assessment grades in these placements suggest that there is a need to strengthen the level of academic rigour of placements in these programmes. This study aims to compare the attitudes to the usage of assessment rubrics of radiographers supervising medical imaging students and teachers supervising pre-service teachers. Methods: WIL placement assessment practices in two programmes, pre-service teacher training (Avondale College of Higher Education, NSW) and medical diagnostic radiography (Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, NSW), were compared with a view to comparing assessment strategies across these two different educational domains. Educators (course coordinators) responsible for teaching professional development placements of teacher trainees and diagnostic radiography students developed a standards-based grading rubric designed to guide assessment of students’ work during WIL placement by assessors. After ∼12 months of implementation of the rubrics, assessors’ reaction to the effectiveness and usefulness of the grading rubric was determined using a specially created survey form. Data were collected over the period from March to June 2011. Quantitative and qualitative data found that assessors in both programmes considered the grading rubric to be a vital tool in the assessment process, though teacher supervisors were more positive about the benefits of its use than the radiographer supervisors. Results: Benefits of the grading rubric included accuracy and consistency of grading, ability to identify specific areas of desired development and facilitation of the provision of supervisor feedback. The use of assessment grading rubrics is of benefit to assessors in WIL placements from two very different teaching programmes. Conclusion: Radiographers appear to need more training in the rubric's use, whereas teachers are found to generally use it appropriately. There are implications drawn from this finding that are applicable to health science and medical education in general.

  15. Assessment of work-integrated learning: comparison of the usage of a grading rubric by supervising radiographers and teachers

    PubMed Central

    Kilgour, Andrew J; Kilgour, Peter W; Gerzina, Tania; Christian, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionProfessional work-integrated learning (WIL) that integrates the academic experience with off-campus professional experience placements is an integral part of many tertiary courses. Issues with the reliability and validity of assessment grades in these placements suggest that there is a need to strengthen the level of academic rigour of placements in these programmes. This study aims to compare the attitudes to the usage of assessment rubrics of radiographers supervising medical imaging students and teachers supervising pre-service teachers. MethodsWIL placement assessment practices in two programmes, pre-service teacher training (Avondale College of Higher Education, NSW) and medical diagnostic radiography (Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, NSW), were compared with a view to comparing assessment strategies across these two different educational domains. Educators (course coordinators) responsible for teaching professional development placements of teacher trainees and diagnostic radiography students developed a standards-based grading rubric designed to guide assessment of students work during WIL placement by assessors. After ?12 months of implementation of the rubrics, assessors reaction to the effectiveness and usefulness of the grading rubric was determined using a specially created survey form. Data were collected over the period from March to June 2011. Quantitative and qualitative data found that assessors in both programmes considered the grading rubric to be a vital tool in the assessment process, though teacher supervisors were more positive about the benefits of its use than the radiographer supervisors. ResultsBenefits of the grading rubric included accuracy and consistency of grading, ability to identify specific areas of desired development and facilitation of the provision of supervisor feedback. The use of assessment grading rubrics is of benefit to assessors in WIL placements from two very different teaching programmes. ConclusionRadiographers appear to need more training in the rubric's use, whereas teachers are found to generally use it appropriately. There are implications drawn from this finding that are applicable to health science and medical education in general. PMID:26229632

  16. Codon discrimination and anticodon structural context.

    PubMed Central

    Lustig, F; Born, T; Guindy, Y S; Elias, P; Samuelsson, T; Gehrke, C W; Kuo, K C; Lagerkvist, U

    1989-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis has been used to change the nucleotide C in the wobble position of tRNA(1Gly) (CCC) to U. The mutated tRNA was tested for its ability to read glycine codons in an in vitro protein-synthesizing system programmed with the phage message MS2-RNA that had been modified by site-directed mutagenesis so as to make it possible to monitor conveniently the reading of all four glycine codons. The results showed that while the efficiency of tRNA(1Gly) (UCC) was comparable to that of mycoplasma tRNA(Gly) (UCC) in the reading of the codon GGA, the mycoplasma tRNA(Gly) was far more efficient than the tRNA(1Gly) (UCC) in the reading of the codons GGU and GGC. Thus, the anticodon UCC, when present in the structural context of the tRNA(1Gly) molecule, behaved as predicted by the wobble rules while in the structural context of the mycoplasma tRNA(Gly) it read without discrimination between the nucleotides in the third codon position, in violation of the wobble restrictions. The result with the codon GGG showed that the anticodon UCC, when present in tRNA(1Gly), was considerably less efficient in reading this codon than it was in the structural context of the mycoplasma tRNA(Gly). It would therefore seem that the anticodon UCC, when present in a certain tRNA, can be an efficient wobbler, while in the molecular environment of another tRNA it is markedly restricted in its ability to wobble. Images PMID:2674936

  17. Mutations to Less-Preferred Synonymous Codons in a Highly Expressed Gene of Escherichia coli: Fitness and Epistatic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Hauber, David J; Grogan, Dennis W; DeBry, Ronald W

    2016-01-01

    Codon-tRNA coevolution to maximize protein production has been, until recently, the dominant hypothesis to explain codon-usage bias in highly expressed bacterial genes. Two predictions of this hypothesis are 1) selection is weak; and 2) similar silent replacements at different codons should have similar fitness consequence. We used an allele-replacement strategy to change five specific 3rd-codon-position (silent) sites in the highly expressed Escherichia coli ribosomal protein gene rplQ from the wild type to a less-preferred alternative. We introduced the five mutations within a 10-codon region. Four of the silent sites were chosen to test the second prediction, with a CTG to CTA mutation being introduced at two closely linked leucine codons and an AAA to AAG mutation being introduced at two closely linked lysine codons. We also introduced a fifth silent mutation, a GTG to GTA mutation at a valine codon in the same genic region. We measured the fitness effect of the individual mutations by competing each single-mutant strain against the parental wild-type strain, using a disrupted form of the araA gene as a selectively neutral phenotypic marker to distinguish between strains in direct competition experiments. Three of the silent mutations had a fitness effect of |s| > 0.02, which is contradictory to the prediction that selection will be weak. The two leucine mutations had significantly different fitness effects, as did the two lysine mutations, contradictory to the prediction that similar mutations at different codons should have similar fitness effects. We also constructed a strain carrying all five silent mutations in combination. Its fitness effect was greater than that predicted from the individual fitness values, suggesting that negative synergistic epistasis acts on the combination allele. PMID:26727272

  18. Mutations to Less-Preferred Synonymous Codons in a Highly Expressed Gene of Escherichia coli: Fitness and Epistatic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hauber, David J.; Grogan, Dennis W.; DeBry, Ronald W.

    2016-01-01

    Codon-tRNA coevolution to maximize protein production has been, until recently, the dominant hypothesis to explain codon-usage bias in highly expressed bacterial genes. Two predictions of this hypothesis are 1) selection is weak; and 2) similar silent replacements at different codons should have similar fitness consequence. We used an allele-replacement strategy to change five specific 3rd-codon-position (silent) sites in the highly expressed Escherichia coli ribosomal protein gene rplQ from the wild type to a less-preferred alternative. We introduced the five mutations within a 10-codon region. Four of the silent sites were chosen to test the second prediction, with a CTG to CTA mutation being introduced at two closely linked leucine codons and an AAA to AAG mutation being introduced at two closely linked lysine codons. We also introduced a fifth silent mutation, a GTG to GTA mutation at a valine codon in the same genic region. We measured the fitness effect of the individual mutations by competing each single-mutant strain against the parental wild-type strain, using a disrupted form of the araA gene as a selectively neutral phenotypic marker to distinguish between strains in direct competition experiments. Three of the silent mutations had a fitness effect of |s| > 0.02, which is contradictory to the prediction that selection will be weak. The two leucine mutations had significantly different fitness effects, as did the two lysine mutations, contradictory to the prediction that similar mutations at different codons should have similar fitness effects. We also constructed a strain carrying all five silent mutations in combination. Its fitness effect was greater than that predicted from the individual fitness values, suggesting that negative synergistic epistasis acts on the combination allele. PMID:26727272

  19. Gene Composer: database software for protein construct design, codon engineering, and gene synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lorimer, Don; Raymond, Amy; Walchli, John; Mixon, Mark; Barrow, Adrienne; Wallace, Ellen; Grice, Rena; Burgin, Alex; Stewart, Lance

    2009-01-01

    Background To improve efficiency in high throughput protein structure determination, we have developed a database software package, Gene Composer, which facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their codon engineered synthetic gene sequences. With its modular workflow design and numerous graphical user interfaces, Gene Composer enables researchers to perform all common bio-informatics steps used in modern structure guided protein engineering and synthetic gene engineering. Results An interactive Alignment Viewer allows the researcher to simultaneously visualize sequence conservation in the context of known protein secondary structure, ligand contacts, water contacts, crystal contacts, B-factors, solvent accessible area, residue property type and several other useful property views. The Construct Design Module enables the facile design of novel protein constructs with altered N- and C-termini, internal insertions or deletions, point mutations, and desired affinity tags. The modifications can be combined and permuted into multiple protein constructs, and then virtually cloned in silico into defined expression vectors. The Gene Design Module uses a protein-to-gene algorithm that automates the back-translation of a protein amino acid sequence into a codon engineered nucleic acid gene sequence according to a selected codon usage table with minimal codon usage threshold, defined G:C% content, and desired sequence features achieved through synonymous codon selection that is optimized for the intended expression system. The gene-to-oligo algorithm of the Gene Design Module plans out all of the required overlapping oligonucleotides and mutagenic primers needed to synthesize the desired gene constructs by PCR, and for physically cloning them into selected vectors by the most popular subcloning strategies. Conclusion We present a complete description of Gene Composer functionality, and an efficient PCR-based synthetic gene assembly procedure with mis-match specific endonuclease error correction in combination with PIPE cloning. In a sister manuscript we present data on how Gene Composer designed genes and protein constructs can result in improved protein production for structural studies. PMID:19383142

  20. Most Used Codons per Amino Acid and per Genome in the Code of Man Compared to Other Organisms According to the Rotating Circular Genetic Code

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Chavez, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    My previous theoretical research shows that the rotating circular genetic code is a viable tool to make easier to distinguish the rules of variation applied to the amino acid exchange; it presents a precise and positional bio-mathematical balance of codons, according to the amino acids they codify. Here, I demonstrate that when using the conventional or classic circular genetic code, a clearer pattern for the human codon usage per amino acid and per genome emerges. The most used human codons per amino acid were the ones ending with the three hydrogen bond nucleotides: C for 12 amino acids and G for the remaining 8, plus one codon for arginine ending in A that was used approximately with the same frequency than the one ending in G for this same amino acid (plus *). The most used codons in man fall almost all the time at the rightmost position, clockwise, ending either in C or in G within the circular genetic code. The human codon usage per genome is compared to other organisms such as fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), squid (Loligo pealei), and many others. The biosemiotic codon usage of each genomic population or ‘Theme’ is equated to a ‘molecular language’. The C/U choice or difference, and the G/A difference in the third nucleotide of the most used codons per amino acid are illustrated by comparing the most used codons per genome in humans and squids. The human distribution in the third position of most used codons is a 12-8-2, C-G-A, nucleotide ending signature, while the squid distribution in the third position of most used codons was an odd, or uneven, distribution in the third position of its most used codons: 13-6-3, U-A-G, as its nucleotide ending signature. These findings may help to design computational tools to compare human genomes, to determine the exchangeability between compatible codons and amino acids, and for the early detection of incompatible changes leading to hereditary diseases. PMID:22997484

  1. Hand gesture recognition by analysis of codons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandra, Poornima; Shrikhande, Neelima

    2007-09-01

    The problem of recognizing gestures from images using computers can be approached by closely understanding how the human brain tackles it. A full fledged gesture recognition system will substitute mouse and keyboards completely. Humans can recognize most gestures by looking at the characteristic external shape or the silhouette of the fingers. Many previous techniques to recognize gestures dealt with motion and geometric features of hands. In this thesis gestures are recognized by the Codon-list pattern extracted from the object contour. All edges of an image are described in terms of sequence of Codons. The Codons are defined in terms of the relationship between maxima, minima and zeros of curvature encountered as one traverses the boundary of the object. We have concentrated on a catalog of 24 gesture images from the American Sign Language alphabet (Letter J and Z are ignored as they are represented using motion) [2]. The query image given as an input to the system is analyzed and tested against the Codon-lists, which are shape descriptors for external parts of a hand gesture. We have used the Weighted Frequency Indexing Transform (WFIT) approach which is used in DNA sequence matching for matching the Codon-lists. The matching algorithm consists of two steps: 1) the query sequences are converted to short sequences and are assigned weights and, 2) all the sequences of query gestures are pruned into match and mismatch subsequences by the frequency indexing tree based on the weights of the subsequences. The Codon sequences with the most weight are used to determine the most precise match. Once a match is found, the identified gesture and corresponding interpretation are shown as output.

  2. Codon Pair Bias Is a Direct Consequence of Dinucleotide Bias.

    PubMed

    Kunec, Dusan; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Codon pair bias is a remarkably stable characteristic of a species. Although functionally uncharacterized, robust virus attenuation was achieved by recoding of viral proteins using underrepresented codon pairs.Because viruses replicate exclusively inside living cells, we posited that their codon pair preferences reflect those of their host(s). Analysis of many human viruses showed, however, that the encoding of viruses is influenced only marginally by host codon pair preferences. Furthermore, examination of codonpair preferences of vertebrate, insect, and arthropod-borne viruses revealed that the latter do not utilize codon pairs overrepresented in arthropods more frequently than other viruses. We found, however, that codon pair bias is a direct consequence of dinucleotide bias. We conclude that codon pair bias does not play a major role in the encoding of viral proteins and that virus attenuation by codon pair deoptimization has the same molecular underpinnings as attenuation based on an increase in CpG/TpA dinucleotides. PMID:26725119

  3. The Effects of Codon Context on In Vivo Translation Speed

    PubMed Central

    Chevance, Fabienne F. V.; Le Guyon, Soazig; Hughes, Kelly T.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a bacterial genetic system based on translation of the his operon leader peptide gene to determine the relative speed at which the ribosome reads single or multiple codons in vivo. Low frequency effects of so-called silent codon changes and codon neighbor (context) effects could be measured using this assay. An advantage of this system is that translation speed is unaffected by the primary sequence of the His leader peptide. We show that the apparent speed at which ribosomes translate synonymous codons can vary substantially even for synonymous codons read by the same tRNA species. Assaying translation through codon pairs for the 5?- and 3?- side positioning of the 64 codons relative to a specific codon revealed that the codon-pair orientation significantly affected in vivo translation speed. Codon pairs with rare arginine codons and successive proline codons were among the slowest codon pairs translated in vivo. This system allowed us to determine the effects of different factors on in vivo translation speed including Shine-Dalgarno sequence, rate of dipeptide bond formation, codon context, and charged tRNA levels. PMID:24901308

  4. Estimating Gene Expression and Codon-Specific Translational Efficiencies, Mutation Biases, and Selection Coefficients from Genomic Data Alone.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Michael A; Chen, Wei-Chen; Shah, Premal; Landerer, Cedric L; Zaretzki, Russell

    2015-06-01

    Extracting biologically meaningful information from the continuing flood of genomic data is a major challenge in the life sciences. Codon usage bias (CUB) is a general feature of most genomes and is thought to reflect the effects of both natural selection for efficient translation and mutation bias. Here we present a mechanistically interpretable, Bayesian model (ribosome overhead costs Stochastic Evolutionary Model of Protein Production Rate [ROC SEMPPR]) to extract meaningful information from patterns of CUB within a genome. ROC SEMPPR is grounded in population genetics and allows us to separate the contributions of mutational biases and natural selection against translational inefficiency on a gene-by-gene and codon-by-codon basis. Until now, the primary disadvantage of similar approaches was the need for genome scale measurements of gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to both extract accurate estimates of codon-specific mutation biases and translational efficiencies while simultaneously generating accurate estimates of gene expression, rather than requiring such information. We demonstrate the utility of ROC SEMPPR using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c genome. When we compare our model fits with previous approaches we observe an exceptionally high agreement between estimates of both codon-specific parameters and gene expression levels ([Formula: see text] in all cases). We also observe strong agreement between our parameter estimates and those derived from alternative data sets. For example, our estimates of mutation bias and those from mutational accumulation experiments are highly correlated ([Formula: see text]). Our estimates of codon-specific translational inefficiencies and tRNA copy number-based estimates of ribosome pausing time ([Formula: see text]), and mRNA and ribosome profiling footprint-based estimates of gene expression ([Formula: see text]) are also highly correlated, thus supporting the hypothesis that selection against translational inefficiency is an important force driving the evolution of CUB. Surprisingly, we find that for particular amino acids, codon usage in highly expressed genes can still be largely driven by mutation bias and that failing to take mutation bias into account can lead to the misidentification of an amino acid's "optimal" codon. In conclusion, our method demonstrates that an enormous amount of biologically important information is encoded within genome scale patterns of codon usage, accessing this information does not require gene expression measurements, but instead carefully formulated biologically interpretable models. PMID:25977456

  5. Estimating Gene Expression and Codon-Specific Translational Efficiencies, Mutation Biases, and Selection Coefficients from Genomic Data Alone‡

    PubMed Central

    Gilchrist, Michael A.; Chen, Wei-Chen; Shah, Premal; Landerer, Cedric L.; Zaretzki, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Extracting biologically meaningful information from the continuing flood of genomic data is a major challenge in the life sciences. Codon usage bias (CUB) is a general feature of most genomes and is thought to reflect the effects of both natural selection for efficient translation and mutation bias. Here we present a mechanistically interpretable, Bayesian model (ribosome overhead costs Stochastic Evolutionary Model of Protein Production Rate [ROC SEMPPR]) to extract meaningful information from patterns of CUB within a genome. ROC SEMPPR is grounded in population genetics and allows us to separate the contributions of mutational biases and natural selection against translational inefficiency on a gene-by-gene and codon-by-codon basis. Until now, the primary disadvantage of similar approaches was the need for genome scale measurements of gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to both extract accurate estimates of codon-specific mutation biases and translational efficiencies while simultaneously generating accurate estimates of gene expression, rather than requiring such information. We demonstrate the utility of ROC SEMPPR using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c genome. When we compare our model fits with previous approaches we observe an exceptionally high agreement between estimates of both codon-specific parameters and gene expression levels (ρ>0.99 in all cases). We also observe strong agreement between our parameter estimates and those derived from alternative data sets. For example, our estimates of mutation bias and those from mutational accumulation experiments are highly correlated (ρ=0.95). Our estimates of codon-specific translational inefficiencies and tRNA copy number-based estimates of ribosome pausing time (ρ=0.64), and mRNA and ribosome profiling footprint-based estimates of gene expression (ρ=0.53−0.74) are also highly correlated, thus supporting the hypothesis that selection against translational inefficiency is an important force driving the evolution of CUB. Surprisingly, we find that for particular amino acids, codon usage in highly expressed genes can still be largely driven by mutation bias and that failing to take mutation bias into account can lead to the misidentification of an amino acid’s “optimal” codon. In conclusion, our method demonstrates that an enormous amount of biologically important information is encoded within genome scale patterns of codon usage, accessing this information does not require gene expression measurements, but instead carefully formulated biologically interpretable models. PMID:25977456

  6. Enhanced expression of codon optimized Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens in Lactobacillus salivarius

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Christopher D.; Bannantine, John P.; Govender, Rodney; Endersen, Lorraine; Pletzer, Daniel; Weingart, Helge; Coffey, Aidan; O'Mahony, Jim; Sleator, Roy D.

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that open reading frames containing high GC content show poor expression in A+T rich hosts. Specifically, G+C-rich codon usage is a limiting factor in heterologous expression of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) proteins using Lactobacillus salivarius. However, re-engineering opening reading frames through synonymous substitutions can offset codon bias and greatly enhance MAP protein production in this host. In this report, we demonstrate that codon-usage manipulation of MAP2121c can enhance the heterologous expression of the major membrane protein (MMP), analogous to the form in which it is produced natively by MAP bacilli. When heterologously over-expressed, antigenic determinants were preserved in synthetic MMP proteins as shown by monoclonal antibody mediated ELISA. Moreover, MMP is a membrane protein in MAP, which is also targeted to the cellular surface of recombinant L. salivarius at levels comparable to MAP. Additionally, we previously engineered MAP3733c (encoding MptD) and show herein that MptD displays the tendency to associate with the cytoplasmic membrane boundary under confocal microscopy and the intracellularly accumulated protein selectively adheres to the MptD-specific bacteriophage fMptD. This work demonstrates there is potential for L. salivarius as a viable antigen delivery vehicle for MAP, which may provide an effective mucosal vaccine against Johne's disease. PMID:25237653

  7. Conserved Regional 3′ Grouping of Rare Codons in the Coding Sequence of Ocular Prosecretory Mitogen Lacritin

    PubMed Central

    McKown, Robert L.; Raab, Ronald W.; Kachelries, Patricia; Caldwell, Sara; Laurie, Gordon W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Lacritin is a prosecretory mitogen in tears and, although a tear protein, it promotes basal tearing and lacrimal gland secretion. Since scale up is relevant to its potential use in the treatment of dry eye, we explored various mutagenic strategies to alter the stability, solubility, and translational efficiency of nascent lacritin, and discovered 3′ clustering of rare human codons. Methods. Site-directed mutagenesis of lacritin coding cDNA “pLAC” generated 24 different nonsynonymous and 13 synonymous mutations. Nonsynonymous mutations altered amino acids with nonpolar, basic or acidic side chains to serine. Synonymous mutation progressively optimized human codons that are rare or uncommon in Escherichia coli without changing the amino acid specified. These changes were validated by sequencing and protein production, and analyzed via the “rare codon calculator” (RCC). Nonhuman primate and nonprimate lacritin coding sequences were extracted from Ensembl, and analyzed via RCC using codon usage appropriate for each species. Results. Superior yields were obtained by modification of individual hydrophobic residues or a predicted salt bridge, suggesting that production was limited by lacritin stability. Accordingly, elimination of rare codons increased yields less effectively. Importantly, RCC analysis of human, nonhuman primate (mouse lemur) and nonprimate (cat, tree shrew) lacritin coding sequences revealed remarkable 3′ clustering of rare codons, unlike human lipocalin-1 and 21 other widely expressed human tear genes. Conclusions. Lacritin protein yields were improved primarily by hydrophobic or salt bridge mutagenesis and less so by elimination of rare codons. The 3′ clustering of rare codons is conserved in all lacritin orthologs examined. PMID:23422824

  8. Physical Origins of Codon Positions That Strongly Influence Cotranslational Folding: A Framework for Controlling Nascent-Protein Folding.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajeet K; Bukau, Bernd; O'Brien, Edward P

    2016-02-01

    An emerging paradigm in the field of in vivo protein biophysics is that nascent-protein behavior is a type of nonequilibrium phenomenon, where translation-elongation kinetics can be more important in determining nascent-protein behavior than the thermodynamic properties of the protein. Synonymous codon substitutions, which change the translation rate at select codon positions along a transcript, have been shown to alter cotranslational protein folding, suggesting that evolution may have shaped synonymous codon usage in the genomes of organisms in part to increase the amount of folded and functional nascent protein. Here, we develop a Monte Carlo-master-equation method that allows for the control of nascent-chain folding during translation through the rational design of mRNA sequences to guide the cotranslational folding process. We test this framework using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and find it provides optimal mRNA sequences to control the simulated, cotranslational folding of a protein in a user-prescribed manner. With this approach we discover that some codon positions in a transcript can have a much greater impact on nascent-protein folding than others because they tend to be positions where the nascent chain populates states that are far from equilibrium, as well as being dependent on a complex ratio of time scales. As a consequence, different cotranslational profiles of the same protein can have different critical codon positions and different numbers of synonymous mRNA sequences that encode for them. These findings explain that there is a fundamental connection between the nonequilibrium nature of cotranslational processes, nascent-protein behavior, and synonymous codon usage. PMID:26716464

  9. Codon reading scheme in Mycoplasma pneumoniae revealed by the analysis of the complete set of tRNA genes.

    PubMed Central

    Simoneau, P; Li, C M; Loechel, S; Wenzel, R; Herrmann, R; Hu, P C

    1993-01-01

    The 33 genes encoding the complete set of tRNA species in Mycoplasma pneumoniae have been cloned and sequenced. They are organized into 5 clusters in addition to 9 single genes. No redundant gene was found, indicating that 33 tRNAs correspond to 32 different anticodons and decode all 62 codons used in this organism. There is only one single tRNA for each of the Ala, Leu, Pro, and Val family boxes. Therefore, a simplified decoding system resembling that recently described for Mycoplasma capricolum (1) has to also exist in M.pneumoniae. However, analysis of the anticodon set and codon usage revealed features characteristic of the latter: (i) there is no obvious preference toward AT rich synonymous codons, (ii) CGG codons are assigned for arginine and are translated by tRNA Arg(UCG), and (iii) CNN or GNN anticodons are encountered in the Ser, Thr, Arg, and Gly family boxes. We thus propose that this codon-anticodon recognition pattern has emerged in the 'M.pneumoniae cluster' under a genomic economization strategy but without the influence of AT pressure. Images PMID:7513847

  10. Usage in the Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gove, Philip B.

    1966-01-01

    To understand decisions made concerning language usage in "Webster's Third New International Dictionary," it is necessary to realize what standard usage is and how it changes. The definition of standard usage, given in 1932, as that language used by well-educated persons remains valid and depends more and more on professional writers for guidance.

  11. The Uses of Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Dennis

    1987-01-01

    Uses examples from advertisements to support the claim that usage opinions have a minimal influence on actual usage, and formulates a new law of usage, stating that when a language change occurs, some people will adopt it, some will oppose it, and most will ignore it. (NH)

  12. Evaluating Sense Codon Reassignment with a Simple Fluorescence Screen.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Wil; Schmitt, Margaret A; Fisk, John D

    2015-12-22

    Understanding the interactions that drive the fidelity of the genetic code and the limits to which modifications can be made without breaking the translational system has practical implications for understanding the molecular mechanisms of evolution as well as expanding the set of encodable amino acids, particularly those with chemistries not provided by Nature. Because 61 sense codons encode 20 amino acids, reassigning the meaning of sense codons provides an avenue for biosynthetic modification of proteins, furthering both fundamental and applied biochemical research. We developed a simple screen that exploits the absolute requirement for fluorescence of an active site tyrosine in green fluorescent protein (GFP) to probe the pliability of the degeneracy of the genetic code. Our screen monitors the restoration of the fluorophore of GFP by incorporation of a tyrosine in response to a sense codon typically assigned another meaning in the genetic code. We evaluated sense codon reassignment at four of the 21 sense codons read through wobble interactions in Escherichia coli using the Methanocaldococcus jannaschii orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl tRNA synthetase pair originally developed and commonly used for amber stop codon suppression. By changing only the anticodon of the orthogonal tRNA, we achieved sense codon reassignment efficiencies between 1% (Phe UUU) and 6% (Lys AAG). Each of the orthogonal tRNAs preferentially decoded the codon traditionally read via a wobble interaction in E. coli with the exception of the orthogonal tRNA with an AUG anticodon, which incorporated tyrosine in response to both the His CAU and His CAC codons with approximately equal frequencies. We applied our screen in a high-throughput manner to evaluate a 10(9)-member combined tRNA/aminoacyl tRNA synthetase library to identify improved sense codon reassigning variants for the Lys AAG codon. A single rapid screen with the ability to broadly evaluate reassignable codons will facilitate identification and improvement of the combinations of sense codons and orthogonal pairs that display efficient reassignment. PMID:26536053

  13. The anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequence drives translational pausing and codon choice in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gene-Wei; Oh, Eugene; Weissman, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Protein synthesis by ribosomes takes place on a linear substrate but at variable speeds. Transient pausing of ribosomes can impact a variety of co-translational processes, including protein targeting and folding1. These pauses are influenced by the sequence of the mRNA2. Thus redundancy in the genetic code allows the same protein to be translated at different rates. However, our knowledge of both the position and the mechanism of translational pausing in vivo is highly limited. Here we present a genome-wide analysis of translational pausing in bacteria using ribosome profilingdeep sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments3-5. This approach enables high-resolution measurement of ribosome density profiles along most transcripts at unperturbed, endogenous expression levels. Unexpectedly, we found that codons decoded by rare tRNAs do not lead to slow translation under nutrient-rich conditions. Instead, Shine-Dalgarno-(SD)6 like features within coding sequences cause pervasive translational pausing. Using an orthogonal ribosome7,8 possessing an altered anti-SD sequence, we demonstrated that pausing is due to hybridization between mRNA and the 16S rRNA of the translating ribosome. In protein coding sequences, internal SD sequences are disfavoured, which leads to biased usage, avoiding codons and codon pairs that resemble canonical SD sites. Our results indicate that internal SD-like sequences are a major determinant of translation rates and a global driving force for the coding of bacterial genomes. PMID:22456704

  14. Changes in Word Usage Frequency May Hamper Intergenerational Comparisons of Vocabulary Skills: An Ngram Analysis of Wordsum, WAIS, and WISC Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2014-01-01

    Research on secular trends in mean intelligence test scores shows smaller gains in vocabulary skills than in nonverbal reasoning. One possible explanation is that vocabulary test items become outdated faster compared to nonverbal tasks. The history of the usage frequency of the words on five popular vocabulary tests, the GSS Wordsum, Wechsler

  15. The immediate downstream codon strongly influences the efficiency of utilization of eukaryotic translation initiation codons.

    PubMed Central

    Grnert, S; Jackson, R J

    1994-01-01

    Nucleotide substitutions were introduced into the initiation site of an influenza virus NS cDNA derivative at the +4, +5 and +6 positions (where the A of the AUG codon is defined as +1), in the background of either AUG or CUG as the initiation codon. Capped transcripts of these constructs were translated in rabbit reticulocyte lysate under conditions where the selection of initiation sites conformed to the scanning ribosome model. With CUG as the initiation codon, the efficiency of initiation was as strongly influenced by the nature of the residue in the +5 position as at +4, whilst the influence of the +6 position was smaller. The residues favourable to initiation were as follows: at +4, only G was stimulatory; at +5, A was strongly stimulatory and C fairly beneficial; and at +6, only U exerted any positive influence. The positive influence of the favourable residues (or the negative influence of unfavourable residues) at each position appeared to be additive. With AUG as the initiation codon, the pattern of response to mutations in the +4 and +5 positions was qualitatively similar, but the quantitative effects were smaller. Thus the optimum downstream context for initiation is A/CUGGAU. Images PMID:8062836

  16. Codon-by-Codon Modulation of Translational Speed and Accuracy Via mRNA Folding

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Rong; Chen, Xiaoshu; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2014-01-01

    Rapid cell growth demands fast protein translational elongation to alleviate ribosome shortage. However, speedy elongation undermines translational accuracy because of a mechanistic tradeoff. Here we provide genomic evidence in budding yeast and mouse embryonic stem cells that the efficiency–accuracy conflict is alleviated by slowing down the elongation at structurally or functionally important residues to ensure their translational accuracies while sacrificing the accuracy for speed at other residues. Our computational analysis in yeast with codon resolution suggests that mRNA secondary structures serve as elongation brakes to control the speed and hence the fidelity of protein translation. The position-specific effect of mRNA folding on translational accuracy is further demonstrated experimentally by swapping synonymous codons in a yeast transgene. Our findings explain why highly expressed genes tend to have strong mRNA folding, slow translational elongation, and conserved protein sequences. The exquisite codon-by-codon translational modulation uncovered here is a testament to the power of natural selection in mitigating efficiency–accuracy conflicts, which are prevalent in biology. PMID:25051069

  17. PICDI, a simple program for codon bias calculation.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Belmonte, E; Freire-Picos, M A; Rodrguez-Torres, A M; Gonzlez-Siso, M I; Cerdn, M E; Rodrguez-Seijo, J M

    1996-06-01

    PICDI is a very simple program designed to calculate the Intrinsic Codon Deviation Index (ICDI). The program is available in Macintosh as well a PC format. Requirements for correct input of the sequences have been kept to a minimum and the analysis of sequences up to 2000 codons is very quick. The ICDI is very useful for estimation of codon bias of genes from species in which optimal codons are not known. The availability of a computer program for its calculation will increase its usefulness in the fields of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. PMID:8837025

  18. Partial attenuation of Marek's disease virus by manipulation of Di-codon bias

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All species studied to date demonstrate a preference for certain codons over other synonymous codons (codon bias), a preference which is also observed for pairs of codons (di-codon bias). Previous studies using poliovirus and influenza virus as models have demonstrated the ability to cause attenuat...

  19. Amino Acid Usage Is Asymmetrically Biased in AT- and GC-Rich Microbial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Bohlin, Jon; Brynildsrud, Ola; Vesth, Tammi; Skjerve, Eystein; Ussery, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Genomic base composition ranges from less than 25% AT to more than 85% AT in prokaryotes. Since only a small fraction of prokaryotic genomes is not protein coding even a minor change in genomic base composition will induce profound protein changes. We examined how amino acid and codon frequencies were distributed in over 2000 microbial genomes and how these distributions were affected by base compositional changes. In addition, we wanted to know how genome-wide amino acid usage was biased in the different genomes and how changes to base composition and mutations affected this bias. To carry this out, we used a Generalized Additive Mixed-effects Model (GAMM) to explore non-linear associations and strong data dependences in closely related microbes; principal component analysis (PCA) was used to examine genomic amino acid- and codon frequencies, while the concept of relative entropy was used to analyze genomic mutation rates. Results We found that genomic amino acid frequencies carried a stronger phylogenetic signal than codon frequencies, but that this signal was weak compared to that of genomic %AT. Further, in contrast to codon usage bias (CUB), amino acid usage bias (AAUB) was differently distributed in AT- and GC-rich genomes in the sense that AT-rich genomes did not prefer specific amino acids over others to the same extent as GC-rich genomes. AAUB was also associated with relative entropy; genomes with low AAUB contained more random mutations as a consequence of relaxed purifying selection than genomes with higher AAUB. Conclusion Genomic base composition has a substantial effect on both amino acid- and codon frequencies in bacterial genomes. While phylogeny influenced amino acid usage more in GC-rich genomes, AT-content was driving amino acid usage in AT-rich genomes. We found the GAMM model to be an excellent tool to analyze the genomic data used in this study. PMID:23922837

  20. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL USAGE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report, which summarizes the use of agricultural chemicals is issued by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) as part of its series on Agricultural Chemical Usage. Other publications in the series present statistics for on-farm agricultural chemical usage for f...

  1. Structural basis for stop codon recognition in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alan; Shao, Sichen; Murray, Jason; Hegde, Ramanujan S; Ramakrishnan, V

    2015-08-27

    Termination of protein synthesis occurs when a translating ribosome encounters one of three universally conserved stop codons: UAA, UAG or UGA. Release factors recognize stop codons in the ribosomal A-site to mediate release of the nascent chain and recycling of the ribosome. Bacteria decode stop codons using two separate release factors with differing specificities for the second and third bases. By contrast, eukaryotes rely on an evolutionarily unrelated omnipotent release factor (eRF1) to recognize all three stop codons. The molecular basis of eRF1 discrimination for stop codons over sense codons is not known. Here we present cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures at 3.5-3.8 Å resolution of mammalian ribosomal complexes containing eRF1 interacting with each of the three stop codons in the A-site. Binding of eRF1 flips nucleotide A1825 of 18S ribosomal RNA so that it stacks on the second and third stop codon bases. This configuration pulls the fourth position base into the A-site, where it is stabilized by stacking against G626 of 18S rRNA. Thus, eRF1 exploits two rRNA nucleotides also used during transfer RNA selection to drive messenger RNA compaction. In this compacted mRNA conformation, stop codons are favoured by a hydrogen-bonding network formed between rRNA and essential eRF1 residues that constrains the identity of the bases. These results provide a molecular framework for eukaryotic stop codon recognition and have implications for future studies on the mechanisms of canonical and premature translation termination. PMID:26245381

  2. Structural basis for stop codon recognition in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Jason; Hegde, Ramanujan S.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2015-01-01

    Termination of protein synthesis occurs when a translating ribosome encounters one of three universally conserved stop codons: UGA, UAA, or UAG. Release factors recognise stop codons in the ribosomal A site to mediate release of the nascent chain and recycling of the ribosome. Bacteria decode stop codons using two separate release factors with differing specificities for the second and third bases1. By contrast, eukaryotes rely on an evolutionarily unrelated omnipotent release factor (eRF1) to recognise all three stop codons2. The molecular basis of eRF1 discrimination for stop codons over sense codons is not known. Here, we present electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) structures at 3.5 – 3.8 Å resolution of mammalian ribosomal complexes containing eRF1 interacting with each of the three stop codons in the A site. Binding of eRF1 flips nucleotide A1825 of 18S rRNA so that it stacks on the second and third stop codon bases. This configuration pulls the fourth position base into the A site, where it is stabilised by stacking against G626 of 18S rRNA. Thus, eRF1 exploits two rRNA nucleotides also used during tRNA selection to drive mRNA compaction. Stop codons are favoured in this compacted mRNA conformation by a hydrogen-bonding network with essential eRF1 residues that constrains the identity of the bases. These results provide a molecular framework for eukaryotic stop codon recognition and have implications for future studies on the mechanisms of canonical and premature translation termination3,4. PMID:26245381

  3. Premature termination codons in modern human genomes

    PubMed Central

    Fujikura, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    The considerable range of genetic variation in human populations may partly reflect distinctive processes of adaptation to variable environmental conditions. However, the adaptive genomic signatures remain to be completely elucidated. This research explores candidate loci under selection at the population level by characterizing recently arisen premature termination codons (PTCs), some of which indicate a human knockout. From a total of 7595 participants from two population exome projects, 246 PTCs were found where natural selection has resulted in new alleles with a high frequency (from 1% to 96%) of derived alleles and various levels of population differentiation (FST = 0.00139–0.626). The PTC genes formed protein and regulatory networks limited to 15 biological processes or gene families, of which seven categories were previously unreported. PTC mutations have a strong tendency to be introduced into members of the same gene family, even during modern human evolution, although the exact nature of the selection is not fully known. The findings here suggest the ongoing evolutionary plasticity of modern humans at the genetic level and also partly provide insights into common human knockouts. PMID:26932450

  4. Premature termination codons in modern human genomes.

    PubMed

    Fujikura, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    The considerable range of genetic variation in human populations may partly reflect distinctive processes of adaptation to variable environmental conditions. However, the adaptive genomic signatures remain to be completely elucidated. This research explores candidate loci under selection at the population level by characterizing recently arisen premature termination codons (PTCs), some of which indicate a human knockout. From a total of 7595 participants from two population exome projects, 246 PTCs were found where natural selection has resulted in new alleles with a high frequency (from 1% to 96%) of derived alleles and various levels of population differentiation (FST = 0.00139-0.626). The PTC genes formed protein and regulatory networks limited to 15 biological processes or gene families, of which seven categories were previously unreported. PTC mutations have a strong tendency to be introduced into members of the same gene family, even during modern human evolution, although the exact nature of the selection is not fully known. The findings here suggest the ongoing evolutionary plasticity of modern humans at the genetic level and also partly provide insights into common human knockouts. PMID:26932450

  5. [Codon optimization and eukaryotic expression analysis of the analgesic peptide gene BmK AngM1 from Buthus martensii Karsch].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-ling; Gao, Li-li; Zhu, Ping; Hou, Qi; Wang, Fen; Yu, Wen-bo; Nie, Tao

    2012-10-01

    Codon bias is an important factor which influences heterologous gene expression. Optimizing codon sequence could improve expression level of heterologous gene. In order to improve the expression level of BmK AngM1 gene encoding the analgesic peptide from Buthus martensii Karsch in Pichia pastoris, the codon-optimized BmK AngM1 gene according to its cDNA sequence and the preference codon usage of P. pastoris were cloned into expression vector pPIC9K and then transformed into P. pastoris. The expersion of recombinant BmK AngM1 (rBmK AngM1) was inducced by methanol in the medium, and the expression level of the optimized BmK AngM1 gene was 3.7 times of the native one. These results suggested that the expression of BmK AngM1 in P. pastoris could be successfully improved by codon optimization. PMID:23289154

  6. Codon Optimization Significantly Improves the Expression Level of ? -Amylase Gene from Bacillus licheniformis in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Rong; Li, Yang-Yuan; Liu, Dan-Ni; Liu, Jing-Shan; Li, Peng; Chen, Li-Zhi; Xu, Shu-De

    2015-01-01

    ?-Amylase as an important industrial enzyme has been widely used in starch processing, detergent, and paper industries. To improve expression efficiency of recombinant ?-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis), the ?-amylase gene from B. licheniformis was optimized according to the codon usage of Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) and expressed in P. pastoris. Totally, the codons encoding 305 amino acids were optimized in which a total of 328 nucleotides were changed and the G+C content was increased from 47.6 to 49.2%. The recombinants were cultured in 96-deep-well microplates and screened by a new plate assay method. Compared with the wild-type gene, the optimized gene is expressed at a significantly higher level in P. pastoris after methanol induction for 168 h in 5- and 50-L bioreactor with the maximum activity of 8100 and 11000 U/mL, which was 2.31- and 2.62-fold higher than that by wild-type gene. The improved expression level makes the enzyme a good candidate for ?-amylase production in industrial use. PMID:26171389

  7. Effects of premature termination codon polymorphisms in the Drosophila pseudoobscura subclade

    PubMed Central

    Hoehn, Kenneth B.; McGaugh, Suzanne E.; Noor, Mohamed A. F.

    2012-01-01

    Premature termination codon (PTC) mutations can have dramatic effects both adaptive and deleterious on gene expression and function. Here, we examine the number and selective effects of PTC mutations within the Drosophila pseudoobscura subclade using 18 resequenced genomes aligned to the reference genome. We located and characterized 1679 PTC mutations in 605 genes across each of these genomes relative to the D. pseudoobscura reference genome, and use RT-PCR to confirm transcription of a subset of these genes containing PTC mutations. We confirm previous findings that genes containing PTC mutations are less selectively constrained and less broadly expressed than non-PTC containing genes, suggesting that most of these mutations are at least mildly deleterious. Further, we find highly significant codon usage bias in regions downstream of the PTC in 38 of these PTC containing genes, suggesting that some of these PTC mutations if not alternatively spliced out of the transcript have neutral effects. Ultimately, these analyses support the view that PTC mutations are mostly detrimental, but are nonetheless common enough in genomes that a subset could be effectively neutral. PMID:23132097

  8. Codon Optimization Significantly Improves the Expression Level of ?-Amylase Gene from Bacillus licheniformis in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Rong; Li, Yang-Yuan; Liu, Dan-Ni; Liu, Jing-Shan; Li, Peng; Chen, Li-Zhi; Xu, Shu-De

    2015-01-01

    ?-Amylase as an important industrial enzyme has been widely used in starch processing, detergent, and paper industries. To improve expression efficiency of recombinant ?-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis), the ?-amylase gene from B. licheniformis was optimized according to the codon usage of Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) and expressed in P. pastoris. Totally, the codons encoding 305 amino acids were optimized in which a total of 328 nucleotides were changed and the G+C content was increased from 47.6 to 49.2%. The recombinants were cultured in 96-deep-well microplates and screened by a new plate assay method. Compared with the wild-type gene, the optimized gene is expressed at a significantly higher level in P. pastoris after methanol induction for 168?h in 5- and 50-L bioreactor with the maximum activity of 8100 and 11000?U/mL, which was 2.31- and 2.62-fold higher than that by wild-type gene. The improved expression level makes the enzyme a good candidate for ?-amylase production in industrial use. PMID:26171389

  9. A codon-optimized green fluorescent protein for live cell imaging in Zymoseptoria tritici☆

    PubMed Central

    Kilaru, S.; Schuster, M.; Studholme, D.; Soanes, D.; Lin, C.; Talbot, N.J.; Steinberg, G.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins (FPs) are powerful tools to investigate intracellular dynamics and protein localization. Cytoplasmic expression of FPs in fungal pathogens allows greater insight into invasion strategies and the host-pathogen interaction. Detection of their fluorescent signal depends on the right combination of microscopic setup and signal brightness. Slow rates of photo-bleaching are pivotal for in vivo observation of FPs over longer periods of time. Here, we test green-fluorescent proteins, including Aequorea coerulescens GFP (AcGFP), enhanced GFP (eGFP) from Aequorea victoria and a novel Zymoseptoria tritici codon-optimized eGFP (ZtGFP), for their usage in conventional and laser-enhanced epi-fluorescence, and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. We show that eGFP, expressed cytoplasmically in Z. tritici, is significantly brighter and more photo-stable than AcGFP. The codon-optimized ZtGFP performed even better than eGFP, showing significantly slower bleaching and a 20–30% further increase in signal intensity. Heterologous expression of all GFP variants did not affect pathogenicity of Z. tritici. Our data establish ZtGFP as the GFP of choice to investigate intracellular protein dynamics in Z. tritici, but also infection stages of this wheat pathogen inside host tissue. PMID:26092799

  10. The Effect of Codon Mismatch on the Protein Translation System

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Liaoran; Li, Guohui; Cheng, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Incorrect protein translation, caused by codon mismatch, is an important problem of living cells. In this work, a computational model was introduced to quantify the effects of codon mismatch and the model was used to study the protein translation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. According to simulation results, the probability of codon mismatch will increase when the supply of amino acids is unbalanced, and the longer is the codon sequence, the larger is the probability for incorrect translation to occur, making the synthesis of long peptide chain difficult. By comparing to simulation results without codon mismatch effects taken into account, the fraction of mRNAs with bound ribosome decrease faster along the mRNAs, making the 5’ ramp phenomenon more obvious. It was also found in our work that the premature mechanism resulted from codon mismatch can reduce the proportion of incorrect translation when the amino acid supply is extremely unbalanced, which is one possible source of high fidelity protein synthesis after peptidyl transfer. PMID:26840415

  11. MODIS Collection 6 aerosol products: Comparison between Aqua's e-Deep Blue, Dark Target, and "merged" data sets, and usage recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Munchak, L. A.; Hsu, N. C.; Levy, R. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.

    2014-12-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Atmospheres data product suite includes three algorithms applied to retrieve midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD): the Enhanced Deep Blue (DB) and Dark Target (DT) algorithms over land, and a DT over-water algorithm. All three have been refined in the recent "Collection 6" (C6) MODIS reprocessing. In particular, DB has been expanded to cover vegetated land surfaces as well as brighter desert/urban areas. Additionally, a new "merged" data set which draws from all three algorithms is included in the C6 products. This study is intended to act as a point of reference for new and experienced MODIS data users with which to understand the global and regional characteristics of the C6 DB, DT, and merged data sets, based on MODIS Aqua data. This includes validation against Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations at 111 sites, focused toward regional and categorical (surface/aerosol type) analysis. Neither algorithm consistently outperforms the other, although in many cases the retrieved AOD and the level of its agreement with AERONET are very similar. In many regions the DB, DT, and merged data sets are all suitable for quantitative applications, bearing in mind that they cannot be considered independent, while in other cases one algorithm does consistently outperform the other. Usage recommendations and caveats are thus somewhat complicated and regionally dependent.

  12. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) with a Mutation at Codon 148 of Prion Protein Gene

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, Manuela; Chin, Steven S.; Bell, Karen L.; Dong, Zhiqian; Yang, Qiwei; Yang, Lizhu; Yuan, Jue; Chen, Shu G.; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Zou, Wen-Quan

    2005-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), the most common human prion disease, includes sporadic (s) and familial (f) forms. Regardless of etiology, both forms are thought to share the pathogenic mechanism whereby the cellular prion protein (PrPC) converts into its pathogenic isoform (PrPSc). While PrPC conversion is thought to be random in sCJD, conversion in fCJD is facilitated by the congenital presence of mutated PrP. Differences in PrP genotype (PRNP) and in conversion circumstances lead to PrPSc with distinct characteristics that elicit different disease phenotypes. Here, we describe a case of fCJD with a substitution of histidine (H) for arginine (R) at codon 148 (R148H) and heterozygosity of the methionine/valine (M/V) polymorphic codon 129, with the 129M allele coupled with the mutation. The disease phenotype and all major characteristics of PrPSc of fCJDR148H were virtually indistinguishable from those of sCJDMV2, which has features different from those of any other sCJD. Therefore, despite the differences in etiology, PRNP, and conversion process, the two forms of PrPSc had similar characteristics. Furthermore, comparison of fCJDR148H with a recently reported case carrying R148H and homozygosity at codon 129 suggests that codon 129 coupled with the mutation as well as that located on the normal allele can modify major phenotypic and PrPSc features of fCJDR148H. PMID:16314483

  13. Dual Accelerometer Usage Strategy for Onboard Space Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato; D'Souza, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This work introduces a dual accelerometer usage strategy for onboard space navigation. In the proposed algorithm the accelerometer is used to propagate the state when its value exceeds a threshold and it is used to estimate its errors otherwise. Numerical examples and comparison to other accelerometer usage schemes are presented to validate the proposed approach.

  14. Exploring Codon Optimization and Response Surface Methodology to Express Biologically Active Transmembrane RANKL in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Bok, Jin-Duck; Kim, Jeong-In; Jiang, Tao; Cho, Chong-Su; Kang, Sang-Kee; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2014-01-01

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-?B ligand (RANKL), a master cytokine that drives osteoclast differentiation, activation and survival, exists in both transmembrane and extracellular forms. To date, studies on physiological role of RANKL have been mainly carried out with extracellular RANKL probably due to difficulties in achieving high level expression of functional transmembrane RANKL (mRANKL). In the present study, we took advantage of codon optimization and response surface methodology to optimize the soluble expression of mRANKL in E. coli. We optimized the codon usage of mRANKL sequence to a preferred set of codons for E. coli changing its codon adaptation index from 0.64 to 0.76, tending to increase its expression level in E. coli. Further, we utilized central composite design to predict the optimum combination of variables (cell density before induction, lactose concentration, post-induction temperature and post-induction time) for the expression of mRANKL. Finally, we investigated the effects of various experimental parameters using response surface methodology. The best combination of response variables was 0.6 OD600, 7.5 mM lactose, 26C post-induction temperature and 5 h post-induction time that produced 52.4 mg/L of fusion mRANKL. Prior to functional analysis of the protein, we purified mRANKL to homogeneity and confirmed the existence of trimeric form of mRANKL by native gel electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography. Further, the biological activity of mRANKL to induce osteoclast formation on RAW264.7 cells was confirmed by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase assay and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. Importantly, a new finding from this study was that the biological activity of mRANKL is higher than its extracellular counterpart. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to report heterologous expression of mRANKL in soluble form and to perform a comparative study of functional properties of both forms of RANKL. PMID:24809485

  15. An Engineered Rare Codon Device for Optimization of Metabolic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, You; Li, Chunying; Khan, Md Rezaul Islam; Wang, Yushu; Ruan, Yunfeng; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Bo; Ma, Xiaopan; Zhang, Kaisi; Zhao, Xiwen; Ye, Guanhao; Guo, Xizhi; Feng, Guoyin; He, Lin; Ma, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Rare codons generally arrest translation due to rarity of their cognate tRNAs. This property of rare codons can be utilized to regulate protein expression. In this study, a linear relationship was found between expression levels of genes and copy numbers of rare codons inserted within them. Based on this discovery, we constructed a molecular device in Escherichia coli using the rare codon AGG, its cognate tRNA (tRNA(Arg) (CCU)), modified tRNA(Asp) (GUC → CCU), and truncated aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (TDRS) to switch the expression of reporter genes on or off as well as to precisely regulate their expression to various intermediate levels. To underscore the applicability of our work, we used the rare codon device to alter the expression levels of four genes of the fatty acid synthesis II (FASII) pathway (i.e. fabZ, fabG, fabI, and tesA') in E. coli to optimize steady-state kinetics, which produced nearly two-fold increase in fatty acid yield. Thus, the proposed method has potential applications in regulating target protein expression at desired levels and optimizing metabolic pathways by precisely tuning in vivo molar ratio of relevant enzymes. PMID:26852704

  16. An Engineered Rare Codon Device for Optimization of Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, You; Li, Chunying; Khan, Md. Rezaul Islam; Wang, Yushu; Ruan, Yunfeng; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Bo; Ma, Xiaopan; Zhang, Kaisi; Zhao, Xiwen; Ye, Guanhao; Guo, Xizhi; Feng, Guoyin; He, Lin; Ma, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Rare codons generally arrest translation due to rarity of their cognate tRNAs. This property of rare codons can be utilized to regulate protein expression. In this study, a linear relationship was found between expression levels of genes and copy numbers of rare codons inserted within them. Based on this discovery, we constructed a molecular device in Escherichia coli using the rare codon AGG, its cognate tRNA (tRNAArg (CCU)), modified tRNAAsp (GUC → CCU), and truncated aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (TDRS) to switch the expression of reporter genes on or off as well as to precisely regulate their expression to various intermediate levels. To underscore the applicability of our work, we used the rare codon device to alter the expression levels of four genes of the fatty acid synthesis II (FASII) pathway (i.e. fabZ, fabG, fabI, and tesA’) in E. coli to optimize steady-state kinetics, which produced nearly two-fold increase in fatty acid yield. Thus, the proposed method has potential applications in regulating target protein expression at desired levels and optimizing metabolic pathways by precisely tuning in vivo molar ratio of relevant enzymes. PMID:26852704

  17. Evidence of efficient stop codon readthrough in four mammalian genes.

    PubMed

    Loughran, Gary; Chou, Ming-Yuan; Ivanov, Ivaylo P; Jungreis, Irwin; Kellis, Manolis; Kiran, Anmol M; Baranov, Pavel V; Atkins, John F

    2014-08-01

    Stop codon readthrough is used extensively by viruses to expand their gene expression. Until recent discoveries in Drosophila, only a very limited number of readthrough cases in chromosomal genes had been reported. Analysis of conserved protein coding signatures that extend beyond annotated stop codons identified potential stop codon readthrough of four mammalian genes. Here we use a modified targeted bioinformatic approach to identify a further three mammalian readthrough candidates. All seven genes were tested experimentally using reporter constructs transfected into HEK-293T cells. Four displayed efficient stop codon readthrough, and these have UGA immediately followed by CUAG. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that in the four readthrough candidates containing UGA-CUAG, this motif is conserved not only in mammals but throughout vertebrates with the first six of the seven nucleotides being universally conserved. The importance of the CUAG motif was confirmed using a systematic mutagenesis approach. One gene, OPRL1, encoding an opiate receptor, displayed extremely efficient levels of readthrough (∼31%) in HEK-293T cells. Signals both 5' and 3' of the OPRL1 stop codon contribute to this high level of readthrough. The sequence UGA-CUA alone can support 1.5% readthrough, underlying its importance. PMID:25013167

  18. Translation initiation at non-AUG codons mediated by weakened association of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2 subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Nilce N; Carnevalli, Larissa S; Castilho, Beatriz A

    2002-01-01

    The heterotrimeric eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2 binds the initiator methionyl-tRNA in a GTP-dependent mode and delivers it to the 40 S ribosomal subunit. In the present study, we have identified amino acid residues in eIF2beta required for binding to eIF2gamma in yeast. Alteration of six residues in the central region of eIF2beta abolished this interaction, as determined by GST-pull down and two-hybrid assays, and leads to cell lethality. Substitution of (131)Tyr and (132)Ser by alanine residues ((131)YS), although abolishing the binding to eIF2gamma in these assays, resulted in a functional but defective protein in vivo, imparting a temperature-sensitive growth phenotype to cells. A dramatically weakened association of this mutant protein with eIF2gamma in vivo was shown by co-immunoprecipitation. The (131)YS mutation in eIF2beta allows translation to initiate at non-AUG codons, as defined by the ability of cells carrying an initiator codon mutation in the HIS4 mRNA to grow in the absence of histidine. The combination of this mutation with the (264)Ser-->Tyr alteration, a previously isolated suppressor of initiator codon mutations which has been shown to increase the spontaneous GTP hydrolysis in the ternary complex, caused a recessive lethality, suggesting additive defects. Thus the impaired interaction of these two subunits represents a novel type of defect in eIF2 function, providing in vivo evidence that the strength of interaction between eIF2beta and eIF2gamma defines the correct usage of the AUG codon for translation initiation. PMID:12137565

  19. A model for codon position bias in RNA editing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundschuh, Ralf; Liu, Tsunglin

    2006-03-01

    RNA editing can be crucial for the expression of genetic information via inserting, deleting, or substituting a few nucleotides at specific positions in an RNA sequence. Within coding regions in an RNA sequence, editing usually occurs with a certain bias in choosing the positions of the editing sites. In the mitochondrial genes of Physarum polycephalum, many more editing events have been observed at the third codon position than at the first and second, while in some plant mitochondria the second codon position dominates. Here we propose an evolutionary model that explains this bias as the basis of selection at the protein level. The model predicts a distribution of the three positions rather close to the experimental observation in Physarum. This suggests that the codon position bias in Physarum is mainly a consequence of selection at the protein level.

  20. Model for Codon Position Bias in RNA Editing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tsunglin; Bundschuh, Ralf

    2005-08-01

    RNA editing can be crucial for the expression of genetic information via inserting, deleting, or substituting a few nucleotides at specific positions in an RNA sequence. Within coding regions in an RNA sequence, editing usually occurs with a certain bias in choosing the positions of the editing sites. In the mitochondrial genes of Physarum polycephalum, many more editing events have been observed at the third codon position than at the first and second, while in some plant mitochondria the second codon position dominates. Here we propose an evolutionary model that explains this bias as the basis of selection at the protein level. The model predicts a distribution of the three positions rather close to the experimental observation in Physarum. This suggests that the codon position bias in Physarum is mainly a consequence of selection at the protein level.

  1. Reduced Amino Acid Specificity of Mammalian Tyrosyl-tRNA Synthetase Is Associated with Elevated Mistranslation of Tyr Codons*

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Medha; Moghal, Adil; Kano, Amanda; Jerums, Mathew; Schnier, Paul D.; Luo, Shun; Deshpande, Rohini; Bondarenko, Pavel V.; Lin, Henry; Ibba, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Quality control operates at different steps in translation to limit errors to approximately one mistranslated codon per 10,000 codons during mRNA-directed protein synthesis. Recent studies have suggested that error rates may actually vary considerably during translation under different growth conditions. Here we examined the misincorporation of Phe at Tyr codons during synthesis of a recombinant antibody produced in tyrosine-limited Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Tyr to Phe replacements were previously found to occur throughout the antibody at a rate of up to 0.7% irrespective of the identity or context of the Tyr codon translated. Despite this comparatively high mistranslation rate, no significant change in cellular viability was observed. Monitoring of Phe and Tyr levels revealed that changes in error rates correlated with changes in amino acid pools, suggesting that mischarging of tRNATyr with noncognate Phe by tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase was responsible for mistranslation. Steady-state kinetic analyses of CHO cytoplasmic tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase revealed a 25-fold lower specificity for Tyr over Phe as compared with previously characterized bacterial enzymes, consistent with the observed increase in translation error rates during tyrosine limitation. Functional comparisons of mammalian and bacterial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase revealed key differences at residues responsible for amino acid recognition, highlighting differences in evolutionary constraints for translation quality control. PMID:24828507

  2. Codon-reading specificities of mitochondrial release factors and translation termination at non-standard stop codons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Christoffer; Sund, Johan; qvist, Johan

    2013-12-01

    A key feature of mitochondrial translation is the reduced number of transfer RNAs and reassignment of codons. For human mitochondria, a major unresolved problem is how the set of stop codons are decoded by the release factors mtRF1a and mtRF1. Here we present three-dimensional structural models of human mtRF1a and mtRF1 based on their homology to bacterial RF1 in the codon recognition domain, and the strong conservation between mitochondrial and bacterial ribosomal RNA in the decoding region. Sequence changes in the less homologous mtRF1 appear to be correlated with specific features of the mitochondrial rRNA. Extensive computer simulations of the complexes with the ribosomal decoding site show that both mitochondrial factors have similar specificities and that neither reads the putative vertebrate stop codons AGA and AGG. Instead, we present a structural model for a mechanism by which the ICT1 protein causes termination by sensing the presence of these codons in the A-site of stalled ribosomes.

  3. Codon Bias as a Means to Fine-Tune Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Quax, Tessa E F; Claassens, Nico J; Söll, Dieter; van der Oost, John

    2015-07-16

    The redundancy of the genetic code implies that most amino acids are encoded by multiple synonymous codons. In all domains of life, a biased frequency of synonymous codons is observed at the genome level, in functionally related genes (e.g., in operons), and within single genes. Other codon bias variants include biased codon pairs and codon co-occurrence. Although translation initiation is the key step in protein synthesis, it is generally accepted that codon bias contributes to translation efficiency by tuning the elongation rate of the process. Moreover, codon bias plays an important role in controlling a multitude of cellular processes, ranging from differential protein production to protein folding. Here we review currently known types of codon bias and how they may influence translation. We discuss how understanding the principles of codon bias and translation can contribute to improved protein production and developments in synthetic biology. PMID:26186290

  4. An evaluation of data-driven motion estimation in comparison to the usage of external-surrogates in cardiac SPECT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra Mukherjee, Joyeeta; Hutton, Brian F.; Johnson, Karen L.; Hendrik Pretorius, P.; King, Michael A.

    2013-11-01

    Motion estimation methods in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be classified into methods which depend on just the emission data (data-driven), or those that use some other source of information such as an external surrogate. The surrogate-based methods estimate the motion exhibited externally which may not correlate exactly with the movement of organs inside the body. The accuracy of data-driven strategies on the other hand is affected by the type and timing of motion occurrence during acquisition, the source distribution, and various degrading factors such as attenuation, scatter, and system spatial resolution. The goal of this paper is to investigate the performance of two data-driven motion estimation schemes based on the rigid-body registration of projections of motion-transformed source distributions to the acquired projection data for cardiac SPECT studies. Comparison is also made of six intensity based registration metrics to an external surrogate-based method. In the data-driven schemes, a partially reconstructed heart is used as the initial source distribution. The partially-reconstructed heart has inaccuracies due to limited angle artifacts resulting from using only a part of the SPECT projections acquired while the patient maintained the same pose. The performance of different cost functions in quantifying consistency with the SPECT projection data in the data-driven schemes was compared for clinically realistic patient motion occurring as discrete pose changes, one or two times during acquisition. The six intensity-based metrics studied were mean-squared difference, mutual information, normalized mutual information (NMI), pattern intensity (PI), normalized cross-correlation and entropy of the difference. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the performance is reported using Monte-Carlo simulations of a realistic heart phantom including degradation factors such as attenuation, scatter and system spatial resolution. Further the visual appearance of motion-corrected images using data-driven motion estimates was compared to that obtained using the external motion-tracking system in patient studies. Pattern intensity and normalized mutual information cost functions were observed to have the best performance in terms of lowest average position error and stability with degradation of image quality of the partial reconstruction in simulations. In all patients, the visual quality of PI-based estimation was either significantly better or comparable to NMI-based estimation. Best visual quality was obtained with PI-based estimation in one of the five patient studies, and with external-surrogate based correction in three out of five patients. In the remaining patient study there was little motion and all methods yielded similar visual image quality.

  5. Living Colors in the Gray Mold Pathogen Botrytis cinerea: Codon-Optimized Genes Encoding Green Fluorescent Protein and mCherry, Which Exhibit Bright Fluorescence▿

    PubMed Central

    Leroch, Michaela; Mernke, Dennis; Koppenhoefer, Dieter; Schneider, Prisca; Mosbach, Andreas; Doehlemann, Gunther; Hahn, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its variants have been widely used in modern biology as reporters that allow a variety of live-cell imaging techniques. So far, GFP has rarely been used in the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea because of low fluorescence intensity. The codon usage of B. cinerea genes strongly deviates from that of commonly used GFP-encoding genes and reveals a lower GC content than other fungi. In this study, we report the development and use of a codon-optimized version of the B. cinerea enhanced GFP (eGFP)-encoding gene (Bcgfp) for improved expression in B. cinerea. Both the codon optimization and, to a smaller extent, the insertion of an intron resulted in higher mRNA levels and increased fluorescence. Bcgfp was used for localization of nuclei in germinating spores and for visualizing host penetration. We further demonstrate the use of promoter-Bcgfp fusions for quantitative evaluation of various toxic compounds as inducers of the atrB gene encoding an ABC-type drug efflux transporter of B. cinerea. In addition, a codon-optimized mCherry-encoding gene was constructed which yielded bright red fluorescence in B. cinerea. PMID:21378036

  6. Reduction of the rate of poliovirus protein synthesis through large-scale codon deoptimization causes attenuation of viral virulence by lowering specific infectivity.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Steffen; Papamichail, Dimitris; Coleman, J Robert; Skiena, Steven; Wimmer, Eckard

    2006-10-01

    Exploring the utility of de novo gene synthesis with the aim of designing stably attenuated polioviruses (PV), we followed two strategies to construct PV variants containing synthetic replacements of the capsid coding sequences either by deoptimizing synonymous codon usage (PV-AB) or by maximizing synonymous codon position changes of the existing wild-type (wt) poliovirus codons (PV-SD). Despite 934 nucleotide changes in the capsid coding region, PV-SD RNA produced virus with wild-type characteristics. In contrast, no viable virus was recovered from PV-AB RNA carrying 680 silent mutations, due to a reduction of genome translation and replication below a critical level. After subcloning of smaller portions of the AB capsid coding sequence into the wt background, several viable viruses were obtained with a wide range of phenotypes corresponding to their efficiency of directing genome translation. Surprisingly, when inoculated with equal infectious doses (PFU), even the most replication-deficient viruses appeared to be as pathogenic in PV-sensitive CD155tg (transgenic) mice as the PV(M) wild type. However, infection with equal amounts of virus particles revealed a neuroattenuated phenotype over 100-fold. Direct analysis indicated a striking reduction of the specific infectivity of PV-AB-type virus particles. Due to the distribution effect of many silent mutations over large genome segments, codon-deoptimized viruses should have genetically stable phenotypes, and they may prove suitable as attenuated substrates for the production of poliovirus vaccines. PMID:16973573

  7. Codon-optimized human sodium iodide symporter (opt-hNIS) as a sensitive reporter and efficient therapeutic gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hwa; Youn, Hyewon; Na, Juri; Hong, Kee-Jong; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key

    2015-01-01

    To generate a more efficient in vivo reporter and therapeutic gene, we optimized the coding sequence of the human sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene by replacing NIS DNA codons from wild type to new codons having the highest usage in human gene translation. The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI), representing the number of codons effective for human expression, was much improved (0.79 for hNIS, 0.97 for opt-hNIS). Both wild-type (hNIS) and optimized human NIS (opt-hNIS) were cloned into pcDNA3.1 and pMSCV vectors for transfection. Various cancer cell lines such as thyroid (TPC-1, FRO, B-CPAP), breast (MDA-MB-231), liver (Hep3B), cervical (HeLa), and glioma (U87MG) were transfected with pcDNA3.1/hNIS or pcDNA3.1/opt-hNIS. 125I uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing cells was 1.6~2.1 times higher than uptake by wild-type hNIS-expressing cells. Stable cell lines were also established by retroviral transduction using pMSCV/hNIS or pMSCV/opt-hNIS, revealing higher NIS protein levels and 125I uptake in opt-hNIS-expressing cells than in hNIS-expressing cells. Moreover, scintigraphic images from cell plates and mouse xenografts showed stronger signals from opt-hNIS-expressing cells than hNIS-expressing cells, and radioactivity uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing tumors was 2.3-fold greater than that by hNIS-expressing tumors. To test the efficacy of radioiodine therapy, mouse xenograft models were established with cancer cells expressing hNIS or opt-hNIS. 131I treatment reduced tumor sizes of hNIS- and opt-hNIS-expressing tumors to 0.57- and 0.27- fold, respectively, compared to their sizes before therapy, suggesting an improved therapeutic effect of opt-hNIS. In summary, this study shows that codon optimization strongly increases hNIS protein levels and radioiodine uptake, thus supporting opt-hNIS as a more sensitive reporter and efficient therapeutic gene. PMID:25553100

  8. Codon-optimized Human Sodium Iodide Symporter (opt-hNIS) as a Sensitive Reporter and Efficient Therapeutic Gene

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Hwa; Youn, Hyewon; Na, Juri; Hong, Kee-Jong; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key

    2015-01-01

    To generate a more efficient in vivo reporter and therapeutic gene, we optimized the coding sequence of the human sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene by replacing NIS DNA codons from wild type to new codons having the highest usage in human gene translation. The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI), representing the number of codons effective for human expression, was much improved (0.79 for hNIS, 0.97 for opt-hNIS). Both wild-type (hNIS) and optimized human NIS (opt-hNIS) were cloned into pcDNA3.1 and pMSCV vectors for transfection. Various cancer cell lines such as thyroid (TPC-1, FRO, B-CPAP), breast (MDA-MB-231), liver (Hep3B), cervical (HeLa), and glioma (U87MG) were transfected with pcDNA3.1/hNIS or pcDNA3.1/opt-hNIS. 125I uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing cells was 1.6 ~ 2.1 times higher than uptake by wild-type hNIS-expressing cells. Stable cell lines were also established by retroviral transduction using pMSCV/hNIS or pMSCV/opt-hNIS, revealing higher NIS protein levels and 125I uptake in opt-hNIS-expressing cells than in hNIS-expressing cells. Moreover, scintigraphic images from cell plates and mouse xenografts showed stronger signals from opt-hNIS-expressing cells than hNIS-expressing cells, and radioactivity uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing tumors was 2.3-fold greater than that by hNIS-expressing tumors. To test the efficacy of radioiodine therapy, mouse xenograft models were established with cancer cells expressing hNIS or opt-hNIS. 131I treatment reduced tumor sizes of hNIS- and opt-hNIS-expressing tumors to 0.57- and 0.27- fold, respectively, compared to their sizes before therapy, suggesting an improved therapeutic effect of opt-hNIS. In summary, this study shows that codon optimization strongly increases hNIS protein levels and radioiodine uptake, thus supporting opt-hNIS as a more sensitive reporter and efficient therapeutic gene. PMID:25553100

  9. Notational usage modulates attention networks in binumerates

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Atesh; Tyagi, Vaibhav; Singh, Nandini C.

    2014-01-01

    Multicultural environments require learning multiple number notations wherein some are encountered more frequently than others. This leads to differences in exposure and consequently differences in usage between notations. We find that differential notational usage imposes a significant neurocognitive load on number processing. Despite simultaneous acquisition, twenty four adult binumerates, familiar with two positional writing systems namely Hindu Nagari digits and Hindu Arabic digits, reported significantly lower preference and usage for Nagari as compared to Arabic. Twenty-four participants showed significantly increased reaction times and reduced accuracy while performing magnitude comparison tasks in Nagari with respect to Arabic. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that processing Nagari elicited significantly greater activity in number processing and attention networks. A direct subtraction of networks for Nagari and Arabic notations revealed a neural circuit comprising of bilateral Intra-parietal Sulcus (IPS), Inferior and Mid Frontal Gyri, Fusiform Gyrus and the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (FDR p < 0.005). Additionally, whole brain correlation analysis showed that activity in the left inferior parietal region was modulated by task performance in Nagari. We attribute the increased activation in Nagari to increased task difficulty due to infrequent exposure and usage. Our results reiterate the role of left IPS in modulating performance in numeric tasks and highlight the role of the attention network for monitoring symbolic notation mode in binumerates. PMID:24904366

  10. Problem-Solving Test: The Effect of Synonymous Codons on Gene Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: the genetic code, codon, degenerate codons, protein synthesis, aminoacyl-tRNA, anticodon, antiparallel orientation, wobble, unambiguous codons, ribosomes, initiation, elongation and termination of translation, peptidyl transferase, translocation, degenerate oligonucleotides, green

  11. Problem-Solving Test: The Effect of Synonymous Codons on Gene Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: the genetic code, codon, degenerate codons, protein synthesis, aminoacyl-tRNA, anticodon, antiparallel orientation, wobble, unambiguous codons, ribosomes, initiation, elongation and termination of translation, peptidyl transferase, translocation, degenerate oligonucleotides, green…

  12. Mutation-Specific RAS Oncogenicity Explains N-RAS Codon 61 Selection in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Christin E.; Liu, Wenjin; Huynh, Minh V.; Waqas, Meriam A.; Gillahan, James E.; Clark, Kelly S.; Fu, Kailing; Martin, Brit L.; Jeck, William R.; Souroullas, George P.; Darr, David B.; Zedek, Daniel C.; Miley, Michael J.; Baguley, Bruce C.; Campbell, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    N-RAS mutation at codon 12, 13 or 61 is associated with transformation; yet, in melanoma, such alterations are nearly exclusive to codon 61. Here, we compared the melanoma susceptibility of an N-RasQ61R knock-in allele to similarly designed K-RasG12D and N-RasG12D alleles. With concomitant p16INK4a inactivation, K-RasG12D or N-RasQ61R expression efficiently promoted melanoma in vivo, whereas N-RasG12D did not. Additionally, N-RasQ61R mutation potently cooperated with Lkb1/Stk11 loss to induce highly metastatic disease. Functional comparisons of N-RasQ61R and N-RasG12D revealed little difference in the ability of these proteins to engage PI3K or RAF. Instead, N-RasQ61R showed enhanced nucleotide binding, decreased intrinsic GTPase activity and increased stability when compared to N-RasG12D. This work identifies a faithful model of human N-RAS mutant melanoma, and suggests that the increased melanomagenecity of N-RasQ61R over N-RasG12D is due to heightened abundance of the active, GTP-bound form rather than differences in the engagement of downstream effector pathways. PMID:25252692

  13. TAP usage in SIMBAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anas, O.; Gregory, M.; Marc, W.

    2015-09-01

    TAP (Table Access Protocol promoted by IVOA) is available on SIMBAD web site since July 2012. We will have a look of all kinds of uses and try to figure out how people use it in SIMBAD. Thanks to ADQL (Astronomical Data Query Language), everyone can write their own query using criteria on all data available in the database. In the SIMBAD database, more than 30 tables are available. It can be rather difficult to write a complex query. We will see how many joins between tables are used, and how many fields are used in the queries. The SIMBAD usage is going to change thanks to this new feature, a new way to search in the database.

  14. Codon Optimisation Is Key for Pernisine Expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Šnajder, Marko; Mihelič, Marko; Turk, Dušan; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    Background Pernisine is an extracellular serine protease from the hyperthermophilic Archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1. Low yields from the natural host and expression problems in heterologous hosts have limited the potential applications of pernisine in industry. Methodology/ Principal Findings The challenges of pernisine overexpression in Escherichia coli were overcome by codon preference optimisation and de-novo DNA synthesis. The following forms of the pernisine gene were cloned into the pMCSGx series of vectors and expressed in E. coli cells: wild-type (pernisinewt), codon-optimised (pernisineco), and codon-optimised with a S355A mutation of a predicted active site (pernisineS355Aco). The fusion-tagged pernisines were purified using fast protein liquid chromatography equipped with Ni2+ chelate and gel filtration chromatography columns. The identities of the resultant proteins were confirmed with N-terminal sequencing, tandem mass spectrometry analysis, and immunodetection. Pernisinewt was not expressed in E. coli at detectable levels, while pernisineco and pernisineS355Aco were expressed and purified as 55-kDa proforms with yields of around 10 mg per litre E. coli culture. After heat activation of purified pernisine, the proteolytic activity of the mature pernisineco was confirmed using zymography, at a molecular weight of 36 kDa, while the mutant pernisineS355Aco remained inactive. Enzymatic performances of pernisine evaluated under different temperatures and pHs demonstrate that the optimal enzymatic activity of the recombinant pernisine is ca. 100°C and pH 7.0, respectively. Conclusions/ Significance These data demonstrate that codon optimisation is crucial for pernisine overexpression in E. coli, and that the proposed catalytic Ser355 has an important role in pernisine activity, but not in its activation process. Pernisine is activated by autoproteolytical cleavage of its N-terminal proregion. We have also confirmed that the recombinant pernisine retains the characteristics of native pernisine, as a calcium modulated thermostable serine protease. PMID:25856104

  15. Codon Distribution in Error-Detecting Circular Codes.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    In 1957, Francis Crick et al. suggested an ingenious explanation for the process of frame maintenance. The idea was based on the notion of comma-free codes. Although Crick's hypothesis proved to be wrong, in 1996, Arquès and Michel discovered the existence of a weaker version of such codes in eukaryote and prokaryote genomes, namely the so-called circular codes. Since then, circular code theory has invariably evoked great interest and made significant progress. In this article, the codon distributions in maximal comma-free, maximal self-complementary C³ and maximal self-complementary circular codes are discussed, i.e., we investigate in how many of such codes a given codon participates. As the main (and surprising) result, it is shown that the codons can be separated into very few classes (three, or five, or six) with respect to their frequency. Moreover, the distribution classes can be hierarchically ordered as refinements from maximal comma-free codes via maximal self-complementary C(3) codes to maximal self-complementary circular codes. PMID:26999215

  16. Feasibility Study of a Rotorcraft Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS): Usage and Structural Life Monitoring Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, B.; Cronkhite, J.; Bielefeld, S.; Killian, L.; Hayden, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate two techniques, Flight Condition Recognition (FCR) and Flight Load Synthesis (FIS), for usage monitoring and assess the potential benefits of extending the retirement intervals of life-limited components, thus reducing the operator's maintenance and replacement costs. Both techniques involve indirect determination of loads using measured flight parameters and subsequent fatigue analysis to calculate the life expended on the life-limited components. To assess the potential benefit of usage monitoring, the two usage techniques were compared to current methods of component retirement. In addition, comparisons were made with direct load measurements to assess the accuracy of the two techniques.

  17. Evolution of the genetic triplet code via two types of doublet codons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huan-Lin; Bagby, Stefan; van den Elsen, Jean M H

    2005-07-01

    Explaining the apparent non-random codon distribution and the nature and number of amino acids in the 'standard' genetic code remains a challenge, despite the various hypotheses so far proposed. In this paper we propose a simple new hypothesis for code evolution involving a progression from singlet to doublet to triplet codons with a reading mechanism that moves three bases each step. We suggest that triplet codons gradually evolved from two types of ambiguous doublet codons, those in which the first two bases of each three-base window were read ('prefix' codons) and those in which the last two bases of each window were read ('suffix' codons). This hypothesis explains multiple features of the genetic code such as the origin of the pattern of four-fold degenerate and two-fold degenerate triplet codons, the origin of its error minimising properties, and why there are only 20 amino acids. PMID:16059752

  18. Analyses of clinicopathological, molecular, and prognostic associations of KRAS codon 61 and codon 146 mutations in colorectal cancer: cohort study and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background KRAS mutations in codons 12 and 13 are established predictive biomarkers for anti-EGFR therapy in colorectal cancer. Previous studies suggest that KRAS codon 61 and 146 mutations may also predict resistance to anti-EGFR therapy in colorectal cancer. However, clinicopathological, molecular, and prognostic features of colorectal carcinoma with KRAS codon 61 or 146 mutation remain unclear. Methods We utilized a molecular pathological epidemiology database of 1267 colon and rectal cancers in the Nurses Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We examined KRAS mutations in codons 12, 13, 61 and 146 (assessed by pyrosequencing), in relation to clinicopathological features, and tumor molecular markers, including BRAF and PIK3CA mutations, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), LINE-1 methylation, and microsatellite instability (MSI). Survival analyses were performed in 1067 BRAF-wild-type cancers to avoid confounding by BRAF mutation. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute mortality hazard ratio, adjusting for potential confounders, including disease stage, PIK3CA mutation, CIMP, LINE-1 hypomethylation, and MSI. Results KRAS codon 61 mutations were detected in 19 cases (1.5%), and codon 146 mutations in 40 cases (3.2%). Overall KRAS mutation prevalence in colorectal cancers was 40% (=505/1267). Of interest, compared to KRAS-wild-type, overall, KRAS-mutated cancers more frequently exhibited cecal location (24% vs. 12% in KRAS-wild-type; P?codon, though statistical power was limited for codon 61 mutants. Neither KRAS codon 61 nor codon 146 mutation was significantly associated with clinical outcome or prognosis in univariate or multivariate analysis [colorectal cancer-specific mortality hazard ratio (HR)?=?0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.29-2.26 for codon 61 mutation; colorectal cancer-specific mortality HR?=?0.86, 95% CI?=?0.42-1.78 for codon 146 mutation]. Conclusions Tumors with KRAS mutations in codons 61 and 146 account for an appreciable proportion (approximately 5%) of colorectal cancers, and their clinicopathological and molecular features appear generally similar to KRAS codon 12 or 13 mutated cancers. To further assess clinical utility of KRAS codon 61 and 146 testing, large-scale trials are warranted. PMID:24885062

  19. Codon-Optimized NADH Oxidase Gene Expression and Gene Fusion with Glycerol Dehydrogenase for Bienzyme System with Cofactor Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiang; Wang, Shizhen

    2015-01-01

    NADH oxidases (NOXs) play an important role in maintaining balance of NAD+/NADH by catalyzing cofactors regeneration. The expression of nox gene from Lactobacillus brevis in Escherichia coli BL21 (BL21 (DE3)) was studied. Two strategies, the high AT-content in the region adjacent to the initiation codon and codon usage of the whole gene sequence consistent with the host, obtained the NOX activity of 59.9 U/mg and 73.3 U/mg (crude enzyme), with enhanced expression level of 2.0 and 2.5-folds, respectively. Purified NOX activity was 213.8 U/mg. Gene fusion of glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) and NOX formed bifuctional multi-enzymes for bioconversion of glycerol coupled with coenzyme regeneration. Kinetic parameters of the GDH-NOX for each substrate, glycerol and NADH, were calculated as Vmax(Glycerol) 20 ?M/min, Km(Glycerol) 19.4 mM, Vmax (NADH) 12.5 ?M/min and Km (NADH) 51.3 ?M, respectively, which indicated the potential application of GDH-NOX for quick glycerol analysis and dioxyacetone biosynthesis. PMID:26115038

  20. Endosymbiotic origin and codon bias of the nuclear gene for chloroplast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from maize.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, H; Martinez, P; Quigley, F; Martin, W; Cerff, R

    1987-01-01

    The nuclei of plant cells harbor genes for two types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAPDH) displaying a sequence divergence corresponding to the prokaryote/eukaryote separation. This strongly supports the endosymbiotic theory of chloroplast evolution and in particular the gene transfer hypothesis suggesting that the gene for the chloroplast enzyme, initially located in the genome of the endosymbiotic chloroplast progenitor, was transferred during the course of evolution into the nuclear genome of the endosymbiotic host. Codon usage in the gene for chloroplast GAPDH of maize is radically different from that employed by present-day chloroplasts and from that of the cytosolic (glycolytic) enzyme from the same cell. This reveals the presence of subcellular selective pressures which appear to be involved in the optimization of gene expression in the economically important graminaceous monocots. PMID:3131533

  1. HP-PRRSV is attenuated by de-optimization of codon pair bias in its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase nsp9 gene.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Wang, Lianghai; Huang, Chen; Yang, Longlong; Guo, Xue-Kun; Yu, Zhibin; Liu, Yihao; Yang, Peng; Feng, Wen-Hai

    2015-11-01

    There is an urgent need to develop new vaccines against highly pathogenic PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV) variant in China. The actual use of each codon pairs is more or less frequent than that of the statistical prediction and codon pair bias (CPB) usage affects gene translation. We "shuffled" the existing codons in HP-PRRSV genes GP5, M, nsp2 and nsp9, so that the CPB of these genes could be more negative. De-optimization of nsp9, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, significantly decreased PRRSV replication in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). In vitro study showed that HV-nsp9(min) and HV-nsp29(min) were remarkably attenuated in PAMs, and inoculation of pigs with 2 ml?10(5.0) TCID50/ml of HV-nsp9(min) or HV-nsp29(min) did not cause PRRS. Importantly, pigs immunized with HV-nsp29(min) were fully protected against different HP-PRRSV strains? lethal challenges. Our results imply that the CPB de-optimized HV-nsp29(min) has the potential to be used as a live vaccine candidate against HP-PRRSV. PMID:26247624

  2. Translational readthrough potential of natural termination codons in eucaryotes – The impact of RNA sequence

    PubMed Central

    Dabrowski, Maciej; Bukowy-Bieryllo, Zuzanna; Zietkiewicz, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Termination of protein synthesis is not 100% efficient. A number of natural mechanisms that suppress translation termination exist. One of them is STOP codon readthrough, the process that enables the ribosome to pass through the termination codon in mRNA and continue translation to the next STOP codon in the same reading frame. The efficiency of translational readthrough depends on a variety of factors, including the identity of the termination codon, the surrounding mRNA sequence context, and the presence of stimulating compounds. Understanding the interplay between these factors provides the necessary background for the efficient application of the STOP codon suppression approach in the therapy of diseases caused by the presence of premature termination codons. PMID:26176195

  3. Genetic code supports targeted insertion of two amino acids by one codon.

    PubMed

    Turanov, Anton A; Lobanov, Alexey V; Fomenko, Dmitri E; Morrison, Hilary G; Sogin, Mitchell L; Klobutcher, Lawrence A; Hatfield, Dolph L; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2009-01-01

    Strict one-to-one correspondence between codons and amino acids is thought to be an essential feature of the genetic code. However, we report that one codon can code for two different amino acids with the choice of the inserted amino acid determined by a specific 3' untranslated region structure and location of the dual-function codon within the messenger RNA (mRNA). We found that the codon UGA specifies insertion of selenocysteine and cysteine in the ciliate Euplotes crassus, that the dual use of this codon can occur even within the same gene, and that the structural arrangements of Euplotes mRNA preserve location-dependent dual function of UGA when expressed in mammalian cells. Thus, the genetic code supports the use of one codon to code for multiple amino acids. PMID:19131629

  4. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  5. p53 codon 72 polymorphism and risk of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Jos M; Ampuero, Sandra; Rojas, Patricio; Prado, Rodrigo; Allende, Jorge E; Barton, Sara A; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Storey et al. (1998) implicated the proline/argine polymorphism of the codon 72 of the tumor-suppressor gene p53 in the development of cervical cancer (CC) with the observation that the p53 protein is more efficiently inactivated by the E6 oncoprotein of human papillomavirus in p53 arginine as compared with its proline isoform. These authors further noted that in the United Kingdom, individuals homozygous for the arginine allele were several times more susceptible to HPV-associated tumorigenesis that proline/arginine heterozygotes. Subsequent studies in different countries failed to unanimously confirm this association. Motivated by the high incidence of CC in Chile, we undertook a case control study obtaining the following frequencies for genotypes PP, AP and AA in 60 ICC cases and 53 carefully selected controls: 0.067, 0.250, 0.683 and 0.075, 0.453, 0.472 respectively. A significant difference (X2 = 3.19 p < 0.02) and an odds ratio of 2.62 supported Storey et al (1998)'s results. In addition, rejecting previous hypotheses about the world distribution of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism, we conclude that this distribution most likely represents ancient human dispersal routes. Several methodological and biological explanations for the results obtained in previous negative association studies are briefly discussed. PMID:14513722

  6. Codon number shapes peptide redundancy in the universal proteome composition.

    PubMed

    Kusalik, Anthony; Trost, Brett; Bickis, Mik; Fasano, Candida; Capone, Giovanni; Kanduc, Darja

    2009-10-01

    The proteomes catalogued in the UniRef100 database were collected into a single proteome set and examined for actual versus theoretical pentapeptide occurrences. We found a highly diversified degree of pentapeptide redundancy. Numerically, 953 pentamers are expressed only once in the protein world, whereas 103 pentamers occur more than 50,000 times. Moreover, it seems that 417 potentially possible pentapeptides are not present in the protein world. On the whole, tracing the redundancy profile of the protein world as a function of pentapeptide occurrences reveals a quasi-Gaussian curve, with tails representing scarcely and repeatedly occurring 5-mers. Analysis of physico-chemical-biological parameters shows that codon number is the main factor influencing and favoring specific pentapeptide frequencies in the universal proteome composition. That is, when compared to the set of never-expressed 5-mers, the pentapeptides frequently represented in the universal proteome are endowed with a higher number of multi-codonic amino acids. In contrast, the bulkiness degree and the hydrophobicity level play a smaller role. Unexpectedly, the heat of formation of pentapeptide appears to have the least influence. PMID:19591891

  7. Mine or Theirs, Where Do Users Go? A Comparison of E-Journal Usage at the OhioLINK Electronic Journal Center Platform versus the Elsevier ScienceDirect Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Juleah

    2015-01-01

    This research provides librarians with a model for assessing and predicting which platforms patrons will use to access the same content, specifically comparing usage at the Ohio Library and Information Network (OhioLINK) Electronic Journal Center (EJC) and at Elsevier's ScienceDirect from 2007 to 2013. Findings show that in the earlier years, the

  8. Mine or Theirs, Where Do Users Go? A Comparison of E-Journal Usage at the OhioLINK Electronic Journal Center Platform versus the Elsevier ScienceDirect Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Juleah

    2015-01-01

    This research provides librarians with a model for assessing and predicting which platforms patrons will use to access the same content, specifically comparing usage at the Ohio Library and Information Network (OhioLINK) Electronic Journal Center (EJC) and at Elsevier's ScienceDirect from 2007 to 2013. Findings show that in the earlier years, the…

  9. Eukaryotic Evolutionary Transitions Are Associated with Extreme Codon Bias in Functionally-Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Nicholas J.; Gu, Quan; Nagaraj, Shivashankar H.; Ding, Yong-Sheng; Dalrymple, Brian P.; Reverter, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Codon bias in the genome of an organism influences its phenome by changing the speed and efficiency of mRNA translation and hence protein abundance. We hypothesized that differences in codon bias, either between-species differences in orthologous genes, or within-species differences between genes, may play an evolutionary role. To explore this hypothesis, we compared the genome-wide codon bias in six species that occupy vital positions in the Eukaryotic Tree of Life. We acquired the entire protein coding sequences for these organisms, computed the codon bias for all genes in each organism and explored the output for relationships between codon bias and protein function, both within- and between-lineages. We discovered five notable coordinated patterns, with extreme codon bias most pronounced in traits considered highly characteristic of a given lineage. Firstly, the Homo sapiens genome had stronger codon bias for DNA-binding transcription factors than the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, whereas the opposite was true for ribosomal proteins perhaps underscoring transcriptional regulation in the origin of complexity. Secondly, both mammalian species examined possessed extreme codon bias in genes relating to hair a tissue unique to mammals. Thirdly, Arabidopsis thaliana showed extreme codon bias in genes implicated in cell wall formation and chloroplast function which are unique to plants. Fourthly, Gallus gallus possessed strong codon bias in a subset of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins perhaps reflecting the enhanced bioenergetic efficiency in birds that co-evolved with flight. And lastly, the G. gallus genome had extreme codon bias for the Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor which may help to explain their spontaneous recovery from deafness. We propose that extreme codon bias in groups of genes that encode functionally related proteins has a pathway-level energetic explanation. PMID:21966531

  10. Codon 219 polymorphism of PRNP in healthy caucasians and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients

    SciTech Connect

    Petraroli, R.; Pocchiari, M.

    1996-04-01

    A number of point and insert mutations of the PrP gene (PRNP) have been linked to familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease (GSS). Moreover, the methionine/valine homozygosity at the polymorphic codon 129 of PRNP may cause a predisposition to sporadic and iatrogenic CJD or may control the age at onset of familial cases carrying either the 144-bp insertion or codon 178, codon 198, and codon 210 pathogenic mutations in PRNP. In addition, the association of methionine or valine at codon 129 and the point mutation at codon 178 on the same allele seem to play an important role in determining either fatal familial insomnia or CJD. However, it is noteworthy that a relationship between codon 129 polymorphism and accelerated pathogenesis (early age at onset or shorter duration of the disease) has not been seen in familial CJD patients with codon 200 mutation or in GSS patients with codon 102 mutation, arguing that other, as yet unidentified, gene products or environmental factors, or both, may influence the clinical expression of these diseases. 17 refs.

  11. Partial Optimization of the 5-Terminal Codon Increased a Recombination Porcine Pancreatic Lipase (opPPL) Expression in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Chen, Dan; Tang, Jiayong; Jia, Gang; Long, Dingbiao; Liu, Guangmang; Chen, Xiaoling; Shang, Haiying

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic lipase plays a key role in intestinal digestion of feed fat, and is often deficient in young animals such as weaning piglets. The objective of this study was to express and characterize a partial codon optimized porcine pancreatic lipase (opPPL). A 537 bp cDNA fragment encoding N-terminus amino acid residue of the mature porcine pancreatic lipase was synthesized according to the codon bias of Pichia pastoris and ligated to the full-length porcine pancreatic lipase cDNA fragment. The codon optimized PPL was cloned into the pPICZαA (Invitrogen, Beijing, China) vector. After the resultant opPPL/pPICZαΑ plasmid was transformed into P.pastoris, the over-expressed extracellular opPPL containing a His-tag to the C terminus was purified using Ni Sepharose affinity column (GE Healthcare, Piscataway, NJ, USA), and was characterized against the native enzyme (commercial PPL from porcine pancreas, Sigma). The opPPL exhibited a molecular mass of approximately 52 kDa, and showed optimal temperature (40°C), optimal pH (8.0), Km (0.041 mM), and Vmax (2.008 µmol.mg protein −1.min−1) similar to those of the commercial enzyme with p-NPP as the substrate. The recombinant enzyme was stable at 60°C, but lost 80% (P<0.05) of its activity after exposure to heat ≥60°C for 20 min. The codon optimization increased opPPL yield for ca 4 folds (146 mg.L−1 vs 36 mg.L−1) and total enzyme activity increased about 5 folds (1900 IU.L−1 vs 367 IU.L−1) compared with those native naPPL/pPICZαΑ tranformant. Comparison of gene copies and mRNA profiles between the two strains indicated the increased rePPL yields may partly be ascribed to the increased protein translational efficiency after codon optimization. In conclusion, we successfully optimized 5-terminal of porcine pancreatic lipase encoding gene and over-expressed the gene in P. pastoris as an extracellular, functional enzyme. The recombination enzyme demonstrates a potential for future use as an animal feed additive for animal improvement. PMID:25544987

  12. Prion protein gene analysis in three kindreds with fatal familial insomnia (FFI): Codon 178 mutation and codon 129 polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Medori, R.; Tritschler, H.J. )

    1993-10-01

    Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a disease linked to a GAC(Asp) [yields] AAC(Asn) mutation in codon 178 of the prion protein (PrP) gene. FFI is characterized clinically by untreatable progressive insomnia, dysautonomia, and motor dysfunctions and is characterized pathologically by selective thalamic atrophy. The authors confirmed the 178[sup Asn] mutation in the PrP gene of a third FFI family of French ancestry. Three family members who are under 40 years of age and who inherited the mutation showed only reduced perfusion in the basal ganglia on single photon emission computerized tomography. Some FFI features differ from the clinical and neuropathologic findings associated with 178[sup Asn] reported elsewhere. However, additional intragenic mutations accounting for the phenotypic differences were not observed in two affected individuals. In other sporadic and familial forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Gerstmann-Straeussler syndrome, Met or Val homozygosity at polymorphic codon 129 is associated with a more severe phenotype, younger age at onset, and faster progression. In FFI, young and old individuals at disease onset had 129[sup Met/Val]. Moreover, of five 178[sup Asn] individuals who are above age-at-onset range and who are well, two have 129[sup Met] and three have 129[sup Met/Val], suggesting that polymorphic site 129 does not modulate FFI phenotypic expression. Genetic heterogeneity and environment may play an important role in inter- and intrafamilial variability of the 178[sup Asn] mutation. 32 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Codon optimization, genetic insulation, and an rtTA reporter improve performance of the tetracycline switch.

    PubMed

    Wells, K D; Foster, J A; Moore, K; Pursel, V G; Wall, R J

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this work was to further develop a tetracycline repressor (TetR) protein system that allows control of transgene expression. First, to circumvent the need for a binary approach, a single plasmid design was constructed and tested in tissue culture. To indirectly assay integrations that express the synthetic transcription factor (rtTA), a bicistronic gene was built which included an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and a green fluorescent protein coding region (GFP) on the same expression cassette as the coding region of rtTA (pTetGREEN). This construct did not produce fluorescent colonies when stably integrated and provided minimal expression of GFP in the face of adequate expression of rtTA. The coding region for TetR was then altered by introducing 156 silent point mutations to simulate mammalian genes. Replacement of wild-type TetR gene (tetR) in pTetGREEN with 'mammalianized' tetR provided GFP expression. Adjustment of codon usage in the tetR region of rtTA nearly doubled the expression level of functional rtTA. To increase the number of rtTA expressing lines, the chicken egg-white lysozyme matrix attachment region (MAR) was introduced into the single plasmid design just upstream of the tetracycline operators (tetO). Inclusion of the MAR doubled the number of colonies that expressed rtTA (44% vs 88%). With the modifications described here, the number of lines that express rtTA and provide induction from a single plasmid design can be increased by the inclusion of a MAR and the level of rtTA expression can be further increased by adjusting the base composition of the TetR coding region. The MAR also insulates the inducible gene from the promoter driving rtTA. PMID:10669945

  14. Feasibility Study of a Rotorcraft Health and Usage Monitoring System ( HUMS): Usage and Structural Life Monitoring Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, B.; Cronkhite, J.; Bielefeld, S.; Killian, L.; Hayden, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate two techniques, Flight Condition Recognition (FCR) and Flight Load Synthesis (FLS), for usage monitoring and assess the potential benefits of extending the retirement intervals of life-limited components, thus reducing the operator's maintenance and replacement costs. Both techniques involve indirect determination of loads using measured flight parameters and subsequent fatigue analysis to calculate the life expended on the life-limited components. To assess the potential benefit of usage monitoring, the two usage techniques were compared to current methods of component retirement. In addition, comparisons were made with direct load measurements to assess the accuracy of the two techniques. The data that was used for the evaluation of the usage monitoring techniques was collected under an independent HUMS Flight trial program, using a commercially available HUMS and data recording system. The usage data collect from the HUMS trial aircraft was analyzed off-line using PC-based software that included the FCR and FLS techniques. In the future, if the technique prove feasible, usage monitoring would be incorporated into the onboard HUMS.

  15. Short spacing between the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and P codon destabilizes codon-anticodon pairing in the P site to promote +1 programmed frameshifting

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, Aishwarya; Fredrick, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Summary Programmed frameshifting in the RF2 gene (prfB) involves an intragenic Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence. To investigate the role of SD-ASD pairing in the mechanism of frameshifting, we have analyzed the effect of spacing between the SD sequence and P codon on P-site tRNA binding and RF2-dependent termination. When the spacing between an extended SD sequence and the P codon is decreased from 4 to 1 nucleotides (nt), the dissociation rate (koff) for P-site tRNA increases by >100-fold. Toeprinting analysis shows that pretranslocation complexes cannot be formed when the spacer sequence is ? 2 nt. Instead, the tRNA added secondarily to fill the A site and its corresponding codon move spontaneously into the P site, resulting in a complex with a 3-nt longer spacer between the SD-ASD helix and the P codon. While close proximity of the SD clearly destabilizes P-site tRNA, RF2-dependent termination and EF-Tu-dependent decoding are largely unaffected in analogous complexes. These data support a model in which formation of the SD-ASD helix in ribosomes stalled at the in-frame UGA codon of prfB generates tension on the mRNA that destabilizes codon-anticodon pairing in the P site and promotes slippage of the mRNA in the 5? direction. PMID:21143320

  16. Genetic code supports targeted insertion of two amino acids by one codon

    PubMed Central

    Turanov, Anton A.; Lobanov, Alexey V.; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Klobutcher, Lawrence A.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Strict one-to-one correspondence between codons and amino acids is thought to be an essential feature of the genetic code. However, here we report that one codon can code for two different amino acids with the choice of the inserted amino acid determined by a specific 3?-UTR structure and location of the dual-function codon within the mRNA. We found that UGA specifies insertion of selenocysteine and cysteine in the ciliate Euplotes crassus, that the dual use of this codon can occur even within the same gene, and that the structural arrangements of Euplotes mRNA preserve location-dependent dual function of UGA when expressed in mammalian cells. Thus, the genetic code supports the use of one codon to code for multiple amino acids. PMID:19131629

  17. Virus attenuation by genome-scale changes in codon pair bias.

    PubMed

    Coleman, J Robert; Papamichail, Dimitris; Skiena, Steven; Futcher, Bruce; Wimmer, Eckard; Mueller, Steffen

    2008-06-27

    As a result of the redundancy of the genetic code, adjacent pairs of amino acids can be encoded by as many as 36 different pairs of synonymous codons. A species-specific "codon pair bias" provides that some synonymous codon pairs are used more or less frequently than statistically predicted. We synthesized de novo large DNA molecules using hundreds of over-or underrepresented synonymous codon pairs to encode the poliovirus capsid protein. Underrepresented codon pairs caused decreased rates of protein translation, and polioviruses containing such amino acid-independent changes were attenuated in mice. Polioviruses thus customized were used to immunize mice and provided protective immunity after challenge. This "death by a thousand cuts" strategy could be generally applicable to attenuating many kinds of viruses. PMID:18583614

  18. [How translation termination factor eRF1 Euplotes does not recognise UGA stop codon].

    PubMed

    Lekomtsev, S A; Kolosov, P M; Frolova, L Iu; Bidou, L; Rousset, J-P; Kiselev, L L

    2007-01-01

    In universal-code eukaryotes, a single class-1 translation termination factor eRF1 decodes all three stop codons, UAA, UAG, and UGA. In some ciliates with variant genetic codes one or two stop codons are used to encode amino acid(s) and are not recognized by eRF1. In Stylonychia, UAG and UAA codons are reassigned as glutamine codons, and in Euplotes, UGA is reassigned as cysteine codon. In omnipotent eRF1s, stop codon recognition is associated with the N-terminal domain of eRF1. Because variant-code ciliates most likely evolved from universal code ancestor(s), structural features should exist in ciliate eRF1s that restrict their stop codon recognition. To find out amino acid residues which confer UAR-only specificity to Euplotes aediculatus eRF1, eRFI chimeras were constructed by swapping eRF1 E. aediculatus N-terminal domain sequences with the matching ones from the human protein. In these chimeras the MC-domain was from human eRF1. Functional analysis of these chimeric eRFI highlighted the crucial role of the two regions (positions 38-50 and 123-145) in the N-terminal domain of E. aediculatus eRF1 that restrict E. aediculatus eRF1 specificity toward UAR codons. Possibly, restriction of eRF1 specificity to UAR codons might have been an early event occurring in independent instances in ciliate evolutionary history, possibly facilitating the reassignment of UGA to sense codons. PMID:18318120

  19. Association between p53Codon 72 (Arg72Pro) Polymorphism and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Neamatzadeh, Hossein; Soleimanizad, Reza; Zare-Shehneh, Masoud; Gharibi, Saba; Shekari, Abolfazl; Bahman Rahimzadeh, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glaucomatous neuropathy is a type of cell death due to apoptosis. The p53 gene is one of the regulatory genes of apoptosis. Recently, the association between the p53 gene encoding for proline at codon 72 and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) has been studied in some ethnic groups. This study is the first association analysis of POAG and p53 codon 72 polymorphism in Iranian patients. Methods: A cohort of 65 unrelated patients with POAG (age range from 12-62 years, mean SD of 40.16 17.51 years) and 65 unrelated control subjects (without glaucoma, age range of 14-63 years, mean SD of 35.64 13.61 years) were selected. In Iranian POAG patients and normal healthy controls, the p53 codon 72 polymorphism in exon 4 was amplified using polymerase chain reaction. The amplified DNA fragments were digested with the BstUI restriction enzyme, and the digestion patterns were used to identify the alleles for the polymorphic site. Results: Comparisons revealed significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of Pro72Arg between POAG patients and control group. A higher risk of POAG was associated with allele Pro (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.23.4) and genotype Pro/Pro (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 0.13-12.7). Conclusion: The p53 Pro72 allele was more frequent in Iranian POAG patients than in the control group (P<0.05). The present findings show that the individuals with the Pro/Pro genotype may be more likely to develop POAG. However, additional studies are necessary to confirm this association. PMID:25605490

  20. Code Usage Analysis System (CUAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horsley, P. H.; Oliver, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    A set of computer programs is offered to aid a user in evaluating performance of an application program. The system provides reports of subroutine usage, program errors, and segment loading which occurred during the execution of an application program. It is presented in support of the development and validation of the space vehicle dynamics project.

  1. Users, Use, and Usage Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogg, Jill E.

    2010-01-01

    For the August/September 2010 issue of "Library Technology Reports" (LTR) published by the American Library Association Techsource division, the author and her colleague, Rachel A. Fleming-May, focused on use and usage, both of electronic resources and use of libraries in general. In this article, the author discusses a few of the findings from an…

  2. Video personalization for usage environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Belle L.; Lin, Ching-Yung; Smith, John R.

    2002-07-01

    A video personalization and summarization system is designed and implemented incorporating usage environment to dynamically generate a personalized video summary. The personalization system adopts the three-tier server-middleware-client architecture in order to select, adapt, and deliver rich media content to the user. The server stores the content sources along with their corresponding MPEG-7 metadata descriptions. Our semantic metadata is provided through the use of the VideoAnnEx MPEG-7 Video Annotation Tool. When the user initiates a request for content, the client communicates the MPEG-21 usage environment description along with the user query to the middleware. The middleware is powered by the personalization engine and the content adaptation engine. Our personalization engine includes the VideoSue Summarization on Usage Environment engine that selects the optimal set of desired contents according to user preferences. Afterwards, the adaptation engine performs the required transformations and compositions of the selected contents for the specific usage environment using our VideoEd Editing and Composition Tool. Finally, two personalization and summarization systems are demonstrated for the IBM Websphere Portal Server and for the pervasive PDA devices.

  3. Modeling Educational Usage of Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazman, Sacide Guzin; Usluel, Yasemin Kocak

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design a structural model explaining how users could utilize Facebook for educational purposes. In order to shed light on the educational usage of Facebook, in constructing the model, the relationship between users' Facebook adoption processes and their educational use of Facebook were included indirectly while the

  4. Modeling Educational Usage of Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazman, Sacide Guzin; Usluel, Yasemin Kocak

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design a structural model explaining how users could utilize Facebook for educational purposes. In order to shed light on the educational usage of Facebook, in constructing the model, the relationship between users' Facebook adoption processes and their educational use of Facebook were included indirectly while the…

  5. Users, Use, and Usage Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogg, Jill E.

    2010-01-01

    For the August/September 2010 issue of "Library Technology Reports" (LTR) published by the American Library Association Techsource division, the author and her colleague, Rachel A. Fleming-May, focused on use and usage, both of electronic resources and use of libraries in general. In this article, the author discusses a few of the findings from an

  6. Codon optimization of xylA gene for recombinant glucose isomerase production in Pichia pastoris and fed-batch feeding strategies to fine-tune bioreactor performance.

    PubMed

    Ata, Özge; Boy, Erdem; Güneş, Hande; Çalık, Pınar

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this work are the optimization of the codons of xylA gene from Thermus thermophilus to enhance the production of recombinant glucose isomerase (rGI) in P. pastoris and to investigate the effects of feeding strategies on rGI production. Codons of xylA gene from T. thermophilus were optimized, ca. 30 % of the codons were replaced with those with higher frequencies according to the codon usage bias of P. pastoris, codon optimization resulted in a 2.4-fold higher rGI activity. To fine-tune bioreactor performance, fed-batch bioreactor feeding strategies were designed as continuous exponential methanol feeding with pre-calculated feeding rate based on the pre-determined specific growth rate, and fed-batch methanol-stat feeding. Six feeding strategies were designed, as follows: (S1) continuous exponential methanol- and pulse- sorbitol feeding; (S2) continuous exponential methanol- and peptone- feeding; (S3) continuous exponential methanol- and pulse- mannitol feeding; (S4) continuous exponential methanol- and peptone- feeding and pulse-mannitol feeding; (S5) methanol-stat feeding by keeping methanol concentration at 5 g L(-1); and, (S6) methanol-stat feeding by keeping methanol concentration at 5 g L(-1) and pulse-mannitol feeding. The highest cell and rGI activity was attained as 117 g L(-1) at t = 66 h and 32530 U L(-1) at t = 53 h, in strategy-S5. The use of the co-substrate mannitol does not increase the rGI activity in methanol-stat feeding, where 4.1-fold lower rGI activity was obtained in strategy-S6. The overall cell yield on total substrate was determined at t = 53 h as 0.21 g g(-1) in S5 strategy. PMID:25492311

  7. GNAS codon 201 mutations are uncommon in intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct

    PubMed Central

    Matthaei, Hanno; Wu, Jian; Dal Molin, Marco; Debeljak, Marija; Lingohr, Philipp; Katabi, Nora; Klimstra, David S; Adsay, N Volkan; Eshleman, James R; Schulick, Richard D; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Vogelstein, Bert; Hruban, Ralph H; Maitra, Anirban

    2012-01-01

    Background Activating point mutations of GNAS at codon 201 have been detected in approximately two thirds of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas. Intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile ducts (IPNBs) morphologically resemble pancreatic IPMNs. This study sought to assess the mutational status of GNAS at codon 201 in IPNBs. Methods Thirty-four patients were included. DNA from microdissected IPNBs was subjected to a polymerase chain reaction and ligation method for the detection of GNAS mutations at codon 201 and of KRAS mutations at codon 12. Mutational status was compared with clinical and pathologic data. Results The IPNBs had a median diameter of 3.5 cm and were located intrahepatically (n= 6), extrahepatically (n= 13), both intra- and extrahepatically (n= 4) or in the gallbladder (intracystic papillary neoplasms, n= 11). Most exhibited pancreatobiliary differentiation (n= 20), high-grade dysplasia (n= 26) and an associated adenocarcinoma (n= 20). Analysis of GNAS codon 201 identified only one mutant sample in a multifocal intestinal subtype intrahepatic IPNB with high-grade dysplasia. Six lesions harboured a KRAS codon 12 mutation. Conclusions GNAS codon 201 mutations are uncommon in IPNBs, by contrast with pancreatic IPMNs. More comprehensive molecular profiling is needed to uncover the pathways involved in IPNB development. PMID:22954004

  8. A coordinated codon-dependent regulation of translation by Elongator

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Fanelie; Hermand, Damien

    2012-01-01

    More than a decade ago, the purification of the form of the RNA polymerase II (PolII) engaged in elongation led to the discovery of an associated, multi-subunit (Elp1-6) complex named Elongator by the Svejstrup lab. Although further evidence supported the original notion that Elongator is involved in transcription, Elongator lacked some of the expected features for a regulator of the elongating PolII. The discovery by the Bystrm lab, based on genetic dissection, that Elongator is pivotal for tRNA modifications, and that all the reported phenotypes of Elongator mutants are suppressed by the overexpression of two tRNAs added to the confusion. The increasing range of both potential substrates and biological processes regulated by Elongator in higher eukaryotes indicates that the major challenge of the field is to determine the biologically relevant function of Elongator. Our recent proteome-wide study in fission yeast supports a coordinated codon-dependent regulation of translation by Elongator. Here we provide additional analyses extending this hypothesis to budding yeast and worm. PMID:23165209

  9. The unfolded protein response affects readthrough of premature termination codons

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Yifat S; McClure, Michelle L; Rowe, Steven M; Sorscher, Eric J; Bester, Assaf C; Manor, Miriam; Kerem, Eitan; Rivlin, Joseph; Zahdeh, Fouad; Mann, Matthias; Geiger, Tamar; Kerem, Batsheva

    2014-01-01

    One-third of monogenic inherited diseases result from premature termination codons (PTCs). Readthrough of in-frame PTCs enables synthesis of full-length functional proteins. However, extended variability in the response to readthrough treatment is found among patients, which correlates with the level of nonsense transcripts. Here, we aimed to reveal cellular pathways affecting this inter-patient variability. We show that activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) governs the response to readthrough treatment by regulating the levels of transcripts carrying PTCs. Quantitative proteomic analyses showed substantial differences in UPR activation between patients carrying PTCs, correlating with their response. We further found a significant inverse correlation between the UPR and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), suggesting a feedback loop between these homeostatic pathways. We uncovered and characterized the mechanism underlying this NMD-UPR feedback loop, which augments both UPR activation and NMD attenuation. Importantly, this feedback loop enhances the response to readthrough treatment, highlighting its clinical importance. Altogether, our study demonstrates the importance of the UPR and its regulatory network for genetic diseases caused by PTCs and for cell homeostasis under normal conditions. PMID:24705877

  10. Suppression of Premature Termination Codons as a Therapeutic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Keeling, Kim M.; Wang, Dan; Conard, Sara E.; Bedwell, David M.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we describe our current understanding of translation termination and pharmacological agents that influence the accuracy of this process. A number of drugs have been identified that induce suppression of translation termination at in-frame premature termination codons (PTCs; also known as nonsense mutations) in mammalian cells. We discuss efforts to utilize these drugs to suppress disease-causing PTCs that result in the loss of protein expression and function. In-frame PTCs represent a genotypic subset of mutations that make up ~11% of all known mutations that cause genetic diseases, and millions of patients have diseases attributable to PTCs. Current approaches aimed at reducing the efficiency of translation termination at PTCs (referred to as PTC suppression therapy) have the goal of alleviating the phenotypic consequences of a wide range of genetic diseases. Suppression therapy is currently in clinical trials for treatment of several genetic diseases caused by PTCs, and preliminary results suggest that some patients have shown clinical improvements. While current progress is promising, we discuss various approaches that may further enhance the efficiency of this novel therapeutic approach. PMID:22672057

  11. Efficient Reassignment of a Frequent Serine Codon in Wild-Type Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ho, Joanne M; Reynolds, Noah M; Rivera, Keith; Connolly, Morgan; Guo, Li-Tao; Ling, Jiqiang; Pappin, Darryl J; Church, George M; Sll, Dieter

    2016-02-19

    Expansion of the genetic code through engineering the translation machinery has greatly increased the chemical repertoire of the proteome. This has been accomplished mainly by read-through of UAG or UGA stop codons by the noncanonical aminoacyl-tRNA of choice. While stop codon read-through involves competition with the translation release factors, sense codon reassignment entails competition with a large pool of endogenous tRNAs. We used an engineered pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase to incorporate 3-iodo-l-phenylalanine (3-I-Phe) at a number of different serine and leucine codons in wild-type Escherichia coli. Quantitative LC-MS/MS measurements of amino acid incorporation yields carried out in a selected reaction monitoring experiment revealed that the 3-I-Phe abundance at the Ser208AGU codon in superfolder GFP was 65 17%. This method also allowed quantification of other amino acids (serine, 33 17%; phenylalanine, 1 1%; threonine, 1 1%) that compete with 3-I-Phe at both the aminoacylation and decoding steps of translation for incorporation at the same codon position. Reassignments of different serine (AGU, AGC, UCG) and leucine (CUG) codons with the matching tRNA(Pyl) anticodon variants were met with varying success, and our findings provide a guideline for the choice of sense codons to be reassigned. Our results indicate that the 3-iodo-l-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (IFRS)/tRNA(Pyl) pair can efficiently outcompete the cellular machinery to reassign select sense codons in wild-type E. coli. PMID:26544153

  12. Opportunistic Resource Usage in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreuzer, Peter; Hufnagel, Dirk; Dykstra, D.; Gutsche, O.; Tadel, M.; Sfiligoi, I.; Letts, J.; Wuerthwein, F.; McCrea, A.; Bockelman, B.; Fajardo, E.; Linares, L.; Wagner, R.; Konstantinov, P.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bradley, D.; Cms Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    CMS is using a tiered setup of dedicated computing resources provided by sites distributed over the world and organized in WLCG. These sites pledge resources to CMS and are preparing them especially for CMS to run the experiment's applications. But there are more resources available opportunistically both on the GRID and in local university and research clusters which can be used for CMS applications. We will present CMS' strategy to use opportunistic resources and prepare them dynamically to run CMS applications. CMS is able to run its applications on resources that can be reached through the GRID, through EC2 compliant cloud interfaces. Even resources that can be used through ssh login nodes can be harnessed. All of these usage modes are integrated transparently into the GlideIn WMS submission infrastructure, which is the basis of CMS' opportunistic resource usage strategy. Technologies like Parrot to mount the software distribution via CVMFS and xrootd for access to data and simulation samples via the WAN are used and will be described. We will summarize the experience with opportunistic resource usage and give an outlook for the restart of LHC data taking in 2015.

  13. tRNAomics: tRNA gene copy number variation and codon use provide bioinformatic evidence of a new anticodon:codon wobble pair in a eukaryote.

    PubMed

    Iben, James R; Maraia, Richard J

    2012-07-01

    tRNA genes are interspersed throughout eukaryotic DNA, contributing to genome architecture and evolution in addition to translation of the transcriptome. Codon use correlates with tRNA gene copy number in noncomplex organisms including yeasts. Synonymous codons impact translation with various outcomes, dependent on relative tRNA abundances. Availability of whole-genome sequences allowed us to examine tRNA gene copy number variation (tgCNV) and codon use in four Schizosaccharomyces species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. tRNA gene numbers vary from 171 to 322 in the four Schizosaccharomyces despite very high similarity in other features of their genomes. In addition, we performed whole-genome sequencing of several related laboratory strains of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and found tgCNV at a cluster of tRNA genes. We examined for the first time effects of wobble rules on correlation of tRNA gene number and codon use and showed improvement for S. cerevisiae and three of the Schizosaccharomyces species. In contrast, correlation in Schizosaccharomyces japonicus is poor due to markedly divergent tRNA gene content, and much worsened by the wobble rules. In japonicus, some tRNA iso-acceptor genes are absent and others are greatly reduced relative to the other yeasts, while genes for synonymous wobble iso-acceptors are amplified, indicating wobble use not apparent in any other eukaryote. We identified a subset of japonicus-specific wobbles that improves correlation of codon use and tRNA gene content in japonicus. We conclude that tgCNV is high among Schizo species and occurs in related laboratory strains of S. pombe (and expectedly other species), and tRNAome-codon analyses can provide insight into species-specific wobble decoding. PMID:22586155

  14. Expletive Deleted: A Study of Language Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nykodym, Nick; Boyd, John A.

    The research findings of profane language usage need to be extended so that more may be learned about human communication. In order to establish profane language usage norms, eighty-six university students were asked to estimate their profane language usage in each of three categories (excretory, religious, and sexual) in reference to three

  15. Molecular mechanism of scanning and start codon selection in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2011-09-01

    The correct translation of mRNA depends critically on the ability to initiate at the right AUG codon. For most mRNAs in eukaryotic cells, this is accomplished by the scanning mechanism, wherein the small (40S) ribosomal subunit attaches to the 5' end of the mRNA and then inspects the leader base by base for an AUG in a suitable context, using complementarity with the anticodon of methionyl initiator tRNA (Met-tRNAiMet) as the key means of identifying AUG. Over the past decade, a combination of yeast genetics, biochemical analysis in reconstituted systems, and structural biology has enabled great progress in deciphering the mechanism of ribosomal scanning. A robust molecular model now exists, describing the roles of initiation factors, notably eukaryotic initiation factor 1 (eIF1) and eIF1A, in stabilizing an "open" conformation of the 40S subunit with Met-tRNAiMet bound in a low-affinity state conducive to scanning and in triggering rearrangement into a "closed" conformation incompatible with scanning, which features Met-tRNAiMet more tightly bound to the "P" site and base paired with AUG. It has also emerged that multiple DEAD-box RNA helicases participate in producing a single-stranded "landing pad" for the 40S subunit and in removing the secondary structure to enable the mRNA to traverse the 40S mRNA-binding channel in the single-stranded form for base-by-base inspection in the P site. PMID:21885680

  16. Molecular Mechanism of Scanning and Start Codon Selection in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Hinnebusch, Alan G.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The correct translation of mRNA depends critically on the ability to initiate at the right AUG codon. For most mRNAs in eukaryotic cells, this is accomplished by the scanning mechanism, wherein the small (40S) ribosomal subunit attaches to the 5′ end of the mRNA and then inspects the leader base by base for an AUG in a suitable context, using complementarity with the anticodon of methionyl initiator tRNA (Met-tRNAiMet) as the key means of identifying AUG. Over the past decade, a combination of yeast genetics, biochemical analysis in reconstituted systems, and structural biology has enabled great progress in deciphering the mechanism of ribosomal scanning. A robust molecular model now exists, describing the roles of initiation factors, notably eukaryotic initiation factor 1 (eIF1) and eIF1A, in stabilizing an “open” conformation of the 40S subunit with Met-tRNAiMet bound in a low-affinity state conducive to scanning and in triggering rearrangement into a “closed” conformation incompatible with scanning, which features Met-tRNAiMet more tightly bound to the “P” site and base paired with AUG. It has also emerged that multiple DEAD-box RNA helicases participate in producing a single-stranded “landing pad” for the 40S subunit and in removing the secondary structure to enable the mRNA to traverse the 40S mRNA-binding channel in the single-stranded form for base-by-base inspection in the P site. PMID:21885680

  17. Functional characterization of the eukaryotic SECIS elements which direct selenocysteine insertion at UGA codons.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, M J; Banu, L; Harney, J W; Larsen, P R

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the requirements for selenocysteine insertion at single or multiple UGA codons in eukaryotic selenoproteins. Two functional SECIS elements were identified in the 3' untranslated region of the rat selenoprotein P mRNA, with predicted stem-loops and critical nucleotides similar to those in the SECIS elements in the type I iodothyronine 5' deiodinase (5'DI) and glutathione peroxidase selenoprotein mRNAs. Site-directed mutational analyses of three SECIS elements confirmed that conserved nucleotides in the loop and in unpaired regions of the stem are critical for activity. This indicates that multiple contact sites are required for SECIS function. Stop codon function at any of five out-of-context UGA codons in the 5'DI mRNA was suppressed by SECIS elements from the 5'DI or selenoprotein P genes linked downstream. Thus, the presence of SECIS elements in eukaryotic selenoprotein mRNAs permits complete flexibility in UGA codon position. Images PMID:8344267

  18. Reinitiation at non-canonical start codons leads to leak expression when incorporating unnatural amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Kalstrup, Tanja; Blunck, Rikard

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of a continuously growing selection of unnatural amino acids (UAAs), UAA insertion becomes increasingly popular for investigating proteins. However, it can prove problematic to ensure the homogeneity of the expressed proteins, when homogeneity is compromised by leak expression. Here, we show that leak expression may be mediated by reinitiation and can result in unwanted proteins when stop codons for UAA insertion are mutated into the N-terminus of proteins. We demonstrate that up to 25% of leak expression occurs through reinitiation in the Shaker-Kv channel when stop codons are located within the first 70 amino acids. Several non-canonical start codons were identified as translation reinitaition sites, and by removing the start codons, we were able to decrease leak expression to less than 1%. Our study emphasizes the need to carefully inspect for leak expression when inserting UAAs and demonstrates how leak expression can be eliminated. PMID:26153354

  19. Reassignment of a rare sense codon to a non-canonical amino acid in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Takahito; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Ohtake, Kazumasa; Takahashi, Mihoko; Hayashi, Akiko; Iraha, Fumie; Kira, Satoshi; Yanagisawa, Tatsuo; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Hoshi, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Takatsugu; Sakamoto, Kensaku

    2015-01-01

    The immutability of the genetic code has been challenged with the successful reassignment of the UAG stop codon to non-natural amino acids in Escherichia coli. In the present study, we demonstrated the in vivo reassignment of the AGG sense codon from arginine to l-homoarginine. As the first step, we engineered a novel variant of the archaeal pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) able to recognize l-homoarginine and l-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine (l-NIL). When this PylRS variant or HarRS was expressed in E. coli, together with the AGG-reading tRNAPylCCU molecule, these arginine analogs were efficiently incorporated into proteins in response to AGG. Next, some or all of the AGG codons in the essential genes were eliminated by their synonymous replacements with other arginine codons, whereas the majority of the AGG codons remained in the genome. The bacterial host's ability to translate AGG into arginine was then restricted in a temperature-dependent manner. The temperature sensitivity caused by this restriction was rescued by the translation of AGG to l-homoarginine or l-NIL. The assignment of AGG to l-homoarginine in the cells was confirmed by mass spectrometric analyses. The results showed the feasibility of breaking the degeneracy of sense codons to enhance the amino-acid diversity in the genetic code. PMID:26240376

  20. The TP53 Codon 72 Polymorphism and Risk of Sporadic Prostate Cancer among Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    BABAEI, Farhad; AHMADI, Seyed Ali; ABIRI, Ramin; REZAEI, Farhad; NASERI, Maryam; MAHMOUDI, Mahmoud; NATEGH, Rakhshande; MOKHTARI AZAD, Talat

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The TP53 gene is one of the most frequently mutated genes amongst human malignancies, particularly TP53 codon 72 polymorphism. Furthermore, an association between the TP53 codon 72 variants and prostate cancer has been reported in several studies. Although some studies have indicated an association between the TP53 Arg/Arg variant and an increased risk for prostate cancer, other studies have shown a positive correlation between the TP53 Pro/Pro genotype instead. Therefore, to clarify if this polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer in Iranian men, we conducted a case-control study of 40 sporadic prostate cancer patients and 80 benign prostate hyperplasia cases. Methods The TP53 codon 72 was genotyped using an allele specific PCR. Results A significant association between the TP53 codon 72 genotype and prostate cancer risk was found (OR = 6.8, 95% CI = [1.8-25.1], P = 0.005). However, the results of this study did not support an association between age, the Gleason score nor TP53 genotype at codon 72 in prostate cancer patients. Conclusions TP53 codon 72 polymorphism may have a great impact in the development of prostate cancer. PMID:26005655

  1. Translation initiation factor eIF3 promotes programmed stop codon readthrough

    PubMed Central

    Beznoskov, Petra; Wagner, Susan; Jansen, Myrte Esmeralda; vonderHaar, Tobias; Valek, Leo Shivaya

    2015-01-01

    Programmed stop codon readthrough is a post-transcription regulatory mechanism specifically increasing proteome diversity by creating a pool of C-terminally extended proteins. During this process, the stop codon is decoded as a sense codon by a near-cognate tRNA, which programs the ribosome to continue elongation. The efficiency of competition for the stop codon between release factors (eRFs) and near-cognate tRNAs is largely dependent on its nucleotide context; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is unknown. Here, we show that it is the translation initiation (not termination) factor, namely eIF3, which critically promotes programmed readthrough on all three stop codons. In order to do so, eIF3 must associate with pre-termination complexes where it interferes with the eRF1 decoding of the third/wobble position of the stop codon set in the unfavorable termination context, thus allowing incorporation of near-cognate tRNAs with a mismatch at the same position. We clearly demonstrate that efficient readthrough is enabled by near-cognate tRNAs with a mismatch only at the third/wobble position. Importantly, the eIF3 role in programmed readthrough is conserved between yeast and humans. PMID:25925566

  2. Generation of protein isoform diversity by alternative initiation of translation at non-AUG codons.

    PubMed

    Touriol, Christian; Bornes, Stphanie; Bonnal, Sophie; Audigier, Sylvie; Prats, Herv; Prats, Anne-Catherine; Vagner, Stphan

    2003-01-01

    The use of several translation initiation codons in a single mRNA, by expressing several proteins from a single gene, contributes to the generation of protein diversity. A small, yet growing, number of mammalian mRNAs initiate translation from a non-AUG codon, in addition to initiating at a downstream in-frame AUG codon. Translation initiation on such mRNAs results in the synthesis of proteins harbouring different amino terminal domains potentially conferring on these isoforms distinct functions. Use of non-AUG codons appears to be governed by several features, including the sequence context and the secondary structure surrounding the codon. Selection of the downstream initiation codon can occur by leaky scanning of the 43S ribosomal subunit, internal entry of ribosome or ribosomal shunting. The biological significance of non-AUG alternative initiation is demonstrated by the different subcellular localisations and/or distinct biological functions of the isoforms translated from the single mRNA as illustrated by the two main angiogenic factor genes encoding the fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Consequently, the regulation of alternative initiation of translation might have a crucial role for the biological function of the gene product. PMID:12867081

  3. Detection of two rare beta-thalassemia alleles found in the Tunisian population: codon 47 (+A) and codons 106/107 (+G).

    PubMed

    Bibi, Amina; Messaoud, Taieb; Beldjord, Cherif; Fattoum, Slaheddine

    2006-01-01

    We here present the first report of the detection of two rare beta0-thalassemia (thal) mutations in the Tunisian population: codon 47 (+A) and codons 106/107 (+G). To the best of our knowledge this is the second report of the codon 47 (+A) mutation, the first being identified in a Surinamese subject. The codons 106/107 (+G) mutation was first described in American Blacks, subsequently in Egyptians and Palestinians, and now in Tunisians. These mutations were detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) screening followed by automated nucleotide sequencing. The former was found in two related beta-thal major patients in the homozygous state, while the latter was identified in a homozygous state in a transfusion-dependent beta-thal subject and in a sickle cell beta-thal patient. Both mutations are in linkage disequilibrium with haplotype V and sequence framework 2. Given the known wide spectrum of beta-thal alleles in the Tunisian population, the present report further confirms such heterogeneity. The knowledge of an updated spectrum of beta-thal alleles in Tunisia must allow the implementation of a more efficient screening strategy for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:16987798

  4. Untangling the effects of codon mutation and amino acid exchangeability.

    PubMed

    Yampolsky, L Y; Stoltzfus, A

    2005-01-01

    Determining the relative contributions of mutation and selection to evolutionary change is a matter of great practical and theoretical significance. In this paper, we examine relative contributions of codon mutation rates and amino acid exchangeability on the frequencies of each type of amino acid difference in alignments of distantly related proteins, alignments of closely related proteins, and among human SNPs, using a model that incorporates prior estimates of mutation and exchangeability parameters. For the operational exchangeability of amino acids in proteins, we use EX, a measure of protein-level effects from a recent statistical meta-analysis of nearly 10,000 experimental amino acid exchanges. EX is both free of mutational effects and more powerful than commonly used "biochemical distance" measures (1). For distant protein relationships, mutational effects (genetic code, transition/transversion bias) and operational exchangeability (EX) account for roughly equal portions of variance in off-diagonal values, the complete model accounting for R2 = 0.35 of the variance. For human/chimpanzee alignments representing closely related proteins relationships, mutational effects (including CpG bias) account for 0.52 of the variance; adding EX to the model increases this to 0.67. For natural variation in human proteins, the variance explained by mutational effects alone, and by mutational effects and operational exchangeability are, respectively, 0.66 and 0.70 for SNPs in HGVBase, and 0.56 and 0.60 for disease-causing missense variants in HGMD. Thus, exchangeability has a stronger relative effect for distant protein evolution than for the cases of closely related proteins or of population variation. A more detailed model for the hominid data suggests that 1) there is a threshold in EX below which substitutions are highly unlikely to be accepted, corresponding to roughly 30 % relative protein activity; 2) selection against missense mutants is a slightly convex function of protein activity, not changing much as long as protein activity is low; and 3) the probability of disease-causing effects decreases nearly linearly with EX. PMID:15759648

  5. Usage of benzodiazepines: A review.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, John; Lader, Malcolm

    2010-06-01

    Abstract Purpose. The use of benzodiazepines remains a source of controversy. Some prescribers believe that they are beneficial and espouse their use; others regard their risk:benefit ratio as too adverse for any but occasional use. This review considers these viewpoints based on the appropriate literature. Survey. The recent English-language literature relating to this topic was surveyed. The publications proved too heterogeneous for a formal meta-analysis, so a descriptive review is provided. Overview. Surveys of benzodiazepine use provide data mainly from the UK, Europe and North America. Prescribing patterns varied widely but long-term usage is common and sometimes the norm. Conclusions. Long-term prescription of benzodiazepines still takes place despite general warnings from the medical and other professions and drug regulatory bodies that long-term use is unjustified both from the lack of a systemic database establishing such efficacy and a large literature documenting the risks of long-term usage, such as dependence. The young and the old are particularly at risk. Continued monitoring is essential, but the regulatory authorities may need to take a more active role in curbing such undesirable practice. PMID:24922466

  6. Henipavirus Receptor Usage and Tropism

    PubMed Central

    Pernet, Olivier; Lee, Benhur

    2013-01-01

    Nipah (NiV) and Hendra (HeV) viruses are the deadliest human pathogens within the Paramyxoviridae family, which include human and animal pathogens of global biomedical importance. NiV and HeV infections cause respiratory and encephalitic illness with high mortality rates in humans. Henipaviruses (HNV) are the only paramyxoviruses classified as biosafety level 4 (BSL4) pathogens due to their extreme pathogenicity, potential for bioterrorism, and lack of licensed vaccines and therapeutics. HNV use ephrin-B2 and ephrin-B3, highly conserved proteins, as viral entry receptors. This likely accounts for their unusually broad species tropism, and also provides opportunities to study how receptor usage, cellular tropism, and end-organ pathology relates to the pathobiology of HNV infections. The clinical and pathologic manifestations of Nipah and Hendra virus infections are reviewed in the chapters by Wong et. al. and Geisbert et.al. in this issue. Here, we will review the biology of the henipavirus receptors, and how receptor usage relates to henipavirus cell tropism in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22695915

  7. The Characteristics of Rare Codon Clusters in the Genome and Proteins of Hepatitis C Virus; a Bioinformatics Look

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi, Mohammadreza; Malekpour, Abdorrasoul; Mortazavi, Mojtaba; Safarpour, Alireza; Naseri, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent studies suggest that rare codon clusters are functionally important for protein activity. METHODS Here, for the first time we analyzed and reported rare codon clusters in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genome and then identified the location of these rare codon clusters in the structure of HCV protein. This analysis was performed using the Sherlocc program that detects statistically relevant conserved rare codon clusters. RESULTS By this program, we identified the rare codon cluster in three regions of HCV genome; NS2, NS3, and NS5A coding sequence of HCV genome. For further understanding of the role of these rare codon clusters, we studied the location of these rare codon clusters and critical residues in the structure of NS2, NS3 and NS5A proteins. We identified some critical residues near or within rare codon clusters. It should be mentioned that characteristics of these critical residues such as location and situation of side chains are important in assurance of the HCV life cycle. CONCLUSION The characteristics of these residues and their relative status showed that these rare codon clusters play an important role in proper folding of these proteins. Thus, it is likely that these rare codon clusters may have an important role in the function of HCV proteins. This information is helpful in development of new avenues for vaccine and treatment protocols. PMID:25349685

  8. New insights into the incorporation of natural suppressor tRNAs at stop codons in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Blanchet, Sandra; Cornu, David; Argentini, Manuela; Namy, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Stop codon readthrough may be promoted by the nucleotide environment or drugs. In such cases, ribosomes incorporate a natural suppressor tRNA at the stop codon, leading to the continuation of translation in the same reading frame until the next stop codon and resulting in the expression of a protein with a new potential function. However, the identity of the natural suppressor tRNAs involved in stop codon readthrough remains unclear, precluding identification of the amino acids incorporated at the stop position. We established an in vivo reporter system for identifying the amino acids incorporated at the stop codon, by mass spectrometry in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that glutamine, tyrosine and lysine were inserted at UAA and UAG codons, whereas tryptophan, cysteine and arginine were inserted at UGA codon. The 5? nucleotide context of the stop codon had no impact on the identity or proportion of amino acids incorporated by readthrough. We also found that two different glutamine tRNAGln were used to insert glutamine at UAA and UAG codons. This work constitutes the first systematic analysis of the amino acids incorporated at stop codons, providing important new insights into the decoding rules used by the ribosome to read the genetic code. PMID:25056309

  9. Forced Ambiguity of the Leucine Codons for Multiple-Site-Specific Incorporation of a Noncanonical Amino Acid.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Inchan; Choi, Eun Sil

    2016-01-01

    Multiple-site-specific incorporation of a noncanonical amino acid into a recombinant protein would be a very useful technique to generate multiple chemical handles for bioconjugation and multivalent binding sites for the enhanced interaction. Previously combination of a mutant yeast phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase variant and the yeast phenylalanyl-tRNA containing the AAA anticodon was used to incorporate a noncanonical amino acid into multiple UUU phenylalanine (Phe) codons in a site-specific manner. However, due to the less selective codon recognition of the AAA anticodon, there was significant misincorporation of a noncanonical amino acid into unwanted UUC Phe codons. To enhance codon selectivity, we explored degenerate leucine (Leu) codons instead of Phe degenerate codons. Combined use of the mutant yeast phenylalanyl-tRNA containing the CAA anticodon and the yPheRS_naph variant allowed incorporation of a phenylalanine analog, 2-naphthylalanine, into murine dihydrofolate reductase in response to multiple UUG Leu codons, but not to other Leu codon sites. Despite the moderate UUG codon occupancy by 2-naphthylalaine, these results successfully demonstrated that the concept of forced ambiguity of the genetic code can be achieved for the Leu codons, available for multiple-site-specific incorporation. PMID:27028506

  10. The characteristics of rare codon clusters in the genome and proteins of hepatitis C virus; a bioinformatics look.

    PubMed

    Fattahi, Mohammadreza; Malekpour, Abdorrasoul; Mortazavi, Mojtaba; Safarpour, Alireza; Naseri, Nasrin

    2014-10-01

    BACKGROUND Recent studies suggest that rare codon clusters are functionally important for protein activity. METHODS Here, for the first time we analyzed and reported rare codon clusters in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genome and then identified the location of these rare codon clusters in the structure of HCV protein. This analysis was performed using the Sherlocc program that detects statistically relevant conserved rare codon clusters. RESULTS By this program, we identified the rare codon cluster in three regions of HCV genome; NS2, NS3, and NS5A coding sequence of HCV genome. For further understanding of the role of these rare codon clusters, we studied the location of these rare codon clusters and critical residues in the structure of NS2, NS3 and NS5A proteins. We identified some critical residues near or within rare codon clusters. It should be mentioned that characteristics of these critical residues such as location and situation of side chains are important in assurance of the HCV life cycle. CONCLUSION The characteristics of these residues and their relative status showed that these rare codon clusters play an important role in proper folding of these proteins. Thus, it is likely that these rare codon clusters may have an important role in the function of HCV proteins. This information is helpful in development of new avenues for vaccine and treatment protocols. PMID:25349685

  11. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus phages: effect of translation initiation efficiency on differential codon adaptation mediated by virulent and temperate lifestyles

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakaran, Ramanandan; Chithambaram, Shivapriya

    2015-01-01

    Rapid biosynthesis is key to the success of bacteria and viruses. Highly expressed genes in bacteria exhibit a strong codon bias corresponding to the differential availability of tRNAs. However, a large clade of lambdoid coliphages exhibits relatively poor codon adaptation to the host translation machinery, in contrast to other coliphages that exhibit strong codon adaptation to the host. Three possible explanations were previously proposed but dismissed: (1) the phage-borne tRNA genes that reduce the dependence of phage translation on host tRNAs, (2) lack of time needed for evolving codon adaptation due to recent host switching, and (3) strong strand asymmetry with biased mutation disrupting codon adaptation. Here, we examined the possibility that phages with relatively poor codon adaptation have poor translation initiation which would weaken the selection on codon adaptation. We measured translation initiation by: (1) the strength and position of the ShineDalgarno (SD) sequence, and (2) the stability of the secondary structure of sequences flanking the SD and start codon known to affect accessibility of the SD sequence and start codon. Phage genes with strong codon adaptation had significantly stronger SD sequences than those with poor codon adaptation. The former also had significantly weaker secondary structure in sequences flanking the SD sequence and start codon than the latter. Thus, lambdoid phages do not exhibit strong codon adaptation because they have relatively inefficient translation initiation and would benefit little from increased elongation efficiency. We also provided evidence suggesting that phage lifestyle (virulent versus temperate) affected selection intensity on the efficiency of translation initiation and elongation. PMID:25614589

  12. Codon expansion and systematic transcriptional deletions produce tetra-, pentacoded mitochondrial peptides.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Herv

    2015-12-21

    Genes include occasionally isolated codons with a fourth (and fifth) silent nucleotide(s). Assuming tetracodons, translated hypothetical peptides align with regular GenBank proteins; predicted tetracodons coevolve with predicted tRNAs with expanded anticodons in each mammal, Drosophila and Lepidosauria mitogenomes, GC contents and with lepidosaurian body temperatures, suggesting that expanded codons are an adaptation of translation to high temperature. Hypothetically, continuous stretches of tetra- and pentacodons code for peptides. Both systematic nucleotide deletions during transcription, and translation by tRNAs with expanded anticodons could produce these peptides. Reanalyses of human nanoLc mass spectrometry peptidome data detect numerous tetra- and pentapeptides translated from the human mitogenome. These map preferentially on (BLAST-detected) human RNAs matching the human mitogenome, assuming systematic mono- and dinucleotide deletions after each third nucleotide (delRNAs). Translation by expanded anticodons is incompatible with silent nucleotides in the midst rather than at codon 3' extremity. More than 1/3 of detected tetra- and pentapeptides assume silent positions at codon extremity, suggesting that both mechanisms, regular translation of delRNAs and translation of regular RNAs by expanded anticodons, produce this peptide subgroup. Results show that systematically deleting polymerization occurs, and confirm serial translation of expanded codons. Non-canonical transcriptions and translations considerably expand the coding potential of DNA and RNA sequences. PMID:26456204

  13. Investigating protein-coding sequence evolution with probabilistic codon substitution models.

    PubMed

    Anisimova, Maria; Kosiol, Carolin

    2009-02-01

    This review is motivated by the true explosion in the number of recent studies both developing and ameliorating probabilistic models of codon evolution. Traditionally parametric, the first codon models focused on estimating the effects of selective pressure on the protein via an explicit parameter in the maximum likelihood framework. Likelihood ratio tests of nested codon models armed the biologists with powerful tools, which provided unambiguous evidence for positive selection in real data. This, in turn, triggered a new wave of methodological developments. The new generation of models views the codon evolution process in a more sophisticated way, relaxing several mathematical assumptions. These models make a greater use of physicochemical amino acid properties, genetic code machinery, and the large amounts of data from the public domain. The overview of the most recent advances on modeling codon evolution is presented here, and a wide range of their applications to real data is discussed. On the downside, availability of a large variety of models, each accounting for various biological factors, increases the margin for misinterpretation; the biological meaning of certain parameters may vary among models, and model selection procedures also deserve greater attention. Solid understanding of the modeling assumptions and their applicability is essential for successful statistical data analysis. PMID:18922761

  14. Evidence of abundant stop codon readthrough in Drosophila and other metazoa

    PubMed Central

    Jungreis, Irwin; Lin, Michael F.; Spokony, Rebecca; Chan, Clara S.; Negre, Nicolas; Victorsen, Alec; White, Kevin P.; Kellis, Manolis

    2011-01-01

    While translational stop codon readthrough is often used by viral genomes, it has been observed for only a handful of eukaryotic genes. We previously used comparative genomics evidence to recognize protein-coding regions in 12 species of Drosophila and showed that for 149 genes, the open reading frame following the stop codon has a protein-coding conservation signature, hinting that stop codon readthrough might be common in Drosophila. We return to this observation armed with deep RNA sequence data from the modENCODE project, an improved higher-resolution comparative genomics metric for detecting protein-coding regions, comparative sequence information from additional species, and directed experimental evidence. We report an expanded set of 283 readthrough candidates, including 16 double-readthrough candidates; these were manually curated to rule out alternatives such as A-to-I editing, alternative splicing, dicistronic translation, and selenocysteine incorporation. We report experimental evidence of translation using GFP tagging and mass spectrometry for several readthrough regions. We find that the set of readthrough candidates differs from other genes in length, composition, conservation, stop codon context, and in some cases, conserved stemloops, providing clues about readthrough regulation and potential mechanisms. Lastly, we expand our studies beyond Drosophila and find evidence of abundant readthrough in several other insect species and one crustacean, and several readthrough candidates in nematode and human, suggesting that functionally important translational stop codon readthrough is significantly more prevalent in Metazoa than previously recognized. PMID:21994247

  15. Enhancement of premature stop codon readthrough in the CFTR gene by Ataluren (PTC124) derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pibiri, Ivana; Lentini, Laura; Melfi, Raffaella; Gallucci, Giulia; Pace, Andrea; Spinello, Angelo; Barone, Giampaolo; Di Leonardo, Aldo

    2015-08-28

    Premature stop codons are the result of nonsense mutations occurring within the coding sequence of a gene. These mutations lead to the synthesis of a truncated protein and are responsible for several genetic diseases. A potential pharmacological approach to treat these diseases is to promote the translational readthrough of premature stop codons by small molecules aiming to restore the full-length protein. The compound PTC124 (Ataluren) was reported to promote the readthrough of the premature UGA stop codon, although its activity was questioned. The potential interaction of PTC124 with mutated mRNA was recently suggested by molecular dynamics (MD) studies highlighting the importance of H-bonding and stacking ?-? interactions. To improve the readthrough activity we changed the fluorine number and position in the PTC124 fluoroaryl moiety. The readthrough ability of these PTC124 derivatives was tested in human cells harboring reporter plasmids with premature stop codons in H2BGFP and FLuc genes as well as in cystic fibrosis (CF) IB3.1 cells with a nonsense mutation. Maintaining low toxicity, three of these molecules showed higher efficacy than PTC124 in the readthrough of the UGA premature stop codon and in recovering the expression of the CFTR protein in IB3.1 cells from cystic fibrosis patient. Molecular dynamics simulations performed with mutated CFTR mRNA fragments and active or inactive derivatives are in agreement with the suggested interaction of PTC124 with mRNA. PMID:26142488

  16. Cloning and expression of codon-optimized recombinant darbepoetin alfa in Leishmania tarentolae T7-TR.

    PubMed

    Kianmehr, Anvarsadat; Golavar, Raziyeh; Rouintan, Mandana; Mahrooz, Abdolkarim; Fard-Esfahani, Pezhman; Oladnabi, Morteza; Khajeniazi, Safoura; Mostafavi, Seyede Samaneh; Omidinia, Eskandar

    2016-02-01

    Darbepoetin alfa is an engineered and hyperglycosylated analog of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) which is used as a drug in treating anemia in patients with chronic kidney failure and cancer. This study desribes the secretory expression of a codon-optimized recombinant form of darbepoetin alfa in Leishmania tarentolae T7-TR. Synthetic codon-optimized gene was amplified by PCR and cloned into the pLEXSY-I-blecherry3 vector. The resultant expression vector, pLEXSYDarbo, was purified, digested, and electroporated into the L.tarentolae. Expression of recombinant darbepoetin alfa was evaluated by ELISA, reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and biological activity. After codon optimization, codon adaptation index (CAI) of the gene raised from 0.50 to 0.99 and its GC% content changed from 56% to 58%. Expression analysis confirmed the presence of a protein band at 40kDa. Furthermore, reticulocyte experiment results revealed that the activity of expressed darbepoetin alfa was similar to that of its equivalent expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. These data suggested that the codon optimization and expression in L.tarentolae host provided an efficient approach for high level expression of darbepoetin alfa. PMID:26546410

  17. Effects of tRNA modification on translational accuracy depend on intrinsic codon-anticodon strength.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Nandini; Joshi, Kartikeya; Bhatt, Monika J; Farabaugh, Philip J

    2016-02-29

    Cellular health and growth requires protein synthesis to be both efficient to ensure sufficient production, and accurate to avoid producing defective or unstable proteins. The background of misreading error frequency by individual tRNAs is as low as 2 10(-6) per codon but is codon-specific with some error frequencies above 10(-3) per codon. Here we test the effect on error frequency of blocking post-transcriptional modifications of the anticodon loops of four tRNAs in Escherichia coli. We find two types of responses to removing modification. Blocking modification of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] increases errors, suggesting that the modifications act at least in part to maintain accuracy. Blocking even identical modifications of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] has the opposite effect of decreasing errors. One explanation could be that the modifications play opposite roles in modulating misreading by the two classes of tRNAs. Given available evidence that modifications help preorder the anticodon to allow it to recognize the codons, however, the simpler explanation is that unmodified 'weak' tRNAs decode too inefficiently to compete against cognate tRNAs that normally decode target codons, which would reduce the frequency of misreading. PMID:26704976

  18. Two-step model of stop codon recognition by eukaryotic release factor eRF1

    PubMed Central

    Kryuchkova, Polina; Grishin, Alexander; Eliseev, Boris; Karyagina, Anna; Frolova, Ludmila; Alkalaeva, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Release factor eRF1 plays a key role in the termination of protein synthesis in eukaryotes. The eRF1 consists of three domains (N, M and C) that perform unique roles in termination. Previous studies of eRF1 point mutants and standard/variant code eRF1 chimeras unequivocally demonstrated a direct involvement of the highly conserved N-domain motifs (NIKS, YxCxxxF and GTx) in stop codon recognition. In the current study, we extend this work by investigating the role of the 41 invariant and conserved N-domain residues in stop codon decoding by human eRF1. Using a combination of the conservative and non-conservative amino acid substitutions, we measured the functional activity of >80 mutant eRF1s in an in vitro reconstituted eukaryotic translation system and selected 15 amino acid residues essential for recognition of different stop codon nucleotides. Furthermore, toe-print analyses provide evidence of a conformational rearrangement of ribosomal complexes that occurs during binding of eRF1 to messenger RNA and reflects stop codon decoding activity of eRF1. Based on our experimental data and molecular modelling of the N-domain at the ribosomal A site, we propose a two-step model of stop codon decoding in the eukaryotic ribosome. PMID:23435318

  19. ANT: Software for Generating and Evaluating Degenerate Codons for Natural and Expanded Genetic Codes.

    PubMed

    Engqvist, Martin K M; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-08-21

    The Ambiguous Nucleotide Tool (ANT) is a desktop application that generates and evaluates degenerate codons. Degenerate codons are used to represent DNA positions that have multiple possible nucleotide alternatives. This is useful for protein engineering and directed evolution, where primers specified with degenerate codons are used as a basis for generating libraries of protein sequences. ANT is intuitive and can be used in a graphical user interface or by interacting with the code through a defined application programming interface. ANT comes with full support for nonstandard, user-defined, or expanded genetic codes (translation tables), which is important because synthetic biology is being applied to an ever widening range of natural and engineered organisms. The Python source code for ANT is freely distributed so that it may be used without restriction, modified, and incorporated in other software or custom data pipelines. PMID:25901796

  20. Frameshift Mutations (Deletion at Codon 1309 and Codon 849) in the APC Gene in Iranian FAP Patients: a Case Series and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Kashfi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Behboudi Farahbakhsh, Faeghe; Golmohammadi, Mina; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Asadzadeh Aghdaie, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is responsible for <1% of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases and is inherited an autosomal dominant trait. Patients generally present hundreds to thousands of adenomas and develop colorectal cancer by age 35- 40 if left untreated. Here we report four patients with germline frameshift mutation (small deletion) at exon 15 of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene. Peripheral blood samples were collected from patients and Exon 15 of the APC gene was studied by direct sequencing after genomic DNA extraction. Four frameshift mutations were detected. Two patients had 5 bp deletion, c.3927_3931delAAAGA and two siblings presented deletion at codon 849 (c.2547_2548delTA p.Asp849fsX62). This study was the first report of genetic screening in Iranian FAP patients. In contrast to other studies we revealed that one patient with mutation at codon 1309 had an attenuated phenotype. PMID:25317407

  1. Frameshift Mutations (Deletion at Codon 1309 and Codon 849) in the APC Gene in Iranian FAP Patients: a Case Series and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kashfi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Behboudi Farahbakhsh, Faeghe; Golmohammadi, Mina; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Asadzadeh Aghdaie, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is responsible for <1% of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases and is inherited an autosomal dominant trait. Patients generally present hundreds to thousands of adenomas and develop colorectal cancer by age 35- 40 if left untreated. Here we report four patients with germline frameshift mutation (small deletion) at exon 15 of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene. Peripheral blood samples were collected from patients and Exon 15 of the APC gene was studied by direct sequencing after genomic DNA extraction. Four frameshift mutations were detected. Two patients had 5 bp deletion, c.3927_3931delAAAGA and two siblings presented deletion at codon 849 (c.2547_2548delTA p.Asp849fsX62). This study was the first report of genetic screening in Iranian FAP patients. In contrast to other studies we revealed that one patient with mutation at codon 1309 had an attenuated phenotype. PMID:25317407

  2. Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal

  3. Patterns of Drug Usage Among Vietnam Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Allan H., Jr.; And Others

    A factor analysis was performed on an intercorrelation matrix of reported drug usage frequencies for seven drug categories at two consecutive periods of time. Subjects were 1,010 Army Vietnam veterans in pay grade E6 or below, aged 26 years or less. Retrospective reporting identified drug usage prior to a tour of Vietnam and during the tour. Four…

  4. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

    1982-01-01

    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  5. Definite Article Usage across Varieties of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahid, Ridwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the extent of definite article usage variation in several varieties of English based on a classification of its usage types. An annotation scheme based on Hawkins and Prince was developed for this purpose. Using matching corpus data representing Inner Circle varieties and Outer Circle varieties, analysis was made on…

  6. Survey: Computer Usage in Design Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henley, Ernest J.

    1983-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of chemical engineering departments regarding computer usage in senior design courses. Results are categorized according to: computer usage (use of process simulators, student-written programs, faculty-written or "canned" programs; costs (hard and soft money); and available software. Programs offered are listed in a

  7. Definite Article Usage across Varieties of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahid, Ridwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the extent of definite article usage variation in several varieties of English based on a classification of its usage types. An annotation scheme based on Hawkins and Prince was developed for this purpose. Using matching corpus data representing Inner Circle varieties and Outer Circle varieties, analysis was made on

  8. Sense codon emancipation for proteome-wide incorporation of noncanonical amino acids: rare isoleucine codon AUA as a target for genetic code expansion.

    PubMed

    Bohlke, Nina; Budisa, Nediljko

    2014-02-01

    One of the major challenges in contemporary synthetic biology is to find a route to engineer synthetic organisms with altered chemical constitution. In terms of core reaction types, nature uses an astonishingly limited repertoire of chemistries when compared with the exceptionally rich and diverse methods of organic chemistry. In this context, the most promising route to change and expand the fundamental chemistry of life is the inclusion of amino acid building blocks beyond the canonical 20 (i.e. expanding the genetic code). This strategy would allow the transfer of numerous chemical functionalities and reactions from the synthetic laboratory into the cellular environment. Due to limitations in terms of both efficiency and practical applicability, state-of-the-art nonsense suppression- or frameshift suppression-based methods are less suitable for such engineering. Consequently, we set out to achieve this goal by sense codon emancipation, that is, liberation from its natural decoding function - a prerequisite for the reassignment of degenerate sense codons to a new 21st amino acid. We have achieved this by redesigning of several features of the post-transcriptional modification machinery which are directly involved in the decoding process. In particular, we report first steps towards the reassignment of 5797 AUA isoleucine codons in Escherichia coli using efficient tools for tRNA nucleotide modification pathway engineering. PMID:24433543

  9. Synonymous but not the same: the causes and consequences of codon bias

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, Joshua B.; Kudla, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    Despite their name, synonymous mutations have significant consequences for cellular processes in all taxa. As a result, an understanding of codon bias is central to fields as diverse as molecular evolution and biotechnology. Although recent advances in sequencing and synthetic biology have helped resolve longstanding questions about codon bias, they have also uncovered striking patterns that suggest new hypotheses about protein synthesis. Ongoing work to quantify the dynamics of initiation and elongation is as important for understanding natural synonymous variation as it is for designing transgenes in applied contexts. PMID:21102527

  10. A 2-D graphical representation of protein sequences based on nucleotide triplet codons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Fenglan; Wang, Tianming

    2005-09-01

    Graphical representation of DNA provides a simple way of viewing, sorting and comparing various gene structures. A 2-D graphical representation of protein sequences based on nucleotide triplet codons has been derived for similarity analysis of protein sequences. This approach is based on a graphical representation of triplets of DNA in which the interior of the left half plane of the complex plane is used to accommodate 64 sites for the 64 codons. We associate a directed curve, numerical value, or matrix with a protein as a descriptor. The approach is illustrated on the Homo sapiens X-linked nuclear protein (ATRX) gene.

  11. Benzene pollution from gasoline usage.

    PubMed

    Foo, S C

    1991-04-01

    Local gasolines contain benzene ranging from 1.8 to 3.7% and their use can lead to significant exposure to benzene. Gasoline station attendants were found to be exposed to short-term exposure levels (STEL) of 0.064-179 ppm. Their 8-h time-weighted averaged (TWA) exposure ranged from 0.028 to 0.71 ppm. For motorcar service mechanics, TWA exposure levels ranged from 0.014 to 1.7 ppm. The exposure of drivers of gasoline delivery tankers ranged from 0.08 to 2.37 ppm for personal TWA exposure over the whole workshift. For local people not occupationally exposed to gasoline or other benzene-containing volatile chemicals, exposure from the ambient environment ranged from 0.0023 to 0.027 ppm. Gasoline usage also contributed to the contamination of surface water with benzene. Benzene levels in water samples taken from drains leading from gasoline stations were between 1.1 and 40.4 micrograms l-1. PMID:1857958

  12. Searching of code space for an error-minimized genetic code via codon capture leads to failure, or requires at least 20 improving codon reassignments via the ambiguous intermediate mechanism.

    PubMed

    Massey, Steven E

    2010-01-01

    The standard genetic code (SGC) has a fundamental error-minimizing property which has been widely attributed to the action of selection. However, a clear mechanism for how selection can give rise to error minimization (EM) is lacking. A search through a space of alternate codes (code space) via codon reassignments would be required, to select a code optimized for EM. There are two commonly discussed mechanisms of codon reassignment; the Codon Capture mechanism, which proposes a loss of the codon during reassignment, and the Ambiguous Intermediate mechanism, which proposes that the codon underwent an ambiguous phase during reassignment. When searching of code space via the Codon Capture mechanism is simulated, an optimized genetic code can rarely be achieved (0-3.2% of the time) with most searches ending in failure. When code space is searched via the Ambiguous Intermediate mechanism, under constraints derived from empirical observations of codon reassignments from extant genomes, the searches also often end in failure. When a local minimum is avoided and optimization is achieved, 20-41 sequential improving codon reassignments are required. Furthermore, the structures of the optimized codes produced by these simulations differ from the structure of the SGC. These data are challenges for the Adaptive Code hypothesis to address, which proposes that the EM property was directly selected for, and suggests that EM is simply a byproduct of the addition of amino acids to the expanding code, as described by the alternative 'Emergence' hypothesis. PMID:20107777

  13. TTG serves as an initiation codon for the ribosomal protein MvaS7 from the archaeon Methanococcus vannielii.

    PubMed Central

    Golderer, G; Dlaska, M; Gröbner, P; Piendl, W

    1995-01-01

    The ribosomal protein MvaS7 from the methanogenic archaeon Methanococcus vannielii is a protein of 188 amino acids, i.e., it is 42 amino acids longer than previously suggested. The triplet TTG serves as a start codon. The methanogenic translation initiation region that includes the rare TTG start codon is recognized in Escherichia coli. PMID:7592355

  14. PCR-RFLP to Detect Codon 248 Mutation in Exon 7 of "p53" Tumor Suppressor Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouyang, Liming; Ge, Chongtao; Wu, Haizhen; Li, Suxia; Zhang, Huizhan

    2009-01-01

    Individual genome DNA was extracted fast from oral swab and followed up with PCR specific for codon 248 of "p53" tumor suppressor gene. "Msp"I restriction mapping showed the G-C mutation in codon 248, which closely relates to cancer susceptibility. Students learn the concepts, detection techniques, and research significance of point mutations or

  15. PCR-RFLP to Detect Codon 248 Mutation in Exon 7 of "p53" Tumor Suppressor Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouyang, Liming; Ge, Chongtao; Wu, Haizhen; Li, Suxia; Zhang, Huizhan

    2009-01-01

    Individual genome DNA was extracted fast from oral swab and followed up with PCR specific for codon 248 of "p53" tumor suppressor gene. "Msp"I restriction mapping showed the G-C mutation in codon 248, which closely relates to cancer susceptibility. Students learn the concepts, detection techniques, and research significance of point mutations or…

  16. The selenocysteine incorporation machinery allows the dual use of sense codons: a new strategy for expanding the genetic code?

    PubMed

    Stafforst, Thorsten

    2014-02-10

    Sense and Secis: Even though selenocysteine, Sec, is naturally incorporated by suppressing UAG stop codons, it was recently shown that sense codons such as UAC can efficiently code for Sec. This article highlights the implications of using such a strategy to introduce unnatural amino acids site-selectively into proteins. PMID:24376077

  17. Asc1, homolog of human RACK1, prevents frameshifting in yeast by ribosomes stalled at CGA codon repeats.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Andrew S; Grayhack, Elizabeth J

    2015-05-01

    Quality control systems monitor and stop translation at some ribosomal stalls, but it is unknown if halting translation at such stalls actually prevents synthesis of abnormal polypeptides. In yeast, ribosome stalling occurs at Arg CGA codon repeats, with even two consecutive CGA codons able to reduce translation by up to 50%. The conserved eukaryotic Asc1 protein limits translation through internal Arg CGA codon repeats. We show that, in the absence of Asc1 protein, ribosomes continue translating at CGA codons, but undergo substantial frameshifting with dramatically higher levels of frameshifting occurring with additional repeats of CGA codons. Frameshifting depends upon the slow or inefficient decoding of these codons, since frameshifting is suppressed by increased expression of the native tRNA(Arg(ICG)) that decodes CGA codons by wobble decoding. Moreover, the extent of frameshifting is modulated by the position of the CGA codon repeat relative to the translation start site. Thus, translation fidelity depends upon Asc1-mediated quality control. PMID:25792604

  18. FPGA curved track fitter with very low resource usage

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jin-Yuan; Wang, M.; Gottschalk, E.; Shi, Z.; /Fermilab

    2006-11-01

    Standard least-squares curved track fitting process is tailored for FPGA implementation. The coefficients in the fitting matrices are carefully chosen so that only shift and accumulation operations are used in the process. The divisions and full multiplications are eliminated. Comparison in an application example shows that the fitting errors of the low resource usage implementation are less than 4% bigger than the fitting errors of the exact least-squares algorithm. The implementation is suitable for low-cost, low-power applications such as high energy physics detector trigger systems.

  19. Expanded use of sense codons is regulated by modified cytidines in tRNA

    PubMed Central

    Cantara, William A.; Murphy, Frank V.; Demirci, Hasan; Agris, Paul F.

    2013-01-01

    Codon use among the three domains of life is not confined to the universal genetic code. With only 22 tRNA genes in mammalian mitochondria, exceptions from the universal code are necessary for proper translation. A particularly interesting deviation is the decoding of the isoleucine AUA codon as methionine by the one mitochondrial-encoded tRNAMet. This tRNA decodes AUA and AUG in both the A- and P-sites of the metazoan mitochondrial ribosome. Enrichment of posttranscriptional modifications is a commonly appropriated mechanism for modulating decoding rules, enabling some tRNA functions while restraining others. In this case, a modification of cytidine, 5-formylcytidine (f5C), at the wobble position-34 of human mitochondrial () enables expanded decoding of AUA, resulting in a deviation in the genetic code. Visualization of the codonanticodon interaction by X-ray crystallography revealed that recognition of both A and G at the third position of the codon occurs in the canonical WatsonCrick geometry. A modification-dependent shift in the tautomeric equilibrium toward the rare imino-oxo tautomer of cytidine stabilizes the f5C34A base pair geometry with two hydrogen bonds. PMID:23781103

  20. Genetic analysis of diversity within a Chinese local sugarcane germplasm based on start codon targeted polymorphism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic dive...

  1. Genetic diversity of mango cultivars estimated using Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diversity and genetic relationships among 23 mango germplasm accessions, collected from different locations in Guangxi province in China, were analyzed by using a novel and simple gene targeted DNA marker: Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) markers. This technique uses a single, 18-mer primer PCR amplifica...

  2. MACSE: Multiple Alignment of Coding SEquences Accounting for Frameshifts and Stop Codons

    PubMed Central

    Ranwez, Vincent; Harispe, Sbastien; Delsuc, Frdric; Douzery, Emmanuel J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Until now the most efficient solution to align nucleotide sequences containing open reading frames was to use indirect procedures that align amino acid translation before reporting the inferred gap positions at the codon level. There are two important pitfalls with this approach. Firstly, any premature stop codon impedes using such a strategy. Secondly, each sequence is translated with the same reading frame from beginning to end, so that the presence of a single additional nucleotide leads to both aberrant translation and alignment. We present an algorithm that has the same space and time complexity as the classical Needleman-Wunsch algorithm while accommodating sequencing errors and other biological deviations from the coding frame. The resulting pairwise coding sequence alignment method was extended to a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) algorithm implemented in a program called MACSE (Multiple Alignment of Coding SEquences accounting for frameshifts and stop codons). MACSE is the first automatic solution to align protein-coding gene datasets containing non-functional sequences (pseudogenes) without disrupting the underlying codon structure. It has also proved useful in detecting undocumented frameshifts in public database sequences and in aligning next-generation sequencing reads/contigs against a reference coding sequence. MACSE is distributed as an open-source java file executable with freely available source code and can be used via a web interface at: http://mbb.univ-montp2.fr/macse. PMID:21949676

  3. Partitioning between recoding and termination at a stop codon-selenocysteine insertion sequence.

    PubMed

    Kotini, Suresh Babu; Peske, Frank; Rodnina, Marina V

    2015-07-27

    Selenocysteine (Sec) is inserted into proteins by recoding a UGA stop codon followed by a selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS). UGA recoding by the Sec machinery is believed to be very inefficient owing to RF2-mediated termination at UGA. Here we show that recoding efficiency in vivo is 30-40% independently of the cell growth rate. Efficient recoding requires sufficient selenium concentrations in the medium. RF2 is an unexpectedly poor competitor of Sec. We recapitulate the major characteristics of SECIS-dependent UGA recoding in vitro using a fragment of fdhF-mRNA encoding a natural bacterial selenoprotein. Only 40% of actively translating ribosomes that reach the UGA codon insert Sec, even in the absence of RF2, suggesting that the capacity to insert Sec into proteins is inherently limited. RF2 does not compete with the Sec incorporation machinery; rather, it terminates translation on those ribosomes that failed to incorporate Sec. The data suggest a model in which early recruitment of Sec-tRNA(Sec)-SelB-GTP to the SECIS blocks the access of RF2 to the stop codon, thereby prioritizing recoding over termination at Sec-dedicated stop codons. PMID:26040702

  4. Causal signals between codon bias, mRNA structure, and the efficiency of translation and elongation

    PubMed Central

    Pop, Cristina; Rouskin, Silvi; Ingolia, Nicholas T; Han, Lu; Phizicky, Eric M; Weissman, Jonathan S; Koller, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    Ribosome profiling data report on the distribution of translating ribosomes, at steady-state, with codon-level resolution. We present a robust method to extract codon translation rates and protein synthesis rates from these data, and identify causal features associated with elongation and translation efficiency in physiological conditions in yeast. We show that neither elongation rate nor translational efficiency is improved by experimental manipulation of the abundance or body sequence of the rare AGG tRNA. Deletion of three of the four copies of the heavily used ACA tRNA shows a modest efficiency decrease that could be explained by other rate-reducing signals at gene start. This suggests that correlation between codon bias and efficiency arises as selection for codons to utilize translation machinery efficiently in highly translated genes. We also show a correlation between efficiency and RNA structure calculated both computationally and from recent structure probing data, as well as the Kozak initiation motif, which may comprise a mechanism to regulate initiation. PMID:25538139

  5. Codon 249 mutations of p53 gene in non-neoplastic liver tissues

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiao-Mou; Yao, Chun-Lan; Chen, Xue-Juan; Peng, Wen-Wei; Gao, Zhi-Liang

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To study the significance of p53 gene in hepatocarcino genesis through analyzing codon 249 mutations of p53 gene in non-neoplastic liver tissues. METHODS: Codon 249 mutation was detected using single-strande d conformational polymorphism analysis and allele-specific PCR in liver tissues from 10 cases of chronic hepatitis, 5 cases of cirrhosis and 20 cases of HCCs. RESULTS: The detection rate of codon 249 mutation in chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and pericancerous tissues was 70% (7/10), 100% (5/5) and 70% (14/20), respectively by AS-PCR. These mutations could not be detected b y SSCP analysis. The detection rates were 65% (13/20) and 45% (9/20) in cancerous tissues by AS-PCR and SSCP analysis. CONCLUSION: Codon 249 mutations of p53 gene were very popular in non-neoplastic liver tissues though the number of those mutant cells was only in subsection. Those mutations in cancerous tissues might take place in the stage before the formation of tumor. PMID:11819458

  6. Analysis of Low Frequency Protein Truncating Stop-Codon Variants and Fasting Concentration of Growth Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Hallengren, Erik; Almgren, Peter; Engstrm, Gunnar; Persson, Margaretha; Melander, Olle

    2015-01-01

    Background The genetic background of Growth Hormone (GH) secretion is not well understood. Mutations giving rise to a stop codon have a high likelihood of affecting protein function. Objectives To analyze likely functional stop codon mutations that are associated with fasting plasma concentration of Growth Hormone. Methods We analyzed stop codon mutations in 5451 individuals in the Malm Diet and Cancer study by genotyping the Illumina Exome Chip. To enrich for stop codon mutations with likely functional effects on protein function, we focused on those disrupting >80% of the predicted amino acid sequence, which were carried by ?10 individuals. Such mutations were related to GH concentration, measured with a high sensitivity assay (hs-GH) and, if nominally significant, to GH related phenotypes, using linear regression analysis. Results Two stop codon mutations were associated with the fasting concentration of hs-GH. rs121909305 (NP_005370.1:p.R93*) [Minor Allele Frequency (MAF) = 0.8%] in the Myosin 1A gene (MYO1A) was associated with a 0.36 (95%CI, 0.04 to 0.54; p=0.02) increment of the standardized value of the natural logarithm of hs-GH per 1 minor allele and rs35699176 (NP_067040.1:p.Q100*) in the Zink Finger protein 77 gene (ZNF77) (MAF = 4.8%) was associated with a 0.12 (95%CI, 0.02 to 0.22; p = 0.02) increase of hs-GH. The mutated high hs-GH associated allele of MYO1A was related to lower BMI (?-coefficient, -0.22; p = 0.05), waist (?-coefficient, -0.22; p = 0.04), body fat percentage (?-coefficient, -0.23; p = 0.03) and with higher HDL (?-coefficient, 0.23; p = 0.04). The ZNF77 stop codon was associated with height (?-coefficient, 0.11; p = 0.02) but not with cardiometabolic risk factors. Conclusion We here suggest that a stop codon of MYO1A, disrupting 91% of the predicted amino acid sequence, is associated with higher hs-GH and GH-related traits suggesting that MYO1A is involved in GH metabolism and possibly body fat distribution. However, our results are preliminary and need replication in independent populations. PMID:26086970

  7. Influenza A Virus Attenuation by Codon Deoptimization of the NS Gene for Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Nogales, Aitor; Baker, Steven F.; Ortiz-Riaño, Emilio; Dewhurst, Stephen; Topham, David J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza viral infection represents a serious public health problem that causes contagious respiratory disease, which is most effectively prevented through vaccination to reduce transmission and future infection. The nonstructural (NS) gene of influenza A virus encodes an mRNA transcript that is alternatively spliced to express two viral proteins, the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) and the nuclear export protein (NEP). The importance of the NS gene of influenza A virus for viral replication and virulence has been well described and represents an attractive target to generate live attenuated influenza viruses with vaccine potential. Considering that most amino acids can be synthesized from several synonymous codons, this study employed the use of misrepresented mammalian codons (codon deoptimization) for the de novo synthesis of a viral NS RNA segment based on influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) (PR8) virus. We generated three different recombinant influenza PR8 viruses containing codon-deoptimized synonymous mutations in coding regions comprising the entire NS gene or the mRNA corresponding to the individual viral protein NS1 or NEP, without modifying the respective splicing and packaging signals of the viral segment. The fitness of these synthetic viruses was attenuated in vivo, while they retained immunogenicity, conferring both homologous and heterologous protection against influenza A virus challenges. These results indicate that influenza viruses can be effectively attenuated by synonymous codon deoptimization of the NS gene and open the possibility of their use as a safe vaccine to prevent infections with these important human pathogens. IMPORTANCE Vaccination serves as the best therapeutic option to protect humans against influenza viral infections. However, the efficacy of current influenza vaccines is suboptimal, and novel approaches are necessary for the prevention of disease cause by this important human respiratory pathogen. The nonstructural (NS) gene of influenza virus encodes both the multifunctional nonstructural protein 1 (NS1), essential for innate immune evasion, and the nuclear export protein (NEP), required for the nuclear export of viral ribonucleoproteins and for timing of the virus life cycle. Here, we have generated a recombinant influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) (PR8) virus containing a codon-deoptimized NS segment that is attenuated in vivo yet retains immunogenicity and protection efficacy against homologous and heterologous influenza virus challenges. These results open the exciting possibility of using this NS codon deoptimization methodology alone or in combination with other approaches for the future development of vaccine candidates to prevent influenza viral infections. PMID:24965472

  8. High prevalence of mutations at codon 249 of the p53 gene in hepatocellular carcinomas from Senegal.

    PubMed Central

    Coursaget, P.; Depril, N.; Chabaud, M.; Nandi, R.; Mayelo, V.; LeCann, P.; Yvonnet, B.

    1993-01-01

    In hepatocellular carcinoma, mutation within the p53 gene occurs mainly at codon 249 and its frequency has been associated with exposure to aflatoxin. As Senegal is a country where liver cancer incidence is one of the highest in the world and where people are highly exposed to aflatoxin, we screened 15 liver cancer samples from this country for mutation at codon 249 of the p53 gene. Non-tumoral DNA from the patients showed a wild type genotype. Mutation at codon 249 of the p53 gene was detected in 10 of the 15 tumour tissues tested (67%). This frequency of mutation in codon 249 of the p53 gene is the highest described. These results confirmed that there is an association between countries of high aflatoxin intake and a high frequency of mutation in codon 249 of p53 gene, and that HBV alone does not contribute to these base changes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8390289

  9. Identification of a Rare ?(0)-Thalassemia Mutation, Codon 54 (-T) (HBB: c.165delT) in an Iranian Family.

    PubMed

    Ghasemian Dastjerdy, Nadia; Banihashemi, Ali; Azizi, Mandana; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh

    2015-12-01

    ?-Thalassemia (?-thal) is the most widespread autosomal recessive disorder worldwide. The present study describes a very rare ?-globin gene mutation, codon 54 (-T) (HBB: c.165delT), in a family from northern Iran. Nucleotide sequencing of amplified DNA obtained from a 28-year-old man revealed a deletion (-T) at codon 54 of the ?-globin gene that results in a nonsense sequence at codon 60 and inphase termination at codon 59. Moreover, the haplotype combination of six different restriction enzyme sites in the ?-globin cluster was determined for this mutation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second article reporting the codon 54 mutation worldwide and the first report of this mutation in the Iranian population, emphasizing the high heterogeneity of this population. PMID:26290442

  10. Analysis of serine codon conservation reveals diverse phenotypic constraints on hepatitis C virus glycoprotein evolution.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard J P; Koutsoudakis, George; Urbanowicz, Richard A; Mirza, Deeman; Ginkel, Corinne; Riebesehl, Nina; Calland, Nomie; Albecka, Anna; Price, Louisa; Hudson, Natalia; Descamps, Vronique; Backx, Matthijs; McClure, C Patrick; Duverlie, Gilles; Pecheur, Eve-Isabelle; Dubuisson, Jean; Perez-del-Pulgar, Sofia; Forns, Xavier; Steinmann, Eike; Tarr, Alexander W; Pietschmann, Thomas; Ball, Jonathan K

    2014-01-01

    Serine is encoded by two divergent codon types, UCN and AGY, which are not interchangeable by a single nucleotide substitution. Switching between codon types therefore occurs via intermediates (threonine or cysteine) or via simultaneous tandem substitutions. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronically infects 2 to 3% of the global population. The highly variable glycoproteins E1 and E2 decorate the surface of the viral envelope, facilitate cellular entry, and are targets for host immunity. Comparative sequence analysis of globally sampled E1E2 genes, coupled with phylogenetic analysis, reveals the signatures of multiple archaic codon-switching events at seven highly conserved serine residues. Limited detection of intermediate phenotypes indicates that associated fitness costs restrict their fixation in divergent HCV lineages. Mutational pathways underlying codon switching were probed via reverse genetics, assessing glycoprotein functionality using multiple in vitro systems. These data demonstrate selection against intermediate phenotypes can act at the structural/functional level, with some intermediates displaying impaired virion assembly and/or decreased capacity for target cell entry. These effects act in residue/isolate-specific manner. Selection against intermediates is also provided by humoral targeting, with some intermediates exhibiting increased epitope exposure and enhanced neutralization sensitivity, despite maintaining a capacity for target cell entry. Thus, purifying selection against intermediates limits their frequencies in globally sampled strains, with divergent functional constraints at the protein level restricting the fixation of deleterious mutations. Overall our study provides an experimental framework for identification of barriers limiting viral substitutional evolution and indicates that serine codon-switching represents a genomic "fossil record" of historical purifying selection against E1E2 intermediate phenotypes. PMID:24173227

  11. TrimerDimer: an oligonucleotide-based saturation mutagenesis approach that removes redundant and stop codons

    PubMed Central

    Gaytn, Paul; Contreras-Zambrano, Casandra; Ortiz-Alvarado, Mnica; Morales-Pablos, Alfredo; Yez, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) and 4,4?-dimethoxytrityl (DMTr) are orthogonal hydroxyl protecting groups that have been used in conjunction to assemble oligonucleotide libraries whose variants contain wild-type and mutant codons randomly interspersed throughout a focused DNA region. Fmoc is labile to organic bases and stable to weak acids, whereas DMTr behaves oppositely. Based on these chemical characteristics, we have now devised TrimerDimer, a novel codon-based saturation mutagenesis approach that removes redundant and stop codons during the assembly of degenerate oligonucleotides. In this approach, five DMTr-protected trinucleotide phosphoramidites (dTGG, dATG, dTTT, dTAT and dTGC) and five Fmoc-protected dinucleotide phosphoramidites (dAA, dTT, dAT, dGC and dCG) react simultaneously with a starting oligonucleotide growing on a solid support. The Fmoc group is then removed and the incorporated dimers react with a mixture of three DMTr-protected monomer phosphoramidites (dC, dA and dG) to produce 15 trinucleotides: dCAA, dAAA, dGAA, dCTT, dATT, dGTT, dCAT, dAAT, dGAT, dCGC, dAGC, dGGC, dCCG, dACG and dGCG. After one mutagenic cycle, 20 codons are generated encoding the 20 natural amino acids. TrimerDimer was tested by randomizing the four contiguous codons that encode amino acids L64G67 of an engineered, nonfluorescent GFP protein. Sequencing of 89 nonfluorescent mutant clones and isolation of two fluorescent mutants confirmed the principle. PMID:19783828

  12. Structural characterization of eRF1 mutants indicate a complex mechanism of stop codon recognition.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Shubhadra; Li, Yan; Wong, Leo E; Pervushin, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Eukarya translation termination requires the stop codon recognizing protein eRF1. In contrast to the multiple proteins required for translation termination in Bacteria, eRF1 retains the ability to recognize all three of the stop codons. The details of the mechanism that eRF1 uses to recognize stop codons has remained elusive. This study describes the structural effects of mutations in the eRF1 N-domain that have previously been shown to alter stop codon recognition specificity. Here, we propose a model of eRF1 binding to the pre-translation termination ribosomal complex that is based in part on our solution NMR structures of the wild-type and mutant eRF1 N-domains. Since structural perturbations induced by these mutations were spread throughout the protein structure, residual dipolar coupling (RDC) data were recorded to establish the long-range effects of the specific mutations, E55Q, Y125F, Q(122)FM(Y)F(126). RDCs were recorded on (15)N-labeled eRF1 N-domain weakly aligned in either 5% w/v n-octyl-penta (ethylene glycol)/octanol (C8E5) or the filamentous phage Pf1. These data indicate that the mutations alter the conformation and dynamics of the GTS loop that is distant from the mutation sites. We propose that the GTS loop forms a switch that is key for the multiple codon recognition capability of eRF1. PMID:26725946

  13. Structural characterization of eRF1 mutants indicate a complex mechanism of stop codon recognition

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Shubhadra; Li, Yan; Wong, Leo E; Pervushin, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Eukarya translation termination requires the stop codon recognizing protein eRF1. In contrast to the multiple proteins required for translation termination in Bacteria, eRF1 retains the ability to recognize all three of the stop codons. The details of the mechanism that eRF1 uses to recognize stop codons has remained elusive. This study describes the structural effects of mutations in the eRF1 N-domain that have previously been shown to alter stop codon recognition specificity. Here, we propose a model of eRF1 binding to the pre-translation termination ribosomal complex that is based in part on our solution NMR structures of the wild-type and mutant eRF1 N-domains. Since structural perturbations induced by these mutations were spread throughout the protein structure, residual dipolar coupling (RDC) data were recorded to establish the long-range effects of the specific mutations, E55Q, Y125F, Q122FM(Y)F126. RDCs were recorded on 15N-labeled eRF1 N-domain weakly aligned in either 5% w/v n-octyl-penta (ethylene glycol)/octanol (C8E5) or the filamentous phage Pf1. These data indicate that the mutations alter the conformation and dynamics of the GTS loop that is distant from the mutation sites. We propose that the GTS loop forms a switch that is key for the multiple codon recognition capability of eRF1. PMID:26725946

  14. Periodical Usage in an Education-Psychology Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perk, Lawrence J.; Van Pulis, Noelle

    1977-01-01

    A study was conducted of periodical usage at the Education-Psychology Library, Ohio State University. The library's closed reserve system provided circulation data which were analyzed according to currency of usage and usage of specific titles. (Author)

  15. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pu; Hunter, Timothy; Bayen, Alexandre M.; Schechtner, Katja; Gonzlez, Marta C.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach.

  16. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pu; Hunter, Timothy; Bayen, Alexandre M.; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach. PMID:23259045

  17. College Student Credit Card Usage and Debt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybka, Kathryn M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the concerns related to credit card usage by college students. Offers information student affairs professionals can use to help college students make responsible choices. (Contains 26 references.) (GCP)

  18. Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Associated with Rowatinex Usage

    PubMed Central

    Akyol-Salman, ?lknur; Lee-Sertz, Deniz; Mumcu, U?ur; Ate?, Orhan; Baykal, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is an idiopathic disorder characterized by serous detachment of the neurosensory retina. This report describes a case of CSC associated with rowatinex usage. PMID:25610102

  19. Central serous chorioretinopathy associated with rowatinex usage.

    PubMed

    Akyol-Salman, ?lknur; Lee-Sertz, Deniz; Mumcu, U?ur; Ate?, Orhan; Baykal, Orhan

    2009-12-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is an idiopathic disorder characterized by serous detachment of the neurosensory retina. This report describes a case of CSC associated with rowatinex usage. PMID:25610102

  20. Personality variables as predictors of Facebook usage.

    PubMed

    Caci, Barbara; Cardaci, Maurizio; Tabacchi, Marco E; Scrima, Fabrizio

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the role of personality factors as predictors of Facebook usage. Data concerning Facebook usage and personality factors from 654 Facebook users were gathered using a web survey. Using path analysis, the results showed Openness was a predictor of Facebook early adoption, Conscientiousness with sparing use, Extraversion with long sessions and abundant friendships, and Neuroticism with high frequency of sessions. The possible role of Agreeableness in predicting low session frequency and friendships needs further validation. PMID:24897905

  1. Hepatitis B virus pre-S2 start codon mutations in Indonesian liver disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Utama, Andi; Siburian, Marlinang Diarta; Fanany, Ismail; Intan, Mariana Destila Bayu; Dhenni, Rama; Kurniasih, Tri Shinta; Lelosutan, Syafruddin AR; Achwan, Wenny Astuti; Zubir, Nasrul; Arnelis; Lukito, Benyamin; Yusuf, Irawan; Lesmana, Laurentius Adrianus; Sulaiman, Ali

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To identify the prevalence of pre-S2 start codon mutations and to assess their association with liver disease progression. METHODS: The mutations were identified by direct sequencing from 73 asymptomatic carriers, 66 chronic hepatitis (CH), 66 liver cirrhosis (LC) and 63 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Statistical significances were determined using Fishers exact test, ?2 test, and t-test analyses whenever appropriate. Pre-S mutation as a risk factor for advanced liver disease was estimated by unconditional logistic regression model adjusted with age, sex, and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). P < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Mutation of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) pre-S2 start codon was found in 59 samples from 268 subjects (22.0%), with higher prevalence in patients with cirrhosis 27/66 (40.9%) followed by HCC 18/63 (28.6%), chronic hepatitis 12/66 (18.2%) and asymptomatic carriers 2/73 (2.7%) (P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that pre-S2 start codon mutation was an independent factor for progressive liver disease. Other mutations, at T130, Q132, and A138, were also associated with LC and HCC, although this was not statistically significant when adjusted for age, sex, and HBeAg. The prevalence of pre-S2 start codon mutation was higher in HBV/B than in HBV/C (23.0% vs 19.1%), whilst the prevalence of T130, Q132, and A138 mutation was higher in HBV/C than in HBV/B. The prevalence of pre-S2 start codon mutation was higher in LC (38.9%) and HCC (40.0%) than CH (5.6%) in HBeAg(+) group, but it was similar between CH, LC and HCC in HBeAg(-) group. CONCLUSION: Pre-S2 start codon mutation was higher in Indonesian patients compared to other Asian countries, and its prevalence was associated with advanced liver disease, particularly in HBeAg(+) patients. PMID:23082059

  2. tRNA(Trp) translation of leader peptide codon 12 and other factors that regulate expression of the tryptophanase operon.

    PubMed

    Gollnick, P; Yanofsky, C

    1990-06-01

    Tryptophanase (tna) operon expression in Escherichia coli is induced by tryptophan. This response is mediated by features of a 319-base-pair leader region preceding the major structural genes of the operon. Translation of the coding region (tnaC) for a 24-amino-acid leader peptide is essential for induction. We have used site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the role of the single Trp codon, at position 12 in tnaC, in regulation of the operon. Codon 12 was changed to either a UAG or UGA stop codon or to a CGG arginine codon. Induction by tryptophan was eliminated by any of these changes. Studies with suppressor tRNAs indicated that tRNA(Trp) translation of codon 12 in tnaC is essential for induction of the operon. Reduction of tna expression by a miaA mutation supports a role for translation by tRNA(Trp) in regulation of the operon. Frameshift mutations and suppression that allows translation of tnaC to proceed beyond the normal stop codon result in constitutive tna operon expression. Deletion of a potential site for Rho factor utilization just beyond tnaC also results in partial constitutive expression. These studies suggest possible models for tryptophan induction of tna operon expression involving tRNA(Trp)-mediated frame shifting or readthrough at the tnaC stop codon. PMID:2345136

  3. E-Book Usage and the "Choice" Outstanding Academic Book List: Is There a Correlation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter Williams, Karen; Best, Rickey

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the staff of the library at Auburn University at Montgomery analyzed circulation patterns for electronic books in the fields of Political Science, Public Administration and Law to see if favorable "Choice" reviews can be used to predict usage of electronic books. A comparison of the circulations between print and electronic books

  4. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,

  5. Report on Utilities Usage and Cost. 1981-82 to 1985-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Commission on Higher Education, Montgomery.

    The Alabama Commission on Higher Education spent 3 years compiling and analyzing information on the consumption and costs of energy and other kinds of utilities by Alabama public colleges and universities. Usage and cost information is taken from each institution's quarterly utilities report. It is noted that interinstitutional comparisons can be

  6. Numeral series hidden in the distribution of atomic mass of amino acids to codon domains in the genetic code.

    PubMed

    Wohlin, Åsa

    2015-03-21

    The distribution of codons in the nearly universal genetic code is a long discussed issue. At the atomic level, the numeral series 2x(2) (x=5-0) lies behind electron shells and orbitals. Numeral series appear in formulas for spectral lines of hydrogen. The question here was if some similar scheme could be found in the genetic code. A table of 24 codons was constructed (synonyms counted as one) for 20 amino acids, four of which have two different codons. An atomic mass analysis was performed, built on common isotopes. It was found that a numeral series 5 to 0 with exponent 2/3 times 10(2) revealed detailed congruency with codon-grouped amino acid side-chains, simultaneously with the division on atom kinds, further with main 3rd base groups, backbone chains and with codon-grouped amino acids in relation to their origin from glycolysis or the citrate cycle. Hence, it is proposed that this series in a dynamic way may have guided the selection of amino acids into codon domains. Series with simpler exponents also showed noteworthy correlations with the atomic mass distribution on main codon domains; especially the 2x(2)-series times a factor 16 appeared as a conceivable underlying level, both for the atomic mass and charge distribution. Furthermore, it was found that atomic mass transformations between numeral systems, possibly interpretable as dimension degree steps, connected the atomic mass of codon bases with codon-grouped amino acids and with the exponent 2/3-series in several astonishing ways. Thus, it is suggested that they may be part of a deeper reference system. PMID:25623487

  7. Identification of a premature stop codon in the melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor gene (MC1R) in Labrador and Golden retrievers with yellow coat colour.

    PubMed

    Everts, R E; Rothuizen, J; van Oost, B A

    2000-06-01

    We have examined whether black/yellow coat colour in Labrador retrievers is controlled by allelic variants at the extension locus. As the gene encoding the melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor (MC1R) has been shown to correspond to the extension locus in several species, we have determined the genomic MC1R sequence in Labrador retrievers with black and with yellow coat colour. Using primers based on the fox (Vulpes vulpes) MC1R sequence we initially isolated and sequenced the innerpart of the canine MC1R. By means of inverse PCR we succeeded in the characterization of both flanking regions of the MC1R gene (Genbank: AF064455). Comparison of the complete MC1R sequences of a yellow and a black Labrador retriever revealed a single C-->T mutation at nucleotide position 916 in the yellow dog. This transition changed the codon for arginine at position 305 into a stop codon, resulting in the elimination of the evolutionary strongly conserved 10 carboxyterminal amino acid residues. With an allele-specific-oligonucleotide (ASO) test it was shown that the mutation cosegregated with the recessively inherited yellow coat colour in the Labrador retriever. Golden retrievers also appeared to be homozygous for the mutation. Seventeen other breeds were all negative for the mutation. Since the Labrador and Golden retriever are closely related, we suggest a common founder for the yellow coat colour in Labrador and Golden retrievers. PMID:10895310

  8. Evolutionary Adaptation of the Amino Acid and Codon Usage of the Mosquito Sodium Channel following Insecticide Selection in the Field Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Lee; Li, Ting; Zhang, Lan; He, Lin; Dong, Ke; Liu, Nannan

    2012-01-01

    Target site insensitivity resulting from point mutations within the voltage-gated sodium channel of the insect nervous system is known to be of primary importance in the development of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. This study shifts current research paradigms by conducting, for the first time, a global analysis of all the naturally occurring mutations, both nonsynonymous and synonymous mutations, as well as mutation combinations in the entire mosquito sodium channel of Culex quinquefasciatus and analyzing their evolutionary and heritable feature and roles in insecticide resistance. Through a systematic analysis of comparing nucleotide polymorphisms in the entire sodium channel cDNAs of individuals between susceptible and resistant mosquito strains, between field parental mosquitoes and their permethrin selected offspring, and among different mosquito groups categorized by their levels of tolerance to specific permethrin concentrations within and among the mosquito strains of the field parental strains and their permethrin selected offspring, 3 nonsynonymous (A109S, L982F, and W1573R) and 6 synonymous (L852, G891, A1241, D1245, P1249, and G1733) mutations were identified. The co-existence of all 9 mutations, both nonsynonymous and synonymous, and their homozygousity were found to be important factors for high levels of resistance. Our study, for the first time, provide a strong case demonstrating the co-existence of both nonsynonymous and synonymous mutations in the sodium channel of resistant mosquitoes in response to insecticide resistance and the inheritance of these mutations in the offspring of field mosquito strains following insecticide selection. PMID:23082181

  9. Amino-acid substitutions at codon 13 of the N-ras oncogene in human acute myeloid leukaemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Johannes L.; Toksoz, Deniz; Marshall, Christopher J.; Verlaan-de Vries, Matty; Veeneman, Gerrit H.; van der Eb, Alex J.; van Boom, Jacques H.; Janssen, Johannes W. G.; Steenvoorden, Ada C. M.

    1985-06-01

    DNAs from four out of five patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) tested by an in vivo selection assay in nude mice using transfected mouse NIH 3T3 cells were found to contain an activated N-ras oncogene. Using a set of synthetic oligonucleotide probes, we have detected a mutation at codon 13 in all four genes. The same codon is mutated in an additional AML DNA that is positive in the focus-formation assay on 3T3 cells. DNA from the peripheral blood of one patient in remission does not contain a codon 13 mutation.

  10. Lack of IRS-1 codon 513 and 972 polymorphism in Pima Indians

    SciTech Connect

    Celi, F.S.; Silver, K.; Walston, J.

    1995-09-01

    Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), a 1242 amino acid protein, an endogenous substrate for the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase, mediates many or all of the metabolic actions of insulin. Recently, polymorphism at codons 513 and 972 of the IRS-1 gene resulting in 2 amino acid substitutions that were associated with type II diabetes were found in a Caucasian population. Using allele specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridization, we screened 242 diabetic and 190 nondiabetic Pima Indians, a population with a very high prevalence of type II diabetes. Neither of the two mutations was present in either diabetic or nondiabetic subjects. We conclude that polymorphism at codons 513 and 972 of the IRS-1 gene observed in certain Caucasian populations is very rare or absent in Pima Indians. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Lie superalgebras and the multiplet structure of the genetic code. I. Codon representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forger, Michael; Sachse, Sebastian

    2000-08-01

    It has been proposed by Hornos and Hornos [Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4401-4404 (1993)] that the degeneracy of the genetic code, i.e., the phenomenon that different codons (base triplets) of DNA are transcribed into the same amino acid, may be interpreted as the result of a symmetry breaking process. In their work, this picture was developed in the framework of simple Lie algebras. Here, we explore the possibility of explaining the degeneracy of the genetic code using basic classical Lie superalgebras, whose representation theory is sufficiently well understood, at least as far as typical representations are concerned. In the present paper, we give the complete list of all typical codon representations (typical 64-dimensional irreducible representations), whereas in the second part, we shall present the corresponding branching rules and discuss which of them reproduce the multiplet structure of the genetic code.

  12. A POPULATION-SPECIFIC HTR2B STOP CODON PREDISPOSES TO SEVERE IMPULSIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Bevilacqua, Laura; Doly, Stéphane; Kaprio, Jaakko; Yuan, Qiaoping; Tikkanen, Roope; Paunio, Tiina; Zhou, Zhifeng; Wedenoja, Juho; Maroteaux, Luc; Diaz, Silvina; Belmer, Arnaud; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Dell’Osso, Liliana; Suvisaari, Jaana; Coccaro, Emil; Rose, Richard J; Peltonen, Leena; Virkkunen, Matti; Goldman, David

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Impulsivity, describing action without foresight, is an important feature of several psychiatric diseases, suicidality and violent behavior. The complex origins of impulsivity hinder identification of the genes influencing both it and diseases with which it is associated. We performed exon-centric sequencing of impulsive individuals in a founder population, targeting fourteen genes belonging to the serotonin and dopamine domain. A stop codon in HTR2B that is common (MAF >1%) but exclusive to Finns was identified. Expression of the gene in the human brain was assessed, as well as the molecular functionality of the stop codon that was associated with psychiatric diseases marked by impulsivity in both population and family-based analyses. Knockout of Htr2b increased impulsive behaviors in mice, indicative of predictive validity. Our study shows the potential for identifying and tracing effects of rare alleles in complex behavioral phenotypes using founder populations, and suggests a role for HTR2B in impulsivity. PMID:21179162

  13. Association between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and sarcoma risk among Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhengqi; Yu, Xiuchun

    2014-05-01

    Many published data on the association between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and sarcoma risk showed inconclusive results. The present study was designed to derive a more precise estimation of this connection among Caucasians. We conducted a literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CNKI databases for case-control studies examining the association between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and sarcoma risk. The meta-analysis was performed using STATA 12.0 software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to measure the strength of any association. The results of this meta-analysis did not provide statistical evidence for significant sarcoma risk associated with p53 codon 72 polymorphism (OR(Arg/Arg vs. Pro/Pro) = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.80-1.26, P(heterogeneity) = 0.980; OR(Arg/Arg + Arg/Pro vs. Pro/Pro) = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.83-1.19, P(heterogeneity) = 0.990; OR(Arg/Arg vs. Arg/Pro + Pro/Pro) = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.89-1.35, P(heterogeneity) = 0.532; OR(allele Arg vs. allele Pro) = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.90-1.18, P(heterogeneity) = 0.883; OR(Arg/Pro vs. Pro/Pro) = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.71-1.27, P(heterogeneity) = 0.919). We also did not find significant links in further subgroup analyses by ethnicity, control source, and sarcoma type. The present meta-analysis of currently available data suggests that the p53 codon 72 polymorphism may not play a role in sarcoma development in Caucasians. PMID:24449505

  14. The Role of TP53 Gene Codon 72 Polymorphism in Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Xiao-Lan; Li, Sheng; Meng, Xiang-Yu; Geng, Peiliang; Gao, Qing-Ping; Ao, Xu-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this meta-analysis was aimed to evaluate the association of tumor protein p53 (TP53) gene codon 72 polymorphism with leukemia susceptibility. We searched PubMed to identify relevant studies, and 16 case-control studies from 14 published articles were identified as eligible studies, including 2062 leukemia patients and 5826 controls. After extracting data, odds ratio (OR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was applied to assess the association between TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and leukemia susceptibility. The meta-analysis was performed with the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software, version 2.2. Overall, no significant association between TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and leukemia susceptibility was found in this meta-analysis (Pro vs Arg: OR?=?1.05, 95%CI?=?0.901.21; Pro/Pro vs Arg/Arg: OR?=?1.13, 95%CI?=?0.841.52; Arg/Pro vs Arg/Arg: OR?=?0.94, 95%CI?=?0.761.15; [Pro/Pro?+?Arg/Pro] vs Arg/Arg: OR?=?0.99, 95%CI?=?0.801.21; Pro/Pro vs [Arg/Arg?+?Arg/Pro]: OR?=?1.19, 95%CI?=?0.931.51). Similar results were also found in subgroup analysis by ethnicity, source of controls, and types of leukemia (either acute myeloid leukemia or acute lymphocytic leukemia). Our meta-analysis demonstrates that TP53 codon 72 polymorphism may not be a risk factor for acute leukemia; however, due to the limitations of this study, it should be verified in future studies. PMID:26402821

  15. EBSCO's Usage Consolidation Attempts to Streamline Gathering, Storage, and Reporting of Usage Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remy, Charlie

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of EBSCO's new Usage Consolidation product designed to streamline the harvesting, storage, and analysis of usage statistics from electronic resources. Strengths and weaknesses of the product are discussed as well as an early beta partner's experience. In the current atmosphere of flat or declining budgets, libraries

  16. EBSCO's Usage Consolidation Attempts to Streamline Gathering, Storage, and Reporting of Usage Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remy, Charlie

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of EBSCO's new Usage Consolidation product designed to streamline the harvesting, storage, and analysis of usage statistics from electronic resources. Strengths and weaknesses of the product are discussed as well as an early beta partner's experience. In the current atmosphere of flat or declining budgets, libraries…

  17. Highly reproductive Escherichia coli cells with no specific assignment to the UAG codon

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Takahito; Hoshi, Hiroko; Ohtake, Kazumasa; Takahashi, Mihoko; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Hayashi, Akiko; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Sakamoto, Kensaku

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a widely used host organism for recombinant technology, and the bacterial incorporation of non-natural amino acids promises the efficient synthesis of proteins with novel structures and properties. In the present study, we developed E. coli strains in which the UAG codon was reserved for non-natural amino acids, without compromising the reproductive strength of the host cells. Ninety-five of the 273 UAG stop codons were replaced synonymously in the genome of E. coli BL21(DE3), by exploiting the oligonucleotide-mediated base-mismatch-repair mechanism. This genomic modification allowed the safe elimination of the UAG-recognizing cellular component (RF-1), thus leaving the remaining 178 UAG codons with no specific molecule recognizing them. The resulting strain B-95.?A grew as vigorously as BL21(DE3)?in rich medium at 2542C, and its derivative B-95.?A?fabR was better adapted to low temperatures and minimal media than B-95.?A. UAG was reassigned to synthetic amino acids by expressing the specific pairs of UAG-reading tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. Due to the preserved growth vigor, the B-95.?A strains showed superior productivities for hirudin molecules sulfonated on a particular tyrosine residue, and the Fab fragments of Herceptin containing multiple azido groups. PMID:25982672

  18. Trm9-Catalyzed tRNA Modifications Regulate Global Protein Expression by Codon-Biased Translation

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wenjun; Babu, I. Ramesh; Su, Dan; Yin, Shanye; Begley, Thomas J.; Dedon, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional modifications of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) have long been recognized to play crucial roles in regulating the rate and fidelity of translation. However, the extent to which they determine global protein production remains poorly understood. Here we use quantitative proteomics to show a direct link between wobble uridine 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl (mcm5) and 5-methoxy-carbonyl-methyl-2-thio (mcm5s2) modifications catalyzed by tRNA methyltransferase 9 (Trm9) in tRNAArg(UCU) and tRNAGlu(UUC) and selective translation of proteins from genes enriched with their cognate codons. Controlling for bias in protein expression and alternations in mRNA expression, we find that loss of Trm9 selectively impairs expression of proteins from genes enriched with AGA and GAA codons under both normal and stress conditions. Moreover, we show that AGA and GAA codons occur with high frequency in clusters along the transcripts, which may play a role in modulating translation. Consistent with these results, proteins subject to enhanced ribosome pausing in yeast lacking mcm5U and mcm5s2U are more likely to be down-regulated and contain a larger number of AGA/GAA clusters. Together, these results suggest that Trm9-catalyzed tRNA modifications play a significant role in regulating protein expression within the cell. PMID:26670883

  19. Genotyping of K-ras codons 12 and 13 mutations in colorectal cancer by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Ling; Chang, Ya-Sian; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Wu, Shou-Mei

    2009-06-26

    Point mutations of the K-ras gene located in codons 12 and 13 cause poor responses to the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) therapy of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Besides, mutations of K-ras gene have also been proven to play an important role in human tumor progression. We established a simple and effective capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for simultaneous point mutation detection in codons 12 and 13 of K-ras gene. We combined one universal fluorescence-based nonhuman-sequence primer and two fragment-oriented primers in one tube, and performed this two-in-one polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR fragments included wild type and seven point mutations at codons 12 and 13 of K-ras gene. The amplicons were analyzed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP)-CE method. The CE analysis was performed by using a 1x Tris-borate-EDTA (TBE) buffer containing 1.5% (w/v) hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) (MW 250,000) under reverse polarity with 15 degrees C and 30 degrees C. Ninety colorectal cancer patients were blindly genotyped using this developed method. The results showed good agreement with those of DNA sequencing method. The SSCP-CE was feasible for mutation screening of K-ras gene in populations. PMID:19450806

  20. Mismatch repair at stop codons is directed independent of GATC methylation on the Escherichia coli chromosome.

    PubMed

    Sneppen, Kim; Semsey, Szabolcs

    2014-01-01

    The mismatch repair system (MMR) corrects replication errors that escape proofreading. Previous studies on extrachromosomal DNA in Escherichia coli suggested that MMR uses hemimethylated GATC sites to identify the newly synthesized strand. In this work we asked how the distance of GATC sites and their methylation status affect the occurrence of single base substitutions on the E. coli chromosome. As a reporter system we used a lacZ gene containing an early TAA stop codon. We found that occurrence of point mutations at this stop codon is unaffected by GATC sites located more than 115 base pairs away. However, a GATC site located about 50 base pairs away resulted in a decreased mutation rate. This effect was independent of Dam methylation. The reversion rate of the stop codon increased only slightly in dam mutants compared to mutL and mutS mutants. We suggest that unlike on extrachromosomal DNA, GATC methylation is not the only strand discrimination signal for MMR on the E. coli chromosome. PMID:25475788

  1. Effect of codon optimisation on the production of recombinant fish growth hormone in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Rothan, Hussin A; Huy, Teh Ser; Mohamed, Zulqarnain

    2014-01-01

    This study was established to test the hypothesis of whether the codon optimization of fish growth hormone gene (FGH) based on P. pastoris preferred codon will improve the quantity of secreted rFGH in culture supernatant that can directly be used as fish feed supplements. The optimized FGH coding sequence (oFGH) and native sequence (nFGH) of giant grouper fish (Epinephelus lanceolatus) were cloned into P. pastoris expression vector (pPICZ?A) downstream of alcohol oxidase gene (AOX1) for efficient induction of extracellular rFGH by adding 1% of absolute methanol. The results showed that recombinant P. pastoris was able to produce 2.80 0.27 mg of oFGH compared to 1.75 0.25 of nFGH in one litre of culture supernatant. The total body weight of tiger grouper fingerlings fed with oFGH increased significantly at third (P < 0.05) and fourth weeks (P < 0.01) of four-week experiment period compared to those fed with nFGH. Both oFGH and nFGH significantly enhanced the final biomass and fish survival percentage. In conclusion, codon optimization of FGH fragment was useful to increase rFGH quantity in the culture supernatant of P. pastoris that can be directly used as fish feed supplements. Further studies are still required for large scale production of rFGH and practical application in aquaculture production. PMID:25147851

  2. Codon Optimization Significantly Improves the Expression Level of a Keratinase Gene in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hong; Gao, Jie; He, Jun; Yu, Bing; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Mao, Xiangbing; Yu, Jie; Han, Guoquan; Chen, Daiwen

    2013-01-01

    The main keratinase (kerA) gene from the Bacillus licheniformis S90 was optimized by two codon optimization strategies and expressed in Pichia pastoris in order to improve the enzyme production compared to the preparations with the native kerA gene. The results showed that the corresponding mutations (synonymous codons) according to the codon bias in Pichia pastoris were successfully introduced into keratinase gene. The highest keratinase activity produced by P. pastoris pPICZαA-kerAwt, pPICZαA-kerAopti1 and pPICZαA-kerAopti2 was 195 U/ml, 324 U/ml and 293 U/ml respectively. In addition, there was no significant difference in biomass concentration, target gene copy numbers and relative mRNA expression levels of every positive strain. The molecular weight of keratinase secreted by recombinant P. pastori was approx. 39 kDa. It was optimally active at pH 7.5 and 50°C. The recombinant keratinase could efficiently degrade both α-keratin (keratin azure) and β-keratin (chicken feather meal). These properties make the P. pastoris pPICZαA-kerAopti1 a suitable candidate for industrial production of keratinases. PMID:23472192

  3. Codon optimization significantly improves the expression level of a keratinase gene in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hong; Gao, Jie; He, Jun; Yu, Bing; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Mao, Xiangbing; Yu, Jie; Han, Guoquan; Chen, Daiwen

    2013-01-01

    The main keratinase (kerA) gene from the Bacillus licheniformis S90 was optimized by two codon optimization strategies and expressed in Pichia pastoris in order to improve the enzyme production compared to the preparations with the native kerA gene. The results showed that the corresponding mutations (synonymous codons) according to the codon bias in Pichia pastoris were successfully introduced into keratinase gene. The highest keratinase activity produced by P. pastoris pPICZ?A-kerAwt, pPICZ?A-kerAopti1 and pPICZ?A-kerAopti2 was 195 U/ml, 324 U/ml and 293 U/ml respectively. In addition, there was no significant difference in biomass concentration, target gene copy numbers and relative mRNA expression levels of every positive strain. The molecular weight of keratinase secreted by recombinant P. pastori was approx. 39 kDa. It was optimally active at pH 7.5 and 50C. The recombinant keratinase could efficiently degrade both ?-keratin (keratin azure) and ?-keratin (chicken feather meal). These properties make the P. pastoris pPICZ?A-kerAopti1 a suitable candidate for industrial production of keratinases. PMID:23472192

  4. Recognition of the amber UAG stop codon by release factor RF1

    SciTech Connect

    Korostelev, Andrei; Zhu, Jianyu; Asahara, Haruichi; Noller, Harry F.

    2010-08-23

    We report the crystal structure of a termination complex containing release factor RF1 bound to the 70S ribosome in response to an amber (UAG) codon at 3.6-{angstrom} resolution. The amber codon is recognized in the 30S subunit-decoding centre directly by conserved elements of domain 2 of RF1, including T186 of the PVT motif. Together with earlier structures, the mechanisms of recognition of all three stop codons by release factors RF1 and RF2 can now be described. Our structure confirms that the backbone amide of Q230 of the universally conserved GGQ motif is positioned to contribute directly to the catalysis of the peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis reaction through stabilization of the leaving group and/or transition state. We also observe synthetic-negative interactions between mutations in the switch loop of RF1 and in helix 69 of 23S rRNA, revealing that these structural features interact functionally in the termination process. These findings are consistent with our proposal that structural rearrangements of RF1 and RF2 are critical to accurate translation termination.

  5. Optimization of Codon Translation Rates via tRNA Modifications Maintains Proteome Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Nedialkova, Danny D.; Leidel, Sebastian A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Proteins begin to fold as they emerge from translating ribosomes. The kinetics of ribosome transit along a given mRNA can influence nascent chain folding, but the extent to which individual codon translation rates impact proteome integrity remains unknown. Here, we show that slower decoding of discrete codons elicits widespread protein aggregation in vivo. Using ribosome profiling, we find that loss of anticodon wobble uridine (U34) modifications in a subset of tRNAs leads to ribosome pausing at their cognate codons in S. cerevisiae and C. elegans. Cells lacking U34 modifications exhibit gene expression hallmarks of proteotoxic stress, accumulate aggregates of endogenous proteins, and are severely compromised in clearing stress-induced protein aggregates. Overexpression of hypomodified tRNAs alleviates ribosome pausing, concomitantly restoring protein homeostasis. Our findings demonstrate that modified U34 is an evolutionarily conserved accelerator of decoding and reveal an unanticipated role for tRNA modifications in maintaining proteome integrity. PMID:26052047

  6. Effect of Codon Optimisation on the Production of Recombinant Fish Growth Hormone in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Rothan, Hussin A.; Ser Huy, Teh; Mohamed, Zulqarnain

    2014-01-01

    This study was established to test the hypothesis of whether the codon optimization of fish growth hormone gene (FGH) based on P. pastoris preferred codon will improve the quantity of secreted rFGH in culture supernatant that can directly be used as fish feed supplements. The optimized FGH coding sequence (oFGH) and native sequence (nFGH) of giant grouper fish (Epinephelus lanceolatus) were cloned into P. pastoris expression vector (pPICZαA) downstream of alcohol oxidase gene (AOX1) for efficient induction of extracellular rFGH by adding 1% of absolute methanol. The results showed that recombinant P. pastoris was able to produce 2.80 ± 0.27 mg of oFGH compared to 1.75 ± 0.25 of nFGH in one litre of culture supernatant. The total body weight of tiger grouper fingerlings fed with oFGH increased significantly at third (P < 0.05) and fourth weeks (P < 0.01) of four-week experiment period compared to those fed with nFGH. Both oFGH and nFGH significantly enhanced the final biomass and fish survival percentage. In conclusion, codon optimization of FGH fragment was useful to increase rFGH quantity in the culture supernatant of P. pastoris that can be directly used as fish feed supplements. Further studies are still required for large scale production of rFGH and practical application in aquaculture production. PMID:25147851

  7. Structural Changes Enable Start Codon Recognition by the Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Complex

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Tanweer; Llácer, Jose L.; Fernández, Israel S.; Munoz, Antonio; Martin-Marcos, Pilar; Savva, Christos G.; Lorsch, Jon R.; Hinnebusch, Alan G.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary During eukaryotic translation initiation, initiator tRNA does not insert fully into the P decoding site on the 40S ribosomal subunit. This conformation (POUT) is compatible with scanning mRNA for the AUG start codon. Base pairing with AUG is thought to promote isomerization to a more stable conformation (PIN) that arrests scanning and promotes dissociation of eIF1 from the 40S subunit. Here, we present a cryoEM reconstruction of a yeast preinitiation complex at 4.0 Å resolution with initiator tRNA in the PIN state, prior to eIF1 release. The structure reveals stabilization of the codon-anticodon duplex by the N-terminal tail of eIF1A, changes in the structure of eIF1 likely instrumental in its subsequent release, and changes in the conformation of eIF2. The mRNA traverses the entire mRNA cleft and makes connections to the regulatory domain of eIF2α, eIF1A, and ribosomal elements that allow recognition of context nucleotides surrounding the AUG codon. PMID:25417110

  8. New insights into stop codon recognition by eRF1

    PubMed Central

    Blanchet, Sandra; Rowe, Michelle; VonderHaar, Tobias; Fabret, Cline; Demais, Stphane; Howard, Mark J.; Namy, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, translation termination is performed by eRF1, which recognizes stop codons via its N-terminal domain. Many previous studies based on point mutagenesis, cross-linking experiments or eRF1 chimeras have investigated the mechanism by which the stop signal is decoded by eRF1. Conserved motifs, such as GTS and YxCxxxF, were found to be important for termination efficiency, but the recognition mechanism remains unclear. We characterized a region of the eRF1 N-terminal domain, the P1 pocket, that we had previously shown to be involved in termination efficiency. We performed alanine scanning mutagenesis of this region, and we quantified in vivo readthrough efficiency for each alanine mutant. We identified two residues, arginine 65 and lysine 109, as critical for recognition of the three stop codons. We also demonstrated a role for the serine 33 and serine 70 residues in UGA decoding in vivo. NMR analysis of the alanine mutants revealed that the correct conformation of this region was controlled by the YxCxxxF motif. By combining our genetic data with a structural analysis of eRF1 mutants, we were able to formulate a new model in which the stop codon interacts with eRF1 through the P1 pocket. PMID:25735746

  9. Mismatch repair at stop codons is directed independent of GATC methylation on the Escherichia coli chromosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneppen, Kim; Semsey, Szabolcs

    2014-12-01

    The mismatch repair system (MMR) corrects replication errors that escape proofreading. Previous studies on extrachromosomal DNA in Escherichia coli suggested that MMR uses hemimethylated GATC sites to identify the newly synthesized strand. In this work we asked how the distance of GATC sites and their methylation status affect the occurrence of single base substitutions on the E. coli chromosome. As a reporter system we used a lacZ gene containing an early TAA stop codon. We found that occurrence of point mutations at this stop codon is unaffected by GATC sites located more than 115 base pairs away. However, a GATC site located about 50 base pairs away resulted in a decreased mutation rate. This effect was independent of Dam methylation. The reversion rate of the stop codon increased only slightly in dam mutants compared to mutL and mutS mutants. We suggest that unlike on extrachromosomal DNA, GATC methylation is not the only strand discrimination signal for MMR on the E. coli chromosome.

  10. Endosulfan in China 1-gridded usage inventories.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Jia H; Li YF; Wang D; Cai D; Yang M; Ma J; Hu J

    2009-05-01

    BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide (OCP), is genotoxic in mammalian cells and generally considered to be toxic and classified by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency as priority pollutants and a nominator for inclusion in a future iteration of the persistent organic pollutants treaty. Endosulfan is a currently used pesticide and still being used worldwide. The general trend of total global endosulfan use has increased continuously since the first year when this pesticide was applied. It is critical to create national endosulfan usage/emission inventories for China to carry out source-receptor relation analysis, risk assessment, and other research related to endosulfan in this country. Chinese inventories have been published for some OCPs, such as technical HCH and lindane, DDT, and chlordane; for endosulfan, however, there has not been any usage inventory available on any scales (national or provincial), although endosulfan has been widely used since 1994 in this country. This is the first part of the work. The goal of this paper is to quantify the historical production and usage of endosulfan in China and to compile gridded historical usage inventories of endosulfan for this country. Based on these usage inventories, emission and residue inventories will be created, which is the goal of the second part of the work.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Due to the lack of national production and usage information of endosulfan in China, a method to estimate the use of endosulfan was developed. First, information of crops on which endosulfan is applied and average endosulfan use and annual application frequencies of endosulfan on these crops were collected. Secondly, usage of endosulfan on each crop was estimated using the national cropland area for each province from Chinese government reports. Finally, with the help of GIS (geographic information system), the usage data of this insecticide was allocated to a grid system, with a 1/4 degrees longitude by 1/6 degrees latitude resolution, with a size for each grid cell of approximately 25 km by 25 km.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The use of endosulfan in agriculture in China started on cotton in 1994, and on wheat, tea, tobacco, apples, and other fruits in 1998. Endosulfan usage on cotton, wheat, tea, tobacco, and apples in China has been estimated to be approximately 25,700 t between 1994 and 2004. The province with the highest usage of endosulfan is Henan Province, with a total usage reaching 4,000 t, followed by the uses in Xinjiang Autonomous Region (3,200 t), Shandong Province (3,000 t), Hebei Province (2,100 t), and Anhui Province (1,900 t). Gridded usage inventories of endosulfan at a 1/4 degrees longitude by 1/6 degrees latitude resolution have been created, which indicate that the intensive endosulfan use was in the south of Hebei Province, west of Shandong Province, east of Henan Province, north of Anhui Province, east of Jiangsu Province, and some areas in Yunnan Province and Xinjiang Autonomous Region. General agreement has been found between the usage data from our estimation and the small amount of usage data published in China.CONCLUSIONS: This is the first national gridded endosulfan usage inventory produced for China. The annual applications of endosulfan from 1994 to 2004 in China were estimated based on the total areas of major crops, on which endosulfan was applied, and spatial distribution of the application was generated at provincial and prefecture levels. With the help of GIS, endosulfan usage based on prefecture was transferred to a 1/4 degrees longitude by 1/6 degrees latitude gridding system. The satisfaction of the inventories was supported by the consistence between the estimation of the annual usage and the reported annual production of endosulfan.RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: This gridded endosulfan usage inventory created in this study will be improved upon availability of new information of endosulfan. The usage inventories can be used to create gridded emission and residue inventories for t

  11. A global profile of replicative polymerase usage

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Carolin A.; Miyabe, Izumi; Brooks, Tony; Retkute, Renata; Hubank, Mike; Nieduszyski, Conrad A.; Carr, Antony M.

    2014-01-01

    Three eukaryotic DNA polymerases are essential for genome replication. Polα-primase initiates each synthesis event and is rapidly replaced by processive DNA polymerases: Polε replicates the leading strand while Polδ performs lagging strand synthesis. However, it is not known whether this division of labour is maintained across the whole genome or how uniform it is within single replicons. Using S. pombe, we have developed a polymerase usage sequencing (Pu-seq) strategy to map polymerase usage genome–wide. Pu–seq provides direct replication origin location and efficiency data and indirect estimates of replication timing. We confirm that the division of labour is broadly maintained across an entire genome. However, our data suggest a subtle variability in the usage of the two polymerases within individual replicons. We propose this results from occasional leading strand initiation by Polδ followed by exchange for Polε. PMID:25664722

  12. A global profile of replicative polymerase usage.

    PubMed

    Daigaku, Yasukazu; Keszthelyi, Andrea; Mller, Carolin A; Miyabe, Izumi; Brooks, Tony; Retkute, Renata; Hubank, Mike; Nieduszynski, Conrad A; Carr, Antony M

    2015-03-01

    Three eukaryotic DNA polymerases are essential for genome replication. Polymerase (Pol) ?-primase initiates each synthesis event and is rapidly replaced by processive DNA polymerases: Pol? replicates the leading strand, whereas Pol? performs lagging-strand synthesis. However, it is not known whether this division of labor is maintained across the whole genome or how uniform it is within single replicons. Using Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we have developed a polymerase usage sequencing (Pu-seq) strategy to map polymerase usage genome wide. Pu-seq provides direct replication-origin location and efficiency data and indirect estimates of replication timing. We confirm that the division of labor is broadly maintained across an entire genome. However, our data suggest a subtle variability in the usage of the two polymerases within individual replicons. We propose that this results from occasional leading-strand initiation by Pol? followed by exchange for Pol?. PMID:25664722

  13. Evaluation of the attenuation, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a live virus vaccine generated by codon-pair bias de-optimization of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Andrew J; Santos, Celia P; Anafu, Amanda; Wimmer, Eckard; Mueller, Steffen; Subbarao, Kanta

    2016-01-20

    Codon-pair bias de-optimization (CPBD) of viruses involves re-writing viral genes using statistically underrepresented codon pairs, without any changes to the amino acid sequence or codon usage. Previously, this technology has been used to attenuate the influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) virus. The de-optimized virus was immunogenic and protected inbred mice from challenge. In order to assess whether CPBD could be used to produce a live vaccine against a clinically relevant influenza virus, we generated an influenza A/California/07/2009 pandemic H1N1 (2009 pH1N1) virus with de-optimized HA and NA gene segments (2009 pH1N1-(HA+NA)(Min)), and evaluated viral replication and protein expression in MDCK cells, and attenuation, immunogenicity, and efficacy in outbred ferrets. The 2009 pH1N1-(HA+NA)(Min) virus grew to a similar titer as the 2009 pH1N1 wild type (wt) virus in MDCK cells (∼10(6)TCID50/ml), despite reduced HA and NA protein expression on western blot. In ferrets, intranasal inoculation of 2009 pH1N1-(HA+NA)(Min) virus at doses ranging from 10(3) to 10(5) TCID50 led to seroconversion in all animals and protection from challenge with the 2009 pH1N1 wt virus 28 days later. The 2009 pH1N1-(HA+NA)(Min) virus did not cause clinical illness in ferrets, but replicated to a similar titer as the wt virus in the upper and lower respiratory tract, suggesting that de-optimization of additional gene segments may be warranted for improved attenuation. Taken together, our data demonstrate the potential of using CPBD technology for the development of a live influenza virus vaccine if the level of attenuation is optimized. PMID:26655630

  14. Does the clinical phenotype of fatal familial insomnia depend on PRNP codon 129 methionine-valine polymorphism?

    PubMed

    Rupprecht, Sven; Grimm, Alexander; Schultze, Torsten; Zinke, Jan; Karvouniari, Panagiota; Axer, Hubertus; Witte, Otto W; Schwab, Matthias

    2013-12-15

    Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a rare, hereditary prion-protein disease. Methionine-valine polymorphism at codon 129 of the prion-protein gene (PRNP) determines the phenotype in other hereditary prion-protein diseases, but association with the clinical phenotype in FFI remains uncertain. Early clinical findings in FFI comprise disturbances of the sleep-wake cycle and mild neuropsychiatric changes which typically emerge during middle to late adulthood. Here we describe an unusually early onset and rapid progression of FFI associated with dorsal midbrain involvement in a female patient with PRNP mutation at codon 178 and homozygote methionine polymorphism at codon 129. Early dorsal midbrain involvement became apparent by total loss of REM sleep and isolated bilateral trochlear nerve palsy. Early onset and rapid progression disease type associated with dorsal midbrain involvement may indicate a different spatiotemporal distribution of the neurodegenerative process in FFI patients with PRNP mutation and codon 129 methionine homozygosity compared to methioninevaline heterozygosity. PMID:24340298

  15. Self-catalytic DNA depurination underlies human ?-globin gene mutations at codon 6 that cause anemias and thalassemias.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R; Amosova, Olga; Fresco, Jacques R

    2013-04-19

    The human ?-globin gene contains an 18-nucleotide coding strand sequence centered at codon 6 and capable of forming a stem-loop structure that can self-catalyze depurination of the 5'G residue of that codon. The resultant apurinic lesion is subject to error-prone repair, consistent with the occurrence about this codon of mutations responsible for 6 anemias and ?-thalassemias and additional substitutions without clinical consequences. The 4-residue loop of this stem-loop-forming sequence shows the highest incidence of mutation across the gene. The loop and first stem base pair-forming residues appeared early in the mammalian clade. The other stem-forming segments evolved more recently among primates, thereby conferring self-depurination capacity at codon 6. These observations indicate a conserved molecular mechanism leading to ?-globin variants underlying phenotypic diversity and disease. PMID:23457306

  16. Motivations and usage patterns of Weibo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixuan; Pentina, Iryna

    2012-06-01

    Referred to as "Weibo," microblogging in China has witnessed an exponential growth. In addition to the Twitter-like functionality, Weibo allows rich media uploads into user feeds, provides threaded comments, and offers applications, games, and Weibo medals. This expanded functionality, as well as the observed differences in trending content, suggests potentially different user motivations to join Weibo and their usage patterns compared to Twitter. This pioneering study identifies dominant Weibo user motivations and their effects on usage patterns. We discuss the findings of an online survey of 234 Weibo users and suggest managerial implications and future research directions. PMID:22703037

  17. A portal for visualizing grid usage.

    SciTech Connect

    von Laszewski, G.; DiCarlo, J.; Allcock, B.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Chicago

    2007-08-25

    We introduce a framework for measuring the use of Grid services and exposing simple summary data to an authorized set of Grid users through a JSR168-enabled portal. The sensor framework has been integrated into the Globus Toolkit and allows Grid administrators to have access to a mechanism helping with report and usage statistics. Although the original focus was the reporting of actions in relationship to GridFTP services, the usage service has been expanded to report also on the use of other Grid services.

  18. Manufacturing developments to reduce strategic materials usage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.M.; Halfpap, D.S.; Siegel, M.A.

    1984-04-01

    Manufacturing development programs to reduce the usage in gas turbine engines are examined. Several programs which provided significant of cobalt, titanium, and tantalum results in reducing raw materials requirements, that have been reduced to practice are described. The programs include forging and casting complex parts to near net shape, recycling of machining scrap and used parts, repair and refurbishment of damaged or worn parts, and component retirement for cause. In addition to reduction of strategic material usage, the programs resulted in lower cost parts due to reduced material input requirements and less machining.

  19. NAT Usage in Residential Broadband Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Gregor; Schneider, Fabian; Feldmann, Anja

    Many Internet customers use network address translation (NAT) when connecting to the Internet. To understand the extend of NAT usage and its implications, we explore NAT usage in residential broadband networks based on observations from more than 20,000 DSL lines. We present a unique approach for detecting the presence of NAT and for estimating the number of hosts connected behind a NAT gateway using IP TTLs and HTTP user-agent strings. Furthermore, we study when each of the multiple hosts behind a single NAT gateway is active. This enables us to detect simultaneous use. In addition, we evaluate the accuracy of NAT analysis techniques when fewer information is available.

  20. High level production of β-galactosidase exhibiting excellent milk-lactose degradation ability from Aspergillus oryzae by codon and fermentation optimization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qianqian; Liu, Fei; Hou, Zhongwen; Yuan, Chao; Zhu, Xiqiang

    2014-03-01

    A β-galactosidase gene from Aspergillus oryzae was engineered utilizing codon usage optimization to be constitutively and highly expressed in the Pichia pastoris SMD1168H strain in a high-cell-density fermentation. After fermentation for 96 h in a 50-L fermentor using glucose and glycerol as combined carbon sources, the recombinant enzyme in the culture supernatant had an activity of 4,239.07 U mL(-1) with o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside as the substrate, and produced a total of extracellular protein content of 7.267 g L(-1) in which the target protein (6.24 g L(-1)) occupied approximately 86 %. The recombinant β-galactosidase exhibited an excellent lactose hydrolysis ability. With 1,000 U of the enzyme in 100 mL milk, 92.44 % lactose was degraded within 24 h at 60 °C, and the enzyme could also accomplish the hydrolysis at low temperatures of 37, 25, and 10 °C. Thus, this engineered strain had significantly higher fermentation level of A. oryzae lactase than that before optimization and the β-galactosidase may have a good application potential in whey and milk industries. PMID:24435763

  1. Integration-deficient Lentiviral Vectors Expressing Codon-optimized R338L Human FIX Restore Normal Hemostasis in Hemophilia B Mice

    PubMed Central

    Suwanmanee, Thipparat; Hu, Genlin; Gui, Tong; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; Kutschera, Ina; von Kalle, Christof; Schmidt, Manfred; Monahan, Paul E; Kafri, Tal

    2014-01-01

    Integration-deficient lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) have been shown to transduce a wide spectrum of target cells and organs in vitro and in vivo and to maintain long-term transgene expression in nondividing cells. However, epigenetic silencing of episomal vector genomes reduces IDLV transgene expression levels and renders these safe vectors less efficient. In this article, we describe for the first time a complete correction of factor IX (FIX) deficiency in hemophilia B mice by IDLVs carrying a novel, highly potent human FIX cDNA. A 50-fold increase in human FIX cDNA potency was achieved by combining two mechanistically independent yet synergistic strategies: (i) optimization of the human FIX cDNA codon usage to increase human FIX protein production per vector genome and (ii) generation of a highly catalytic mutant human FIX protein in which the arginine residue at position 338 was substituted with leucine. The enhanced human FIX activity was not associated with liver damage or with the formation of human FIX-directed inhibitory antibodies and rendered IDLV-treated FIX-knockout mice resistant to a challenging tail-clipping assay. A novel S1 nuclease-based B1-quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay showed low levels of IDLV integration in mouse liver. Overall, this study demonstrates that IDLVs carrying an improved human FIX cDNA safely and efficiently cure hemophilia B in a mouse model. PMID:23941813

  2. Expression and purification of the synthetic preS1 gene of Hepatitis B Virus with preferred Escherichia coli codon preference.

    PubMed

    Qian, Bingjun; Shen, Huifeng; Xiong, Jingjing; Chen, Li; Zhang, Lu; Jia, Junwei; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Zhuchuan; Yuan, Zheng; Cao, Kaiming; Zhang, Dabing

    2006-07-01

    To produce high levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) preS1 protein at low cost, a DNA fragment encoding the preS1 region, residues 1-119, of HBV adr subtype was synthesized by overlapping-PCR according to Escherichia coli (E. coli) B preferred codon usage. The synthetic preS1 gene (spreS1) was cloned into the bacterial expression vector pET-30a and transferred into the expression strain E. coli BL21(DE3). Recombinant preS1 protein with an N-terminal His6 tag was expressed at high levels in soluble form, yielding about 44% of the total cellular protein. This technique overcomes problems that existed in previously reported expression systems of preS1 or its epitope, i.e., low-level expression or expression in inclusion bodies. Using this His-tagged preS1 expression system, recombinant protein was purified by single-step affinity chromatography on a Ni-NTA column resulting in a yield was about 28 mg recombinant protein per liter culture. Furthermore, Western blotting and indirect ELISA analysis demonstrate that the reactivity of preS1-specific antibody is comparable between the recombinant and commercialized preS1 protein. Thus, our improved expression system could be used for practical, low-cost large-scale production of recombinant preS1 without refolding steps. PMID:16439156

  3. Integration-deficient lentiviral vectors expressing codon-optimized R338L human FIX restore normal hemostasis in Hemophilia B mice.

    PubMed

    Suwanmanee, Thipparat; Hu, Genlin; Gui, Tong; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; Kutschera, Ina; von Kalle, Christof; Schmidt, Manfred; Monahan, Paul E; Kafri, Tal

    2014-03-01

    Integration-deficient lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) have been shown to transduce a wide spectrum of target cells and organs in vitro and in vivo and to maintain long-term transgene expression in nondividing cells. However, epigenetic silencing of episomal vector genomes reduces IDLV transgene expression levels and renders these safe vectors less efficient. In this article, we describe for the first time a complete correction of factor IX (FIX) deficiency in hemophilia B mice by IDLVs carrying a novel, highly potent human FIX cDNA. A 50-fold increase in human FIX cDNA potency was achieved by combining two mechanistically independent yet synergistic strategies: (i) optimization of the human FIX cDNA codon usage to increase human FIX protein production per vector genome and (ii) generation of a highly catalytic mutant human FIX protein in which the arginine residue at position 338 was substituted with leucine. The enhanced human FIX activity was not associated with liver damage or with the formation of human FIX-directed inhibitory antibodies and rendered IDLV-treated FIX-knockout mice resistant to a challenging tail-clipping assay. A novel S1 nuclease-based B1-quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay showed low levels of IDLV integration in mouse liver. Overall, this study demonstrates that IDLVs carrying an improved human FIX cDNA safely and efficiently cure hemophilia B in a mouse model. PMID:23941813

  4. Accuracy of initial codon selection by aminoacyl-tRNAs on the mRNA-programmed bacterial ribosome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingji; Ieong, Ka-Weng; Johansson, Magnus; Ehrenberg, Mns

    2015-08-01

    We used a cell-free system with pure Escherichia coli components to study initial codon selection of aminoacyl-tRNAs in ternary complex with elongation factor Tu and GTP on messenger RNA-programmed ribosomes. We took advantage of the universal rate-accuracy trade-off for all enzymatic selections to determine how the efficiency of initial codon readings decreased linearly toward zero as the accuracy of discrimination against near-cognate and wobble codon readings increased toward the maximal asymptote, the d value. We report data on the rate-accuracy variation for 7 cognate, 7 wobble, and 56 near-cognate codon readings comprising about 15% of the genetic code. Their d values varied about 400-fold in the 200-80,000 range depending on type of mismatch, mismatch position in the codon, and tRNA isoacceptor type. We identified error hot spots (d = 200) for U:G misreading in second and U:U or G:A misreading in third codon position by His-tRNA(His) and, as also seen in vivo, Glu-tRNA(Glu). We suggest that the proofreading mechanism has evolved to attenuate error hot spots in initial selection such as those found here. PMID:26195797

  5. Synonymous codon bias and functional constraint on GC3-related DNA backbone dynamics in the prokaryotic nucleoid

    PubMed Central

    Babbitt, Gregory A.; Alawad, Mohammed A.; Schulze, Katharina V.; Hudson, Andr O.

    2014-01-01

    While mRNA stability has been demonstrated to control rates of translation, generating both global and local synonymous codon biases in many unicellular organisms, this explanation cannot adequately explain why codon bias strongly tracks neighboring intergene GC content; suggesting that structural dynamics of DNA might also influence codon choice. Because minor groove width is highly governed by 3-base periodicity in GC, the existence of triplet-based codons might imply a functional role for the optimization of local DNA molecular dynamics via GC content at synonymous sites (?GC3). We confirm a strong association between GC3-related intrinsic DNA flexibility and codon bias across 24 different prokaryotic multiple whole-genome alignments. We develop a novel test of natural selection targeting synonymous sites and demonstrate that GC3-related DNA backbone dynamics have been subject to moderate selective pressure, perhaps contributing to our observation that many genes possess extreme DNA backbone dynamics for their given protein space. This dual function of codons may impose universal functional constraints affecting the evolution of synonymous and non-synonymous sites. We propose that synonymous sites may have evolved as an accessory during an early expansion of a primordial genetic code, allowing for multiplexed protein coding and structural dynamic information within the same molecular context. PMID:25200075

  6. Codon optimisation to improve expression of a Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-specific membrane-associated antigen by Lactobacillus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Christopher; Douarre, Pierre E; Soulimane, Tewfik; Pletzer, Daniel; Weingart, Helge; MacSharry, John; Coffey, Aidan; Sleator, Roy D; O'Mahony, Jim

    2013-06-01

    Subunit and DNA-based vaccines against Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) attempt to overcome inherent issues associated with whole-cell formulations. However, these vaccines can be hampered by poor expression of recombinant antigens from a number of disparate hosts. The high G+C content of MAP invariably leads to a codon bias throughout gene expression. To investigate if the codon bias affects recombinant MAP antigen expression, the open reading frame of a MAP-specific antigen MptD (MAP3733c) was codon optimised for expression against a Lactobacillus salivarius host. Of the total 209 codons which constitute MAP3733c, 172 were modified resulting in a reduced G+C content from 61% for the native gene to 32.7% for the modified form. Both genes were placed under the transcriptional control of the PnisA promoter; allowing controlled heterologous expression in L. salivarius. Expression was monitored using fluorescence microscopy and microplate fluorometry via GFP tags translationally fused to the C-termini of the two MptD genes. A > 37-fold increase in expression was observed for the codon-optimised MAP3733synth variant over the native gene. Due to the low cost and improved expression achieved, codon optimisation significantly improves the potential of L. salivarius as an oral vaccine stratagem against Johne's disease. PMID:23620276

  7. Accuracy of initial codon selection by aminoacyl-tRNAs on the mRNA-programmed bacterial ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingji; Ieong, Ka-Weng; Johansson, Magnus; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2015-01-01

    We used a cell-free system with pure Escherichia coli components to study initial codon selection of aminoacyl-tRNAs in ternary complex with elongation factor Tu and GTP on messenger RNA-programmed ribosomes. We took advantage of the universal rate-accuracy trade-off for all enzymatic selections to determine how the efficiency of initial codon readings decreased linearly toward zero as the accuracy of discrimination against near-cognate and wobble codon readings increased toward the maximal asymptote, the d value. We report data on the rate-accuracy variation for 7 cognate, 7 wobble, and 56 near-cognate codon readings comprising about 15% of the genetic code. Their d values varied about 400-fold in the 200–80,000 range depending on type of mismatch, mismatch position in the codon, and tRNA isoacceptor type. We identified error hot spots (d = 200) for U:G misreading in second and U:U or G:A misreading in third codon position by His-tRNAHis and, as also seen in vivo, Glu-tRNAGlu. We suggest that the proofreading mechanism has evolved to attenuate error hot spots in initial selection such as those found here. PMID:26195797

  8. Predicting Student Success via Online Homework Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Charles R.; Gulacar, Ozcan; King, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    With the amount of data available through an online homework system about students' study habits, it stands to reason that such systems can be used to identify likely student outcomes. A study was conducted to see how student usage of an online chemistry homework system (OWL) correlated with student success in a general chemistry course.…

  9. Google Scholar Usage: An Academic Library's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ya; Howard, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Google Scholar is a free service that provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly works and to connect patrons with the resources libraries provide. The researchers in this study analyzed Google Scholar usage data from 2006 for three library tools at San Francisco State University: SFX link resolver, Web Access Management proxy server,…

  10. Female Athletes and Performance-Enhancer Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fralinger, Barbara K.; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Olson, Valerie; Simpkins, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a knowledge base on factors associated with performance-enhancer usage among female athletes at the high school level in order to identify markers for a future prevention-education program. The study used a pretest-only, between-subjects Likert Scale survey to rank the importance of internal and external

  11. Google Scholar Usage: An Academic Library's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ya; Howard, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Google Scholar is a free service that provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly works and to connect patrons with the resources libraries provide. The researchers in this study analyzed Google Scholar usage data from 2006 for three library tools at San Francisco State University: SFX link resolver, Web Access Management proxy server,

  12. The Scope of Usage-Based Theory

    PubMed Central

    Ibbotson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Usage-based approaches typically draw on a relatively small set of cognitive processes, such as categorization, analogy, and chunking to explain language structure and function. The goal of this paper is to first review the extent to which the “cognitive commitment” of usage-based theory has had success in explaining empirical findings across domains, including language acquisition, processing, and typology. We then look at the overall strengths and weaknesses of usage-based theory and highlight where there are significant debates. Finally, we draw special attention to a set of culturally generated structural patterns that seem to lie beyond the explanation of core usage-based cognitive processes. In this context we draw a distinction between cognition permitting language structure vs. cognition entailing language structure. As well as addressing the need for greater clarity on the mechanisms of generalizations and the fundamental units of grammar, we suggest that integrating culturally generated structures within existing cognitive models of use will generate tighter predictions about how language works. PMID:23658552

  13. Usage Patterns of Open Genomic Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Jingfeng; Liu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Genome Expression Omnibus (GEO), a data repository in biomedical sciences, to examine the usage patterns of open data repositories. It attempts to identify the degree of recognition of data reuse value and understand how e-science has impacted a large-scale scholarship. By analyzing a list of 1,211 publications that cite GEO data

  14. Production, Usage, and Comprehension in Animal Vocalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we place equal emphasis on production, usage, and comprehension because these components of communication may exhibit different developmental trajectories and be affected by different neural mechanisms. In the animal kingdom generally, learned, flexible vocal production is rare, appearing in only a few orders of birds and few…

  15. Usage Patterns of Open Genomic Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Jingfeng; Liu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Genome Expression Omnibus (GEO), a data repository in biomedical sciences, to examine the usage patterns of open data repositories. It attempts to identify the degree of recognition of data reuse value and understand how e-science has impacted a large-scale scholarship. By analyzing a list of 1,211 publications that cite GEO data…

  16. Improving the Language Usage of a Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Jamitaline L.

    This paper outlines the suggested steps to improve the language usage of a teacher about whom a school principal has received complaints from parents concerning her poor grammar. It first suggests that the principal observe the teacher to verify the parents' concerns. The paper then lists 10 ideas for the principal to suggest to help the teacher

  17. Collaborative Portfolio's Effect on Library Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Library resources are expensive and it is the library media specialist's responsibility to ensure that use of the library's resources is maximized to support the School Strategic Plan (SSP). This library usage study examined data on the scheduling of high school classes for research-based assignments, related to content area curriculum standards,

  18. [Dental welding titanium and its clinical usage].

    PubMed

    Li, H; Xiao, M; Zhao, Y

    1998-09-01

    Due to its excellent biocompatibility, desirable chemical and mechanical properties, Titanium has been used for implant denture, RPD and FPD, where welding techniques were indispensable. This paper introduces 5 useful modern ways to weld Titanium and their clinical usage. They are: laser, plasma welding, TIG, infraned brazing and Hruska electrowelding. PMID:12553259

  19. Student Perceptions of Effective Visual Aid Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Reginald L.; Quazi, Rahim

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates whether significant differences exist across college undergraduates' grade levels, majors, gender, age levels, and income levels regarding their perceptions of visual aid usage in effective presentations. These differences were measured by subjecting 226 college undergraduates at a medium sized state university to a Visual…

  20. Style and Usage Software: Mentor, not Judge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smye, Randy

    Computer software style and usage checkers can encourage students' recursive revision strategies. For example, HOMER is based on the revision pedagogy presented in Richard Lanham's "Revising Prose," while Grammatik II focuses on readability, passive voice, and possibly misused words or phrases. Writer's Workbench "Style" (a UNIX program) provides

  1. Female Athletes and Performance-Enhancer Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fralinger, Barbara K.; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Olson, Valerie; Simpkins, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a knowledge base on factors associated with performance-enhancer usage among female athletes at the high school level in order to identify markers for a future prevention-education program. The study used a pretest-only, between-subjects Likert Scale survey to rank the importance of internal and external…

  2. College Student Performance and Credit Card Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Palmer, Todd Starr

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between credit card usage, employment, and academic performance among a group of college students with credit cards. Results reveal that the students differed significantly in the level of anxiety felt from carrying debt, perceived need to work, and perceived impact of employment on academic performance. (Contains 57

  3. Production, Usage, and Comprehension in Animal Vocalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we place equal emphasis on production, usage, and comprehension because these components of communication may exhibit different developmental trajectories and be affected by different neural mechanisms. In the animal kingdom generally, learned, flexible vocal production is rare, appearing in only a few orders of birds and few

  4. Electronic Journal Usage at Ohio State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Sally A.

    2001-01-01

    E-journal, printed journal, and database usage data from polls conducted during 1998-2000 at one research university show increased use of e-journals and decreased use of printed journals by faculty and graduate students as availability of e-journals. The majority of frequent users of all three resources were from departments in the sciences.

  5. Twitter Usage of Universities in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yolcu, Ozgu

    2013-01-01

    Universities are among the users of the most popular social media networks. Usage of social media by especially students and many other people and institutions, which constitutes the target audience for universities, encourages the universities to effectively use this environment. Twitter is among these social media networks which facilitate the…

  6. Bell to Bell: Measuring Classroom Time Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkup, John R.; Farbman, David; McGaugh, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses research in classroom time usage and the benefits and weaknesses of prior research in this area. The article addresses in particular how to precisely measure the use of time in classrooms and how to address the issue of partial engagement, in which only a portion of the class is academically engaged. The article defines…

  7. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional

  8. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…

  9. P53 Codon 72 polymorphisms: a case-control study of gastric cancer and potential interactions.

    PubMed

    Sul, James; Yu, Guo-Pei; Lu, Qing-Yi; Lu, Ming-Lan; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Wang, Ming-Rong; Guo, Chun Hua; Yu, Shun-Zhang; Mu, Lina; Cai, Lin; Kurtz, Robert C; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2006-07-18

    P53 codon 72 polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with cancers of the lung, esophagus and cervix. However, there have been no reports on the interaction of select risk factors and p53 codon 72 polymorphisms in gastric cancer susceptibility. 155 gastric cancer cases and 134 cancer-free controls were enrolled at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) from November 1992 to November 1994. The crude odds ratio (OR1) associated with the (Pro/Pro) polymorphism and the risk of gastric cancer was 1.27 (0.70-2.33). Adjusting for age, sex, race and education (OR2) and further adjusting for BMI, calories, sodium, smoking, vitamin C, fiber, alcohol, fat, and H. pylori status (OR3) did not yield significant results. Significant joint effects were associated with high fat consumption (OR1=2.61 (95% CI:1.13-6.06); OR2=2.85 (95% CI:1.14-7.15) for total cancers and for proximal tumors (OR1=2.56 (95%CI:1.00-6.54)). The low vitamin C intake/high-risk polymorphism group (Pro/Pro) had an OR1 of 4.82 (95% CI: 1.72-13.45) and the OR2 was 6.19 (95% CI: 2.08-18.40) for distal tumors. The point estimates were increased for interaction odds ratios but not statistically significant (OR1=4.25 (95% CI: 0.66-27.50); OR2=4.73 (95% CI: 0.67-33.43); OR3=5.55 (95% CI: 0.66-46.47)). Further studies specifically looking at proximal and distal tumors are required to confirm any potential interaction between the p53 codon 72 polymorphisms and environmental risk, in particular low dietary vitamin C and high fat consumption. PMID:16111803

  10. P53 Codon 72 polymorphisms: A case-control study of gastric cancer and potential interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sul, James; Yu, Guo-Pei; Lu, Qing-Yi; Lu, Ming-Lan; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Wang, Ming-Rong; Guo, Chun Hua; Yu, Shun-Zhang; Mu, Lina; Cai, Lin; Kurtz, Robert C; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    P53 codon 72 polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with cancers of the lung, esophagus and cervix. However, there have been no reports on the interaction of select risk factors and p53 codon 72 polymorphisms in gastric cancer susceptibility. 155 gastric cancer cases and 134 cancer-free controls were enrolled at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) from November 1992 to November 1994. The crude odds ratio (OR1) associated with the (Pro/Pro) polymorphism and the risk of gastric cancer was 1.27 (0.70–2.33). Adjusting for age, sex, race and education (OR2) and further adjusting for BMI, calories, sodium, smoking, vitamin C, fiber, alcohol, fat, and H. pylori status (OR3) did not yield significant results. Significant joint effects were associated with high fat consumption (OR1 = 2.61 (95% CI:1.13–6.06); OR2 = 2.85 (95% CI:1.14–7.15) for total cancers and for proximal tumors (OR1 = 2.56 (95%CI:1.00–6.54)). The low vitamin C intake/high-risk polymorphism group (Pro/Pro) had an OR1 of 4.82 (95% CI: 1.72–13.45) and the OR2 was 6.19 (95% CI: 2.08–18.40) for distal tumors. The point estimates were increased for interaction odds ratios but not statistically significant (OR1 = 4.25 (95% CI: 0.66–27.50); OR2 = 4.73 (95% CI: 0.67–33.43); OR3 = 5.55 (95% CI: 0.66–46.47)). Further studies specifically looking at proximal and distal tumors are required to confirm any potential interaction between the p53 codon 72 polymorphisms an environmental risk, in particular low dietary vitamin C and high fat consumption. PMID:16111803

  11. Attenuation of human respiratory syncytial virus by genome-scale codon-pair deoptimization.

    PubMed

    Le Noun, Cyril; Brock, Linda G; Luongo, Cindy; McCarty, Thomas; Yang, Lijuan; Mehedi, Masfique; Wimmer, Eckard; Mueller, Steffen; Collins, Peter L; Buchholz, Ursula J; DiNapoli, Joshua M

    2014-09-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral agent of serious pediatric respiratory-tract disease worldwide. A vaccine or generally effective antiviral drug is not yet available. We designed new live attenuated RSV vaccine candidates by codon-pair deoptimization (CPD). Specifically, viral ORFs were recoded by rearranging existing synonymous codons to increase the content of underrepresented codon pairs. Amino acid coding was completely unchanged. Four CPD RSV genomes were designed in which the indicated ORFs were recoded: Min A (NS1, NS2, N, P, M, and SH), Min B (G and F), Min L (L), and Min FLC (all ORFs except M2-1 and M2-2). Surprisingly, the recombinant CPD viruses were temperature-sensitive for replication in vitro (level of sensitivity: Min FLC > Min L > Min B > Min A). All of the CPD mutants grew less efficiently in vitro than recombinant wild-type (WT) RSV, even at the typically permissive temperature of 32 C (growth efficiency: WT > Min L > Min A > Min FLC > Min B). CPD of the ORFs for the G and F surface glycoproteins provided the greatest restrictive effect. The CPD viruses exhibited a range of restriction in mice and African green monkeys comparable with that of two attenuated RSV strains presently in clinical trials. This study provided a new type of attenuated RSV and showed that CPD can rapidly generate vaccine candidates against nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses, a large and expanding group that includes numerous pathogens of humans and animals. PMID:25157129

  12. Impact of TP53 codon 72 and MDM2 SNP 309 polymorphisms in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hori, Yasuki; Miyabe, Katsuyuki; Yoshida, Michihiro; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Hayashi, Kazuki; Naitoh, Itaru; Shimizu, Shuya; Kondo, Hiromu; Nishi, Yuji; Umemura, Shuichiro; Kato, Akihisa; Ohara, Hirotaka; Inagaki, Hiroshi; Joh, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TP53 (codon 72, rs1042522) and MDM2 promoter (SNP 309, rs2279744) have been associated with risk for various human cancers. However, studies analyzing these polymorphisms in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are lacking. We investigated TP53 codon 72 and MDM2 SNP 309 polymorphisms in 32 patients with PDAC, 16 patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP), and 32 normal controls, using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. We also examined TP53 and MDM2 protein immunohistochemistry (IHC) to assess the involvement of these differences in malignant transformation and disease progression. TP53 Pro/Pro genotype was significantly more frequent in PDAC patients than in controls (65.6 vs. 15.6%, p < 0.001) and no significant difference was found between CP patients (37.5%) and controls. In MDM2 SNP 309, there were no significant differences among the three groups. Based on the Kaplan-Meier analysis, overall survival was significantly shorter in MDM2 G/G genotypes compared with other genotypes (G/T and T/T) (359 vs. 911 days, p = 0.016) whereas no significant differences in TP53 genotypes were observed (638 vs. 752 days, p = 0.471). Although TP53 IHC was frequent in PDAC patients (53.1%), TP53 and MDM2 protein expression was not correlated with polymorphisms. Our study demonstrated TP53 codon 72 polymorphism is potentially a genetic predisposing factor while MDM2 SNP 309 polymorphism might be useful in predicting survival outcome. PMID:25734904

  13. Impact of TP53 Codon 72 and MDM2 SNP 309 Polymorphisms in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Yasuki; Miyabe, Katsuyuki; Yoshida, Michihiro; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Hayashi, Kazuki; Naitoh, Itaru; Shimizu, Shuya; Kondo, Hiromu; Nishi, Yuji; Umemura, Shuichiro; Kato, Akihisa; Ohara, Hirotaka; Inagaki, Hiroshi; Joh, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TP53 (codon 72, rs1042522) and MDM2 promoter (SNP 309, rs2279744) have been associated with risk for various human cancers. However, studies analyzing these polymorphisms in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are lacking. We investigated TP53 codon 72 and MDM2 SNP 309 polymorphisms in 32 patients with PDAC, 16 patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP), and 32 normal controls, using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. We also examined TP53 and MDM2 protein immunohistochemistry (IHC) to assess the involvement of these differences in malignant transformation and disease progression. TP53 Pro/Pro genotype was significantly more frequent in PDAC patients than in controls (65.6 vs. 15.6%, p < 0.001) and no significant difference was found between CP patients (37.5%) and controls. In MDM2 SNP 309, there were no significant differences among the three groups. Based on the Kaplan-Meier analysis, overall survival was significantly shorter in MDM2 G/G genotypes compared with other genotypes (G/T and T/T) (359 vs. 911 days, p = 0.016) whereas no significant differences in TP53 genotypes were observed (638 vs. 752 days, p = 0.471). Although TP53 IHC was frequent in PDAC patients (53.1%), TP53 and MDM2 protein expression was not correlated with polymorphisms. Our study demonstrated TP53 codon 72 polymorphism is potentially a genetic predisposing factor while MDM2 SNP 309 polymorphism might be useful in predicting survival outcome. PMID:25734904

  14. Different modes of stop codon restriction by the Stylonychia and Paramecium eRF1 translation termination factors.

    PubMed

    Lekomtsev, Sergey; Kolosov, Petr; Bidou, Laure; Frolova, Ludmila; Rousset, Jean-Pierre; Kisselev, Lev

    2007-06-26

    In universal-code eukaryotes, a single-translation termination factor, eukaryote class-1 polypeptide release factor (eRF1), decodes the three stop codons: UAA, UAG, and UGA. In some ciliates, like Stylonychia and Paramecium, eRF1s exhibit UGA-only decoding specificity, whereas UAG and UAA are reassigned as sense codons. Because variant-code ciliates may have evolved from universal-code ancestor(s), structural features should exist in ciliate eRF1s that restrict their stop codon recognition. In omnipotent eRF1s, stop codon recognition is associated with the N-terminal domain of the protein. Using both in vitro and in vivo assays, we show here that chimeric molecules composed of the N-terminal domain of Stylonychia eRF1 fused to the core domain (MC domain) of human eRF1 retained specificity toward UGA; this unambiguously associates eRF1 stop codon specificity to the nature of its N-terminal domain. Functional analysis of eRF1 chimeras constructed by swapping ciliate N-terminal domain sequences with the matching ones from the human protein highlighted the crucial role of the tripeptide QFM in restricting Stylonychia eRF1 specificity toward UGA. Using the site-directed mutagenesis, we show that Paramecium eRF1 specificity toward UGA resides within the NIKS (amino acids 61-64) and YxCxxxF (amino acids 124-131) motifs. Thus, we establish that eRF1 from two different ciliates relies on different molecular mechanisms to achieve specificity toward the UGA stop codon. This finding suggests that eRF1 restriction of specificity to only UGA might have been an early event occurring in independent instances in ciliate evolutionary history, possibly facilitating the reassignment of UAG and UAA to sense codons. PMID:17573528

  15. On Amino Acid and Codon Assignment in Algebraic Models for the Genetic Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoneli, Fernando; Forger, Michael; Gaviria, Paola A.; Hornos, Jos Eduardo M.

    We give a list of all possible schemes for performing amino acid and codon assignments in algebraic models for the genetic code, which are consistent with a few simple symmetry principles, in accordance with the spirit of the algebraic approach to the evolution of the genetic code proposed by Hornos and Hornos. Our results are complete in the sense of covering all the algebraic models that arise within this approach, whether based on Lie groups/Lie algebras, on Lie superalgebras or on finite groups.

  16. Significance of premature stop codons in env of simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, T; Wooley, D P; Naidu, Y M; Kestler, H W; Daniel, M D; Li, Y; Desrosiers, R C

    1989-01-01

    The location of the translational termination codon for the transmembrane protein (TMP) varies in three infectious molecular clones of simian immunodeficiency virus from macaques (SIVmac). The SIVmac251 and SIVmac142 infectious clones have premature stop signals that differ in location by one codon; transfection of these DNAs into human HUT-78 cells yielded virus with a truncated TMP (28 to 30 kilodaltons [kDa]). The SIVmac239 infectious clone does not have a premature stop codon in its TMP-coding region. Transfection of HUT-78 cells with this clone initially yielded virus with a full-length TMP (41 kDa). At 20 to 30 days posttransfection, SIVmac239 virus with a 41-kDa TMP gradually disappeared coincident with the emergence of a virus with a 28-kDa TMP. Virus production dramatically increased in parallel with the emergence of a virus with a 28-kDa TMP. Sequence analysis of viral DNAs from these cultures showed that premature stop codons arising by point mutation were responsible for the change in size of the TMP with time. A similar selective pressure for truncated forms of TMP was observed when the SIVmac239 clone was transfected into human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). In contrast, no such selective pressure was observed in macaque PBL. When the SIVmac239 clone was transfected into macaque PBL and the resultant virus was serially passaged in macaque PBL, the virus replicated very well and maintained a 41-kDa TMP for 80 days in culture. Macaque monkeys were infected with SIVmac239 having a 28-kDa TMP; virus subsequently recovered from T4-enriched lymphocytes of peripheral blood showed only the 41-kDa form of TMP. These results indicate that the natural form of TMP in SIVmac is the full-length 41-kDa TMP, just as in human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Viruses with truncated forms of TMP appear to result from mutation and selection during propagation in unnatural human cells. Images PMID:2795718

  17. Selection of aminoacyl-tRNAs at sense codons: the size of the tRNA variable loop determines whether the immediate 3' nucleotide to the codon has a context effect.

    PubMed Central

    Curran, J F; Poole, E S; Tate, W P; Gross, B L

    1995-01-01

    Codon context can affect translational efficiency by several molecular mechanisms. The base stacking interactions between a codon-anticodon complex and the neighboring nucleotide immediately 3' can facilitate translation by amber suppressors and the tRNA structure is also known to modulate the sensitivity to context. In this study the relative rates of aminoacyl-tRNA selection were measured at four sense codons (UGG, CUC, UUC and UCA), in all four 3' nucleotide contexts, through direct competition with a programmed frameshift at a site derived from the release factor 2 gene. Two codons (UGG and UUC) are read by tRNAs with small variable regions and their rates of aminoacyl-tRNA selection correlated with the potential base stacking strength of the 3' neighboring nucleotide. The other two codons (CUC and UCA) are read by tRNAs with large variable regions and the rate of selection of the aminoacyl-tRNAs in these cases varied little among the four contexts. Re-examination of published data on amber suppression also revealed an inverse correlation between context sensitivity and the size of the variable region. Collectively the data suggest that a large variable loop in a tRNA decreases the influence of the 3' context on tRNA selection, probably by strengthening tRNA-ribosomal interactions. PMID:7479072

  18. Constitutive high-level expression of a codon-optimized ?-fructosidase gene from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Menndez, Carmen; Martnez, Duniesky; Trujillo, Luis E; Mazola, Yuliet; Gonzlez, Ernesto; Prez, Enrique R; Hernndez, Lzaro

    2013-02-01

    Enzymes for use in the sugar industry are preferred to be thermotolerant. In this study, a synthetic codon-optimized gene encoding a highly thermostable ?-fructosidase (BfrA, EC 3.2.1.26) from the bacterium Thermotoga maritima was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The gradual increase of the transgene dosage from one to four copies under the control of the constitutive glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter had an additive effect on BfrA yield without causing cell toxicity. Maximal values of cell biomass (115g/l, dry weight) and overall invertase activity (241U/ml) were reached at 72h in fed-batch fermentations using cane sugar as the main carbon source for growth. Secretion driven by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-factor signal peptide resulted in periplasmic retention (44%) and extracellular release (56%) of BfrA. The presence of N-linked oligosaccharides did not influence the optimal activity, thermal stability, kinetic properties, substrate specificity, and exo-type action mode of the yeast-secreted BfrA in comparison to the native unglycosylated enzyme. Complete inversion of cane sugar at initial concentration of 60% (w/v) was achieved by periplasmic BfrA in undisrupted cells reacting at pH 5.5 and 70C, with average productivity of 4.4g of substrate hydrolyzed per grams of biomass (wet weight) per hour. The high yield of fully active glycosylated BfrA here attained by recombinant P. pastoris in a low-cost fermentation process appears to be attractive for the large-scale production of this thermostable enzyme useful for the manufacture of inverted sugar syrup. PMID:22821437

  19. Yeast mitochondrial threonyl-tRNA synthetase recognizes tRNA isoacceptors by distinct mechanisms and promotes CUN codon reassignment

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Jiqiang; Peterson, Kaitlyn M.; Simonovic, Ivana; Cho, Chris; Soll, Dieter; Simonovic, Miljan

    2014-03-12

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) ensure faithful translation of mRNA into protein by coupling an amino acid to a set of tRNAs with conserved anticodon sequences. Here, we show that in mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a single aaRS (MST1) recognizes and aminoacylates two natural tRNAs that contain anticodon loops of different size and sequence. Besides a regular ?? with a threonine (Thr) anticodon, MST1 also recognizes an unusual ??, which contains an enlarged anticodon loop and an anticodon triplet that reassigns the CUN codons from leucine to threonine. Our data show that MST1 recognizes the anticodon loop in both tRNAs, but employs distinct recognition mechanisms. The size but not the sequence of the anticodon loop is critical for ?? recognition, whereas the anticodon sequence is essential for aminoacylation of ??. The crystal structure of MST1 reveals that, while lacking the N-terminal editing domain, the enzyme closely resembles the bacterial threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS). A detailed structural comparison with Escherichia coli ThrRS, which is unable to aminoacylate ??, reveals differences in the anticodon-binding domain that probably allow recognition of the distinct anticodon loops. Finally, our mutational and modeling analyses identify the structural elements in MST1 (e.g., helix {alpha}11) that define tRNA selectivity. Thus, MTS1 exemplifies that a single aaRS can recognize completely divergent anticodon loops of natural isoacceptor tRNAs and that in doing so it facilitates the reassignment of the genetic code in yeast mitochondria.

  20. Historical review of medicinal plants’ usage

    PubMed Central

    Petrovska, Biljana Bauer

    2012-01-01

    Healing with medicinal plants is as old as mankind itself. The connection between man and his search for drugs in nature dates from the far past, of which there is ample evidence from various sources: written documents, preserved monuments, and even original plant medicines. Awareness of medicinal plants usage is a result of the many years of struggles against illnesses due to which man learned to pursue drugs in barks, seeds, fruit bodies, and other parts of the plants. Contemporary science has acknowledged their active action, and it has included in modern pharmacotherapy a range of drugs of plant origin, known by ancient civilizations and used throughout the millennia. The knowledge of the development of ideas related to the usage of medicinal plants as well as the evolution of awareness has increased the ability of pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges that have emerged with the spreading of professional services in facilitation of man's life. PMID:22654398

  1. Space Shuttle Usage of z/OS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the avionics associated with the Space Shuttle's data processing system and its usage of z/OS. The contents include: 1) Mission, Products, and Customers; 2) Facility Overview; 3) Shuttle Data Processing System; 4) Languages and Compilers; 5) Application Tools; 6) Shuttle Flight Software Simulator; 7) Software Development and Build Tools; and 8) Fun Facts and Acronyms.

  2. Flexible diaphragm-extreme temperature usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerma, Guillermo (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A diaphragm suitable for extreme temperature usage, such as encountered in critical aerospace applications, is fabricated by a unique method, and of a unique combination of materials. The materials include multilayered lay-ups of diaphragm materials sandwiched between layers of bleeder fabrics. After being formed in the desired shape on a mold, they are vacuum sealed and then cured under pressure, in a heated autoclave. A bond capable of withstanding extreme temperatures are produced.

  3. Flexible diaphragm-extreme temperature usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerma, Guillermo

    1991-02-01

    A diaphragm suitable for extreme temperature usage, such as encountered in critical aerospace applications, is fabricated by a unique method, and of a unique combination of materials. The materials include multilayered lay-ups of diaphragm materials sandwiched between layers of bleeder fabrics. After being formed in the desired shape on a mold, they are vacuum sealed and then cured under pressure, in a heated autoclave. A bond capable of withstanding extreme temperatures are produced.

  4. Practical aspects of mobile roof support usage

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, F.E.; Mark, C.; Barczak, T.M.

    1996-12-01

    Mobile roof supports are shield-type support units mounted on crawler tracks. Mobile roof support (MRS) units are used during retreat mining, and they eliminate the setting of roadway, turn, and crosscut breaker posts which are required during pillar recovery operations. Mobiles are a more effective ground support than timbers, and their usage enhance the safety of section personnel and reduces material handling injuries. MRS usage is rapidly increasing, and approximately 40 U.S. coal mines have successfully employed this relatively new technology. This paper is in response to increasing requests from operators, State and Federal Regulatory Agencies, and others on the practical aspects of MRS usage in underground coal mines. During this investigation, nearly half of the U.S. mines which have utilized mobiles were visited. This report depicts the more common pillar extraction methods which operators have found success. The Christmas tree and outside lift methods are illustrated and discussed. Roof control plans that do not require breaker posts or allow pillar extraction with fewer than four mobiles are also examined. In addition, operators` experiences with setting pressures, loads, and rates of loading during pillar extraction are addressed. Mining and support strategies to more effectively control hillseams, weak roof, and gob overrides which have entrapped equipment are also discussed.

  5. A premature termination codon within an alternative exon affecting only the metabolism of transcripts that retain this exon.

    PubMed

    Maillet, P; Dalla Venezia, N; Lorenzo, F; Morinière, M; Bozon, M; Noël, B; Delaunay, J; Baklouti, F

    1999-01-01

    Protein 4.1 pre-mRNA splicing is regulated in tissue- and development-specific manners. Exon 16, which encodes the N-terminal region of the spectrin/actin-binding domain, is one of the alternatively spliced sequence motifs. It is present in late differentiated erythroid cells but absent from early erythroblasts and from lymphoid cells. We describe a single nucleotide deletion of the erythroid protein 4.1 gene associated with hereditary elliptocytosis. The deletion located in exon 16 leads to a frameshift and a premature termination codon within the same exon. In an effort to examine the premature stop codon effect in relationship with exon 16 alternative splicing, we analyzed erythroid and lymphoid protein 4.1 mRNAs using the mutation and a linked downstream polymorphism as markers. We found that the premature stop codon does not affect the tissue-specific alternative splicing among the two cell types analyzed and that the resulting alteration of mRNA metabolism correlates with the retention of exon 16 in reticulocytes. Conversely, skipping of exon 16 in lymphoid cells converts the mutant mRNA to a normal lymphoid-specific mRNA isoform, hence bypassing the nonsense codon. Consistent with data obtained on constitutive nonsense exons, our observations argue in favor of a stop codon recognition mechanism that occurs after the regulated splicing status of the nonsense exon has been achieved. PMID:10425037

  6. Differences in codon bias and GC content contribute to the balanced expression of TLR7 and TLR9.

    PubMed

    Newman, Zachary R; Young, Janet M; Ingolia, Nicholas T; Barton, Gregory M

    2016-03-01

    The innate immune system detects diverse microbial species with a limited repertoire of immune receptors that recognize nucleic acids. The cost of this immune surveillance strategy is the potential for inappropriate recognition of self-derived nucleic acids and subsequent autoimmune disease. The relative expression of two closely related receptors, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR9, is balanced to allow recognition of microbial nucleic acids while limiting recognition of self-derived nucleic acids. Situations that tilt this balance toward TLR7 promote inappropriate responses, including autoimmunity; therefore, tight control of expression is critical for proper homeostasis. Here we report that differences in codon bias limit TLR7 expression relative to TLR9. Codon optimization of Tlr7 increases protein levels as well as responses to ligands, but, unexpectedly, these changes only modestly affect translation. Instead, we find that much of the benefit attributed to codon optimization is actually the result of enhanced transcription. Our findings, together with other recent examples, challenge the dogma that codon optimization primarily increases translation. We propose that suboptimal codon bias, which correlates with low guanine-cytosine (GC) content, limits transcription of certain genes. This mechanism may establish low levels of proteins whose overexpression leads to particularly deleterious effects, such as TLR7. PMID:26903634

  7. Experience with the use of the Codonics Safe Label System(™) to improve labelling compliance of anaesthesia drugs.

    PubMed

    Ang, S B L; Hing, W C; Tung, S Y; Park, T

    2014-07-01

    The Codonics Safe Labeling System(™) (http://www.codonics.com/Products/SLS/flash/) is a piece of equipment that is able to barcode scan medications, read aloud the medication and the concentration and print a label of the appropriate concentration in the appropriate colour code. We decided to test this system in our facility to identify risks, benefits and usability. Our project comprised a baseline survey (25 anaesthesia cases during which 212 syringes were prepared from 223 drugs), an observational study (47 cases with 330 syringes prepared) and a user acceptability survey. The baseline compliance with all labelling requirements was 58%. In the observational study the compliance using the Codonics system was 98.6% versus 63.8% with conventional labelling. In the user acceptability survey the majority agreed the Codonics machine was easy to use, more legible and adhered with better security than the conventional preprinted label. However, most were neutral when asked about the likelihood of flexibility and customisation and were dissatisfied with the increased workload. Our findings suggest that the Codonics labelling machine is user-friendly and it improved syringe labelling compliance in our study. However, staff need to be willing to follow proper labelling workflow rather than batch label during preparation. Future syringe labelling equipment developers need to concentrate on user interface issues to reduce human factor and workflow problems. Support logistics are also an important consideration prior to implementation of any new labelling system. PMID:24967766

  8. Codon optimisation improves the expression of Trichoderma viride sp. endochitinase in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; Yan, Yuan; Gu, Qing; Wang, Xiangyang

    2013-01-01

    The mature cDNA of endochitinase from Trichoderma viride sp. was optimised based on the codon bias of Pichia pastoris GS115 and synthesised by successive PCR; the sequence was then transformed into P. pastoris GS115 via electroporation. The transformant with the fastest growth rate on YPD plates containing 4?mg/mL G418 was screened and identified. This transformant produced 23.09?U/mL of the recombinant endochitinase, a 35% increase compared to the original strain bearing the wild-type endochitinase cDNA. The recombinant endochitinase was sequentially purified by ammonia sulphate precipitation, DE-52 anion-exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-100 size-exclusion chromatography. Thin-layer chromatography indicated that the purified endochitinase could hydrolyse chito-oligomers or colloidal chitin to generate diacetyl-chitobiose (GlcNAc)? as the main product. This study demonstrates (1) a means for high expression of Trichoderma viride sp. endochitinase in P. pastoris using codon optimisation and (2) the preparation of chito-oligomers using endochitinase. PMID:24154717

  9. Expression of codon optimized genes in microbial systems: current industrial applications and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Elena, Claudia; Ravasi, Pablo; Castelli, Mara E.; Peir, Salvador; Menzella, Hugo G.

    2014-01-01

    The efficient production of functional proteins in heterologous hosts is one of the major bases of modern biotechnology. Unfortunately, many genes are difficult to express outside their original context. Due to their apparent silent nature, synonymous codon substitutions have long been thought to be trivial. In recent years, this dogma has been refuted by evidence that codon replacement can have a significant impact on gene expression levels and protein folding. In the past decade, considerable advances in the speed and cost of gene synthesis have facilitated the complete redesign of entire gene sequences, dramatically improving the likelihood of high protein expression. This technology significantly impacts the economic feasibility of microbial-based biotechnological processes by, for example, increasing the volumetric productivities of recombinant proteins or facilitating the redesign of novel biosynthetic routes for the production of metabolites. This review discusses the current applications of this technology, particularly those regarding the production of small molecules and industrially relevant recombinant enzymes. Suggestions for future research and potential uses are provided as well. PMID:24550894

  10. A population-specific HTR2B stop codon predisposes to severe impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Laura; Doly, Stéphane; Kaprio, Jaakko; Yuan, Qiaoping; Tikkanen, Roope; Paunio, Tiina; Zhou, Zhifeng; Wedenoja, Juho; Maroteaux, Luc; Diaz, Silvina; Belmer, Arnaud; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Dell'osso, Liliana; Suvisaari, Jaana; Coccaro, Emil; Rose, Richard J; Peltonen, Leena; Virkkunen, Matti; Goldman, David

    2010-12-23

    Impulsivity, describing action without foresight, is an important feature of several psychiatric diseases, suicidality and violent behaviour. The complex origins of impulsivity hinder identification of the genes influencing it and the diseases with which it is associated. Here we perform exon-focused sequencing of impulsive individuals in a founder population, targeting fourteen genes belonging to the serotonin and dopamine domain. A stop codon in HTR2B was identified that is common (minor allele frequency > 1%) but exclusive to Finnish people. Expression of the gene in the human brain was assessed, as well as the molecular functionality of the stop codon, which was associated with psychiatric diseases marked by impulsivity in both population and family-based analyses. Knockout of Htr2b increased impulsive behaviours in mice, indicative of predictive validity. Our study shows the potential for identifying and tracing effects of rare alleles in complex behavioural phenotypes using founder populations, and indicates a role for HTR2B in impulsivity. PMID:21179162

  11. Real-time tRNA transit on single translating ribosomes at codon resolution

    PubMed Central

    Uemura, Sotaro; Aitken, Colin Echeverra; Korlach, Jonas; Flusberg, Benjamin A.; Turner, Stephen W.; Puglisi, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Translation by the ribosome occurs by a complex mechanism involving the coordinated interaction of multiple nucleic acid and protein ligands. Here we have used zero-mode waveguides (ZMWs) and sophisticated detection instrumentation to allow real-time observation of translation at physiologically-relevant (?M) ligand concentrations. Translation at each codon is monitored by stable binding of tRNAs labeled with distinct fluorophores to translating ribosomes, allowing direct detection of the identity of tRNA molecules bound to the ribosome, and therefore, the underlying mRNA sequence. We observe the transit of tRNAs on single translating ribosomes and have determined the number of tRNA molecules simultaneously bound to the ribosome, at each codon of an mRNA. Our results show that ribosomes are only briefly occupied by two tRNAs and that release of deacylated tRNA from the E site is uncoupled from binding of A-site tRNA and occurs rapidly after translocation. The methods outlined here have broad application to the study of mRNA sequences, and the mechanism and regulation of translation. PMID:20393556

  12. Evidence for a Pathogenic Role of Different Mutations at Codon 188 of PRNP

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Bjarne; Xiang, Wei; Vollmert, Caren; Illig, Thomas; Schrter, Andreas; Arzberger, Thomas; Weber, Petra; Zerr, Inga; Kretzschmar, Hans A.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical and pathological changes in familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) cases may be similar or indistinguishable from sporadic CJD. Therefore determination of novel mutations in PRNP remains of major importance. We identified two different rare mutations in codon 188 of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in four patients suffering from a disease clinically very similar to the major subtype of sporadic CJD. Both mutations result in an exchange of the amino acid residue threonine for a highly basic residue, either arginine (T188R) or lysine (T188K). The T188R mutation was found in one patient and the T188K mutation in three patients. The prevalence of mutations at codon 188 of PRNP was tested in 593 sporadic CJD cases and 735 healthy individuals. Neither mutation was found. The data presented here argue in favor of T188K being a pathogenic mutation causing genetic CJD. Since one individual with this mutation, who is the father of a clinically affected patient with T188K mutation, is now 79 years old and shows no signs of disease, this mutation is likely associated with a penetrance under 100%. Further observations will have to show whether T188R is a pathogenic mutation. PMID:18478114

  13. Codon-optimized Luciola italica luciferase variants for mammalian gene expression in culture and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Casey A; van der Mijn, Johannes C; Degeling, Marja H; Morse, Danielle; Tannous, Bakhos A

    2012-02-01

    Luciferases have proven to be useful tools in advancing our understanding of biologic processes. Having a multitude of bioluminescent reporters with different properties is highly desirable. We characterized codon-optimized thermostable green- and red-emitting luciferase variants from the Italian firefly Luciola italica for mammalian gene expression in culture and in vivo. Using lentivirus vectors to deliver and stably express these luciferases in mammalian cells, we showed that both variants displayed similar levels of activity and protein half-lives as well as similar light emission kinetics and higher stability compared to the North American firefly luciferase. Further, we characterized the red-shifted variant for in vivo bioluminescence imaging. Intramuscular injection of tumor cells stably expressing this variant into nude mice yielded a robust luciferase activity. Light emission peaked at 10 minutes post-d-luciferin injection and retained > 60% of signal at 1 hour. Similarly, luciferase activity from intracranially injected glioma cells expressing the red-shifted variant was readily detected and used as a marker to monitor tumor growth over time. Overall, our characterization of these codon-optimized luciferases lays the groundwork for their further use as bioluminescent reporters in mammalian cells. PMID:22418023

  14. Kras gene codon 12 mutation detection enabled by gold nanoparticles conducted in a nanobioarray chip.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, Abootaleb; Li, Paul C H

    2014-03-01

    This study employs a nanobioarray (NBA) chip for multiple biodetection of single base pair mutations at the Kras gene codon 12. To distinguish between the mutant and wild-type target DNAs, current bioarray methods use high-temperature hybridization of the targets to the allele-specific probes. However, these techniques need prior temperature optimization and become harder to implement in the case of the detection of multiple mutations. We aimed to detect these mutations at a single temperature (room temperature), enabled by the use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the bioarray created within nanofluidic channels. In this method, a low amount of target oligonucleotides (5fmol) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products (300pg) were first loaded on the AuNP surface, and then these AuNP-bound targets were introduced into the channels of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) glass chip. The targets hybridized to their complementary probes at the intersection of the target channels to the pre-printed oligonucleotide probe lines on the glass surface, creating a bioarray. Using this technique, fast and high-throughput multiple discrimination of the Kras gene codon 12 were achieved at room temperature using the NBA chip, and the specificity of the method was proved to be as high as that with the temperature stringency method. PMID:24291640

  15. Poliovirus neurovirulence correlates with the presence of a cryptic AUG upstream of the initiator codon.

    PubMed

    Slobodskaya, O R; Gmyl, A P; Maslova, S V; Tolskaya, E A; Viktorova, E G; Agol, V I

    1996-07-01

    Poliovirus mutants with extended (> 150-nt) deletions in the 5'-untranslated region between the internal ribosome entry site and the initiator codon have been selected previously (Pilipenko et al., Cell 68, 119-131, 1992; Gmyl et al., J. Virol. 67, 6309-6316, 1993). These deletions were transferred into the genome of a mouse-pathogenic poliovirus strain and found to be strongly attenuating. The deletions can be considered as covering three structural elements, a stem-loop (domain E) with a conserved cryptic AUG and two spacers, upstream and downstream of it. In an attempt to identify putative essential determinants of neurovirulence in these individual structural elements, appropriate mutants were engineered. The results demonstrated that neither of the above elements is essential for neurovirulence. The results strongly suggested that the presence of a cryptic AUG in the oligopyrimidine/AUG tandem followed, at a sufficient distance, by the initiator codon was necessary to ensure the neurovirulent phenotype of our constructs. On the other hand, the attenuated phenotype appeared to correlate with the occurrence of the initiator AUG as a moiety of the oligopyrimidine/AUG tandem. Possible mechanisms underlying these effects are discussed. Identification of the cryptic AUG as an essential determinant for neurovirulence provides a rational basis for the design of genetically stable attenuated poliovirus variants. PMID:8661422

  16. Nucleotide modifications and tRNA anticodon–mRNA codon interactions on the ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Allnér, Olof; Nilsson, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    We have carried out molecular dynamics simulations of the tRNA anticodon and mRNA codon, inside the ribosome, to study the effect of the common tRNA modifications cmo5U34 and m6A37. In tRNAVal, these modifications allow all four nucleotides to be successfully read at the wobble position in a codon. Previous data suggest that entropic effects are mainly responsible for the extended reading capabilities, but detailed mechanisms have remained unknown. We have performed a wide range of simulations to elucidate the details of these mechanisms at the atomic level and quantify their effects: extensive free energy perturbation coupled with umbrella sampling, entropy calculations of tRNA (free and bound to the ribosome), and thorough structural analysis of the ribosomal decoding center. No prestructuring effect on the tRNA anticodon stem–loop from the two modifications could be observed, but we identified two mechanisms that may contribute to the expanded decoding capability by the modifications: The further reach of the cmo5U34 allows an alternative outer conformation to be formed for the noncognate base pairs, and the modification results in increased contacts between tRNA, mRNA, and the ribosome. PMID:22028366

  17. Detection of point mutation in K-ras oncogene at codon 12 in pancreatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yue-Xin; Xu, Guo-Ming; Li, Zhao-Shen; Song, Yu-Gang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate frequency and clinical significance of K-ras mutations in pancreatic diseases and to identify its diagnostic values in pancreatic carcinoma. METHODS: 117 ductal lesions were identified in the available sections from pancreatic resection specimens of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, comprising 24 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, 19 peritumoral ductal atypical hyperplasia, 58 peritumoral ductal hyperplasia and 19 normal duct at the tumor free resection margin. 24 ductal lesions were got from 24 chronic pancreatitis. DNA was extracted. Codon 12 K-ras mutations were examined using the two-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with restriction enzyme digestion, followed by nonradioisotopic single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and by means of automated DNA sequencing. RESULTS: K-ras mutation rate of the pancreatic carcinoma was 79%(19/24) which was significantly higher than that in the chronic pancreatitis 33%(8/24) (P < 0.01). It was also found that K-ras mutation rate was progressively increased from normal duct at the tumor free resection margin, peritumoral ductal hyperplasia, peritumoral ductal atypical hyperplasia to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The mutation pattern of K-ras 12 codon of chronic pancreatitis was GGT?GAT, GGT and CGT, which is identical to that in pancreatic carcinoma. CONCLUSION: K-ras mutation may play a role in the malignant transformation of pancreatic ductal cell. K-ras mutation was not specific enough to diagnose pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:15040037

  18. Codon optimization of human factor VIII cDNAs leads to high-level expression.

    PubMed

    Ward, Natalie J; Buckley, Suzanne M K; Waddington, Simon N; Vandendriessche, Thierry; Chuah, Marinee K L; Nathwani, Amit C; McIntosh, Jenny; Tuddenham, Edward G D; Kinnon, Christine; Thrasher, Adrian J; McVey, John H

    2011-01-20

    Gene therapy for hemophilia A would be facilitated by development of smaller expression cassettes encoding factor VIII (FVIII), which demonstrate improved biosynthesis and/or enhanced biologic properties. B domain deleted (BDD) FVIII retains full procoagulant function and is expressed at higher levels than wild-type FVIII. However, a partial BDD FVIII, leaving an N-terminal 226 amino acid stretch (N6), increases in vitro secretion of FVIII tenfold compared with BDD-FVIII. In this study, we tested various BDD constructs in the context of either wild-type or codon-optimized cDNA sequences expressed under control of the strong, ubiquitous Spleen Focus Forming Virus promoter within a self-inactivating HIV-based lentiviral vector. Transduced 293T cells in vitro demonstrated detectable FVIII activity. Hemophilic mice treated with lentiviral vectors showed expression of FVIII activity and phenotypic correction sustained over 250 days. Importantly, codon-optimized constructs achieved an unprecedented 29- to 44-fold increase in expression, yielding more than 200% normal human FVIII levels. Addition of B domain sequences to BDD-FVIII did not significantly increase in vivo expression. These significant findings demonstrate that shorter FVIII constructs that can be more easily accommodated in viral vectors can result in increased therapeutic efficacy and may deliver effective gene therapy for hemophilia A. PMID:21041718

  19. Association Between Specific Mutations in KRAS Codon 12 and Colorectal Liver Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Margonis, Georgios Antonios; Kim, Yuhree; Spolverato, Gaya; Ejaz, Aslam; Gupta, Rohan; Cosgrove, David; Anders, Robert; Karagkounis, Georgios; Choti, Michael A.; Pawlik, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Currently, one of the most commonly available biomarkers in the treatment of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) is the Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS); however, the prognostic implications of specific mutations of the KRAS gene are still not well defined. OBJECTIVE To investigate the prognostic impact of specific KRAS mutations on patients undergoing liver resection for CRLM. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This retrospective single-center study was conducted from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2013. Data about specific KRAS mutations for 331 patients who underwent hepatic resection for CRLM at Johns Hopkins Hospital between 2003 and 2013 were analyzed. Clinicopathological characteristics, perioperative details, and outcomes were stratified by specific KRAS mutation at codons 12 and 13. INTERVENTION Resection of CRLM. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival. RESULTS A mutated KRAS (mtKRAS) was identified in 91 patients (27.5%). At a median follow-up of 27.4 months, recurrence was observed in 48 patients (52.7%) with mtKRAS and 130 patients (54.2%) with wild-type KRAS (wtKRAS) (P = .82). Median and 5-year survival among patients with mtKRAS was 32.4 months and 32.7%, respectively, vs 58.5 months and 46.9%, respectively, for patients with wtKRAS (P = .02). Patients with KRAS codon 12 mutations had worse OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.54; 95% CI, 1.052.27; P = .03) vs those with wtKRAS, whereas a KRAS codon 13 mutation was not associated with prognosis (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.832.62; P = .19). Among the 6 most common mutations in codons 12 and 13, only G12V (HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.003.17; P = .05) and G12S (HR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.229.10; P = .02) were associated with worse OS compared with patients with wtKRAS (both P < .05). Among patients who recurred, G12V (HR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.326.61; P = .01), G12C (HR, 6.74; 95% CI, 2.0522.2; P = .002), and G12S mutations (HR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.5215.8; P = .01) were associated with worse OS (both P < .05). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE G12V and G12S mutations of codon 12 were independent prognostic factors of worse OS. Among patients who recurred after resection of CRLM, G12V, G12C, and G12S mutations were associated with worse OS. Information on specific KRAS mutations may help individualize therapeutic and surveillance strategies for patients with resected CRLM. PMID:26038887

  20. Assays to Detect β-Tubulin Codon 200 Polymorphism in Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides

    PubMed Central

    Diawara, Aissatou; Drake, Lesley J.; Kihara, Jimmy; Bundy, Donald A. P.; Scott, Marilyn E.; Halpenny, Carli; Stothard, J. Russell; Prichard, Roger K.

    2009-01-01

    Background The soil-transmitted helminths (STH) Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura are gastrointestinal parasites causing many disabilities to humans, particularly children. The benzimidazole (BZ) drugs, albendazole (ALB) and mebendazole (MBZ), are commonly used for mass treatment for STH. Unfortunately, there is concern that increased use of anthelmintics could select for resistant populations of these human parasites. In veterinary parasites, and lately in filarial nematodes, a single amino acid substitution from phenylalanine to tyrosine, known to be associated with benzimidazole resistance, has been found in parasite β-tubulin at position 200. We have developed pyrosequencer assays for codon 200 (TTC or TAC) in A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura to screen for this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Method and Findings Pyrosequencing assays were developed and evaluated for detecting the TTC or TAC SNP at codon 200 in β-tubulin in A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Genomic DNA from individual worms, eggs isolated from individual adult worms or from fecal samples with known treatment history and origin, were sequenced at β-tubulin by pyrosequencing, and genotypes were confirmed by conventional sequencing. The assays were applied to adult worms from a benzimidazole-naïve population in Kenya. Following this, these assays were applied to individual worms and pooled eggs from people in East Africa (Uganda and Zanzibar) and Central America (Panama) where mass anthelmintic drug programs had been implemented. All A. lumbricoides samples were TTC. However, we found 0.4% homozygous TAC/TAC in T. trichiura worms from non-treated people in Kenya, and 63% of T. trichiura egg pools from treated people in Panama contained only TAC. Conclusion Although the codon 200 TAC SNP was not found in any of the A. lumbricoides samples analyzed, a rapid genotyping assay has been developed that can be used to examine larger populations of this parasite and to monitor for possible benzimidazole resistance development. The TAC SNP at codon 200, associated with benzimidazole resistance in other nematodes, does occur in T. trichiura, and a rapid assay has been developed to allow populations of this parasite to be monitored for the frequency of this SNP. Sample sizes were small, anthelmintic efficacy was not assessed, and treated and non-treated samples were from different locations, so these frequencies cannot be extrapolated to other populations of T. trichiura or to a conclusion about resistance to treatment. The occurrence of the TAC SNP at codon 200 of β-tubulin in T. trichiura may explain why benzimidazole anthelmintics are not always highly effective against this species of STH. These assays will be useful in assessing appropriate treatment in areas of high T. trichiura prevalence and in monitoring for possible resistance development in these STH. PMID:19308251

  1. A Structural Equation Model for ICT Usage in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usluel, Yasemin Kocak; Askar, Petek; Bas, Turgay

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) usage, which is the indicator of diffusion. A model composed of the variables which can explain ICT usage in Turkish higher education is established and tested within the study. The two dimensions of ICT usage are considered: instructional and managerial. The data collected

  2. 50 CFR 600.910 - Definitions and word usage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions and word usage. 600.910..., Consultation, and Recommendations 600.910 Definitions and word usage. (a) Definitions. In addition to the... undertaken by a state agency. (b) Word usage. The terms must, shall, should, may, may not,...

  3. 50 CFR 600.910 - Definitions and word usage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions and word usage. 600.910..., Consultation, and Recommendations 600.910 Definitions and word usage. (a) Definitions. In addition to the... undertaken by a state agency. (b) Word usage. The terms must, shall, should, may, may not,...

  4. 50 CFR 600.910 - Definitions and word usage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions and word usage. 600.910..., Consultation, and Recommendations 600.910 Definitions and word usage. (a) Definitions. In addition to the... undertaken by a state agency. (b) Word usage. The terms must, shall, should, may, may not,...

  5. 50 CFR 600.910 - Definitions and word usage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions and word usage. 600.910..., Consultation, and Recommendations 600.910 Definitions and word usage. (a) Definitions. In addition to the... undertaken by a state agency. (b) Word usage. The terms must, shall, should, may, may not,...

  6. Factors motivating and affecting health information exchange usage

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongwei; Jaspserson, 'Jon; Gamm, Larry D; Ohsfeldt, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    Objective Health information exchange (HIE) is the process of electronically sharing patient-level information between providers. However, where implemented, reports indicate HIE system usage is low. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with different types of HIE usage. Design Cross-sectional analysis of clinical data from emergency room encounters included in an operational HIE effort linked to system user logs using crossed random-intercept logistic regression. Measurements Independent variables included factors indicative of information needs. System usage was measured as none, basic usage, or a novel pattern of usage. Results The system was accessed for 2.3% of all encounters (6142 out of 271?305). Novel usage patterns were more likely for more complex patients. The odds of HIE usage were lower in the face of time constraints. In contrast to expectations, system usage was lower when the patient was unfamiliar to the facility. Limitations Because of differences between HIE efforts and the fact that not all types of HIE usage (ie, public health) could be included in the analysis, results are limited in terms of generalizablity. Conclusions This study of actual HIE system usage identifies patients and circumstances in which HIE is more likely to be used and factors that are likely to discourage usage. The paper explores the implications of the findings for system redesign, information integration across exchange partners, and for meaningful usage criteria emerging from provisions of the Health Information Technology for Economic & Clinical Health Act. PMID:21262919

  7. Genetic risk factors associated with Creutzfeld-Jakob disease in Slovenians and a rapid typing for PRNP codon 129 single nucleotide polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Galvani, V; Rupreht, R R; Serbec, V C; Vidan-Jeras, B

    2005-06-01

    PRNP has been the most informative marker for the predisposition to variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (vCJD). All victims of the vCJD carried methionine (M) at the position 129 of the PrP. Prions could travel through the immune system to get from the gut to the brain, and human leucocyte antigens (HLAs) could be involved in this carriage, with HLA-DQ7 being less efficient. Contradictory reports have raised the question of the influence of sampling in population studies. We developed a fast and reliable real-time polymerase chain reaction for codon 129 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) using TaqMan technology, which overcomes the main drawbacks of other methods and analysed Slovenian population (n = 97). The comparison with other populations served for the estimation of the genetic risk for the development of vCJD in Slovenians. The frequencies at the codon 129 SNP in the Slovenian population were 43.3% M, 45.4% M/V 11.3% V. Considerable differences between the DQ7 frequencies in diverse samples from the same population can be seen, especially when compared to Slovenian population. This could be because of the diverse criteria for including subjects into the study and the sampling of geographically distinct subpopulations. Analysing the adequacy of HLA-DQ7 as a possible predictive factor for developing Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (CJD) by case - control studies could be improved with exact and equal sampling of groups of patients and controls. CJD genetic risk factors in the Slovenians were not found significantly different than those in British. PMID:15943704

  8. Adolescents Attitudes toward Anti-marijuana Ads, Usage Intentions, and Actual Marijuana Usage

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro, Eusebio M.; Crano, William D.; Siegel, Jason T.; Hohman, Zachary; Johnson, Ian; Nakawaki, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    The association of adolescents appraisals of the anti-marijuana television ads used in the National Youth Anti-drug Media Campaign with future marijuana use was investigated. The 12 to 18 year old respondents (N = 2993) were first classified as users, resolute nonusers, or vulnerable nonusers (Crano, Siegel, Alvaro, Lac, & Hemovich, 2008). Usage status and the covariates of gender, age, and attitudes toward marijuana were used to predict attitudes toward the ads (Aad) in the first phase of a multi-level linear analysis. All covariates were significantly associated with Aad, as was usage status: resolute nonusers evaluated the ads significantly more positively than vulnerable nonusers and users (all p < .001), who did not differ. In the second phase, the covariates along with Aad and respondents usage status predicted intentions and actual usage one year after initial measurement. The lagged analysis disclosed negative associations between Aad and usage intentions, and between Aad and actual marijuana use (both p < .05); however, this association held only for users (p < .01), not vulnerable or resolute nonusers. Users reporting more positive attitudes towards the ads were less likely to report intention to use marijuana and to continue marijuana use at 1-year follow-up. These findings may inform designers of persuasion-based prevention campaigns, guiding pre-implementation efforts in the design of ads that targeted groups find appealing and thus, influential. PMID:23528197

  9. CRISPRi-Manipulation of Genetic Code Expansion via RF1 for Reassignment of Amber Codon in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Yang, Qi; Chen, Jingxian; Wu, Ling; Yao, Tianzhuo; Wu, Yiming; Xu, Huan; Zhang, Lihe; Xia, Qing; Zhou, Demin

    2016-01-01

    The precise engineering of proteins in bacteria via the amber codon has been hampered by the poor incorporation of unnatural amino acid (UAA). Here we explored the amber assignment as a sense codon for UAA by CRISPRi targeting release factor 1 (RF1). Scanning of RF1 gene with sgRNAs identified target loci that differentiate RF1 repressions. Quantitation of RF1 repressions versus UAA incorporation indicated an increasing interrelation with the amber reassignment maximized upon RF1 knockdown to ~30%, disclosing the beneficial role of RF1 in amber assignment. However, further RF1 repression reversed this trend resulting from the detrimental effects on host cell growth, disclosing the harmful aspect of RF1 in reassignment of the amber codon. Our data indicate RF1 as a switch manipulating genetic code expansion and pave a direction via CRISPRi for precise engineering and efficient production of proteins in bacteria. PMID:26818534

  10. No association of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism with malaria in Ghanaian primiparae and Rwandan children.

    PubMed

    Gai, Prabhanjan P; Meese, Stefanie; Bedu-Addo, George; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2014-06-01

    The p53 protein is a key cell-signaling mediator integrating host responses to various types of stress. A common polymorphism of the encoding TP53 gene (codon 72, Pro > Arg, rs1042522) is associated with susceptibility to virus-related and other cancers. The p53 has also been shown to be central for successful Plasmodium liver stage infection. We examined whether the polymorphism is associated with P. falciparum infection in Ghanaian primiparae and Rwandan children. The allele frequency of TP53 codon 72 Arg was 0.30 among 314 Ghanaian primiparae and 0.31 among 545 Rwandan children, respectively, and it was not associated with infection prevalence or parasite density. This does not exclude p53 to be of pathophysiological relevance in malaria but argues against a major respective role of the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism. PMID:24710610

  11. No Association of the p53 Codon 72 Polymorphism with Malaria in Ghanaian Primiparae and Rwandan Children

    PubMed Central

    Gai, Prabhanjan P.; Meese, Stefanie; Bedu-Addo, George; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.

    2014-01-01

    The p53 protein is a key cell-signaling mediator integrating host responses to various types of stress. A common polymorphism of the encoding TP53 gene (codon 72, Pro > Arg, rs1042522) is associated with susceptibility to virus-related and other cancers. The p53 has also been shown to be central for successful Plasmodium liver stage infection. We examined whether the polymorphism is associated with P. falciparum infection in Ghanaian primiparae and Rwandan children. The allele frequency of TP53 codon 72 Arg was 0.30 among 314 Ghanaian primiparae and 0.31 among 545 Rwandan children, respectively, and it was not associated with infection prevalence or parasite density. This does not exclude p53 to be of pathophysiological relevance in malaria but argues against a major respective role of the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism. PMID:24710610

  12. Regulation of the Escherichia coli tna operon: nascent leader peptide control at the tnaC stop codon.

    PubMed

    Konan, K V; Yanofsky, C

    1997-03-01

    Expression of the tryptophanase (tna) operon of Escherichia coli is regulated by catabolite repression and by tryptophan-induced transcription antitermination at Rho-dependent termination sites in the leader region of the operon. Tryptophan induction is dependent on translation of a short leader peptide coding region, tnaC, that contains a single, crucial tryptophan codon. Recent studies suggest that during induction, the TnaC leader peptide acts in cis on the translating ribosome to inhibit its release at the tnaC stop codon. In the present study we use a tnaC-UGA-'lacZ construct lacking the tnaC-tnaA spacer region to analyze the effect of TnaC synthesis on the behavior of the ribosome that translates tnaC. The tnaC-UGA-'lacZ construct is not expressed significantly in the presence or absence of inducer. However, it is expressed in the presence of UGA suppressors, or when the structural gene for polypeptide release factor 3 is disrupted, or when wild-type tRNATrP is overproduced. In each situation, tnaC-UGA-'lacZ expression is reduced appreciably by the presence of inducing levels of tryptophan. Replacing the tnaC UGA stop codon with a sense codon allows considerable expression, which is also reduced, although to a lesser extent, by the addition of tryptophan. Inhibition by tryptophan is not observed when Trp codon 12 of tnaC is changed to a Leu codon. Overexpression of tnaC in trans from a multicopy plasmid prevents inhibition of expression by tryptophan. These results support the hypothesis that the TnaC leader peptide acts in cis to alter the behavior of the translating ribosome. PMID:9045840

  13. Development of Live-Attenuated Arenavirus Vaccines Based on Codon Deoptimization

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Benson Yee Hin; Ortiz-Riao, Emilio; Nogales, Aitor

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Arenaviruses have a significant impact on public health and pose a credible biodefense threat, but the development of safe and effective arenavirus vaccines has remained elusive, and currently, no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-licensed arenavirus vaccines are available. Here, we explored the use of a codon deoptimization (CD)-based approach as a novel strategy to develop live-attenuated arenavirus vaccines. We recoded the nucleoprotein (NP) of the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) with the least frequently used codons in mammalian cells, which caused lower LCMV NP expression levels in transfected cells that correlated with decreased NP activity in cell-based functional assays. We used reverse-genetics approaches to rescue a battery of recombinant LCMVs (rLCMVs) encoding CD NPs (rLCMV/NPCD) that showed attenuated growth kinetics in vitro. Moreover, experiments using the well-characterized mouse model of LCMV infection revealed that rLCMV/NPCD1 and rLCMV/NPCD2 were highly attenuated in vivo but, upon a single immunization, conferred complete protection against a subsequent lethal challenge with wild-type (WT) recombinant LCMV (rLCMV/WT). Both rLCMV/NPCD1 and rLCMV/NPCD2 were genetically and phenotypically stable during serial passages in FDA vaccine-approved Vero cells. These results provide proof of concept of the safety, efficacy, and stability of a CD-based approach for developing live-attenuated vaccine candidates against human-pathogenic arenaviruses. IMPORTANCE Several arenaviruses cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and pose a credible bioterrorism threat. Currently, no FDA-licensed vaccines are available to combat arenavirus infections, while antiarenaviral therapy is limited to the off-label use of ribavirin, which is only partially effective and is associated with side effects. Here, we describe the generation of recombinant versions of the prototypic arenavirus LCMV encoding codon-deoptimized viral nucleoproteins (rLCMV/NPCD). We identified rLCMV/NPCD1 and rLCMV/NPCD2 to be highly attenuated in vivo but able to confer protection against a subsequent lethal challenge with wild-type LCMV. These viruses displayed an attenuated phenotype during serial amplification passages in cultured cells. Our findings support the use of this approach for the development of safe, stable, and protective live-attenuated arenavirus vaccines. PMID:25589652

  14. Stop codon recognition in the early-diverged protozoans Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Chai, Baofeng; Li, Cui; Yu, Jingfei; Hao, Yanrong; Guo, Ping; Shen, Quan

    2015-07-01

    Two classes of polypeptide release factors (RFs) are responsible for maintaining accuracy in translation termination; however, their detailed mechanism of action and evolutionary history of these factors remain elusive. The structure and function of RFs vary in bacteria and eukaryotes, a fact that is suggestive of evolutionary changes in the translation termination system. Giardia lamblia (Diplomonada) and Trichomonas vaginalis (Parabasalia) are considered as early-diverged eukaryotes. The class II release factor, eRF3, of Giardia (Gl-eRF3) appears to have only one domain that corresponds to EF-1α and lacks the N-terminal domain, similar to that of eRF3 of other organisms. In the present study, we show that the chimeric molecules Gl/Sc eRF1 and Tv/Sc eRF1, which are composed of the N-terminal domain of Gl-eRF1 or Tv-eRF1, fused to the core domain (M and C domain) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae eRF1 (Sc-eRF1), resulting in loss of the RF properties of the N-terminal domain. This suggests that the conformation of eRF1 for stop codon recognition in Giardia and Trichomonas varies from the eRF1s of other eukaryotes, including ciliates and yeast. Further studies using intra-N-terminal chimeras of eRF1 indicated that the combination of the GTS loop and NIKS motif from Gl-eRF1 and the Y-C-F motif from Sc-eRF1within the N terminal domain of hybrid eRF1 could restore UGA, but not UAG and UGA recognition. In contrast, the combination of the GTS loop and the NIKS motif of Sc-eRF1 and the Y-C-F motif of Gl-eRF1 could restore UAG and UAA recognition, but not UGA recognition. Thus, these results confirm the findings of previous studies that three motifs in eRF1 are necessary for discrimination of the three bases of stop codons. The NIKS motif is responsible for recognition of the first two bases of UAA and UAG, and the Y-C-F motif identifies the second base of UGA by Gl-eRF1. Amino acid residue substitutions in Gl/Sc-eRF1 by corresponding residues of Sc-eRF1 could change and even restore RF activity, further suggesting different conformation of eRF1 are used for stop codon recognition in Giardia and in Saccharomyces. PMID:26310515

  15. Clinical significance of HIV-1 coreceptor usage

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The identification of phenotypically distinct HIV-1 variants with different prevalence during the progression of the disease has been one of the earliest discoveries in HIV-1 biology, but its relevance to AIDS pathogenesis remains only partially understood. The physiological basis for the phenotypic variability of HIV-1 was elucidated with the discovery of distinct coreceptors employed by the virus to infect susceptible cells. The role of the viral phenotype in the variable clinical course and treatment outcome of HIV-1 infection has been extensively investigated over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize the major findings on the clinical significance of the HIV-1 coreceptor usage. PMID:21284904

  16. An assessment of worldwide supercomputer usage

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, H.J.; Simmons, M.L.; Hayes, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides a comparative study of advanced supercomputing usage in Japan and the United States as of Spring 1994. It is based on the findings of a group of US scientists whose careers have centered on programming, evaluating, and designing high-performance supercomputers for over ten years. The report is a follow-on to an assessment of supercomputing technology in Europe and Japan that was published in 1993. Whereas the previous study focused on supercomputer manufacturing capabilities, the primary focus of the current work was to compare where and how supercomputers are used. Research for this report was conducted through both literature studies and field research in Japan.

  17. The surprising negative correlation of gene length and optimal codon use - disentangling translational selection from GC-biased gene conversion in yeast

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Surprisingly, in several multi-cellular eukaryotes optimal codon use correlates negatively with gene length. This contrasts with the expectation under selection for translational accuracy. While suggested explanations focus on variation in strength and efficiency of translational selection, it has rarely been noticed that the negative correlation is reported only in organisms whose optimal codons are biased towards codons that end with G or C (-GC). This raises the question whether forces that affect base composition - such as GC-biased gene conversion - contribute to the negative correlation between optimal codon use and gene length. Results Yeast is a good organism to study this as equal numbers of optimal codons end in -GC and -AT and one may hence compare frequencies of optimal GC- with optimal AT-ending codons to disentangle the forces. Results of this study demonstrate in yeast frequencies of GC-ending (optimal AND non-optimal) codons decrease with gene length and increase with recombination. A decrease of GC-ending codons along genes contributes to the negative correlation with gene length. Correlations with recombination and gene expression differentiate between GC-ending and optimal codons, and also substitution patterns support effects of GC-biased gene conversion. Conclusion While the general effect of GC-biased gene conversion is well known, the negative correlation of optimal codon use with gene length has not been considered in this context before. Initiation of gene conversion events in promoter regions and the presence of a gene conversion gradient most likely explain the observed decrease of GC-ending codons with gene length and gene position. PMID:21481245

  18. The influence of hypermodified nucleosides lysidine and t(6)A to recognize the AUA codon instead of AUG: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, Kailas D; Sambhare, Susmit B

    2015-11-01

    Hypermodified nucleosides lysidine (L) and N(6)-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t(6)A) influence codon-anticodon interactions during the protein biosynthesis process. Lysidine prevents the misrecognition of the AUG codon as isoleucine and that of AUA as methionine. The structural significance of these modified bases has not been studied in detail at the atomic level. Hence, in the present study we performed multiple molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of anticodon stem loop (ASL) of tRNA(Ile) in the presence and absence of modified bases 'L' and 't(6)A' at the 34th and 37th positions respectively along with trinucleotide 'AUA' and 'AUG' codons. Hydrogen bonding interactions formed by the tautomeric form of lysidine may assist in reading the third base adenine of the 'AUA' codon, unlike the guanine of the 'AUG' codon. Such interactions might be useful to restrict codon specificity to recognize isoleucine tRNA instead of methionine tRNA. The t(6)A side chain interacts with the purine ring of the first codon nucleotide adenine, which might provide base stacking interactions and could be responsible for restricting extended codon-anticodon recognition. We found that ASL tRNA(Ile) in the absence of modifications at the 34th and 37th positions cannot establish proper hydrogen bonding interactions to recognize the isoleucine codon 'AUA' and subsequently disturbs the anticodon loop structure. The binding free energy calculations revealed that tRNA(Ile) ASL with modified nucleosides prefers the codon AUA over AUG. Thus, these findings might be useful to understand the role of modified bases L and t(6)A to recognize the AUA codon instead of AUG. PMID:26215455

  19. Second generation codon optimized minicircle (CoMiC) for nonviral reprogramming of human adult fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Diecke, Sebastian; Lisowski, Leszek; Kooreman, Nigel G; Wu, Joseph C

    2014-01-01

    The ability to induce pluripotency in somatic cells is one of the most important scientific achievements in the fields of stem cell research and regenerative medicine. This technique allows researchers to obtain pluripotent stem cells without the controversial use of embryos, providing a novel and powerful tool for disease modeling and drug screening approaches. However, using viruses for the delivery of reprogramming genes and transcription factors may result in integration into the host genome and cause random mutations within the target cell, thus limiting the use of these cells for downstream applications. To overcome this limitation, various non-integrating techniques, including Sendai virus, mRNA, minicircle, and plasmid-based methods, have recently been developed. Utilizing a newly developed codon optimized 4-in-1 minicircle (CoMiC), we were able to reprogram human adult fibroblasts using chemically defined media and without the need for feeder cells. PMID:25070322

  20. On the directional specificity of ribosome frameshifting at a "hungry" codon.

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, D; Gallant, J

    1993-01-01

    Limitation for aminoacyl-tRNA promotes ribosome frameshifting at certain sites. We have previously demonstrated ribosome frameshifting to the right (3') at an AAG site in one context, and to the left (5') at an AAG site in a different context. Here, we demonstrate that the "rightwing" context is largely specific for frameshifting to the right, and the "leftwing" context is largely specific for frameshifting to the left. Analysis of these context rules, and the conversion of a sequence that promotes leftward frameshifting to one that promotes rightward frameshifting, demonstrated here, permits us to define a minimal heptanucleotide sequence sufficient for shiftiness in each direction at an AAG codon whose lysyl-tRNA is in short supply. PMID:8516288

  1. Codon randomization for rapid exploration of chemical space in thiopeptide antibiotic variants

    PubMed Central

    Young, Travis S; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Walsh, Christopher T

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Thiopeptide antibiotics exhibit a profound level of chemical diversity that is installed through cascades of posttranslational modifications on ribosomal peptides. Here we present a technique to rapidly explore the chemical space of the thiopeptide GE37468 through codon randomization, yielding insights into thiopeptide maturation as well as structure and activity relationships. In this incarnation of the methodology, we randomized 7 residues of the prepeptide coding region, enabling the generation of 133 potential thiopeptide variants. Variant libraries were subsequently queried in two ways. First, high through-put MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was applied to colony-level expressions to sample mutants which permitted full maturation of the antibiotic. Second, the activity of producing mutants was detected in an antibiotic overlay assay. In total, 29 of the 133 variants were found to produce mature compound, 12 of which retained antibiotic activity and one which had improved activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PMID:23261603

  2. Translation initiation in Drosophila melanogaster is reduced by mutations upstream of the AUG initiator codon

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Yue; Gunter, L.E.; Organ, E.L.; Cavener, D.R. )

    1991-04-01

    The importance to in vivo translation of sequences immediately upstream of the Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) start codon was examined at two developmental stages. Mutations were introduced into the Adh gene in vitro, and the mutant gene was inserted into the genome via germ line transformation. An A-to-T substitution at the [minus]3 position did not affect relative translation of ADH at the adult stage. A second mutant gene, containing five mutations in the region [minus]1 to [minus]9, was designed to completely block translation initiation. However, transformant lines bearing these mutations still exhibit detectable ADH, albeit at substantially reduced levels. The average fold reduction at the second-instar larval stage was 5.9, while at the adult stage a 12.5-fold reduction was observed.

  3. Tumour-specific proline vulnerability uncovered by differential ribosome codon reading.

    PubMed

    Loayza-Puch, Fabricio; Rooijers, Koos; Buil, Levi C M; Zijlstra, Jelle; Oude Vrielink, Joachim F; Lopes, Rui; Ugalde, Alejandro Pineiro; van Breugel, Pieter; Hofland, Ingrid; Wesseling, Jelle; van Tellingen, Olaf; Bex, Axel; Agami, Reuven

    2016-02-25

    Tumour growth and metabolic adaptation may restrict the availability of certain amino acids for protein synthesis. It has recently been shown that certain types of cancer cells depend on glycine, glutamine, leucine and serine metabolism to proliferate and survive. In addition, successful therapies using L-asparaginase-induced asparagine deprivation have been developed for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. However, a tailored detection system for measuring restrictive amino acids in each tumour is currently not available. Here we harness ribosome profiling for sensing restrictive amino acids, and develop diricore, a procedure for differential ribosome measurements of codon reading. We first demonstrate the functionality and constraints of diricore using metabolic inhibitors and nutrient deprivation assays. Notably, treatment with L-asparaginase elicited both specific diricore signals at asparagine codons and high levels of asparagine synthetase (ASNS). We then applied diricore to kidney cancer and discover signals indicating restrictive proline. As for asparagine, this observation was linked to high levels of PYCR1, a key enzyme in proline production, suggesting a compensatory mechanism allowing tumour expansion. Indeed, PYCR1 is induced by shortage of proline precursors, and its suppression attenuated kidney cancer cell proliferation when proline was limiting. High PYCR1 is frequently observed in invasive breast carcinoma. In an in vivo model system of this tumour, we also uncover signals indicating restrictive proline. We further show that CRISPR-mediated knockout of PYCR1 impedes tumorigenic growth in this system. Thus, diricore has the potential to reveal unknown amino acid deficiencies, vulnerabilities that can be used to target key metabolic pathways for cancer treatment. PMID:26878238

  4. Functional studies of a germ-line polymorphism at codon 47 within the p53 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Felley-Bosco, E.; Weston, A.; Cawley, H.M.; Bennett, W.P.; Harris, C.C.

    1993-09-01

    A rare germ-line polymorphism in codon 47 of the p53 gene replaces the wild-type proline (CCG) with a serine (TCG). Restriction analysis of 101 human samples revealed the frequency of the rare allele to be 0% (n = 69) in Causasians and 4.7% (3/64, n = 32) among African-Americans. To investigate the consequence of this amino acid substitution, a cDNA construct (p53 mut47ser) containing the mutation was introduced into a lung adenocarcinoma cell line (Calu-6) that does not express p53. A growth suppression similar to that obtained after introduction of a wild-type p53 cDNA construct was observed, in contrast to the result obtained by introduction of p53 mut143ala. Furthermore, expression of neither p53 mut47ser nor wild-type p53 was tolerated by growing cells. In transient expression assays, both mut47ser and wild-type p53 activated the expression of a reporter gene linked to a p53 binding sequence (PG13-CAT) and inhibited the expression of the luciferase gene under the control of the Rous sarcoma virus promoter (RSVluc). In the same assay, mut143ala did not activate the expression of PG13-CAT and produced only a slight inhibitory effect on RSVluc. These findings indicate that the p53 variant with a serine at codon 47 should be considered as a rare germ-line polymorphism that does not alter the growth-suppression activity of p53. 30 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. The attenuated genotype of varicella-zoster virus includes an ORF0 transitional stop codon mutation.

    PubMed

    Peters, Geoffrey A; Tyler, Shaun D; Carpenter, John E; Jackson, Wallen; Mori, Yasuko; Arvin, Ann M; Grose, Charles

    2012-10-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the first of the human herpesviruses to be attenuated and subsequently approved as a live vaccine to prevent varicella and herpes zoster. Both the attenuated VZV vaccine, called vaccine Oka or vOka, and the parental strain pOka have been completely sequenced. Yet the specific determinants of attenuation are uncertain. The open reading frame (ORF) with the most single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), ORF62, encodes the regulatory protein IE62, but IE62 studies have failed to define a specific SNP associated with attenuation. We have completed next-generation sequencing of the VZV Ellen genome, a strain known to be highly attenuated by its very limited replication in human skin xenografts in the SCID mouse model of VZV pathogenesis. A comparative analysis of the Ellen sequence with all other complete VZV sequences was extremely informative. In particular, an unexpected finding was a stop codon mutation in Ellen ORF0 (herpes simplex virus UL56 homolog) identical to one found in vOka, combined with the absence of polymorphisms in most Ellen ORFs that were known to be mutated in vOka. The mutated ORF0 protein was also imaged in both two dimensions and three dimensions by confocal microscopy. The probability of two VZV strains not connected by a recent common ancestor having an identical ORF0 SNP by chance would be 1 10(-8), in other words, extremely unlikely. Taken together, these bioinformatics analyses strongly suggest that the stop codon ORF0 SNP is one of the determinants of the attenuation genotype of live VZV vaccines. PMID:22837206

  6. The Attenuated Genotype of Varicella-Zoster Virus Includes an ORF0 Transitional Stop Codon Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Geoffrey A.; Tyler, Shaun D.; Carpenter, John E.; Jackson, Wallen; Mori, Yasuko; Arvin, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the first of the human herpesviruses to be attenuated and subsequently approved as a live vaccine to prevent varicella and herpes zoster. Both the attenuated VZV vaccine, called vaccine Oka or vOka, and the parental strain pOka have been completely sequenced. Yet the specific determinants of attenuation are uncertain. The open reading frame (ORF) with the most single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), ORF62, encodes the regulatory protein IE62, but IE62 studies have failed to define a specific SNP associated with attenuation. We have completed next-generation sequencing of the VZV Ellen genome, a strain known to be highly attenuated by its very limited replication in human skin xenografts in the SCID mouse model of VZV pathogenesis. A comparative analysis of the Ellen sequence with all other complete VZV sequences was extremely informative. In particular, an unexpected finding was a stop codon mutation in Ellen ORF0 (herpes simplex virus UL56 homolog) identical to one found in vOka, combined with the absence of polymorphisms in most Ellen ORFs that were known to be mutated in vOka. The mutated ORF0 protein was also imaged in both two dimensions and three dimensions by confocal microscopy. The probability of two VZV strains not connected by a recent common ancestor having an identical ORF0 SNP by chance would be 1 10?8, in other words, extremely unlikely. Taken together, these bioinformatics analyses strongly suggest that the stop codon ORF0 SNP is one of the determinants of the attenuation genotype of live VZV vaccines. PMID:22837206

  7. Why time matters: codon evolution and the temporal dynamics of dN/dS.

    PubMed

    Mugal, Carina F; Wolf, Jochen B W; Kaj, Ingemar

    2014-01-01

    The ratio of divergence at nonsynonymous and synonymous sites, dN/dS, is a widely used measure in evolutionary genetic studies to investigate the extent to which selection modulates gene sequence evolution. Originally tailored to codon sequences of distantly related lineages, dN/dS represents the ratio of fixed nonsynonymous to synonymous differences. The impact of ancestral and lineage-specific polymorphisms on dN/dS, which we here show to be substantial for closely related lineages, is generally neglected in estimation techniques of dN/dS. To address this issue, we formulate a codon model that is firmly anchored in population genetic theory, derive analytical expressions for the dN/dS measure by Poisson random field approximation in a Markovian framework and validate the derivations by simulations. In good agreement, simulations and analytical derivations demonstrate that dN/dS is biased by polymorphisms at short time scales and that it can take substantial time for the expected value to settle at its time limit where only fixed differences are considered. We further show that in any attempt to estimate the dN/dS ratio from empirical data the effect of the intrinsic fluctuations of a ratio of stochastic variables, can even under neutrality yield extreme values of dN/dS at short time scales or in regions of low mutation rate. Taken together, our results have significant implications for the interpretation of dN/dS estimates, the McDonald-Kreitman test and other related statistics, in particular for closely related lineages. PMID:24129904

  8. Regulation of translation by upstream translation initiation codons of surfactant protein A1 splice variants

    PubMed Central

    Tsotakos, Nikolaos; Silveyra, Patricia; Lin, Zhenwu; Thomas, Neal; Vaid, Mudit

    2014-01-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A), a molecule with roles in lung innate immunity and surfactant-related functions, is encoded by two genes in humans: SFTPA1 (SP-A1) and SFTPA2 (SP-A2). The mRNAs from these genes differ in their 5?-untranslated regions (5?-UTR) due to differential splicing. The 5?-UTR variant ACD? is exclusively found in transcripts of SP-A1, but not in those of SP-A2. Its unique exon C contains two upstream AUG codons (uAUGs) that may affect SP-A1 translation efficiency. The first uAUG (u1) is in frame with the primary start codon (p), but the second one (u2) is not. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of uAUGs on SP-A1 expression. We employed RT-qPCR to determine the presence of exon C-containing SP-A1 transcripts in human RNA samples. We also used in vitro techniques including mutagenesis, reporter assays, and toeprinting analysis, as well as in silico analyses to determine the role of uAUGs. Exon C-containing mRNA is present in most human lung tissue samples and its expression can, under certain conditions, be regulated by factors such as dexamethasone or endotoxin. Mutating uAUGs resulted in increased luciferase activity. The mature protein size was not affected by the uAUGs, as shown by a combination of toeprint and in silico analysis for Kozak sequence, secondary structure, and signal peptide and in vitro translation in the presence of microsomes. In conclusion, alternative splicing may introduce uAUGs in SP-A1 transcripts, which in turn negatively affect SP-A1 translation, possibly affecting SP-A1/SP-A2 ratio, with potential for clinical implication. PMID:25326576

  9. Attenuation of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Using Large-Scale Random Codon Re-encoding

    PubMed Central

    de Fabritus, Lauriane; Nougairde, Antoine; Aubry, Fabien; Gould, Ernest A; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale codon re-encoding (i.e. introduction of a large number of synonymous mutations) is a novel method of generating attenuated viruses. Here, it was applied to the pathogenic flavivirus, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) which causes febrile illness and encephalitis in humans in forested regions of Europe and Asia. Using an infectious clone of the Oshima 510 strain ("wild-type virus"), a cassette of 1.4kb located in the NS5 coding region, was modified by randomly introducing 273 synonymous mutations ("re-encoded virus"). Whilst the in cellulo replicative fitness of the re-encoded virus was only slightly reduced, the re-encoded virus displayed an attenuated phenotype in a laboratory mouse model of non-lethal encephalitis. Following intra-peritoneal inoculation of either 2.105 or 2.106 TCID50 of virus, the frequency of viraemia, neurovirulence (measured using weight loss and appearance of symptoms) and neuroinvasiveness (detection of virus in the brain) were significantly decreased when compared with the wild-type virus. Mice infected by wild-type or re-encoded viruses produced comparable amounts of neutralising antibodies and results of challenge experiments demonstrated that mice previously infected with the re-encoded virus were protected against subsequent infection by the wild-type virus. This constitutes evidence that a mammalian species can be protected against infection by a virulent wild-type positive-stranded RNA virus following immunisation with a derived randomly re-encoded strain. Our results demonstrate that random codon re-encoding is potentially a simple and effective method of generating live-attenuated vaccine candidates against pathogenic flaviviruses. PMID:25734338

  10. Attenuation of tick-borne encephalitis virus using large-scale random codon re-encoding.

    PubMed

    de Fabritus, Lauriane; Nougairde, Antoine; Aubry, Fabien; Gould, Ernest A; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    Large-scale codon re-encoding (i.e. introduction of a large number of synonymous mutations) is a novel method of generating attenuated viruses. Here, it was applied to the pathogenic flavivirus, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) which causes febrile illness and encephalitis in humans in forested regions of Europe and Asia. Using an infectious clone of the Oshima 5-10 strain ("wild-type virus"), a cassette of 1.4kb located in the NS5 coding region, was modified by randomly introducing 273 synonymous mutations ("re-encoded virus"). Whilst the in cellulo replicative fitness of the re-encoded virus was only slightly reduced, the re-encoded virus displayed an attenuated phenotype in a laboratory mouse model of non-lethal encephalitis. Following intra-peritoneal inoculation of either 2.105 or 2.106 TCID50 of virus, the frequency of viraemia, neurovirulence (measured using weight loss and appearance of symptoms) and neuroinvasiveness (detection of virus in the brain) were significantly decreased when compared with the wild-type virus. Mice infected by wild-type or re-encoded viruses produced comparable amounts of neutralising antibodies and results of challenge experiments demonstrated that mice previously infected with the re-encoded virus were protected against subsequent infection by the wild-type virus. This constitutes evidence that a mammalian species can be protected against infection by a virulent wild-type positive-stranded RNA virus following immunisation with a derived randomly re-encoded strain. Our results demonstrate that random codon re-encoding is potentially a simple and effective method of generating live-attenuated vaccine candidates against pathogenic flaviviruses. PMID:25734338

  11. Codon-dependent conformational change of elongation factor Tu preceding GTP hydrolysis on the ribosome.

    PubMed Central

    Rodnina, M V; Fricke, R; Kuhn, L; Wintermeyer, W

    1995-01-01

    The mechanisms by which elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) promotes the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the A site of the ribosome and, in particular, how GTP hydrolysis by EF-Tu is triggered on the ribosome, are not understood. We report steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements, performed in the Escherichia coli system, in which the interaction of the complex EF-Tu.GTP.Phe-tRNAPhe with the ribosomal A site is monitored by the fluorescence changes of either mant-dGTP [3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-2-deoxyguanosine triphosphate], replacing GTP in the complex, or of wybutine in the anticodon loop of the tRNA. Additionally, GTP hydrolysis is measured by the quench-flow technique. We find that codon-anticodon interaction induces a rapid rearrangement within the G domain of EF-Tu around the bound nucleotide, which is followed by GTP hydrolysis at an approximately 1.5-fold lower rate. In the presence of kirromycin, the activated conformation of EF-Tu appears to be frozen. The steps following GTP hydrolysis--the switch of EF-Tu to the GDP-bound conformation, the release of aminoacyl-tRNA from EF-Tu to the A site, and the dissociation of EF-Tu-GDP from the ribosome--which are altogether suppressed by kirromycin, are not distinguished kinetically. The results suggest that codon recognition by the ternary complex on the ribosome initiates a series of structural rearrangements resulting in a conformational change of EF-Tu, possibly involving the effector region, which, in turn, triggers GTP hydrolysis. PMID:7781613

  12. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Phil; Vile, Rebecca; Osborne, Lisa A.; Romano, Michela; Truzoli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales), social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire), sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and their current health – General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28). This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol. PMID:26244339

  13. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function.

    PubMed

    Reed, Phil; Vile, Rebecca; Osborne, Lisa A; Romano, Michela; Truzoli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales), social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire), sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and their current health - General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28). This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol. PMID:26244339

  14. Usage analysis of user files in UNIX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devarakonda, Murthy V.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is a user-oriented analysis of short term file usage in a 4.2 BSD UNIX environment. The key aspect of this analysis is a characterization of users and files, which is a departure from the traditional approach of analyzing file references. Two characterization measures are employed: accesses-per-byte (combining fraction of a file referenced and number of references) and file size. This new approach is shown to distinguish differences in files as well as users, which cam be used in efficient file system design, and in creating realistic test workloads for simulations. A multi-stage gamma distribution is shown to closely model the file usage measures. Even though overall file sharing is small, some files belonging to a bulletin board system are accessed by many users, simultaneously and otherwise. Over 50% of users referenced files owned by other users, and over 80% of all files were involved in such references. Based on the differences in files and users, suggestions to improve the system performance were also made.

  15. Diverse regulation of 3' splice site usage.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Muhammad; Xie, Jiuyong

    2015-12-01

    The regulation of splice site (SS) usage is important for alternative pre-mRNA splicing and thus proper expression of protein isoforms in cells; its disruption causes diseases. In recent years, an increasing number of novel regulatory elements have been found within or nearby the 3'SS in mammalian genes. The diverse elements recruit a repertoire of trans-acting factors or form secondary structures to regulate 3'SS usage, mostly at the early steps of spliceosome assembly. Their mechanisms of action mainly include: (1) competition between the factors for RNA elements, (2) steric hindrance between the factors, (3) direct interaction between the factors, (4) competition between two splice sites, or (5) local RNA secondary structures or longer range loops, according to the mode of protein/RNA interactions. Beyond the 3'SS, chromatin remodeling/transcription, posttranslational modifications of trans-acting factors and upstream signaling provide further layers of regulation. Evolutionarily, some of the 3'SS elements seem to have emerged in mammalian ancestors. Moreover, other possibilities of regulation such as that by non-coding RNA remain to be explored. It is thus likely that there are more diverse elements/factors and mechanisms that influence the choice of an intron end. The diverse regulation likely contributes to a more complex but refined transcriptome and proteome in mammals. PMID:26370726

  16. Better Living Through Metadata: Examining Archive Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, G.; Winkelman, S.; Rots, A.

    2013-10-01

    The primary purpose of an observatory's archive is to provide access to the data through various interfaces. User interactions with the archive are recorded in server logs, which can be used to answer basic questions like: Who has downloaded dataset X? When did she do this? Which tools did she use? The answers to questions like these fill in patterns of data access (e.g., how many times dataset X has been downloaded in the past three years). Analysis of server logs provides metrics of archive usage and provides feedback on interface use which can be used to guide future interface development. The Chandra X-ray Observatory is fortunate in that a database to track data access and downloads has been continuously recording such transactions for years; however, it is overdue for an update. We will detail changes we hope to effect and the differences the changes may make to our usage metadata picture. We plan to gather more information about the geographic location of users without compromising privacy; create improved archive statistics; and track and assess the impact of web “crawlers” and other scripted access methods on the archive. With the improvements to our download tracking we hope to gain a better understanding of the dissemination of Chandra's data; how effectively it is being done; and perhaps discover ideas for new services.

  17. A new Frameshift mutation on the ?2-globin gene causing ??-thalassemia: codon 43 (TTC>-TC or TTC>T-C).

    PubMed

    Joly, Philippe; Lacan, Philippe; Garcia, Caroline; Barro, Claire; Francina, Alain

    2012-01-01

    We report a new mutation on the ?2-globin gene causing ?(+)-thalassemia (?(+)-thal) with a deletion of a single nucleotide (T) at amino acid residue 43 [HBA2:c.130delT or HBA2:c.131delT]. This frameshift deletion gives rise to a premature termination codon at codon 47. PMID:22738776

  18. Dual-Domain, Dual-Targeting Organellar Protein Presequences in Arabidopsis Can Use Non-AUG Start Codons

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Alan C.; Lyznik, Anna; Mohammed, Saleem; Elowsky, Christian G.; Elo, Annakaisa; Yule, Ryan; Mackenzie, Sally A.

    2005-01-01

    The processes accompanying endosymbiosis have led to a complex network of interorganellar protein traffic that originates from nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial and plastid proteins. A significant proportion of nucleus-encoded organellar proteins are dual targeted, and the process by which a protein acquires the capacity for both mitochondrial and plastid targeting may involve intergenic DNA exchange coupled with the incorporation of sequences residing upstream of the gene. We evaluated targeting and sequence alignment features of two organellar DNA polymerase genes from Arabidopsis thaliana. Within one of these two loci, protein targeting appeared to be plastidic when the 5′ untranslated leader region (UTR) was deleted and translation could only initiate at the annotated ATG start codon but dual targeted when the 5′ UTR was included. Introduction of stop codons at various sites within the putative UTR demonstrated that this region is translated and influences protein targeting capacity. However, no ATG start codon was found within this upstream, translated region, suggesting that translation initiates at a non-ATG start. We identified a CTG codon that likely accounts for much of this initiation. Investigation of the 5′ region of other nucleus-encoded organellar genes suggests that several genes may incorporate upstream sequences to influence targeting capacity. We postulate that a combination of intergenic recombination and some relaxation of constraints on translation initiation has acted in the evolution of protein targeting specificity for those proteins capable of functioning in both plastids and mitochondria. PMID:16169894

  19. Mutations of codon 918 in the RET proto-oncogene correlate to poor prognosis in sporadic medullary thyroid carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Zedenius, J.; Svensson, A.; Baeckdahl, M.; Wallin, G.

    1995-10-01

    The hereditary multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes types 2A and B (MEN 2A and B) were recently linked to germline mutations in the RET proto-oncogene, altering one of five cysteine residues in exon 10 or 11 (MEN 2A), or substituting a methionine for a threonine at codon 918 in exon 16 (MEN 2B). The latter mutation also occurs somatically in some sporadic medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC), and has in a previous study been correlated with a less favorable clinical outcome. In the present study, 46 MTCs were selected for investigation of the codon 918 mutation. The mutation was found in 29 tumors (63%), and was significantly correlated with a poor outcome, with regard to distant metastasis or tumor recurrence (p<10{sup 4}). Two tumors showed multifocal growth and C-cell hyperplasia, and these patients were therefore also investigated for germline mutations in exons 10, 11 and 16. The codon 918 mutation was found only in the tumors, thus of somatic origin. The RET codon 918 mutation may have prognostic impact, and therefore preoperative assessment may influence decision-making in the treatment of patients suffering from MTC. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. A start codon mutation of the FRMD7 gene in two Korean families with idiopathic infantile nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae-Hwan; Shin, Jin-Hong; Seo, Je Hyun; Jung, Jae-Ho; Choi, Kwang-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic infantile nystagmus (IIN) is the involuntary oscillation of the eyes with onset in the first few months of life. The most common form of inheritance is X-linked, and mutations in FRMD7 gene are a major cause. To identify the FRMD7 gene mutations associated with X-linked IIN, we performed PCR-based DNA direct sequencing in 4 affected subjects from 2 Korean families. We also assessed structural abnormalities of retina and optic nerve head using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Genetic analysis revealed a A>G transversion at nucleotide c.1, the first base of the start codon. This mutation leads to the loss of the primary start codon ATG for methionine, which is replaced by a triplet GTG for valine. The alternative in-frame start codon is not present around a mutation. OCT revealed the morphological changes within the optic nerve head, including shallow cup depth and small cup-to-disc ratio. In summary, we identified a novel start codon mutation within the FRMD7 gene of 2 Korean families. Our data expands the mutation spectrum of FRMD7 causing IIN. We also demonstrated abnormal developments of afferent system in patients with FRMD7 mutations using OCT, which may help to understand the etiological factor in development of nystagmus. PMID:26268155