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Sample records for codon usage comparison

  1. Synonymous Codon Usage in TTSuV2: Analysis and Comparison with TTSuV1

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Dingzhen

    2013-01-01

    Two species of the DNA virus Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), TTSuV1 and TTSuV2, have become widely distributed in pig-farming countries in recent years. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of synonymous codon usage bias in 41 available TTSuV2 coding sequences (CDS), and compared the codon usage patterns of TTSuV2 and TTSuV1. TTSuV codon usage patterns were found to be phylogenetically conserved. Values for the effective number of codons (ENC) indicated that the overall extent of codon usage bias in both TTSuV2 and TTSuV1 was not significant, the most frequently occurring codons had an A or C at the third codon position. Correspondence analysis (COA) was performed and TTSuV2 and TTSuV1 sequences were located in different quadrants of the first two major axes. A plot of the ENC revealed that compositional constraint was the major factor determining the codon usage bias for TTSuV2. In addition, hierarchical cluster analysis of 41 TTSuV2 isolates based on relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) values suggested that there was no association between geographic distribution and codon bias of TTSuV2 sequences. Finally, the comparison of RSCU for TTSuV2, TTSuV1 and the corresponding host sequence indicated that the codon usage pattern of TTSuV2 was similar to that of TTSuV1. However the similarity was low for each virus and its host. These conclusions provide important insight into the synonymous codon usage pattern of TTSuV2, as well as better understangding of the molecular evolution of TTSuV2 genomes. PMID:24303050

  2. Codon usage in plant genes.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, E E; Lotzer, J; Eberle, M

    1989-01-01

    We have examined codon bias in 207 plant gene sequences collected from Genbank and the literature. When this sample was further divided into 53 monocot and 154 dicot genes, the pattern of relative use of synonymous codons was shown to differ between these taxonomic groups, primarily in the use of G + C in the degenerate third base. Maize and soybean codon bias were examined separately and followed the monocot and dicot codon usage patterns respectively. Codon preference in ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate and chlorophyll a/b binding protein, two of the most abundant proteins in leaves was investigated. These highly expressed are more restricted in their codon usage than plant genes in general. PMID:2644621

  3. Codon usage bias in Archaea 

    E-print Network

    Emery, Laura R.

    2011-01-01

    Synonymous codon usage bias has been extensively studied in Bacteria and Eukaryotes and yet there has been little investigation in the third domain of life, the Archaea. In this thesis I therefore examine the coding ...

  4. Codon usage pattern in human SPANX genes

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Monisha Nath; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    Background: SPANX (sperm protein coupled with the nucleus in the X chromosome) genes play a crucial role in human spermatogenesis. Codon usage bias (CUB) is a well-known phenomenon that exists in many genomes and mainly determined by mutation and selection. CUB is species specific and a unique characteristic of a genome. Analysis of compositional features and codon usage pattern of SPANX genes in human has contributed to explore the molecular biology of this gene. In our current study, we have retrieved the sequences of different variants of SPANX gene from NCBI using accession number and a perl script was used to analyze the nucleotide composition and the parameters for codon usage bias. Results: Our results showed that codon usage bias is low as measured by codon bias index (CBI) and most of the GC ending codons were positively correlated with GC bias as indicated by GC3. That mutation pressure and natural selection affect the codon usage pattern were revealed by correspondence analysis (COA) and neutrality plot. Moreover, the neutrality plot further suggested that the role of natural selection is higher than mutation pressure on SPANX genes. Conclusions: The codon usage bias in SPANX genes is not very high and the role of natural selection dominates over mutation pressure in the codon usage of human SPANX genes. PMID:26664029

  5. Universality and Shannon entropy of codon usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frappat, L.; Minichini, C.; Sciarrino, A.; Sorba, P.

    2003-12-01

    The distribution functions of codon usage probabilities, computed over all the available GenBank data for 40 eukaryotic biological species and five chloroplasts, are best fitted by the sum of a constant, an exponential, and a linear function in the rank of usage. For mitochondria the analysis is not conclusive. These functions are characterized by parameters that strongly depend on the total guanine and cytosine (GC) content of the coding regions of biological species. It is predicted that the codon usage is the same in all exonic genes with the same GC content. The Shannon entropy for codons, also strongly dependent on the exonic GC content, is computed.

  6. Universality and Shannon entropy of codon usage.

    PubMed

    Frappat, L; Minichini, C; Sciarrino, A; Sorba, P

    2003-12-01

    The distribution functions of codon usage probabilities, computed over all the available GenBank data for 40 eukaryotic biological species and five chloroplasts, are best fitted by the sum of a constant, an exponential, and a linear function in the rank of usage. For mitochondria the analysis is not conclusive. These functions are characterized by parameters that strongly depend on the total guanine and cytosine (GC) content of the coding regions of biological species. It is predicted that the codon usage is the same in all exonic genes with the same GC content. The Shannon entropy for codons, also strongly dependent on the exonic GC content, is computed. PMID:14754237

  7. Universality and Shannon entropy of codon usage

    E-print Network

    Frappat, L; Sciarrino, A; Sorba, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The distribution functions of the codon usage probabilities, computed over all the available GenBank data, for 40 eukaryotic biological species and 5 chloroplasts, do not follow a Zipf law, but are best fitted by the sum of a constant, an exponential and a linear function in the rank of usage. For mitochondriae the analysis is not conclusive. A quantum-mechanics-inspired model is proposed to describe the observed behaviour. These functions are characterized by parameters that strongly depend on the total GC content of the coding regions of biological species. It is predicted that the codon usage is the same in all exonic genes with the same GC content. The Shannon entropy for codons, also strongly depending on the exonic GC content, is computed.

  8. Data in support of large scale comparative codon usage analysis in Leishmania and Trypanosomatids

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Abhishek; Rup Sarkar, Ram

    2015-01-01

    This data article contains data related to the article “Comparison of codon usage bias across Leishmania and Trypanosomatids to understand mRNA secondary structure, relative protein abundance and pathway functions” by Subramanian and Sarkar, Genomics, 2015 (10.1016/j.ygeno.2015.05.009). The data comprises of sequence-based measures that quantify the effect of codon usage across genomes. The data thus generated represents computed values of codon usage indices like relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), effective number of codons (ENC), and codon adaptation index (CAI), a set of single copy orthologous genes common to the 13 Trypanosomatids, and comparisons of CAI between genes of different functions. This forms a basis of comparison to infer the causes and consequences of codon usage bias in Leishmania and other Trypanosomatids. PMID:26217801

  9. Balanced Codon Usage Optimizes Eukaryotic Translational Efficiency

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jianzhi

    ) Balanced Codon Usage Optimizes Eukaryotic Translational Efficiency. PLoS Genet 8(3): e1002603. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002603 Editor: Harmit S. Malik, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, United States Qian et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons

  10. Maximizing Transcription Efficiency Causes Codon Usage Bias

    PubMed Central

    Xia, X.

    1996-01-01

    The rate of protein synthesis depends on both the rate of initiation of translation and the rate of elongation of the peptide chain. The rate of initiation depends on the encountering rate between ribosomes and mRNA; this rate in turn depends on the concentration of ribosomes and mRNA. Thus, patterns of codon usage that increase transcriptional efficiency should increase mRNA concentration, which in turn would increase the initiation rate and the rate of protein synthesis. An optimality model of the transcriptional process is presented with the prediction that the most frequently used ribonucleotide at the third codon sites in mRNA molecules should be the same as the most abundant ribonucleotide in the cellular matrix where mRNA is transcribed. This prediction is supported by four kinds of evidence. First, A-ending codons are the most frequently used synonymous codons in mitochondria, where ATP is much more abundant than that of the three other ribonucleotides. Second, A-ending codons are more frequently used in mitochondrial genes than in nuclear genes. Third, protein genes from organisms with a high metabolic rate use more A-ending codons and have higher A content in their introns than those from organisms with a low metabolic rate. PMID:8913770

  11. Synonymous codon usage is subject to selection in thermophilic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lynn, David J; Singer, Gregory A C; Hickey, Donal A

    2002-10-01

    The patterns of synonymous codon usage, both within and among genomes, have been extensively studied over the past two decades. Despite the accumulating evidence that natural selection can shape codon usage, it has not been possible to link a particular pattern of codon usage to a specific external selective force. Here, we have analyzed the patterns of synonymous codon usage in 40 completely sequenced prokaryotic genomes. By combining the genes from several genomes (more than 80 000 genes in all) into a single dataset for this analysis, we were able to investigate variations in codon usage, both within and between genomes. The results show that synonymous codon usage is affected by two major factors: (i) the overall G+C content of the genome and (ii) growth at high temperature. This study focused on the relationship between synonymous codon usage and the ability to grow at high temperature. We have been able to eliminate both phylogenetic history and lateral gene transfer as possible explanations for the characteristic pattern of codon usage among the thermophiles. Thus, these results demonstrate a clear link between a particular pattern of codon usage and an external selective force. PMID:12364606

  12. Gene expression level influences amino acid usage, but not codon usage, in the tsetse fly

    E-print Network

    Herbeck, Joshua

    Gene expression level influences amino acid usage, but not codon usage, in the tsetse fly and genetic drift shape synonymous codon usage and amino acid usage of Wigglesworthia. The results show across the genome also drives relative amino acid usage, but predicted high-expression genes (ribosomal

  13. A Comprehensive Analysis of Codon Usage Patterns in Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) Based on RNA-Seq Data

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaoke; Yi, Shaokui; Guo, Xianwu; Wang, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is an important fish species for its delicacy and high economic value in China. Codon usage analysis could be helpful to understand its codon biology, mRNA translation and vertebrate evolution. Based on RNA-Seq data for M. amblycephala, high-frequency codons (CUG, AGA, GUG, CAG and GAG), as well as low-frequency ones (NUA and NCG codons) were identified. A total of 724 high-frequency codon pairs were observed. Meanwhile, 14 preferred and 199 avoided neighboring codon pairs were also identified, but bias was almost not shown with one or more intervening codons inserted between the same pairs. Codon usage bias in the regions close to start and stop codons indicated apparent heterogeneity, which even occurs in the flanking nucleotide sequence. Codon usage bias (RSCU and SCUO) was related to GC3 (GC content of 3rd nucleotide in codon) bias. Six GO (Gene ontology) categories and the number of methylation targets were influenced by GC3. Codon usage patterns comparison among 23 vertebrates showed species specificities by using GC contents, codon usage and codon context analysis. This work provided new insights into fish biology and new information for breeding projects. PMID:26016504

  14. Analysis of amino acid and codon usage in Paramecium bursaria.

    PubMed

    Dohra, Hideo; Fujishima, Masahiro; Suzuki, Haruo

    2015-10-01

    The ciliate Paramecium bursaria harbors the green-alga Chlorella symbionts. We reassembled the P. bursaria transcriptome to minimize falsely fused transcripts, and investigated amino acid and codon usage using the transcriptome data. Surface proteins preferentially use smaller amino acid residues like cysteine. Unusual synonymous codon and amino acid usage in highly expressed genes can reflect a balance between translational selection and other factors. A correlation of gene expression level with synonymous codon or amino acid usage is emphasized in genes down-regulated in symbiont-bearing cells compared to symbiont-free cells. Our results imply that the selection is associated with P. bursaria-Chlorella symbiosis. PMID:26341535

  15. Evidence that Natural Selection on Codon Usage in Drosophila pseudoobscura Varies Across Codons

    PubMed Central

    Kliman, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Like other species of Drosophila, Drosophila pseudoobscura has a distinct bias toward the usage of C- and G-ending codons. Previous studies have indicated that this bias is due, at least in part, to natural selection. Codon bias clearly differs among amino acids (and other codon classes) in Drosophila, which may reflect differences in the intensity of selection on codon usage. Ongoing natural selection on synonymous codon usage should be reflected in the shapes of the site frequency spectra of derived states at polymorphic positions. Specifically, regardless of other demographic effects on the spectrum, it should be shifted toward higher values for changes from less-preferred to more-preferred codons, and toward lower values for the converse. If the intensity of natural selection is increased, shifts in the site frequency spectra should be more pronounced. A total of 33,729 synonymous polymorphic sites on Chromosome 2 in D. pseudoobscura were analyzed. Shifts in the site frequency spectra are consistent with differential intensity of natural selection on codon usage, with stronger shifts associated with higher codon bias. The shifts, in general, are greater for polymorphic synonymous sites than for polymorphic intron sites, also consistent with natural selection. However, unlike observations in D. melanogaster, codon bias is not reduced in areas of low recombination in D. pseudoobscura; the site frequency spectrum signal for selection on codon usage remains strong in these regions. However, diversity is reduced, as expected. It is possible that estimates of low recombination reflect a recent change in recombination rate. PMID:24531731

  16. [Codon usage bias in the straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Lü, Beibei; He, Jianhua; Wang, Jinbin; Wu, Xiao; Wu, Guogan; Bao, Dapeng; Chen, Mingjie; Zhang, Jinsong; Tan, Qi; Tang, Xueming

    2014-09-01

    We analyzed the whole genome coding sequence of Volvariella volvacea to study the pattern utilization of codons by Codon W 1.4.2. As results, 24 optimal codons were identified. Moreover, the frequency of codons usage was calculated by CUSP program. We compared the frequency of codons usage of V. volvacea with other organisms including 6 modal value species (Homo sapiens, Saccharomys cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thalian, Mus musculus, Danio rerio and Drosophila melanogaster) and 4 edible fungi (Coprinopsis cinerea, Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus). We found that there were less differences in 3 edible fungi (excluding Pleurotus ostreatus) than 6 modal value species, comparing with the frequency of codons usage of V. volvacea. With software SPSS16.0, cluster analysis which showed differences in the size of codon bias, reflects the evolutionary relationships between species, which can be used as a reference of evolutionary relationships of species. This was the first time for analysis the codon preference among the whole coding sequences of edible fungi, serving as theoretical basis to apply genetic engineering of V. volvacea. PMID:25720157

  17. Trends in codon and amino acid usage in Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed

    Zavala, Alejandro; Naya, Hugo; Romero, Héctor; Musto, Héctor

    2002-05-01

    The usage of synonymous codons and the frequencies of amino acids were investigated in the complete genome of the bacterium Thermotoga maritima using a multivariate statistical approach. The GC3 content of each gene was the most prominent source of variation of codon usage. Surprisingly the usage of UGU and UGC (synonymous triplets coding for Cys, the least frequent amino acid in this species) was detected as the second most prominent source of variation. However, this result is probably an artifact due to the very low frequency of Cys together with the nonbiased composition of this genome. The third trend was related to the preferential usage of a subset of codons among highly expressed genes, and these triplets are presumed to be translationally optimal. Concerning the amino acid usage, the hydropathy level of each protein (and therefore the frequency of charged residues) was the main trend, while the second factor was related to the frequency of usage of the smaller residues, suggesting that the cell economy strongly influences the architecture of the proteins. The third axis of the analysis discriminated the usage of Phe, Tyr, Trp (aromatic residues) plus Cys, Met, and His. These six residues have in common the property of being the preferential targets of reactive oxygen species, and therefore the anaerobic condition of T. maritima is an important factor for the amino acid frequencies. Finally, the Cys content of each protein was the fourth trend. PMID:11965430

  18. Use and misuse of correspondence analysis in codon usage studies

    E-print Network

    Thioulouse, Jean

    ,10), Chlamydia trachomatis (11), Mycoplasma genitalium (12), Helicobacter pylori (13) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa still is) very popular for analysing codon usage biases in microbial genomes: it has been applied different examples taken from the genomes of B.subtilis, E.coli, B.burgdorferi and M

  19. Codon usage patterns in Nematoda: analysis based on over 25 million codons in thirty-two species

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background Codon usage has direct utility in molecular characterization of species and is also a marker for molecular evolution. To understand codon usage within the diverse phylum Nematoda, we analyzed a total of 265,494 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from 30 nematode species. The full genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae were also examined. A total of 25,871,325 codons were analyzed and a comprehensive codon usage table for all species was generated. This is the first codon usage table available for 24 of these organisms. Results Codon usage similarity in Nematoda usually persists over the breadth of a genus but then rapidly diminishes even within each clade. Globodera, Meloidogyne, Pristionchus, and Strongyloides have the most highly derived patterns of codon usage. The major factor affecting differences in codon usage between species is the coding sequence GC content, which varies in nematodes from 32% to 51%. Coding GC content (measured as GC3) also explains much of the observed variation in the effective number of codons (R = 0.70), which is a measure of codon bias, and it even accounts for differences in amino acid frequency. Codon usage is also affected by neighboring nucleotides (N1 context). Coding GC content correlates strongly with estimated noncoding genomic GC content (R = 0.92). On examining abundant clusters in five species, candidate optimal codons were identified that may be preferred in highly expressed transcripts. Conclusion Evolutionary models indicate that total genomic GC content, probably the product of directional mutation pressure, drives codon usage rather than the converse, a conclusion that is supported by examination of nematode genomes. PMID:26271136

  20. Genome-wide analysis of synonymous codon usage in Huaiyangshan virus and other bunyaviruses.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xuelian; Liu, Qingzhen; Xiong, Yanwen; Ye, Changyun; Jin, Dong; Xu, Jianguo

    2015-12-01

    Huaiyangshan virus (HYSV) is a newly discovered bunyavirus, which is transmitted by ticks and causes hemorrhagic fever-like illness in human. The interplay of codon usage among viruses and their hosts is expected to affect viral survival, evasion from host's immune system and evolution. However, little is known about the codon usage in HYSV genome. In the present study, we analyzed synonymous codon usage in 120 available full-length HYSV sequences and performed a comparative analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in HYSV and 42 other bunyaviruses. The relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis showed that the preferred synonymous codons were G/C-ended. A comparative analysis of RSCU between HYSV and its hosts reflected that codon usage patterns of HYSV were mostly coincident with that of its hosts. Our data suggested that although mutational bias dominated codon usage, patterns of codon usage in HYSV were also under the influence of nature selection. Phylogenetic analysis based on RSCU values across different HYSV strains and 42 other bunyaviruses suggested that codon usage pattern in HYSV was the most similar with that of Uukuniemi virus among these bunyaviruses and that viruses belonged to Phlebovirus showed a diversity of codon usage patterns. PMID:26173646

  1. eCodonOpt: a systematic computational framework for optimizing codon usage in directed evolution experiments

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Gregory L.; Maranas, Costas D.

    2002-01-01

    We present a systematic computational framework, eCodonOpt, for designing parental DNA sequences for directed evolution experiments through codon usage optimization. Given a set of homologous parental proteins to be recombined at the DNA level, the optimal DNA sequences encoding these proteins are sought for a given diversity objective. We find that the free energy of annealing between the recombining DNA sequences is a much better descriptor of the extent of crossover formation than sequence identity. Three different diversity targets are investigated for the DNA shuffling protocol to showcase the utility of the eCodonOpt framework: (i) maximizing the average number of crossovers per recombined sequence; (ii) minimizing bias in family DNA shuffling so that each of the parental sequence pair contributes a similar number of crossovers to the library; and (iii) maximizing the relative frequency of crossovers in specific structural regions. Each one of these design challenges is formulated as a constrained optimization problem that utilizes 0–1 binary variables as on/off switches to model the selection of different codon choices for each residue position. Computational results suggest that many-fold improvements in the crossover frequency, location and specificity are possible, providing valuable insights for the engineering of directed evolution protocols. PMID:12034828

  2. TRENDS IN CODON AND AMINO ACID USAGE IN HUMAN PATHOGEN TROPHERYMA WHIPPLEI, THE ONLY KNOWN

    E-print Network

    Wong, Limsoon

    TRENDS IN CODON AND AMINO ACID USAGE IN HUMAN PATHOGEN TROPHERYMA WHIPPLEI, THE ONLY KNOWN Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata ­700032, India The factors governing codon and amino acid usages pressure has little influence on the amino acid usage, for which the mean hydropathy level and aromaticity

  3. Patterns of Synonymous Codon Usage on Human Metapneumovirus and Its Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Qiao; Xu, Weidong; Wu, Yuanjian; Xu, Hongxing

    2012-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important agent of acute respiratory tract infection in children, while its pathogenicity and molecular evolution are lacking. Herein, we firstly report the synonymous codon usage patterns of HMPV genome. The relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) values, effective number of codon (ENC) values, nucleotide contents, and correlation analysis were performed among 17 available whole genome of HMPV, including different genotypes. All preferred codons in HMPV are ended with A/U nucleotide and exhibited a great association with its high proportion of these two nucleotides in their genomes. Mutation pressure rather than natural selection is the main influence factor that determines the bias of synonymous codon usage in HMPV. The complementary pattern of codon usage bias between HMPV and human cell was observed, and this phenomenon suggests that host cells might be also act as an important factor to affect the codon usage bias. Moreover, the codon usage biases in each HMPV genotypes are separated into different clades, which suggest that phylogenetic distance might involve in codon usage bias formation as well. These analyses of synonymous codon usage bias in HMPV provide more information for better understanding its evolution and pathogenicity. PMID:23193361

  4. Intragenic spatial patterns of codon usage bias in prokaryotic and eukaryotic Hong Qin*,1

    E-print Network

    Wu, Wei-Biao

    1 Intragenic spatial patterns of codon usage bias in prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes Hong Qin*,1, Sulfolobus tokodaii, and Thermotoga maritima) and two eukaryotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila

  5. Analysis of synonymous codon usage in spike protein gene of infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Makhija, Aditi; Kumar, Sachin

    2015-12-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is responsible for causing respiratory, renal, and urogenital diseases in poultry. IBV infection in poultry leads to high mortality rates in affected flocks and to severe economic losses due to a drop in egg production and a reduced gain in live weight of the broiler birds. IBV-encoded spike protein (S) is the major protective immunogen for the host. Although the functions of the S protein have been well studied, the factors shaping synonymous codon usage bias and nucleotide composition in the S gene have not been reported yet. In the present study, we analyzed the relative synonymous codon usage and effective number of codons (Nc) using the 53 IBV S genes. The major trend in codon usage variation was studied using correspondence analysis. The plot of Nc values against GC3 as well as the correlation between base composition and codon usage bias suggest that mutational pressure rather than natural selection is the main factor that determines the codon usage bias in the S gene. Interestingly, no association of aromaticity, degree of hydrophobicity, and aliphatic index was observed with the codon usage variation in IBV S genes. The study represents a comprehensive analysis of IBV S gene codon usage patterns and provides a basic understanding of the codon usage bias. PMID:26452019

  6. Comparative Analysis of Codon Usage Bias Patterns in Microsporidian Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Heng; Zhang, Ruizhi; Butler, Robert R.; Liu, Tie; Zhang, Li; Pombert, Jean-François; Zhou, Zeyang

    2015-01-01

    The sub-3 Mbp genomes from microsporidian species of the Encephalitozoon genus are the smallest known among eukaryotes and paragons of genomic reduction and compaction in parasites. However, their diminutive stature is not characteristic of all Microsporidia, whose genome sizes vary by an order of magnitude. This large variability suggests that different evolutionary forces are applied on the group as a whole. In this study, we have compared the codon usage bias (CUB) between eight taxonomically distinct microsporidian genomes: Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Spraguea lophii, Trachipleistophora hominis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Nematocida parisii, Nosema bombycis and Nosema ceranae. While the CUB was found to be weak in all eight Microsporidia, nearly all (98%) of the optimal codons in S. lophii, T. hominis, E. bieneusi, N. parisii, N. bombycis and N. ceranae are fond of A/U in third position whereas most (64.6%) optimal codons in the Encephalitozoon species E. intestinalis and E. cuniculi are biased towards G/C. Although nucleotide composition biases are likely the main factor driving the CUB in Microsporidia according to correlation analyses, directed mutational pressure also likely affects the CUB as suggested by ENc-plots, correspondence and neutrality analyses. Overall, the Encephalitozoon genomes were found to be markedly different from the other microsporidians and, despite being the first sequenced representatives of this lineage, are uncharacteristic of the group as a whole. The disparities observed cannot be attributed solely to differences in host specificity and we hypothesize that other forces are at play in the lineage leading to Encephalitozoon species. PMID:26057384

  7. Synonymous codon usage in Bacillus subtilis reflects both translational selection and mutational biases.

    PubMed Central

    Shields, D C; Sharp, P M

    1987-01-01

    Codon usage data for 56 Bacillus subtilis genes show that synonymous codon usage in B. subtilis is less biased than in Escherichia coli, or in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nevertheless, certain genes with a high codon bias can be identified by correspondence analysis, and also by various indices of codon bias. These genes are very highly expressed, and a general trend (a decrease) in codon bias across genes seems to correspond to decreasing expression level. This, then, may be a general phenomenon in unicellular organisms. The unusually small effect of translational selection on the pattern of codon usage in lowly expressed genes in B. subtilis yields similar dinucleotide frequencies among different codon positions, and on complementary strands. These patterns could arise through selection on DNA structure, but more probably are largely determined by mutation. This prevalence of mutational bias could lead to difficulties in assessing whether open reading frames encode proteins. PMID:3118331

  8. Multiscale Modeling of Metabolism and Macromolecular Synthesis in E. coli and Its Application to the Evolution of Codon Usage

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Ines; Fleming, Ronan M. T.; Que, Richard; Bordbar, Aarash; Diep, Dinh; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2012-01-01

    Biological systems are inherently hierarchal and multiscale in time and space. A major challenge of systems biology is to describe biological systems as a computational model, which can be used to derive novel hypothesis and drive experiments leading to new knowledge. The constraint-based reconstruction and analysis approach has been successfully applied to metabolism and to the macromolecular synthesis machinery assembly. Here, we present the first integrated stoichiometric multiscale model of metabolism and macromolecular synthesis for Escherichia coli K12 MG1655, which describes the sequence-specific synthesis and function of almost 2000 gene products at molecular detail. We added linear constraints, which couple enzyme synthesis and catalysis reactions. Comparison with experimental data showed improvement of growth phenotype prediction with the multiscale model over E. coli’s metabolic model alone. Many of the genes covered by this integrated model are well conserved across enterobacters and other, less related bacteria. We addressed the question of whether the bias in synonymous codon usage could affect the growth phenotype and environmental niches that an organism can occupy. We created two classes of in silico strains, one with more biased codon usage and one with more equilibrated codon usage than the wildtype. The reduced growth phenotype in biased strains was caused by tRNA supply shortage, indicating that expansion of tRNA gene content or tRNA codon recognition allow E. coli to respond to changes in codon usage bias. Our analysis suggests that in order to maximize growth and to adapt to new environmental niches, codon usage and tRNA content must co-evolve. These results provide further evidence for the mutation-selection-drift balance theory of codon usage bias. This integrated multiscale reconstruction successfully demonstrates that the constraint-based modeling approach is well suited to whole-cell modeling endeavors. PMID:23029152

  9. Importance of codon usage for the temporal regulation of viral gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Young C.; Bischof, Georg F.; Lauer, William A.; Desrosiers, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    The glycoproteins of herpesviruses and of HIV/SIV are made late in the replication cycle and are derived from transcripts that use an unusual codon usage that is quite different from that of the host cell. Here we show that the actions of natural transinducers from these two different families of persistent viruses (Rev of SIV and ORF57 of the rhesus monkey rhadinovirus) are dependent on the nature of the skewed codon usage. In fact, the transinducibility of expression of these glycoproteins by Rev and by ORF57 can be flipped simply by changing the nature of the codon usage. Even expression of a luciferase reporter could be made Rev dependent or ORF57 dependent by distinctive changes to its codon usage. Our findings point to a new general principle in which different families of persisting viruses use a poor codon usage that is skewed in a distinctive way to temporally regulate late expression of structural gene products. PMID:26504241

  10. SCUMBLE: a method for systematic and accurate detection of codon usage bias by maximum likelihood estimation

    PubMed Central

    Kloster, Morten; Tang, Chao

    2008-01-01

    The genetic code is degenerate—most amino acids can be encoded by from two to as many as six different codons. The synonymous codons are not used with equal frequency: not only are some codons favored over others, but also their usage can vary significantly from species to species and between different genes in the same organism. Known causes of codon bias include differences in mutation rates as well as selection pressure related to the expression level of a gene, but the standard analysis methods can account for only a fraction of the observed codon usage variation. We here introduce an explicit model of codon usage bias, inspired by statistical physics. Combining this model with a maximum likelihood approach, we are able to clearly identify different sources of bias in various genomes. We have applied the algorithm to Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as 325 prokaryote genomes, and in most cases our model explains essentially all observed variance. PMID:18495752

  11. Codon Usage Influences the Local Rate of Translation Elongation to Regulate Co-translational Protein Folding.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chien-Hung; Dang, Yunkun; Zhou, Zhipeng; Wu, Cheng; Zhao, Fangzhou; Sachs, Matthew S; Liu, Yi

    2015-09-01

    Codon usage bias is a universal feature of eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes and has been proposed to regulate translation efficiency, accuracy, and protein folding based on the assumption that codon usage affects translation dynamics. The roles of codon usage in translation, however, are not clear and have been challenged by recent ribosome profiling studies. Here we used a Neurospora cell-free translation system to directly monitor the velocity of mRNA translation. We demonstrated that the preferred codons enhance the rate of translation elongation, whereas non-optimal codons slow elongation. Codon usage also controls ribosome traffic on mRNA. These conclusions were supported by ribosome profiling results in vitro and in vivo with template mRNAs designed to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. Finally, we demonstrate that codon usage regulates protein function by affecting co-translational protein folding. These results resolve a long-standing fundamental question and suggest the existence of a codon usage code for protein folding. PMID:26321254

  12. Evolutionary characterization of Tembusu virus infection through identification of codon usage patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Yan, Bing; Chen, Shun; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Cheng, Anchun

    2015-10-01

    Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus. As reported, TMUV infection has resulted in significant poultry losses, and the virus may also pose a threat to public health. To characterize TMUV evolutionarily and to understand the factors accounting for codon usage properties, we performed, for the first time, a comprehensive analysis of codon usage bias for the genomes of 60 TMUV strains. The most recently published TMUV strains were found to be widely distributed in coastal cities of southeastern China. Codon preference among TMUV genomes exhibits a low bias (effective number of codons (ENC)=53.287) and is maintained at a stable level. ENC-GC3 plots and the high correlation between composition constraints and principal component factor analysis of codon usage demonstrated that mutation pressure dominates over natural selection pressure in shaping the TMUV coding sequence composition. The high correlation between the major components of the codon usage pattern and hydrophobicity (Gravy) or aromaticity (Aromo) was obvious, indicating that properties of viral proteins also account for the observed variation in TMUV codon usage. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that CQW1 isolated from Chongqing may have evolved from GX2013H or GX2013G isolated from Guangxi, thus indicating that TMUV likely disseminated from southeastern China to the mainland. Moreover, the preferred codons encoding eight amino acids were consistent with the optimal codons for human cells, indicating that TMUV may pose a threat to public health due to possible cross-species transmission (birds to birds or birds to humans). The results of this study not only have theoretical value for uncovering the characteristics of synonymous codon usage patterns in TMUV genomes but also have significant meaning with regard to the molecular evolutionary tendencies of TMUV. PMID:26205688

  13. Three-dimensional eukaryotic genomic organization is strongly correlated with codon usage expression and function.

    PubMed

    Diament, Alon; Pinter, Ron Y; Tuller, Tamir

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that the distribution of genes in eukaryotic genomes is not random; however, formerly reported relations between gene function and genomic organization were relatively weak. Previous studies have demonstrated that codon usage bias is related to all stages of gene expression and to protein function. Here we apply a novel tool for assessing functional relatedness, codon usage frequency similarity (CUFS), which measures similarity between genes in terms of codon and amino acid usage. By analyzing chromosome conformation capture data, describing the three-dimensional (3D) conformation of the DNA, we show that the functional similarity between genes captured by CUFS is directly and very strongly correlated with their 3D distance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Arabidopsis thaliana, mouse and human. This emphasizes the importance of three-dimensional genomic localization in eukaryotes and indicates that codon usage is tightly linked to genome architecture. PMID:25510862

  14. Gaining Insights into the Codon Usage Patterns of TP53 Gene across Eight Mammalian Species

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Tarikul Huda; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    TP53 gene is known as the “guardian of the genome” as it plays a vital role in regulating cell cycle, cell proliferation, DNA damage repair, initiation of programmed cell death and suppressing tumor growth. Non uniform usage of synonymous codons for a specific amino acid during translation of protein known as codon usage bias (CUB) is a unique property of the genome and shows species specific deviation. Analysis of codon usage bias with compositional dynamics of coding sequences has contributed to the better understanding of the molecular mechanism and the evolution of a particular gene. In this study, the complete nucleotide coding sequences of TP53 gene from eight different mammalian species were used for CUB analysis. Our results showed that the codon usage patterns in TP53 gene across different mammalian species has been influenced by GC bias particularly GC3 and a moderate bias exists in the codon usage of TP53 gene. Moreover, we observed that nature has highly favored the most over represented codon CTG for leucine amino acid but selected against the ATA codon for isoleucine in TP53 gene across all mammalian species during the course of evolution. PMID:25807269

  15. GC-Content of Synonymous Codons Profoundly Influences Amino Acid Usage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Zhou, Jun; Wu, Ying; Yang, Sihai; Tian, Dacheng

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids typically are encoded by multiple synonymous codons that are not used with the same frequency. Codon usage bias has drawn considerable attention, and several explanations have been offered, including variation in GC-content between species. Focusing on a simple parameter—combined GC proportion of all the synonymous codons for a particular amino acid, termed GCsyn—we try to deepen our understanding of the relationship between GC-content and amino acid/codon usage in more details. We analyzed 65 widely distributed representative species and found a close association between GCsyn, GC-content, and amino acids usage. The overall usages of the four amino acids with the greatest GCsyn and the five amino acids with the lowest GCsyn both vary with the regional GC-content, whereas the usage of the remaining 11 amino acids with intermediate GCsyn is less variable. More interesting, we discovered that codon usage frequencies are nearly constant in regions with similar GC-content. We further quantified the effects of regional GC-content variation (low to high) on amino acid usage and found that GC-content determines the usage variation of amino acids, especially those with extremely high GCsyn, which accounts for 76.7% of the changed GC-content for those regions. Our results suggest that GCsyn correlates with GC-content and has impact on codon/amino acid usage. These findings suggest a novel approach to understanding the role of codon and amino acid usage in shaping genomic architecture and evolutionary patterns of organisms. PMID:26248983

  16. Codon Usage Patterns in Corynebacterium glutamicum: Mutational Bias, Natural Selection and Amino Acid Conservation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guiming; Wu, Jinyu; Yang, Huanming; Bao, Qiyu

    2010-01-01

    The alternative synonymous codons in Corynebacterium glutamicum, a well-known bacterium used in industry for the production of amino acid, have been investigated by multivariate analysis. As C. glutamicum is a GC-rich organism, G and C are expected to predominate at the third position of codons. Indeed, overall codon usage analyses have indicated that C and/or G ending codons are predominant in this organism. Through multivariate statistical analysis, apart from mutational selection, we identified three other trends of codon usage variation among the genes. Firstly, the majority of highly expressed genes are scattered towards the positive end of the first axis, whereas the majority of lowly expressed genes are clustered towards the other end of the first axis. Furthermore, the distinct difference in the two sets of genes was that the C ending codons are predominate in putatively highly expressed genes, suggesting that the C ending codons are translationally optimal in this organism. Secondly, the majority of the putatively highly expressed genes have a tendency to locate on the leading strand, which indicates that replicational and transciptional selection might be invoked. Thirdly, highly expressed genes are more conserved than lowly expressed genes by synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions among orthologous genes fromthe genomes of C. glutamicum and C. diphtheriae. We also analyzed other factors such as the length of genes and hydrophobicity that might influence codon usage and found their contributions to be weak. PMID:20445740

  17. Analysis of Codon Usage Patterns in Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) Based on Transcriptome Data

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanqing; Zhao, Daqiu; Tao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Codon usage bias, which exists in many genomes, is mainly determined by mutation and selection. To elucidate the genetic features and evolutionary history of herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora), a well-known symbol of prosperity in China, we examined synonymous codon usage in 24,216 reconstructed genes from the P. lactiflora transcriptome. The mean GC content was 44.4%, indicating that the nucleotide content of P. lactiflora genes is slightly AT rich and GC poor. The P. lactiflora genome has a wide range of GC3 (GC content at the third synonymous codon position) distribution, with a significant correlation between GC12 and GC3. ENC (effective number of codons) analysis suggested that mutational bias played a major role in shaping codon usage. Parity Rule 2 (PR2) analysis revealed that GC and AU were not used proportionally. We identified 22 “optimal codons”, most ending with an A or U. Our results suggested that nucleotide composition mutation bias and translational selection were the main driving factors of codon usage bias in P. lactiflora. These results lay the foundation for exploring the evolutionary mechanisms and heterologous expression of functionally-important proteins in P. lactiflora. PMID:26506393

  18. Thermophilic prokaryotes have characteristic patterns of codon usage, amino acid composition and nucleotide content.

    PubMed

    Singer, Gregory A C; Hickey, Donal A

    2003-10-23

    A number of recent studies have shown that thermophilic prokaryotes have distinguishable patterns of both synonymous codon usage and amino acid composition, indicating the action of natural selection related to thermophily. On the other hand, several other studies of whole genomes have illustrated that nucleotide bias can have dramatic effects on synonymous codon usage and also on the amino acid composition of the encoded proteins. This raises the possibility that the thermophile-specific patterns observed at both the codon and protein levels are merely reflections of a single underlying effect at the level of nucleotide composition. Moreover, such an effect at the nucleotide level might be due entirely to mutational bias. In this study, we have compared the genomes of thermophiles and mesophiles at three levels: nucleotide content, codon usage and amino acid composition. Our results indicate that the genomes of thermophiles are distinguishable from mesophiles at all three levels and that the codon and amino acid frequency differences cannot be explained simply by the patterns of nucleotide composition. At the nucleotide level, we see a consistent tendency for the frequency of adenine to increase at all codon positions within the thermophiles. Thermophiles are also distinguished by their pattern of synonymous codon usage for several amino acids, particularly arginine and isoleucine. At the protein level, the most dramatic effect is a two-fold decrease in the frequency of glutamine residues among thermophiles. These results indicate that adaptation to growth at high temperature requires a coordinated set of evolutionary changes affecting (i) mRNA thermostability, (ii) stability of codon-anticodon interactions and (iii) increased thermostability of the protein products. We conclude that elevated growth temperature imposes selective constraints at all three molecular levels: nucleotide content, codon usage and amino acid composition. In addition to these multiple selective effects, however, the genomes of both thermophiles and mesophiles are often subject to superimposed large changes in composition due to mutational bias. PMID:14604790

  19. Codon and Amino Acid Usage Are Shaped by Selection Across Divergent Model Organisms of the Pancrustacea

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Carrie A.; Extavour, Cassandra G.

    2015-01-01

    In protein-coding genes, synonymous codon usage and amino acid composition correlate to expression in some eukaryotes, and may result from translational selection. Here, we studied large-scale RNA-seq data from three divergent arthropod models, including cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus), milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus), and the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis, and tested for optimization of codon and amino acid usage relative to expression level. We report strong signals of AT3 optimal codons (those favored in highly expressed genes) in G. bimaculatus and O. fasciatus, whereas weaker signs of GC3 optimal codons were found in P. hawaiensis, suggesting selection on codon usage in all three organisms. Further, in G. bimaculatus and O. fasciatus, high expression was associated with lowered frequency of amino acids with large size/complexity (S/C) scores in favor of those with intermediate S/C values; thus, selection may favor smaller amino acids while retaining those of moderate size for protein stability or conformation. In P. hawaiensis, highly transcribed genes had elevated frequency of amino acids with large and small S/C scores, suggesting a complex dynamic in this crustacean. In all species, the highly transcribed genes appeared to favor short proteins, high optimal codon usage, specific amino acids, and were preferentially involved in cell-cycling and protein synthesis. Together, based on examination of 1,680,067, 1,667,783, and 1,326,896 codon sites in G. bimaculatus, O. fasciatus, and P. hawaiensis, respectively, we conclude that translational selection shapes codon and amino acid usage in these three Pancrustacean arthropods. PMID:26384771

  20. Codon and Amino Acid Usage Are Shaped by Selection Across Divergent Model Organisms of the Pancrustacea.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Carrie A; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2015-01-01

    In protein-coding genes, synonymous codon usage and amino acid composition correlate to expression in some eukaryotes, and may result from translational selection. Here, we studied large-scale RNA-seq data from three divergent arthropod models, including cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus), milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus), and the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis, and tested for optimization of codon and amino acid usage relative to expression level. We report strong signals of AT3 optimal codons (those favored in highly expressed genes) in G. bimaculatus and O. fasciatus, whereas weaker signs of GC3 optimal codons were found in P. hawaiensis, suggesting selection on codon usage in all three organisms. Further, in G. bimaculatus and O. fasciatus, high expression was associated with lowered frequency of amino acids with large size/complexity (S/C) scores in favor of those with intermediate S/C values; thus, selection may favor smaller amino acids while retaining those of moderate size for protein stability or conformation. In P. hawaiensis, highly transcribed genes had elevated frequency of amino acids with large and small S/C scores, suggesting a complex dynamic in this crustacean. In all species, the highly transcribed genes appeared to favor short proteins, high optimal codon usage, specific amino acids, and were preferentially involved in cell-cycling and protein synthesis. Together, based on examination of 1,680,067, 1,667,783, and 1,326,896 codon sites in G. bimaculatus, O. fasciatus, and P. hawaiensis, respectively, we conclude that translational selection shapes codon and amino acid usage in these three Pancrustacean arthropods. PMID:26384771

  1. Recurrent positive selection and heterogeneous codon usage bias events leading to coexistence of divergent pigeon circoviruses.

    PubMed

    Liao, Pei-Chun; Wang, Kung-Kai; Tsai, Shinn-Shyong; Liu, Hung-Jen; Huang, Bing-Hong; Chuang, Kuo-Pin

    2015-08-01

    The capsid genes from 14 pigeon circovirus (PiCV) sequences, collected from Taiwan between 2009 and 2010, were sequenced and compared with 14 PiCV capsid gene sequences from GenBank. Based on pairwise comparison, PiCV strains from Taiwan shared 73.9-100% nucleotide identity and 72-100% amino acid identity with those of the 14 reported PiCV sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Taiwanese PiCV isolates can be grouped into two clades: clade 1 comprising isolates from Belgium, Australia, USA, Italy and China, and clade 2 showing close relation to isolates from Germany and France. Recurrent positive selection was detected in clade 1 PiCV lineages, which may contribute to the diversification of predominant PiCV sequences in Taiwan. Further observations suggest that synonymous codon usage variations between PiCV clade 1 and clade 2 may reflect the adaptive divergence on translation efficiency of capsid genes in infectious hosts. Variation in selective pressures acting on the evolutionary divergence and codon usage bias of both clades explains the regional coexistence of virus sequences congeners prevented from competitive exclusion within an island such as Taiwan. Our genotyping results also provide insight into the aetiological agents of PiCV outbreak in Taiwan and we present a comparative analysis of the central coding region of PiCV genome. From the sequence comparison results of 28 PiCVs which differs in regard to the geographical origin and columbid species, we identified conserved regions within the capsid gene that are likely to be suitable for primer selection and vaccine development. PMID:25911731

  2. Codon usage biases of transposable elements and host nuclear genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jia; Xue, Qingzhong

    2009-12-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic entities ubiquitously distributed in nearly all genomes. High frequency of codons ending in A/T in TEs has been previously observed in some species. In this study, the biases in nucleotide composition and codon usage of TE transposases and host nuclear genes were investigated in the AT-rich genome of Arabidopsis thaliana and the GC-rich genome of Oryza sativa. Codons ending in A/T are more frequently used by TEs compared with their host nuclear genes. A remarkable positive correlation between highly expressed nuclear genes and C/G-ending codons were detected in O. sativa (r=0.944 and 0.839, respectively, P<0.0001) but not in A. thaliana, indicating a close association between the GC content and gene expression level in monocot species. In both species, TE codon usage biases are similar to that of weakly expressed genes. The expression and activity of TEs may be strictly controlled in plant genomes. Mutation bias and selection pressure have simultaneously acted on the TE evolution in A. thaliana and O. sativa. The consistently observed biases of nucleotide composition and codon usage of TEs may also provide a useful clue to accurately detect TE sequences in different species. PMID:20172490

  3. A codon model of nucleotide substitution with selection on synonymous codon usage.

    PubMed

    Kubatko, Laura; Shah, Premal; Herbei, Radu; Gilchrist, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    The quality of phylogenetic inference made from protein-coding genes depends, in part, on the realism with which the codon substitution process is modeled. Here we propose a new mechanistic model that combines the standard M0 substitution model of Yang (1997) with a simplified model from Gilchrist (2007) that includes selection on synonymous substitutions as a function of codon-specific nonsense error rates. We tested the newly proposed model by applying it to 104 protein-coding genes in brewer's yeast, and compared the fit of the new model to the standard M0 model and to the mutation-selection model of Yang and Nielsen (2008) using the AIC. Our new model provided significantly better fit in approximately 85% of the cases considered for the basic M0 model and in approximately 25% of the cases for the M0 model with estimated codon frequencies, but only in a few cases when the mutation-selection model was considered. However, our model includes a parameter that can be interpreted as a measure of the rate of protein production, and the estimates of this parameter were highly correlated with an independent measure of protein production for the yeast genes considered here. Finally, we found that in some cases the new model led to the preference of a different phylogeny for a subset of the genes considered, indicating that substitution model choice may have an impact on the estimated phylogeny. PMID:26358614

  4. Evidence for Stabilizing Selection on Codon Usage in Chromosomal Rearrangements of Drosophila pseudoobscura

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Zachary L.; Haynes, Gwilym D.; Zhu, Dianhui; Batterton, Matthew; Chao, Hsu; Dugan, Shannon; Javaid, Mehwish; Jayaseelan, Joy C.; Lee, Sandra; Li, Mingmei; Ongeri, Fiona; Qi, Sulan; Han, Yi; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Richards, Stephen; Schaeffer, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    There has been a renewed interest in investigating the role of stabilizing selection acting on genome-wide traits such as codon usage bias. Codon bias, when synonymous codons are used at unequal frequencies, occurs in a wide variety of taxa. Standard evolutionary models explain the maintenance of codon bias through a balance of genetic drift, mutation and weak purifying selection. The efficacy of selection is expected to be reduced in regions of suppressed recombination. Contrary to observations in Drosophila melanogaster, some recent studies have failed to detect a relationship between the recombination rate, intensity of selection acting at synonymous sites, and the magnitude of codon bias as predicted under these standard models. Here, we examined codon bias in 2798 protein coding loci on the third chromosome of D. pseudoobscura using whole-genome sequences of 47 individuals, representing five common third chromosome gene arrangements. Fine-scale recombination maps were constructed using more than 1 million segregating sites. As expected, recombination was demonstrated to be significantly suppressed between chromosome arrangements, allowing for a direct examination of the relationship between recombination, selection, and codon bias. As with other Drosophila species, we observe a strong mutational bias away from the most frequently used codons. We find the rate of synonymous and nonsynonymous polymorphism is variable between different amino acids. However, we do not observe a reduction in codon bias or the strength of selection in regions of suppressed recombination as expected. Instead, we find that the interaction between weak stabilizing selection and mutational bias likely plays a role in shaping the composition of synonymous codons across the third chromosome in D. pseudoobscura. PMID:25326424

  5. Analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in sixty-four different bivalve species

    PubMed Central

    De Moro, Gianluca; Venier, Paola; Pallavicini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Synonymous codon usage bias (CUB) is a defined as the non-random usage of codons encoding the same amino acid across different genomes. This phenomenon is common to all organisms and the real weight of the many factors involved in its shaping still remains to be fully determined. So far, relatively little attention has been put in the analysis of CUB in bivalve mollusks due to the limited genomic data available. Taking advantage of the massive sequence data generated from next generation sequencing projects, we explored codon preferences in 64 different species pertaining to the six major evolutionary lineages in Bivalvia. We detected remarkable differences across species, which are only partially dependent on phylogeny. While the intensity of CUB is mild in most organisms, a heterogeneous group of species (including Arcida and Mytilida, among the others) display higher bias and a strong preference for AT-ending codons. We show that the relative strength and direction of mutational bias, selection for translational efficiency and for translational accuracy contribute to the establishment of synonymous codon usage in bivalves. Although many aspects underlying bivalve CUB still remain obscure, we provide for the first time an overview of this phenomenon in this large, commercially and environmentally important, class of marine invertebrates. PMID:26713259

  6. Synonymous Codon Usage in Escherichia coli: Selection for Translational Nina Stoletzki* and Adam Eyre-Walker

    E-print Network

    Eyre-Walker, Adam

    Synonymous Codon Usage in Escherichia coli: Selection for Translational Accuracy Nina Stoletzki use in Escherichia coli is biased to reduce the costs of both missense and nonsense translational for this is two-fold. First, in several organisms, including Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  7. Effective population size does not predict codon usage bias in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Michael D; Dean, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Synonymous codons are not used at equal frequency throughout the genome, a phenomenon termed codon usage bias (CUB). It is often assumed that interspecific variation in the intensity of CUB is related to species differences in effective population sizes (Ne), with selection on CUB operating less efficiently in species with small Ne. Here, we specifically ask whether variation in Ne predicts differences in CUB in mammals and report two main findings. First, across 41 mammalian genomes, CUB was not correlated with two indirect proxies of Ne (body mass and generation time), even though there was statistically significant evidence of selection shaping CUB across all species. Interestingly, autosomal genes showed higher codon usage bias compared to X-linked genes, and high-recombination genes showed higher codon usage bias compared to low recombination genes, suggesting intraspecific variation in Ne predicts variation in CUB. Second, across six mammalian species with genetic estimates of Ne (human, chimpanzee, rabbit, and three mouse species: Mus musculus, M. domesticus, and M. castaneus), Ne and CUB were weakly and inconsistently correlated. At least in mammals, interspecific divergence in Ne does not strongly predict variation in CUB. One hypothesis is that each species responds to a unique distribution of selection coefficients, confounding any straightforward link between Ne and CUB. PMID:25505518

  8. Evidence of codon usage in the nearest neighbor spacing distribution of bases in bacterial genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higareda, M. F.; Geiger, O.; Mendoza, L.; Méndez-Sánchez, R. A.

    2012-02-01

    Statistical analysis of whole genomic sequences usually assumes a homogeneous nucleotide density throughout the genome, an assumption that has been proved incorrect for several organisms since the nucleotide density is only locally homogeneous. To avoid giving a single numerical value to this variable property, we propose the use of spectral statistics, which characterizes the density of nucleotides as a function of its position in the genome. We show that the cumulative density of bases in bacterial genomes can be separated into an average (or secular) plus a fluctuating part. Bacterial genomes can be divided into two groups according to the qualitative description of their secular part: linear and piecewise linear. These two groups of genomes show different properties when their nucleotide spacing distribution is studied. In order to analyze genomes having a variable nucleotide density, statistically, the use of unfolding is necessary, i.e., to get a separation between the secular part and the fluctuations. The unfolding allows an adequate comparison with the statistical properties of other genomes. With this methodology, four genomes were analyzed Burkholderia, Bacillus, Clostridium and Corynebacterium. Interestingly, the nearest neighbor spacing distributions or detrended distance distributions are very similar for species within the same genus but they are very different for species from different genera. This difference can be attributed to the difference in the codon usage.

  9. Codon Usage in Signal Sequences Affects Protein Expression and Secretion Using Baculovirus/Insect Cell Expression System

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Shiheng; Chen, Hongying

    2015-01-01

    By introducing synonymous mutations into the coding sequences of GP64sp and FibHsp signal peptides, the influences of mRNA secondary structure and codon usage of signal sequences on protein expression and secretion were investigated using baculovirus/insect cell expression system. The results showed that mRNA structural stability of the signal sequences was not correlated with the protein production and secretion levels, and FibHsp was more tolerable to codon changes than GP64sp. Codon bias analyses revealed that codons for GP64sp were well de-optimized and contained more non-optimal codons than FibHsp. Synonymous mutations in GP64sp sufficiently increased its average codon usage frequency and resulted in dramatic reduction of the activity and secretion of luciferase. Protein degradation inhibition assay with MG-132 showed that higher codon usage frequency in the signal sequence increased the production as well as the degradation of luciferase protein, indicating that the synonymous codon substitutions in the signal sequence caused misfolding of luciferase instead of slowing down the protein production. Meanwhile, we found that introduction of more non-optimal codons into FibHsp could increase the production and secretion levels of luciferase, which suggested a new strategy to improve the production of secretory proteins in insect cells. PMID:26697848

  10. A Novel Method to Predict Highly Expressed Genes Based on Radius Clustering and Relative Synonymous Codon Usage.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tuan-Anh; Vo, Nam Tri; Nguyen, Hoang Duc; Pham, Bao The

    2015-12-01

    Recombinant proteins play an important role in many aspects of life and have generated a huge income, notably in the industrial enzyme business. A gene is introduced into a vector and expressed in a host organism-for example, E. coli-to obtain a high productivity of target protein. However, transferred genes from particular organisms are not usually compatible with the host's expression system because of various reasons, for example, codon usage bias, GC content, repetitive sequences, and secondary structure. The solution is developing programs to optimize for designing a nucleotide sequence whose origin is from peptide sequences using properties of highly expressed genes (HEGs) of the host organism. Existing data of HEGs determined by practical and computer-based methods do not satisfy for qualifying and quantifying. Therefore, the demand for developing a new HEG prediction method is critical. We proposed a new method for predicting HEGs and criteria to evaluate gene optimization. Codon usage bias was weighted by amplifying the difference between HEGs and non-highly expressed genes (non-HEGs). The number of predicted HEGs is 5% of the genome. In comparison with Puigbò's method, the result is twice as good as Puigbò's one, in kernel ratio and kernel sensitivity. Concerning transcription/translation factor proteins (TF), the proposed method gives low TF sensitivity, while Puigbò's method gives moderate one. In summary, the results indicated that the proposed method can be a good optional applying method to predict optimized genes for particular organisms, and we generated an HEG database for further researches in gene design ( Supplementary Material ). PMID:26540560

  11. Ribosome collisions and Translation efficiency: Optimization by codon usage and mRNA destabilization

    E-print Network

    Namiko Mitarai; Kim Sneppen; Steen Pedersen

    2008-09-25

    Individual mRNAs are translated by multiple ribosomes that initiate translation with a few seconds interval. The ribosome speed is codon dependant, and ribosome queuing has been suggested to explain specific data for translation of some mRNAs in vivo. By modelling the stochastic translation process as a traffic problem, we here analyze conditions and consequences of collisions and queuing. The model allowed us to determine the on-rate (0.8 to 1.1 initiations per sec) and the time (1 sec) the preceding ribosome occludes initiation for Escherichia coli lacZ mRNA in vivo. We find that ribosome collisions and queues are inevitable consequences of a stochastic translation mechanism that reduce the translation efficiency substantially on natural mRNAs. The cells minimize collisions by having its mRNAs being unstable and by a highly selected codon usage in the start of the mRNA. The cost of mRNA breakdown is offset by the concomitant increase in translational efficiency.

  12. Enhanced production of recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in Escherichia coli by replacement of low-usage codons.

    PubMed

    Lakey, D L; Voladri, R K; Edwards, K M; Hager, C; Samten, B; Wallis, R S; Barnes, P F; Kernodle, D S

    2000-01-01

    A major obstacle to development of subunit vaccines and diagnostic reagents for tuberculosis is the inability to produce large quantities of these proteins. To test the hypothesis that poor expression of some mycobacterial genes in Escherichia coli is due, in part, to the presence of low-usage E. coli codons, we used site-directed mutagenesis to convert low-usage codons to high-usage codons for the same amino acid in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes for antigens 85A and 85B and superoxide dismutase. Replacement of five codons in the wild-type gene for antigen 85B increased recombinant protein production in E. coli 54-fold. The recombinant antigen elicited proliferation and gamma interferon production by lymphocytes from healthy tuberculin reactors and was recognized by monoclonal antibodies to native antigen 85, indicating that the recombinant antigen contained T-cell and B-cell epitopes. Northern blotting demonstrated only a 1.7- to 2.5-fold increase in antigen 85B mRNA, suggesting that the enhanced protein production was due primarily to enhanced efficiency of translation. Codon replacement in the genes encoding antigen 85A and superoxide dismutase yielded four- to sixfold increases in recombinant protein production, suggesting that this strategy may be generally applicable to overexpression of mycobacterial genes in E. coli. PMID:10603393

  13. Reduced Efficacy of Natural Selection on Codon Usage Bias in Selfing Arabidopsis and Capsella Species

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Suo; Zeng, Kai; Slotte, Tanja; Wright, Stephen; Charlesworth, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Population genetic theory predicts that the efficacy of natural selection in a self-fertilizing species should be lower than its outcrossing relatives because of the reduction in the effective population size (Ne) in the former brought about by inbreeding. However, previous analyses comparing Arabidopsis thaliana (selfer) with A. lyrata (outcrosser) have not found conclusive support for this prediction. In this study, we addressed this issue by examining silent site polymorphisms (synonymous and intronic), which are expected to be informative about changes in Ne. Two comparisons were made: A. thaliana versus A. lyrata and Capsella rubella (selfer) versus C. grandiflora (outcrosser). Extensive polymorphism data sets were obtained by compiling published data from the literature and by sequencing 354 exon loci in C. rubella and 89 additional loci in C. grandiflora. To extract information from the data effectively for studying these questions, we extended two recently developed models in order to investigate detailed selective differences between synonymous codons, mutational biases, and biased gene conversion (BGC), taking into account the effects of recent changes in population size. We found evidence that selection on synonymous codons is significantly weaker in the selfers compared with the outcrossers and that this difference cannot be fully accounted for by mutational biases or BGC. PMID:21856647

  14. Cancer, Warts, or Asymptomatic Infections: Clinical Presentation Matches Codon Usage Preferences in Human Papillomaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Félez-Sánchez, Marta; Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Bedhomme, Stéphanie; González-Bravo, Maria Isabel; Kamp, Christel; Bravo, Ignacio G.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses rely completely on the hosts’ machinery for translation of viral transcripts. However, for most viruses infecting humans, codon usage preferences (CUPrefs) do not match those of the host. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a showcase to tackle this paradox: they present a large genotypic diversity and a broad range of phenotypic presentations, from asymptomatic infections to productive lesions and cancer. By applying phylogenetic inference and dimensionality reduction methods, we demonstrate first that genes in HPVs are poorly adapted to the average human CUPrefs, the only exception being capsid genes in viruses causing productive lesions. Phylogenetic relationships between HPVs explained only a small proportion of CUPrefs variation. Instead, the most important explanatory factor for viral CUPrefs was infection phenotype, as orthologous genes in viruses with similar clinical presentation displayed similar CUPrefs. Moreover, viral genes with similar spatiotemporal expression patterns also showed similar CUPrefs. Our results suggest that CUPrefs in HPVs reflect either variations in the mutation bias or differential selection pressures depending on the clinical presentation and expression timing. We propose that poor viral CUPrefs may be central to a trade-off between strong viral gene expression and the potential for eliciting protective immune response. PMID:26139833

  15. Cancer, Warts, or Asymptomatic Infections: Clinical Presentation Matches Codon Usage Preferences in Human Papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Félez-Sánchez, Marta; Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Bedhomme, Stéphanie; González-Bravo, Maria Isabel; Kamp, Christel; Bravo, Ignacio G

    2015-08-01

    Viruses rely completely on the hosts' machinery for translation of viral transcripts. However, for most viruses infecting humans, codon usage preferences (CUPrefs) do not match those of the host. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a showcase to tackle this paradox: they present a large genotypic diversity and a broad range of phenotypic presentations, from asymptomatic infections to productive lesions and cancer. By applying phylogenetic inference and dimensionality reduction methods, we demonstrate first that genes in HPVs are poorly adapted to the average human CUPrefs, the only exception being capsid genes in viruses causing productive lesions. Phylogenetic relationships between HPVs explained only a small proportion of CUPrefs variation. Instead, the most important explanatory factor for viral CUPrefs was infection phenotype, as orthologous genes in viruses with similar clinical presentation displayed similar CUPrefs. Moreover, viral genes with similar spatiotemporal expression patterns also showed similar CUPrefs. Our results suggest that CUPrefs in HPVs reflect either variations in the mutation bias or differential selection pressures depending on the clinical presentation and expression timing. We propose that poor viral CUPrefs may be central to a trade-off between strong viral gene expression and the potential for eliciting protective immune response. PMID:26139833

  16. Successful lateral transfer requires codon usage compatibility between foreign genes and recipient genomes.

    PubMed

    Medrano-Soto, Arturo; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Vinuesa, Pablo; Christen, J Andrés; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2004-10-01

    We present evidence supporting the notion that codon usage (CU) compatibility between foreign genes and recipient genomes is an important prerequisite to assess the selective advantage of imported functions, and therefore to increase the fixation probability of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events. This contrasts with the current tendency in research to predict recent HGTs in prokaryotes by assuming that acquired genes generally display poor CU. By looking at the CU level (poor, typical, or rich) exhibited by putative xenologs still resembling their original CU, we found that most alien genes predominantly present typical CU immediately upon introgression, thereby suggesting that the role of CU amelioration in HGT has been overemphasized. In our strategy, we first scanned a representative set of 103 complete prokaryotic genomes for all pairs of candidate xenologs (exported/imported genes) displaying similar CU. We applied additional filtering criteria, including phylogenetic validations, to enhance the reliability of our predictions. Our approach makes no assumptions about the CU of foreign genes being typical or atypical within the recipient genome, thus providing a novel unbiased framework to study the evolutionary dynamics of HGT. PMID:15240837

  17. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of early land plants: mitigating the effects of saturation, compositional heterogeneity, and codon-usage bias.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Cox, Cymon J; Wang, Wei; Goffinet, Bernard

    2014-11-01

    Phylogenetic analyses using concatenation of genomic-scale data have been seen as the panacea for resolving the incongruences among inferences from few or single genes. However, phylogenomics may also suffer from systematic errors, due to the, perhaps cumulative, effects of saturation, among-taxa compositional (GC content) heterogeneity, or codon-usage bias plaguing the individual nucleotide loci that are concatenated. Here, we provide an example of how these factors affect the inferences of the phylogeny of early land plants based on mitochondrial genomic data. Mitochondrial sequences evolve slowly in plants and hence are thought to be suitable for resolving deep relationships. We newly assembled mitochondrial genomes from 20 bryophytes, complemented these with 40 other streptophytes (land plants plus algal outgroups), compiling a data matrix of 60 taxa and 41 mitochondrial genes. Homogeneous analyses of the concatenated nucleotide data resolve mosses as sister-group to the remaining land plants. However, the corresponding translated amino acid data support the liverwort lineage in this position. Both results receive weak to moderate support in maximum-likelihood analyses, but strong support in Bayesian inferences. Tests of alternative hypotheses using either nucleotide or amino acid data provide implicit support for their respective optimal topologies, and clearly reject the hypotheses that bryophytes are monophyletic, liverworts and mosses share a unique common ancestor, or hornworts are sister to the remaining land plants. We determined that land plant lineages differ in their nucleotide composition, and in their usage of synonymous codon variants. Composition heterogeneous Bayesian analyses employing a nonstationary model that accounts for variation in among-lineage composition, and inferences from degenerated nucleotide data that avoid the effects of synonymous substitutions that underlie codon-usage bias, again recovered liverworts being sister to the remaining land plants but without support. These analyses indicate that the inference of an early-branching moss lineage based on the nucleotide data is caused by convergent compositional biases. Accommodating among-site amino acid compositional heterogeneity (CAT-model) yields no support for the optimal resolution of liverwort as sister to the rest of land plants, suggesting that the robust inference of the liverwort position in homogeneous analyses may be due in part to compositional biases among sites. All analyses support a paraphyletic bryophytes with hornworts composing the sister-group to tracheophytes. We conclude that while genomic data may generate highly supported phylogenetic trees, these inferences may be artifacts. We suggest that phylogenomic analyses should assess the possible impact of potential biases through comparisons of protein-coding gene data and their amino acid translations by evaluating the impact of substitutional saturation, synonymous substitutions, and compositional biases through data deletion strategies and by analyzing the data using heterogeneous composition models. We caution against relying on any one presentation of the data (nucleotide or amino acid) or any one type of analysis even when analyzing large-scale data sets, no matter how well-supported, without fully exploring the effects of substitution models. PMID:25070972

  18. Mutational bias is the driving force for shaping the synonymous codon usage pattern of alternatively spliced genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingpo; Hu, Haichao; Wang, Hong

    2015-04-01

    Alternative splicing plays important roles in diverse aspects of plant development, metabolism, and stress responses. However, the regulatory mechanisms of alternative splicing of genes still remain incompletely elucidated, especially in plants. In this study, the synonymous codon usage pattern of alternatively spliced (AS) genes in rice was firstly explored using the combination of correspondence analysis (CA), internal CA, correlation and ANOVA analyses. The results show that alternatively and non-alternatively spliced (non-AS) genes have similar tendency for overall codon usage, but exhibit significant difference in 58 out of 64 codons. AS and non-AS genes are both under strong purifying selection, but the former ones have significant lower mutation rate and are prone to be enriched towards the chromosomal ends. In the group of AS genes, the variability in synonymous codon usage between genes is mainly due to the variations in GC content, CDS length, as well as gene functions. Mutational bias that accounts for 25.85 % of the total codon usage variability plays a major role in shaping the codon usage pattern of AS genes. In contrast, no obvious evidence is found for the contributions of translational selection, AS types, the conservation of AS events, and numbers of AS variants to the codon usage divergence between AS genes. These findings may be useful for further understanding the mechanisms of origination, differentiation and regulation of alternatively spliced genes in plants. PMID:25407289

  19. High-level periplasmic expression in Escherichia coli using a eukaryotic signal peptide: importance of codon usage at the 5' end of the coding sequence.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, D P; Sehdev, M; Chapman, A P; Ganesh, R; Smith, B J; King, L M; Glover, D J; Reeks, D G; Stephens, P E

    2000-11-01

    We investigated the ability of signal peptides of eukaryotic origin (human, mouse, and yeast) to efficiently direct model proteins to the Escherichia coli periplasm. These were compared against a well-characterized prokaryotic signal peptide-OmpA. Surprisingly, eukaryotic signal peptides can work very efficiently in E. coli, but require optimization of codon usage by codon-based mutagenesis of the signal peptide coding region. Analysis of the 5' of periplasmic and cytoplasmic E. coli genes shows some codon usage differences. PMID:11049749

  20. Synonymous Codon Usage Bias in the Plastid Genome is Unrelated to Gene Structure and Shows Evolutionary Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yueying; Xu, Wenjing; Xing, Tian; Zhao, Mingming; Li, Nana; Yan, Li; Xia, Guangmin; Wang, Mengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Synonymous codon usage bias (SCUB) is the nonuniform usage of codons, occurring often in nearly all organisms. Our previous study found that SCUB is correlated with intron number, is unequal among exons in the plant nuclear genome, and mirrors evolutionary specialization. However, whether this rule exists in the plastid genome has not been addressed. Here, we present an analysis of SCUB in the plastid genomes of 25 species from lower to higher plants (algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, and spermatophytes). We found NNA and NNT (A- and T-ending codons) are preferential in the plastid genomes of all plants. Interestingly, this preference is heterogeneous among taxonomies of plants, with the strongest preference in bryophytes and the weakest in pteridophytes, suggesting an association between SCUB and plant evolution. In addition, SCUB frequencies are consistent among genes with varied introns and among exons, indicating that the bias of NNA and NNT is unrelated to either intron number or exon position. Further, SCUB is associated with DNA methylation–induced conversion of cytosine to thymine in the vascular plants but not in algae or bryophytes. These data demonstrate that these SCUB profiles in the plastid genome are distinctly different compared with the nuclear genome. PMID:25922569

  1. Synonymous Codon Usage Bias in Plant Mitochondrial Genes Is Associated with Intron Number and Mirrors Species Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mingming; Yin, Xunhao; Xia, Guangmin; Wang, Mengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Synonymous codon usage bias (SCUB) is a common event that a non-uniform usage of codons often occurs in nearly all organisms. We previously found that SCUB is correlated with both intron number and exon position in the plant nuclear genome but not in the plastid genome; SCUB in both nuclear and plastid genome can mirror the evolutionary specialization. However, how about the rules in the mitochondrial genome has not been addressed. Here, we present an analysis of SCUB in the mitochondrial genome, based on 24 plant species ranging from algae to land plants. The frequencies of NNA and NNT (A- and T-ending codons) are higher than those of NNG and NNC, with the strongest preference in bryophytes and the weakest in land plants, suggesting an association between SCUB and plant evolution. The preference for NNA and NNT is more evident in genes harboring a greater number of introns in land plants, but the bias to NNA and NNT exhibits even among exons. The pattern of SCUB in the mitochondrial genome differs in some respects to that present in both the nuclear and plastid genomes. PMID:26110418

  2. Codon usage bias and tRNA over-expression in Buchnera aphidicola after aromatic amino acid nutritional stress on its host Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Hubert; Calevro, Federica; Vinuelas, José; Fayard, Jean-Michel; Rahbe, Yvan

    2006-01-01

    Codon usage bias and relative abundances of tRNA isoacceptors were analysed in the obligate intracellular symbiotic bacterium, Buchnera aphidicola from the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, using a dedicated 35mer oligonucleotide microarray. Buchnera is archetypal of organisms living with minimal metabolic requirements and presents a reduced genome with high-evolutionary rate. Codonusage in Buchnera has been overcome by the high mutational bias towards AT bases. However, several lines of evidence for codon usage selection are given here. A significant correlation was found between tRNA relative abundances and codon composition of Buchnera genes. A significant codon usage bias was found for the choice of rare codons in Buchnera: C-ending codons are preferred in highly expressed genes, whereas G-ending codons are avoided. This bias is not explained by GC skew in the bacteria and might correspond to a selection for perfect matching between codon–anticodon pairs for some essential amino acids in Buchnera proteins. Nutritional stress applied to the aphid host induced a significant overexpression of most of the tRNA isoacceptors in bacteria. Although, molecular regulation of the tRNA operons in Buchnera was not investigated, a correlation between relative expression levels and organization in transcription unit was found in the genome of Buchnera. PMID:16963497

  3. / http://www.sciencemag.org/content/early/recent / 26 September 2013 / Page 1 / 10.1126/science.1241934 Codon usage is biased in natural genes and can strongly affect heterolo-

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    ), conservation among species (4), or relatively small libraries of synthetic genes with synonymous codon changes.1241934 Codon usage is biased in natural genes and can strongly affect heterolo- gous expression (1). Many organisms are enriched for poorly-adapted codons at the N terminus of genes (2­5). Several studies suggest

  4. Bicluster Pattern of Codon Context Usages between Flavivirus and Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti: Relevance to Infection and Transcriptional Response of Mosquito Genes

    PubMed Central

    Behura, Susanta K.; Severson, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue virus (DENV) infection in most of the subtropical and tropical countries. Besides DENV, yellow fever virus (YFV) is also transmitted by A. aegypti. Susceptibility of A. aegypti to West Nile virus (WNV) has also been confirmed. Although studies have indicated correlation of codon bias between flaviviridae and their animal/insect hosts, it is not clear if codon sequences have any relation to susceptibility of A. aegypti to DENV, YFV and WNV. In the current study, usages of codon context sequences (codon pairs for neighboring amino acids) of the vector (A. aegypti) genome as well as the flaviviral genomes are investigated. We used bioinformatics methods to quantify codon context bias in a genome-wide manner of A. aegypti as well as DENV, WNV and YFV sequences. Mutual information statistics was applied to perform bicluster analysis of codon context bias between vector and flaviviral sequences. Functional relevance of the bicluster pattern was inferred from published microarray data. Our study shows that codon context bias of DENV, WNV and YFV sequences varies in a bicluster manner with that of specific sets of genes of A. aegypti. Many of these mosquito genes are known to be differentially expressed in response to flaviviral infection suggesting that codon context sequences of A. aegypti and the flaviviruses may play a role in the susceptible interaction between flaviviruses and this mosquito. The bias inusages of codon context sequences likely has a functional association with susceptibility of A. aegypti to flaviviral infection. The results from this study will allow us to conduct hypothesis driven tests to examine the role of codon contexts bias in evolution of vector-virus interactions at the molecular level. PMID:24838953

  5. The evolution of codon usage in structural and non-structural viral genes: the case of Avian coronavirus and its natural host Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Paulo Eduardo

    2013-12-26

    To assess the codon evolution in virus-host systems, Avian coronavirus and its natural host Gallus gallus were used as a model. Codon usage (CU) was measured for the viral spike (S), nucleocapsid (N), nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) and papain-like protease (PL(pro)) genes from a diverse set of A. coronavirus lineages and for G. gallus genes (lung surfactant protein A, intestinal cholecystokinin, oviduct ovomucin alpha subunit, kidney vitamin D receptor and the ubiquitary beta-actin) for different A. coronavirus replicating sites. Relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) trees accommodating all virus and host genes in a single topology showed a higher proximity of A. coronavirus CU to the respiratory tract for all genes. The codon adaptation index (CAI) showed a lower adaptation of S to G. gallus compared to NSP2, PL(pro) and N. The effective number of codons (Nc) and GC3% revealed that natural selection and genetic drift are the evolutionary forces driving the codon usage evolution of both A. coronavirus and G. gallus regardless of the gene being considered. The spike gene showed only one 100% conserved amino acid position coded by an A. coronavirus preferred codon, a significantly low number when compared to the three other genes (p<0.0001). Virus CU evolves independently for each gene in a manner predicted by the protein function, with a balance between natural selection and mutation pressure, giving further molecular basis for the viruses' ability to exploit the host's cellular environment in a concerted virus-host molecular evolution. PMID:24091362

  6. Possibility of extensive neutral evolution under stabilizing selection with special reference to nonrandom usage of synonymous codons.

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, M

    1981-01-01

    The rate of evolution in terms of the number of mutant substitutions in a finite population is investigated assuming a quantitative character subject to stabilizing selection, which is known to be the most prevalent type of natural selection. It is shown that, if a large number of segregating loci (or sites) are involved, the average selection coefficient per mutant under stabilizing selection may be exceedingly small. These mutants are very slightly deleterious but nearly neutral, so that mutant substitutions are mainly controlled by random drift, although the rate of evolution may be lower as compared with the situation in which all the mutations are strictly neutral. This is treated quantitatively by using the diffusion equation method in population genetics. A model of random drift under stabilizing selection is then applied to the problem of "nonrandom" or unequal usage of synonymous codons, and it is shown that such nonrandomness can readily be understood within the framework of the neutral mutation--random drift hypothesis (the neutral theory, for short) of molecular evolution. PMID:6946514

  7. Hepatitis A Virus Adaptation to Cellular Shutoff Is Driven by Dynamic Adjustments of Codon Usage and Results in the Selection of Populations with Altered Capsids

    PubMed Central

    Costafreda, M. Isabel; Pérez-Rodriguez, Francisco J.; D'Andrea, Lucía; Guix, Susana; Ribes, Enric; Bosch, Albert

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis A virus (HAV) has a highly biased and deoptimized codon usage compared to the host cell and fails to inhibit host protein synthesis. It has been proposed that an optimal combination of abundant and rare codons controls the translation speed required for the correct capsid folding. The artificial shutoff host protein synthesis results in the selection of variants containing mutations in the HAV capsid coding region critical for folding, stability, and function. Here, we show that these capsid mutations resulted in changes in their antigenicity; in a reduced stability to high temperature, low pH, and biliary salts; and in an increased efficacy of cell entry. In conclusion, the adaptation to cellular shutoff resulted in the selection of large-plaque-producing virus populations. IMPORTANCE HAV has a naturally deoptimized codon usage with respect to that of its cell host and is unable to shut down the cellular translation. This fact contributes to the low replication rate of the virus, in addition to other factors such as the highly inefficient internal ribosome entry site (IRES), and explains the outstanding physical stability of this pathogen in the environment mediated by a folding-dependent highly cohesive capsid. Adaptation to artificially induced cellular transcription shutoff resulted in a redeoptimization of its capsid codon usage, instead of an optimization. These genomic changes are related to an overall change of capsid folding, which in turn induces changes in the cell entry process. Remarkably, the adaptation to cellular shutoff allowed the virus to significantly increase its RNA uncoating efficiency, resulting in the selection of large-plaque-producing populations. However, these populations produced much-debilitated virions. PMID:24554668

  8. Optimized codon usage enhances the expression and immunogenicity of DNA vaccine encoding Taenia solium oncosphere TSOL18 gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Chang, Xue-Lian; Tao, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Li; Jiao, Yu-Meng; Chen, Yong; Qi, Wen-Juan; Xia, Hui; Yang, Xiao-Di; Sun, Xin; Shen, Ji-Long; Fang, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Cysticercosis due to larval cysts of Taenia solium, is a serious public health problem affecting humans in numerous regions worldwide. The oncospheral stage-specific TSOL18 antigen is a promising candidate for an anti-cysticercosis vaccine. It has been reported that the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine may be enhanced through codon optimization of candidate genes. The aim of the present study was to further increase the efficacy of the cysticercosis DNA vaccine; therefore, a codon optimized recombinant expression plasmid pVAX1/TSOL18 was developed in order to enhance expression and immunogenicity of TSOL18. The gene encoding TSOL18 of Taenia solium was optimized, and the resulting opt-TSOL18 gene was amplified and expressed. The results of the present study showed that the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene was successfully expressed in CHO-K1 cells, and immunized mice vaccinated with opt-TSOL18 recombinant expression plasmids demonstrated opt?TSOL18 expression in muscle fibers, as determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene produced a significantly greater effect compared with that of TSOL18 and active spleen cells were markedly stimulated in vaccinated mice. 3H-thymidine incorporation was significantly greater in the opt-TSOL18 group compared with that of the TSOL18, pVAX and blank control groups (P<0.01). In conclusion, the eukaryotic expression vector containing the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene was successfully constructed and was confirmed to be expressed in vivo and in vitro. The expression and immunogenicity of the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene were markedly greater compared with that of the un-optimized gene. Therefore, these results may provide the basis for an optimized TSOL18 gene vaccine against cysticercosis. PMID:25738605

  9. Optimal codons in Tremella fuciformis end in C/G, a strong difference with known Tremella species.

    PubMed

    Deng, Youjin; Huang, Xiaoxing; Ruan, Banzhan; Xie, Baogui; van Peer, Arend Frans; Jiang, Yuji

    2015-11-01

    Tremella fuciformis is a popular edible fungus with fruiting bodies that can be produced in large quantities at low costs, while it is easy to transform and cultivate as yeast. This makes it an attractive potential bioreactor. Enhanced heterologous gene expression through codon optimization would be useful, but until now codon usage preferences in T. fuciformis remain unknown. To precisely determine the preferred codon usage of T. fuciformis we sequenced the genome of strain Tr26 resulting in a 24.2 Mb draft genome with 10,040 predicted genes. 3288 of the derived predicted proteins matched the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot databases with 40 % or more similarity. Corresponding gene models of this subset were subsequently optimized through repetitive comparison of alternative start codons and selection of best length matching gene models. For experimental confirmation of gene models, 96 random clones from an existing T. fuciformis cDNA library were sequenced, generating 80 complete CDSs. Calculated optimal codons for the 3288 predicted and the 80 cloned CDSs were highly similar, indicating sufficient accuracy of predicted gene models for codon usage analysis. T. fuciformis showed a strong preference for C and then G at the third base pair position of used codons, while average GC content of predicted genes was slightly higher than the total genome sequence average. Most optimal codons ended in C or G except for one, and an increased frequency of C ending codons was observed in genes with higher expression levels. Surprisingly, the preferred codon usage in T. fuciformis strongly differed from T. mesenterica and C. neoformans. Instead, optimal codon usage was similar to more distant related species such as Ustilago maydis and Neurospora crassa. Despite much higher overall sequence homology between T. fuciformis and T. mesenterica, only 7 out of 21 optimal codons were equal, whereas T. fuciformis shared up to 20 out of 21 optimal codons with other species. Clearly, codon usage in Tremella can differ largely and should be estimated for individual species. The precise identification of optimal and high expression related codons is therefore an important step in the development of T. fuciformis as a bioreactor system. PMID:26253954

  10. An improved implementation of effective number of codons (nc).

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Yang, Qun; Xia, Xuhua

    2013-01-01

    The effective number of codons (N(c)) is a widely used index for characterizing codon usage bias because it does not require a set of reference genes as does codon adaptation index (CAI) and because of the freely available computational tools such as CodonW. However, N(c), as originally formulated has many problems. For example, it can have values far greater than the number of sense codons; it treats a 6-fold compound codon family as a single-codon family although it is made of a 2-fold and a 4-fold codon family that can be under dramatically different selection for codon usage bias; the existing implementations do not handle all different genetic codes; it is often biased by codon families with a small number of codons. We developed a new N(c) that has a number of advantages over the original N(c). Its maximum value equals the number of sense codons when all synonymous codons are used equally, and its minimum value equals the number of codon families when exactly one codon is used in each synonymous codon family. It handles all known genetic codes. It breaks the compound codon families (e.g., those involving amino acids coded by six synonymous codons) into 2-fold and 4-fold codon families. It reduces the effect of codon families with few codons by introducing pseudocount and weighted averages. The new N(c) has significantly improved correlation with CAI than the original N(c) from CodonW based on protein-coding genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, and Mycoplasma genitalium. It also correlates better with protein abundance data from the yeast than the original N(c). PMID:22915832

  11. Cellular immunity survey against urinary tract infection using pVAX/fimH cassette with mammalian and wild type codon usage as a DNA vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Bagherpour, Ghasem; Khoramabadi, Nima; Fallah Mehrabadi, Jalil; Mahdavi, Mehdi; Halabian, Raheleh; Amin, Mohsen; Izadi Mobarakeh, Jalal; Einollahi, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose FimH (the adhesion fragment of type 1 fimbriae) is implicated in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) attachment to epithelial cells through interaction with mannose. Recently, some studies have found that UPEC can thrive intracellularly causing recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Almost all vaccines have been designed to induce antibodies against UPEC. Yet, the humoral immune response is not potent enough to overcome neither the primary UTI nor recurrent infections. However, DNA vaccines offer the possibility of inducing cell mediated immune responses and may be a promising preventive tool. Materials and Methods In this study, we employed two different open reading frames within mammalian (mam) and wild type (wt) codons of fimH gene. Optimized fragments were cloned in pVAX-1. Expression of the protein in COS-7 was confirmed by western blot analysis after assessing pVAX/fimH(mam) and pVAX/fimH(wt). The constructs were injected to BALB/c mice at plantar surface of feet followed by electroporation. Results The mice immunized with both constructs following booster injection with recombinant FimH showed increased interferon-? and interleukin-12 responses significantly higher than non-immunized ones (p<0.05). The immunized mice were challenged with UPEC and then the number of bacteria recovered from the immunized mice was compared with the non-immunized ones. Decreased colony count in immunized mice along with cytokine responses confirmed the promising immune response by the DNA vaccines developed in this study. Conclusion In conclusion, DNA vaccines of UPEC proteins may confer some levels of protection which can be improved by multiple constructs or boosters. PMID:25003092

  12. Negative comparisons about one's appearance mediate the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns.

    PubMed

    Fardouly, Jasmine; Vartanian, Lenny R

    2015-01-01

    Use of social media, such as Facebook, is pervasive among young women. Body dissatisfaction is also highly prevalent in this demographic. The present study examined the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns among female university students (N=227), and tested whether appearance comparisons on Facebook in general, or comparisons to specific female target groups (family members, close friends, distant peers [women one may know but do not regularly socialize with], celebrities) mediated this relationship. Results showed a positive relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns, which was mediated by appearance comparisons in general, frequency of comparisons to close friends and distant peers, and by upward comparisons (judging one's own appearance to be worse) to distant peers and celebrities. Thus, young women who spend more time on Facebook may feel more concerned about their body because they compare their appearance to others (especially to peers) on Facebook. PMID:25462886

  13. Selection on codon bias in yeast: a transcriptional hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Trotta, Edoardo

    2013-01-01

    Codons that code for the same amino acid are often used with unequal frequencies. This phenomenon is termed codon bias. Here, we report a computational analysis of codon bias in yeast using experimental and theoretical genome-wide data. We show that the most used codons in highly expressed genes can be predicted by mRNA structural data and that the codon choice at each synonymous site within an mRNA is not random with respect to the local secondary structure. Because we also found that the folding stability of intron sequences is strongly correlated with codon bias and mRNA level, our results suggest that codon bias is linked to mRNA folding structure through a mechanism that, at least partially, operates before pre-mRNA splicing. Consistent with this, we report evidence supporting the adaptation of the tRNA pool to the codon profile of the most expressed genes rather than vice versa. We show that the correlation of codon usage with the gene expression level also includes the stop codons that are normally not decoded by aminoacyl-tRNAs. The results reported here are consistent with a role for transcriptional forces in driving codon usage bias via a mechanism that improves gene expression by optimizing mRNA folding structures. PMID:23945943

  14. ICT Usage of Pre-service Teachers: Cultural Comparison for Turkey and Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirli, Cihad

    2013-01-01

    The importance of ICTs has become the undisputed in the present century. Studies have been conducted to investigate the use of ICTs with the goal of increase in quality of teacher education for a long time. This study is a cross-cultural comparison in terms of pre-service teachers' level of ICT usage, ICT knowledge and attitudes. The study…

  15. A critical analysis of codon optimization in human therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Vincent P; Chappell, Stephen A

    2014-11-01

    Codon optimization describes gene engineering approaches that use synonymous codon changes to increase protein production. Applications for codon optimization include recombinant protein drugs and nucleic acid therapies, including gene therapy, mRNA therapy, and DNA/RNA vaccines. However, recent reports indicate that codon optimization can affect protein conformation and function, increase immunogenicity, and reduce efficacy. We critically review this subject, identifying additional potential hazards including some unique to nucleic acid therapies. This analysis highlights the evolved complexity of codon usage and challenges the scientific bases for codon optimization. Consequently, codon optimization may not provide the optimal strategy for increasing protein production and may decrease the safety and efficacy of biotech therapeutics. We suggest that the use of this approach is reconsidered, particularly for in vivo applications. PMID:25263172

  16. GC constituents and relative codon expressed amino acid composition in cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins.

    PubMed

    Kannaujiya, Vinod K; Rastogi, Rajesh P; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2014-08-10

    The genomic as well as structural relationship of phycobiliproteins (PBPs) in different cyanobacterial species are determined by nucleotides as well as amino acid composition. The genomic GC constituents influence the amino acid variability and codon usage of particular subunit of PBPs. We have analyzed 11 cyanobacterial species to explore the variation of amino acids and causal relationship between GC constituents and codon usage. The study at the first, second and third levels of GC content showed relatively more amino acid variability on the levels of G3+C3 position in comparison to the first and second positions. The amino acid encoded GC rich level including G rich and C rich or both correlate the codon variability and amino acid availability. The fluctuation in amino acids such as Arg, Ala, His, Asp, Gly, Leu and Glu in ? and ? subunits was observed at G1C1 position; however, fluctuation in other amino acids such as Ser, Thr, Cys and Trp was observed at G2C2 position. The coding selection pressure of amino acids such as Ala, Thr, Tyr, Asp, Gly, Ile, Leu, Asn, and Ser in ? and ? subunits of PBPs was more elaborated at G3C3 position. In this study, we observed that each subunit of PBPs is codon specific for particular amino acid. These results suggest that genomic constraint linked with GC constituents selects the codon for particular amino acids and furthermore, the codon level study may be a novel approach to explore many problems associated with genomics and proteomics of cyanobacteria. PMID:24933001

  17. Impact of rare codons and the functional coproduction of rate-limiting tRNAs on recombinant protein production in Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Finger, Constanze; Gamer, Martin; Klunkelfuß, Saskia; Bunk, Boyke; Biedendieck, Rebekka

    2015-11-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium was systematically developed for the plasmid-based production of recombinant proteins at the gram-per-liter scale. The amount of protein produced per cell was found strongly correlated to the codon usage of the heterologous gene of interest in comparison to the codon usage of B. megaterium. For analyzing the influence of rare codons on the translational efficiency and protein production in B. megaterium, a test system using the gene for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as reporter was established. For this purpose, four consecutive identical codons were introduced into the 5' end of gfp and the resulting variations in GFP formation were quantified. Introduction of the rare codons GCC, CGG, and ACC for alanine, arginine, and threonine reduced GFP production 2.1-, 3.3-, and 1.7-fold in comparison to the favored codons GCU, CGU, and ACA, respectively. Coexpression of the corresponding rare codon tRNA (rctRNA) genes improved GFP production 4.2-, 2.7-, and 1.7-fold, respectively. The system was applied to the production of a formate dehydrogenase (FDH) from Mycobacterium vaccae and an extracellular hydrolase (TFH) from Thermobifida fusca. Coexpression of one to three different rctRNA genes resulted in an up to 18-fold increased protein production. Interestingly, rctRNA gene coexpression also elevated the production of M. vaccae FDH and T. fusca TFH from codon optimized genes, indicating a general positive effect by rctRNA gene overexpression on the protein production in B. megaterium. Thus, the basis for a B. megaterium enhanced production strain coexpressing rctRNA genes was laid. PMID:26138251

  18. Codon Bias Patterns of E. coli’s Interacting Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dilucca, Maddalena; Cimini, Giulio; Semmoloni, Andrea; Deiana, Antonio; Giansanti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Synonymous codons, i.e., DNA nucleotide triplets coding for the same amino acid, are used differently across the variety of living organisms. The biological meaning of this phenomenon, known as codon usage bias, is still controversial. In order to shed light on this point, we propose a new codon bias index, CompAI, that is based on the competition between cognate and near-cognate tRNAs during translation, without being tuned to the usage bias of highly expressed genes. We perform a genome-wide evaluation of codon bias for E.coli, comparing CompAI with other widely used indices: tAI, CAI, and Nc. We show that CompAI and tAI capture similar information by being positively correlated with gene conservation, measured by the Evolutionary Retention Index (ERI), and essentiality, whereas, CAI and Nc appear to be less sensitive to evolutionary-functional parameters. Notably, the rate of variation of tAI and CompAI with ERI allows to obtain sets of genes that consistently belong to specific clusters of orthologous genes (COGs). We also investigate the correlation of codon bias at the genomic level with the network features of protein-protein interactions in E.coli. We find that the most densely connected communities of the network share a similar level of codon bias (as measured by CompAI and tAI). Conversely, a small difference in codon bias between two genes is, statistically, a prerequisite for the corresponding proteins to interact. Importantly, among all codon bias indices, CompAI turns out to have the most coherent distribution over the communities of the interactome, pointing to the significance of competition among cognate and near-cognate tRNAs for explaining codon usage adaptation. Notably, CompAI may potentially correlate with translation speed measurements, by accounting for the specific delay induced by wobble-pairing between codons and anticodons. PMID:26566157

  19. REVISITING THE CODON ADAPTATION INDEX FROM A WHOLE-GENOME PERSPECTIVE

    E-print Network

    Carbone, Alessandra

    at the interface between sequence analysis, gene expression prediction and genome comparison carried on in ourREVISITING THE CODON ADAPTATION INDEX FROM A WHOLE-GENOME PERSPECTIVE: GENE EXPRESSION, CODON BIAS functions. Statistical analysis of DNA sequences and in particular of codon bias were performed from

  20. Codon bias and gene expression of mitochondrial ND2 gene in chordates

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Arif; Mazumder, Tarikul Huda; Choudhury, Monisha Nath; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mitochondrial ND gene, which encodes NADH dehydrogenase, is the first enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Leigh syndrome, a neurodegenerative disease caused by mutation in the ND2 gene (T4681C), is associated with bilateral symmetric lesions in basal ganglia and subcortical brain regions. Therefore, it is of interest to analyze mitochondrial DNA to glean information for evolutionary relationship. This study highlights on the analysis of compositional dynamics and selection pressure in shaping the codon usage patterns in the coding sequence of MT-ND2 gene across pisces, aves and mammals by using bioinformatics tools like effective number of codons (ENC), codon adaptation index (CAI), relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) etc. Results: We observed a low codon usage bias as reflected by high ENC values in MT-ND2 gene among pisces, aves and mammals. The most frequently used codons were ending with A/C at the 3rd position of codon and the gene was AT rich in all the three classes. The codons TCA, CTA, CGA and TGA were over represented in all three classes. The F1 correspondence showed significant positive correlation with G, T3 and CAI while the F2 axis showed significant negative correlation with A and T but significant positive correlation with G, C, G3, C3, ENC, GC, GC1, GC2 and GC3. Conclusions: The codon usage bias in MTND2 gene is not associated with expression level. Mutation pressure and natural selection affect the codon usage pattern in MT-ND 2 gene. PMID:26420922

  1. First impression versus extended usage: a comparison of product testing methodologies for perfume.

    PubMed

    Shalofsky, I

    1993-04-01

    Synopsis In the fine fragrance industry, unlike many other fast moving consumer goods (fmcg) industries, systematic consumer product-testing has usually been conspicuous by its absence. The reasons are varied, including perfume's own traditions rooted in fashion rather than in marketing, the reluctance of perfumers to see their creations tested, the frequently (and perhaps, surprisingly) short lead times accorded for new product development and, of course, costs. When consumer product-testing is carried out, it is often limited for these same reasons, to 'sniff-testing', which, in the perfume industry, is equivalent to 'first impression' testing. This paper suggests that such sniff-testing may not only be unreliable, but perhaps more unreliable for the perfume category than has been realized hitherto. Reference is made to two consumer research studies on perfume, a qualitative project in France, followed by a quantitative exercise in the UK. A comparison is made between in-home test and sniff-test results for the same set of perfumes, which illustrates the limitations of sniff-testing in general, and the misleading results that it may produce, in particular. A major implication is that perfume is one product category which should be tested in extended usage, and not just for 'first impressions'. Résumé Dans l'industrie de la parfumerie fine, contrairement aux autres industries de produits de grande consommation, les tests consommateurs systématiques sont rarement utilisés. Les raisons sont diverses; les traditions propres du parfum tournées vers la mode plutôt que vers le marketing, le refus des parfumeurs de voir leurs créations subir des tests, les délais étonnamment courts pour le développement d'un nouveau produit et, bien sûr, le coût. Lorsqu'un test consommateurs est effectué, il se résume généralement pour ces mêmes raisons, en un test 'sniff', ce qui, dans l'industrie du parfum équivaut à un test de 'première impression'. Cet article montre que ces tests 'sniff' sont encore moins fiables pour le parfum que l'on avait pensé jusqu'à maintenant. Il est fait référence à deux tests consommateurs sur le parfum, un projet qualitatif en France, suivi par un exercice quantitatif effectué en Grande Bretagne. La comparaison entre les tests réalisés à domicile d'une part, et en sale d'autre part, montre que, pour les mêmes parfums, les résultats obtenus peuvent être erronés. Une des conclusions principales est que le parfum est un produit qui devrait être testé sur une longue période et non pas sur une première impression. PMID:19272121

  2. New insights into the interplay between codon bias determinants in plants

    PubMed Central

    Camiolo, S.; Melito, S.; Porceddu, A.

    2015-01-01

    Codon bias is the non-random use of synonymous codons, a phenomenon that has been observed in species as diverse as bacteria, plants and mammals. The preferential use of particular synonymous codons may reflect neutral mechanisms (e.g. mutational bias, G|C-biased gene conversion, genetic drift) and/or selection for mRNA stability, translational efficiency and accuracy. The extent to which these different factors influence codon usage is unknown, so we dissected the contribution of mutational bias and selection towards codon bias in genes from 15 eudicots, 4 monocots and 2 mosses. We analysed the frequency of mononucleotides, dinucleotides and trinucleotides and investigated whether the compositional genomic background could account for the observed codon usage profiles. Neutral forces such as mutational pressure and G|C-biased gene conversion appeared to underlie most of the observed codon bias, although there was also evidence for the selection of optimal translational efficiency and mRNA folding. Our data confirmed the compositional differences between monocots and dicots, with the former featuring in general a lower background compositional bias but a higher overall codon bias. PMID:26546225

  3. New insights into the interplay between codon bias determinants in plants.

    PubMed

    Camiolo, S; Melito, S; Porceddu, A

    2015-12-01

    Codon bias is the non-random use of synonymous codons, a phenomenon that has been observed in species as diverse as bacteria, plants and mammals. The preferential use of particular synonymous codons may reflect neutral mechanisms (e.g. mutational bias, G|C-biased gene conversion, genetic drift) and/or selection for mRNA stability, translational efficiency and accuracy. The extent to which these different factors influence codon usage is unknown, so we dissected the contribution of mutational bias and selection towards codon bias in genes from 15 eudicots, 4 monocots and 2 mosses. We analysed the frequency of mononucleotides, dinucleotides and trinucleotides and investigated whether the compositional genomic background could account for the observed codon usage profiles. Neutral forces such as mutational pressure and G|C-biased gene conversion appeared to underlie most of the observed codon bias, although there was also evidence for the selection of optimal translational efficiency and mRNA folding. Our data confirmed the compositional differences between monocots and dicots, with the former featuring in general a lower background compositional bias but a higher overall codon bias. PMID:26546225

  4. Control of ribosome traffic by position-dependent choice of synonymous codons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitarai, Namiko; Pedersen, Steen

    2013-10-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) encodes a sequence of amino acids by using codons. For most amino acids, there are multiple synonymous codons that can encode the amino acid. The translation speed can vary from one codon to another, thus there is room for changing the ribosome speed while keeping the amino acid sequence and hence the resulting protein. Recently, it has been noticed that the choice of the synonymous codon, via the resulting distribution of slow- and fast-translated codons, affects not only on the average speed of one ribosome translating the mRNA but also might have an effect on nearby ribosomes by affecting the appearance of ‘traffic jams’ where multiple ribosomes collide and form queues. To test this ‘context effect’ further, we here investigate the effect of the sequence of synonymous codons on the ribosome traffic by using a ribosome traffic model with codon-dependent rates, estimated from experiments. We compare the ribosome traffic on wild-type (WT) sequences and sequences where the synonymous codons were swapped randomly. By simulating translation of 87 genes, we demonstrate that the WT sequences, especially those with a high bias in codon usage, tend to have the ability to reduce ribosome collisions, hence optimizing the cellular investment in the translation apparatus. The magnitude of such reduction of the translation time might have a significant impact on the cellular growth rate and thereby have importance for the survival of the species.

  5. Control of ribosome traffic by position-dependent choice of synonymous codons

    E-print Network

    Namiko Mitarai; Steen Pedersen

    2013-09-04

    Messenger RNA encodes a sequence of amino acids by using codons. For most amino acids there are multiple synonymous codons that can encode the amino acid. The translation speed can vary from one codon to another, thus there is room for changing the ribosome speed while keeping the amino acid sequence and hence the resulting protein. Recently, it has been noticed that the choice of the synonymous codon, via the resulting distribution of slow- and fast-translated codons, affects not only on the average speed of one ribosome translating the messenger RNA (mRNA) but also might have an effect on nearby ribosomes by affecting the appearance of "traffic jams" where multiple ribosomes collide and form queues. To test this "context effect" further, we here investigate the effect of the sequence of synonymous codons on the ribosome traffic by using a ribosome traffic model with codon-dependent rates, estimated from experiments. We compare the ribosome traffic on wild type sequences and sequences where the synonymous codons were swapped randomly. By simulating translation of 87 genes, we demonstrate that the wild type sequences, especially those with a high bias in codon usage, tend to have the ability to reduce ribosome collisions, hence optimizing the cellular investment in the translation apparatus. The magnitude of such reduction of the translation time might have a significant impact on the cellular growth rate and thereby have importance for the survival of the species.

  6. Selection on synonymous codons in mammalian rhodopsins: a possible role in optimizing translational processes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Synonymous codon usage can affect many cellular processes, particularly those associated with translation such as polypeptide elongation and folding, mRNA degradation/stability, and splicing. Highly expressed genes are thought to experience stronger selection pressures on synonymous codons. This should result in codon usage bias even in species with relatively low effective population sizes, like mammals, where synonymous site selection is thought to be weak. Here we use phylogenetic codon-based likelihood models to explore patterns of codon usage bias in a dataset of 18 mammalian rhodopsin sequences, the protein mediating the first step in vision in the eye, and one of the most highly expressed genes in vertebrates. We use these patterns to infer selection pressures on key translational mechanisms including polypeptide elongation, protein folding, mRNA stability, and splicing. Results Overall, patterns of selection in mammalian rhodopsin appear to be correlated with post-transcriptional and translational processes. We found significant evidence for selection at synonymous sites using phylogenetic mutation-selection likelihood models, with C-ending codons found to have the highest relative fitness, and to be significantly more abundant at conserved sites. In general, these codons corresponded with the most abundant tRNAs in mammals. We found significant differences in codon usage bias between rhodopsin loops versus helices, though there was no significant difference in mean synonymous substitution rate between these motifs. We also found a significantly higher proportion of GC-ending codons at paired sites in rhodopsin mRNA secondary structure, and significantly lower synonymous mutation rates in putative exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) regions than in non-ESE regions. Conclusions By focusing on a single highly expressed gene we both distinguish synonymous codon selection from mutational effects and analytically explore underlying functional mechanisms. Our results suggest that codon bias in mammalian rhodopsin arises from selection to optimally balance high overall translational speed, accuracy, and proper protein folding, especially in structurally complicated regions. Selection at synonymous sites may also be contributing to mRNA stability and splicing efficiency at exonic-splicing-enhancer (ESE) regions. Our results highlight the importance of investigating highly expressed genes in a broader phylogenetic context in order to better understand the evolution of synonymous substitutions. PMID:24884412

  7. The Effect of an Alternate Start Codon on Heterologous Expression of a PhoA Fusion Protein in Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    PubMed Central

    Panicker, Indu S.; Browning, Glenn F.; Markham, Philip F.

    2015-01-01

    While the genomes of many Mycoplasma species have been sequenced, there are no collated data on translational start codon usage, and the effects of alternate start codons on gene expression have not been studied. Analysis of the annotated genomes found that ATG was the most prevalent translational start codon among Mycoplasma spp. However in Mycoplasma gallisepticum a GTG start codon is commonly used in the vlhA multigene family, which encodes a highly abundant, phase variable lipoprotein adhesin. Therefore, the effect of this alternate start codon on expression of a reporter PhoA lipoprotein was examined in M. gallisepticum. Mutation of the start codon from ATG to GTG resulted in a 2.5 fold reduction in the level of transcription of the phoA reporter, but the level of PhoA activity in the transformants containing phoA with a GTG start codon was only 63% of that of the transformants with a phoA with an ATG start codon, suggesting that GTG was a more efficient translational initiation codon. The effect of swapping the translational start codon in phoA reporter gene expression was less in M. gallisepticum than has been seen previously in Escherichia coli or Bacillus subtilis, suggesting the process of translational initiation in mycoplasmas may have some significant differences from those used in other bacteria. This is the first study of translational start codon usage in mycoplasmas and the impact of the use of an alternate start codon on expression in these bacteria. PMID:26010086

  8. Positive selection for unpreferred codon usage in eukaryotic genomes

    E-print Network

    Neafsey, Daniel E.

    Background: Natural selection has traditionally been understood as a force responsible for pushing genes to states of higher translational efficiency, whereas lower translational efficiency has been explained by neutral ...

  9. Inducible Suppression of Global Translation by Overuse of Rare Codons

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recently, artificial gene networks have been developed in synthetic biology to control gene expression and make organisms as controllable as robots. Here, I present an artificial posttranslational gene-silencing system based on the codon usage bias and low tRNA content corresponding to minor codons. I engineered the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene to inhibit translation indirectly with the lowest-usage codons to monopolize various minor tRNAs (lgfp). The expression of lgfp interfered nonspecifically with the growth of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, human HeLa cervical cancer cells, MCF7 breast cancer cells, and HEK293 kidney cells, as well as phage and adenovirus expansion. Furthermore, insertion of lgfp downstream of a phage response promoter conferred phage resistance on E. coli. Such engineered gene silencers could act as components of biological networks capable of functioning with suitable promoters in E. coli, S. cerevisiae, and human cells to control gene expression. The results presented here show general suppressor artificial genes for live cells and viruses. This robust system provides a gene expression or cell growth control device for artificially synthesized gene networks. PMID:25636849

  10. Inducible suppression of global translation by overuse of rare codons.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hideki

    2015-04-01

    Recently, artificial gene networks have been developed in synthetic biology to control gene expression and make organisms as controllable as robots. Here, I present an artificial posttranslational gene-silencing system based on the codon usage bias and low tRNA content corresponding to minor codons. I engineered the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene to inhibit translation indirectly with the lowest-usage codons to monopolize various minor tRNAs (lgfp). The expression of lgfp interfered nonspecifically with the growth of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, human HeLa cervical cancer cells, MCF7 breast cancer cells, and HEK293 kidney cells, as well as phage and adenovirus expansion. Furthermore, insertion of lgfp downstream of a phage response promoter conferred phage resistance on E. coli. Such engineered gene silencers could act as components of biological networks capable of functioning with suitable promoters in E. coli, S. cerevisiae, and human cells to control gene expression. The results presented here show general suppressor artificial genes for live cells and viruses. This robust system provides a gene expression or cell growth control device for artificially synthesized gene networks. PMID:25636849

  11. The Levels of Speech Usage Rating Scale: Comparison of Client Self-Ratings with Speech Pathologist Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Christina; Baylor, Carolyn; Eadie, Tanya; Kendall, Diane; Yorkston, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Background: The term "speech usage" refers to what people want or need to do with their speech to fulfil the communication demands in their life roles. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) need to know about clients' speech usage to plan appropriate interventions to meet their life participation goals. The Levels of Speech Usage is a categorical…

  12. CUE USAGE IN VOLLEYBALL: A TIME COURSE COMPARISON OF ELITE, INTERMEDIATE AND NOVICE FEMALE PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Vaeyens, R; Zeuwts, L; Philippaerts, R; Lenoir, M

    2014-01-01

    This study compared visual search strategies in adult female volleyball players of three levels. Video clips of the attack of the opponent team were presented on a large screen and participants reacted to the final pass before the spike. Reaction time, response accuracy and eye movement patterns were measured. Elite players had the highest response accuracy (97.50 ± 3.5%) compared to the intermediate (91.50 ± 4.7%) and novice players (83.50 ± 17.6%; p<0.05). Novices had a remarkably high range of reaction time but no significant differences were found in comparison to the reaction time of elite and intermediate players. In general, the three groups showed similar gaze behaviour with the apparent use of visual pivots at moments of reception and final pass. This confirms the holistic model of image perception for volleyball and suggests that expert players extract more information from parafoveal regions. PMID:25609887

  13. Intercultural Usage of Mori Folium: Comparison Review from a Korean Medical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Joh, Byungjin; Jeon, Eun Sang; Lim, Su Hye; Park, Yu Lee; Park, Wansu; Chae, Han

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. A review on studies related to the use of Mori folium, the leaves of Morus alba, was conducted with the goal of identifying new clinical applications in Korean medicine. Methods. Global literature search was conducted using three electronic databases up to January 2015 with the term Morus alba and its Korean terms. KM literatures including textbooks and standard pharmacopoeia were separately hand-searched and reviewed to provide comparison. Data were extracted according to predetermined criteria, and clinical uses were standardized with ICD-10 categories. Results. 159 potentially relevant studies were identified, and 18 articles including 12 ethnopharmacologic and 6 clinical studies were finally included in this analysis. Ethnopharmacologic studies from 8 countries provided 17 clinical uses. We found that five out of six clinical trials were related to diabetes and suggested a moderate short-term to mild long-term effect. And 43 Korean texts also provided 156 clinical uses in 35 categories including ocular and respiratory disorders. Discussion and Conclusions. Though majority of the clinical uses were also found in Korean medicine literature, treatment of infertility, jaundice, cognitive disorder, and hyperpigmentation was found to be effective and diabetes with Morus alba was recognized to have clinical importance. PMID:26539223

  14. Intercultural Usage of Mori Folium: Comparison Review from a Korean Medical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Joh, Byungjin; Jeon, Eun Sang; Lim, Su Hye; Park, Yu Lee; Park, Wansu; Chae, Han

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. A review on studies related to the use of Mori folium, the leaves of Morus alba, was conducted with the goal of identifying new clinical applications in Korean medicine. Methods. Global literature search was conducted using three electronic databases up to January 2015 with the term Morus alba and its Korean terms. KM literatures including textbooks and standard pharmacopoeia were separately hand-searched and reviewed to provide comparison. Data were extracted according to predetermined criteria, and clinical uses were standardized with ICD-10 categories. Results. 159 potentially relevant studies were identified, and 18 articles including 12 ethnopharmacologic and 6 clinical studies were finally included in this analysis. Ethnopharmacologic studies from 8 countries provided 17 clinical uses. We found that five out of six clinical trials were related to diabetes and suggested a moderate short-term to mild long-term effect. And 43 Korean texts also provided 156 clinical uses in 35 categories including ocular and respiratory disorders. Discussion and Conclusions. Though majority of the clinical uses were also found in Korean medicine literature, treatment of infertility, jaundice, cognitive disorder, and hyperpigmentation was found to be effective and diabetes with Morus alba was recognized to have clinical importance. PMID:26539223

  15. Nucleotide sequence conservation in paramyxoviruses; the concept of codon constellation.

    PubMed

    Rima, Bert K

    2015-05-01

    The stability and conservation of the sequences of RNA viruses in the field and the high error rates measured in vitro are paradoxical. The field stability indicates that there are very strong selective constraints on sequence diversity. The nature of these constraints is discussed. Apart from constraints on variation in cis-acting RNA and the amino acid sequences of viral proteins, there are other ones relating to the presence of specific dinucleotides such CpG and UpA as well as the importance of RNA secondary structures and RNA degradation rates. Recent other constraints identified in other RNA viruses, such as effects of secondary RNA structure on protein folding or modification of cellular tRNA complements, are also discussed. Using the family Paramyxoviridae, I show that the codon usage pattern (CUP) is (i) specific for each virus species and (ii) that it is markedly different from the host - it does not vary even in vaccine viruses that have been derived by passage in a number of inappropriate host cells. The CUP might thus be an additional constraint on variation, and I propose the concept of codon constellation to indicate the informational content of the sequences of RNA molecules relating not only to stability and structure but also to the efficiency of translation of a viral mRNA resulting from the CUP and the numbers and position of rare codons. PMID:25406175

  16. Comparison of Turkish and US Pre-Service Teachers' Web 2.0 Tools Usage Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiyici, Mubin; Akyeampong, Albert; Balkan Kiyici, Fatime

    2013-01-01

    As the Internet and computer develop, the world is changing dramatically and fantastically. Usage of technological tools is increased day by day in daily life besides ICT. All the technological tools shape individual behavior, life style and learning style as well as individual lives. Today's child use different tools and different way to…

  17. A Comparison of the Usage of Tablet PC, Lecture Capture, and Online Homework in an Introductory Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revell, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Three emerging technologies were used in a large introductory chemistry class: a tablet PC, a lecture capture and replay software program, and an online homework program. At the end of the semester, student usage of the lecture replay and online homework systems was compared to course performance as measured by course grade and by a standardized…

  18. Combinatorial codon-based amino acid substitutions

    PubMed Central

    Yáñez, Jorge; Argüello, Martha; Osuna, Joel; Soberón, Xavier; Gaytán, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Twenty Fmoc-protected trinucleotide phosphoramidites representing a complete set of codons for the natural amino acids were chemically synthesized for the first time. A pool of these reagents was incorporated into oligonucleotides at substoichiometric levels to generate two libraries of variants that randomly carry either few or many codon replacements on a region encoding nine amino acids of the bacterial enzyme TEM-1 ?-lactamase. Assembly of the libraries was performed in a completely automated mode through a simple modification of ordinary protocols. This technology eliminates codon redundancy, stop codons and enables complete exploration of sequence space for single, double and triple mutations throughout a protein region spanning several residues. Sequence analysis of many non-selected clones revealed a good incorporation of the trinucleotides, producing combinations of mutations quite different from those obtained using conventional degenerate oligonucleotides. Ceftazidime-selection experiments yielded several never before reported variants containing novel amino acid combinations in the ?-lactamase omega loop region. PMID:15537836

  19. The imprint of codons on protein structure.

    PubMed

    Deane, Charlotte M; Saunders, Rhodri

    2011-06-01

    The "central dogma" of biology outlines the unidirectional flow of interpretable data from genetic sequence to protein sequence. This has led to the idea that a protein's structure is dependent only on its amino acid sequence and not its genetic sequence. Recently, however, a more than transient link between the coding genetic sequence and the protein structure has become apparent. The two interact at the ribosome via the process of co-translational protein folding. Evidence for co-translational folding is growing rapidly, but the influence of codons on the protein structure attained is still highly contentious. It is theorised that the speed of codon translation modulates the time available for protein folding and hence the protein structure. Here, past and present research regarding synonymous codons and codon translation speed are reviewed within the context of protein structure attainment. PMID:21567957

  20. Mutations to Less-Preferred Synonymous Codons in a Highly Expressed Gene of Escherichia coli: Fitness and Epistatic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Hauber, David J; Grogan, Dennis W; DeBry, Ronald W

    2016-01-01

    Codon-tRNA coevolution to maximize protein production has been, until recently, the dominant hypothesis to explain codon-usage bias in highly expressed bacterial genes. Two predictions of this hypothesis are 1) selection is weak; and 2) similar silent replacements at different codons should have similar fitness consequence. We used an allele-replacement strategy to change five specific 3rd-codon-position (silent) sites in the highly expressed Escherichia coli ribosomal protein gene rplQ from the wild type to a less-preferred alternative. We introduced the five mutations within a 10-codon region. Four of the silent sites were chosen to test the second prediction, with a CTG to CTA mutation being introduced at two closely linked leucine codons and an AAA to AAG mutation being introduced at two closely linked lysine codons. We also introduced a fifth silent mutation, a GTG to GTA mutation at a valine codon in the same genic region. We measured the fitness effect of the individual mutations by competing each single-mutant strain against the parental wild-type strain, using a disrupted form of the araA gene as a selectively neutral phenotypic marker to distinguish between strains in direct competition experiments. Three of the silent mutations had a fitness effect of |s| > 0.02, which is contradictory to the prediction that selection will be weak. The two leucine mutations had significantly different fitness effects, as did the two lysine mutations, contradictory to the prediction that similar mutations at different codons should have similar fitness effects. We also constructed a strain carrying all five silent mutations in combination. Its fitness effect was greater than that predicted from the individual fitness values, suggesting that negative synergistic epistasis acts on the combination allele. PMID:26727272

  1. Most Used Codons per Amino Acid and per Genome in the Code of Man Compared to Other Organisms According to the Rotating Circular Genetic Code

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Chavez, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    My previous theoretical research shows that the rotating circular genetic code is a viable tool to make easier to distinguish the rules of variation applied to the amino acid exchange; it presents a precise and positional bio-mathematical balance of codons, according to the amino acids they codify. Here, I demonstrate that when using the conventional or classic circular genetic code, a clearer pattern for the human codon usage per amino acid and per genome emerges. The most used human codons per amino acid were the ones ending with the three hydrogen bond nucleotides: C for 12 amino acids and G for the remaining 8, plus one codon for arginine ending in A that was used approximately with the same frequency than the one ending in G for this same amino acid (plus *). The most used codons in man fall almost all the time at the rightmost position, clockwise, ending either in C or in G within the circular genetic code. The human codon usage per genome is compared to other organisms such as fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), squid (Loligo pealei), and many others. The biosemiotic codon usage of each genomic population or ‘Theme’ is equated to a ‘molecular language’. The C/U choice or difference, and the G/A difference in the third nucleotide of the most used codons per amino acid are illustrated by comparing the most used codons per genome in humans and squids. The human distribution in the third position of most used codons is a 12-8-2, C-G-A, nucleotide ending signature, while the squid distribution in the third position of most used codons was an odd, or uneven, distribution in the third position of its most used codons: 13-6-3, U-A-G, as its nucleotide ending signature. These findings may help to design computational tools to compare human genomes, to determine the exchangeability between compatible codons and amino acids, and for the early detection of incompatible changes leading to hereditary diseases. PMID:22997484

  2. Codon discrimination and anticodon structural context.

    PubMed Central

    Lustig, F; Borén, T; Guindy, Y S; Elias, P; Samuelsson, T; Gehrke, C W; Kuo, K C; Lagerkvist, U

    1989-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis has been used to change the nucleotide C in the wobble position of tRNA(1Gly) (CCC) to U. The mutated tRNA was tested for its ability to read glycine codons in an in vitro protein-synthesizing system programmed with the phage message MS2-RNA that had been modified by site-directed mutagenesis so as to make it possible to monitor conveniently the reading of all four glycine codons. The results showed that while the efficiency of tRNA(1Gly) (UCC) was comparable to that of mycoplasma tRNA(Gly) (UCC) in the reading of the codon GGA, the mycoplasma tRNA(Gly) was far more efficient than the tRNA(1Gly) (UCC) in the reading of the codons GGU and GGC. Thus, the anticodon UCC, when present in the structural context of the tRNA(1Gly) molecule, behaved as predicted by the wobble rules while in the structural context of the mycoplasma tRNA(Gly) it read without discrimination between the nucleotides in the third codon position, in violation of the wobble restrictions. The result with the codon GGG showed that the anticodon UCC, when present in tRNA(1Gly), was considerably less efficient in reading this codon than it was in the structural context of the mycoplasma tRNA(Gly). It would therefore seem that the anticodon UCC, when present in a certain tRNA, can be an efficient wobbler, while in the molecular environment of another tRNA it is markedly restricted in its ability to wobble. Images PMID:2674936

  3. Codon bias signatures, organization of microorganisms in codon space, and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Carbone, A; Képès, F; Zinovyev, A

    2005-03-01

    New and simple numerical criteria based on a codon adaptation index are applied to the complete genomic sequences of 80 Eubacteria and 16 Archaea, to infer weak and strong genome tendencies toward content bias, translational bias, and strand bias. These criteria can be applied to all microbial genomes, even those for which little biological information is known, and a codon bias signature, that is the collection of strong biases displayed by a genome, can be automatically derived. A codon bias space, where genomes are identified by their preferred codons, is proposed as a novel formal framework to interpret genomic relationships. Principal component analysis confirms that although GC content has a dominant effect on codon bias space, thermophilic and mesophilic species can be identified and separated by codon preferences. Two more examples concerning lifestyle are studied with linear discriminant analysis: suitable separating functions characterized by sets of preferred codons are provided to discriminate: translationally biased (hyper)thermophiles from mesophiles, and organisms with different respiratory characteristics, aerobic, anaerobic, facultative aerobic and facultative anaerobic. These results suggest that codon bias space might reflect the geometry of a prokaryotic "physiology space." Evolutionary perspectives are noted, numerical criteria and distances among organisms are validated on known cases, and various results and predictions are discussed both on methodological and biological grounds. PMID:15537809

  4. Estimating Gene Expression and Codon-Specific Translational Efficiencies, Mutation Biases, and Selection Coefficients from Genomic Data Alone‡

    PubMed Central

    Gilchrist, Michael A.; Chen, Wei-Chen; Shah, Premal; Landerer, Cedric L.; Zaretzki, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Extracting biologically meaningful information from the continuing flood of genomic data is a major challenge in the life sciences. Codon usage bias (CUB) is a general feature of most genomes and is thought to reflect the effects of both natural selection for efficient translation and mutation bias. Here we present a mechanistically interpretable, Bayesian model (ribosome overhead costs Stochastic Evolutionary Model of Protein Production Rate [ROC SEMPPR]) to extract meaningful information from patterns of CUB within a genome. ROC SEMPPR is grounded in population genetics and allows us to separate the contributions of mutational biases and natural selection against translational inefficiency on a gene-by-gene and codon-by-codon basis. Until now, the primary disadvantage of similar approaches was the need for genome scale measurements of gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to both extract accurate estimates of codon-specific mutation biases and translational efficiencies while simultaneously generating accurate estimates of gene expression, rather than requiring such information. We demonstrate the utility of ROC SEMPPR using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c genome. When we compare our model fits with previous approaches we observe an exceptionally high agreement between estimates of both codon-specific parameters and gene expression levels (?>0.99 in all cases). We also observe strong agreement between our parameter estimates and those derived from alternative data sets. For example, our estimates of mutation bias and those from mutational accumulation experiments are highly correlated (?=0.95). Our estimates of codon-specific translational inefficiencies and tRNA copy number-based estimates of ribosome pausing time (?=0.64), and mRNA and ribosome profiling footprint-based estimates of gene expression (?=0.53?0.74) are also highly correlated, thus supporting the hypothesis that selection against translational inefficiency is an important force driving the evolution of CUB. Surprisingly, we find that for particular amino acids, codon usage in highly expressed genes can still be largely driven by mutation bias and that failing to take mutation bias into account can lead to the misidentification of an amino acid’s “optimal” codon. In conclusion, our method demonstrates that an enormous amount of biologically important information is encoded within genome scale patterns of codon usage, accessing this information does not require gene expression measurements, but instead carefully formulated biologically interpretable models. PMID:25977456

  5. Codon Pair Bias Is a Direct Consequence of Dinucleotide Bias.

    PubMed

    Kunec, Dusan; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Codon pair bias is a remarkably stable characteristic of a species. Although functionally uncharacterized, robust virus attenuation was achieved by recoding of viral proteins using underrepresented codon pairs. Because viruses replicate exclusively inside living cells, we posited that their codon pair preferences reflect those of their host(s). Analysis of many human viruses showed, however, that the encoding of viruses is influenced only marginally by host codon pair preferences. Furthermore, examination of codon pair preferences of vertebrate, insect, and arthropod-borne viruses revealed that the latter do not utilize codon pairs overrepresented in arthropods more frequently than other viruses. We found, however, that codon pair bias is a direct consequence of dinucleotide bias. We conclude that codon pair bias does not play a major role in the encoding of viral proteins and that virus attenuation by codon pair deoptimization has the same molecular underpinnings as attenuation based on an increase in CpG/TpA dinucleotides. PMID:26725119

  6. The Effects of Codon Context on In Vivo Translation Speed

    PubMed Central

    Chevance, Fabienne F. V.; Le Guyon, Soazig; Hughes, Kelly T.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a bacterial genetic system based on translation of the his operon leader peptide gene to determine the relative speed at which the ribosome reads single or multiple codons in vivo. Low frequency effects of so-called “silent” codon changes and codon neighbor (context) effects could be measured using this assay. An advantage of this system is that translation speed is unaffected by the primary sequence of the His leader peptide. We show that the apparent speed at which ribosomes translate synonymous codons can vary substantially even for synonymous codons read by the same tRNA species. Assaying translation through codon pairs for the 5?- and 3?- side positioning of the 64 codons relative to a specific codon revealed that the codon-pair orientation significantly affected in vivo translation speed. Codon pairs with rare arginine codons and successive proline codons were among the slowest codon pairs translated in vivo. This system allowed us to determine the effects of different factors on in vivo translation speed including Shine-Dalgarno sequence, rate of dipeptide bond formation, codon context, and charged tRNA levels. PMID:24901308

  7. Enhanced expression of codon optimized Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens in Lactobacillus salivarius

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Christopher D.; Bannantine, John P.; Govender, Rodney; Endersen, Lorraine; Pletzer, Daniel; Weingart, Helge; Coffey, Aidan; O'Mahony, Jim; Sleator, Roy D.

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that open reading frames containing high GC content show poor expression in A+T rich hosts. Specifically, G+C-rich codon usage is a limiting factor in heterologous expression of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) proteins using Lactobacillus salivarius. However, re-engineering opening reading frames through synonymous substitutions can offset codon bias and greatly enhance MAP protein production in this host. In this report, we demonstrate that codon-usage manipulation of MAP2121c can enhance the heterologous expression of the major membrane protein (MMP), analogous to the form in which it is produced natively by MAP bacilli. When heterologously over-expressed, antigenic determinants were preserved in synthetic MMP proteins as shown by monoclonal antibody mediated ELISA. Moreover, MMP is a membrane protein in MAP, which is also targeted to the cellular surface of recombinant L. salivarius at levels comparable to MAP. Additionally, we previously engineered MAP3733c (encoding MptD) and show herein that MptD displays the tendency to associate with the cytoplasmic membrane boundary under confocal microscopy and the intracellularly accumulated protein selectively adheres to the MptD-specific bacteriophage fMptD. This work demonstrates there is potential for L. salivarius as a viable antigen delivery vehicle for MAP, which may provide an effective mucosal vaccine against Johne's disease. PMID:25237653

  8. Assessment of work-integrated learning: comparison of the usage of a grading rubric by supervising radiographers and teachers.

    PubMed

    Kilgour, Andrew J; Kilgour, Peter W; Gerzina, Tania; Christian, Beverly

    2014-02-01

    IntroductionProfessional work-integrated learning (WIL) that integrates the academic experience with off-campus professional experience placements is an integral part of many tertiary courses. Issues with the reliability and validity of assessment grades in these placements suggest that there is a need to strengthen the level of academic rigour of placements in these programmes. This study aims to compare the attitudes to the usage of assessment rubrics of radiographers supervising medical imaging students and teachers supervising pre-service teachers. MethodsWIL placement assessment practices in two programmes, pre-service teacher training (Avondale College of Higher Education, NSW) and medical diagnostic radiography (Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, NSW), were compared with a view to comparing assessment strategies across these two different educational domains. Educators (course coordinators) responsible for teaching professional development placements of teacher trainees and diagnostic radiography students developed a standards-based grading rubric designed to guide assessment of students' work during WIL placement by assessors. After ?12 months of implementation of the rubrics, assessors' reaction to the effectiveness and usefulness of the grading rubric was determined using a specially created survey form. Data were collected over the period from March to June 2011. Quantitative and qualitative data found that assessors in both programmes considered the grading rubric to be a vital tool in the assessment process, though teacher supervisors were more positive about the benefits of its use than the radiographer supervisors. ResultsBenefits of the grading rubric included accuracy and consistency of grading, ability to identify specific areas of desired development and facilitation of the provision of supervisor feedback. The use of assessment grading rubrics is of benefit to assessors in WIL placements from two very different teaching programmes. ConclusionRadiographers appear to need more training in the rubric's use, whereas teachers are found to generally use it appropriately. There are implications drawn from this finding that are applicable to health science and medical education in general. PMID:26229632

  9. Assessment of work-integrated learning: comparison of the usage of a grading rubric by supervising radiographers and teachers

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgour, Andrew J; Kilgour, Peter W; Gerzina, Tania; Christian, Beverly

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Professional work-integrated learning (WIL) that integrates the academic experience with off-campus professional experience placements is an integral part of many tertiary courses. Issues with the reliability and validity of assessment grades in these placements suggest that there is a need to strengthen the level of academic rigour of placements in these programmes. This study aims to compare the attitudes to the usage of assessment rubrics of radiographers supervising medical imaging students and teachers supervising pre-service teachers. Methods: WIL placement assessment practices in two programmes, pre-service teacher training (Avondale College of Higher Education, NSW) and medical diagnostic radiography (Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, NSW), were compared with a view to comparing assessment strategies across these two different educational domains. Educators (course coordinators) responsible for teaching professional development placements of teacher trainees and diagnostic radiography students developed a standards-based grading rubric designed to guide assessment of students’ work during WIL placement by assessors. After ?12 months of implementation of the rubrics, assessors’ reaction to the effectiveness and usefulness of the grading rubric was determined using a specially created survey form. Data were collected over the period from March to June 2011. Quantitative and qualitative data found that assessors in both programmes considered the grading rubric to be a vital tool in the assessment process, though teacher supervisors were more positive about the benefits of its use than the radiographer supervisors. Results: Benefits of the grading rubric included accuracy and consistency of grading, ability to identify specific areas of desired development and facilitation of the provision of supervisor feedback. The use of assessment grading rubrics is of benefit to assessors in WIL placements from two very different teaching programmes. Conclusion: Radiographers appear to need more training in the rubric's use, whereas teachers are found to generally use it appropriately. There are implications drawn from this finding that are applicable to health science and medical education in general.

  10. Assessment of work-integrated learning: comparison of the usage of a grading rubric by supervising radiographers and teachers

    PubMed Central

    Kilgour, Andrew J; Kilgour, Peter W; Gerzina, Tania; Christian, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionProfessional work-integrated learning (WIL) that integrates the academic experience with off-campus professional experience placements is an integral part of many tertiary courses. Issues with the reliability and validity of assessment grades in these placements suggest that there is a need to strengthen the level of academic rigour of placements in these programmes. This study aims to compare the attitudes to the usage of assessment rubrics of radiographers supervising medical imaging students and teachers supervising pre-service teachers. MethodsWIL placement assessment practices in two programmes, pre-service teacher training (Avondale College of Higher Education, NSW) and medical diagnostic radiography (Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, NSW), were compared with a view to comparing assessment strategies across these two different educational domains. Educators (course coordinators) responsible for teaching professional development placements of teacher trainees and diagnostic radiography students developed a standards-based grading rubric designed to guide assessment of students’ work during WIL placement by assessors. After ?12 months of implementation of the rubrics, assessors’ reaction to the effectiveness and usefulness of the grading rubric was determined using a specially created survey form. Data were collected over the period from March to June 2011. Quantitative and qualitative data found that assessors in both programmes considered the grading rubric to be a vital tool in the assessment process, though teacher supervisors were more positive about the benefits of its use than the radiographer supervisors. ResultsBenefits of the grading rubric included accuracy and consistency of grading, ability to identify specific areas of desired development and facilitation of the provision of supervisor feedback. The use of assessment grading rubrics is of benefit to assessors in WIL placements from two very different teaching programmes. ConclusionRadiographers appear to need more training in the rubric's use, whereas teachers are found to generally use it appropriately. There are implications drawn from this finding that are applicable to health science and medical education in general. PMID:26229632

  11. Two-codon T-box riboswitch binding two tRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Nizar Y.; Stamatopoulou, Vassiliki; Brayé, Mélanie; Drainas, Denis; Stathopoulos, Constantinos; Becker, Hubert Dominique

    2013-01-01

    T-box riboswitches control transcription of downstream genes through the tRNA-binding formation of terminator or antiterminator structures. Previously reported T-boxes were described as single-specificity riboswitches that can bind specific tRNA anticodons through codon–anticodon interactions with the nucleotide triplet of their specifier loop (SL). However, the possibility that T-boxes might exhibit specificity beyond a single tRNA had been overlooked. In Clostridium acetobutylicum, the T-box that regulates the operon for the essential tRNA-dependent transamidation pathway harbors a SL with two potential overlapping codon positions for tRNAAsn and tRNAGlu. To test its specificity, we performed extensive mutagenic, biochemical, and chemical probing analyses. Surprisingly, both tRNAs can efficiently bind the SL in vitro and in vivo. The dual specificity of the T-box is allowed by a single base shift on the SL from one overlapping codon to the next. This feature allows the riboswitch to sense two tRNAs and balance the biosynthesis of two amino acids. Detailed genomic comparisons support our observations and suggest that “flexible” T-box riboswitches are widespread among bacteria, and, moreover, their specificity is dictated by the metabolic interconnection of the pathways under control. Taken together, our results support the notion of a genome-dependent codon ambiguity of the SLs. Furthermore, the existence of two overlapping codons imposes a unique example of tRNA-dependent regulation at the transcriptional level. PMID:23858450

  12. Usage in Dictionaries and Dictionaries of Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, Thomas J.

    To provide an authority on usage, this book presents an analysis of the treatment of American English as it appears in a number of dictionaries and usage guides. The first chapter presents brief sketches of the usage guides and studies that provided the basis for this compilation and discusses the organization of the book. After a resume of the…

  13. Evaluating Sense Codon Reassignment with a Simple Fluorescence Screen.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Wil; Schmitt, Margaret A; Fisk, John D

    2015-12-22

    Understanding the interactions that drive the fidelity of the genetic code and the limits to which modifications can be made without breaking the translational system has practical implications for understanding the molecular mechanisms of evolution as well as expanding the set of encodable amino acids, particularly those with chemistries not provided by Nature. Because 61 sense codons encode 20 amino acids, reassigning the meaning of sense codons provides an avenue for biosynthetic modification of proteins, furthering both fundamental and applied biochemical research. We developed a simple screen that exploits the absolute requirement for fluorescence of an active site tyrosine in green fluorescent protein (GFP) to probe the pliability of the degeneracy of the genetic code. Our screen monitors the restoration of the fluorophore of GFP by incorporation of a tyrosine in response to a sense codon typically assigned another meaning in the genetic code. We evaluated sense codon reassignment at four of the 21 sense codons read through wobble interactions in Escherichia coli using the Methanocaldococcus jannaschii orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl tRNA synthetase pair originally developed and commonly used for amber stop codon suppression. By changing only the anticodon of the orthogonal tRNA, we achieved sense codon reassignment efficiencies between 1% (Phe UUU) and 6% (Lys AAG). Each of the orthogonal tRNAs preferentially decoded the codon traditionally read via a wobble interaction in E. coli with the exception of the orthogonal tRNA with an AUG anticodon, which incorporated tyrosine in response to both the His CAU and His CAC codons with approximately equal frequencies. We applied our screen in a high-throughput manner to evaluate a 10(9)-member combined tRNA/aminoacyl tRNA synthetase library to identify improved sense codon reassigning variants for the Lys AAG codon. A single rapid screen with the ability to broadly evaluate reassignable codons will facilitate identification and improvement of the combinations of sense codons and orthogonal pairs that display efficient reassignment. PMID:26536053

  14. Partial attenuation of Marek's disease virus by manipulation of Di-codon bias

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All species studied to date demonstrate a preference for certain codons over other synonymous codons (codon bias), a preference which is also observed for pairs of codons (di-codon bias). Previous studies using poliovirus and influenza virus as models have demonstrated the ability to cause attenuat...

  15. Changes in Word Usage Frequency May Hamper Intergenerational Comparisons of Vocabulary Skills: An Ngram Analysis of Wordsum, WAIS, and WISC Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2014-01-01

    Research on secular trends in mean intelligence test scores shows smaller gains in vocabulary skills than in nonverbal reasoning. One possible explanation is that vocabulary test items become outdated faster compared to nonverbal tasks. The history of the usage frequency of the words on five popular vocabulary tests, the GSS Wordsum, Wechsler…

  16. An Example in Kleisli: Codon Usage Extraction Made Easy Jiren Wang and Limsoon Wong

    E-print Network

    Wong, Limsoon

    of belief that Kleisli had reduced the difficulty of integrating biology data [9, 10, 1, etc.] In this paper existing biology data retrieval systems[2, 3, etc.] were not fully up to the demand of flexible queries and tranformations on these biology databases and analysis softwares in a manner

  17. ITG-Fachgruppe Bio-Informationstheorie "Gene Regulation and Information Theory" Halle/Saale, Germany, April 17-19, 2013 Codon-Based Distance Matrix

    E-print Network

    Henkel, Werner

    Leu CCU Pro CAU His CGU Arg CUC Leu CCC Pro CAC His CGC Arg CUA Leu CCA Pro CAA Gln CGA Arg CUG Leu CCG Pro CAG Gln CGG Arg AUU Ile ACU Thr AAU Asn AGU Ser AUC Ile ACC Thr AAC Asn AGC Ser AUA Ile ACA to the ochre termination triplet and Stop (amb) refers to the amber. Codon Usage Table* Second Position Half-Life

  18. Evidence of efficient stop codon readthrough in four mammalian genes

    E-print Network

    Loughran, Gary

    Stop codon readthrough is used extensively by viruses to expand their gene expression. Until recent discoveries in Drosophila, only a very limited number of readthrough cases in chromosomal genes had been reported. Analysis ...

  19. Heterologous Stop Codon Readthrough of Metazoan Readthrough Candidates in Yeast

    E-print Network

    Jungreis, Irwin

    Recent analysis of genomic signatures in mammals, flies, and worms indicates that functional translational stop codon readthrough is considerably more abundant in metazoa than previously recognized, but this analysis ...

  20. Codon Optimization Significantly Improves the Expression Level of ?-Amylase Gene from Bacillus licheniformis in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Rong; Li, Yang-Yuan; Liu, Dan-Ni; Liu, Jing-Shan; Li, Peng; Chen, Li-Zhi; Xu, Shu-De

    2015-01-01

    ?-Amylase as an important industrial enzyme has been widely used in starch processing, detergent, and paper industries. To improve expression efficiency of recombinant ?-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis), the ?-amylase gene from B. licheniformis was optimized according to the codon usage of Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) and expressed in P. pastoris. Totally, the codons encoding 305 amino acids were optimized in which a total of 328 nucleotides were changed and the G+C content was increased from 47.6 to 49.2%. The recombinants were cultured in 96-deep-well microplates and screened by a new plate assay method. Compared with the wild-type gene, the optimized gene is expressed at a significantly higher level in P. pastoris after methanol induction for 168?h in 5- and 50-L bioreactor with the maximum activity of 8100 and 11000?U/mL, which was 2.31- and 2.62-fold higher than that by wild-type gene. The improved expression level makes the enzyme a good candidate for ?-amylase production in industrial use. PMID:26171389

  1. A codon-optimized green fluorescent protein for live cell imaging in Zymoseptoria tritici.

    PubMed

    Kilaru, S; Schuster, M; Studholme, D; Soanes, D; Lin, C; Talbot, N J; Steinberg, G

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescent proteins (FPs) are powerful tools to investigate intracellular dynamics and protein localization. Cytoplasmic expression of FPs in fungal pathogens allows greater insight into invasion strategies and the host-pathogen interaction. Detection of their fluorescent signal depends on the right combination of microscopic setup and signal brightness. Slow rates of photo-bleaching are pivotal for in vivo observation of FPs over longer periods of time. Here, we test green-fluorescent proteins, including Aequorea coerulescens GFP (AcGFP), enhanced GFP (eGFP) from Aequorea victoria and a novel Zymoseptoria tritici codon-optimized eGFP (ZtGFP), for their usage in conventional and laser-enhanced epi-fluorescence, and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. We show that eGFP, expressed cytoplasmically in Z. tritici, is significantly brighter and more photo-stable than AcGFP. The codon-optimized ZtGFP performed even better than eGFP, showing significantly slower bleaching and a 20-30% further increase in signal intensity. Heterologous expression of all GFP variants did not affect pathogenicity of Z. tritici. Our data establish ZtGFP as the GFP of choice to investigate intracellular protein dynamics in Z. tritici, but also infection stages of this wheat pathogen inside host tissue. PMID:26092799

  2. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) with a Mutation at Codon 148 of Prion Protein Gene

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, Manuela; Chin, Steven S.; Bell, Karen L.; Dong, Zhiqian; Yang, Qiwei; Yang, Lizhu; Yuan, Jue; Chen, Shu G.; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Zou, Wen-Quan

    2005-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), the most common human prion disease, includes sporadic (s) and familial (f) forms. Regardless of etiology, both forms are thought to share the pathogenic mechanism whereby the cellular prion protein (PrPC) converts into its pathogenic isoform (PrPSc). While PrPC conversion is thought to be random in sCJD, conversion in fCJD is facilitated by the congenital presence of mutated PrP. Differences in PrP genotype (PRNP) and in conversion circumstances lead to PrPSc with distinct characteristics that elicit different disease phenotypes. Here, we describe a case of fCJD with a substitution of histidine (H) for arginine (R) at codon 148 (R148H) and heterozygosity of the methionine/valine (M/V) polymorphic codon 129, with the 129M allele coupled with the mutation. The disease phenotype and all major characteristics of PrPSc of fCJDR148H were virtually indistinguishable from those of sCJDMV2, which has features different from those of any other sCJD. Therefore, despite the differences in etiology, PRNP, and conversion process, the two forms of PrPSc had similar characteristics. Furthermore, comparison of fCJDR148H with a recently reported case carrying R148H and homozygosity at codon 129 suggests that codon 129 coupled with the mutation as well as that located on the normal allele can modify major phenotypic and PrPSc features of fCJDR148H. PMID:16314483

  3. Properties and determinants of codon decoding time distributions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Codon decoding time is a fundamental property of mRNA translation believed to affect the abundance, function, and properties of proteins. Recently, a novel experimental technology--ribosome profiling--was developed to measure the density, and thus the speed, of ribosomes at codon resolution. Specifically, this method is based on next-generation sequencing, which theoretically can provide footprint counts that correspond to the probability of observing a ribosome in this position for each nucleotide in each transcript. Results In this study, we report for the first time various novel properties of the distribution of codon footprint counts in five organisms, based on large-scale analysis of ribosomal profiling data. We show that codons have distinctive footprint count distributions. These tend to be preserved along the inner part of the ORF, but differ at the 5' and 3' ends of the ORF, suggesting that the translation-elongation stage actually includes three biophysical sub-steps. In addition, we study various basic properties of the codon footprint count distributions and show that some of them correlate with the abundance of the tRNA molecule types recognizing them. Conclusions Our approach emphasizes the advantages of analyzing ribosome profiling and similar types of data via a comparative genomic codon-distribution-centric view. Thus, our methods can be used in future studies related to translation and even transcription elongation. PMID:25572668

  4. A Model of Proto-Anti-Codon RNA Enzymes Requiring L-Amino Acid Homochirality

    E-print Network

    Erives, Albert J.

    A Model of Proto-Anti-Codon RNA Enzymes Requiring L-Amino Acid Homochirality Albert Erives Received natural amino acid units of polypeptides using a universal scheme of triplet nucleotide ``codons) the absence of any codons for D-amino acids; (ii) the odd combination of alternate codon patterns for some

  5. Natural selection retains overrepresented out-of-frame stop codons against frameshift peptides in prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Out-of-frame stop codons (OSCs) occur naturally in coding sequences of all organisms, providing a mechanism of early termination of translation in incorrect reading frame so that the metabolic cost associated with frameshift events can be reduced. Given such a functional significance, we expect statistically overrepresented OSCs in coding sequences as a result of a widespread selection. Accordingly, we examined available prokaryotic genomes to look for evidence of this selection. Results The complete genome sequences of 990 prokaryotes were obtained from NCBI GenBank. We found that low G+C content coding sequences contain significantly more OSCs and G+C content at specific codon positions were the principal determinants of OSC usage bias in the different reading frames. To investigate if there is overrepresentation of OSCs, we modeled the trinucleotide and hexanucleotide biases of the coding sequences using Markov models, and calculated the expected OSC frequencies for each organism using a Monte Carlo approach. More than 93% of 342 phylogenetically representative prokaryotic genomes contain excess OSCs. Interestingly the degree of OSC overrepresentation correlates positively with G+C content, which may represent a compensatory mechanism for the negative correlation of OSC frequency with G+C content. We extended the analysis using additional compositional bias models and showed that lower-order bias like codon usage and dipeptide bias could not explain the OSC overrepresentation. The degree of OSC overrepresentation was found to correlate negatively with the optimal growth temperature of the organism after correcting for the G+C% and AT skew of the coding sequence. Conclusions The present study uses approaches with statistical rigor to show that OSC overrepresentation is a widespread phenomenon among prokaryotes. Our results support the hypothesis that OSCs carry functional significance and have been selected in the course of genome evolution to act against unintended frameshift occurrences. Some results also hint that OSC overrepresentation being a compensatory mechanism to make up for the decrease in OSCs in high G+C organisms, thus revealing the interplay between two different determinants of OSC frequency. PMID:20828396

  6. Reduced Amino Acid Specificity of Mammalian Tyrosyl-tRNA Synthetase Is Associated with Elevated Mistranslation of Tyr Codons*

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Medha; Moghal, Adil; Kano, Amanda; Jerums, Mathew; Schnier, Paul D.; Luo, Shun; Deshpande, Rohini; Bondarenko, Pavel V.; Lin, Henry; Ibba, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Quality control operates at different steps in translation to limit errors to approximately one mistranslated codon per 10,000 codons during mRNA-directed protein synthesis. Recent studies have suggested that error rates may actually vary considerably during translation under different growth conditions. Here we examined the misincorporation of Phe at Tyr codons during synthesis of a recombinant antibody produced in tyrosine-limited Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Tyr to Phe replacements were previously found to occur throughout the antibody at a rate of up to 0.7% irrespective of the identity or context of the Tyr codon translated. Despite this comparatively high mistranslation rate, no significant change in cellular viability was observed. Monitoring of Phe and Tyr levels revealed that changes in error rates correlated with changes in amino acid pools, suggesting that mischarging of tRNATyr with noncognate Phe by tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase was responsible for mistranslation. Steady-state kinetic analyses of CHO cytoplasmic tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase revealed a 25-fold lower specificity for Tyr over Phe as compared with previously characterized bacterial enzymes, consistent with the observed increase in translation error rates during tyrosine limitation. Functional comparisons of mammalian and bacterial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase revealed key differences at residues responsible for amino acid recognition, highlighting differences in evolutionary constraints for translation quality control. PMID:24828507

  7. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL USAGE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report, which summarizes the use of agricultural chemicals is issued by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) as part of its series on Agricultural Chemical Usage. Other publications in the series present statistics for on-farm agricultural chemical usage for f...

  8. Translation initiation at non-AUG codons mediated by weakened association of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2 subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Nilce N; Carnevalli, Larissa S; Castilho, Beatriz A

    2002-01-01

    The heterotrimeric eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2 binds the initiator methionyl-tRNA in a GTP-dependent mode and delivers it to the 40 S ribosomal subunit. In the present study, we have identified amino acid residues in eIF2beta required for binding to eIF2gamma in yeast. Alteration of six residues in the central region of eIF2beta abolished this interaction, as determined by GST-pull down and two-hybrid assays, and leads to cell lethality. Substitution of (131)Tyr and (132)Ser by alanine residues ((131)YS), although abolishing the binding to eIF2gamma in these assays, resulted in a functional but defective protein in vivo, imparting a temperature-sensitive growth phenotype to cells. A dramatically weakened association of this mutant protein with eIF2gamma in vivo was shown by co-immunoprecipitation. The (131)YS mutation in eIF2beta allows translation to initiate at non-AUG codons, as defined by the ability of cells carrying an initiator codon mutation in the HIS4 mRNA to grow in the absence of histidine. The combination of this mutation with the (264)Ser-->Tyr alteration, a previously isolated suppressor of initiator codon mutations which has been shown to increase the spontaneous GTP hydrolysis in the ternary complex, caused a recessive lethality, suggesting additive defects. Thus the impaired interaction of these two subunits represents a novel type of defect in eIF2 function, providing in vivo evidence that the strength of interaction between eIF2beta and eIF2gamma defines the correct usage of the AUG codon for translation initiation. PMID:12137565

  9. Codon Bias as a Means to Fine-Tune Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Quax, Tessa E F; Claassens, Nico J; Söll, Dieter; van der Oost, John

    2015-07-16

    The redundancy of the genetic code implies that most amino acids are encoded by multiple synonymous codons. In all domains of life, a biased frequency of synonymous codons is observed at the genome level, in functionally related genes (e.g., in operons), and within single genes. Other codon bias variants include biased codon pairs and codon co-occurrence. Although translation initiation is the key step in protein synthesis, it is generally accepted that codon bias contributes to translation efficiency by tuning the elongation rate of the process. Moreover, codon bias plays an important role in controlling a multitude of cellular processes, ranging from differential protein production to protein folding. Here we review currently known types of codon bias and how they may influence translation. We discuss how understanding the principles of codon bias and translation can contribute to improved protein production and developments in synthetic biology. PMID:26186290

  10. A model for codon position bias in RNA editing

    E-print Network

    Liu, T; Liu, Tsunglin; Bundschuh, Ralf

    2005-01-01

    RNA editing can be crucial for the expression of genetic information via inserting, deleting, or substituting a few nucleotides at specific positions in an RNA sequence. Within coding regions in an RNA sequence, editing usually occurs with a certain bias in choosing the positions of the editing sites. In the mitochondrial genes of {\\it Physarum polycephalum}, many more editing events have been observed at the third codon position than at the first and second, while in some plant mitochondria the second codon position dominates. Here we propose an evolutionary model that explains this bias as the basis of selection at the protein level. The model predicts a distribution of the three positions rather close to the experimental observation in {\\it Physarum}. This suggests that the codon position bias in {\\it Physarum} is mainly a consequence of selection at the protein level.

  11. Model for Codon Position Bias in RNA Editing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tsunglin; Bundschuh, Ralf

    2005-08-01

    RNA editing can be crucial for the expression of genetic information via inserting, deleting, or substituting a few nucleotides at specific positions in an RNA sequence. Within coding regions in an RNA sequence, editing usually occurs with a certain bias in choosing the positions of the editing sites. In the mitochondrial genes of Physarum polycephalum, many more editing events have been observed at the third codon position than at the first and second, while in some plant mitochondria the second codon position dominates. Here we propose an evolutionary model that explains this bias as the basis of selection at the protein level. The model predicts a distribution of the three positions rather close to the experimental observation in Physarum. This suggests that the codon position bias in Physarum is mainly a consequence of selection at the protein level.

  12. A model for codon position bias in RNA editing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundschuh, Ralf; Liu, Tsunglin

    2006-03-01

    RNA editing can be crucial for the expression of genetic information via inserting, deleting, or substituting a few nucleotides at specific positions in an RNA sequence. Within coding regions in an RNA sequence, editing usually occurs with a certain bias in choosing the positions of the editing sites. In the mitochondrial genes of Physarum polycephalum, many more editing events have been observed at the third codon position than at the first and second, while in some plant mitochondria the second codon position dominates. Here we propose an evolutionary model that explains this bias as the basis of selection at the protein level. The model predicts a distribution of the three positions rather close to the experimental observation in Physarum. This suggests that the codon position bias in Physarum is mainly a consequence of selection at the protein level.

  13. Codon-reading specificities of mitochondrial release factors and translation termination at non-standard stop codons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Christoffer; Sund, Johan; Åqvist, Johan

    2013-12-01

    A key feature of mitochondrial translation is the reduced number of transfer RNAs and reassignment of codons. For human mitochondria, a major unresolved problem is how the set of stop codons are decoded by the release factors mtRF1a and mtRF1. Here we present three-dimensional structural models of human mtRF1a and mtRF1 based on their homology to bacterial RF1 in the codon recognition domain, and the strong conservation between mitochondrial and bacterial ribosomal RNA in the decoding region. Sequence changes in the less homologous mtRF1 appear to be correlated with specific features of the mitochondrial rRNA. Extensive computer simulations of the complexes with the ribosomal decoding site show that both mitochondrial factors have similar specificities and that neither reads the putative vertebrate stop codons AGA and AGG. Instead, we present a structural model for a mechanism by which the ICT1 protein causes termination by sensing the presence of these codons in the A-site of stalled ribosomes.

  14. Dual Accelerometer Usage Strategy for Onboard Space Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato; D'Souza, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This work introduces a dual accelerometer usage strategy for onboard space navigation. In the proposed algorithm the accelerometer is used to propagate the state when its value exceeds a threshold and it is used to estimate its errors otherwise. Numerical examples and comparison to other accelerometer usage schemes are presented to validate the proposed approach.

  15. MODIS Collection 6 aerosol products: Comparison between Aqua's e-Deep Blue, Dark Target, and "merged" data sets, and usage recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Munchak, L. A.; Hsu, N. C.; Levy, R. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.

    2014-12-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Atmospheres data product suite includes three algorithms applied to retrieve midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD): the Enhanced Deep Blue (DB) and Dark Target (DT) algorithms over land, and a DT over-water algorithm. All three have been refined in the recent "Collection 6" (C6) MODIS reprocessing. In particular, DB has been expanded to cover vegetated land surfaces as well as brighter desert/urban areas. Additionally, a new "merged" data set which draws from all three algorithms is included in the C6 products. This study is intended to act as a point of reference for new and experienced MODIS data users with which to understand the global and regional characteristics of the C6 DB, DT, and merged data sets, based on MODIS Aqua data. This includes validation against Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations at 111 sites, focused toward regional and categorical (surface/aerosol type) analysis. Neither algorithm consistently outperforms the other, although in many cases the retrieved AOD and the level of its agreement with AERONET are very similar. In many regions the DB, DT, and merged data sets are all suitable for quantitative applications, bearing in mind that they cannot be considered independent, while in other cases one algorithm does consistently outperform the other. Usage recommendations and caveats are thus somewhat complicated and regionally dependent.

  16. Robotics and Energy Usage 

    E-print Network

    Hershey, R. L.; Fenton, S. E.; Letzt, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that the use of robots in an industrial plant will cut energy usage, because robots require no heat, light, or air conditioning in their work space. However, in analyzing industrial installations, we have found that...

  17. All-codon scanning identifies p53 cancer rescue mutations

    E-print Network

    Lathrop, Richard H.

    All-codon scanning identifies p53 cancer rescue mutations Roberta Baronio1 , Samuel A. Danziger1 encoding the entire p53 core domain. Identification of several novel p53 cancer rescue mutations against cancer (11). p53 mutations occur in $50% of human cancers, and about three-quarters of those *To

  18. Codon-optimized human sodium iodide symporter (opt-hNIS) as a sensitive reporter and efficient therapeutic gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hwa; Youn, Hyewon; Na, Juri; Hong, Kee-Jong; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key

    2015-01-01

    To generate a more efficient in vivo reporter and therapeutic gene, we optimized the coding sequence of the human sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene by replacing NIS DNA codons from wild type to new codons having the highest usage in human gene translation. The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI), representing the number of codons effective for human expression, was much improved (0.79 for hNIS, 0.97 for opt-hNIS). Both wild-type (hNIS) and optimized human NIS (opt-hNIS) were cloned into pcDNA3.1 and pMSCV vectors for transfection. Various cancer cell lines such as thyroid (TPC-1, FRO, B-CPAP), breast (MDA-MB-231), liver (Hep3B), cervical (HeLa), and glioma (U87MG) were transfected with pcDNA3.1/hNIS or pcDNA3.1/opt-hNIS. 125I uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing cells was 1.6~2.1 times higher than uptake by wild-type hNIS-expressing cells. Stable cell lines were also established by retroviral transduction using pMSCV/hNIS or pMSCV/opt-hNIS, revealing higher NIS protein levels and 125I uptake in opt-hNIS-expressing cells than in hNIS-expressing cells. Moreover, scintigraphic images from cell plates and mouse xenografts showed stronger signals from opt-hNIS-expressing cells than hNIS-expressing cells, and radioactivity uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing tumors was 2.3-fold greater than that by hNIS-expressing tumors. To test the efficacy of radioiodine therapy, mouse xenograft models were established with cancer cells expressing hNIS or opt-hNIS. 131I treatment reduced tumor sizes of hNIS- and opt-hNIS-expressing tumors to 0.57- and 0.27- fold, respectively, compared to their sizes before therapy, suggesting an improved therapeutic effect of opt-hNIS. In summary, this study shows that codon optimization strongly increases hNIS protein levels and radioiodine uptake, thus supporting opt-hNIS as a more sensitive reporter and efficient therapeutic gene. PMID:25553100

  19. Problem-Solving Test: The Effect of Synonymous Codons on Gene Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: the genetic code, codon, degenerate codons, protein synthesis, aminoacyl-tRNA, anticodon, antiparallel orientation, wobble, unambiguous codons, ribosomes, initiation, elongation and termination of translation, peptidyl transferase, translocation, degenerate oligonucleotides, green…

  20. DOI: 10.1002/cbic.201402104 A Bacterial Strain with a Unique Quadruplet Codon

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    . Schultz*[a] The addition of noncanonical amino acids to the genetic code requires unique codons" codons have been used to encode non-native amino acids. Use of quadruplet "frame-shift" suppressor codons that a Metha- nocaldococcus jannaschii-derived frame-shift suppressor tRNA/ aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair

  1. Prokaryotic Gene Finding Based on Physicochemical Characteristics of Codons Calculated from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    E-print Network

    Jayaram, Bhyravabotla

    Prokaryotic Gene Finding Based on Physicochemical Characteristics of Codons Calculated from An ab initio model for gene prediction in prokaryotic genomes is proposed based on physicochemical prediction in prokaryotic genomes based on a set of three physicochemical characteristics of codons--by codon

  2. Codon Optimisation Is Key for Pernisine Expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Šnajder, Marko; Miheli?, Marko; Turk, Dušan; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    Background Pernisine is an extracellular serine protease from the hyperthermophilic Archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1. Low yields from the natural host and expression problems in heterologous hosts have limited the potential applications of pernisine in industry. Methodology/ Principal Findings The challenges of pernisine overexpression in Escherichia coli were overcome by codon preference optimisation and de-novo DNA synthesis. The following forms of the pernisine gene were cloned into the pMCSGx series of vectors and expressed in E. coli cells: wild-type (pernisinewt), codon-optimised (pernisineco), and codon-optimised with a S355A mutation of a predicted active site (pernisineS355Aco). The fusion-tagged pernisines were purified using fast protein liquid chromatography equipped with Ni2+ chelate and gel filtration chromatography columns. The identities of the resultant proteins were confirmed with N-terminal sequencing, tandem mass spectrometry analysis, and immunodetection. Pernisinewt was not expressed in E. coli at detectable levels, while pernisineco and pernisineS355Aco were expressed and purified as 55-kDa proforms with yields of around 10 mg per litre E. coli culture. After heat activation of purified pernisine, the proteolytic activity of the mature pernisineco was confirmed using zymography, at a molecular weight of 36 kDa, while the mutant pernisineS355Aco remained inactive. Enzymatic performances of pernisine evaluated under different temperatures and pHs demonstrate that the optimal enzymatic activity of the recombinant pernisine is ca. 100°C and pH 7.0, respectively. Conclusions/ Significance These data demonstrate that codon optimisation is crucial for pernisine overexpression in E. coli, and that the proposed catalytic Ser355 has an important role in pernisine activity, but not in its activation process. Pernisine is activated by autoproteolytical cleavage of its N-terminal proregion. We have also confirmed that the recombinant pernisine retains the characteristics of native pernisine, as a calcium modulated thermostable serine protease. PMID:25856104

  3. Codon-Optimized NADH Oxidase Gene Expression and Gene Fusion with Glycerol Dehydrogenase for Bienzyme System with Cofactor Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiang; Wang, Shizhen

    2015-01-01

    NADH oxidases (NOXs) play an important role in maintaining balance of NAD+/NADH by catalyzing cofactors regeneration. The expression of nox gene from Lactobacillus brevis in Escherichia coli BL21 (BL21 (DE3)) was studied. Two strategies, the high AT-content in the region adjacent to the initiation codon and codon usage of the whole gene sequence consistent with the host, obtained the NOX activity of 59.9 U/mg and 73.3 U/mg (crude enzyme), with enhanced expression level of 2.0 and 2.5-folds, respectively. Purified NOX activity was 213.8 U/mg. Gene fusion of glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) and NOX formed bifuctional multi-enzymes for bioconversion of glycerol coupled with coenzyme regeneration. Kinetic parameters of the GDH-NOX for each substrate, glycerol and NADH, were calculated as Vmax(Glycerol) 20 ?M/min, Km(Glycerol) 19.4 mM, Vmax (NADH) 12.5 ?M/min and Km (NADH) 51.3 ?M, respectively, which indicated the potential application of GDH-NOX for quick glycerol analysis and dioxyacetone biosynthesis. PMID:26115038

  4. HP-PRRSV is attenuated by de-optimization of codon pair bias in its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase nsp9 gene.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Wang, Lianghai; Huang, Chen; Yang, Longlong; Guo, Xue-Kun; Yu, Zhibin; Liu, Yihao; Yang, Peng; Feng, Wen-Hai

    2015-11-01

    There is an urgent need to develop new vaccines against highly pathogenic PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV) variant in China. The actual use of each codon pairs is more or less frequent than that of the statistical prediction and codon pair bias (CPB) usage affects gene translation. We "shuffled" the existing codons in HP-PRRSV genes GP5, M, nsp2 and nsp9, so that the CPB of these genes could be more negative. De-optimization of nsp9, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, significantly decreased PRRSV replication in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). In vitro study showed that HV-nsp9(min) and HV-nsp29(min) were remarkably attenuated in PAMs, and inoculation of pigs with 2ml?10(5.0) TCID50/ml of HV-nsp9(min) or HV-nsp29(min) did not cause PRRS. Importantly, pigs immunized with HV-nsp29(min) were fully protected against different HP-PRRSV strains? lethal challenges. Our results imply that the CPB de-optimized HV-nsp29(min) has the potential to be used as a live vaccine candidate against HP-PRRSV. PMID:26247624

  5. Notational usage modulates attention networks in binumerates

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Atesh; Tyagi, Vaibhav; Singh, Nandini C.

    2014-01-01

    Multicultural environments require learning multiple number notations wherein some are encountered more frequently than others. This leads to differences in exposure and consequently differences in usage between notations. We find that differential notational usage imposes a significant neurocognitive load on number processing. Despite simultaneous acquisition, twenty four adult binumerates, familiar with two positional writing systems namely Hindu Nagari digits and Hindu Arabic digits, reported significantly lower preference and usage for Nagari as compared to Arabic. Twenty-four participants showed significantly increased reaction times and reduced accuracy while performing magnitude comparison tasks in Nagari with respect to Arabic. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that processing Nagari elicited significantly greater activity in number processing and attention networks. A direct subtraction of networks for Nagari and Arabic notations revealed a neural circuit comprising of bilateral Intra-parietal Sulcus (IPS), Inferior and Mid Frontal Gyri, Fusiform Gyrus and the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (FDR p < 0.005). Additionally, whole brain correlation analysis showed that activity in the left inferior parietal region was modulated by task performance in Nagari. We attribute the increased activation in Nagari to increased task difficulty due to infrequent exposure and usage. Our results reiterate the role of left IPS in modulating performance in numeric tasks and highlight the role of the attention network for monitoring symbolic notation mode in binumerates. PMID:24904366

  6. Genetic code supports targeted insertion of two amino acids by one codon.

    PubMed

    Turanov, Anton A; Lobanov, Alexey V; Fomenko, Dmitri E; Morrison, Hilary G; Sogin, Mitchell L; Klobutcher, Lawrence A; Hatfield, Dolph L; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2009-01-01

    Strict one-to-one correspondence between codons and amino acids is thought to be an essential feature of the genetic code. However, we report that one codon can code for two different amino acids with the choice of the inserted amino acid determined by a specific 3' untranslated region structure and location of the dual-function codon within the messenger RNA (mRNA). We found that the codon UGA specifies insertion of selenocysteine and cysteine in the ciliate Euplotes crassus, that the dual use of this codon can occur even within the same gene, and that the structural arrangements of Euplotes mRNA preserve location-dependent dual function of UGA when expressed in mammalian cells. Thus, the genetic code supports the use of one codon to code for multiple amino acids. PMID:19131629

  7. Feasibility Study of a Rotorcraft Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS): Usage and Structural Life Monitoring Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, B.; Cronkhite, J.; Bielefeld, S.; Killian, L.; Hayden, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate two techniques, Flight Condition Recognition (FCR) and Flight Load Synthesis (FIS), for usage monitoring and assess the potential benefits of extending the retirement intervals of life-limited components, thus reducing the operator's maintenance and replacement costs. Both techniques involve indirect determination of loads using measured flight parameters and subsequent fatigue analysis to calculate the life expended on the life-limited components. To assess the potential benefit of usage monitoring, the two usage techniques were compared to current methods of component retirement. In addition, comparisons were made with direct load measurements to assess the accuracy of the two techniques.

  8. Eukaryotic Evolutionary Transitions Are Associated with Extreme Codon Bias in Functionally-Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Nicholas J.; Gu, Quan; Nagaraj, Shivashankar H.; Ding, Yong-Sheng; Dalrymple, Brian P.; Reverter, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Codon bias in the genome of an organism influences its phenome by changing the speed and efficiency of mRNA translation and hence protein abundance. We hypothesized that differences in codon bias, either between-species differences in orthologous genes, or within-species differences between genes, may play an evolutionary role. To explore this hypothesis, we compared the genome-wide codon bias in six species that occupy vital positions in the Eukaryotic Tree of Life. We acquired the entire protein coding sequences for these organisms, computed the codon bias for all genes in each organism and explored the output for relationships between codon bias and protein function, both within- and between-lineages. We discovered five notable coordinated patterns, with extreme codon bias most pronounced in traits considered highly characteristic of a given lineage. Firstly, the Homo sapiens genome had stronger codon bias for DNA-binding transcription factors than the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, whereas the opposite was true for ribosomal proteins – perhaps underscoring transcriptional regulation in the origin of complexity. Secondly, both mammalian species examined possessed extreme codon bias in genes relating to hair – a tissue unique to mammals. Thirdly, Arabidopsis thaliana showed extreme codon bias in genes implicated in cell wall formation and chloroplast function – which are unique to plants. Fourthly, Gallus gallus possessed strong codon bias in a subset of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins – perhaps reflecting the enhanced bioenergetic efficiency in birds that co-evolved with flight. And lastly, the G. gallus genome had extreme codon bias for the Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor – which may help to explain their spontaneous recovery from deafness. We propose that extreme codon bias in groups of genes that encode functionally related proteins has a pathway-level energetic explanation. PMID:21966531

  9. Codon 219 polymorphism of PRNP in healthy caucasians and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients

    SciTech Connect

    Petraroli, R.; Pocchiari, M.

    1996-04-01

    A number of point and insert mutations of the PrP gene (PRNP) have been linked to familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease (GSS). Moreover, the methionine/valine homozygosity at the polymorphic codon 129 of PRNP may cause a predisposition to sporadic and iatrogenic CJD or may control the age at onset of familial cases carrying either the 144-bp insertion or codon 178, codon 198, and codon 210 pathogenic mutations in PRNP. In addition, the association of methionine or valine at codon 129 and the point mutation at codon 178 on the same allele seem to play an important role in determining either fatal familial insomnia or CJD. However, it is noteworthy that a relationship between codon 129 polymorphism and accelerated pathogenesis (early age at onset or shorter duration of the disease) has not been seen in familial CJD patients with codon 200 mutation or in GSS patients with codon 102 mutation, arguing that other, as yet unidentified, gene products or environmental factors, or both, may influence the clinical expression of these diseases. 17 refs.

  10. p53 codon 72 polymorphism and risk of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, José M; Ampuero, Sandra; Rojas, Patricio; Prado, Rodrigo; Allende, Jorge E; Barton, Sara A; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Storey et al. (1998) implicated the proline/argine polymorphism of the codon 72 of the tumor-suppressor gene p53 in the development of cervical cancer (CC) with the observation that the p53 protein is more efficiently inactivated by the E6 oncoprotein of human papillomavirus in p53 arginine as compared with its proline isoform. These authors further noted that in the United Kingdom, individuals homozygous for the arginine allele were several times more susceptible to HPV-associated tumorigenesis that proline/arginine heterozygotes. Subsequent studies in different countries failed to unanimously confirm this association. Motivated by the high incidence of CC in Chile, we undertook a case control study obtaining the following frequencies for genotypes PP, AP and AA in 60 ICC cases and 53 carefully selected controls: 0.067, 0.250, 0.683 and 0.075, 0.453, 0.472 respectively. A significant difference (X2 = 3.19 p < 0.02) and an odds ratio of 2.62 supported Storey et al (1998)'s results. In addition, rejecting previous hypotheses about the world distribution of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism, we conclude that this distribution most likely represents ancient human dispersal routes. Several methodological and biological explanations for the results obtained in previous negative association studies are briefly discussed. PMID:14513722

  11. Prion protein gene analysis in three kindreds with fatal familial insomnia (FFI): Codon 178 mutation and codon 129 polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Medori, R.; Tritschler, H.J. )

    1993-10-01

    Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a disease linked to a GAC(Asp) [yields] AAC(Asn) mutation in codon 178 of the prion protein (PrP) gene. FFI is characterized clinically by untreatable progressive insomnia, dysautonomia, and motor dysfunctions and is characterized pathologically by selective thalamic atrophy. The authors confirmed the 178[sup Asn] mutation in the PrP gene of a third FFI family of French ancestry. Three family members who are under 40 years of age and who inherited the mutation showed only reduced perfusion in the basal ganglia on single photon emission computerized tomography. Some FFI features differ from the clinical and neuropathologic findings associated with 178[sup Asn] reported elsewhere. However, additional intragenic mutations accounting for the phenotypic differences were not observed in two affected individuals. In other sporadic and familial forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Gerstmann-Straeussler syndrome, Met or Val homozygosity at polymorphic codon 129 is associated with a more severe phenotype, younger age at onset, and faster progression. In FFI, young and old individuals at disease onset had 129[sup Met/Val]. Moreover, of five 178[sup Asn] individuals who are above age-at-onset range and who are well, two have 129[sup Met] and three have 129[sup Met/Val], suggesting that polymorphic site 129 does not modulate FFI phenotypic expression. Genetic heterogeneity and environment may play an important role in inter- and intrafamilial variability of the 178[sup Asn] mutation. 32 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. TAP usage in SIMBAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anaïs, O.; Gregory, M.; Marc, W.

    2015-09-01

    TAP (Table Access Protocol promoted by IVOA) is available on SIMBAD web site since July 2012. We will have a look of all kinds of uses and try to figure out how people use it in SIMBAD. Thanks to ADQL (Astronomical Data Query Language), everyone can write their own query using criteria on all data available in the database. In the SIMBAD database, more than 30 tables are available. It can be rather difficult to write a complex query. We will see how many joins between tables are used, and how many fields are used in the queries. The SIMBAD usage is going to change thanks to this new feature, a new way to search in the database.

  13. Increased tRNA modification and gene-specific codon usage regulate cell cycle progression during the DNA damage response

    E-print Network

    Patil, Ashish

    S-phase and DNA damage promote increased ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) activity. Translation of RNR1 has been linked to the wobble uridine modifying enzyme tRNA methyltransferase 9 (Trm9). We predicted that changes in ...

  14. Short spacing between the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and P codon destabilizes codon-anticodon pairing in the P site to promote +1 programmed frameshifting

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, Aishwarya; Fredrick, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Summary Programmed frameshifting in the RF2 gene (prfB) involves an intragenic Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence. To investigate the role of SD-ASD pairing in the mechanism of frameshifting, we have analyzed the effect of spacing between the SD sequence and P codon on P-site tRNA binding and RF2-dependent termination. When the spacing between an extended SD sequence and the P codon is decreased from 4 to 1 nucleotides (nt), the dissociation rate (koff) for P-site tRNA increases by >100-fold. Toeprinting analysis shows that pretranslocation complexes cannot be formed when the spacer sequence is ? 2 nt. Instead, the tRNA added secondarily to fill the A site and its corresponding codon move spontaneously into the P site, resulting in a complex with a 3-nt longer spacer between the SD-ASD helix and the P codon. While close proximity of the SD clearly destabilizes P-site tRNA, RF2-dependent termination and EF-Tu-dependent decoding are largely unaffected in analogous complexes. These data support a model in which formation of the SD-ASD helix in ribosomes stalled at the in-frame UGA codon of prfB generates tension on the mRNA that destabilizes codon-anticodon pairing in the P site and promotes slippage of the mRNA in the 5? direction. PMID:21143320

  15. Photograph Usage in History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbaba, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the effect of photograph usage in history education to the students' achievement was tried to be identified. In the study which was done with a pre-test post-test control group design, a frame was tried to be established between the experimental group and the analytical usage of the photograph, the control group's courses were done…

  16. An empirical test of the concomitantly variable codon hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Merlo, Lauren M. F.; Lunzer, Mark; Dean, Antony M.

    2007-01-01

    A central assumption of models of molecular evolution, that each site in a sequence evolves independently of all other sites, lacks empirical support. We investigated the extent to which sites evolve codependently in triosephosphate isomerase (TIM), a ubiquitous glycolytic enzyme conserved in both structure and function. Codependencies among sites, or concomitantly variable codons (covarions), are evident from the reduced function and misfolding of hybrid TIM proteins. Although they exist, we find covarions are relatively rare, and closely related proteins are unlikely to have developed them. However, the potential for covarions increases with genetic distance so that highly divergent proteins may have evolved codependencies between many sites. The evolution of covarions undermines a key assumption in phylogenetics and calls into question our ability to disentangle ancient relationships among major taxonomic groups. PMID:17578921

  17. TP53 codon 72 polymorphisms in favorable histology Wilms tumors.

    PubMed

    Cost, Nicholas G; Mitui, Midori; Khokhar, Shama; Wickiser, Jonathan E; Baker, Linda A; Rakheja, Dinesh

    2012-08-01

    In Wilms tumor (WT), mutations in the gene encoding p53, TP53, are correlated with anaplasia; however TP53 variants have not been studied in favorable histology (FH) WTs. A single nucleotide polymorphism of TP53 encoding either arginine or proline at codon 72 is suggested to alter in vitro p53 behavior. Therefore, we analyzed tissue from 23 consecutive patients with FHWT to determine allelic and genotypic frequencies of Pro72 and Arg72 variants and correlate this with clinical outcomes. Interestingly, our cohort showed a statistically significant over-representation of the Arg allele and Arg/Arg genotype. However, the genotypic and allelic frequencies showed no significant correlation with age, stage, or disease recurrence. PMID:22052810

  18. When a ribosome encounters a premature termination codon.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jungwook; Kim, Yoon Ki

    2013-01-01

    In mammalian cells, aberrant transcripts harboring a premature termination codon (PTC) can be generated by abnormal or inefficient biogenesis of mRNAs or by somatic mutation. Truncated polypeptides synthesized from these aberrant transcripts could be toxic to normal cellular functions. However, mammalian cells have evolved sophisticated mechanisms for monitoring the quality of mRNAs. The faulty transcripts harboring PTC are subject to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), nonsense-mediated translational repression (NMTR), nonsense-associated alternative splicing (NAS), or nonsense-mediated transcriptional gene silencing (NMTGS). In this review, we briefly outline the molecular characteristics of each pathway and suggest mRNA quality control mechanisms as a means to regulate normal gene expression. PMID:23351378

  19. Association between p53 Codon 72 (Arg72Pro) Polymorphism and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Neamatzadeh, Hossein; Soleimanizad, Reza; Zare-Shehneh, Masoud; Gharibi, Saba; Shekari, Abolfazl; Bahman Rahimzadeh, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glaucomatous neuropathy is a type of cell death due to apoptosis. The p53 gene is one of the regulatory genes of apoptosis. Recently, the association between the p53 gene encoding for proline at codon 72 and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) has been studied in some ethnic groups. This study is the first association analysis of POAG and p53 codon 72 polymorphism in Iranian patients. Methods: A cohort of 65 unrelated patients with POAG (age range from 12-62 years, mean ± SD of 40.16 ± 17.51 years) and 65 unrelated control subjects (without glaucoma, age range of 14-63 years, mean ± SD of 35.64 ± 13.61 years) were selected. In Iranian POAG patients and normal healthy controls, the p53 codon 72 polymorphism in exon 4 was amplified using polymerase chain reaction. The amplified DNA fragments were digested with the BstUI restriction enzyme, and the digestion patterns were used to identify the alleles for the polymorphic site. Results: Comparisons revealed significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of Pro72Arg between POAG patients and control group. A higher risk of POAG was associated with allele Pro (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2–3.4) and genotype Pro/Pro (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 0.13-12.7). Conclusion: The p53 Pro72 allele was more frequent in Iranian POAG patients than in the control group (P<0.05). The present findings show that the individuals with the Pro/Pro genotype may be more likely to develop POAG. However, additional studies are necessary to confirm this association. PMID:25605490

  20. Genetic code supports targeted insertion of two amino acids by one codon

    PubMed Central

    Turanov, Anton A.; Lobanov, Alexey V.; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Klobutcher, Lawrence A.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Strict one-to-one correspondence between codons and amino acids is thought to be an essential feature of the genetic code. However, here we report that one codon can code for two different amino acids with the choice of the inserted amino acid determined by a specific 3?-UTR structure and location of the dual-function codon within the mRNA. We found that UGA specifies insertion of selenocysteine and cysteine in the ciliate Euplotes crassus, that the dual use of this codon can occur even within the same gene, and that the structural arrangements of Euplotes mRNA preserve location-dependent dual function of UGA when expressed in mammalian cells. Thus, the genetic code supports the use of one codon to code for multiple amino acids. PMID:19131629

  1. Mine or Theirs, Where Do Users Go? A Comparison of E-Journal Usage at the OhioLINK Electronic Journal Center Platform versus the Elsevier ScienceDirect Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Juleah

    2015-01-01

    This research provides librarians with a model for assessing and predicting which platforms patrons will use to access the same content, specifically comparing usage at the Ohio Library and Information Network (OhioLINK) Electronic Journal Center (EJC) and at Elsevier's ScienceDirect from 2007 to 2013. Findings show that in the earlier years, the…

  2. Aminoglycoside antibiotics mediate context-dependent suppression of termination codons in a mammalian translation system.

    PubMed Central

    Manuvakhova, M; Keeling, K; Bedwell, D M

    2000-01-01

    The translation machinery recognizes codons that enter the ribosomal A site with remarkable accuracy to ensure that polypeptide synthesis proceeds with a minimum of errors. When a termination codon enters the A site of a eukaryotic ribosome, it is recognized by the release factor eRF1. It has been suggested that the recognition of translation termination signals in these organisms is not limited to a simple trinucleotide codon, but is instead recognized by an extended tetranucleotide termination signal comprised of the stop codon and the first nucleotide that follows. Interestingly, pharmacological agents such as aminoglycoside antibiotics can reduce the efficiency of translation termination by a mechanism that alters this ribosomal proofreading process. This leads to the misincorporation of an amino acid through the pairing of a near-cognate aminoacyl tRNA with the stop codon. To determine whether the sequence context surrounding a stop codon can influence aminoglycoside-mediated suppression of translation termination signals, we developed a series of readthrough constructs that contained different tetranucleotide termination signals, as well as differences in the three bases upstream and downstream of the stop codon. Our results demonstrate that the sequences surrounding a stop codon can play an important role in determining its susceptibility to suppression by aminoglycosides. Furthermore, these distal sequences were found to influence the level of suppression in remarkably distinct ways. These results suggest that the mRNA context influences the suppression of stop codons in response to subtle differences in the conformation of the ribosomal decoding site that result from aminoglycoside binding. PMID:10917599

  3. FUNCTIONAL USAGE DEFINITIONS RESEARCH (OR)

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    FUNCTIONAL USAGE DEFINITIONS ORGANIZED RESEARCH (OR) Space devoted to all research sponsorships under an internal application of departmental funds. Sponsored research training includes activities involving the training of individuals in research techniques when such activities share the same

  4. Feasibility Study of a Rotorcraft Health and Usage Monitoring System ( HUMS): Usage and Structural Life Monitoring Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, B.; Cronkhite, J.; Bielefeld, S.; Killian, L.; Hayden, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate two techniques, Flight Condition Recognition (FCR) and Flight Load Synthesis (FLS), for usage monitoring and assess the potential benefits of extending the retirement intervals of life-limited components, thus reducing the operator's maintenance and replacement costs. Both techniques involve indirect determination of loads using measured flight parameters and subsequent fatigue analysis to calculate the life expended on the life-limited components. To assess the potential benefit of usage monitoring, the two usage techniques were compared to current methods of component retirement. In addition, comparisons were made with direct load measurements to assess the accuracy of the two techniques. The data that was used for the evaluation of the usage monitoring techniques was collected under an independent HUMS Flight trial program, using a commercially available HUMS and data recording system. The usage data collect from the HUMS trial aircraft was analyzed off-line using PC-based software that included the FCR and FLS techniques. In the future, if the technique prove feasible, usage monitoring would be incorporated into the onboard HUMS.

  5. The unfolded protein response affects readthrough of premature termination codons

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Yifat S; McClure, Michelle L; Rowe, Steven M; Sorscher, Eric J; Bester, Assaf C; Manor, Miriam; Kerem, Eitan; Rivlin, Joseph; Zahdeh, Fouad; Mann, Matthias; Geiger, Tamar; Kerem, Batsheva

    2014-01-01

    One-third of monogenic inherited diseases result from premature termination codons (PTCs). Readthrough of in-frame PTCs enables synthesis of full-length functional proteins. However, extended variability in the response to readthrough treatment is found among patients, which correlates with the level of nonsense transcripts. Here, we aimed to reveal cellular pathways affecting this inter-patient variability. We show that activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) governs the response to readthrough treatment by regulating the levels of transcripts carrying PTCs. Quantitative proteomic analyses showed substantial differences in UPR activation between patients carrying PTCs, correlating with their response. We further found a significant inverse correlation between the UPR and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), suggesting a feedback loop between these homeostatic pathways. We uncovered and characterized the mechanism underlying this NMD-UPR feedback loop, which augments both UPR activation and NMD attenuation. Importantly, this feedback loop enhances the response to readthrough treatment, highlighting its clinical importance. Altogether, our study demonstrates the importance of the UPR and its regulatory network for genetic diseases caused by PTCs and for cell homeostasis under normal conditions. PMID:24705877

  6. tRNAomics: tRNA gene copy number variation and codon use provide bioinformatic evidence of a new anticodon:codon wobble pair in a eukaryote.

    PubMed

    Iben, James R; Maraia, Richard J

    2012-07-01

    tRNA genes are interspersed throughout eukaryotic DNA, contributing to genome architecture and evolution in addition to translation of the transcriptome. Codon use correlates with tRNA gene copy number in noncomplex organisms including yeasts. Synonymous codons impact translation with various outcomes, dependent on relative tRNA abundances. Availability of whole-genome sequences allowed us to examine tRNA gene copy number variation (tgCNV) and codon use in four Schizosaccharomyces species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. tRNA gene numbers vary from 171 to 322 in the four Schizosaccharomyces despite very high similarity in other features of their genomes. In addition, we performed whole-genome sequencing of several related laboratory strains of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and found tgCNV at a cluster of tRNA genes. We examined for the first time effects of wobble rules on correlation of tRNA gene number and codon use and showed improvement for S. cerevisiae and three of the Schizosaccharomyces species. In contrast, correlation in Schizosaccharomyces japonicus is poor due to markedly divergent tRNA gene content, and much worsened by the wobble rules. In japonicus, some tRNA iso-acceptor genes are absent and others are greatly reduced relative to the other yeasts, while genes for synonymous wobble iso-acceptors are amplified, indicating wobble use not apparent in any other eukaryote. We identified a subset of japonicus-specific wobbles that improves correlation of codon use and tRNA gene content in japonicus. We conclude that tgCNV is high among Schizo species and occurs in related laboratory strains of S. pombe (and expectedly other species), and tRNAome-codon analyses can provide insight into species-specific wobble decoding. PMID:22586155

  7. Evidence of abundant stop codon readthrough in Drosophila and other Metazoa

    E-print Network

    Jungreis, Irwin

    While translational stop codon readthrough is often used by viral genomes, it has been observed for only a handful of eukaryotic genes. We previously used comparative genomics evidence to recognize protein-coding regions ...

  8. Identifying protein-coding genes and synonymous constraint elements using phylogenetic codon models

    E-print Network

    Lin, Michael F. (Michael Fong-Jay)

    2012-01-01

    We develop novel methods for comparative genomics analysis of protein-coding genes using phylogenetic codon models, in pursuit of two main lines of biological investigation: First, we develop PhyloCSF, an algorithm based ...

  9. Reinitiation at non-canonical start codons leads to leak expression when incorporating unnatural amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Kalstrup, Tanja; Blunck, Rikard

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of a continuously growing selection of unnatural amino acids (UAAs), UAA insertion becomes increasingly popular for investigating proteins. However, it can prove problematic to ensure the homogeneity of the expressed proteins, when homogeneity is compromised by “leak expression”. Here, we show that leak expression may be mediated by reinitiation and can result in unwanted proteins when stop codons for UAA insertion are mutated into the N-terminus of proteins. We demonstrate that up to 25% of leak expression occurs through reinitiation in the Shaker-Kv channel when stop codons are located within the first 70 amino acids. Several non-canonical start codons were identified as translation reinitaition sites, and by removing the start codons, we were able to decrease leak expression to less than 1%. Our study emphasizes the need to carefully inspect for leak expression when inserting UAAs and demonstrates how leak expression can be eliminated. PMID:26153354

  10. Reinitiation at non-canonical start codons leads to leak expression when incorporating unnatural amino acids.

    PubMed

    Kalstrup, Tanja; Blunck, Rikard

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of a continuously growing selection of unnatural amino acids (UAAs), UAA insertion becomes increasingly popular for investigating proteins. However, it can prove problematic to ensure the homogeneity of the expressed proteins, when homogeneity is compromised by "leak expression". Here, we show that leak expression may be mediated by reinitiation and can result in unwanted proteins when stop codons for UAA insertion are mutated into the N-terminus of proteins. We demonstrate that up to 25% of leak expression occurs through reinitiation in the Shaker-Kv channel when stop codons are located within the first 70 amino acids. Several non-canonical start codons were identified as translation reinitaition sites, and by removing the start codons, we were able to decrease leak expression to less than 1%. Our study emphasizes the need to carefully inspect for leak expression when inserting UAAs and demonstrates how leak expression can be eliminated. PMID:26153354

  11. A codon-optimized bacterial antibiotic gene used as selection marker for stable nuclear transformation in the marine red alga Pyropia yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Uji, Toshiki; Hirata, Ryo; Fukuda, Satoru; Mizuta, Hiroyuki; Saga, Naotsune

    2014-06-01

    Marine macroalgae play an important role in marine coastal ecosystems and are widely used as sea vegetation foodstuffs and for industrial purposes. Therefore, there have been increased demands for useful species and varieties of these macroalgae. However, genetic transformation in macroalgae has not yet been established. We have developed a dominant selection marker for stable nuclear transformation in the red macroalga Pyropia yezoensis. We engineered the coding region of the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase gene aph7? from Streptomyces hygroscopicus to adapt codon usage of the nuclear genes of P. yezoensis. We designated this codon-optimized aph7? gene as PyAph7. After bombarding P. yezoensis cells with plasmids containing PyAph7 under the control of their endogenous promoter, 1.9 thalli (or individuals) of hygromycin-resistant strains were isolated from a 10-mm square piece of the bombarded thallus. These transformants were stably maintained throughout the asexual life cycle. Stable expression of PyAph7was verified using Southern blot analysis and genomic PCR and RT-PCR analyses. PyAph7 proved to be a new versatile tool for stable nuclear transformation in P. yezoensis. PMID:24149658

  12. Reassignment of a rare sense codon to a non-canonical amino acid in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Takahito; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Ohtake, Kazumasa; Takahashi, Mihoko; Hayashi, Akiko; Iraha, Fumie; Kira, Satoshi; Yanagisawa, Tatsuo; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Hoshi, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Takatsugu; Sakamoto, Kensaku

    2015-01-01

    The immutability of the genetic code has been challenged with the successful reassignment of the UAG stop codon to non-natural amino acids in Escherichia coli. In the present study, we demonstrated the in vivo reassignment of the AGG sense codon from arginine to l-homoarginine. As the first step, we engineered a novel variant of the archaeal pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) able to recognize l-homoarginine and l-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine (l-NIL). When this PylRS variant or HarRS was expressed in E. coli, together with the AGG-reading tRNAPylCCU molecule, these arginine analogs were efficiently incorporated into proteins in response to AGG. Next, some or all of the AGG codons in the essential genes were eliminated by their synonymous replacements with other arginine codons, whereas the majority of the AGG codons remained in the genome. The bacterial host's ability to translate AGG into arginine was then restricted in a temperature-dependent manner. The temperature sensitivity caused by this restriction was rescued by the translation of AGG to l-homoarginine or l-NIL. The assignment of AGG to l-homoarginine in the cells was confirmed by mass spectrometric analyses. The results showed the feasibility of breaking the degeneracy of sense codons to enhance the amino-acid diversity in the genetic code. PMID:26240376

  13. Translation initiation factor eIF3 promotes programmed stop codon readthrough

    PubMed Central

    Beznosková, Petra; Wagner, Susan; Jansen, Myrte Esmeralda; von der Haar, Tobias; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya

    2015-01-01

    Programmed stop codon readthrough is a post-transcription regulatory mechanism specifically increasing proteome diversity by creating a pool of C-terminally extended proteins. During this process, the stop codon is decoded as a sense codon by a near-cognate tRNA, which programs the ribosome to continue elongation. The efficiency of competition for the stop codon between release factors (eRFs) and near-cognate tRNAs is largely dependent on its nucleotide context; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is unknown. Here, we show that it is the translation initiation (not termination) factor, namely eIF3, which critically promotes programmed readthrough on all three stop codons. In order to do so, eIF3 must associate with pre-termination complexes where it interferes with the eRF1 decoding of the third/wobble position of the stop codon set in the unfavorable termination context, thus allowing incorporation of near-cognate tRNAs with a mismatch at the same position. We clearly demonstrate that efficient readthrough is enabled by near-cognate tRNAs with a mismatch only at the third/wobble position. Importantly, the eIF3 role in programmed readthrough is conserved between yeast and humans. PMID:25925566

  14. High level production of ?-galactosidase exhibiting excellent milk-lactose degradation ability from Aspergillus oryzae by codon and fermentation optimization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qianqian; Liu, Fei; Hou, Zhongwen; Yuan, Chao; Zhu, Xiqiang

    2014-03-01

    A ?-galactosidase gene from Aspergillus oryzae was engineered utilizing codon usage optimization to be constitutively and highly expressed in the Pichia pastoris SMD1168H strain in a high-cell-density fermentation. After fermentation for 96 h in a 50-L fermentor using glucose and glycerol as combined carbon sources, the recombinant enzyme in the culture supernatant had an activity of 4,239.07 U mL(-1) with o-nitrophenyl-?-D-galactopyranoside as the substrate, and produced a total of extracellular protein content of 7.267 g L(-1) in which the target protein (6.24 g L(-1)) occupied approximately 86 %. The recombinant ?-galactosidase exhibited an excellent lactose hydrolysis ability. With 1,000 U of the enzyme in 100 mL milk, 92.44 % lactose was degraded within 24 h at 60 °C, and the enzyme could also accomplish the hydrolysis at low temperatures of 37, 25, and 10 °C. Thus, this engineered strain had significantly higher fermentation level of A. oryzae lactase than that before optimization and the ?-galactosidase may have a good application potential in whey and milk industries. PMID:24435763

  15. New insights into the incorporation of natural suppressor tRNAs at stop codons in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Blanchet, Sandra; Cornu, David; Argentini, Manuela; Namy, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Stop codon readthrough may be promoted by the nucleotide environment or drugs. In such cases, ribosomes incorporate a natural suppressor tRNA at the stop codon, leading to the continuation of translation in the same reading frame until the next stop codon and resulting in the expression of a protein with a new potential function. However, the identity of the natural suppressor tRNAs involved in stop codon readthrough remains unclear, precluding identification of the amino acids incorporated at the stop position. We established an in vivo reporter system for identifying the amino acids incorporated at the stop codon, by mass spectrometry in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that glutamine, tyrosine and lysine were inserted at UAA and UAG codons, whereas tryptophan, cysteine and arginine were inserted at UGA codon. The 5? nucleotide context of the stop codon had no impact on the identity or proportion of amino acids incorporated by readthrough. We also found that two different glutamine tRNAGln were used to insert glutamine at UAA and UAG codons. This work constitutes the first systematic analysis of the amino acids incorporated at stop codons, providing important new insights into the decoding rules used by the ribosome to read the genetic code. PMID:25056309

  16. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus phages: effect of translation initiation efficiency on differential codon adaptation mediated by virulent and temperate lifestyles

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakaran, Ramanandan; Chithambaram, Shivapriya

    2015-01-01

    Rapid biosynthesis is key to the success of bacteria and viruses. Highly expressed genes in bacteria exhibit a strong codon bias corresponding to the differential availability of tRNAs. However, a large clade of lambdoid coliphages exhibits relatively poor codon adaptation to the host translation machinery, in contrast to other coliphages that exhibit strong codon adaptation to the host. Three possible explanations were previously proposed but dismissed: (1) the phage-borne tRNA genes that reduce the dependence of phage translation on host tRNAs, (2) lack of time needed for evolving codon adaptation due to recent host switching, and (3) strong strand asymmetry with biased mutation disrupting codon adaptation. Here, we examined the possibility that phages with relatively poor codon adaptation have poor translation initiation which would weaken the selection on codon adaptation. We measured translation initiation by: (1) the strength and position of the Shine–Dalgarno (SD) sequence, and (2) the stability of the secondary structure of sequences flanking the SD and start codon known to affect accessibility of the SD sequence and start codon. Phage genes with strong codon adaptation had significantly stronger SD sequences than those with poor codon adaptation. The former also had significantly weaker secondary structure in sequences flanking the SD sequence and start codon than the latter. Thus, lambdoid phages do not exhibit strong codon adaptation because they have relatively inefficient translation initiation and would benefit little from increased elongation efficiency. We also provided evidence suggesting that phage lifestyle (virulent versus temperate) affected selection intensity on the efficiency of translation initiation and elongation. PMID:25614589

  17. Cloning of the Zymomonas mobilis structural gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase I (adhA): Sequence comparison and expression in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Keshav, K.F.; Yomano, L.P.; Haejung An; Ingram, L.O. )

    1990-05-01

    Zymomonas mobilis ferments sugars to produce ethanol with two biochemically distinct isoenzymes of alcohol dehydrogenase. The adhA gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase I has now been sequenced and compared with the adhB gene, which encodes the second isoenzyme. The deduced amino acid sequences for these gene products exhibited no apparent homology. Alcohol dehydrogenase I contained 337 amino acids, with a subunit molecular weight of 36,096. Based on comparisons of primary amino acid sequences, this enzyme belongs to the family of zinc alcohol dehydrogenases which have been described primarily in eucaryotes. Nearly all of the 22 strictly conserved amino acids in this group were also conserved in Z. mobilis alcohol dehydrogenase I. Alcohol dehydrogenase I is an abundant protein, although adhA lacked many of the features previously reported in four other highly expressed genes from Z. mobilis. Codon usage in adhA is not highly biased and includes many codons which were unused by pdc, adhB, gap, and pgk. The ribosomal binding region of adhA lacked the canonical Shine-Dalgarno sequence found in the other highly expressed genes from Z. mobilis. Although these features may facilitate the expression of high enzyme levels, they do not appear to be essential for the expression of Z. mobilis adhA.

  18. Modeling Educational Usage of Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazman, Sacide Guzin; Usluel, Yasemin Kocak

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design a structural model explaining how users could utilize Facebook for educational purposes. In order to shed light on the educational usage of Facebook, in constructing the model, the relationship between users' Facebook adoption processes and their educational use of Facebook were included indirectly while the…

  19. Users, Use, and Usage Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogg, Jill E.

    2010-01-01

    For the August/September 2010 issue of "Library Technology Reports" (LTR) published by the American Library Association Techsource division, the author and her colleague, Rachel A. Fleming-May, focused on use and usage, both of electronic resources and use of libraries in general. In this article, the author discusses a few of the findings from an…

  20. Code Usage Analysis System (CUAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horsley, P. H.; Oliver, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    A set of computer programs is offered to aid a user in evaluating performance of an application program. The system provides reports of subroutine usage, program errors, and segment loading which occurred during the execution of an application program. It is presented in support of the development and validation of the space vehicle dynamics project.

  1. Codon expansion and systematic transcriptional deletions produce tetra-, pentacoded mitochondrial peptides.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2015-12-21

    Genes include occasionally isolated codons with a fourth (and fifth) silent nucleotide(s). Assuming tetracodons, translated hypothetical peptides align with regular GenBank proteins; predicted tetracodons coevolve with predicted tRNAs with expanded anticodons in each mammal, Drosophila and Lepidosauria mitogenomes, GC contents and with lepidosaurian body temperatures, suggesting that expanded codons are an adaptation of translation to high temperature. Hypothetically, continuous stretches of tetra- and pentacodons code for peptides. Both systematic nucleotide deletions during transcription, and translation by tRNAs with expanded anticodons could produce these peptides. Reanalyses of human nanoLc mass spectrometry peptidome data detect numerous tetra- and pentapeptides translated from the human mitogenome. These map preferentially on (BLAST-detected) human RNAs matching the human mitogenome, assuming systematic mono- and dinucleotide deletions after each third nucleotide (delRNAs). Translation by expanded anticodons is incompatible with silent nucleotides in the midst rather than at codon 3' extremity. More than 1/3 of detected tetra- and pentapeptides assume silent positions at codon extremity, suggesting that both mechanisms, regular translation of delRNAs and translation of regular RNAs by expanded anticodons, produce this peptide subgroup. Results show that systematically deleting polymerization occurs, and confirm serial translation of expanded codons. Non-canonical transcriptions and translations considerably expand the coding potential of DNA and RNA sequences. PMID:26456204

  2. The effect of tRNA levels on decoding times of mRNA codons

    PubMed Central

    Dana, Alexandra; Tuller, Tamir

    2014-01-01

    The possible effect of transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) concentrations on codons decoding time is a fundamental biomedical research question; however, due to a large number of variables affecting this process and the non-direct relation between them, a conclusive answer to this question has eluded so far researchers in the field. In this study, we perform a novel analysis of the ribosome profiling data of four organisms which enables ranking the decoding times of different codons while filtering translational phenomena such as experimental biases, extreme ribosomal pauses and ribosome traffic jams. Based on this filtering, we show for the first time that there is a significant correlation between tRNA concentrations and the codons estimated decoding time both in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes in natural conditions (?0.38 to ?0.66, all P values <0.006); in addition, we show that when considering tRNA concentrations, codons decoding times are not correlated with aminoacyl-tRNA levels. The reported results support the conjecture that translation efficiency is directly influenced by the tRNA levels in the cell. Thus, they should help to understand the evolution of synonymous aspects of coding sequences via the adaptation of their codons to the tRNA pool. PMID:25056313

  3. p53 codon 72 polymorphism and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    HOU, JING; JIANG, YUAN; TANG, WENRU; JIA, SHUTING

    2013-01-01

    p53 is a tumor suppressor gene and plays important roles in the etiology of breast cancer. Studies have produced conflicting results concerning the role of p53 codon 72 polymorphism (G>C) on the risk of breast cancer; therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to estimate the association between the p53 codon 72 polymorphism and breast cancer. Screening of the PubMed database was conducted to identify relevant studies. Studies containing available genotype frequencies of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism were selected and a pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the association. Sixty-one published studies, including 28,539 breast cancer patients and 32,788 controls were identified. The results suggest that variant genotypes are not associated with breast cancer risk (Pro/Pro + Arg/Pro vs. Arg/Arg: OR=1.016, 95% CI=0.931–1.11, P=0.722). The symmetric funnel plot, Egger’s test (P=0.506) and Begg’s test (P=0.921) were all suggestive of the lack of publication bias. This meta-analysis suggests that the p53 codon 72 Pro/Pro + Arg/Pro genotypes are not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. To validate the association between the p53 codon 72 polymorphism and breast cancer, further studies with larger numbers of participants worldwide are required. PMID:23737888

  4. Cloning and expression of codon-optimized recombinant darbepoetin alfa in Leishmania tarentolae T7-TR.

    PubMed

    Kianmehr, Anvarsadat; Golavar, Raziyeh; Rouintan, Mandana; Mahrooz, Abdolkarim; Fard-Esfahani, Pezhman; Oladnabi, Morteza; Khajeniazi, Safoura; Mostafavi, Seyede Samaneh; Omidinia, Eskandar

    2016-02-01

    Darbepoetin alfa is an engineered and hyperglycosylated analog of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) which is used as a drug in treating anemia in patients with chronic kidney failure and cancer. This study desribes the secretory expression of a codon-optimized recombinant form of darbepoetin alfa in Leishmania tarentolae T7-TR. Synthetic codon-optimized gene was amplified by PCR and cloned into the pLEXSY-I-blecherry3 vector. The resultant expression vector, pLEXSYDarbo, was purified, digested, and electroporated into the L. tarentolae. Expression of recombinant darbepoetin alfa was evaluated by ELISA, reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and biological activity. After codon optimization, codon adaptation index (CAI) of the gene raised from 0.50 to 0.99 and its GC% content changed from 56% to 58%. Expression analysis confirmed the presence of a protein band at 40 kDa. Furthermore, reticulocyte experiment results revealed that the activity of expressed darbepoetin alfa was similar to that of its equivalent expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. These data suggested that the codon optimization and expression in L. tarentolae host provided an efficient approach for high level expression of darbepoetin alfa. PMID:26546410

  5. Introns are cis effectors of the nonsense-codon-mediated reduction in nuclear mRNA abundance.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, J; Belgrader, P; Zhou, X; Maquat, L E

    1994-01-01

    The translation of human triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) mRNA normally terminates at codon 249 within exon 7, the final exon. Frameshift and nonsense mutations of the type that cause translation to terminate prematurely at or upstream of codon 189 within exon 6 reduce the level of nuclear TPI mRNA to 20 to 30% of normal by a mechanism that is not a function of the distance of the nonsense codon from either the translation initiation or termination codon. In contrast, frameshift and nonsense mutations of another type that cause translation to terminate prematurely at or downstream of codon 208, also within exon 6, have no effect on the level of nuclear TPI mRNA. In this work, quantitations of RNA that derived from TPI alleles in which nonsense codons had been generated between codons 189 and 208 revealed that the boundary between the two types of nonsense codons resides between codons 192 and 195. The analysis of TPI gene insertions and deletions indicated that the positional feature differentiating the two types of nonsense codons is the distance of the nonsense codon upstream of intron 6. For example, the movement of intron 6 to a position downstream of its normal location resulted in a concomitant downstream movement of the boundary between the two types of nonsense codons. The analysis of intron 6 mutations indicated that the intron 6 effect is stipulated by the 88 nucleotides residing between the 5' and 3' splice sites. Since the deletion of intron 6 resulted in only partial abrogation of the nonsense codon-mediated reduction in the level of TPI mRNA, other sequences within TPI pre-mRNA must function in the effect. One of these sequences may be intron 2, since the deletion of intron 2 also resulted in partial abrogation of the effect. In experiments that switched introns 2 and 6, the replacement of intron 6 with intron 2 was of no consequence to the effect of a nonsense codon within either exon 1 or exon 6. In contrast, the replacement of intron 2 with intron 6 was inconsequential to the effect of a nonsense codon in exon 6 but resulted in partial abrogation of a nonsense codon in exon 1. Images PMID:8065363

  6. ANT: Software for Generating and Evaluating Degenerate Codons for Natural and Expanded Genetic Codes.

    PubMed

    Engqvist, Martin K M; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-08-21

    The Ambiguous Nucleotide Tool (ANT) is a desktop application that generates and evaluates degenerate codons. Degenerate codons are used to represent DNA positions that have multiple possible nucleotide alternatives. This is useful for protein engineering and directed evolution, where primers specified with degenerate codons are used as a basis for generating libraries of protein sequences. ANT is intuitive and can be used in a graphical user interface or by interacting with the code through a defined application programming interface. ANT comes with full support for nonstandard, user-defined, or expanded genetic codes (translation tables), which is important because synthetic biology is being applied to an ever widening range of natural and engineered organisms. The Python source code for ANT is freely distributed so that it may be used without restriction, modified, and incorporated in other software or custom data pipelines. PMID:25901796

  7. Frameshift Mutations (Deletion at Codon 1309 and Codon 849) in the APC Gene in Iranian FAP Patients: a Case Series and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Kashfi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Behboudi Farahbakhsh, Faeghe; Golmohammadi, Mina; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Asadzadeh Aghdaie, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is responsible for <1% of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases and is inherited an autosomal dominant trait. Patients generally present hundreds to thousands of adenomas and develop colorectal cancer by age 35- 40 if left untreated. Here we report four patients with germline frameshift mutation (small deletion) at exon 15 of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene. Peripheral blood samples were collected from patients and Exon 15 of the APC gene was studied by direct sequencing after genomic DNA extraction. Four frameshift mutations were detected. Two patients had 5 bp deletion, c.3927_3931delAAAGA and two siblings presented deletion at codon 849 (c.2547_2548delTA p.Asp849fsX62). This study was the first report of genetic screening in Iranian FAP patients. In contrast to other studies we revealed that one patient with mutation at codon 1309 had an attenuated phenotype. PMID:25317407

  8. Frameshift Mutations (Deletion at Codon 1309 and Codon 849) in the APC Gene in Iranian FAP Patients: a Case Series and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kashfi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Behboudi Farahbakhsh, Faeghe; Golmohammadi, Mina; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Asadzadeh Aghdaie, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is responsible for <1% of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases and is inherited an autosomal dominant trait. Patients generally present hundreds to thousands of adenomas and develop colorectal cancer by age 35- 40 if left untreated. Here we report four patients with germline frameshift mutation (small deletion) at exon 15 of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene. Peripheral blood samples were collected from patients and Exon 15 of the APC gene was studied by direct sequencing after genomic DNA extraction. Four frameshift mutations were detected. Two patients had 5 bp deletion, c.3927_3931delAAAGA and two siblings presented deletion at codon 849 (c.2547_2548delTA p.Asp849fsX62). This study was the first report of genetic screening in Iranian FAP patients. In contrast to other studies we revealed that one patient with mutation at codon 1309 had an attenuated phenotype. PMID:25317407

  9. Sense codon emancipation for proteome-wide incorporation of noncanonical amino acids: rare isoleucine codon AUA as a target for genetic code expansion

    PubMed Central

    Bohlke, Nina; Budisa, Nediljko

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges in contemporary synthetic biology is to find a route to engineer synthetic organisms with altered chemical constitution. In terms of core reaction types, nature uses an astonishingly limited repertoire of chemistries when compared with the exceptionally rich and diverse methods of organic chemistry. In this context, the most promising route to change and expand the fundamental chemistry of life is the inclusion of amino acid building blocks beyond the canonical 20 (i.e. expanding the genetic code). This strategy would allow the transfer of numerous chemical functionalities and reactions from the synthetic laboratory into the cellular environment. Due to limitations in terms of both efficiency and practical applicability, state-of-the-art nonsense suppression- or frameshift suppression-based methods are less suitable for such engineering. Consequently, we set out to achieve this goal by sense codon emancipation, that is, liberation from its natural decoding function – a prerequisite for the reassignment of degenerate sense codons to a new 21st amino acid. We have achieved this by redesigning of several features of the post-transcriptional modification machinery which are directly involved in the decoding process. In particular, we report first steps towards the reassignment of 5797 AUA isoleucine codons in Escherichia coli using efficient tools for tRNA nucleotide modification pathway engineering. PMID:24433543

  10. PCR-RFLP to Detect Codon 248 Mutation in Exon 7 of "p53" Tumor Suppressor Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouyang, Liming; Ge, Chongtao; Wu, Haizhen; Li, Suxia; Zhang, Huizhan

    2009-01-01

    Individual genome DNA was extracted fast from oral swab and followed up with PCR specific for codon 248 of "p53" tumor suppressor gene. "Msp"I restriction mapping showed the G-C mutation in codon 248, which closely relates to cancer susceptibility. Students learn the concepts, detection techniques, and research significance of point mutations or…

  11. Asc1, homolog of human RACK1, prevents frameshifting in yeast by ribosomes stalled at CGA codon repeats.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Andrew S; Grayhack, Elizabeth J

    2015-05-01

    Quality control systems monitor and stop translation at some ribosomal stalls, but it is unknown if halting translation at such stalls actually prevents synthesis of abnormal polypeptides. In yeast, ribosome stalling occurs at Arg CGA codon repeats, with even two consecutive CGA codons able to reduce translation by up to 50%. The conserved eukaryotic Asc1 protein limits translation through internal Arg CGA codon repeats. We show that, in the absence of Asc1 protein, ribosomes continue translating at CGA codons, but undergo substantial frameshifting with dramatically higher levels of frameshifting occurring with additional repeats of CGA codons. Frameshifting depends upon the slow or inefficient decoding of these codons, since frameshifting is suppressed by increased expression of the native tRNA(Arg(ICG)) that decodes CGA codons by wobble decoding. Moreover, the extent of frameshifting is modulated by the position of the CGA codon repeat relative to the translation start site. Thus, translation fidelity depends upon Asc1-mediated quality control. PMID:25792604

  12. Identification of a Rare ?(0)-Thalassemia Mutation, Codon 54 (-T) (HBB: c.165delT) in an Iranian Family.

    PubMed

    Ghasemian Dastjerdy, Nadia; Banihashemi, Ali; Azizi, Mandana; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh

    2015-12-01

    ?-Thalassemia (?-thal) is the most widespread autosomal recessive disorder worldwide. The present study describes a very rare ?-globin gene mutation, codon 54 (-T) (HBB: c.165delT), in a family from northern Iran. Nucleotide sequencing of amplified DNA obtained from a 28-year-old man revealed a deletion (-T) at codon 54 of the ?-globin gene that results in a nonsense sequence at codon 60 and inphase termination at codon 59. Moreover, the haplotype combination of six different restriction enzyme sites in the ?-globin cluster was determined for this mutation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second article reporting the codon 54 mutation worldwide and the first report of this mutation in the Iranian population, emphasizing the high heterogeneity of this population. PMID:26290442

  13. Codon 249 mutations of p53 gene in non-neoplastic liver tissues

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiao-Mou; Yao, Chun-Lan; Chen, Xue-Juan; Peng, Wen-Wei; Gao, Zhi-Liang

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To study the significance of p53 gene in hepatocarcino genesis through analyzing codon 249 mutations of p53 gene in non-neoplastic liver tissues. METHODS: Codon 249 mutation was detected using single-strande d conformational polymorphism analysis and allele-specific PCR in liver tissues from 10 cases of chronic hepatitis, 5 cases of cirrhosis and 20 cases of HCCs. RESULTS: The detection rate of codon 249 mutation in chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and pericancerous tissues was 70% (7/10), 100% (5/5) and 70% (14/20), respectively by AS-PCR. These mutations could not be detected b y SSCP analysis. The detection rates were 65% (13/20) and 45% (9/20) in cancerous tissues by AS-PCR and SSCP analysis. CONCLUSION: Codon 249 mutations of p53 gene were very popular in non-neoplastic liver tissues though the number of those mutant cells was only in subsection. Those mutations in cancerous tissues might take place in the stage before the formation of tumor. PMID:11819458

  14. A model for codon position bias in RNA editing Tsunglin Liu and Ralf Bundschuh

    E-print Network

    Bundschuh, Ralf

    a protein, i.e., a sequence of amino acids, following the instructions contained in the sequence of the messenger RNA. During translation groups of three consecutive bases of the messenger RNA -- the codons -- are read in order to determine which of the 20 amino acids is to be appended to the protein being

  15. Evolving Protein Motifs Using a Stochastic Regular Language with Codon-Level Probabilities

    E-print Network

    Ross, Brian J.

    equivalents. Koza et al. apply GP towards motif synthesis for a number of protein families [7]. Their targetEvolving Protein Motifs Using a Stochastic Regular Language with Codon-Level Probabilities Brian J@cosc.brocku.ca ABSTRACT Experiments involving the evolution of protein motifs using genetic programming are presented

  16. Role of PRNP codon 129 genotype in defining strain transmission properties of human transmissible spongiform encephalopathy 

    E-print Network

    Bishop, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    three codon 129 genotype mice are susceptible with a ranking of transmission efficiency of HuMM>HuMV>HuVV. HuMM mice develop the most widespread neuropathology with features similar to human vCJD. Subclinical infection was noted in each mouse line...

  17. Genetic diversity of mango cultivars estimated using Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diversity and genetic relationships among 23 mango germplasm accessions, collected from different locations in Guangxi province in China, were analyzed by using a novel and simple gene targeted DNA marker: Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) markers. This technique uses a single, 18-mer primer PCR amplifica...

  18. Causal signals between codon bias, mRNA structure, and the efficiency of translation and elongation

    PubMed Central

    Pop, Cristina; Rouskin, Silvi; Ingolia, Nicholas T; Han, Lu; Phizicky, Eric M; Weissman, Jonathan S; Koller, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    Ribosome profiling data report on the distribution of translating ribosomes, at steady-state, with codon-level resolution. We present a robust method to extract codon translation rates and protein synthesis rates from these data, and identify causal features associated with elongation and translation efficiency in physiological conditions in yeast. We show that neither elongation rate nor translational efficiency is improved by experimental manipulation of the abundance or body sequence of the rare AGG tRNA. Deletion of three of the four copies of the heavily used ACA tRNA shows a modest efficiency decrease that could be explained by other rate-reducing signals at gene start. This suggests that correlation between codon bias and efficiency arises as selection for codons to utilize translation machinery efficiently in highly translated genes. We also show a correlation between efficiency and RNA structure calculated both computationally and from recent structure probing data, as well as the Kozak initiation motif, which may comprise a mechanism to regulate initiation. PMID:25538139

  19. Expanding the Genetic Code: Selection of Efficient Suppressors of Four-base Codons and Identification

    E-print Network

    Magliery, Thomas J.

    and Identification of ``Shifty'' Four-base Codons with a Library Approach in Escherichia coli Thomas J. Magliery2 , J 1 frameshifting is most favorable in the absence of suppressor tRNAs in Escherichia coli. We intend III tau and gamma units, and the self-regulating RF2 protein in Escherichia coli (Gesteland et al

  20. Adaptation to Different Human Populations by HIV-1 Revealed by Codon-Based Analyses

    E-print Network

    Brown, Andrew Leigh

    Adaptation to Different Human Populations by HIV-1 Revealed by Codon-Based Analyses Sergei L populations. Applying these methods to two HIV populations infecting genetically distinct human hosts, we have differentially in the two samples, demonstrating specific population-level adaptation of HIV to human populations

  1. Structural characterization of eRF1 mutants indicate a complex mechanism of stop codon recognition.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Shubhadra; Li, Yan; Wong, Leo E; Pervushin, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Eukarya translation termination requires the stop codon recognizing protein eRF1. In contrast to the multiple proteins required for translation termination in Bacteria, eRF1 retains the ability to recognize all three of the stop codons. The details of the mechanism that eRF1 uses to recognize stop codons has remained elusive. This study describes the structural effects of mutations in the eRF1 N-domain that have previously been shown to alter stop codon recognition specificity. Here, we propose a model of eRF1 binding to the pre-translation termination ribosomal complex that is based in part on our solution NMR structures of the wild-type and mutant eRF1 N-domains. Since structural perturbations induced by these mutations were spread throughout the protein structure, residual dipolar coupling (RDC) data were recorded to establish the long-range effects of the specific mutations, E55Q, Y125F, Q(122)FM(Y)F(126). RDCs were recorded on (15)N-labeled eRF1 N-domain weakly aligned in either 5% w/v n-octyl-penta (ethylene glycol)/octanol (C8E5) or the filamentous phage Pf1. These data indicate that the mutations alter the conformation and dynamics of the GTS loop that is distant from the mutation sites. We propose that the GTS loop forms a switch that is key for the multiple codon recognition capability of eRF1. PMID:26725946

  2. Mutations to nonsense codons in human genetic disease: implications for gene therapy by nonsense suppressor tRNAs.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, J; Martin, R

    1994-04-25

    Nonsense suppressor tRNAs have been suggested as potential agents for human somatic gene therapy. Recent work from this laboratory has described significant effects of 3' codon context on the efficiency of human nonsense suppressors. A rapid increase in the number of reports of human diseases caused by nonsense codons, prompted us to determine how the spectrum of mutation to either UAG, UAA or UGA codons and their respective 3' contexts, might effect the efficiency of human suppressor tRNAs employed for purposes of gene therapy. This paper presents a survey of 179 events of mutations to nonsense codons which cause human germline or somatic disease. The analysis revealed a ratio of approximately 1:2:3 for mutation to UAA, UAG and UGA respectively. This pattern is similar, but not identical, to that of naturally occurring stop codons. The 3' contexts of new mutations to stop were also analysed. Once again, the pattern was similar to the contexts surrounding natural termination signals. These results imply there will be little difference in the sensitivity of nonsense mutations and natural stop codons to suppression by nonsense suppressor tRNAs. Analysis of the codons altered by nonsense mutations suggests that efforts to design human UAG suppressor tRNAs charged with Trp, Gln, and Glu; UAA suppressors charged with Gln and Glu, and UGA suppressors which insert Arg, would be an essential step in the development of suppressor tRNAs as agents of human somatic gene therapy. PMID:8190621

  3. Numeral series hidden in the distribution of atomic mass of amino acids to codon domains in the genetic code.

    PubMed

    Wohlin, Åsa

    2015-03-21

    The distribution of codons in the nearly universal genetic code is a long discussed issue. At the atomic level, the numeral series 2x(2) (x=5-0) lies behind electron shells and orbitals. Numeral series appear in formulas for spectral lines of hydrogen. The question here was if some similar scheme could be found in the genetic code. A table of 24 codons was constructed (synonyms counted as one) for 20 amino acids, four of which have two different codons. An atomic mass analysis was performed, built on common isotopes. It was found that a numeral series 5 to 0 with exponent 2/3 times 10(2) revealed detailed congruency with codon-grouped amino acid side-chains, simultaneously with the division on atom kinds, further with main 3rd base groups, backbone chains and with codon-grouped amino acids in relation to their origin from glycolysis or the citrate cycle. Hence, it is proposed that this series in a dynamic way may have guided the selection of amino acids into codon domains. Series with simpler exponents also showed noteworthy correlations with the atomic mass distribution on main codon domains; especially the 2x(2)-series times a factor 16 appeared as a conceivable underlying level, both for the atomic mass and charge distribution. Furthermore, it was found that atomic mass transformations between numeral systems, possibly interpretable as dimension degree steps, connected the atomic mass of codon bases with codon-grouped amino acids and with the exponent 2/3-series in several astonishing ways. Thus, it is suggested that they may be part of a deeper reference system. PMID:25623487

  4. Lack of IRS-1 codon 513 and 972 polymorphism in Pima Indians

    SciTech Connect

    Celi, F.S.; Silver, K.; Walston, J.

    1995-09-01

    Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), a 1242 amino acid protein, an endogenous substrate for the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase, mediates many or all of the metabolic actions of insulin. Recently, polymorphism at codons 513 and 972 of the IRS-1 gene resulting in 2 amino acid substitutions that were associated with type II diabetes were found in a Caucasian population. Using allele specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridization, we screened 242 diabetic and 190 nondiabetic Pima Indians, a population with a very high prevalence of type II diabetes. Neither of the two mutations was present in either diabetic or nondiabetic subjects. We conclude that polymorphism at codons 513 and 972 of the IRS-1 gene observed in certain Caucasian populations is very rare or absent in Pima Indians. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. When cells stop making sense: effects of nonsense codons on RNA metabolism in vertebrate cells.

    PubMed Central

    Maquat, L E

    1995-01-01

    It appears that no organism is immune to the effects of nonsense codons on mRNA abundance. The study of how nonsense codons alter RNA metabolism is still at an early stage, and our current understanding derives more from incidental vignettes than from experimental undertakings that address molecular mechanisms. Challenges for the future include identifying the gene products and RNA sequences that function in nonsense mediated RNA loss, resolving the cause and consequences of there apparently being more than one cellular site and mechanism for nonsense-mediated RNA loss, and understanding how these sites and mechanisms are related to both constitutive and specialized pathways of pre-mRNA processing and mRNA decay. PMID:7489507

  6. [BIG-H3 protein: mutation of codon 124 and corneal amyloidosis].

    PubMed

    Schmitt-Bernard, C-F; Pouliquen, Y; Argilès, A

    2004-05-01

    In 1997, a group of hereditary corneal dystrophies was related to mutations in the TGFBI (BIGH3) gene. Within this group, some corneal dystrophies present particular biochemical features in that they are characterized by corneal amyloid deposition. Contrary to clinical and genetic knowledge, the biochemical characteristics of the encoded protein (Big-h3) and the mechanisms of its amyloid conversion remain unclear. We review the current knowledge on the Big-h3 protein and focus on the behavior of the codon 124 region. We discuss this protein's mechanisms of amyloid conversion from our results and previous reports as well as from other types of amyloidosis. These data provide a better understanding of the putative processes leading to the phenotypic variations linked with their respective codon 124 mutation. PMID:15179309

  7. University of Florida Cell Phone Usage Log

    E-print Network

    Sin, Peter

    University of Florida Cell Phone Usage Log Information below must be compared to the monthly statement provided by the cell phone service provider. It is required that this log be completed when of the last page of the usage log. Employee's Name:Business Device - Cell Phone Number: Printed Name

  8. Definite Article Usage across Varieties of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahid, Ridwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the extent of definite article usage variation in several varieties of English based on a classification of its usage types. An annotation scheme based on Hawkins and Prince was developed for this purpose. Using matching corpus data representing Inner Circle varieties and Outer Circle varieties, analysis was made on…

  9. Physical Educators' Technology Competencies and Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Marianne L.; Goc Karp, Grace; Miao, Hui; Perlman, Dana

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine K-12 physical education teachers' perceptions of ability and usage of technology. Physical educators (n = 114) completed the Physical Education Technology Usage Survey assessing their perceived technology competency, how and why they utilize technology, challenges they face in implementing technology, and…

  10. FPGA curved track fitter with very low resource usage

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jin-Yuan; Wang, M.; Gottschalk, E.; Shi, Z.; /Fermilab

    2006-11-01

    Standard least-squares curved track fitting process is tailored for FPGA implementation. The coefficients in the fitting matrices are carefully chosen so that only shift and accumulation operations are used in the process. The divisions and full multiplications are eliminated. Comparison in an application example shows that the fitting errors of the low resource usage implementation are less than 4% bigger than the fitting errors of the exact least-squares algorithm. The implementation is suitable for low-cost, low-power applications such as high energy physics detector trigger systems.

  11. The Role of TP53 Gene Codon 72 Polymorphism in Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Xiao-Lan; Li, Sheng; Meng, Xiang-Yu; Geng, Peiliang; Gao, Qing-Ping; Ao, Xu-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this meta-analysis was aimed to evaluate the association of tumor protein p53 (TP53) gene codon 72 polymorphism with leukemia susceptibility. We searched PubMed to identify relevant studies, and 16 case-control studies from 14 published articles were identified as eligible studies, including 2062 leukemia patients and 5826 controls. After extracting data, odds ratio (OR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was applied to assess the association between TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and leukemia susceptibility. The meta-analysis was performed with the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software, version 2.2. Overall, no significant association between TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and leukemia susceptibility was found in this meta-analysis (Pro vs Arg: OR?=?1.05, 95%CI?=?0.90–1.21; Pro/Pro vs Arg/Arg: OR?=?1.13, 95%CI?=?0.84–1.52; Arg/Pro vs Arg/Arg: OR?=?0.94, 95%CI?=?0.76–1.15; [Pro/Pro?+?Arg/Pro] vs Arg/Arg: OR?=?0.99, 95%CI?=?0.80–1.21; Pro/Pro vs [Arg/Arg?+?Arg/Pro]: OR?=?1.19, 95%CI?=?0.93–1.51). Similar results were also found in subgroup analysis by ethnicity, source of controls, and types of leukemia (either acute myeloid leukemia or acute lymphocytic leukemia). Our meta-analysis demonstrates that TP53 codon 72 polymorphism may not be a risk factor for acute leukemia; however, due to the limitations of this study, it should be verified in future studies. PMID:26402821

  12. Mammalian nonsense codons can be cis effectors of nuclear mRNA half-life.

    PubMed Central

    Belgrader, P; Cheng, J; Zhou, X; Stephenson, L S; Maquat, L E

    1994-01-01

    Frameshift and nonsense mutations within the gene for human triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) that generate a nonsense codon within the first three-fourths of the protein coding region have been found to reduce the abundance of the product mRNA that copurifies with nuclei. The cellular process and location of the nonsense codon-mediated reduction have proven difficult to elucidate for technical reasons. We show here, using electron microscopy to judge the purity of isolated nuclei, that the previously established reduction to 25% of the normal mRNA level is evident for nuclei that are free of detectable cytoplasmic contamination. Therefore, the reduction is likely to be characteristic of bona fide nuclear RNA. Fully spliced nuclear mRNA is identified by Northern (RNA) blot hybridization and a reverse transcription-PCR assay as the species that undergoes decay in experiments that used the human c-fos promoter to elicit a burst and subsequent shutoff of TPI gene transcription upon the addition of serum to serum-deprived cells. Finally, the finding that deletion of a 5' splice site of the TPI gene results predominantly but not exclusively in the removal by splicing (i.e., skipping) of the upstream exon as a part of the flanking introns has been used to demonstrate that decay is specific to those mRNA products that maintain the nonsense codon. This result, together with our previous results that implicate translation by ribosomes and charged tRNAs in the decay mechanism, indicate that nonsense codon recognition takes place after splicing and triggers decay solely in cis. The possibility that decay takes place during the process of mRNA export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is discussed. Images PMID:7969159

  13. Recognition of the amber UAG stop codon by release factor RF1

    SciTech Connect

    Korostelev, Andrei; Zhu, Jianyu; Asahara, Haruichi; Noller, Harry F.

    2010-08-23

    We report the crystal structure of a termination complex containing release factor RF1 bound to the 70S ribosome in response to an amber (UAG) codon at 3.6-{angstrom} resolution. The amber codon is recognized in the 30S subunit-decoding centre directly by conserved elements of domain 2 of RF1, including T186 of the PVT motif. Together with earlier structures, the mechanisms of recognition of all three stop codons by release factors RF1 and RF2 can now be described. Our structure confirms that the backbone amide of Q230 of the universally conserved GGQ motif is positioned to contribute directly to the catalysis of the peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis reaction through stabilization of the leaving group and/or transition state. We also observe synthetic-negative interactions between mutations in the switch loop of RF1 and in helix 69 of 23S rRNA, revealing that these structural features interact functionally in the termination process. These findings are consistent with our proposal that structural rearrangements of RF1 and RF2 are critical to accurate translation termination.

  14. Codon optimization significantly improves the expression level of a keratinase gene in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hong; Gao, Jie; He, Jun; Yu, Bing; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Mao, Xiangbing; Yu, Jie; Han, Guoquan; Chen, Daiwen

    2013-01-01

    The main keratinase (kerA) gene from the Bacillus licheniformis S90 was optimized by two codon optimization strategies and expressed in Pichia pastoris in order to improve the enzyme production compared to the preparations with the native kerA gene. The results showed that the corresponding mutations (synonymous codons) according to the codon bias in Pichia pastoris were successfully introduced into keratinase gene. The highest keratinase activity produced by P. pastoris pPICZ?A-kerAwt, pPICZ?A-kerAopti1 and pPICZ?A-kerAopti2 was 195 U/ml, 324 U/ml and 293 U/ml respectively. In addition, there was no significant difference in biomass concentration, target gene copy numbers and relative mRNA expression levels of every positive strain. The molecular weight of keratinase secreted by recombinant P. pastori was approx. 39 kDa. It was optimally active at pH 7.5 and 50°C. The recombinant keratinase could efficiently degrade both ?-keratin (keratin azure) and ?-keratin (chicken feather meal). These properties make the P. pastoris pPICZ?A-kerAopti1 a suitable candidate for industrial production of keratinases. PMID:23472192

  15. Highly reproductive Escherichia coli cells with no specific assignment to the UAG codon

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Takahito; Hoshi, Hiroko; Ohtake, Kazumasa; Takahashi, Mihoko; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Hayashi, Akiko; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Sakamoto, Kensaku

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a widely used host organism for recombinant technology, and the bacterial incorporation of non-natural amino acids promises the efficient synthesis of proteins with novel structures and properties. In the present study, we developed E. coli strains in which the UAG codon was reserved for non-natural amino acids, without compromising the reproductive strength of the host cells. Ninety-five of the 273 UAG stop codons were replaced synonymously in the genome of E. coli BL21(DE3), by exploiting the oligonucleotide-mediated base-mismatch-repair mechanism. This genomic modification allowed the safe elimination of the UAG-recognizing cellular component (RF-1), thus leaving the remaining 178 UAG codons with no specific molecule recognizing them. The resulting strain B-95.?A grew as vigorously as BL21(DE3)?in rich medium at 25–42°C, and its derivative B-95.?A?fabR was better adapted to low temperatures and minimal media than B-95.?A. UAG was reassigned to synthetic amino acids by expressing the specific pairs of UAG-reading tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. Due to the preserved growth vigor, the B-95.?A strains showed superior productivities for hirudin molecules sulfonated on a particular tyrosine residue, and the Fab fragments of Herceptin containing multiple azido groups. PMID:25982672

  16. Optimization of Codon Translation Rates via tRNA Modifications Maintains Proteome Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Nedialkova, Danny D.; Leidel, Sebastian A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Proteins begin to fold as they emerge from translating ribosomes. The kinetics of ribosome transit along a given mRNA can influence nascent chain folding, but the extent to which individual codon translation rates impact proteome integrity remains unknown. Here, we show that slower decoding of discrete codons elicits widespread protein aggregation in vivo. Using ribosome profiling, we find that loss of anticodon wobble uridine (U34) modifications in a subset of tRNAs leads to ribosome pausing at their cognate codons in S. cerevisiae and C. elegans. Cells lacking U34 modifications exhibit gene expression hallmarks of proteotoxic stress, accumulate aggregates of endogenous proteins, and are severely compromised in clearing stress-induced protein aggregates. Overexpression of hypomodified tRNAs alleviates ribosome pausing, concomitantly restoring protein homeostasis. Our findings demonstrate that modified U34 is an evolutionarily conserved accelerator of decoding and reveal an unanticipated role for tRNA modifications in maintaining proteome integrity. PMID:26052047

  17. AUG sequences are required to sustain nonsense-codon-mediated suppression of splicing

    PubMed Central

    Kamhi, Eyal; Yahalom, Galit; Kass, Gideon; Hacham, Yael; Sperling, Ruth; Sperling, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    More than 90% of human genes are rich in intronic latent 5? splice sites whose utilization in pre-mRNA splicing would introduce in-frame stop codons into the resultant mRNAs. We have therefore hypothesized that suppression of splicing (SOS) at latent 5? splice sites regulates alternative 5? splice site selection in a way that prevents the production of toxic nonsense mRNAs and verified this idea by showing that the removal of such in-frame stop codons is sufficient to activate latent splicing. Splicing control by SOS requires recognition of the mRNA reading frame, presumably recognizing the start codon sequence. Here we show that AUG sequences are indeed essential for SOS. Although protein translation does not seem to be required for SOS, the first AUG is shown here to be necessary but not sufficient. We further show that latent splicing can be elicited upon treatment with pactamycin—a drug known to block translation by its ability to recognize an RNA fold—but not by treatment with other drugs that inhibit translation through other mechanisms. The effect of pactamycin on SOS is dependent neither on steady-state translation nor on the pioneer round of translation. This effect is found for both transfected and endogenous genes, indicating that SOS is a natural mechanism. PMID:16855285

  18. Effect of Codon Optimisation on the Production of Recombinant Fish Growth Hormone in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Rothan, Hussin A.; Ser Huy, Teh; Mohamed, Zulqarnain

    2014-01-01

    This study was established to test the hypothesis of whether the codon optimization of fish growth hormone gene (FGH) based on P. pastoris preferred codon will improve the quantity of secreted rFGH in culture supernatant that can directly be used as fish feed supplements. The optimized FGH coding sequence (oFGH) and native sequence (nFGH) of giant grouper fish (Epinephelus lanceolatus) were cloned into P. pastoris expression vector (pPICZ?A) downstream of alcohol oxidase gene (AOX1) for efficient induction of extracellular rFGH by adding 1% of absolute methanol. The results showed that recombinant P. pastoris was able to produce 2.80 ± 0.27?mg of oFGH compared to 1.75 ± 0.25 of nFGH in one litre of culture supernatant. The total body weight of tiger grouper fingerlings fed with oFGH increased significantly at third (P < 0.05) and fourth weeks (P < 0.01) of four-week experiment period compared to those fed with nFGH. Both oFGH and nFGH significantly enhanced the final biomass and fish survival percentage. In conclusion, codon optimization of FGH fragment was useful to increase rFGH quantity in the culture supernatant of P. pastoris that can be directly used as fish feed supplements. Further studies are still required for large scale production of rFGH and practical application in aquaculture production. PMID:25147851

  19. Trm9-Catalyzed tRNA Modifications Regulate Global Protein Expression by Codon-Biased Translation

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wenjun; Babu, I. Ramesh; Su, Dan; Yin, Shanye; Begley, Thomas J.; Dedon, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional modifications of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) have long been recognized to play crucial roles in regulating the rate and fidelity of translation. However, the extent to which they determine global protein production remains poorly understood. Here we use quantitative proteomics to show a direct link between wobble uridine 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl (mcm5) and 5-methoxy-carbonyl-methyl-2-thio (mcm5s2) modifications catalyzed by tRNA methyltransferase 9 (Trm9) in tRNAArg(UCU) and tRNAGlu(UUC) and selective translation of proteins from genes enriched with their cognate codons. Controlling for bias in protein expression and alternations in mRNA expression, we find that loss of Trm9 selectively impairs expression of proteins from genes enriched with AGA and GAA codons under both normal and stress conditions. Moreover, we show that AGA and GAA codons occur with high frequency in clusters along the transcripts, which may play a role in modulating translation. Consistent with these results, proteins subject to enhanced ribosome pausing in yeast lacking mcm5U and mcm5s2U are more likely to be down-regulated and contain a larger number of AGA/GAA clusters. Together, these results suggest that Trm9-catalyzed tRNA modifications play a significant role in regulating protein expression within the cell. PMID:26670883

  20. Mismatch repair at stop codons is directed independent of GATC methylation on the Escherichia coli chromosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneppen, Kim; Semsey, Szabolcs

    2014-12-01

    The mismatch repair system (MMR) corrects replication errors that escape proofreading. Previous studies on extrachromosomal DNA in Escherichia coli suggested that MMR uses hemimethylated GATC sites to identify the newly synthesized strand. In this work we asked how the distance of GATC sites and their methylation status affect the occurrence of single base substitutions on the E. coli chromosome. As a reporter system we used a lacZ gene containing an early TAA stop codon. We found that occurrence of point mutations at this stop codon is unaffected by GATC sites located more than 115 base pairs away. However, a GATC site located about 50 base pairs away resulted in a decreased mutation rate. This effect was independent of Dam methylation. The reversion rate of the stop codon increased only slightly in dam mutants compared to mutL and mutS mutants. We suggest that unlike on extrachromosomal DNA, GATC methylation is not the only strand discrimination signal for MMR on the E. coli chromosome.

  1. The codon 72 polymorphism of the TP53 gene and endometriosis risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yi; Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Li; Luo, Zhi-Juan; Lin, Zhong; Zhou, Ying-Hui; Yi, Tao; Lin, Xiao-Juan; Zhao, Qian-Ying; Zhao, Xia

    2015-09-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic, inflammatory and common gynaecological disease. This study investigated the association between TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and the risk of endometriosis. A search for relevant articles was conducted in PubMed, Embase, CNKI, Wanfang, Weipu databases and Google Scholar. The strength of the relationships between TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and the risk of endometriosis was assessed by odds ratios (OR) and with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sixteen case-control studies in 15 articles were included. Significant association was found in the dominant model (CC + GC versus GG) with an OR of 1.38 and 95% CI (1.14, 1.67). The results suggested that individuals who carried CC homozygote and heterozygote GC might have a 38% increased endometriosis risk when compared with the homozygote GG. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significantly increased risk was observed among Asians (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.18-2.23, P = 0.003) and Latin Americans (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.16-2.03, P = 0.002) but not in Caucasians (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.80-1.30) for the dominant model. The current meta-analysis suggested that TP53 codon 72 polymorphism was associated with the endometriosis risk, especially in Asians and Latin Americans. PMID:26194887

  2. Highly reproductive Escherichia coli cells with no specific assignment to the UAG codon.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Takahito; Hoshi, Hiroko; Ohtake, Kazumasa; Takahashi, Mihoko; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Hayashi, Akiko; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Sakamoto, Kensaku

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a widely used host organism for recombinant technology, and the bacterial incorporation of non-natural amino acids promises the efficient synthesis of proteins with novel structures and properties. In the present study, we developed E. coli strains in which the UAG codon was reserved for non-natural amino acids, without compromising the reproductive strength of the host cells. Ninety-five of the 273 UAG stop codons were replaced synonymously in the genome of E. coli BL21(DE3), by exploiting the oligonucleotide-mediated base-mismatch-repair mechanism. This genomic modification allowed the safe elimination of the UAG-recognizing cellular component (RF-1), thus leaving the remaining 178 UAG codons with no specific molecule recognizing them. The resulting strain B-95.?A grew as vigorously as BL21(DE3) in rich medium at 25-42°C, and its derivative B-95.?A?fabR was better adapted to low temperatures and minimal media than B-95.?A. UAG was reassigned to synthetic amino acids by expressing the specific pairs of UAG-reading tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. Due to the preserved growth vigor, the B-95.?A strains showed superior productivities for hirudin molecules sulfonated on a particular tyrosine residue, and the Fab fragments of Herceptin containing multiple azido groups. PMID:25982672

  3. Codon 201 polymorphism of DCC gene is a prognostic factor in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Arbman, Gunnar; Sun, Xiao-Feng

    2003-01-01

    The polymorphism at codon 201 of the "deleted in colorectal carcinoma" (DCC) gene has been liked to susceptibility to colorectal cancer. However, its clinicopathological significance has not been reported. We examined the codon 201 polymorphism and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 59 colorectal cancers, 48 samples from transitional mucosa and 67 samples from normal mucosa. The frequencies of the polymorphism did not significantly differ from normal to transitional mucosa and to tumor, but LOH was increased from transitional mucosa to tumor. Almost all of the LOH cases showed the polymorphism. The polymorphism was increased from well/moderately to poorly differentiated and to mucinous carcinoma (P=0.03). The polymorphism was more frequently seen in advanced stages than in earlier stages (P=0.02), and further predicted worse survival (P=0.04). The data suggest that the codon 201 polymorphism of the DCC gene was a target of LOH, and predicted prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. PMID:12787729

  4. Effect of codon optimisation on the production of recombinant fish growth hormone in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Rothan, Hussin A; Huy, Teh Ser; Mohamed, Zulqarnain

    2014-01-01

    This study was established to test the hypothesis of whether the codon optimization of fish growth hormone gene (FGH) based on P. pastoris preferred codon will improve the quantity of secreted rFGH in culture supernatant that can directly be used as fish feed supplements. The optimized FGH coding sequence (oFGH) and native sequence (nFGH) of giant grouper fish (Epinephelus lanceolatus) were cloned into P. pastoris expression vector (pPICZ?A) downstream of alcohol oxidase gene (AOX1) for efficient induction of extracellular rFGH by adding 1% of absolute methanol. The results showed that recombinant P. pastoris was able to produce 2.80 ± 0.27 mg of oFGH compared to 1.75 ± 0.25 of nFGH in one litre of culture supernatant. The total body weight of tiger grouper fingerlings fed with oFGH increased significantly at third (P < 0.05) and fourth weeks (P < 0.01) of four-week experiment period compared to those fed with nFGH. Both oFGH and nFGH significantly enhanced the final biomass and fish survival percentage. In conclusion, codon optimization of FGH fragment was useful to increase rFGH quantity in the culture supernatant of P. pastoris that can be directly used as fish feed supplements. Further studies are still required for large scale production of rFGH and practical application in aquaculture production. PMID:25147851

  5. Self-catalytic DNA depurination underlies human ?-globin gene mutations at codon 6 that cause anemias and thalassemias.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R; Amosova, Olga; Fresco, Jacques R

    2013-04-19

    The human ?-globin gene contains an 18-nucleotide coding strand sequence centered at codon 6 and capable of forming a stem-loop structure that can self-catalyze depurination of the 5'G residue of that codon. The resultant apurinic lesion is subject to error-prone repair, consistent with the occurrence about this codon of mutations responsible for 6 anemias and ?-thalassemias and additional substitutions without clinical consequences. The 4-residue loop of this stem-loop-forming sequence shows the highest incidence of mutation across the gene. The loop and first stem base pair-forming residues appeared early in the mammalian clade. The other stem-forming segments evolved more recently among primates, thereby conferring self-depurination capacity at codon 6. These observations indicate a conserved molecular mechanism leading to ?-globin variants underlying phenotypic diversity and disease. PMID:23457306

  6. XPD codon 751 polymorphism, metabolism genes, smoking, and bladder cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Stern, Mariana C; Johnson, Laura R; Bell, Douglas A; Taylor, Jack A

    2002-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for bladder cancer, accounting for at least 50% of bladder cancer in men. Cigarette smoke is a rich source of arylamines, which are detoxified by the NAT2 enzyme and activated by the NAT1 enzyme to highly reactive species that can form bulky adducts on DNA. DNA damage from such adducts is mainly repaired by the nucleotide excision repair pathway, in which the XPD protein functions in opening the DNA helix. We hypothesized that an XPD codon 751 polymorphism (Lys-to-Gln amino acid change) could affect the repair of smoking-induced DNA damage and could be associated with bladder-cancer risk. We also hypothesized that allelic variants of the NAT1 and NAT2 genes might modify the effect of the XPD codon 751 polymorphism on smoking-associated bladder-cancer risk. We determined the XPD codon 751 genotype for 228 bladder-cancer cases and 210 controls who were frequency-matched to cases by age, sex, and ethnicity, and we used our previously published data on the NAT1 and NAT2 genotypes for these same individuals (J. A. Taylor et al., Cancer Res., 58: 3603-3610, 1998). We found a slight decrease in risk for the XPD codon 751 Gln/Gln genotype (adjusted odds ratio: 0.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.4-1.3) compared with subjects with the Lys/Lys or Lys/Gln genotypes. The analysis with smoking showed that smokers with the Lys/Lys or Lys/Gln genotypes were twice as likely to have bladder cancer than smokers with the Gln/Gln genotype (test of interaction P = 0.03). The combined presence of the NAT1/NAT2 high-risk genotype and the XPD Lys/Lys or Lys/Gln genotypes ignoring smoking had an odds ratio that was only slightly higher than expected, assuming no genotype-genotype interaction (P = 0.52). We found little evidence for a gene-gene-exposure, three-way interaction among the XPD codon 751 genotype, smoking, and the NAT1/NAT2 genotype. PMID:12376500

  7. Synonymous codon bias and functional constraint on GC3-related DNA backbone dynamics in the prokaryotic nucleoid

    PubMed Central

    Babbitt, Gregory A.; Alawad, Mohammed A.; Schulze, Katharina V.; Hudson, André O.

    2014-01-01

    While mRNA stability has been demonstrated to control rates of translation, generating both global and local synonymous codon biases in many unicellular organisms, this explanation cannot adequately explain why codon bias strongly tracks neighboring intergene GC content; suggesting that structural dynamics of DNA might also influence codon choice. Because minor groove width is highly governed by 3-base periodicity in GC, the existence of triplet-based codons might imply a functional role for the optimization of local DNA molecular dynamics via GC content at synonymous sites (?GC3). We confirm a strong association between GC3-related intrinsic DNA flexibility and codon bias across 24 different prokaryotic multiple whole-genome alignments. We develop a novel test of natural selection targeting synonymous sites and demonstrate that GC3-related DNA backbone dynamics have been subject to moderate selective pressure, perhaps contributing to our observation that many genes possess extreme DNA backbone dynamics for their given protein space. This dual function of codons may impose universal functional constraints affecting the evolution of synonymous and non-synonymous sites. We propose that synonymous sites may have evolved as an ‘accessory’ during an early expansion of a primordial genetic code, allowing for multiplexed protein coding and structural dynamic information within the same molecular context. PMID:25200075

  8. Decoding system for the AUA codon by tRNAIle with the UAU anticodon in Mycoplasma mobile

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Takaaki; Miyauchi, Kenjyo; Nakane, Daisuke; Miyata, Makoto; Muto, Akira; Nishimura, Susumu; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Deciphering the genetic code is a fundamental process in all living organisms. In many bacteria, AUA codons are deciphered by tRNAIle2 bearing lysidine (L) at the wobble position. L is a modified cytidine introduced post-transcriptionally by tRNAIle-lysidine synthetase (TilS). Some bacteria, including Mycoplasma mobile, do not carry the tilS gene, indicating that they have established a different system to decode AUA codons. In this study, tRNAIle2 has been isolated from M. mobile and was found to contain a UAU anticodon without any modification. Mycoplasma mobile isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS) recognized the UAU anticodon, whereas Escherichia coli IleRS did not efficiently aminoacylate tRNAIle2UAU. In M. mobile IleRS, a single Arg residue at position 865 was critical for specificity for the UAU anticodon and, when the corresponding site (W905) in E. coli IleRS was substituted with Arg, the W905R mutant efficiently aminoacylated tRNA with UAU anticodon. Mycoplasma mobile tRNAIle2 cannot distinguish between AUA and AUG codon on E. coli ribosome. However, on M. mobile ribosome, M. mobile tRNAIle2UAU specifically recognized AUA codon, and not AUG codon, suggesting M. mobile ribosome has a property that prevents misreading of AUG codon. These findings provide an insight into the evolutionary reorganization of the AUA decoding system. PMID:23295668

  9. Accuracy of initial codon selection by aminoacyl-tRNAs on the mRNA-programmed bacterial ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingji; Ieong, Ka-Weng; Johansson, Magnus; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2015-01-01

    We used a cell-free system with pure Escherichia coli components to study initial codon selection of aminoacyl-tRNAs in ternary complex with elongation factor Tu and GTP on messenger RNA-programmed ribosomes. We took advantage of the universal rate-accuracy trade-off for all enzymatic selections to determine how the efficiency of initial codon readings decreased linearly toward zero as the accuracy of discrimination against near-cognate and wobble codon readings increased toward the maximal asymptote, the d value. We report data on the rate-accuracy variation for 7 cognate, 7 wobble, and 56 near-cognate codon readings comprising about 15% of the genetic code. Their d values varied about 400-fold in the 200–80,000 range depending on type of mismatch, mismatch position in the codon, and tRNA isoacceptor type. We identified error hot spots (d = 200) for U:G misreading in second and U:U or G:A misreading in third codon position by His-tRNAHis and, as also seen in vivo, Glu-tRNAGlu. We suggest that the proofreading mechanism has evolved to attenuate error hot spots in initial selection such as those found here. PMID:26195797

  10. 50 CFR 600.910 - Definitions and word usage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Definitions and word usage. 600.910 Section 600.910...Recommendations § 600.910 Definitions and word usage. (a) Definitions. In addition...undertaken by a state agency. (b) Word usage. The terms...

  11. 50 CFR 600.910 - Definitions and word usage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Definitions and word usage. 600.910 Section 600.910...Recommendations § 600.910 Definitions and word usage. (a) Definitions. In addition...undertaken by a state agency. (b) Word usage. The terms...

  12. 50 CFR 600.910 - Definitions and word usage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Definitions and word usage. 600.910 Section 600.910...Recommendations § 600.910 Definitions and word usage. (a) Definitions. In addition...undertaken by a state agency. (b) Word usage. The terms...

  13. 50 CFR 600.910 - Definitions and word usage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Definitions and word usage. 600.910 Section 600.910...Recommendations § 600.910 Definitions and word usage. (a) Definitions. In addition...undertaken by a state agency. (b) Word usage. The terms...

  14. 50 CFR 600.910 - Definitions and word usage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Definitions and word usage. 600.910 Section 600.910...Recommendations § 600.910 Definitions and word usage. (a) Definitions. In addition...undertaken by a state agency. (b) Word usage. The terms...

  15. E-Book Usage and the "Choice" Outstanding Academic Book List: Is There a Correlation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter Williams, Karen; Best, Rickey

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the staff of the library at Auburn University at Montgomery analyzed circulation patterns for electronic books in the fields of Political Science, Public Administration and Law to see if favorable "Choice" reviews can be used to predict usage of electronic books. A comparison of the circulations between print and electronic books…

  16. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  17. Estimating toner usage with laser electrophotographic printers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Abramsohn, Dennis; Ives, Thom; Shaw, Mark; Allebach, Jan

    2013-02-01

    Accurate estimation of toner usage is an area of on-going importance for laser, electrophotographic (EP) printers. We propose a new two-stage approach in which we first predict on a pixel-by-pixel basis, the absorptance from printed and scanned pages. We then form a weighted sum of these pixel values to predict overall toner usage on the printed page. The weights are chosen by least-squares regression to toner usage measured with a set of printed test pages. Our twostage predictor significantly outperforms existing methods that are based on a simple pixel counting strategy in terms of both accuracy and robustness of the predictions.

  18. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pu; Hunter, Timothy; Bayen, Alexandre M.; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach.

  19. Material impacts on operational energy usage

    E-print Network

    Love, Andrea, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Decisions regarding materials and construction of a building are made all the time in the architectural process, but thought is not always given to how those choices may affect the buildings ultimate energy usage and the ...

  20. Bicycle Safety Helmet Usage In Berlin 1999

    E-print Network

    Boehning, Dankmar

    , season ­ weather - adult/child - gender ­ observer #12;Background · Riding a bicycle has become very #12;Qualitative Literature Review · outcome: head injury · target population: children · epidemiologic: head injury · target population: children · epidemiologic measure: RR (helmet usage) · year: 93

  1. Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Associated with Rowatinex Usage

    PubMed Central

    Akyol-Salman, ?lknur; Leçe-Sertöz, Deniz; Mumcu, U?ur; Ate?, Orhan; Baykal, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is an idiopathic disorder characterized by serous detachment of the neurosensory retina. This report describes a case of CSC associated with rowatinex usage. PMID:25610102

  2. Central serous chorioretinopathy associated with rowatinex usage.

    PubMed

    Akyol-Salman, ?lknur; Leçe-Sertöz, Deniz; Mumcu, U?ur; Ate?, Orhan; Baykal, Orhan

    2009-12-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is an idiopathic disorder characterized by serous detachment of the neurosensory retina. This report describes a case of CSC associated with rowatinex usage. PMID:25610102

  3. College Student Credit Card Usage and Debt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybka, Kathryn M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the concerns related to credit card usage by college students. Offers information student affairs professionals can use to help college students make responsible choices. (Contains 26 references.) (GCP)

  4. Personality variables as predictors of Facebook usage.

    PubMed

    Caci, Barbara; Cardaci, Maurizio; Tabacchi, Marco E; Scrima, Fabrizio

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the role of personality factors as predictors of Facebook usage. Data concerning Facebook usage and personality factors from 654 Facebook users were gathered using a web survey. Using path analysis, the results showed Openness was a predictor of Facebook early adoption, Conscientiousness with sparing use, Extraversion with long sessions and abundant friendships, and Neuroticism with high frequency of sessions. The possible role of Agreeableness in predicting low session frequency and friendships needs further validation. PMID:24897905

  5. Limitations of the 'ambush hypothesis' at the single-gene scale: what codon biases are to blame?

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Robert L; Abdel-Hameed, Mona; Sorensen, John L

    2015-04-01

    Ribosomal frameshifting, a translational error, catastrophically alters the amino acid composition of the nascent protein by shifting the reading frame from the intended contiguous trinucleotide reading. Frameshift events waste energy and resources, and peptide products have unpredictable cytotoxic effects. The 'Ambush Hypothesis' (Seligmann and Pollock 2004, DNA Cell Biol 23:701-5) suggests there is a selective pressure favouring the evolution of out-of-frame ('hidden') stop codons. Although this hypothesis has gained empirical support through whole-genome studies, it is presently unknown whether it can be applied at a single-gene scale. Herein, we report such an investigation using the gene, polyketide synthase (PKS), among species of fungi. Contrary to expectation, genes presented with significantly lower number of hidden stop codons than expected in a selection-neutral model (p < 0.0005), suggesting both non-adherence to the ambush hypothesis as well as suppression of hidden stop codon evolution. It is known that there are multiple adaptive considerations determining codon selection during evolution, and that the information-holding potential of the genetic code is finite. We hypothesize that the reason for low hidden stops in PKS genes is due to competing 'codon biases' that are prioritized over the selective pressure favouring the emergence of hidden stops. Future studies of the ambush hypothesis in the context of other drivers of codon bias may allow this hypothesis to be molded into a comprehensive genetic theory that can be integrated within the broader genetic theory of codon bias and applied to the genetic code at any scale of analysis. PMID:25307067

  6. Yeast mitochondrial threonyl-tRNA synthetase recognizes tRNA isoacceptors by distinct mechanisms and promotes CUN codon reassignment

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Jiqiang; Peterson, Kaitlyn M.; Simonovic, Ivana; Cho, Chris; Soll, Dieter; Simonovic, Miljan

    2014-03-12

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) ensure faithful translation of mRNA into protein by coupling an amino acid to a set of tRNAs with conserved anticodon sequences. Here, we show that in mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a single aaRS (MST1) recognizes and aminoacylates two natural tRNAs that contain anticodon loops of different size and sequence. Besides a regular ?? with a threonine (Thr) anticodon, MST1 also recognizes an unusual ??, which contains an enlarged anticodon loop and an anticodon triplet that reassigns the CUN codons from leucine to threonine. Our data show that MST1 recognizes the anticodon loop in both tRNAs, but employs distinct recognition mechanisms. The size but not the sequence of the anticodon loop is critical for ?? recognition, whereas the anticodon sequence is essential for aminoacylation of ??. The crystal structure of MST1 reveals that, while lacking the N-terminal editing domain, the enzyme closely resembles the bacterial threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS). A detailed structural comparison with Escherichia coli ThrRS, which is unable to aminoacylate ??, reveals differences in the anticodon-binding domain that probably allow recognition of the distinct anticodon loops. Finally, our mutational and modeling analyses identify the structural elements in MST1 (e.g., helix {alpha}11) that define tRNA selectivity. Thus, MTS1 exemplifies that a single aaRS can recognize completely divergent anticodon loops of natural isoacceptor tRNAs and that in doing so it facilitates the reassignment of the genetic code in yeast mitochondria.

  7. Constitutive high-level expression of a codon-optimized ?-fructosidase gene from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Carmen; Martínez, Duniesky; Trujillo, Luis E; Mazola, Yuliet; González, Ernesto; Pérez, Enrique R; Hernández, Lázaro

    2013-02-01

    Enzymes for use in the sugar industry are preferred to be thermotolerant. In this study, a synthetic codon-optimized gene encoding a highly thermostable ?-fructosidase (BfrA, EC 3.2.1.26) from the bacterium Thermotoga maritima was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The gradual increase of the transgene dosage from one to four copies under the control of the constitutive glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter had an additive effect on BfrA yield without causing cell toxicity. Maximal values of cell biomass (115 g/l, dry weight) and overall invertase activity (241 U/ml) were reached at 72 h in fed-batch fermentations using cane sugar as the main carbon source for growth. Secretion driven by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-factor signal peptide resulted in periplasmic retention (44 %) and extracellular release (56 %) of BfrA. The presence of N-linked oligosaccharides did not influence the optimal activity, thermal stability, kinetic properties, substrate specificity, and exo-type action mode of the yeast-secreted BfrA in comparison to the native unglycosylated enzyme. Complete inversion of cane sugar at initial concentration of 60 % (w/v) was achieved by periplasmic BfrA in undisrupted cells reacting at pH 5.5 and 70 °C, with average productivity of 4.4 g of substrate hydrolyzed per grams of biomass (wet weight) per hour. The high yield of fully active glycosylated BfrA here attained by recombinant P. pastoris in a low-cost fermentation process appears to be attractive for the large-scale production of this thermostable enzyme useful for the manufacture of inverted sugar syrup. PMID:22821437

  8. Selection of aminoacyl-tRNAs at sense codons: the size of the tRNA variable loop determines whether the immediate 3' nucleotide to the codon has a context effect.

    PubMed Central

    Curran, J F; Poole, E S; Tate, W P; Gross, B L

    1995-01-01

    Codon context can affect translational efficiency by several molecular mechanisms. The base stacking interactions between a codon-anticodon complex and the neighboring nucleotide immediately 3' can facilitate translation by amber suppressors and the tRNA structure is also known to modulate the sensitivity to context. In this study the relative rates of aminoacyl-tRNA selection were measured at four sense codons (UGG, CUC, UUC and UCA), in all four 3' nucleotide contexts, through direct competition with a programmed frameshift at a site derived from the release factor 2 gene. Two codons (UGG and UUC) are read by tRNAs with small variable regions and their rates of aminoacyl-tRNA selection correlated with the potential base stacking strength of the 3' neighboring nucleotide. The other two codons (CUC and UCA) are read by tRNAs with large variable regions and the rate of selection of the aminoacyl-tRNAs in these cases varied little among the four contexts. Re-examination of published data on amber suppression also revealed an inverse correlation between context sensitivity and the size of the variable region. Collectively the data suggest that a large variable loop in a tRNA decreases the influence of the 3' context on tRNA selection, probably by strengthening tRNA-ribosomal interactions. PMID:7479072

  9. The p53 Codon 72 Polymorphism Modifies the Cellular Response to Inflammatory Challenge in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Leu, Julia I-Ju; Murphy, Maureen E; George, Donna L

    2013-01-01

    The p53 protein is a critical stress-response mediator and signal coordinator in cellular metabolism and environmental exposure to deleterious agents. In human populations, the p53 gene contains a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) affecting codon 72 that determines whether a proline (P72) or an arginine (R72) is present at this amino acid position of the polypeptide. Previous studies carried out using human populations, mouse models, and cell culture analyses have provided evidence that this amino acid difference can alter p53 functional activities, and potentially also can affect clinical presentation of disease. The clinical presentation associated with many forms of liver disease is variable, but few of the responsible underlying genetic factors or molecular pathways have been identified. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the p53 codon 72 polymorphism influences the cellular response to hepatic stresses. A humanized p53 knock-in (Hupki) mouse model was used to address this issue. Mice expressing either the P72 or R72 normal variation of p53 were given an acute-, intermittent- or a chronic challenge, associated with exposure to lipopolysaccharide, D-galactosamine, or a high-fat diet. The results reveal that the livers of the P72 and R72 mice exhibit notable differences in inflammatory and apoptotic response to these distinct forms of stress. Interestingly the influence of this polymorphism on the response to stress is context dependent, with P72 showing increased response to liver toxins (lipopolysaccharide and D-galactosamine), but R72 showing increased response to metabolic stress (high fat diet). When taken together, these data point to the p53 codon 72 polymorphism as an important molecular mediator of events contributing to hepatic inflammation and metabolic homeostasis. PMID:23991369

  10. A flexible codon in genomically recoded Escherichia coli permits programmable protein phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Pirman, Natasha L.; Barber, Karl W.; Aerni, Hans R.; Ma, Natalie J.; Haimovich, Adrian D.; Rogulina, Svetlana; Isaacs, Farren J.; Rinehart, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical investigation of protein phosphorylation events is limited by inefficient production of the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of full-length proteins. Here using a genomically recoded strain of E. coli with a flexible UAG codon we produce site-specific serine- or phosphoserine-containing proteins, with purities approaching 90%, from a single recombinant DNA. Specifically, we synthesize human MEK1 kinase with two serines or two phosphoserines, from one DNA template, and demonstrate programmable kinase activity. Programmable protein phosphorylation is poised to help reveal the structural and functional information encoded in the phosphoproteome. PMID:26350500

  11. Experience with the use of the Codonics Safe Label System(™) to improve labelling compliance of anaesthesia drugs.

    PubMed

    Ang, S B L; Hing, W C; Tung, S Y; Park, T

    2014-07-01

    The Codonics Safe Labeling System(™) (http://www.codonics.com/Products/SLS/flash/) is a piece of equipment that is able to barcode scan medications, read aloud the medication and the concentration and print a label of the appropriate concentration in the appropriate colour code. We decided to test this system in our facility to identify risks, benefits and usability. Our project comprised a baseline survey (25 anaesthesia cases during which 212 syringes were prepared from 223 drugs), an observational study (47 cases with 330 syringes prepared) and a user acceptability survey. The baseline compliance with all labelling requirements was 58%. In the observational study the compliance using the Codonics system was 98.6% versus 63.8% with conventional labelling. In the user acceptability survey the majority agreed the Codonics machine was easy to use, more legible and adhered with better security than the conventional preprinted label. However, most were neutral when asked about the likelihood of flexibility and customisation and were dissatisfied with the increased workload. Our findings suggest that the Codonics labelling machine is user-friendly and it improved syringe labelling compliance in our study. However, staff need to be willing to follow proper labelling workflow rather than batch label during preparation. Future syringe labelling equipment developers need to concentrate on user interface issues to reduce human factor and workflow problems. Support logistics are also an important consideration prior to implementation of any new labelling system. PMID:24967766

  12. Association of TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and the outcome of adjuvant therapy in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Tatsuya; Zhang, Zhenhuan; Nishio, Mariko; Hamaguchi, Maho; Kondo, Naoto; Iwase, Hirotaka; Iwata, Hiroji; Takahashi, Satoru; Yamashita, Hiroko; Fujii, Yoshitaka

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in codon 72 of the TP53 (also known as p53) gene (rs1042522) and in the promoter region of the MDM2 gene (SNP309; rs2279744) have been suggested to play roles in many cancers. We investigated whether these SNPs were associated with patient outcome and the effect of adjuvant systemic therapy. Methods The genotypes of TP53 codon 72 and MDM2 SNP309 were defined among 557 primary Japanese breast cancer patients (median follow-up, 61.7 months). The effects of several variables on survival were tested by Cox's proportional hazards regression analysis. Results We showed that the Pro/Pro genotype of TP53 codon 72 was associated with poorer disease-free survival (DFS) than other genotypes by Kaplan-Meier analysis (P = 0.049) and multivariate Cox's proportional hazards regression analysis (P = 0.047, risk ratio of recurrence = 1.67), whereas MDM2 SNP309 status was not associated with DFS. The association of the Pro/Pro TP53 genotype with poorer DFS was especially significant in patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.009). In contrast, among the patients who had received adjuvant hormonal therapy or no adjuvant systemic therapy, TP53 codon 72 genotype was not associated with DFS. Conclusion The Pro/Pro genotype of TP53 codon 72 appears to be an independent prognostic marker in breast cancer patients. PMID:17537232

  13. Software Dependability Evaluation Based on Markov Usage Models

    E-print Network

    Gutjahr, Walter

    Software Dependability Evaluation Based on Markov Usage Models Walter J. Gutjahr Department for computing optimal state transition probabilities for software tests, based on a Markov usage model, software usage models, software testing. 1 Introduction 1.1 Markov Software Usage Models In the last years

  14. Expression of codon optimized genes in microbial systems: current industrial applications and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Elena, Claudia; Ravasi, Pablo; Castelli, María E.; Peirú, Salvador; Menzella, Hugo G.

    2014-01-01

    The efficient production of functional proteins in heterologous hosts is one of the major bases of modern biotechnology. Unfortunately, many genes are difficult to express outside their original context. Due to their apparent “silent” nature, synonymous codon substitutions have long been thought to be trivial. In recent years, this dogma has been refuted by evidence that codon replacement can have a significant impact on gene expression levels and protein folding. In the past decade, considerable advances in the speed and cost of gene synthesis have facilitated the complete redesign of entire gene sequences, dramatically improving the likelihood of high protein expression. This technology significantly impacts the economic feasibility of microbial-based biotechnological processes by, for example, increasing the volumetric productivities of recombinant proteins or facilitating the redesign of novel biosynthetic routes for the production of metabolites. This review discusses the current applications of this technology, particularly those regarding the production of small molecules and industrially relevant recombinant enzymes. Suggestions for future research and potential uses are provided as well. PMID:24550894

  15. Angelman syndrome due to a termination codon mutation of the UBE3A gene.

    PubMed

    Al-Maawali, Almundher; Machado, Jerry; Fang, Ping; Dupuis, Lucie; Faghfoury, Hannaneh; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    Angelman syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, mental retardation, seizures, microcephaly, and severe speech delay. It may be caused by deletion of chromosome region 15q11.2 of the maternally inherited chromosome, mutations in the UBE3A gene, uniparental disomy, or imprinting defects. Most patients with this diagnosis have a severe phenotype, and a few have a mild form of the disease. We report a patient with a novel mutation in the UBE3A gene that consists of a deletion of the termination codon (c.2556-*+6del GTAAAACAAA) and results in an elongated protein E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. Our patient has a mild phenotype compared with other patients in general and specifically to patients with UBE3A mutations. He has mild developmental delay, moderate speech delay, and no seizures. Recognition of this genotype-phenotype correlation will allow better genetic counseling to other patients with similar stop codon mutations. PMID:22566713

  16. Examining weak protein-protein interactions in start codon recognition via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Rafael E.; Akabayov, Sabine R.; Ziarek, Joshua J.; Wagner, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Weak protein-protein interactions are critical in numerous biological processes. Unfortunately, they are difficult to characterize due to the high concentrations required for the production and detection of the complex population. The inherent sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to the chemical environment makes it an excellent tool to tackle this problem. NMR permits the exploration of interactions over a range of affinities, yielding essential insights into dynamic biological processes. The conversion of mRNA to protein is one such process that requires the coordinated association of many low affinity proteins. During start codon recognition, eukaryotic initiation factors assemble into high-order complexes that bind mRNA and bring it to the ribosome for decoding. Many of the structures of the eukaryotic initiation factors have been determined; however, only little is known regarding the weak binary complexes formed and their structure-function mechanisms. Herein, we use start codon recognition as a model system to review the relevant NMR methods for the characterization of weak interactions and the development of small molecule inhibitors. PMID:24393460

  17. Kras gene codon 12 mutation detection enabled by gold nanoparticles conducted in a nanobioarray chip.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, Abootaleb; Li, Paul C H

    2014-03-01

    This study employs a nanobioarray (NBA) chip for multiple biodetection of single base pair mutations at the Kras gene codon 12. To distinguish between the mutant and wild-type target DNAs, current bioarray methods use high-temperature hybridization of the targets to the allele-specific probes. However, these techniques need prior temperature optimization and become harder to implement in the case of the detection of multiple mutations. We aimed to detect these mutations at a single temperature (room temperature), enabled by the use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the bioarray created within nanofluidic channels. In this method, a low amount of target oligonucleotides (5fmol) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products (300pg) were first loaded on the AuNP surface, and then these AuNP-bound targets were introduced into the channels of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) glass chip. The targets hybridized to their complementary probes at the intersection of the target channels to the pre-printed oligonucleotide probe lines on the glass surface, creating a bioarray. Using this technique, fast and high-throughput multiple discrimination of the Kras gene codon 12 were achieved at room temperature using the NBA chip, and the specificity of the method was proved to be as high as that with the temperature stringency method. PMID:24291640

  18. EBSCO's Usage Consolidation Attempts to Streamline Gathering, Storage, and Reporting of Usage Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remy, Charlie

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of EBSCO's new Usage Consolidation product designed to streamline the harvesting, storage, and analysis of usage statistics from electronic resources. Strengths and weaknesses of the product are discussed as well as an early beta partner's experience. In the current atmosphere of flat or declining budgets, libraries…

  19. Association Between Specific Mutations in KRAS Codon 12 and Colorectal Liver Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Margonis, Georgios Antonios; Kim, Yuhree; Spolverato, Gaya; Ejaz, Aslam; Gupta, Rohan; Cosgrove, David; Anders, Robert; Karagkounis, Georgios; Choti, Michael A.; Pawlik, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Currently, one of the most commonly available biomarkers in the treatment of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) is the Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS); however, the prognostic implications of specific mutations of the KRAS gene are still not well defined. OBJECTIVE To investigate the prognostic impact of specific KRAS mutations on patients undergoing liver resection for CRLM. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This retrospective single-center study was conducted from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2013. Data about specific KRAS mutations for 331 patients who underwent hepatic resection for CRLM at Johns Hopkins Hospital between 2003 and 2013 were analyzed. Clinicopathological characteristics, perioperative details, and outcomes were stratified by specific KRAS mutation at codons 12 and 13. INTERVENTION Resection of CRLM. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival. RESULTS A mutated KRAS (mtKRAS) was identified in 91 patients (27.5%). At a median follow-up of 27.4 months, recurrence was observed in 48 patients (52.7%) with mtKRAS and 130 patients (54.2%) with wild-type KRAS (wtKRAS) (P = .82). Median and 5-year survival among patients with mtKRAS was 32.4 months and 32.7%, respectively, vs 58.5 months and 46.9%, respectively, for patients with wtKRAS (P = .02). Patients with KRAS codon 12 mutations had worse OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.54; 95% CI, 1.05–2.27; P = .03) vs those with wtKRAS, whereas a KRAS codon 13 mutation was not associated with prognosis (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.83–2.62; P = .19). Among the 6 most common mutations in codons 12 and 13, only G12V (HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.00–3.17; P = .05) and G12S (HR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.22–9.10; P = .02) were associated with worse OS compared with patients with wtKRAS (both P < .05). Among patients who recurred, G12V (HR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.32–6.61; P = .01), G12C (HR, 6.74; 95% CI, 2.05–22.2; P = .002), and G12S mutations (HR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.52–15.8; P = .01) were associated with worse OS (both P < .05). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE G12V and G12S mutations of codon 12 were independent prognostic factors of worse OS. Among patients who recurred after resection of CRLM, G12V, G12C, and G12S mutations were associated with worse OS. Information on specific KRAS mutations may help individualize therapeutic and surveillance strategies for patients with resected CRLM. PMID:26038887

  20. A global profile of replicative polymerase usage.

    PubMed

    Daigaku, Yasukazu; Keszthelyi, Andrea; Müller, Carolin A; Miyabe, Izumi; Brooks, Tony; Retkute, Renata; Hubank, Mike; Nieduszynski, Conrad A; Carr, Antony M

    2015-03-01

    Three eukaryotic DNA polymerases are essential for genome replication. Polymerase (Pol) ?-primase initiates each synthesis event and is rapidly replaced by processive DNA polymerases: Pol? replicates the leading strand, whereas Pol? performs lagging-strand synthesis. However, it is not known whether this division of labor is maintained across the whole genome or how uniform it is within single replicons. Using Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we have developed a polymerase usage sequencing (Pu-seq) strategy to map polymerase usage genome wide. Pu-seq provides direct replication-origin location and efficiency data and indirect estimates of replication timing. We confirm that the division of labor is broadly maintained across an entire genome. However, our data suggest a subtle variability in the usage of the two polymerases within individual replicons. We propose that this results from occasional leading-strand initiation by Pol? followed by exchange for Pol?. PMID:25664722

  1. The surprising negative correlation of gene length and optimal codon use - disentangling translational selection from GC-biased gene conversion in yeast

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Surprisingly, in several multi-cellular eukaryotes optimal codon use correlates negatively with gene length. This contrasts with the expectation under selection for translational accuracy. While suggested explanations focus on variation in strength and efficiency of translational selection, it has rarely been noticed that the negative correlation is reported only in organisms whose optimal codons are biased towards codons that end with G or C (-GC). This raises the question whether forces that affect base composition - such as GC-biased gene conversion - contribute to the negative correlation between optimal codon use and gene length. Results Yeast is a good organism to study this as equal numbers of optimal codons end in -GC and -AT and one may hence compare frequencies of optimal GC- with optimal AT-ending codons to disentangle the forces. Results of this study demonstrate in yeast frequencies of GC-ending (optimal AND non-optimal) codons decrease with gene length and increase with recombination. A decrease of GC-ending codons along genes contributes to the negative correlation with gene length. Correlations with recombination and gene expression differentiate between GC-ending and optimal codons, and also substitution patterns support effects of GC-biased gene conversion. Conclusion While the general effect of GC-biased gene conversion is well known, the negative correlation of optimal codon use with gene length has not been considered in this context before. Initiation of gene conversion events in promoter regions and the presence of a gene conversion gradient most likely explain the observed decrease of GC-ending codons with gene length and gene position. PMID:21481245

  2. NAT Usage in Residential Broadband Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Gregor; Schneider, Fabian; Feldmann, Anja

    Many Internet customers use network address translation (NAT) when connecting to the Internet. To understand the extend of NAT usage and its implications, we explore NAT usage in residential broadband networks based on observations from more than 20,000 DSL lines. We present a unique approach for detecting the presence of NAT and for estimating the number of hosts connected behind a NAT gateway using IP TTLs and HTTP user-agent strings. Furthermore, we study when each of the multiple hosts behind a single NAT gateway is active. This enables us to detect simultaneous use. In addition, we evaluate the accuracy of NAT analysis techniques when fewer information is available.

  3. A new Frameshift mutation on the ?2-globin gene causing ??-thalassemia: codon 43 (TTC>-TC or TTC>T-C).

    PubMed

    Joly, Philippe; Lacan, Philippe; Garcia, Caroline; Barro, Claire; Francina, Alain

    2012-01-01

    We report a new mutation on the ?2-globin gene causing ?(+)-thalassemia (?(+)-thal) with a deletion of a single nucleotide (T) at amino acid residue 43 [HBA2:c.130delT or HBA2:c.131delT]. This frameshift deletion gives rise to a premature termination codon at codon 47. PMID:22738776

  4. Incorporation of fluorescent non-natural amino acids into N-terminal tag of proteins in cell-free translation and its dependence on position and neighboring codons.

    PubMed

    Abe, Ryoji; Shiraga, Kaori; Ebisu, Shogo; Takagi, Hiroaki; Hohsaka, Takahiro

    2010-07-01

    Fluorescence labeling is a useful technique for structural and functional analyses of proteins. In a previous study, we developed position-specific incorporation of visible wavelength fluorescent non-natural amino acids carrying relatively small BODIPY fluorophores into proteins, in response to a four-base codon CGGG. Here, we have expanded this position-specific fluorescence labeling method to include relatively large non-natural amino acids carrying photostable rhodamine dyes. TAMRA-linked aminophenylalanine was synthesized and attached to a tRNA having a four-base anticodon, and its incorporation into proteins was examined in an Escherichia coli cell-free translation system. TAMRA-labeled amino acids were successfully incorporated into proteins, although incorporation was allowed only at the N-terminal region. Insertion of two codons encoding a stop codon in the +1 frame before four-base codon suppressed the expression of non-labeled proteins that may have been produced by spontaneous +1 frameshift upstream of the four-base codon. Alternation of the incorporation position affected the expression level of the TAMRA-labeled protein. In addition, alternation of upstream and downstream codons affected the efficiency and accuracy of TAMRA-labeled amino acid incorporation. Based on these results, a novel tag peptide was developed; it contained the four-base codon at the 9th position with optimized upstream and downstream codons. This tag peptide was effective for producing proteins with various fluorescent labels at the N-terminal region. PMID:20541112

  5. The C-terminal amino acid sequence of nascent peptide is a major determinant of SsrA tagging at all three stop codons.

    PubMed Central

    Sunohara, Takafumi; Abo, Tatsuhiko; Inada, Toshifumi; Aiba, Hiroji

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies on endogenous SsrA-tagged proteins have revealed that the tagging could occur at a position corresponding to the normal termination codon. During the study of SsrA-mediated Lacl tagging (Abo et al., EMBO J, 2000 19:3762-3769), we found that a variant Lacl (Lacl deltaC1) lacking the last C-terminal amino acid residue is efficiently tagged in a stop codon-dependent manner. SsrA tagging of Lacl deltaC1 occurred efficiently without Lacl binding to the lac operators at any one of three stop codons. The C-terminal (R)LESG peptide of Lacl deltaC1 was shown to trigger the SsrA tagging of an unrelated protein (CRP) when fused to its C terminus. Mass spectrometry analysis of the purified fusion proteins revealed that SsrA tagging occurs at a position corresponding to the termination codon. The alteration of the amino acid sequence but not the nucleotide sequence of the C-terminal portion eliminated the tagging. We also showed that the tagging-provoking sequences cause an efficient translational readthrough at UGA but not UAA codons. In addition, we found that C-terminal dipeptides known to induce an efficient translation readthrough could cause an efficient tagging at stop codons. We conclude that the amino acid sequence of nascent polypeptide prior to stop codons is a major determinant for the SsrA tagging at all three stop codons. PMID:12458795

  6. Life without tRNA[superscript Ile]-lysidine synthetase: translation of the isoleucine codon AUA in Bacillus subtilis lacking the canonical tRNA[Ile over 2

    E-print Network

    Koehrer, Caroline

    Translation of the isoleucine codon AUA in most prokaryotes requires a modified C (lysidine or agmatidine) at the wobble position of tRNA[Ile over 2] to base pair specifically with the A of the AUA codon but not with the ...

  7. Design and Usage of an Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haksar, Lucy

    1983-01-01

    Describes design of an item bank for use with lower ability mathematics students in Scottish secondary schools. Aspects of bank usage discussed include raw score translation to measures on validated scales, test design for various purposes, and ways of recording and analyzing results. Test examples with corresponding outputs are given. (Author/MBR)

  8. Usage Patterns of Open Genomic Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Jingfeng; Liu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Genome Expression Omnibus (GEO), a data repository in biomedical sciences, to examine the usage patterns of open data repositories. It attempts to identify the degree of recognition of data reuse value and understand how e-science has impacted a large-scale scholarship. By analyzing a list of 1,211 publications that cite GEO data…

  9. Nutritional supplements usage by Portuguese athletes.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Mónica; Fernandes, Maria João; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor Hugo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we determined the prevalence of nutritional supplements (NS) usage, the type of supplements used, the reasons for usage, and the source of nutritional advice among Portuguese athletes. Two hundred ninety-two athletes (68 % male, 12 - 37 years old) from 13 national sports federations completed a questionnaire that sought information on socio-demographics, sports data, and NS usage. Most athletes (66 %) consumed NS, with a median consumption of 4 supplements per athlete. The most popular supplements included multivitamins/minerals (67 %), sport drinks (62 %), and magnesium (53 %). Significant differences for the type of NS consumed were found between gender and age groups and the number of weekly training hours. Most athletes used NS to accelerate recovery (63 %), improve sports performance (62 %), and have more energy/reduce fatigue (60 %). Athletes sought advice on supplementation mainly from physicians (56 %) and coaches (46 %). Age and gender were found to influence reasons for use and the source of information. Reasons for NS usage were supported scientifically in some cases (e. g., muscle gain upon protein supplementation), but others did not have a scientific basis (e. g., use of glutamine and magnesium). Given the high percentage of NS users, there is an urgent need to provide athletes with education and access to scientific and unbiased information, so that athletes can make assertive and rational choices about the utilization of these products. PMID:24220164

  10. Google Scholar Usage: An Academic Library's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ya; Howard, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Google Scholar is a free service that provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly works and to connect patrons with the resources libraries provide. The researchers in this study analyzed Google Scholar usage data from 2006 for three library tools at San Francisco State University: SFX link resolver, Web Access Management proxy server,…

  11. Drug Usage Trends Among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girdano, Daniel A.; Girdano, Dorothy Dusek

    1974-01-01

    The health Education Department of the University of Maryland continuously monitors the drug usage trends on campus. The latest survey (fall, 1973) of 1,385 undergraduates at this school shows that student use of illicit drugs has increased. Alcohol is the most popular drug followed by marijuana, hashish, methaqualone and speed. (Author)

  12. Predicting Student Success via Online Homework Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Charles R.; Gulacar, Ozcan; King, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    With the amount of data available through an online homework system about students' study habits, it stands to reason that such systems can be used to identify likely student outcomes. A study was conducted to see how student usage of an online chemistry homework system (OWL) correlated with student success in a general chemistry course.…

  13. Language Arts: Mechanics and Usage K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    This revised collection is presented in a new format. Each objective consists of stating the general objective, giving directions, sample items, and answers. Objectives covering a wide range of writing problems are included emphasizing the improvement of clarity in expression. The text is divided into two categories: Mechanics and Usage. There are…

  14. Functional Usage Definitions Page 1 of 3

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Organized Research: Projects funded by University funds (function 320) Sponsored Research Training, institutional training grants (T32) and individual fellowships (F32). (function 311) Research Cost sharingFunctional Usage Definitions Page 1 of 3 Space Func Code Functional Classification Category

  15. Style and Usage Software: Mentor, not Judge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smye, Randy

    Computer software style and usage checkers can encourage students' recursive revision strategies. For example, HOMER is based on the revision pedagogy presented in Richard Lanham's "Revising Prose," while Grammatik II focuses on readability, passive voice, and possibly misused words or phrases. Writer's Workbench "Style" (a UNIX program) provides…

  16. Production, Usage, and Comprehension in Animal Vocalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we place equal emphasis on production, usage, and comprehension because these components of communication may exhibit different developmental trajectories and be affected by different neural mechanisms. In the animal kingdom generally, learned, flexible vocal production is rare, appearing in only a few orders of birds and few…

  17. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…

  18. Twitter Usage of Universities in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yolcu, Ozgu

    2013-01-01

    Universities are among the users of the most popular social media networks. Usage of social media by especially students and many other people and institutions, which constitutes the target audience for universities, encourages the universities to effectively use this environment. Twitter is among these social media networks which facilitate the…

  19. [Dental welding titanium and its clinical usage].

    PubMed

    Li, H; Xiao, M; Zhao, Y

    1998-09-01

    Due to its excellent biocompatibility, desirable chemical and mechanical properties, Titanium has been used for implant denture, RPD and FPD, where welding techniques were indispensable. This paper introduces 5 useful modern ways to weld Titanium and their clinical usage. They are: laser, plasma welding, TIG, infraned brazing and Hruska electrowelding. PMID:12553259

  20. Collaborative Portfolio's Effect on Library Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Library resources are expensive and it is the library media specialist's responsibility to ensure that use of the library's resources is maximized to support the School Strategic Plan (SSP). This library usage study examined data on the scheduling of high school classes for research-based assignments, related to content area curriculum standards,…

  1. Female Athletes and Performance-Enhancer Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fralinger, Barbara K.; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Olson, Valerie; Simpkins, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a knowledge base on factors associated with performance-enhancer usage among female athletes at the high school level in order to identify markers for a future prevention-education program. The study used a pretest-only, between-subjects Likert Scale survey to rank the importance of internal and external…

  2. Jadeite: Improving API Documentation Using Usage Information

    E-print Network

    Myers, Brad A.

    Jadeite: Improving API Documentation Using Usage Information Abstract Jadeite is a new Javadoc-like API documentation sys- tem that takes advantage of multiple users' aggregate experience to reduce difficulties that programmers have learning new APIs. Previous studies have shown that programmers often

  3. The Scope of Usage-Based Theory

    PubMed Central

    Ibbotson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Usage-based approaches typically draw on a relatively small set of cognitive processes, such as categorization, analogy, and chunking to explain language structure and function. The goal of this paper is to first review the extent to which the “cognitive commitment” of usage-based theory has had success in explaining empirical findings across domains, including language acquisition, processing, and typology. We then look at the overall strengths and weaknesses of usage-based theory and highlight where there are significant debates. Finally, we draw special attention to a set of culturally generated structural patterns that seem to lie beyond the explanation of core usage-based cognitive processes. In this context we draw a distinction between cognition permitting language structure vs. cognition entailing language structure. As well as addressing the need for greater clarity on the mechanisms of generalizations and the fundamental units of grammar, we suggest that integrating culturally generated structures within existing cognitive models of use will generate tighter predictions about how language works. PMID:23658552

  4. College Student Performance and Credit Card Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Palmer, Todd Starr

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between credit card usage, employment, and academic performance among a group of college students with credit cards. Results reveal that the students differed significantly in the level of anxiety felt from carrying debt, perceived need to work, and perceived impact of employment on academic performance. (Contains 57…

  5. Translation initiation in Drosophila melanogaster is reduced by mutations upstream of the AUG initiator codon

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Yue; Gunter, L.E.; Organ, E.L.; Cavener, D.R. )

    1991-04-01

    The importance to in vivo translation of sequences immediately upstream of the Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) start codon was examined at two developmental stages. Mutations were introduced into the Adh gene in vitro, and the mutant gene was inserted into the genome via germ line transformation. An A-to-T substitution at the [minus]3 position did not affect relative translation of ADH at the adult stage. A second mutant gene, containing five mutations in the region [minus]1 to [minus]9, was designed to completely block translation initiation. However, transformant lines bearing these mutations still exhibit detectable ADH, albeit at substantially reduced levels. The average fold reduction at the second-instar larval stage was 5.9, while at the adult stage a 12.5-fold reduction was observed.

  6. Mutations at a single codon in Mad homology 2 domain of SMAD4 cause Myhre syndrome.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Carine; Mahaut, Clémentine; Abhyankar, Avinash; Le Goff, Wilfried; Serre, Valérie; Afenjar, Alexandra; Destrée, Anne; di Rocco, Maja; Héron, Delphine; Jacquemont, Sébastien; Marlin, Sandrine; Simon, Marleen; Tolmie, John; Verloes, Alain; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Munnich, Arnold; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

    2012-01-01

    Myhre syndrome (MIM 139210) is a developmental disorder characterized by short stature, short hands and feet, facial dysmorphism, muscular hypertrophy, deafness and cognitive delay. Using exome sequencing of individuals with Myhre syndrome, we identified SMAD4 as a candidate gene that contributes to this syndrome on the basis of its pivotal role in the bone morphogenetic pathway (BMP) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-? signaling. We identified three distinct heterozygous missense SMAD4 mutations affecting the codon for Ile500 in 11 individuals with Myhre syndrome. All three mutations are located in the region of SMAD4 encoding the Mad homology 2 (MH2) domain near the site of monoubiquitination at Lys519, and we found a defect in SMAD4 ubiquitination in fibroblasts from affected individuals. We also observed decreased expression of downstream TGF-? target genes, supporting the idea of impaired TGF-?-mediated transcriptional control in individuals with Myhre syndrome. PMID:22158539

  7. Replicating reoviruses with a transgene replacing the codons for the head domain of the viral spike.

    PubMed

    van den Wollenberg, D J M; Dautzenberg, I J C; Ros, W; Lipi?ska, A D; van den Hengel, S K; Hoeben, R C

    2015-03-01

    The capacity to modify the reovirus genome facilitates generation of new therapeutic reoviruses. We describe a method for generating replication-competent reoviruses carrying a heterologous transgene. The strategy is based on the expanded-tropism reovirus mutant jin-3, which can infect cells independent of the reovirus receptor junction-adhesion molecule A (JAM-A). Jin-3 harbors a mutation in the S1 segment, resulting in a G196R substitution in the tail of the spike protein ?1. The use of the jin-3 tail-encoding S1 segment allows replacing the codons for the JAM-A-binding head domain by up to 522? nucleotides of foreign sequences, without exceeding the size of the wild-type S1 segment. We inserted the codons for the porcine teschovirus-1 2A element fused with those encoding the fluorescent protein iLOV. Replicating rS1His-2A-iLOV reoviruses were generated by co-transfection of expression plasmids for all reovirus segments. These reoviruses contain the S1His-2A-iLOV segment in the absence of the wild-type S1 segment. Density-gradient centrifugation confirmed the association of the ?1-tail fragment with the capsid. Both JAM-A-positive and -negative cells exposed to the rS1His-2A-iLOV reoviruses exhibited iLOV fluorescence, confirming the jin-3-derived expanded-tropism phenotype. These data demonstrated the feasibility of generating decapitated replication-competent T3D reoviruses carrying a heterologous transgene. PMID:25588743

  8. Functional studies of a germ-line polymorphism at codon 47 within the p53 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Felley-Bosco, E.; Weston, A.; Cawley, H.M.; Bennett, W.P.; Harris, C.C.

    1993-09-01

    A rare germ-line polymorphism in codon 47 of the p53 gene replaces the wild-type proline (CCG) with a serine (TCG). Restriction analysis of 101 human samples revealed the frequency of the rare allele to be 0% (n = 69) in Causasians and 4.7% (3/64, n = 32) among African-Americans. To investigate the consequence of this amino acid substitution, a cDNA construct (p53 mut47ser) containing the mutation was introduced into a lung adenocarcinoma cell line (Calu-6) that does not express p53. A growth suppression similar to that obtained after introduction of a wild-type p53 cDNA construct was observed, in contrast to the result obtained by introduction of p53 mut143ala. Furthermore, expression of neither p53 mut47ser nor wild-type p53 was tolerated by growing cells. In transient expression assays, both mut47ser and wild-type p53 activated the expression of a reporter gene linked to a p53 binding sequence (PG13-CAT) and inhibited the expression of the luciferase gene under the control of the Rous sarcoma virus promoter (RSVluc). In the same assay, mut143ala did not activate the expression of PG13-CAT and produced only a slight inhibitory effect on RSVluc. These findings indicate that the p53 variant with a serine at codon 47 should be considered as a rare germ-line polymorphism that does not alter the growth-suppression activity of p53. 30 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Regulation of translation by upstream translation initiation codons of surfactant protein A1 splice variants.

    PubMed

    Tsotakos, Nikolaos; Silveyra, Patricia; Lin, Zhenwu; Thomas, Neal; Vaid, Mudit; Floros, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A), a molecule with roles in lung innate immunity and surfactant-related functions, is encoded by two genes in humans: SFTPA1 (SP-A1) and SFTPA2 (SP-A2). The mRNAs from these genes differ in their 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTR) due to differential splicing. The 5'-UTR variant ACD' is exclusively found in transcripts of SP-A1, but not in those of SP-A2. Its unique exon C contains two upstream AUG codons (uAUGs) that may affect SP-A1 translation efficiency. The first uAUG (u1) is in frame with the primary start codon (p), but the second one (u2) is not. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of uAUGs on SP-A1 expression. We employed RT-qPCR to determine the presence of exon C-containing SP-A1 transcripts in human RNA samples. We also used in vitro techniques including mutagenesis, reporter assays, and toeprinting analysis, as well as in silico analyses to determine the role of uAUGs. Exon C-containing mRNA is present in most human lung tissue samples and its expression can, under certain conditions, be regulated by factors such as dexamethasone or endotoxin. Mutating uAUGs resulted in increased luciferase activity. The mature protein size was not affected by the uAUGs, as shown by a combination of toeprint and in silico analysis for Kozak sequence, secondary structure, and signal peptide and in vitro translation in the presence of microsomes. In conclusion, alternative splicing may introduce uAUGs in SP-A1 transcripts, which in turn negatively affect SP-A1 translation, possibly affecting SP-A1/SP-A2 ratio, with potential for clinical implication. PMID:25326576

  10. Attenuation of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Using Large-Scale Random Codon Re-encoding

    PubMed Central

    de Fabritus, Lauriane; Nougairède, Antoine; Aubry, Fabien; Gould, Ernest A; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale codon re-encoding (i.e. introduction of a large number of synonymous mutations) is a novel method of generating attenuated viruses. Here, it was applied to the pathogenic flavivirus, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) which causes febrile illness and encephalitis in humans in forested regions of Europe and Asia. Using an infectious clone of the Oshima 5–10 strain ("wild-type virus"), a cassette of 1.4kb located in the NS5 coding region, was modified by randomly introducing 273 synonymous mutations ("re-encoded virus"). Whilst the in cellulo replicative fitness of the re-encoded virus was only slightly reduced, the re-encoded virus displayed an attenuated phenotype in a laboratory mouse model of non-lethal encephalitis. Following intra-peritoneal inoculation of either 2.105 or 2.106 TCID50 of virus, the frequency of viraemia, neurovirulence (measured using weight loss and appearance of symptoms) and neuroinvasiveness (detection of virus in the brain) were significantly decreased when compared with the wild-type virus. Mice infected by wild-type or re-encoded viruses produced comparable amounts of neutralising antibodies and results of challenge experiments demonstrated that mice previously infected with the re-encoded virus were protected against subsequent infection by the wild-type virus. This constitutes evidence that a mammalian species can be protected against infection by a virulent wild-type positive-stranded RNA virus following immunisation with a derived randomly re-encoded strain. Our results demonstrate that random codon re-encoding is potentially a simple and effective method of generating live-attenuated vaccine candidates against pathogenic flaviviruses. PMID:25734338

  11. Selective Targeting of the KRAS Codon?12 Mutation Sequence by Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamide seco-CBI Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rhys D; Chandran, Anandhakumar; Kashiwazaki, Gengo; Hashiya, Kaori; Bando, Toshikazu; Nagase, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2015-10-12

    Mutation of KRAS is a key step in many cancers. Mutations occur most frequently at codon?12, but the targeting of KRAS is notoriously difficult. We recently demonstrated selective reduction in the volume of tumors harboring the KRAS codon?12 mutation in a mouse model by using an alkylating hairpin N-methylpyrrole-N-methylimidazole polyamide seco-1,2,9,9a-tetrahydrocyclopropa[1,2-c]benz[1,2-e]indol-4-one conjugate (conjugate 4) designed to target the KRAS codon?12 mutation sequence. Herein, we have compared the alkylating activity of 4 against three other conjugates that were also designed to target the KRAS codon?12 mutation sequence. Conjugate 4 displayed greater affinity for the G12D mutation sequence than for the G12V sequence. A computer-minimized model suggested that conjugate 4 could bind more efficiently to the G12D match sequence than to a one-base-pair mismatch sequence. Conjugate 4 was modified for next-generation sequencing. Bind-n-Seq analysis supported the evidence showing that conjugate 4 could target the G12D mutation sequence with exceptionally high affinity and the G12V mutation sequence with much higher affinity than that for the wild-type sequence. PMID:26306751

  12. CODON-BASED DETECTION OF POSITIVE SELECTION CAN BE BIASED BY HETEROGENEOUS DISTRIBUTION OF POLAR AMINO ACIDS ALONG PROTEIN

    E-print Network

    Xia, Xuhua

    1 CODON-BASED DETECTION OF POSITIVE SELECTION CAN BE BIASED BY HETEROGENEOUS DISTRIBUTION OF POLAR AMINO ACIDS ALONG PROTEIN SEQUENCES Xuhua Xia Department of Biology, University of Ottawa 30 Marie Curie selection, are associated with a high frequency of polar amino acids with a high mutability

  13. A start codon mutation of the FRMD7 gene in two Korean families with idiopathic infantile nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae-Hwan; Shin, Jin-Hong; Seo, Je Hyun; Jung, Jae-Ho; Choi, Kwang-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic infantile nystagmus (IIN) is the involuntary oscillation of the eyes with onset in the first few months of life. The most common form of inheritance is X-linked, and mutations in FRMD7 gene are a major cause. To identify the FRMD7 gene mutations associated with X-linked IIN, we performed PCR-based DNA direct sequencing in 4 affected subjects from 2 Korean families. We also assessed structural abnormalities of retina and optic nerve head using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Genetic analysis revealed a A>G transversion at nucleotide c.1, the first base of the start codon. This mutation leads to the loss of the primary start codon ATG for methionine, which is replaced by a triplet GTG for valine. The alternative in-frame start codon is not present around a mutation. OCT revealed the morphological changes within the optic nerve head, including shallow cup depth and small cup-to-disc ratio. In summary, we identified a novel start codon mutation within the FRMD7 gene of 2 Korean families. Our data expands the mutation spectrum of FRMD7 causing IIN. We also demonstrated abnormal developments of afferent system in patients with FRMD7 mutations using OCT, which may help to understand the etiological factor in development of nystagmus. PMID:26268155

  14. A Synthetic Approach to Stop Codon Scanning Mutagenesis Lihua Nie, Jason Lavinder, Mohosin Sarkar, Kimberly Stephany and Thomas J. Magliery*

    E-print Network

    Magliery, Thomas J.

    -held UV light was used for the irradiation. The cells were then lysed #12;S3 with 0.1 mm glass beadsS1 A Synthetic Approach to Stop Codon Scanning Mutagenesis Lihua Nie, Jason Lavinder, Mohosin and additional UV crosslinking experiments #12;S2 Part I: Additional detailed procedures 1 H and 31 P NMR

  15. Four-base codon mediated mRNA display to construct peptide libraries that contain multiple nonnatural amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Muranaka, Norihito; Hohsaka, Takahiro; Sisido, Masahiko

    2006-01-01

    In vitro selection and directed evolution of peptides from mRNA display are powerful strategies to find novel peptide ligands that bind to target biomolecules. In this study, we expanded the mRNA display method to include multiple nonnatural amino acids by introducing three different four-base codons at a randomly selected single position on the mRNA. Another nonnatural amino acid may be introduced by suppressing an amber codon that may appear from a (NNK)n nucleotide sequence on the mRNA. The mRNA display was expressed in an Escherichia coli in vitro translation system in the presence of three types of tRNAs carrying different four-base anticodons and a tRNA carrying an amber anticodon, the tRNAs being chemically aminoacylated with different nonnatural amino acids. The complexity of the starting mRNA-displayed peptide library was estimated to be 1.1 × 1012 molecules. The effectiveness of the four-base codon mediated mRNA display method was demonstrated in the selection of biocytin-containing peptides on streptavidin-coated beads. Moreover, a novel streptavidin-binding nonnatural peptide containing benzoylphenylalanine was obtained from the nonnatural peptide library. The nonnatural peptide library from the four-base codon mediated mRNA display provides much wider functional and structural diversity than conventional peptide libraries that are constituted from 20 naturally occurring amino acids. PMID:16397292

  16. Codon modification for the DNA sequence of a single-chain Fv antibody against clenbuterol and expression in Pichia pastoris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To improve expression efficiency of the recombinant single-chain variable fragment (scFv) against clenbuterol (CBL) obtained from mouse in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) GS115, the DNA sequence encoding for CBL-scFv was designed and synthesized based on the codon bias of P. p...

  17. TP53 codon 72 Arg/Arg polymorphism is associated with a higher risk for inflammatory bowel disease development

    PubMed Central

    Volodko, Natalia; Salla, Mohamed; Eksteen, Bertus; Fedorak, Richard N; Huynh, Hien Q; Baksh, Shairaz

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between tumor protein 53 (TP53) codon 72 polymorphisms and the risk for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) development. METHODS: Numerous genetic and epigenetic drivers have been identified for IBD including the TP53 gene. Pathogenic mutations in TP53 gene have only been reported in 50% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the TP53 gene resulting in the presence of either arginine (Arg) or proline (Pro) or both at codon 72 was shown to alter TP53 tumor-suppressor properties. This SNP has been investigated as a risk factor for numerous cancers, including CRC. In this study we analyzed TP53 codon 72 polymorphism distribution in 461 IBD, 181 primary sclerosing cholangitis patients and 62 healthy controls. Genotyping of TP53 was performed by sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood. RESULTS: The most frequent TP53 genotype in IBD patients was Arg/Arg occurring in 54%-64% of cases (and in only 32% of controls). Arg/Pro was the most prevalent genotype in controls (53%) and less common in patients (31%-40%). Pro/Pro frequency was not significantly different between controls and IBD patients. CONCLUSION: The data suggests that the TP53 codon 72 Arg/Arg genotype is associated with increased risk for IBD development. PMID:26420962

  18. High-level tetracycline resistance mediated by efflux pumps Tet(A) and Tet(A)-1 with two start codons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weixia; Guo, Qinglan; Xu, Xiaogang; Sheng, Zi-ke; Ye, Xinyu; Wang, Minggui

    2014-11-01

    Efflux is the most common mechanism of tetracycline resistance. Class A tetracycline efflux pumps, which often have high prevalence in Enterobacteriaceae, are encoded by tet(A) and tet(A)-1 genes. These genes have two potential start codons, GTG and ATG, located upstream of the genes. The purpose of this study was to determine the start codon(s) of the class A tetracycline resistance (tet) determinants tet(A) and tet(A)-1, and the tetracycline resistance level they mediated. Conjugation, transformation and cloning experiments were performed and the genetic environment of tet(A)-1 was analysed. The start codons in class A tet determinants were investigated by site-directed mutagenesis of ATG and GTG, the putative translation initiation codons. High-level tetracycline resistance was transferred from the clinical strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae 10-148 containing tet(A)-1 plasmid pHS27 to Escherichia coli J53 by conjugation. The transformants harbouring recombinant plasmids that carried tet(A) or tet(A)-1 exhibited tetracycline MICs of 256-512 µg ml(-1), with or without tetR(A). Once the ATG was mutated to a non-start codon, the tetracycline MICs were not changed, while the tetracycline MICs decreased from 512 to 64 µg ml(-1) following GTG mutation, and to ?4 µg ml(-1) following mutation of both GTG and ATG. It was presumed that class A tet determinants had two start codons, which are the primary start codon GTG and secondary start codon ATG. Accordingly, two putative promoters were predicted. In conclusion, class A tet determinants can confer high-level tetracycline resistance and have two start codons. PMID:25102906

  19. Elimination of redundant and stop codons during the chemical synthesis of degenerate oligonucleotides. Combinatorial testing on the chromophore region of the red fluorescent protein mKate.

    PubMed

    Gaytán, Paul; Roldán-Salgado, Abigail

    2013-08-16

    Although some strategies have been reported for the elimination of stop and redundant codons during the chemical synthesis of degenerate oligonucleotides, incorporating an expensive cocktail of 20 trimer-phosphoramidites is currently a commonly employed and straightforward approach. As an alternative option, we describe here a cheaper strategy based on standard monomer-phosphoramidites and a simplified resin-splitting procedure. The accurate division of the resin, containing the growing oligonucleotide, into four columns represents the key step in this approach. The synthesis of the degenerate codon NDT in column 1, loaded with 60% of the resin, produces 12 codons, while a degenerate codon VMA in column 2, loaded with 30% of the resin, produces 6 codons. Codons ATG and TGG, independently synthesized in columns 3 and 4, respectively, and loaded with 5% each, completes the 20 different codons. The experimental frequency of each mutant codon in the library was assessed by randomizing 12 contiguous codons that encode for amino acids located in the chromophore region of the enhanced red fluorescent protein mKate-S158A. Furthermore, randomization of three contiguous codons that encode for the amino acids Phe62, Met63, and Tyr64, which are equivalent to Phe64, Ser65, and Tyr66 in GFP, gave rise to some red and golden yellow fluorescent mutants displaying interesting phenotypes and spectroscopic properties. The absorption and emission spectra of two of these mutants also suggested that the complete maturation of the red and golden yellow chromophores in mKate proceeds via the formation of a green-type chromophore and a cyan-type chromophore, respectively. PMID:23654278

  20. Conserved residues in yeast initiator tRNA calibrate initiation accuracy by regulating preinitiation complex stability at the start codon.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jinsheng; Munoz, Antonio; Kolitz, Sarah E; Saini, Adesh K; Chiu, Wen-ling; Rahman, Hafsa; Lorsch, Jon R; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2014-03-01

    Eukaryotic initiator tRNA (tRNAi) contains several highly conserved unique sequence features, but their importance in accurate start codon selection was unknown. Here we show that conserved bases throughout tRNAi, from the anticodon stem to acceptor stem, play key roles in ensuring the fidelity of start codon recognition in yeast cells. Substituting the conserved G31:C39 base pair in the anticodon stem with different pairs reduces accuracy (the Sui(-) [suppressor of initiation codon] phenotype), whereas eliminating base pairing increases accuracy (the Ssu(-) [suppressor of Sui(-)] phenotype). The latter defect is fully suppressed by a Sui(-) substitution of T-loop residue A54. These genetic data are paralleled by opposing effects of Sui(-) and Ssu(-) substitutions on the stability of methionylated tRNAi (Met-tRNA(i)) binding (in the ternary complex [TC] with eIF2-GTP) to reconstituted preinitiation complexes (PICs). Disrupting the C3:G70 base pair in the acceptor stem produces a Sui(-) phenotype and also reduces the rate of TC binding to 40S subunits in vitro and in vivo. Both defects are suppressed by an Ssu(-) substitution in eIF1A that stabilizes the open/P(OUT) conformation of the PIC that exists prior to start codon recognition. Our data indicate that these signature sequences of tRNA(i) regulate accuracy by distinct mechanisms, promoting the open/P(OUT) conformation of the PIC (for C3:G70) or destabilizing the closed/P(IN) state (for G31:C39 and A54) that is critical for start codon recognition. PMID:24589778

  1. Eight new mtDNA sequences of glass sponges reveal an extensive usage of +1 frameshifting in mitochondrial translation.

    PubMed

    Haen, Karri M; Pett, Walker; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2014-02-10

    Three previously studied mitochondrial genomes of glass sponges (phylum Porifera, class Hexactinellida) contained single nucleotide insertions in protein coding genes inferred as sites of +1 translational frameshifting. To investigate the distribution and evolution of these sites and to help elucidate the mechanism of frameshifting, we determined eight new complete or nearly complete mtDNA sequences from glass sponges and examined individual mitochondrial genes from three others. We found nine new instances of single nucleotide insertions in these sequences and analyzed them both comparatively and phylogenetically. The base insertions appear to have been gained and lost repeatedly in hexactinellid mt protein genes, suggesting no functional significance for the frameshifting sites. A high degree of sequence conservation, the presence of unusual tRNAs, and a distinct pattern of codon usage suggest the "out-of-frame pairing" model of translational frameshifting. Additionally, we provide evidence that relaxed selection pressure on glass sponge mtDNA - possibly a result of their low growth rates and deep-water lifestyle - has allowed frameshift insertions to be tolerated for hundreds of millions of years. Our study provides the first example of a phylogenetically diverse and extensive usage of translational frameshifting in animal mitochondrial coding sequences. PMID:24177232

  2. Historical review of medicinal plants’ usage

    PubMed Central

    Petrovska, Biljana Bauer

    2012-01-01

    Healing with medicinal plants is as old as mankind itself. The connection between man and his search for drugs in nature dates from the far past, of which there is ample evidence from various sources: written documents, preserved monuments, and even original plant medicines. Awareness of medicinal plants usage is a result of the many years of struggles against illnesses due to which man learned to pursue drugs in barks, seeds, fruit bodies, and other parts of the plants. Contemporary science has acknowledged their active action, and it has included in modern pharmacotherapy a range of drugs of plant origin, known by ancient civilizations and used throughout the millennia. The knowledge of the development of ideas related to the usage of medicinal plants as well as the evolution of awareness has increased the ability of pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges that have emerged with the spreading of professional services in facilitation of man's life. PMID:22654398

  3. AC Lab System Usage Tracker v1.0.28

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    AC Lab System Usage Tracker v1.0.28 User Guide Mark Wainwright Analytical Centre Yan (Frank) Li & Dong Zheng #12;ACLS Usage Tracker v1.0.28 2 ACLS DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITIES, University of New South Wales. All rights reserved. #12;ACLS Usage Tracker v1.0.28 3 ACLS SOFTWARE

  4. 47 CFR 22.907 - Coordination of channel usage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coordination of channel usage. 22.907 Section... MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.907 Coordination of channel usage. Licensees in the Cellular Radiotelephone Service must coordinate, with the appropriate parties, channel usage at...

  5. Industrial Electricity Usage and Stock Returns , Dayong Huang

    E-print Network

    Pfrender, Michael

    Industrial Electricity Usage and Stock Returns Zhi Da , Dayong Huang , Hayong Yun§ April 2015 Abstract The industrial electricity usage growth rate predicts future stock returns up to one year with an R-squared of 9%. High industrial electricity usage today predicts low stock returns in the future

  6. Usage Policies Notebook for Parylene Coating System Revision date

    E-print Network

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    Usage Policies Notebook for Parylene Coating System Revision date September 2014 #12;2 Emergency Plan for Parylene Coating System Standard Operating Procedures for Emergencies Contact information manage #12;3 Usage Policies for Parylene Coating System Standard policies for usage The Parylene Coating

  7. Cleopatra: Evolutionary Pattern-based Clustering of Web Usage Data

    E-print Network

    Bhowmick, Sourav S.

    usage mining provides insight about user behaviors that helps optimizing the website for increasedCleopatra: Evolutionary Pattern-based Clustering of Web Usage Data Qiankun Zhao1 Sourav S Bhowmick1, USA qkzhao@pmail.ntu.edu.sg assourav@ntu.edu.sg ggruenwald@ou.edu Abstract. Existing web usage mining

  8. Geographic Web Usage Estimation By Monitoring DNS Huseyin Akcan

    E-print Network

    Suel, Torsten

    usage statistics are only available locally to the website administrators. Alexa [1] was oneGeographic Web Usage Estimation By Monitoring DNS Caches H¨useyin Akcan CIS Department Polytechnic gather usage statistics ranging from a single DNS server to global scale. In particular, this enables

  9. Flexible diaphragm-extreme temperature usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerma, Guillermo (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A diaphragm suitable for extreme temperature usage, such as encountered in critical aerospace applications, is fabricated by a unique method, and of a unique combination of materials. The materials include multilayered lay-ups of diaphragm materials sandwiched between layers of bleeder fabrics. After being formed in the desired shape on a mold, they are vacuum sealed and then cured under pressure, in a heated autoclave. A bond capable of withstanding extreme temperatures are produced.

  10. Space Shuttle Usage of z/OS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the avionics associated with the Space Shuttle's data processing system and its usage of z/OS. The contents include: 1) Mission, Products, and Customers; 2) Facility Overview; 3) Shuttle Data Processing System; 4) Languages and Compilers; 5) Application Tools; 6) Shuttle Flight Software Simulator; 7) Software Development and Build Tools; and 8) Fun Facts and Acronyms.

  11. Codon Optimization of the Human Papillomavirus E7 Oncogene Induces a CD8+ T Cell Response to a Cryptic Epitope Not Harbored by Wild-Type E7

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Felix K. M.; Wilde, Susanne; Voigt, Katrin; Kieback, Elisa; Mosetter, Barbara; Schendel, Dolores J.; Uckert, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Codon optimization of nucleotide sequences is a widely used method to achieve high levels of transgene expression for basic and clinical research. Until now, immunological side effects have not been described. To trigger T cell responses against human papillomavirus, we incubated T cells with dendritic cells that were pulsed with RNA encoding the codon-optimized E7 oncogene. All T cell receptors isolated from responding T cell clones recognized target cells expressing the codon-optimized E7 gene but not the wild type E7 sequence. Epitope mapping revealed recognition of a cryptic epitope from the +3 alternative reading frame of codon-optimized E7, which is not encoded by the wild type E7 sequence. The introduction of a stop codon into the +3 alternative reading frame protected the transgene product from recognition by T cell receptor gene-modified T cells. This is the first experimental study demonstrating that codon optimization can render a transgene artificially immunogenic through generation of a dominant cryptic epitope. This finding may be of great importance for the clinical field of gene therapy to avoid rejection of gene-corrected cells and for the design of DNA- and RNA-based vaccines, where codon optimization may artificially add a strong immunogenic component to the vaccine. PMID:25799237

  12. Mass Spectrometry Approach and ELISA Reveal the Effect of Codon Optimization on N-Linked Glycosylation of HIV-1 gp120

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The genes encoding many viral proteins such as HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 have a tendency for codons that are poorly used by the human genome. Why these codons are frequently present in the HIV genome is not known. The presence of these codons limits expression of HIV-1 gp120 for biochemical studies. The poor codons are replaced by synonymous codons that are frequently present in the highly expressed human genes to overexpress this protein. Whether this codon optimization affects functional properties of gp120 such as its N-linked glycosylation is unknown. We applied a bottom-up mass-spectrometry-based workflow for the direct measurement of deglycosylated and unglycosylated peptides with putative N-linked glycosylation sites, that is, NxS/T motifs. Using this mass-spectrometry approach in combination with ELISA, it is found that codon optimization significantly reduces the frequency with which the dolichol pyrophosphate-linked oligosaccharide is added by the catalytic subunits of oligosaccharide transferase complex to the glycosylation sites. This reduction affects binding of glycan-dependent broadly neutralizing antibodies. These data are essential for biochemical studies of gp120 and successful development of a vaccine against HIV-1. Furthermore, they demonstrate a mass-spectrometry approach for studying the site-specific N-linked glycosylation efficiency of glycoproteins. PMID:25285362

  13. Urologists' usage and perceptions of urological apps.

    PubMed

    Dempster, Niall J; Risk, Rachel; Clark, Ross; Meddings, Robert N

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a survey of urologists to document their patterns of app usage and perceptions of app quality, and to assess their interest in future app usage. The survey was sent to all urologists on the mailing list of the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) (n=1613). A total of 115 responses were received (a response rate of 7%). Most respondents (89%) owned mobile devices capable of downloading apps. Most respondents (79%) used apps and about half (49%) used urological apps; the latter accessed a mean of 2.4 urological apps per month. Significantly more younger (defined as <45 years old) than older urologists used urological apps (P<0.001). Respondents' perception of the overall quality of apps produced for both urologists and patients was relatively low. The respondents' interest in future app usage was strong. There was greatest interest in apps such as logbooks or revalidation ones (87%), reference apps (86%) and ones which aided decision-making (85%). There was considerable support for the implementation of measures to provide urological app quality assurance; most respondents believed app peer review (78%) and validation (78%) would be beneficial and 48% supported regulatory oversight. There appears to be a need for high quality urological apps and opportunities therefore exist for national urological associations and academic units to lead developments. PMID:25316043

  14. The Enterococcus faecalis EbpA Pilus Protein: Attenuation of Expression, Biofilm Formation, and Adherence to Fibrinogen Start with the Rare Initiation Codon ATT

    PubMed Central

    Montealegre, Maria Camila; La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Roh, Jung Hyeob; Harvey, Barrett R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The endocarditis and biofilm-associated pili (Ebp) are important in Enterococcus faecalis pathogenesis, and the pilus tip, EbpA, has been shown to play a major role in pilus biogenesis, biofilm formation, and experimental infections. Based on in silico analyses, we previously predicted that ATT is the EbpA translational start codon, not the ATG codon, 120 bp downstream of ATT, which is annotated as the translational start. ATT is rarely used to initiate protein synthesis, leading to our hypothesis that this codon participates in translational regulation of Ebp production. To investigate this possibility, site-directed mutagenesis was used to introduce consecutive stop codons in place of two lysines at positions 5 and 6 from the ATT, to replace the ATT codon in situ with ATG, and then to revert this ATG to ATT; translational fusions of ebpA to lacZ were also constructed to investigate the effect of these start codons on translation. Our results showed that the annotated ATG does not start translation of EbpA, implicating ATT as the start codon; moreover, the presence of ATT, compared to the engineered ATG, resulted in significantly decreased EbpA surface display, attenuated biofilm, and reduced adherence to fibrinogen. Corroborating these findings, the translational fusion with the native ATT as the initiation codon showed significantly decreased expression of ?-galactosidase compared to the construct with ATG in place of ATT. Thus, these results demonstrate that the rare initiation codon of EbpA negatively regulates EbpA surface display and negatively affects Ebp-associated functions, including biofilm and adherence to fibrinogen. PMID:26015496

  15. Cloning and in vitro function analysis of codon-optimized FatI gene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Xing-Hong; Teng, Mei-Li; Liu, Huan-Qi; Min, Ling-Jiang; Pan, Qing-Jie; Qin, Guo-Qing; Shen, Wei; Li, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Currently, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have attracted great attention because of their biological significance to organisms. In addition, PUFAs show an obvious impact on prevention and treatment of various diseases. Because n-3 PUFAs cannot be endogenously synthesized by mammals, mammals have to rely on a dietary supplement for sufficient supply. The finding and application of the fatty acid dehydrogenase I (FatI) gene are expected to change the current situation because it can convert n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) to n-3 PUFAs. Meanwhile, the gradual maturation of transgenic technology makes it possible to produce transgenic animals that can synthesize n-3 PUFAs by themselves. In this study, the DNA coding sequence of FatI was synthesized by a chemical method after codon optimization according to the mammal's codon bias. The synthesized DNA sequence was introduced into Boer goat fetal fibroblasts by the constructed recombinant eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(+)-FatI. Boer goat fetal fibroblasts were transfected by electroporation, and the stable transfected cell lines were obtained by G418 selection. Genomic DNA PCR and Southern blot were applied to verify that the foreign gene FatI was integrated into the genome of the Boer goat fibroblasts. RT-PCR results showed the expression of FatI gene at the mRNA level. The fatty acid profile of cells carrying the FatI gene revealed an increase in total n-3 PUFAs (from 0.61 to 0.95), but a decrease in n-6 PUFAs (from 10.34 to 9.85), resulting in a remarkable increase in the n-3:n-6 ratio (from 0.059 to 0.096). The n-3:n-6 ratio had a 63.49 percent increase, which is a precursor of the response of n-3 desaturase activity of the FatI gene. The study may provide a practical tool for producing transgenic animals that can produce n-3 PUFAs by themselves, and we hope that the application will lay the foundation for animals producing n-3 PUFAs, which will benefit human nutrition and wellness. PMID:24117953

  16. The background pattern of drug usage in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wade, D N

    1976-05-01

    The pattern of drug usage by urban populations has been studied in two typical Australian cities: Traralgon, Victoria, and Sydney, New South Wales. The study, lasting 1 year, involved questioning of 10% of the residents in households selected by random sampling and records of pharmacists. The questions related to state of health, recurrent or chronic disability, and drug exposures during 2 wk preceding the interview. Figures obtained from the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (a system of partial federal subsidy) and the Morbidity Survey of the Royal Australasian College of General Practitioners showed Australians to be near the top of the world's drug takers, in comparison for example with Americans: between 6 and 7 prescriptions per capita in Australia and between 4 and 5 prescriptions in the United States in 1973. The consumption of over-the-counter drugs (OTC) was estimated from the Commonwealth Statistician's figures by subtracting the expenditure for prescription drugs from the total annual chemist sales--$A450,000,000. This represents a cost of $A33.85 for every man, woman, and child. Of this amount $A19.07 was spent for OTC drugs, analgesics and cough suppressants being the two largest items. Roughly 60% of Australians average two or more doses of analgesics per day, with some patients consuming 12 or more doses a day. An association between this high consumption of analgesics and an alarming incidence of iatrogenic disease--analgesic nephropathy and gastrointestinal hemorrhage--is postulated. It is concluded that this level of drug usage must be symptomatic of underlying stresses and pressures of urban society in that country, along with a cultural factor of ready acceptance of the social use of drugs. PMID:1269204

  17. Characterization of the Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Cerura menciana and Comparison with Other Lepidopteran Insects

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lishang; Qian, Cen; Zhang, Congfen; Wang, Lei; Wei, Guoqing; Li, Jun; Zhu, Baojian; Liu, Chaoliang

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Cerura menciana (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) was sequenced and analyzed in this study. The mitogenome is a circular molecule of 15,369 bp, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and a A+T-rich region. The positive AT skew (0.031) indicated that more As than Ts were present. All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which was initiated by CAG. Two of the 13 PCGs contained the incomplete termination codon T or TA, while the others were terminated with the stop codon TAA. The A+T-rich region was 372 bp in length and consisted of an ‘ATAGA’ motif followed by an 18 bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)8 and a poly-A element upstream of the trnM gene. Results examining codon usage indicated that Asn, Ile, Leu2, Lys, Tyr and Phe were the six most frequently occurring amino acids, while Cys was the rarest. Phylogenetic relationships, analyzed based on the nucleotide sequences of the 13 PCGs from other insect mitogenomes, confirmed that C. menciana belongs to the Notodontidae family. PMID:26309239

  18. SwiftLib: rapid degenerate-codon-library optimization through dynamic programming

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Timothy M.; Yumerefendi, Hayretin; Kuhlman, Brian; Leaver-Fay, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Degenerate codon (DC) libraries efficiently address the experimental library-size limitations of directed evolution by focusing diversity toward the positions and toward the amino acids (AAs) that are most likely to generate hits; however, manually constructing DC libraries is challenging, error prone and time consuming. This paper provides a dynamic programming solution to the task of finding the best DCs while keeping the size of the library beneath some given limit, improving on the existing integer-linear programming formulation. It then extends the algorithm to consider multiple DCs at each position, a heretofore unsolved problem, while adhering to a constraint on the number of primers needed to synthesize the library. In the two library-design problems examined here, the use of multiple DCs produces libraries that very nearly cover the set of desired AAs while still staying within the experimental size limits. Surprisingly, the algorithm is able to find near-perfect libraries where the ratio of amino-acid sequences to nucleic-acid sequences approaches 1; it effectively side-steps the degeneracy of the genetic code. Our algorithm is freely available through our web server and solves most design problems in about a second. PMID:25539925

  19. Genetic Analysis of Diversity within a Chinese Local Sugarcane Germplasm Based on Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Que, Youxiong; Pan, Yongbao; Lu, Yunhai; Yang, Cui; Yang, Yuting; Huang, Ning; Xu, Liping

    2014-01-01

    In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic diversity among 107 sugarcane accessions within a local sugarcane germplasm collection. These primers amplified 176 DNA fragments, of which 163 were polymorphic (92.85%). Polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.783 to 0.907 with a mean of 0.861. Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the SCoT marker data divided the 107 sugarcane accessions into six clusters at 0.674 genetic similarity coefficient level. Relatively abundant genetic diversity was observed among ROC22, ROC16, and ROC10, which occupied about 80% of the total sugarcane acreage in China, indicating their potential breeding value on Mainland China. Principal component analysis (PCA) partitioned the 107 sugarcane accessions into two major groups, the Domestic Group and the Foreign Introduction Group. Each group was further divided based on institutions, where the sugarcane accessions were originally developed. The knowledge of genetic diversity among the local sugarcane germplasm provided foundation data for managing sugarcane germplasm, including construction of a core collection and regional variety distribution and subrogation. PMID:24779012

  20. Premature Termination Codons Are Recognized in the Nucleus in A Reading-Frame Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Changlan; Sheng, Ke; Du, Yanhua; Wang, Ke; Dias, Anusha; Chen, She; Whitman, Malcolm; Wang, Enduo; Reed, Robin; Cheng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    mRNAs containing premature termination codons (PTCs) are known to be degraded via nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Unexpectedly, we found that mRNAs containing any type of PTC (UAA, UAG, UGA) are detained in the nucleus whereas their wild-type counterparts are rapidly exported. This retention is strictly reading-frame dependent. Strikingly, our data indicate that translating ribosomes in the nucleus proofread the frame and detect the PTCs in the nucleus. Moreover, the shuttling NMD protein Upf1 specifically associates with PTC+ mRNA in the nucleus and is required for nuclear retention of PTC+ mRNA. Together, our data lead to a working model that PTCs are recognized in the nucleus by translating ribosomes, resulting in recruitment of Upf1, which in turn functions in nuclear retention of PTC+ mRNA. Nuclear PTC recognition adds a new layer of proofreading for mRNA and may be vital for ensuring the extraordinary fidelity required for protein production. PMID:26491543

  1. SwiftLib: rapid degenerate-codon-library optimization through dynamic programming.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Timothy M; Yumerefendi, Hayretin; Kuhlman, Brian; Leaver-Fay, Andrew

    2015-03-11

    Degenerate codon (DC) libraries efficiently address the experimental library-size limitations of directed evolution by focusing diversity toward the positions and toward the amino acids (AAs) that are most likely to generate hits; however, manually constructing DC libraries is challenging, error prone and time consuming. This paper provides a dynamic programming solution to the task of finding the best DCs while keeping the size of the library beneath some given limit, improving on the existing integer-linear programming formulation. It then extends the algorithm to consider multiple DCs at each position, a heretofore unsolved problem, while adhering to a constraint on the number of primers needed to synthesize the library. In the two library-design problems examined here, the use of multiple DCs produces libraries that very nearly cover the set of desired AAs while still staying within the experimental size limits. Surprisingly, the algorithm is able to find near-perfect libraries where the ratio of amino-acid sequences to nucleic-acid sequences approaches 1; it effectively side-steps the degeneracy of the genetic code. Our algorithm is freely available through our web server and solves most design problems in about a second. PMID:25539925

  2. A High-Fidelity Codon Set for the T4 DNA Ligase-Catalyzed Polymerization of Modified Oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yi; Kong, Dehui; Hili, Ryan

    2015-12-14

    In vitro selection of nucleic acid polymers can readily deliver highly specific receptors and catalysts for a variety of applications; however, it is suspected that the functional group deficit of nucleic acids has limited their potential with respect to proteinogenic polymers. This has stimulated research toward expanding their chemical diversity to bridge the functional gap between nucleic acids and proteins to develop a superior biopolymer. In this study, we investigate the effect of codon library size and composition on the sequence specificity of T4 DNA ligase in the DNA-templated polymerization of both unmodified and modified oligonucleotides. Using high-throughput DNA sequencing of duplex pairs, we have uncovered a 256-membered codon set that yields sequence-defined modified ssDNA polymers in high yield and with high fidelity. PMID:26513677

  3. Association Between TP53 Gene Codon 72 Polymorphism and Acute Myeloid Leukemia Susceptibility: Evidence Based on a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Xiao-Lan; Li, Sheng; Geng, Peiliang; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Yu, Guo-Zheng; Meng, Xiang-Yu; Gao, Qing-Ping; Ao, Xu-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Background Many studies have reported that the p53 codon 72 polymorphism is associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) susceptibility; however, the conclusions are inconsistent. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to obtain a more precise result. Material/Methods We searched PubMed to identify relevant studies, and 6 published case-control studies were retrieved, including 924 AML patients and 3832 controls. Odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was applied to assess the association between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and AML susceptibility. The meta-analysis was performed with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software, version 2.2. Results Overall, no significant association between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and AML susceptibility was found in this meta-analysis (Pro vs. Arg: OR=0.94, 95%CI=0.81–1.10; Pro/Pro vs. Arg/Arg: OR=0.93, 95%CI=0.71–1.22; Arg/Pro vs. Arg/Arg: OR=0.79, 95%CI=0.55–1.13; (Pro/Pro + Arg/Pro) vs. Arg/Arg: OR=0.84, 95%CI=0.62–1.13; Pro/Pro vs. (Arg/Arg + Arg/Pro): OR=1.06, 95%CI=0.83–1.35). Similar results were also found in stratified analysis according to ethnicity and source of controls. Conclusions Our meta-analysis demonstrates that p53 codon 72 polymorphism may not be a risk factor for AML, which should be verified in future studies. PMID:26451982

  4. A start codon CMT1X mutation associated with transient encephalomyelitis causes complete loss of Cx32.

    PubMed

    Sargiannidou, Irene; Kim, Gun-Ha; Kyriakoudi, Styliana; Eun, Baik-Lin; Kleopa, Kleopas A

    2015-07-01

    X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX1) results from numerous mutations in the GJB1 gene encoding the gap junction protein connexin32 (Cx32) and is one of the commonest forms of inherited neuropathy. Owing to the expression of Cx32 not only in Schwann cells but also in oligodendrocytes, a subset of CMT1X patients develops central nervous system (CNS) clinical manifestations in addition to peripheral neuropathy. While most GJB1 mutations appear to cause peripheral neuropathy through loss of Cx32 function, the cellular mechanisms underlying the CNS manifestations remain controversial. A novel start codon GJB1 mutation (p.Met1Ile) has been found in a CMT1X patient presenting with recurrent episodes of transient encephalomyelitis without apparent signs of peripheral neuropathy. In order to clarify the functional consequences of this mutation, we examined the cellular expression of two different constructs cloned from genomic DNA including the mutated start codon. None of the cloned constructs resulted in detectable expression of Cx32 by immunocytochemistry or immunoblot, although mRNA was produced at normal levels. Furthermore, co-expression with the other major oligodendrocyte connexin, Cx47, had no negative effect on GJ formation by Cx47. Finally, lysosomal and proteasomal inhibition in cells expressing the start codon mutant constructs failed to recover any detection of Cx32 as a result of impaired protein degradation. Our results indicate that the Cx32 start codon mutation is equivalent to a complete loss of the protein with failure of translation, although transcription is not impaired. Thus, complete loss of Cx32 function is sufficient to produce CNS dysfunction with clinical manifestations. PMID:25771809

  5. Phylotranscriptomics: Saturated Third Codon Positions Radically Influence the Estimation of Trees Based on Next-Gen Data

    PubMed Central

    Breinholt, Jesse W.; Kawahara, Akito Y.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in molecular sequencing techniques have led to a surge in the number of phylogenetic studies that incorporate large amounts of genetic data. We test the assumption that analyzing large number of genes will lead to improvements in tree resolution and branch support using moths in the superfamily Bombycoidea, a group with some interfamilial relationships that have been difficult to resolve. Specifically, we use a next-gen data set that included 19 taxa and 938 genes (?1.2M bp) to examine how codon position and saturation might influence resolution and node support among three key families. Maximum likelihood, parsimony, and species tree analysis using gene tree parsimony, on different nucleotide and amino acid data sets, resulted in largely congruent topologies with high bootstrap support compared with prior studies that included fewer loci. However, for a few shallow nodes, nucleotide and amino acid data provided high support for conflicting relationships. The third codon position was saturated and phylogenetic analysis of this position alone supported a completely different, potentially misleading sister group relationship. We used the program RADICAL to assess the number of genes needed to fix some of these difficult nodes. One such node originally needed a total of 850 genes but only required 250 when synonymous signal was removed. Our study shows that, in order to effectively use next-gen data to correctly resolve difficult phylogenetic relationships, it is necessary to assess the effects of synonymous substitutions and third codon positions. PMID:24148944

  6. XPC codon 939 polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to DNA damage induced by aflatoxin B1 exposure

    PubMed Central

    Long, Xi-Dai; Huang, Hong-Dong; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Yao, Jin-Guang; Xia, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), resulting in the formation of AFB1-DNA adducts, is a known human carcinogen. AFB1-exposure individuals with inherited susceptible carcinogen-repairing genotypes may experience an increased risk of genotoxicity. This study was aimed to investigate whether DNA repair gene xerodermapigmentosum complementation group C codon 939 polymorphism (rs2228001) affected the levels of AFB1-DNA adducts in Guangxi Population (n = 2558), from an AFB1-exposure area. AFB1-DNA adducts were measured by ELISA, and XPC codon 939 genotypes were identified by TaqMan-PCR. We found that longer AFB1-exposure years significantly increased XPC genotypes with codon 939 Gln alleles (namely, XPC-LG and -GG, odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] were 1.37 (1.15-1.63) and 1.99 (1.55-2.55), respectively) was significantly associated with higher levels of AFB1-DNA adducts. Furthermore, there was a positive joint effect between XPC genotypes and long-year AFB1 exposure in the formation of AFB1-DNA adducts. These results suggest that individuals with susceptible genotypes XPC-LG and -GG may experience an increased risk of DNA damage elicited by AFB1 exposure. PMID:25785113

  7. The Highly Conserved Codon following the Slippery Sequence Supports ?1 Frameshift Efficiency at the HIV-1 Frameshift Site

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Suneeth F.; Crowe-McAuliffe, Caillan; Graves, Ryan; Cardno, Tony S.; McKinney, Cushla; Poole, Elizabeth S.; Tate, Warren P.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 utilises ?1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting to translate structural and enzymatic domains in a defined proportion required for replication. A slippery sequence, U UUU UUA, and a stem-loop are well-defined RNA features modulating ?1 frameshifting in HIV-1. The GGG glycine codon immediately following the slippery sequence (the ‘intercodon’) contributes structurally to the start of the stem-loop but has no defined role in current models of the frameshift mechanism, as slippage is inferred to occur before the intercodon has reached the ribosomal decoding site. This GGG codon is highly conserved in natural isolates of HIV. When the natural intercodon was replaced with a stop codon two different decoding molecules—eRF1 protein or a cognate suppressor tRNA—were able to access and decode the intercodon prior to ?1 frameshifting. This implies significant slippage occurs when the intercodon is in the (perhaps distorted) ribosomal A site. We accommodate the influence of the intercodon in a model of frame maintenance versus frameshifting in HIV-1. PMID:25807539

  8. TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and susceptibility to cervical cancer in the Chinese population: an update meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Wang, Xin; Chen, Hong; Shang, Li-Xin; Wu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although many epidemiologic studies investigated the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and its association with cervical cancer (CC), definite conclusions cannot be drawn. Aim of the study: To evaluate the association between TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and risk of cervical cancer in the Chinese population. Methods: A computerized literature search was carried out in PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Wanfang Database to collect relevant articles. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to calculate the strength of association. Results: A total of 16 studies including 1684 CC cases and 1178 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Overall, significant increased association was found between the Pro/Pro carriers and CC risk when all studies in Chinese population pooled into the meta-analysis (heterozygous model: OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.01-1.46). In subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity and source of controls, the same results were observed in Han and in hospital-based studies. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism may be potential biomarkers for CC risk in the Chinese population, especially for Han Chinese, and studies with wider spectrum of population are required for definite conclusions. PMID:26309559

  9. Pyrosequencing analysis for mutations in embB codon306 among clinical mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Qingdao, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huaqiang; Chen, Xiaoguang; Wang, Zhongdong; Ren, Zhisheng; Wu, Jie; Sun, Haiyan; Bai, Xue

    2015-01-01

    In this study, our objectives was to analyze the molecular characteristics of mutation at embB codon306 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Qingdao by pyrosequencing technology, and to assess the value of embB codon306 used as a molecular marker to diagnose multidrug resistant (MDR) TB strains. Pyrosequencing was used to detect mutations at embB codon306 among M. tuberculosis isolates from tuberculosis (TB) patients in Qingdao. The correlation between embB306 mutation and MDR phenotype was evaluated by comparing with conventional drug susceptibility testing results. 60.9% of MDR strains and 15.2% of non-MDR strains carried embB306 mutation, respectively. The percentage of MDR-TB harboring embB306 mutation was significantly higher than that of non- MDR-TB (?2=15.09, P < 0.01). EmbB306 mutation serving as a marker to diagnose MDR-TB comparing with the traditional susceptibility test, the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy were 85%, 61%, and 77%, respectively. EmbB306 mutation is the main mechanism of TB resistance to multidrug in Qingdao, showing an association with the MDR. Pyrosequencing should be a good diagnostic tool for MDR-TB in Qingdao. PMID:26379935

  10. An assessment of worldwide supercomputer usage

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, H.J.; Simmons, M.L.; Hayes, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides a comparative study of advanced supercomputing usage in Japan and the United States as of Spring 1994. It is based on the findings of a group of US scientists whose careers have centered on programming, evaluating, and designing high-performance supercomputers for over ten years. The report is a follow-on to an assessment of supercomputing technology in Europe and Japan that was published in 1993. Whereas the previous study focused on supercomputer manufacturing capabilities, the primary focus of the current work was to compare where and how supercomputers are used. Research for this report was conducted through both literature studies and field research in Japan.

  11. The AUG start codon of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae NFS1 gene can be substituted for by UUG without increased initiation of translation at

    E-print Network

    Trumpower, Bernard L.

    to be unable to efficiently use non-AUG codons as start sites of translation initiation [2,8,9]. The Nifs gene of the human Nifs gene leads to translation of proteins of varying lengths and the localiz- ation

  12. Resolving Discrepancy between Nucleotides and Amino Acids in Deep-Level Arthropod Phylogenomics: Differentiating Serine Codons in 21-Amino-Acid Models

    E-print Network

    Zwick, Andreas; Regier, Jerome C.; Zwickl, Derrick J.

    2012-11-20

    amino acids. This study investigates the cause of that discrepancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINIDINGS: The hypothesis is tested that failure to distinguish the serine residues encoded by two disjunct clusters of codons (TCN, AGY) in amino acid analyses...

  13. Proteomics-based Refinement of Deinococcus deserti Genome Annotation Reveals an Unwonted Use of Non-canonical Translation Initiation Codons*

    PubMed Central

    Baudet, Mathieu; Ortet, Philippe; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Fernandez, Bernard; Guérin, Philippe; Enjalbal, Christine; Subra, Gilles; de Groot, Arjan; Barakat, Mohamed; Dedieu, Alain; Armengaud, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Deinococcaceae are a family of extremely radiation-tolerant bacteria that are currently subjected to numerous studies aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms for such radiotolerance. To achieve a comprehensive and accurate annotation of the Deinococcus deserti genome, we performed an N terminus-oriented characterization of its proteome. For this, we used a labeling reagent, N-tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphonium acetyl succinimide, to selectively derivatize protein N termini. The large scale identification of N-tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphonium acetyl succinimide-modified N-terminal-most peptides by shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis led to the validation of 278 and the correction of 73 translation initiation codons in the D. deserti genome. In addition, four new genes were detected, three located on the main chromosome and one on plasmid P3. We also analyzed signal peptide cleavages on a genome-wide scale. Based on comparative proteogenomics analysis, we propose a set of 137 corrections to improve Deinococcus radiodurans and Deinococcus geothermalis gene annotations. Some of these corrections affect important genes involved in DNA repair mechanisms such as polA, ligA, and ddrB. Surprisingly, experimental evidences were obtained indicating that DnaA (the protein involved in the DNA replication initiation process) and RpsL (the S12 ribosomal conserved protein) translation is initiated in Deinococcaceae from non-canonical codons (ATC and CTG, respectively). Such use may be the basis of specific regulation mechanisms affecting replication and translation. We also report the use of non-conventional translation initiation codons for two other genes: Deide_03051 and infC. Whether such use of non-canonical translation initiation codons is much more frequent than for other previously reported bacterial phyla or restricted to Deinococcaceae remains to be investigated. Our results demonstrate that predicting translation initiation codons is still difficult for some bacteria and that proteomics-based refinement of genome annotations may be helpful in such cases. PMID:19875382

  14. Maternal Control Strategies, Maternal Language Usage and Children's Language Usage at Two Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Nicole; Donovan, Wilberta; Miles, Sally; Leavitt, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined whether parenting style, defined by control strategies varying in power-assertion mediated the established relation between maternal language usage (grammar and semantics) and child language (grammar, semantics and pragmatics) during toddlerhood (n = 60). Based upon their use of control strategies mothers were…

  15. Life without tRNAArg–adenosine deaminase TadA: evolutionary consequences of decoding the four CGN codons as arginine in Mycoplasmas and other Mollicutes

    PubMed Central

    Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Kitamura, Aya; Grosjean, Henri; Bessho, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    In most bacteria, two tRNAs decode the four arginine CGN codons. One tRNA harboring a wobble inosine (tRNAArgICG) reads the CGU, CGC and CGA codons, whereas a second tRNA harboring a wobble cytidine (tRNAArgCCG) reads the remaining CGG codon. The reduced genomes of Mycoplasmas and other Mollicutes lack the gene encoding tRNAArgCCG. This raises the question of how these organisms decode CGG codons. Examination of 36 Mollicute genomes for genes encoding tRNAArg and the TadA enzyme, responsible for wobble inosine formation, suggested an evolutionary scenario where tadA gene mutations first occurred. This allowed the temporary accumulation of non-deaminated tRNAArgACG, capable of reading all CGN codons. This hypothesis was verified in Mycoplasma capricolum, which contains a small fraction of tRNAArgACG with a non-deaminated wobble adenosine. Subsets of Mollicutes continued to evolve by losing both the mutated tRNAArgCCG and tadA, and then acquired a new tRNAArgUCG. This permitted further tRNAArgACG mutations with tRNAArgGCG or its disappearance, leaving a single tRNAArgUCG to decode the four CGN codons. The key point of our model is that the A-to-I deamination activity had to be controlled before the loss of the tadA gene, allowing the stepwise evolution of Mollicutes toward an alternative decoding strategy. PMID:23658230

  16. Toward a Rationale for the PTC124 (Ataluren) Promoted Readthrough of Premature Stop Codons: A Computational Approach and GFP-Reporter Cell-Based Assay

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The presence in the mRNA of premature stop codons (PTCs) results in protein truncation responsible for several inherited (genetic) diseases. A well-known example of these diseases is cystic fibrosis (CF), where approximately 10% (worldwide) of patients have nonsense mutations in the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene. PTC124 (3-(5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-benzoic acid), also known as Ataluren, is a small molecule that has been suggested to allow PTC readthrough even though its target has yet to be identified. In the lack of a general consensus about its mechanism of action, we experimentally tested the ability of PTC124 to promote the readthrough of premature termination codons by using a new reporter. The reporter vector was based on a plasmid harboring the H2B histone coding sequence fused in frame with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) cDNA, and a TGA stop codon was introduced in the H2B-GFP gene by site-directed mutagenesis. Additionally, an unprecedented computational study on the putative supramolecular interaction between PTC124 and an 11-codon (33-nucleotides) sequence corresponding to a CFTR mRNA fragment containing a central UGA nonsense mutation showed a specific interaction between PTC124 and the UGA codon. Altogether, the H2B-GFP-opal based assay and the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation support the hypothesis that PTC124 is able to promote the specific readthrough of internal TGA premature stop codons. PMID:24483936

  17. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Phil; Vile, Rebecca; Osborne, Lisa A.; Romano, Michela; Truzoli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales), social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire), sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and their current health – General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28). This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol. PMID:26244339

  18. Diverse regulation of 3' splice site usage.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Muhammad; Xie, Jiuyong

    2015-12-01

    The regulation of splice site (SS) usage is important for alternative pre-mRNA splicing and thus proper expression of protein isoforms in cells; its disruption causes diseases. In recent years, an increasing number of novel regulatory elements have been found within or nearby the 3'SS in mammalian genes. The diverse elements recruit a repertoire of trans-acting factors or form secondary structures to regulate 3'SS usage, mostly at the early steps of spliceosome assembly. Their mechanisms of action mainly include: (1) competition between the factors for RNA elements, (2) steric hindrance between the factors, (3) direct interaction between the factors, (4) competition between two splice sites, or (5) local RNA secondary structures or longer range loops, according to the mode of protein/RNA interactions. Beyond the 3'SS, chromatin remodeling/transcription, posttranslational modifications of trans-acting factors and upstream signaling provide further layers of regulation. Evolutionarily, some of the 3'SS elements seem to have emerged in mammalian ancestors. Moreover, other possibilities of regulation such as that by non-coding RNA remain to be explored. It is thus likely that there are more diverse elements/factors and mechanisms that influence the choice of an intron end. The diverse regulation likely contributes to a more complex but refined transcriptome and proteome in mammals. PMID:26370726

  19. Absence of TP53 codon 249 mutations in young Guinean children with high aflatoxin exposure.

    PubMed

    Turner, Paul C; Sylla, Abdoulaye; Kuang, Shuang-Yuan; Marchant, Clare L; Diallo, Mamadou S; Hall, Andrew J; Groopman, John D; Wild, Christopher P

    2005-08-01

    Infection with hepatitis viruses and chronic exposure to high levels of dietary aflatoxins are the major etiologic agents for hepatocellular carcinoma in west Africa. A challenge for the prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma in this region is that both hepatitis B virus and aflatoxin exposures start early in life; indeed, aflatoxin exposures can start in utero and continue unabated throughout childhood. A mutation in the TP53 tumor suppressor gene at codon 249 (TP53 Ser249 mutation) has been reported previously for hepatocellular carcinoma tumors and matched plasma DNA samples in individuals from areas with high aflatoxin exposure. We examined whether the TP53 Ser249 mutation could be observed in DNA found in plasma of young children (ages 2-5 years) from Guinea, west Africa, a region of high aflatoxin exposure. Plasma aflatoxin-albumin adducts were present in 119 of 124 (96%) of the children, geometric mean of positives 9.9 pg/mg albumin (95% confidence interval, 8.8-11.0 pg/mg). This is the level and prevalence of exposure observed previously in adults. Following PCR amplification of plasma-derived DNA and detection using mass spectrometry, none of the samples were found to contain the TP53 Ser249 mutation. Because approximately 50% of the hepatocellular carcinomas in adults in west Africa have this specific TP53 Ser249 mutation, a lack of detection in samples from children ages <5 years may indicate that a window of opportunity for intervention exists that could be exploited to lower hepatocellular carcinoma risk. PMID:16103461

  20. Comparisons of infant Escherichia coli isolates link genomic profiles with adaptation to the ecological niche

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite being one of the most intensely studied model organisms, many questions still remain about the evolutionary biology and ecology of Escherichia coli. An important step toward achieving a more complete understanding of E.coli biology entails elucidating relationships between gene content and adaptation to the ecological niche. Results Here, we present genome comparisons of 16 E.coli strains that represent commensals and pathogens isolated from infants during a specific time period in Trondheim, Norway. Using differential gene content, we characterized enrichment profiles of the collection of strains relating to phylogeny, early vs. late colonization, pathogenicity and growth rate. We found clear gene content distinctions relating to the various grouping criteria. We also found that different categories of strains use different genetic elements for similar biological processes. The sequenced genomes included two pairs of strains where each pair was isolated from the same infant at different time points. One pair, in which the strains were isolated four months apart, showed maintenance of an early colonizer genome profile but also gene content and codon usage changes toward the late colonizer profile. Lastly, we placed our sequenced isolates into a broader genomic context by comparing them with 25 published E.coli genomes that represent a variety of pathotypes and commensal strains. This analysis demonstrated the importance of geography in shaping strain level gene content profiles. Conclusions Our results indicate a general pattern where alternative genetic pathways lead toward a consistent ecological role for E.coli as a species. Within this framework however, we saw selection shaping the coding repertoire of E.coli strains toward distinct ecotypes with different phenotypic properties. PMID:23384204

  1. Predicting global usages of resources endowed with local policies

    E-print Network

    Bodei, Chiara; Ferrari, Gian Luigi; 10.4204/EPTCS.58.4

    2011-01-01

    The effective usages of computational resources are a primary concern of up-to-date distributed applications. In this paper, we present a methodology to reason about resource usages (acquisition, release, revision, ...), and therefore the proposed approach enables to predict bad usages of resources. Keeping in mind the interplay between local and global information occurring in the application-resource interactions, we model resources as entities with local policies and global properties governing the overall interactions. Formally, our model takes the shape of an extension of pi-calculus with primitives to manage resources. We develop a Control Flow Analysis computing a static approximation of process behaviour and therefore of the resource usages.

  2. 47 CFR 22.907 - Coordination of channel usage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service ...usage. Licensees in the Cellular Radiotelephone Service...effective and efficient use of the cellular radio spectrum;...

  3. Cleaning optimization for reduced chemical usage

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, P.J.; Simonson, G.C.; Matlock, C.A.; Kelly, M.J.

    1996-11-01

    The use of dilute SC-1 (NH40H:H202:H20) chemistry cleaning processes for particle removal from silicon surfaces has been investigated. Dilute chemistries can be highly effective, especially when high- frequency acoustic energy (megasonics) is applied. The high particle removal efficacy of the dilute chemistry processes presumably arises due to increased double layer effects caused by reduced ionic strength. Dilute chemistry SC- I solutions exhibit somewhat reduced efficacy for removal of certain light organics; however, when dilute SC-1 is used along with other pre-gate cleaning steps (e.g. HF, SC-2, and piranha), then the overall cleaning sequence is quite effective. In addition to providing robust cleaning processes, dilute chemistries also result in significantly lower chemical and rinse water usage. Waste water treatment requirements are also lessened when dilute chemistry cleaning solutions are employed.

  4. Inferring parameters shaping amino acid usage in prokaryotic genomes via Bayesian MCMC methods.

    PubMed

    Naya, Hugo; Gianola, Daniel; Romero, Héctor; Urioste, Jorge I; Musto, Héctor

    2006-01-01

    Molar content of guanine plus cytosine (G + C) and optimal growth temperature (OGT) are main factors characterizing the frequency distribution of amino acids in prokaryotes. Previous work, using multivariate exploratory methods, has emphasized ascertainment of biological factors underlying variability between genomes, but the strength of each identified factor on amino acid content has not been quantified. We combine the flexibility of the phylogenetic mixed model (PMM) with the power of Bayesian inference via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, to obtain a novel evolutionary picture of amino acid usage in prokaryotic genomes. We implement a Bayesian PMM which incorporates the feature that evolutionary history makes observed data interdependent. As in previous studies with PMM, we present a variance partition; however, attention is also given to the posterior distribution of "systematic effects" that may shed light about the relative importance of and relationships between evolutionary forces acting at the genomic level. In particular, we analyzed influences of G + C, OGT, and respiratory metabolism. Estimates of G + C effects were significant for amino acids coded by G + C or molar content of adenine plus thymine (A + T) in first and second bases. OGT had an important effect on 12 amino acids, probably reflecting complex patterns of protein modifications, to cope with varying environments. The effect of respiratory metabolism was less clear, probably due to the already reported association of G + C with aerobic metabolism. A "heritability" parameter was always high and significant, reinforcing the importance of accommodating phylogenetic relationships in these analyses. "Heritable" component correlations displayed a pattern that tended to cluster "pure" G + C (A + T) in first and second codon positions, suggesting an inherited departure from linear regression on G + C. PMID:16162860

  5. File Usage Analysis and Resource Usage Prediction: a Measurement-Based Study. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devarakonda, Murthy V.-S.

    1987-01-01

    A probabilistic scheme was developed to predict process resource usage in UNIX. Given the identity of the program being run, the scheme predicts CPU time, file I/O, and memory requirements of a process at the beginning of its life. The scheme uses a state-transition model of the program's resource usage in its past executions for prediction. The states of the model are the resource regions obtained from an off-line cluster analysis of processes run on the system. The proposed method is shown to work on data collected from a VAX 11/780 running 4.3 BSD UNIX. The results show that the predicted values correlate well with the actual. The coefficient of correlation between the predicted and actual values of CPU time is 0.84. Errors in prediction are mostly small. Some 82% of errors in CPU time prediction are less than 0.5 standard deviations of process CPU time.

  6. Characterization of genetic diversity in chickpea using SSR markers, Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism (SCoT) and Conserved DNA-Derived Polymorphism (CDDP).

    PubMed

    Hajibarat, Zahra; Saidi, Abbas; Hajibarat, Zohreh; Talebi, Reza

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the genetic diversity among 48 genotypes of chickpea comprising cultivars, landraces and internationally developed improved lines genetic distances were evaluated using three different molecular marker techniques: Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR); Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) and Conserved DNA-derived Polymorphism (CDDP). Average polymorphism information content (PIC) for SSR, SCoT and CDDP markers was 0.47, 0.45 and 0.45, respectively, and this revealed that three different marker types were equal for the assessment of diversity amongst genotypes. Cluster analysis for SSR and SCoT divided the genotypes in to three distinct clusters and using CDDP markers data, genotypes grouped in to five clusters. There were positive significant correlation (r?=?0.43, P?comparison with SCoT and SSR markers. Overall, our results are able to prove the suitability of SCoT and CDDP markers for genetic diversity analysis in chickpea for their high rates of polymorphism and their potential for genome diversity and germplasm conservation. PMID:26261401

  7. p53 Codon 72 Genetic Polymorphism in Asthmatic Children: Evidence of Interaction With Acid Phosphatase Locus 1

    PubMed Central

    Verrotti, Alberto; Giannini, Cosimo; Verini, Marcello; Chiarelli, Francesco; Neri, Anna; Magrini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence are implicating an increased persistence of apoptotic cells in patients with asthma. This is largely due to a combination of inhibition, or defects in the apoptotic process and/or impaired apoptotic cell removal mechanisms. Among apoptosis-inducing genes, an important role is played by p53. In the present study, we have investigated the possible relationship between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and asthma and the interaction with ACP1, a genetic polymorphism involved in the susceptibility to allergic asthma. We studied 125 asthmatic children and 123 healthy subjects from the Caucasian population of Central Italy. p53 codon 72 and ACP1 polymorphisms were evaluated using a restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) method. There is a statistically significant association between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and allergic asthma: Arg/Arg genotype is more represented in asthmatic patients than in controls (P=0.018). This association, however, is present in subjects with low ACP1 activity A/A and A/B only (P=0.023). The proportion of children with A/A and A/B genotype carrying Arg/Arg genotype is significantly high in asthmatic children than in controls (OR=1.941; 95% C.I. 1.042-3.628). Our finding could have important clinical implications since the subjects with A/A and A/B genotypes of ACP1 carrying Arg/Arg genotype are more susceptible to allergic asthma than Pro/Pro genotype. PMID:24843801

  8. Transfer RNA structural change is a key element in the reassignment of the CUG codon in Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Santos, M A; Perreau, V M; Tuite, M F

    1996-01-01

    The human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans and a number of other Candida species translate the standard leucine CUG codon as serine. This is the latest addition to an increasing number of alterations to the standard genetic code which invalidate the theory that the code is frozen and universal. The unexpected finding that some organisms evolved alternative genetic codes raises two important questions: how have these alternative codes evolved and what evolutionary advantages could they create to allow for their selection? To address these questions in the context of serine CUG translation in C.albicans, we have searched for unique structural features in seryl-tRNA(CAG), which translates the leucine CUG codon as serine, and attempted to reconstruct the early stages of this genetic code switch in the closely related yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that a purine at position 33 (G33) in the C.albicans Ser-tRNA(CAG) anticodon loop, which replaces a conserved pyrimidine found in all other tRNAs, is a key structural element in the reassignment of the CUG codon from leucine to serine in that it decreases the decoding efficiency of the tRNA, thereby allowing cells to survive low level serine CUG translation. Expression of this tRNA in S.cerevisiae induces the stress response which allows cells to acquire thermotolerance. We argue that acquisition of thermotolerance may represent a positive selection for this genetic code change by allowing yeasts to adapt to sudden changes in environmental conditions and therefore colonize new ecological niches. Images PMID:8890179

  9. Modulation of Stop Codon Read-Through Efficiency and Its Effect on the Replication of Murine Leukemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Csibra, Eszter; Brierley, Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Translational readthrough—suppression of termination at a stop codon—is exploited in the replication cycles of several viruses and represents a potential target for antiviral intervention. In the gammaretroviruses, typified by Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV), gag and pol are in the same reading frame, separated by a UAG stop codon, and termination codon readthrough is required for expression of the viral Gag-Pol fusion protein. Here, we investigated the effect on MuLV replication of modulating readthrough efficiency. We began by manipulating the readthrough signal in the context of an infectious viral clone to generate a series of MuLV variants in which readthrough was stimulated or reduced. In carefully controlled infectivity assays, it was found that reducing the MuLV readthrough efficiency only 4-fold led to a marked defect and that a 10-fold reduction essentially abolished replication. However, up to an ?8.5-fold stimulation of readthrough (up to 60% readthrough) was well tolerated by the virus. These high levels of readthrough were achieved using a two-plasmid system, with Gag and Gag-Pol expressed from separate infectious clones. We also modulated readthrough by silencing expression of eukaryotic release factors 1 and 3 (eRF1 and eRF3) or by introducing aminoglycosides into the cells. The data obtained indicate that gammaretroviruses tolerate a substantial excess of viral Gag-Pol synthesis but are very sensitive to a reduction in levels of this polyprotein. Thus, as is also the case for ribosomal frameshifting, antiviral therapies targeting readthrough with inhibitory agents are likely to be the most beneficial. IMPORTANCE Many pathogenic RNA viruses and retroviruses use ribosomal frameshifting or stop codon readthrough to regulate expression of their replicase enzymes. These translational “recoding” processes are potential targets for antiviral intervention, but we have only a limited understanding of the consequences to virus replication of modulating the efficiency of recoding, particularly for those viruses employing readthrough. In this paper, we describe the first systematic analysis of the effect of increasing or decreasing readthrough efficiency on virus replication using the gammaretrovirus MuLV as a model system. We find unexpectedly that MuLV replication is only slightly inhibited by substantial increases in readthrough frequency, but as with other viruses that use recoding strategies, replication is quite sensitive to even modest reductions. These studies provide insights into both the readthrough process and MuLV replication and have implications for the selection of antivirals against gammaretroviruses. PMID:24991001

  10. Introduction of translation stop codons into the viral glycoprotein gene in a fish DNA vaccine eliminates induction of protective immunity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garver, K.A.; Conway, C.M.; Kurath, G.

    2006-01-01

    A highly efficacious DNA vaccine against a fish rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), was mutated to introduce two stop codons to prevent glycoprotein translation while maintaining the plasmid DNA integrity and RNA transcription ability. The mutated plasmid vaccine, denoted pIHNw-G2stop, when injected intramuscularly into fish at high doses, lacked detectable glycoprotein expression in the injection site muscle, and did not provide protection against lethal virus challenge 7 days post-vaccination. These results suggest that the G-protein itself is required to stimulate the early protective antiviral response observed after vaccination with the nonmutated parental DNA vaccine. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006.

  11. Faculty Usage of Library Tools in a Learning Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeder, Chris; Lonn, Steven

    2014-01-01

    To better understand faculty attitudes and practices regarding usage of library-specific tools and roles in a university learning management system, log data for a period of three semesters was analyzed. Academic departments with highest rates of usage were identified, and faculty users and nonusers within those departments were surveyed regarding…

  12. Impact of Internet Usage in Saudi Arabia: A Social Perspective

    E-print Network

    Sait, Sadiq M.

    Impact of Internet Usage in Saudi Arabia: A Social Perspective Sadiq M. Sait, KFUPM, Dhahran Arabia Mohammed Faheemuddin, KFUPM, Dhahran - Saudi Arabia ABSTRACT Internet in the Kingdom of Saudi and Society, Social Perspective, Internet Usage, Saudi Arabia INTRODUCTION Society and social systems can

  13. An Exploratory Study of Internet Addiction, Usage and Communication Pleasure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chien; Chou, Jung; Tyan, Nay-Ching Nancy

    This study examined the correlation between Internet addiction, usage, and communication pleasure. Research questions were: (1) What is computer network addiction? (2) How can one measure the degree of computer network addiction? (3) What is the correlation between the degree of users' network addiction and their network usage? (4) What is the…

  14. Discerning Electrical and Water Usage by Individuals in Homes

    E-print Network

    Weimer, Westley

    Discerning Electrical and Water Usage by Individuals in Homes Juhi Ranjan University of Virginia-fixture level, will allow in- dividuals to discover and reduce the energy footprint of their fixture usage], recognize when they are used [7, 6], and dis- cern how much energy or water was consumed during each use [16

  15. ANNEXE III A LA CONVENTION RAP Charte de bon usage

    E-print Network

    ANNEXE III A LA CONVENTION RAP Charte de bon usage La présente Charte définit les règles d Charte RENATER. RAP est un réseau qui, par nature, recèle des risques. Il appelle pour son bon usage et'Établissement Contractant, de veiller à : · une utilisation à des fins professionnelles conforme à la finalité de RAP

  16. Improving API Usage through Automatic Detection of Redundant Code

    E-print Network

    Robillard, Martin

    Improving API Usage through Automatic Detection of Redundant Code David Kawrykow and Martin P Programming Interfaces (APIs). We have observed many cases where APIs are used in ways that are not the most effective. We developed a technique and tool support to automatically detect such patterns of API usage

  17. Detecting Inefficient API Usage David Kawrykow and Martin P. Robillard

    E-print Network

    Robillard, Martin

    Detecting Inefficient API Usage David Kawrykow and Martin P. Robillard School of Computer Science (APIs). We have observed many cases where APIs are used in ways that are not efficient. We developed a technique to automatically detect inefficient API usage in software projects. The main hypothesis underlying

  18. A Genetic Algorithm Approach to Focused Software Usage Testing

    E-print Network

    Wu, Annie S.

    A Genetic Algorithm Approach to Focused Software Usage Testing Robert M. Patton, Annie S. Wu Orlando, FL, U.S.A. ABSTRACT Because software system testing typically consists of only a very small the test results from a limited amount of testing based on high-level usage models. It can also be very

  19. Understanding Mobile App Usage Patterns Using In-App Advertisements

    E-print Network

    Song, Dawn

    Understanding Mobile App Usage Patterns Using In-App Advertisements Alok Tongaonkar1 , Shuaifu Dai2. This has resulted in a growing need of the operators to understand the usage patterns of the mobile apps devices or using fields in the HTTP traffic such as User-Agent to identify the apps in network traces

  20. Efficient Usage of Self Validated Integrators for Space

    E-print Network

    Barcelona, Universitat de

    Efficient Usage of Self Validated Integrators for Space Applications Final Report Authors: E Summerer Tel: +31(0)715655174 Fax: +31(0)715658018 e-mail: act@esa.int Available on the ACT website http://www.esa.int/act Ariadna ID: 07/5202 Study Duration: 6 months Contract Number: 20783/07/NL/CB #12;#12;Efficient Usage

  1. Supporting Mobile Service Usage through Physical Mobile Interaction

    E-print Network

    Supporting Mobile Service Usage through Physical Mobile Interaction Demonstration Proposal for PerCe Interaction) project for which it has been developed, please see the PERCI website and the paper "Supporting Mobile Service Usage through Physical Mobile Interaction" that has been accepted for PerCom 2007

  2. An Analysis of Anonymity Technology Usage Bingdong Li1

    E-print Network

    Bebis, George

    An Analysis of Anonymity Technology Usage Bingdong Li1 , Esra Erdin1 , Mehmet Hadi G¨une¸s1 a dichotomous issue in both social life and cy- ber space. Anonymity technologies have been used for criminal purposes as well as legitimate purpose. On one side, anonymous technologies provide legitimate usages

  3. The Relationship between Teacher's Technology Integration Ability and Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Shihkuan

    2010-01-01

    Despite a steady supply of equipment and continuous training, teachers' use of computers for instruction seems to be limited. Whether the problem is due to teachers' ability or usage of computers for instruction is not well understood. In order to better understand the role of ability and usage in technology integration, teachers' proficiency of…

  4. Genetic analysis of L123 of the tRNA-mimicking eukaryote release factor eRF1, an amino acid residue critical for discrimination of stop codons

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kazuki; Ito, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the tRNA-mimicking polypeptide-chain release factor, eRF1, decodes stop codons on the ribosome in a complex with eRF3; this complex exhibits striking structural similarity to the tRNA–eEF1A–GTP complex. Although amino acid residues or motifs of eRF1 that are critical for stop codon discrimination have been identified, the details of the molecular mechanisms involved in the function of the ribosomal decoding site remain obscure. Here, we report analyses of the position-123 amino acid of eRF1 (L123 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae eRF1), a residue that is phylogenetically conserved among species with canonical and variant genetic codes. In vivo readthrough efficiency analysis and genetic growth complementation analysis of the residue-123 systematic mutants suggested that this amino acid functions in stop codon discrimination in a manner coupled with eRF3 binding, and distinctive from previously reported adjacent residues. Furthermore, aminoglycoside antibiotic sensitivity analysis and ribosomal docking modeling of eRF1 in a quasi-A/T state suggested a functional interaction between the side chain of L123 and ribosomal residues critical for codon recognition in the decoding site, as a molecular explanation for coupling with eRF3. Our results provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying stop codon discrimination by a tRNA-mimicking protein on the ribosome. PMID:25897120

  5. Web-based pathology practice examination usage

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Context: General and subject specific practice examinations for students in health sciences studying pathology were placed onto a free public internet web site entitled web path and were accessed four clicks from the home web site menu. Subjects and Methods: Multiple choice questions were coded into. html files with JavaScript functions for web browser viewing in a timed format. A Perl programming language script with common gateway interface for web page forms scored examinations and placed results into a log file on an internet computer server. The four general review examinations of 30 questions each could be completed in up to 30 min. The 17 subject specific examinations of 10 questions each with accompanying images could be completed in up to 15 min each. The results of scores and user educational field of study from log files were compiled from June 2006 to January 2014. Results: The four general review examinations had 31,639 accesses with completion of all questions, for a completion rate of 54% and average score of 75%. A score of 100% was achieved by 7% of users, ?90% by 21%, and ?50% score by 95% of users. In top to bottom web page menu order, review examination usage was 44%, 24%, 17%, and 15% of all accessions. The 17 subject specific examinations had 103,028 completions, with completion rate 73% and average score 74%. Scoring at 100% was 20% overall, ?90% by 37%, and ?50% score by 90% of users. The first three menu items on the web page accounted for 12.6%, 10.0%, and 8.2% of all completions, and the bottom three accounted for no more than 2.2% each. Conclusions: Completion rates were higher for shorter 10 questions subject examinations. Users identifying themselves as MD/DO scored higher than other users, averaging 75%. Usage was higher for examinations at the top of the web page menu. Scores achieved suggest that a cohort of serious users fully completing the examinations had sufficient preparation to use them to support their pathology education. PMID:25337431

  6. Relational Term Usage in Navajo Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraro, Douglas P.; Odell, Sandra J.

    In an experiment designed to determine their use of relational terms, 168 Navajo children aged 5 to adult attempted three relational tasks regarding the concepts of upward, downward, and equality comparison in the areas of mass, number, and continuous quantity. All subjects used the relational terms of "more", "less", and "same" correctly in all…

  7. Student Drug Usage and Self-Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischler, Michael L.

    Utilizing responses (a self administered, 15 item questionnaire) of a rural northeastern New England sample of junior high, senior high, and college students, correlation between legal and illegal drug use and perceived self-alienation was examined. Comparison was also made between users and nonusers. Legal users were defined as those who made at…

  8. Asparaginase treatment side-effects may be due to genes with homopolymeric Asn codons (Review-Hypothesis)

    PubMed Central

    BANERJI, JULIAN

    2015-01-01

    The present treatment of childhood T-cell leukemias involves the systemic administration of prokary-otic L-asparaginase (ASNase), which depletes plasma Asparagine (Asn) and inhibits protein synthesis. The mechanism of therapeutic action of ASNase is poorly understood, as are the etiologies of the side-effects incurred by treatment. Protein expression from genes bearing Asn homopolymeric coding regions (N-hCR) may be particularly susceptible to Asn level fluctuation. In mammals, N-hCR are rare, short and conserved. In humans, misfunctions of genes encoding N-hCR are associated with a cluster of disorders that mimic ASNase therapy side-effects which include impaired glycemic control, dislipidemia, pancreatitis, compromised vascular integrity, and neurological dysfunction. This paper proposes that dysregulation of Asn homeostasis, potentially even by ASNase produced by the microbiome, may contribute to several clinically important syndromes by altering expression of N-hCR bearing genes. By altering amino acid abundance and modulating ribosome translocation rates at codon repeats, the microbiomic environment may contribute to genome decoding and to shaping the proteome. We suggest that impaired translation at poly Asn codons elevates diabetes risk and severity. PMID:26178806

  9. Modeling the effect of codon translation rates on co-translational protein folding mechanisms of arbitrary complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caniparoli, Luca; O'Brien, Edward P.

    2015-04-01

    In a cell, the folding of a protein molecule into tertiary structure can begin while it is synthesized by the ribosome. The rate at which individual amino acids are incorporated into the elongating nascent chain has been shown to affect the likelihood that proteins will populate their folded state, indicating that co-translational protein folding is a far from equilibrium process. Developing a theoretical framework to accurately describe this process is, therefore, crucial for advancing our understanding of how proteins acquire their functional conformation in living cells. Current state-of-the-art computational approaches, such as molecular dynamics simulations, are very demanding in terms of the required computer resources, making the simulation of co-translational protein folding difficult. Here, we overcome this limitation by introducing an efficient approach that predicts the effects that variable codon translation rates have on co-translational folding pathways. Our approach is based on Markov chains. By using as an input a relatively small number of molecular dynamics simulations, it allows for the computation of the probability that a nascent protein is in any state as a function of the translation rate of individual codons along a mRNA's open reading frame. Due to its computational efficiency and favorable scalability with the complexity of the folding mechanism, this approach could enable proteome-wide computational studies of the influence of translation dynamics on co-translational folding.

  10. Premature termination codons in the Type VII collagen gene (COL7A1) underlie severe, mutilating recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

    SciTech Connect

    Christiano, A.M.; Uitto, J. ); Anhalt, G. ); Gibbons, S.; Bauer, E.A. )

    1994-05-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of heritable mechano-bullous skin diseases classified into three major categories on the basis of the level of tissue separation within the dermal-epidermal basement membrane zone. The most severe, dystrophic (scarring) forms of EB demonstrate blister formation below the cutaneous basement membrane at the level of the anchoring fibrils. Ultrastructural observations of altered anchoring fibrils and genetic linkage to the gene encoding type VII collagen (COL7A1), the major component of anchoring fibrils, have implicated COL7A1 as the candidate gene in the dystrophic forms of EB. The authors have recently cloned the entire cDNA and gene for human COL7A1, which has been mapped to 3p21. In this study, they describe mutations in four COL7A1 alleles in three patients with severe, mutilating recessive dystrophic EB (Hallopeau-Siemens type, HS-RDEB). Each of these mutations resulted in a premature termination codon (PTC) in the amino-terminal portion of COL7A1. One of the patients was a compound heterozygote for two different mutations. The heterozygous carriers showed an [approximately] 50% reduction in anchoring fibrils, yet were clinically unaffected. Premature termination codons in both alleles of COL7A1 may thus be a major underlying cause of the severe, recessive dystrophic forms of EB. 40 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Functional analysis of a proline to serine mutation in codon 453 of the thyroid hormone receptor {beta}1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Ozata, M.; Suzuki, Satoru; Takeda, Teiji

    1995-10-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding human thyroid hormone receptor {beta}(hTR{beta}) have been associated with generalized resistance to thyroid hormone (GRTH). This disorder is associated with significant behavoral abnormalities. We examined the hTR{beta} gene in a family with members who manifest inappropriately normal TSH, elevated free T{sub 4}, and free and total T{sub 3}. Sequence analysis showed a cytosine to thymine transition at nucleotide 1642 in one allele of the index patient`s genomic DNA. This altered proline to serine at codon 453. The resulting mutant receptor when expressed in vitro bound DNA with high affinity, but the T{sub 3} affinity of the receptor was impaired. The mutant TR demonstrated a dominant negative effect when cotransfected with two isoforms of wild-type receptor and also in the presence of TR variant {alpha}2 in COS-1 cells. Mutations of codon 453 occur more frequently than at other sites, and four different amino acid substitutions have been reported. Significant differences in phenotype occur among affected individuals, varying from normality to moderately severe GRTH. There is no clear correlation between K{sub a} or in vitro function of the mutant receptor, and phenotype. This study extends the association between GRTH and illness, and indicates that early diagnosis and counseling are needed in families with TR{beta}1 abnormalities. 34 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Frequency and spectrum of mutations at codons 12 and 13 of the C-K-ras gene in human tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Capella, G.; Cronauer-Mitra, S.; Peinado, M.A.; Perucho, M. )

    1991-06-01

    The frequency of point mutations at codons 12 and 13 of the c-K-ras gene has been determined in a panel of more than 400 human tumors. Mutant c-K-ras genes were detected in about 75% of adenocarcinomas of the pancreas; 40% of adenomas and carcinomas of the colon and rectum; 30% of carcinomas of the bile duct; 25% of carcinomas of the lung, and in lower frequency in other carcinomas, including liver, stomach, and kidney. No mutations were found in carcinomas of the breast, prostate, esophagus, and gall bladder, among others. Comparative analysis of the spectrum of mutations show that while G to A transitions were the most frequent mutations in pancreatic and colo-rectal tumors, G to T transversions were more prevalent in lung carcinomas. The aspartic acid mutation at codon 13 (GGC {r arrow} GAC) was relatively frequent in colo-rectal tumors but rare in pancreatic and lung carcinomas. The differences in the mutation spectrum of the c-K-ras gene in cancers of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are suggestive of differential exposure to genotoxic agents.

  13. Degradation of Stop Codon Read-through Mutant Proteins via the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Causes Hereditary Disorders.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Norihito; Ohoka, Nobumichi; Sugaki, Yusuke; Onodera, Chiaki; Inoue, Mizuho; Sakuraba, Yoshiyuki; Takakura, Daisuke; Hashii, Noritaka; Kawasaki, Nana; Gondo, Yoichi; Naito, Mikihiko

    2015-11-20

    During translation, stop codon read-through occasionally happens when the stop codon is misread, skipped, or mutated, resulting in the production of aberrant proteins with C-terminal extension. These extended proteins are potentially deleterious, but their regulation is poorly understood. Here we show in vitro and in vivo evidence that mouse cFLIP-L with a 46-amino acid extension encoded by a read-through mutant gene is rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, causing hepatocyte apoptosis during embryogenesis. The extended peptide interacts with an E3 ubiquitin ligase, TRIM21, to induce ubiquitylation of the mutant protein. In humans, 20 read-through mutations are related to hereditary disorders, and extended peptides found in human PNPO and HSD3B2 similarly destabilize these proteins, involving TRIM21 for PNPO degradation. Our findings indicate that degradation of aberrant proteins with C-terminal extension encoded by read-through mutant genes is a mechanism for loss of function resulting in hereditary disorders. PMID:26442586

  14. Asparaginase treatment side-effects may be due to genes with homopolymeric Asn codons (Review-Hypothesis).

    PubMed

    Banerji, Julian

    2015-09-01

    The present treatment of childhood T-cell leukemias involves the systemic administration of prokaryotic L-asparaginase (ASNase), which depletes plasma Asparagine (Asn) and inhibits protein synthesis. The mechanism of therapeutic action of ASNase is poorly understood, as are the etiologies of the side-effects incurred by treatment. Protein expression from genes bearing Asn homopolymeric coding regions (N-hCR) may be particularly susceptible to Asn level fluctuation. In mammals, N-hCR are rare, short and conserved. In humans, misfunctions of genes encoding N-hCR are associated with a cluster of disorders that mimic ASNase therapy side-effects which include impaired glycemic control, dislipidemia, pancreatitis, compromised vascular integrity, and neurological dysfunction. This paper proposes that dysregulation of Asn homeostasis, potentially even by ASNase produced by the microbiome, may contribute to several clinically important syndromes by altering expression of N-hCR bearing genes. By altering amino acid abundance and modulating ribosome translocation rates at codon repeats, the microbiomic environment may contribute to genome decoding and to shaping the proteome. We suggest that impaired translation at poly Asn codons elevates diabetes risk and severity. PMID:26178806

  15. Nucleotides Flanking the Start Codon in hsp70 mRNAs with Very Short 5’-UTRs Greatly Affect Gene Expression in Haloarchaea

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenchao; Yang, Guopeng; He, Yue; Zhang, Shaoming; Chen, Haiyan; Shen, Ping; Chen, Xiangdong; Huang, Yu-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Leaderless translation is prevalent in haloarchaea, with many of these leaderless transcripts possessing short 5’-untranslated regions (UTRs) less than 10 nucleotides. Whereas, little is known about the function of this very short 5’-UTR. Our previous studies determined that just four nucleotides preceded the start codon of hsp70 mRNA in Natrinema sp. J7, with residues -3A and +4G, relative to the A of the ATG start codon, acting as the preferred bases around the start codon of all known haloarchaeal hsp70 genes. Here, we examined the effects of nucleotides flanking the start codon on gene expression. The results revealed that shortening and deletion of the short 5’-UTR enhanced transcript levels; however, it led to significant reductions in overall translational efficiency. AUG was efficiently used as start codons, in both the presence and absence of short 5’-UTRs. GUG also could initiate translation, even though it was so inefficient that it would not be detected without considerably elevated transcript. Nucleotide substitutions at position -4 to +6 were shown to affect gene expression by transcript and/or translational levels. Notably, -3A and A/U nucleotides at position +4~+6 were more optimal for gene expression. Nucleotide transversions of -3A to -3C and +4G to +4T with hsp70 promoter from either Haloferax volcanii DS70 or Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 showed the same effects on gene expression as that of Natrinema sp. J7. Taken together, our results suggest that the nucleotides flanking the start codon in hsp70 mRNAs with very short 5’-UTRs play an important role in haloarchaeal gene expression. PMID:26379277

  16. Application Examples for Handle System Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toussaint, F.; Weigel, T.; Thiemann, H.; Höck, H.; Stockhause, M.; Lautenschlager, M.

    2012-12-01

    Besides the well-known DOI (Digital Object Identifiers) as a special form of Handles that resolve to scientific publications there are various other applications in use. Others perhaps are just not yet. We present some examples for the existing ones and some ideas for the future. The national German project C3-Grid provides a framework to implement a first solution for provenance tracing and explore unforeseen implications. Though project-specific, the high-level architecture is generic and represents well a common notion of data derivation. Users select one or many input datasets and a workflow software module (an agent in this context) to execute on the data. The output data is deposited in a repository to be delivered to the user. All data is accompanied by an XML metadata document. All input and output data, metadata and the workflow module receive Handles and are linked together to establish a directed acyclic graph of derived data objects and involved agents. Data that has been modified by a workflow module is linked to its predecessor data and the workflow module involved. Version control systems such as svn or git provide Internet access to software repositories using URLs. To refer to a specific state of the source code of for instance a C3 workflow module, it is sufficient to reference the URL to the svn revision or git hash. In consequence, individual revisions and the repository as a whole receive PIDs. Moreover, the revision specific PIDs are linked to their respective predecessors and become part of the provenance graph. Another example for usage of PIDs in a current major project is given in EUDAT (European Data Infrastructure) which will link scientific data of several research communities together. In many fields it is necessary to provide data objects at multiple locations for a variety of applications. To ensure consistency, not only the master of a data object but also its copies shall be provided with a PID. To verify transaction safety and to keep all copies consistent requires that the chain from master to copy and vice versa has to be resolvable, preferably through PIDs directly. As part of EUDAT necessary services are created on the basis of iRODS. These form the core structure of the data infrastructure developed within EUDAT. Though many implementations of PID systems already exist, many valuable web accessible data sources come with unresolvable identifiers like UUIDs, with instable recognition patterns like URLs, or even with proprietary implementations. However, other data collections would like to link to them in the data descriptions of their metadata. In addition, by usage of PIDs one can decouple the responsibilities for data and MD in projects where necessary. For some metadata entities like persons or even institutes it makes sense to give them single PIDs that point to contact and/or location information. ORCID (Open Researcher & Contributor ID), e.g., keeps track of persons working in scholarly fields, independent of name changes and linguistic variances. The ISO 27729 based International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI) also identifies legal entities and fictional characters besides natural persons. Other systems exist that, e.g., reference geographic localities. IDs of this kind may resolve to a URL where detailed information is given.

  17. Differential response of human cells to deletions and stop codons in the gamma(1)34.5 gene of herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Chou, J; Poon, A P; Johnson, J; Roizman, B

    1994-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that herpes simplex virus mutants lacking the gamma(1)34.5 gene are totally avirulent on intracerebral inoculation of the virus into mice and induce premature shutoff of protein synthesis in human neuroblastoma (SK-N-SH) cells but not in Vero cells. We report the following. (i) Whereas deletion mutant R3616, lacking 1,000 bp of the gamma(1)34.5 gene, caused premature shutoff of protein synthesis in both SK-N-SH and human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF), mutants R4009 and R930 (mutant F), carrying stop codons in all six frames, 27 and 210 codons from the initiation codon of the gamma(1)34.5 genes, respectively, induced shutoff of protein synthesis in SK-N-SH cells but not in HFF. The differences in behavior between the R3616 deletion and R4009 stop codon mutants cannot be attributed to differences in the rate of induction of premature shutoff of protein synthesis and the multiplicity of infection. HFF do not produce detectable truncated gamma(1)34.5 protein or truncated mRNA. (ii) Some clonal lines of SK-N-SH cells carrying a gamma(1)34.5 gene driven by a metallothionein promoter express the gamma(1)34.5 gene constitutively and do not require induction by cadmium to complement the gamma(1)34.5- virus. One clonal cell line complements the gamma(1)34.5- virus only after induction by cadmium. These results are consistent with previous conclusions that the phenotype of premature shutoff of protein synthesis is associated with absence of the gamma(1)34.5 protein and indicate that the amounts of gamma(1)34.5 protein necessary to complement the gamma(1)34.5- viruses are small. We conclude that human cells differ in the manner in which they respond to the presence of stop codons. Shutoff of protein synthesis in HFF infected with the stop codon mutants could have been precluded by small amounts of gamma(1)34.5 protein produced by splicing out of an intron containing the stop codon, downstream initiation of translation, or tRNA suppression of the stop codon. Images PMID:7966624

  18. Expression of pAkt affects p53 codon 72 polymorphism-based prediction of response to radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Codon 72 (Arg/Pro), the most frequently studied single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of p53 to date, is associated with the ability of the gene to induce cell apoptosis. The PI3K/Akt pathway plays an essential role in the transcriptional activation function of p53, and is an important factor in radiotherapy resistance. The present study was designed to evaluate the prediction of response to radiotherapy based on p53 codon 72 SNP and pAkt expression in biopsy specimens of locoregional nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) before treatment. Materials and methods In total, 75 consecutive patients with locoregional NPC were enrolled. The p53 codon 72 SNP was identified from retrospectively collected paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens using Sanger sequencing. Expression patterns of p53, p21, 14-3-3?, and pAkt proteins were investigated using immunohistochemical analyses. The effects of genetic polymorphisms and protein expression on progression-free survival (PFS) were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model, Kaplan–Meier method, and log-rank test. Results The p53 codon 72 Pro/Pro carriers showed lower risk of disease progression (local recurrence and distant metastases) (HR: 0.300; 95% CI: 0.092–0.983; p=0.047). However, this association between the p53 codon 72 polymorphism and PFS was not significant in the pAkt-positive subgroup. No association was observed between protein expression of p53, p21 or 14-3-3? and p53 codon72 polymorphisms. Notably, positive expression of p53 protein appeared to be correlated with poorer PFS among patients diagnosed as local regional lymph node metastasis (N+) before treatment (p=0.032). Conclusions The p53 codon 72 Pro/Pro genotype may be an effective independent prognostic marker for better outcome in patients with locoregional NPC. Based on the current findings, we hypothesize that pAkt weakens the predictive value of p53 codon 72 SNP in NPC. A combination of positive p53 protein expression and local regional lymph node metastasis may additionally be predictive of high risk of disease progression. PMID:23663243

  19. Complete nucleotide sequence and organization of the mitochondrial genome of Sirtheneaflavipes (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae) and comparison with other assassin bugs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianyu; Li, Hu; Truong, Xuan Lam; Dai, Xun; Chang, Jian; Cai, Wanzhi

    2013-01-01

    The complete sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the assassin bug, Sirtheneaflavipes (Stål), was determined. The circular genome is 15, 961 bp long and contains a standard gene complement, i.e., the large and small ribosomal RNA (rRNA) subunits, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and the 1, 295 bp control region. The nucleotide composition of S. flavipes mt genome is 71.8% AT-rich, reflected in the predominance of AT-rich codons in PCGs. Compared with the other three reduviid species available in complete mt genomes, the genome architecture as well as the nucleotide composition, codon usage, and amino acid composition reflected high similarity. All PCGs use standard initiation codons (ATN); however, ND4L and ND1 started with GTG. Canonical TAA and TAG termination codons are found in nine PCGs, the remaining four (COIII, ND3, ND5, and ND]) have incomplete termination codons. All tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, except the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of tRNASer(AGN) forms a simple loop as seen in many other metazoans. Secondary structure models of the ribosomal RNA genes of S. flavipes are presented and are similar to those proposed for other insects. The structure of rrnL is more conservative than that of rrnS among sequenced assassin bugs. The monophyly of Reduviidae is highly supported by Bayesian inferences, and the Peiratinae presents a sister position to the Triatominae+ (Salyavatinae + Harpactorinae). PMID:26312315

  20. Memory Usage Inference for Object-Oriented Programs

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Huu Hai

    We present a type-based approach to statically derive symbolic closed-form formulae that characterize the bounds of heap memory usages of programs written in object-oriented languages. Given a program with size and alias ...

  1. 14 CFR 93.31 - Minimum usage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Congestion and Delay Reduction at Chicago O'Hare International Airport § 93.31 Minimum usage requirement. (a) Except as provided in § 93.29 and...

  2. 14 CFR 93.31 - Minimum usage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Congestion and Delay Reduction at Chicago O'Hare International Airport § 93.31 Minimum usage requirement. (a) Except as provided in § 93.29 and...

  3. MEASUREMENT-BASED USAGE CHARGES IN COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS

    E-print Network

    Weber, Richard

    will choose to sell network services. Marketing and regulation are certainly importantMEASUREMENT-BASED USAGE CHARGES IN COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS COSTAS COURCOUBETIS ICS. We argue that a connection's `e ective bandwidth' is a good proxy for the quantity of network

  4. Usages and Implied Terms in the United States

    E-print Network

    Drahozal, Christopher R.

    2012-09-03

    The Uniform Commercial Code (“UCC” or “Code”) incorporates commercial practices — course of performance, course of dealing, and usage of trade — into the parties’ agreement, with the aim of “reduc[ing] the gap between law and practice and ... insur...

  5. A machine learning approach for detecting cell phone usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Beilei; Loce, Robert P.

    2015-03-01

    Cell phone usage while driving is common, but widely considered dangerous due to distraction to the driver. Because of the high number of accidents related to cell phone usage while driving, several states have enacted regulations that prohibit driver cell phone usage while driving. However, to enforce the regulation, current practice requires dispatching law enforcement officers at road side to visually examine incoming cars or having human operators manually examine image/video records to identify violators. Both of these practices are expensive, difficult, and ultimately ineffective. Therefore, there is a need for a semi-automatic or automatic solution to detect driver cell phone usage. In this paper, we propose a machine-learning-based method for detecting driver cell phone usage using a camera system directed at the vehicle's front windshield. The developed method consists of two stages: first, the frontal windshield region localization using the deformable part model (DPM), next, we utilize Fisher vectors (FV) representation to classify the driver's side of the windshield into cell phone usage violation and non-violation classes. The proposed method achieved about 95% accuracy with a data set of more than 100 images with drivers in a variety of challenging poses with or without cell phones.

  6. Seatbelt usage: is there an association with obesity?

    PubMed

    Behzad, B; King, D M; Jacobson, S H

    2014-09-01

    Wearing a seatbelt can prevent motor vehicle crash deaths. While primary seatbelt laws are designed to encourage vehicle passengers to wear seatbelts by allowing law enforcement officers to issue tickets when passengers do not wear seatbelts, discomfort may discourage obese individuals from wearing a seatbelt. The objective of this study is to assess the association between state-level obesity and seatbelt usage rates in the US, and to examine the possible role played by seatbelt laws in these associations. The strength of the association between obesity rates, seatbelt usage, and primary seatbelt laws at the state level is investigated using data from 2006 to 2011. Linear regression analysis is employed. This model estimates that increasing the obesity rate by 1% in a state where a primary seatbelt law (by which law enforcement officers can issue a ticket when seatbelts are not worn) is in effect is associated with a 0.06% decrease in seatbelt usage. However the same percentage of increase in the obesity rate in a state where no primary seatbelt law is in effect is associated with a 0.55% decrease in seatbelt usage. The magnitude of the statistical association between state obesity rates and state-level seatbelt usage is related to the existence of a primary seatbelt law, such that obesity has less impact on seatbelt usage in states where primary seatbelt laws are in effect. PMID:25183564

  7. Inhibition of KRAS codon 12 mutants using a novel DNA-alkylating pyrrole-imidazole polyamide conjugate.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Kiriko; Inoue, Takahiro; Taylor, Rhys Dylan; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Koshikawa, Nobuko; Yoda, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Ken-ichi; Takatori, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Hirokazu; Maru, Yoshiaki; Denda, Tadamichi; Fujiwara, Kyoko; Balmain, Allan; Ozaki, Toshinori; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Nagase, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive efforts to target mutated RAS proteins, anticancer agents capable of selectively killing tumour cells harbouring KRAS mutations have remained unavailable. Here we demonstrate the direct targeting of KRAS mutant DNA using a synthetic alkylating agent (pyrrole-imidazole polyamide indole-seco-CBI conjugate; KR12) that selectively recognizes oncogenic codon 12 KRAS mutations. KR12 alkylates adenine N3 at the target sequence, causing strand cleavage and growth suppression in human colon cancer cells with G12D or G12V mutations, thus inducing senescence and apoptosis. In xenograft models, KR12 infusions induce significant tumour growth suppression, with low host toxicity in KRAS-mutated but not wild-type tumours. This newly developed approach may be applicable to the targeting of other mutant driver oncogenes in human tumours. PMID:25913614

  8. An Interpretation of the Ancestral Codon from Miller’s Amino Acids and Nucleotide Correlations in Modern Coding Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Nicolas; de Leon, Miguel Ponce

    2015-01-01

    Purine bias, which is usually referred to as an “ancestral codon”, is known to result in short-range correlations between nucleotides in coding sequences, and it is common in all species. We demonstrate that RWY is a more appropriate pattern than the classical RNY, and purine bias (Rrr) is the product of a network of nucleotide compensations induced by functional constraints on the physicochemical properties of proteins. Through deductions from universal correlation properties, we also demonstrate that amino acids from Miller’s spark discharge experiment are compatible with functional primeval proteins at the dawn of living cell radiation on earth. These amino acids match the hydropathy and secondary structures of modern proteins. PMID:25922573

  9. Comparative analysis of KRAS codon 12, 13, 18, 61, and 117 mutations using human MCF10A isogenic cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Stolze, Britta; Reinhart, Stefanie; Bulllinger, Lars; Fröhling, Stefan; Scholl, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    KRAS mutations occur in one third of human cancers and cluster in several hotspots, with codons 12 and 13 being most commonly affected. It has been suggested that the position and type of amino acid exchange influence the transforming capacity of mutant KRAS proteins. We used MCF10A human mammary epithelial cells to establish isogenic cell lines that express different cancer-associated KRAS mutations (G12C, G12D, G12V, G13C, G13D, A18D, Q61H, K117N) at physiological or elevated levels, and investigated the biochemical and functional consequences of the different variants. The overall effects of low-expressing mutants were moderate compared to overexpressed variants, but allowed delineation of biological functions that were related to specific alleles rather than KRAS expression level. None of the mutations induced morphological changes, migratory abilities, or increased phosphorylation of ERK, PDK1, and AKT. KRAS-G12D, G12V, G13D, and K117N mediated EGF-independent proliferation, whereas anchorage-independent growth was primarily induced by K117N and Q61H. Both codon 13 mutations were associated with increased EGFR expression. Finally, global gene expression analysis of MCF10A-G13D versus MCF10A-G12D revealed distinct transcriptional changes. Together, we describe a useful resource for investigating the function of multiple KRAS mutations and provide insights into the differential effects of these variants in MCF10A cells. PMID:25705018

  10. Vitamin D receptor initiation codon polymorphism influences genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes mellitus in the Japanese population

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Yoshiyuki; Taniyama, Matsuo; Yanagawa, Tatsuo; Yamada, Satoru; Maruyama, Taro; Kasuga, Akira; Ban, Yoshio

    2001-01-01

    Background Vitamin D has been shown to exert manifold immunomodulatory effects. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is regarded to be immune-mediated and vitamin D prevents the development of diabetes in the NOD mouse. We studied the association between T1DM and the initiation codon polymorphism in exon 2 of the vitamin D receptor gene in a Japanese population. We also investigated associations between the vitamin D receptor polymorphism and GAD65-antibody (Ab) positivity. We carried out polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in 110 Japanese T1DM patients and 250 control subjects. GAD65 antibodies were assessed in 78 patients with T1DM. Results We found a significantly higher prevalence of the F allele / the FF genotype in the patients compared to the controls (P = 0.0069 and P = 0.014, respectively). Genotype and allele frequencies differed significantly between GAD65-Ab-positive patients and controls (P = 0.017 and P = 0.012, respectively), but neither between GAD65-Ab-negative patients and controls (P = 0.68 and P = 0.66, respectively) nor between GAD65-Ab-positive and -negative patients (P = 0.19 and P = 0.16, respectively). Conclusions Our findings suggest that the vitamin D receptor initiation codon polymorphism influences genetic susceptibility to T1DM among the Japanese. This polymorphism is also associated with GAD65-Ab-positive T1DM, although the absence of a significant difference between GAD65-Ab-negative patients and controls might be simply due to the small sample size of patients tested for GAD65 antibodies. PMID:11445000

  11. Genome-Wide Analysis Reveals Diverged Patterns of Codon Bias, Gene Expression, and Rates of Sequence Evolution in Picea Gene Families

    PubMed Central

    De La Torre, Amanda R.; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Van de Peer, Yves; Ingvarsson, Pär K.

    2015-01-01

    The recent sequencing of several gymnosperm genomes has greatly facilitated studying the evolution of their genes and gene families. In this study, we examine the evidence for expression-mediated selection in the first two fully sequenced representatives of the gymnosperm plant clade (Picea abies and Picea glauca). We use genome-wide estimates of gene expression (>50,000 expressed genes) to study the relationship between gene expression, codon bias, rates of sequence divergence, protein length, and gene duplication. We found that gene expression is correlated with rates of sequence divergence and codon bias, suggesting that natural selection is acting on Picea protein-coding genes for translational efficiency. Gene expression, rates of sequence divergence, and codon bias are correlated with the size of gene families, with large multicopy gene families having, on average, a lower expression level and breadth, lower codon bias, and higher rates of sequence divergence than single-copy gene families. Tissue-specific patterns of gene expression were more common in large gene families with large gene expression divergence than in single-copy families. Recent family expansions combined with large gene expression variation in paralogs and increased rates of sequence evolution suggest that some Picea gene families are rapidly evolving to cope with biotic and abiotic stress. Our study highlights the importance of gene expression and natural selection in shaping the evolution of protein-coding genes in Picea species, and sets the ground for further studies investigating the evolution of individual gene families in gymnosperms. PMID:25747252

  12. Interspecific adaptation by binary choice at de novo polyomavirus T antigen site through accelerated codon-constrained Val-Ala toggling within an intrinsically disordered region

    PubMed Central

    Lauber, Chris; Kazem, Siamaque; Kravchenko, Alexander A.; Feltkamp, Mariet C.W.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.

    2015-01-01

    It is common knowledge that conserved residues evolve slowly. We challenge generality of this central tenet of molecular biology by describing the fast evolution of a conserved nucleotide position that is located in the overlap of two open reading frames (ORFs) of polyomaviruses. The de novo ORF is expressed through either the ALTO protein or the Middle T antigen (MT/ALTO), while the ancestral ORF encodes the N-terminal domain of helicase-containing Large T (LT) antigen. In the latter domain the conserved Cys codon of the LXCXE pRB-binding motif constrains codon evolution in the overlapping MT/ALTO ORF to a binary choice between Val and Ala codons, termed here as codon-constrained Val-Ala (COCO-VA) toggling. We found the rate of COCO-VA toggling to approach the speciation rate and to be significantly accelerated compared to the baseline rate of chance substitution in a large monophyletic lineage including all viruses encoding MT/ALTO and three others. Importantly, the COCO-VA site is located in a short linear motif (SLiM) of an intrinsically disordered region, a typical characteristic of adaptive responders. These findings provide evidence that the COCO-VA toggling is under positive selection in many polyomaviruses, implying its critical role in interspecific adaptation, which is unprecedented for conserved residues. PMID:25904630

  13. Orthogonality and Codon Preference of the Pyrrolysyl-tRNA Synthetase-tRNAPyl pair in Escherichia coli for the Genetic Code Expansion 

    E-print Network

    Odoi, Keturah

    2012-07-16

    incorporate two different NAAs at amber and ochre codons. tRNAPyl_UCA is charged by E. coli tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, thus not orthogonal in E. coli. Mutagenic studies of trnaPyl_UCA led to the discovery of its G73U form which shows a higher orthogonality...

  14. Identification and codon reading properties of 5-cyanomethyl uridine, a new modified nucleoside found in the anticodon wobble position of mutant haloarchaeal isoleucine tRNAs

    E-print Network

    Mandal, Debabrata

    Most archaea and bacteria use a modified C in the anticodon wobble position of isoleucine tRNA to base pair with A but not with G of the mRNA. This allows the tRNA to read the isoleucine codon AUA without also reading the ...

  15. The C-Terminal Domain of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 5 Promotes Start Codon Recognition by Its Dynamic Interplay with eIF1 and eIF2?

    E-print Network

    Luna, Rafael E.

    Recognition of the proper start codon on mRNAs is essential for protein synthesis, which requires scanning and involves eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) eIF1, eIF1A, eIF2, and eIF5. The carboxyl terminal domain (CTD) ...

  16. Codon Optimization of the Tat Antigen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Generates Strong Immune Responses in Mice following Genetic Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishna, Lakshmi; Anand, Krishnamurthy Kumar; Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M.; Ranga, Udaykumar

    2004-01-01

    DNA vaccines have been successful in eliciting potent immune responses in mice. Their efficiency, however, is restricted in larger animals. One reason for the limited performance of the DNA vaccines is the lack of molecular strategies to enhance immune responses. Additionally, genes directly cloned from pathogenic organisms may not be efficiently translated in a heterologous host expression system as a consequence of codon bias. To evaluate the influence of codon optimization on the immune response, we elected to use the Tat antigens of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (subtype C) and HIV-2, as these viral antigens are poorly immunogenic in natural infection and in experimental immunization and they are functionally important in viral infectivity and pathogenesis. Substituting codons that are optimally used in the mammalian system, we synthetically assembled Tat genes and compared them with the wild-type counterparts in two different mouse strains. Codon-optimized Tat genes induced qualitatively and quantitatively superior immune responses as measured in a T-cell proliferation assay, enzyme-linked immunospot assay, and chromium release assay. Importantly, while the wild-type genes promoted a mixed Th1-Th2-type cytokine profile, the codon-optimized genes induced a predominantly Th1 profile. Using a pepscan strategy, we mapped an immunodominant T-helper epitope to the core and basic domains of HIV-1 Tat. We also identified cross-clade immune responses between HIV-1 subtype B and C Tat proteins mapped to this T-helper epitope. Developing molecular strategies to optimize the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines is critical for inducing strong immune responses, especially to antigens like Tat. Our identification of a highly conserved T-helper epitope in the first exon of HIV-1 Tat of subtype C and the demonstration of a cross-clade immune response between subtypes B and C are important for a more rational design of an HIV vaccine. PMID:15308713

  17. Effects of MDM2 promoter polymorphisms and p53 codon 72 polymorphism on risk and age at onset of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongping; Huang, Yu-jing; Liu, Zhensheng; Wang, Li-E; Li, Guojun; Sturgis, Erich M.; Johson, David G.; Wei, Qingyi

    2011-01-01

    Both p53 tumor suppressor and murine double minute 2 (MDM2) oncoprotein are crucial in carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that MDM2 promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)309, A2164G, and p53 codon 72 SNP are associated with risk and age at onset of squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN). We genotyped these SNPs in a study of 1,083 Caucasian SCCHN cases and 1,090 cancer-free controls. Although none of these SNPs individually had a significant effect on risk of SCCHN, nor did their combined putative risk genotypes (i.e. MDM2 SNP309 GT + GG, 2164 AA, and p53 codon 72 CC), we found that individuals with 2–3 risk genotypes had significantly increased risk of non-oropharyngeal cancer (OR = 1.42; 95% CI=1.07–1.88). This increased risk was more pronounced among young subjects, men, smokers, and drinkers. In addition, female patients carrying the MDM2 SNP309 GT and GG genotypes showed a 3-year (56.7 years) and 9-year (51.2 years) earlier age at onset of non-oropharyngeal cancer (Ptrend = 0.007), respectively, compared with those carrying the TT genotype (60.1 years). The youngest age (42.5 years) at onset of non-oropharyngeal cancer was observed in female patients with the combined MDM2 SNP309 GG and p53 codon 72 CC genotypes. The findings suggest that MDM2 SNP309, A2164G, and p53 codon 72 SNPs may collectively contribute to non-oropharyngeal cancer risk and that MDM2 SNP309 individually or in combination with p53 codon 72 may accelerate the development of non-oropharyngeal cancer in women. Further studies with large sample sizes are warranted to validate these results. PMID:21656578

  18. A Framework for Personal Web Usage Mining Yongjian Fu Ming-Yi Shih

    E-print Network

    Fu, Yongjian

    A Framework for Personal Web Usage Mining Yongjian Fu Ming-Yi Shih Department of Computer Science-0350 Rolla, MO 65409-0350 yongjian@umr.edu mingyi@umr.edu Abstract In this paper, we propose to mine Web usage data on client side, or personal Web usage mining, as a complement to the server side Web usage

  19. A Framework for Personal Web Usage Mining Yongjian Fu MingYi Shih

    E-print Network

    Fu, Yongjian

    A Framework for Personal Web Usage Mining Yongjian Fu Ming­Yi Shih Department of Computer Science­0350 Rolla, MO 65409­0350 yongjian@umr.edu mingyi@umr.edu Abstract In this paper, we propose to mine Web usage data on client side, or personal Web usage mining, as a complement to the server side Web usage

  20. Using ultradeep pyrosequencing to study HIV-1 coreceptor usage in primary and dual infection.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Gabriel A; Pacold, Mary E; Vigil, Edgar; Caballero, Gemma; Morris, Sheldon R; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Little, Susan J; Richman, Douglas D; Gianella, Sara; Smith, Davey M

    2013-07-15

    HIV-1 dual infection (DI) and CXCR4 (X4) coreceptor usage are associated with accelerated disease progression but frequency and dynamics of coreceptor usage during DI is unknown. Ultradeep sequencing was used to interrogate for DI and infer coreceptor usage in longitudinal blood samples of 102 subjects. At baseline, X4 usage was high (23 subjects harbored X4 variants) and was not associated with infection duration or DI. Coreceptor usage changed over time in 12 of 47 participants, and X4 usage emerged in 4 of 41 monoinfections vs 2 of 5 superinfections (P = .12), suggesting a weak statistical trend toward occurrence of superinfection and acquiring X4 usage. PMID:23599311

  1. Using Ultradeep Pyrosequencing to Study HIV-1 Coreceptor Usage in Primary and Dual Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Gabriel A.; Pacold, Mary E.; Vigil, Edgar; Caballero, Gemma; Morris, Sheldon R.; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.; Little, Susan J.; Richman, Douglas D.; Gianella, Sara; Smith, Davey M.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 dual infection (DI) and CXCR4 (X4) coreceptor usage are associated with accelerated disease progression but frequency and dynamics of coreceptor usage during DI is unknown. Ultradeep sequencing was used to interrogate for DI and infer coreceptor usage in longitudinal blood samples of 102 subjects. At baseline, X4 usage was high (23 subjects harbored X4 variants) and was not associated with infection duration or DI. Coreceptor usage changed over time in 12 of 47 participants, and X4 usage emerged in 4 of 41 monoinfections vs 2 of 5 superinfections (P = .12), suggesting a weak statistical trend toward occurrence of superinfection and acquiring X4 usage. PMID:23599311

  2. 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgeon, Richard W.

    2012-06-27

    This report provides the results of the 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources (RMUS), which was updated by the Environmental Protection (ENV) Division's Environmental Stewardship (ES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ES classifies LANL emission sources into one of four Tiers, based on the potential effective dose equivalent (PEDE) calculated for each point source. Detailed descriptions of these tiers are provided in Section 3. The usage survey is conducted annually; in odd-numbered years the survey addresses all monitored and unmonitored point sources and in even-numbered years it addresses all Tier III and various selected other sources. This graded approach was designed to ensure that the appropriate emphasis is placed on point sources that have higher potential emissions to the environment. For calendar year (CY) 2011, ES has divided the usage survey into two distinct reports, one covering the monitored point sources (to be completed later this year) and this report covering all unmonitored point sources. This usage survey includes the following release points: (1) all unmonitored sources identified in the 2010 usage survey, (2) any new release points identified through the new project review (NPR) process, and (3) other release points as designated by the Rad-NESHAP Team Leader. Data for all unmonitored point sources at LANL is stored in the survey files at ES. LANL uses this survey data to help demonstrate compliance with Clean Air Act radioactive air emissions regulations (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). The remainder of this introduction provides a brief description of the information contained in each section. Section 2 of this report describes the methods that were employed for gathering usage survey data and for calculating usage, emissions, and dose for these point sources. It also references the appropriate ES procedures for further information. Section 3 describes the RMUS and explains how the survey results are organized. The RMUS Interview Form with the attached RMUS Process Form(s) provides the radioactive materials survey data by technical area (TA) and building number. The survey data for each release point includes information such as: exhaust stack identification number, room number, radioactive material source type (i.e., potential source or future potential source of air emissions), radionuclide, usage (in curies) and usage basis, physical state (gas, liquid, particulate, solid, or custom), release fraction (from Appendix D to 40 CFR 61, Subpart H), and process descriptions. In addition, the interview form also calculates emissions (in curies), lists mrem/Ci factors, calculates PEDEs, and states the location of the critical receptor for that release point. [The critical receptor is the maximum exposed off-site member of the public, specific to each individual facility.] Each of these data fields is described in this section. The Tier classification of release points, which was first introduced with the 1999 usage survey, is also described in detail in this section. Section 4 includes a brief discussion of the dose estimate methodology, and includes a discussion of several release points of particular interest in the CY 2011 usage survey report. It also includes a table of the calculated PEDEs for each release point at its critical receptor. Section 5 describes ES's approach to Quality Assurance (QA) for the usage survey. Satisfactory completion of the survey requires that team members responsible for Rad-NESHAP (National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) compliance accurately collect and process several types of information, including radioactive materials usage data, process information, and supporting information. They must also perform and document the QA reviews outlined in Section 5.2.6 (Process Verification and Peer Review) of ES-RN, 'Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Rad-NESHAP Compliance Project' to verify that all information is complete and correct.

  3. MESUR: USAGE-BASED METRICS OF SCHOLARLY IMPACT

    SciTech Connect

    BOLLEN, JOHAN; RODRIGUEZ, MARKO A.; VAN DE SOMPEL, HERBERT

    2007-01-30

    The evaluation of scholarly communication items is now largely a matter of expert opinion or metrics derived from citation data. Both approaches can fail to take into account the myriad of factors that shape scholarly impact. Usage data has emerged as a promising complement to existing methods o fassessment but the formal groundwork to reliably and validly apply usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact is lacking. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded MESUR project constitutes a systematic effort to define, validate and cross-validate a range of usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact by creating a semantic model of the scholarly communication process. The constructed model will serve as the basis of a creating a large-scale semantic network that seamlessly relates citation, bibliographic and usage data from a variety of sources. A subsequent program that uses the established semantic network as a reference data set will determine the characteristics and semantics of a variety of usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact. This paper outlines the architecture and methodology adopted by the MESUR project and its future direction.

  4. DH and JH usage in murine fetal liver mirrors that of human fetal liver

    PubMed Central

    Schelonka, Robert L.; Szymanska, Ewa; Vale, Andre M.; Zhuang, Yingxin; Gartland, G. Larry

    2010-01-01

    In mouse and human, the regulated development of antibody repertoire diversity during ontogeny proceeds in parallel with the development of the ability to generate antibodies to an array of specific antigens. Compared to adult, the human fetal antibody repertoire limits N addition and uses specifically positioned VDJ gene segments more frequently, including V6-1 the most DH-proximal VH, DQ52, the most JH-proximal DH, and JH2, which is DH-proximal. The murine fetal antibody repertoire also limits the incorporation of N nucleotides and uses its most DH proximal VH, VH81X, more frequently. To test whether DH and JH also follow the pattern observed in human, we used the scheme of Hardy to sort B lineage cells from BALB/c fetal and neonatal liver, RT-PCR cloned and sequenced VH7183-containing VDJC? transcripts, and then assessed VH7183-DH-JH and complementary determining region 3 of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (CDR-H3) content in comparison to the previously studied adult BALB/c mouse repertoire. Due to the deficiency in N nucleotide addition, perinatal CDR-H3s manifested a distinct pattern of amino acid usage and predicted loop structures. As in the case of adult bone marrow, we observed a focusing of CDR-H3 length and CDR-H3 loop hydrophobicity, especially in the transition from the early to late pre-B cell stage, a developmental checkpoint associated with expression of the pre-B cell receptor. However, fetal liver usage of JH-proximal DHQ52 and DH-proximal JH2 was markedly greater than that of adult bone marrow. Thus, the early pattern of DH and JH usage in mouse feta liver mirrors that of human. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00251-010-0469-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20714894

  5. Patterns of Mutation and Selection at Synonymous Sites in Drosophila Nadia D. Singh,* Vanessa L. Bauer DuMont,* Melissa J. Hubisz, Rasmus Nielsen, and

    E-print Network

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    for biased codon usage in Drosophila, yeast, and bacteria. The frequent presence of major codons, which. These definitions are based on identifying those codons that in- crease in frequency between genes with low codon

  6. CONTROLLED SUBSTANCE USAGE LOG One log sheet is to be completed for each container of controlled substance. Controlled substance usage must be tracked on a per

    E-print Network

    Ullrich, Paul

    CONTROLLED SUBSTANCE USAGE LOG One log sheet is to be completed for each container of controlled substance. Controlled substance usage must be tracked on a per dose (use) basis. Record total quantity: Initials Dispensed by: Purpose/Comments Usage Log for Controlled Substance: _______________ Continued from

  7. Commercial Building Tenant Energy Usage Aggregation and Privacy

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, Olga V.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Anderson, David M.; Wang, Na

    2014-10-31

    A growing number of building owners are benchmarking their building energy use. This requires the building owner to acquire monthly whole-building energy usage information, which can be challenging for buildings in which individual tenants have their own utility meters and accounts with the utility. Some utilities and utility regulators have turned to aggregation of customer energy use data (CEUD) as a way to give building owners whole-building energy usage data while protecting customer privacy. Meter profile aggregation adds a layer of protection that decreases the risk of revealing CEUD as the number of meters aggregated increases. The report statistically characterizes the similarity between individual energy usage patterns and whole-building totals at various levels of meter aggregation.

  8. Mining Software Usage with the Automatic Library Tracking Database (ALTD)

    SciTech Connect

    Hadri, Bilel; Fahey, Mark R

    2013-01-01

    Tracking software usage is important for HPC centers, computer vendors, code developers and funding agencies to provide more efficient and targeted software support, and to forecast needs and guide HPC software effort towards the Exascale era. However, accurately tracking software usage on HPC systems has been a challenging task. In this paper, we present a tool called Automatic Library Tracking Database (ALTD) that has been developed and put in production on several Cray systems. The ALTD infrastructure prototype automatically and transparently stores information about libraries linked into an application at compilation time and also the executables launched in a batch job. We will illustrate the usage of libraries, compilers and third party software applications on a system managed by the National Institute for Computational Sciences.

  9. On the evolution of word usage of classical Chinese poetry

    E-print Network

    Liu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchy of classical Chinese poetry has been broadly acknowledged by a number of studies in Chinese literature. However, quantitative investigations about the evolution of classical Chinese poetry are limited. The primary goal of this study is to provide quantitative evidence of the evolutionary linkages, with emphasis on word usage, among different period genres for classical Chinese poetry. Specifically, various statistical analyses were performed to find and compare the patterns of word usage in the poems of nine period genres, including shi jing, chu ci, Han shi , Jin shi, Tang shi, Song shi, Yuan shi, Ming shi, and Qing shi. The result of analysis indicates that each of nine period genres has unique patterns of word usage, with some Chinese characters being preferably used by the poems of a particular period genre. The analysis on the general pattern of word preference implies a decreasing trend in the use of ancient Chinese characters along the timeline of dynastic types of classical Chinese poetr...

  10. Energy intensity, electricity consumption, and advanced manufacturing-technology usage

    SciTech Connect

    Doms, M.E.; Dunne, T.

    1995-07-01

    This article reports on the relationship between the usage of advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs) and energy consumption patterns in manufacturing plants. Using data from the Survey of Manufacturing Technology and the 1987 Census of Manufactures, we model the energy intensity and the electricity intensity of plants as functions of AMT usage and plant age. The main findings are that plants that utilize AMTs are less-energy intensive than plants not using AMTs, but consume proportionately more electricity as a fuel source. Additionally, older plants are generally more energy intensive and rely on fossil fuels to a greater extent than younger plants. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Human tRNA(Lys3)(UUU) is pre-structured by natural modifications for cognate and wobble codon binding through keto-enol tautomerism.

    PubMed

    Vendeix, Franck A P; Murphy, Frank V; Cantara, William A; Leszczy?ska, Gra?yna; Gustilo, Estella M; Sproat, Brian; Malkiewicz, Andrzej; Agris, Paul F

    2012-03-01

    Human tRNA(Lys3)(UUU) (htRNA(Lys3)(UUU)) decodes the lysine codons AAA and AAG during translation and also plays a crucial role as the primer for HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) reverse transcription. The posttranscriptional modifications 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm(5)s(2)U(34)), 2-methylthio-N(6)-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (ms(2)t(6)A(37)), and pseudouridine (?(39)) in the tRNA's anticodon domain are critical for ribosomal binding and HIV-1 reverse transcription. To understand the importance of modified nucleoside contributions, we determined the structure and function of this tRNA's anticodon stem and loop (ASL) domain with these modifications at positions 34, 37, and 39, respectively (hASL(Lys3)(UUU)-mcm(5)s(2)U(34);ms(2)t(6)A(37);?(39)). Ribosome binding assays in vitro revealed that the hASL(Lys3)(UUU)-mcm(5)s(2)U(34);ms(2)t(6)A(37);?(39) bound AAA and AAG codons, whereas binding of the unmodified ASL(Lys3)(UUU) was barely detectable. The UV hyperchromicity, the circular dichroism, and the structural analyses indicated that ?(39) enhanced the thermodynamic stability of the ASL through base stacking while ms(2)t(6)A(37) restrained the anticodon to adopt an open loop conformation that is required for ribosomal binding. The NMR-restrained molecular-dynamics-derived solution structure revealed that the modifications provided an open, ordered loop for codon binding. The crystal structures of the hASL(Lys3)(UUU)-mcm(5)s(2)U(34);ms(2)t(6)A(37);?(39) bound to the 30S ribosomal subunit with each codon in the A site showed that the modified nucleotides mcm(5)s(2)U(34) and ms(2)t(6)A(37) participate in the stability of the anticodon-codon interaction. Importantly, the mcm(5)s(2)U(34)·G(3) wobble base pair is in the Watson-Crick geometry, requiring unusual hydrogen bonding to G in which mcm(5)s(2)U(34) must shift from the keto to the enol form. The results unambiguously demonstrate that modifications pre-structure the anticodon as a key prerequisite for efficient and accurate recognition of cognate and wobble codons. PMID:22227389

  12. Evidence of positive selection at codon sites localized in extracellular domains of mammalian CC motif chemokine receptor proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background CC chemokine receptor proteins (CCR1 through CCR10) are seven-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors whose signaling pathways are known for their important roles coordinating immune system responses through targeted trafficking of white blood cells. In addition, some of these receptors have been identified as fusion proteins for viral pathogens: for example, HIV-1 strains utilize CCR5, CCR2 and CCR3 proteins to obtain cellular entry in humans. The extracellular domains of these receptor proteins are involved in ligand-binding specificity as well as pathogen recognition interactions. In mammals, the majority of chemokine receptor genes are clustered together; in humans, seven of the ten genes are clustered in the 3p21-24 chromosome region. Gene conversion events, or exchange of DNA sequence between genes, have been reported in chemokine receptor paralogs in various mammalian lineages, especially between the cytogenetically closely located pairs CCR2/5 and CCR1/3. Datasets of mammalian orthologs for each gene were analyzed separately to minimize the potential confounding impact of analyzing highly similar sequences resulting from gene conversion events. Molecular evolution approaches and the software package Phylogenetic Analyses by Maximum Likelihood (PAML) were utilized to investigate the signature of selection that has acted on the mammalian CC chemokine receptor (CCR) gene family. The results of neutral vs. adaptive evolution (positive selection) hypothesis testing using Site Models are reported. In general, positive selection is defined by a ratio of nonsynonymous/synonymous nucleotide changes (dN/dS, or ?) >1. Results Of the ten mammalian CC motif chemokine receptor sequence datasets analyzed, only CCR2 and CCR3 contain amino acid codon sites that exhibit evidence of positive selection using site based hypothesis testing in PAML. Nineteen of the twenty codon sites putatively indentified as likely to be under positive selection code for amino acid residues located in extracellular domains of the receptor protein products. Conclusions These results suggest that amino acid residues present in intracellular and membrane-bound domains are more selectively constrained for functional signal transduction and homo- or heterodimerization, whereas amino acid residues in extracellular domains of these receptor proteins evolve more quickly, perhaps due to heightened selective pressure resulting from ligand-binding and pathogen interactions of extracellular domains. PMID:20459756

  13. pDsRed-EGFPmtag-, an effective dual fluorescent reporter system for cell-based screens of premature termination codon.

    PubMed

    Shen, Quan; Guo, Ping; Chai, Baofeng

    2015-12-01

    A large number of inherited diseases are caused by premature termination codon (PTC) mutations that lead to the degradation of mRNA template. In this report, we developed a dual fluorescent reporter that relied the feature of fluorescent protein coding region to express a fusion protein from pDsRed-EGFPmtag-. Expression of the fusion protein from a single reporter provides a sensitive approach for high-throughput screening of cell-specific PTC events in mixed cell cultures. Results from the read-through analysis of COS7 cells carrying the nonsense mutation pDsRed-EGFPmtag-Y445X treated by PTC 124 showed EGFP transcript level was increased in the COS7 cells treated by PTC124 in a dose-dependent manner. This novel reporter system was applicable to the majority of different PTC patterns and could be used to quantify efficiency of read-through within a single cell or select cells carrying PTC. PMID:24935699

  14. De novo assembly and next-generation sequencing to analyse full-length gene variants from codon-barcoded libraries

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Namjin; Hwang, Byungjin; Yoon, Jung-ki; Park, Sangun; Lee, Joongoo; Seo, Han Na; Lee, Jeewon; Huh, Sunghoon; Chung, Jinsoo; Bang, Duhee

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting epistatic interactions is crucial for understanding evolutionary dynamics of complex genetic systems and unveiling structure and function of genetic pathways. Although high resolution mapping of en masse variant libraries renders molecular biologists to address genotype-phenotype relationships, long-read sequencing technology remains indispensable to assess functional relationship between mutations that lie far apart. Here, we introduce JigsawSeq for multiplexed sequence identification of pooled gene variant libraries by combining a codon-based molecular barcoding strategy and de novo assembly of short-read data. We first validate JigsawSeq on small sub-pools and observed high precision and recall at various experimental settings. With extensive simulations, we then apply JigsawSeq to large-scale gene variant libraries to show that our method can be reliably scaled using next-generation sequencing. JigsawSeq may serve as a rapid screening tool for functional genomics and offer the opportunity to explore evolutionary trajectories of protein variants. PMID:26387459

  15. Stress-induced Start Codon Fidelity Regulates Arsenite-inducible Regulatory Particle-associated Protein (AIRAP) Translation*

    PubMed Central

    Zach, Lolita; Braunstein, Ilana; Stanhill, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    Initial steps in protein synthesis are highly regulated processes as they define the reading frame of the translation machinery. Eukaryotic translation initiation is a process facilitated by numerous factors (eIFs), aimed to form a “scanning” mechanism toward the initiation codon. Translation initiation of the main open reading frame (ORF) in an mRNA transcript has been reported to be regulated by upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in a manner of re-initiation. This mode of regulation is governed by the phosphorylation status of eIF2? and controlled by cellular stresses. Another mode of translational initiation regulation is leaky scanning, and this regulatory process has not been extensively studied. We have identified arsenite-inducible regulatory particle-associated protein (AIRAP) transcript to be translationally induced during arsenite stress conditions. AIRAP transcript contains a single uORF in a poor-kozak context. AIRAP translation induction is governed by means of leaky scanning and not re-initiation. This induction of AIRAP is solely dependent on eIF1 and the uORF kozak context. We show that eIF1 is phosphorylated under specific conditions that induce protein misfolding and have biochemically characterized this site of phosphorylation. Our data indicate that leaky scanning like re-initiation is responsive to stress conditions and that leaky scanning can induce ORF translation by bypassing poor kozak context of a single uORF transcript. PMID:24898249

  16. Individually Tailored Screening of Susceptibility to Sarcopenia Using p53 Codon 72 Polymorphism, Phenotypes, and Conventional Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Di Renzo, Laura; Gratteri, Santo; Sarlo, Francesca; Colica, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. p53 activity plays a role in muscle homeostasis and skeletal muscle differentiation; all pathways that lead to sarcopenia are related to p53 activities. We investigate the allelic frequency of the TP53 codon 72 in exon 4 polymorphism in the Italian female population and the association with appendicular skeletal muscle mass index in normal weight (NW), normal weight obese (NWO), and preobese-obese (Preob-Ob) subjects. Methods. We evaluated anthropometry, body composition, and p53 polymorphism in 140 women distinguished in NW, NWO, and Preob-Ob. Results. *Arg/*Arg genotype increases sarcopenia risk up to 20% (*Arg/*Arg genotype OR = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.48–2.9; *proallele carriers OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.83–2.06). The risk of being sarcopenic for *Arg/*Arg genotype in NWO and Preob-Ob is 31% higher than NW carriers of *proallele (RR = 0,31, 95% CI = 0,15–0,66, P = 0,0079). We developed a model able to predict sarcopenia risk based on age, body fat, and p53 polymorphism. Conclusion. Our study evidences that genotyping TP53 polymorphism could be a useful new genetic approach, in association with body composition evaluations, to assess sarcopenia risk. PMID:25371596

  17. Impulsive alcohol-related risk-behavior and emotional dysregulation among individuals with a serotonin 2B receptor stop codon.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, R; Tiihonen, J; Rautiainen, M R; Paunio, T; Bevilacqua, L; Panarsky, R; Goldman, D; Virkkunen, M

    2015-01-01

    A relatively common stop codon (Q20*) was identified in the serotonin 2B receptor gene (HTR2B) in a Finnish founder population in 2010 and it was associated with impulsivity. Here we examine the phenotype of HTR2B Q20* carriers in a setting comprising 14 heterozygous HTR2B Q20* carriers and 156 healthy controls without the HTR2B Q20*. The tridimensional personality questionnaire, Brown-Goodwin lifetime aggression scale, the Michigan alcoholism screening test and lifetime drinking history were used to measure personality traits, impulsive and aggressive behavior, both while sober and under the influence of alcohol, and alcohol consumption. Regression analyses showed that among the HTR2B Q20* carriers, temperamental traits resembled a passive-dependent personality profile, and the presence of the HTR2B Q20* predicted impulsive and aggressive behaviors particularly under the influence of alcohol. Results present examples of how one gene may contribute to personality structure and behaviors in a founder population and how personality may translate into behavior. PMID:26575222

  18. The 17 nucleotides downstream from the env gene stop codon are important for murine leukemia virus packaging.

    PubMed

    Yu, S S; Kim, J M; Kim, S

    2000-09-01

    We have identified a previously unknown nucleotide sequence important for the packaging of murine leukemia virus. This nucleotide sequence is located downstream from the stop codon of the env gene but does not overlap the polypurine tract. Deletion of 17 bp from this region resulted in a more than 10-fold decrease in viral titer. Consistent with this result, the deletion mutant showed a 20- to 30-fold drop in the amount of virion RNA in the culture supernatant. The total amount of virion protein in the culture supernatant was comparable for the deletion mutant and the parental virus, suggesting that the mutant construct could release the empty viral particles. These results suggested that the packaging signal sequence might be present at the two extreme sites of the viral genome, one in the region around the splice donor sequence downstream from the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) and the other immediately upstream from the 3' LTR. Implications for gene therapy, especially in regard to construction of retroviral vectors and packaging constructs, are discussed. PMID:10954583

  19. Novel codon-optimized mini-intronic plasmid for efficient, inexpensive, and xeno-free induction of pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Diecke, Sebastian; Lu, Jiamiao; Lee, Jaecheol; Termglinchan, Vittavat; Kooreman, Nigel G.; Burridge, Paul W.; Ebert, Antje D.; Churko, Jared M.; Sharma, Arun; Kay, Mark A.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    The development of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has revolutionized the regenerative medicine field. This technology provides a powerful tool for disease modeling and drug screening approaches. To circumvent the risk of random integration into the host genome caused by retroviruses, non-integrating reprogramming methods have been developed. However, these techniques are relatively inefficient or expensive. The mini-intronic plasmid (MIP) is an alternative, robust transgene expression vector for reprogramming. Here we developed a single plasmid reprogramming system which carries codon-optimized (Co) sequences of the canonical reprogramming factors (Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, and c-Myc) and short hairpin RNA against p53 ("4-in-1 CoMiP"). We have derived human and mouse iPSC lines from fibroblasts by performing a single transfection. Either independently or together with an additional vector encoding for LIN28, NANOG, and GFP, we were also able to reprogram blood-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) into iPSCs. Taken together, the CoMiP system offers a new highly efficient, integration-free, easy to use, and inexpensive methodology for reprogramming. Furthermore, the CoMIP construct is color-labeled, free of any antibiotic selection cassettes, and independent of the requirement for expression of the Epstein-Barr Virus nuclear antigen (EBNA), making it particularly beneficial for future applications in regenerative medicine. PMID:25628230

  20. Tyrolean Complexity Tool: Features and Usage Martin Avanzini1

    E-print Network

    Middeldorp, Aart

    Tyrolean Complexity Tool: Features and Usage Martin Avanzini1 and Georg Moser1 1 Institute of Computer Science, University of Innsbruck, Austria {martin.avanzini,georg.moser}@uibk.ac.at Abstract The Tyrolean Complexity Tool, TCT for short, is an open source complexity analyser for term rewrite systems

  1. Personality and Patterns of Facebook Usage Yoram Bachrach

    E-print Network

    Kohli, Pushmeet

    Personality and Patterns of Facebook Usage Yoram Bachrach Microsoft Research yobach.ac.uk ABSTRACT We show how users' activity on Facebook relates to their per- sonality, as measured by the standard Five Factor Model. Our dataset consists of the personality profiles and Facebook pro- file data

  2. Pre Service Teachers' Usage of Dynamic Mathematics Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulut, Mehmet; Bulut, Neslihan

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this study is about mathematics education and dynamic mathematics software. Dynamic mathematics software provides new opportunities for using both computer algebra system and dynamic geometry software. GeoGebra selected as dynamic mathematics software in this research. In this study, it is investigated that what is the usage of pre service…

  3. Evolution and Usage of the Portal Data Archive

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    + Evolution and Usage of the Portal Data Archive: A Ten-Year Retrospective Kristin Tufte,Robert L Page today... Portal's Own Map! Vancouver,WA New Sensors & New Data Feed #12;+ Home Page ­ Evolution - Two Quantities -Updated technology -Data download #12;+ Timeseries Plot ­ Evolution ! Updated

  4. Educating Students about the Risks of Excessive Videogame Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Deirdre; Welsh, Sarah; Chambliss, Catherine

    The relationship between videogame usage, active exercise, television viewing, and measures of blood pressure is explored. Videogame participation, especially playing sports or action games, simulates involvement in aggressive situations. This may activate the fight or flight response in players. This response has been associated with blood…

  5. Factors Related to Perceived Power Usage in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzwald, Joseph; Koslowsky, Meni; Brody-Shamir, Shlomit

    2006-01-01

    Based on Raven's (1992) power interaction model, situational and personal variables were examined as determinants of power choice in educational settings. The impact of educational sector (secular, religious), class level, gender and content of conflict on perceived power usage in teacher-pupil conflicts was analysed. A total of 370 elementary and…

  6. Procrastinator: Pacing Mobile Apps' Usage of the Network Lenin Ravindranath

    E-print Network

    Procrastinator: Pacing Mobile Apps' Usage of the Network Lenin Ravindranath lenin@csail.mit.edu M.I.T. Cambridge, MA, USA Sharad Agarwal sagarwal@microsoft.com Microsoft Research Redmond, WA, USA Jitendra Padhye padhye@microsoft.com Microsoft Research Redmond, WA, USA Chris Riederer cjr2149@columbia.edu Columbia

  7. West Virginia University Media Recording/Usage Release

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    West Virginia University Media Recording/Usage Release For the privilege of participating in activities for West Virginia University, I hereby give my consent for my image and likeness to be videotaped/outreach media · development media · newsworthy media documentation I further authorize West Virginia University

  8. Quantifying Wikipedia Usage Patterns Before Stock Market Moves

    E-print Network

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    of the final execution of a chosen action, such as a trade recorded at a stock exchange. Instead, within , unemployment rates24,25 , tourist numbers25 , and trading volumes in the US stock markets26,27 . A recent studyQuantifying Wikipedia Usage Patterns Before Stock Market Moves Helen Susannah Moat1,2,3 , Chester

  9. Characterization and usage of sexed semen from US field data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives were to characterize sexed semen available and its usage from US field data. This included investigating active Holstein proven bulls with sexed semen available, as well as percentages and frequencies of sexed semen matings for heifers and cows. Herds were also characterized for the...

  10. Issues with RFID usage in ubiquitous computing applications

    E-print Network

    Issues with RFID usage in ubiquitous computing applications Christian Floerkemeier and Matthias|lampe}@inf.ethz.ch Abstract. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has recently received a lot of attention as an augmentation- sive RFID systems, which can make the reliable operation of RFID aug- mented applications a challenge

  11. Developing a Scale on the Usage of Learner Control Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutlu, M. Oguz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a Likert-like scale in order to measure teachers' usage level of learner control strategy. This study was carried out with 219 State primary school teachers who were class teachers, Turkish teachers, English teachers, Mathematics teachers, Science teachers, Social Sciences teachers, Religion and Moral teachers…

  12. Investigating Learner Preparedness for and Usage Patterns of Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockwell, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    While the use of mobile devices for language learning has sparked the interest of an increasing number of researchers in recent years (e.g., Aizawa & Kiernan, 2003; Thornton & Houser, 2005), our knowledge of learners' preferences for the mobile platform and their usage patterns remains limited. Are learners prepared to use mobile phones for…

  13. Process water usage and water quality in poultry processing equipment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The operation of poultry processing equipment was analyzed to determine the impact of water reduction strategies on process water quality. Mandates to reduce the consumption of process water in poultry processing facilities have created the need to critically examine water usage patterns and develop...

  14. MethMorph: Simulating Facial Deformation Due to Methamphatamine Usage

    E-print Network

    Introduction Methamphetamine abuse contributed an economic burden of $23.4 billion to the United States in 2005 meth use among teenagers in Montana [2]. This marketing campaign uses many images of methamphetamine-meth marketing campaigns can deter teens from using methamphetamines. While teen methamphetamine usage remained

  15. 14 CFR 93.31 - Minimum usage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum usage requirement. 93.31 Section 93.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Congestion and Delay Reduction at Chicago O'Hare International Airport §...

  16. Accelerated Peer-Review Journal Usage Technique for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    The internet has given undergraduate students ever-increasing access to academic journals via search engines and online databases. However, students typically do not have the ability to use these journals effectively. This often poses a dilemma for instructors. The accelerated peer-review journal usage (APJU) technique provides a way for…

  17. Investigating Students' Usage and Acceptance of Electronic Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieche, Susan; Krey, Birte; Bastiaens, Theo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate students' usage and acceptance of electronic books. Factors correlating with students' attitude towards e-books were examined using the Technology Acceptance Model (Davis, Bagozzi, & Warshaw 1989). A questionnaire was administered online for students at University of Hagen. Results indicate…

  18. Patterns of Emoticon Usage in ESL Students' Discussion Forum Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvorsen, Andy

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods study looks at patterns of emoticon usage in adult, ESL student writing. Data are drawn from 13 students and their participation in online discussion forums designed to supplement a traditional ESL writing course. The study conceptualizes computer mediated communication as a hybridized and emergent form which utilizes features…

  19. Electronic Book Usage: A Survey at the University of Denver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine-Clark, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In the spring of 2005, the University of Denver's Penrose Library conducted a survey of its users to determine their degree of awareness of electronic books, how and why they use them, and their level of satisfaction with the format. It is clear from vendor-supplied usage statistics that electronic books are used, but it is not clear how or why…

  20. Energy Usage Attitudes of Urban India IBM Research India

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Energy Usage Attitudes of Urban India Mohit Jain IBM Research India mohitjain@in.ibm.com Deepika@cs.cmu.edu Amarjeet Singh IIIT Delhi, India amarjeet@iiitd.ac.in Abstract-- Though rapid increase in energy factors affecting energy consumption in urban India. However, the small numbers of participants in those

  1. Evaluating overall usage of a digital health sciences library.

    PubMed Central

    D'Alessandro, M P; D'Alessandro, D M; Galvin, J R; Erkonen, W E

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Digital health sciences library (DHSL) evaluation involves studying the usage of the DHSL by individuals as well as populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate trends in overall usage of a DHSL as part of a process of continuous quality improvement in order to learn how to enhance a DHSL in order to meet its users' needs better. METHODS: Web server log file analysis was performed on a prototype DHSL, the Virtual Hospital, using two log file analysis programs on data from the month of February over four consecutive years, 1995 to 1998. RESULTS: Overall DHSL usage increased between 1995 and 1997 and leveled off in 1998. Fifteen percent of usage came from countries outside the United States. A broad spectrum of medical information for health care providers and patients was accessed and centered around specialty medical information. CONCLUSIONS: To be of optimal assistance to users, DHSLs should (1) contain a broad base of information on common and uncommon medical problems, (2) accommodate the needs of the significant percentage of users that are international through content translation and mirroring, and (3) ensure they are indexed and catalogued in the major Web search engines and Web general and medical indices so they can be easily found by users. PMID:9803306

  2. Fuel bundle design for enhanced usage of plutonium fuel

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Anthony P. (San Jose, CA); Stachowski, Russell E. (Fremont, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle includes a square array of fuel rods each having a concentration of enriched uranium and plutonium. Each rod of an interior array of the rods also has a concentration of gadolinium. The interior array of rods is surrounded by an exterior array of rods void of gadolinium. By this design, usage of plutonium in the nuclear reactor is enhanced.

  3. Clio's Assistants: A Tool Suite for Exploring Student Web Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Greg; Simonson, Joe; Tiwari, Ananta; Rebelsky, Samuel A.

    Since the inception of the World Wide Web, faculty members have been developing online course materials. However, there is little careful analysis of how students use these Webs. In particular, do more successful and less successful students use course webs and associated materials differently? Are usage patterns similar to those of printed…

  4. Usage Policies Notebook for Cambridge Nanotech ALD System

    E-print Network

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    Usage Policies Notebook for Cambridge Nanotech ALD System Revision date September 2014 #12;2 Emergency Plan for Cambridge Nanotech ALD System Standard Operating Procedures for Emergencies Contact users for Cambridge Nanotech ALD System The following users have been authorized to use this equipment

  5. Consumer-Centered Extension Education Website Increases Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franics, Sarah L.; Martin, Peggy; Taylor, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Concern about young families' ability to cope with rising food prices resulted in creating Spend Smart. Eat Smart (SSES), a website focused on budget-friendly nutrition information for limited resource audiences (LRA). SSES was redesigned using LRAs needs and preferences to increase use by LRAs. SSES usage increased after it was revised to…

  6. Customer-centric Energy Usage Data Management for Balancing Tradeoff

    E-print Network

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    ), then is downloaded by a customer. Downloaded data is stored on a customer's "Repository". Upon sharing with Service data Signed & pre-processed Energy usage data Service Provider (Data Consumer) Privacy Control Customer are essential. Allow electricity customers to pre-process data Retain data verifiability for services

  7. Assessing Usage and Maximizing Finance Lab Impact: A Case Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noguera, Magdy; Budden, Michael Craig; Silva, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey conducted to assess students' usage and perceptions of a finance lab. Finance labs differ from simple computer labs as they typically contain data boards, streaming market quotes, terminals and software that allow for real-time financial analyses. Despite the fact that such labs represent significant and…

  8. The Increased Bandwidth Fallacy: Performance and Usage in Rural Zambia

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    ]. As a result, residents of developing rural regions access the web with inadequate conectivityThe Increased Bandwidth Fallacy: Performance and Usage in Rural Zambia Mariya Zheleva, Paul Schmitt in developing countries. This limited access is driven predominately by subscriptions in urban areas. In rural

  9. Multimedia Usage among Islamic Education Lecturers at Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamzah, Mohd Isa; Rinaldi; Razak, Khadijah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the level of multimedia usage among Islamic education lecturers at higher education institutions in West Sumatera, Indonesia. The participants were chosen from three types of higher institutions by using stratified random sampling. The data was collected from 250 students using questionnaires. The findings showed that…

  10. 50 CFR 600.910 - Definitions and word usage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions and word usage. 600.910 Section 600.910 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS EFH...

  11. Personal Cloud Storage: Usage, Performance and Impact of Terminals

    E-print Network

    Giaccone, Paolo

    Personal Cloud Storage: Usage, Performance and Impact of Terminals Enrico Bocchi, Idilio Drago, Marco Mellia Politecnico di Torino name.surname@polito.it Abstract--Personal cloud storage services by relying on the cloud to store files. The rise of mobile terminals and the presence of new providers

  12. MINING SPECTRUM USAGE DATA: A LARGE-SCALE SPECTRUM MEASUREMENT

    E-print Network

    Liu, Mingyan

    1 MINING SPECTRUM USAGE DATA: A LARGE-SCALE SPECTRUM MEASUREMENT STUDY Sixing Yin , Dawei Chen,qianzh}@cse.ust.hk University of Michigan mingyan@eecs.umich.edu November 19, 2009 DRAFT #12;Abstract Dynamic spectrum access calls for a deeper understanding of the characteristics of current spectrum utilization. In this paper

  13. Medical Information Availability and Usage in South Texas. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Virginia M.; And Others

    This project examined the impact of the University of Texas Health Science Center's Circuit Library Health Information Network (CLHIN) on availability and usage of medical information to health professionals and the effect of the promotion of online services, GRATEFUL MED and MEDLINE (flat rate). The project included a survey of physicians,…

  14. Predicting Textbook Reading: The Textbook Assessment and Usage Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurung, Regan A. R.; Martin, Ryan C.

    2011-01-01

    The authors constructed the Textbook Assessment and Usage Scale (TAUS) to measure students' textbook evaluations. They tested the scale in 6 introductory and 3 upper level classes. In Studies 1 and 2, the authors developed the TAUS, tested its psychometric properties, and determined which factors predicted how much students read the book and…

  15. Identifying Diverse Usage Behaviors of Smartphone Apps University of Michigan

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Albert

    Identifying Diverse Usage Behaviors of Smartphone Apps Qiang Xu University of Michigan Ann Arbor are increasingly shifting to using apps as "gate- ways" to Internet services rather than traditional web browsers. App marketplaces for iOS, Android, and Windows Phone platforms have made it attractive for developers

  16. Usage Patterns to Provision for Scientific Experimentation in Clouds

    E-print Network

    Plale, Beth

    Usage Patterns to Provision for Scientific Experimentation in Clouds Eran Chinthaka Withana are turning to commercial and research test-bed Cloud computing resources to run their scientific experiments. Job scheduling on cloud computing resources, unlike earlier plat- forms, is a balance between

  17. 21 CFR 211.122 - Materials examination and usage criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Materials examination and usage criteria. 211.122 Section 211.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Packaging...

  18. 21 CFR 211.122 - Materials examination and usage criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Materials examination and usage criteria. 211.122 Section 211.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Packaging...

  19. Mobile or Desktop Websites? Website Usage on Multitouch Devices

    E-print Network

    Mobile or Desktop Websites? Website Usage on Multitouch Devices Max-Emanuel Maurer, Doris Hausen is nearly a standard nowadays. Due to former bandwidth, input and screen limitations, website providers techniques like multitouch gestures enable a new way of browsing the original versions of websites. How- ever

  20. 40 CFR 52.254 - Organic solvent usage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions (the “Regions”), as described in 40 CFR part 81, dated July 1, 1979... been met. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.254, see the List of CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Organic solvent usage. 52.254...

  1. Coal ash usage in environmental restoration at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlon, P.L.; Sonnichsen, J.C.; Phillips, S.J.

    1995-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of coal ash from Hanford Nuclear Reservation steam plants as codisposal waste rock, landfill, or tank stabilization material; usage as a fuel source for energy recovery, as pipe or foundation backfill, or as an ornamental brick additive; and as aquarium rock, jewelry, or oyster bed stabilization material. Reducing the amount of waste produced is also discussed.

  2. The Relationship between Social Cohesion and Computer-Internet Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkan, Emre; Adalier, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between social cohesion and computer-internet usage among university students. The research was conducted among university students in North Cyprus. The sample for the research consists of 38.8% (n=80) female, 61.2 % (n=126) male, 206 university students by using the criterion sampling method.…

  3. Consumer Issues: Credit Usage, Money Management, and Bankruptcy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Judy L.

    During the past 10 years, consumers have experienced a substantial growth in credit and an unprecedented increase in the rate of inflation. As increases in credit usage continue to outpace increases in real income and as savings rates decline, consumers are increasingly likely to suffer financial problems and are increasingly in need of money…

  4. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF5 promotes the accuracy of start codon recognition by regulating Pi release and conformational transitions of the preinitiation complex.

    PubMed

    Saini, Adesh K; Nanda, Jagpreet S; Martin-Marcos, Pilar; Dong, Jinsheng; Zhang, Fan; Bhardwaj, Monika; Lorsch, Jon R; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2014-09-01

    eIF5 is the GTPase activating protein (GAP) for the eIF2 · GTP · Met-tRNAi (Met) ternary complex with a critical role in initiation codon selection. Previous work suggested that the eIF5 mutation G31R/SUI5 elevates initiation at UUG codons by increasing GAP function. Subsequent work implicated eIF5 in rearrangement of the preinitiation complex (PIC) from an open, scanning conformation to a closed state at AUG codons, from which Pi is released from eIF2 · GDP · Pi. To identify eIF5 functions crucial for accurate initiation, we investigated the consequences of G31R on GTP hydrolysis and Pi release, and the effects of intragenic G31R suppressors on these reactions, and on the partitioning of PICs between open and closed states. eIF5-G31R altered regulation of Pi release, accelerating it at UUG while decreasing it at AUG codons, consistent with its ability to stabilize the closed complex at UUG. Suppressor G62S mitigates both defects of G31R, accounting for its efficient suppression of UUG initiation in G31R,G62S cells; however suppressor M18V impairs GTP hydrolysis with little effect on PIC conformation. The strong defect in GTP hydrolysis conferred by M18V likely explains its broad suppression of Sui(-) mutations in numerous factors. We conclude that both of eIF5's functions, regulating Pi release and stabilizing the closed PIC conformation, contribute to stringent AUG selection in vivo. PMID:25114053

  5. Molecular epidemiology and divergence of HIV type 1 protease codon 35 inserted strains among treatment-naive patients in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chen, J H K; Wong, K H; Chan, K C; Lam, H Y; Yuen, K Y; Cheng, V C C; Yam, W C

    2008-04-01

    This study reported the prevalence and pattern of viral replication-associated HIV-1 protease codon 35 amino acid insertions among treatment-naive patients in Hong Kong. The transmission and divergence date of these inserted strains was also investigated. The pol gene of 264 local HIV-1 isolates was sequenced and phylogenetic analysis was performed. The transmission history of protease codon 35-inserted HIV-1 strains in Hong Kong was estimated by the Bayesian coalescent method. This insertion was detected in 12 (4.55%) among 264 treatment-naive subtype B HIV-1 patients in Hong Kong, which was 20-times higher than the prevalence in the western countries. Among these strains, eight carried a glutamic acid (GAA) insertion (E35E_E), two carried an aspartic acid (GAC) insertion (E35E_D), and two carried a glycine (GGA) insertion (E35E_G). E35E_D and E35E_E insertions were the first to be reported. All the 12 inserted sequences clustered in the same lineage of the phylogenetic tree, indicating the possibility of transmission of this insertion. Epidemiological investigation revealed the major route of infection for this inserted strain in Hong Kong was associated mainly among homosexual Chinese males. The evolutionary rate of these inserted strains was similar to other subtype B HIV-1 strains. Through coalescent-based analysis, the divergence date of the protease codon 35-inserted strains in Hong Kong was 1995. Our findings demonstrate the epidemic pathways of viral fitness-related HIV-1 protease codon 35-inserted isolates in Hong Kong. The effect of these novel insertions on viral fitness and drug susceptibility requires further investigation. PMID:18426335

  6. Guidelines for Energy Cost Savings Resulting from Tracking and Monitoring Electrical nad Natural Gas Usage, Cost, and Rates 

    E-print Network

    McClure, J. D.; Estes, M. C.; Estes, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    5n . Summer energy index (SEI) Auc 1.12, i,;:ii; SEP 1.429 51~,600 OCT 1.196 287,100 NCV 1.001 171.850 DEC 950 101 rsn . - . . . . . SEI = (SUMMER ENERGY USAGE / ANNUAL 11.885 1.631.150 ? . ~.-.- . Key Ratios: Comparisons of the above key... days. Care should be used in adjusting for weather factors because some buildings with high internal loads and high insulating characteristics are not very sensitive to weather variations. 8. Key ratios should be calculated and compared on a...

  7. Agricultural pesticide usage and prioritization in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, Eun Shil; Jeong, Mihye; Lee, Won Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to review agricultural pesticide usage and trends and to identify hazardous pesticides for regulation, in terms of public health, in South Korea. The authors collected data on usage and trends of agricultural pesticides through agriculture-related databases. Criteria from the US Environmental Protection Agency classification for carcinogenicity, World Health Organization classification for acute toxicity, and European Union prioritization list for endocrine-disrupting chemicals were used for the hazard categorization of identified individual active ingredients. Pesticides to be prioritized among all pesticides used in South Korea between 2007 and 2011 were selected by taking into account the volume of usage, toxicity, and epidemiological evidence. Annual agricultural use of pesticides has increased rapidly from the 1970s to 1990s in South Korea, but has declined since 2001. The quantity of pesticides used in 2011 was reported as 19,131 tons, and was comprised of 34.7% insecticides, 28.0% fungicides, and 27.1% herbicides. The 50 pesticides with the greatest volume of usage accounted for 82.6% of the total volume of pesticides used between 2007 and 2011, with the most-used active ingredient being machine oil, followed by mancozeb and then paraquat. Organophosphates were the most used among the top 50 pesticides. A total of 24 pesticides were selected for recommendation of intensive regulation in South Korea. In conclusion, the authors described the usage and trends of overall agricultural pesticides, which would serve as a fundamental step forward in managing pesticide in terms of public health. Intensive efforts are required for the prevention of potential health effects from the 24 identified pesticides. PMID:24959760

  8. A model for mis-sense error in protein synthesis: mis-charged cognate tRNA versus mis-reading of codon

    E-print Network

    Dutta, Annwesha

    2015-01-01

    The sequence of amino acid monomers in the primary structure of protein is decided by the corresponding sequence of codons (triplets of nucleic acid monomers) on the template messenger RNA (mRNA). The polymerization of a protein, by incorporation of the successive amino acid monomers, is carried out by a molecular machine called ribosome. Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, each species of which is "charged" with a specific amino acid, enters the ribosome and participates in the reading of the codon by the ribosome. Both mis-reading of mRNA codon and prior mis-charging of a tRNA can lead to "mis-sense" error, i.e,. erroneous substitution of a correct amino acid monomer by an incorrect one during the synthesis of a protein. We develop a theoretical model of protein synthesis that allows for both types of contributions to the "mis-sense" error. We report exact analytical formulae for several quantities that characterize the interplay of mis-charging of tRNA and mis-reading of mRNA. The average rate of elongation of ...

  9. A model for mis-sense error in protein synthesis: mis-charged cognate tRNA versus mis-reading of codon

    E-print Network

    Annwesha Dutta; Debashish Chowdhury

    2015-12-06

    The sequence of amino acid monomers in the primary structure of protein is decided by the corresponding sequence of codons (triplets of nucleic acid monomers) on the template messenger RNA (mRNA). The polymerization of a protein, by incorporation of the successive amino acid monomers, is carried out by a molecular machine called ribosome. Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, each species of which is "charged" with a specific amino acid, enters the ribosome and participates in the reading of the codon by the ribosome. Both mis-reading of mRNA codon and prior mis-charging of a tRNA can lead to "mis-sense" error, i.e,. erroneous substitution of a correct amino acid monomer by an incorrect one during the synthesis of a protein. We develop a theoretical model of protein synthesis that allows for both types of contributions to the "mis-sense" error. We report exact analytical formulae for several quantities that characterize the interplay of mis-charging of tRNA and mis-reading of mRNA. The average rate of elongation of a protein is given by a generalized Michaelis-Menten-like formula. We discuss the main implications of these results. These formulae will be very useful in future in analyzing the data collected during experimental investigations of this phenomenon.

  10. Codon 249 of the human TP53 tumor suppressor gene is no hot spot for aflatoxin B1 in a heterologous background.

    PubMed

    Sengstag, C; Mörbe, J L; Weibel, B

    1999-11-29

    Mutations in the TP53 tumor suppressor gene are the most common alteration in cancer, and human primary liver cancers related to previous dietary exposure to the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exhibit a specific hot spot mutation at TP53 codon 249. We have asked whether the 249 hot spot is related to a particular susceptibility to AFB1 of this TP53 region or whether it is related to a phenotype of the 249S p53 mutant protein. This was addressed by constructing a metabolically competent variant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain yIG397 expressing human cytochrome P450 1A2 and P450-reductase and isolating AFB1-induced mutants that failed to express the genomic ADE2 reporter gene. Molecular analysis revealed that only 8/40 mutants had a mutation in the TP53 target gene, whereas 32/40 mutants were due to a recombination event eliminating the ADE2 reporter gene. None of 19 mutations identified in the eight mutant TP53 plasmids altered codon 249, thus this codon was no hot spot if the TP53 gene was in the heterologous background yeast. The genotoxic action of AFB1 was completely different from that of the alkylating agent ethyl-methane-sulfonate, where 28/30 induced mutations were linked to the TP53 target gene. PMID:10592324

  11. The antibiotic Furvina® targets the P-site of 30S ribosomal subunits and inhibits translation initiation displaying start codon bias

    PubMed Central

    Fabbretti, Attilio; Brandi, Letizia; Petrelli, Dezemona; Pon, Cynthia L.; Castañedo, Nilo R.; Medina, Ricardo; Gualerzi, Claudio O.

    2012-01-01

    Furvina®, also denominated G1 (MW 297), is a synthetic nitrovinylfuran [2-bromo-5-(2-bromo-2-nitrovinyl)-furan] antibiotic with a broad antimicrobial spectrum. An ointment (Dermofural®) containing G1 as the only active principle is currently marketed in Cuba and successfully used to treat dermatological infections. Here we describe the molecular target and mechanism of action of G1 in bacteria and demonstrate that in vivo G1 preferentially inhibits protein synthesis over RNA, DNA and cell wall synthesis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that G1 targets the small ribosomal subunit, binds at or near the P-decoding site and inhibits its function interfering with the ribosomal binding of fMet-tRNA during 30S initiation complex (IC) formation ultimately inhibiting translation. Notably, this G1 inhibition displays a bias for the nature (purine vs. pyrimidine) of the 3?-base of the codon, occurring efficiently only when the mRNA directing 30S IC formation and translation contains the canonical AUG initiation triplet or the rarely found AUA triplet, but hardly occurs when the mRNA start codon is either one of the non-canonical triplets AUU or AUC. This codon discrimination by G1 is reminiscent, though of opposite type of that displayed by IF3 in its fidelity function, and remarkably does not occur in the absence of this factor. PMID:22941660

  12. Nonsense codon suppression in fission yeast due to mutations of tRNA(Ser.11) and translation release factor Sup35 (eRF3).

    PubMed

    Protacio, Reine U; Storey, Aaron J; Davidson, Mari K; Wahls, Wayne P

    2015-05-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, sup9 mutations can suppress the termination of translation at nonsense (stop) codons. We localized sup9 physically to the spctrnaser.11 locus and confirmed that one allele (sup9-UGA) alters the anticodon of a serine tRNA. We also found that another purported allele is not allelic. Instead, strains with that suppressor (renamed sup35-F592S) have a single base pair substitution (T1775C) that introduces an amino acid substitution in the Sup35 protein (Sup35-F592S). Reduced functionality of Sup35 (eRF3), the ubiquitous guanine nucleotide-responsive translation release factor of eukaryotes, increases read-through of stop codons. Tetrad dissection revealed that suppression is tightly linked to (inseparable from) the sup35-F592S mutation and that there are no additional extragenic modifiers. The Mendelian inheritance indicates that the Sup35-F592S protein does not adopt an infectious amyloid state ([PSI (+)] prion) to affect suppression, consistent with recent evidence that fission yeast Sup35 does not form prions. We also report that sup9-UGA and sup35-F592S exhibit different strengths of suppression for opal stop codons of ade6-M26 and ade6-M375. We discuss possible mechanisms for the variation in suppressibility exhibited by the two alleles. PMID:25519804

  13. C-deletion in exon 4 codon 63 of p53 gene as a molecular marker for oral squamous cell carcinoma: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Sukhija, Hemani; Krishnan, Rajkumar; Balachander, N.; Raghavendhar, Karthik; Ramadoss, Ramya; Sen, Sukanta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exfoliated oral cancer cells in saliva samples from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) can be used to determine the incidence and type of mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. The purpose of this study was to identify C-deletion mutation in exon 4 codon 63 of p53 gene in the saliva of OSCC patients by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: Saliva samples of 20 newly histopathologically diagnosed OSCC patients and 5 healthy volunteers were subjected to isolation of the total genomic DNA and PCR amplification for C-deletion on exon 4 of p53 gene. The resulting products were resolved by agarose gel electrophoresis, viewed and photographed on ultraviolet-transilluminator. Results: The relationship between the frequencies of genetic alterations was assessed by Chi-square test. Differences with values of P < 0.05 were statistically significant. Conclusion: The study concluded a 100% presence of C-deletion mutation in exon 4 codon 63 of p53 in the saliva of OSCC patients. This study suggests that detection of mutation in exon 4 codon 63 of p53 by PCR is a fast, reliable, accurate, and sensitive molecular method for OSCC diagnosis. PMID:26604578

  14. Changes in codon-pair bias of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 have profound effects on virus replication in cell culture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has a biased nucleotide composition different from human genes. This raises the question of how evolution has chosen the nucleotide sequence of HIV-1 that is observed today, or to what extent the actual encoding contributes to virus replication capacity, evolvability and pathogenesis. Here, we applied the previously described synthetic attenuated virus engineering (SAVE) approach to HIV-1. Results Using synonymous codon pairs, we rationally recoded and codon pair–optimized and deoptimized different moieties of the HIV-1 gag and pol genes. Deoptimized viruses had significantly lower viral replication capacity in MT-4 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Varying degrees of ex vivo attenuation were obtained, depending upon both the specific deoptimized region and the number of deoptimized codons. A protease optimized virus carrying 38 synonymous mutations was not attenuated and displayed a replication capacity similar to that of the wild-type virus in MT-4 cells and PBMCs. Although attenuation is based on several tens of nucleotide changes, deoptimized HIV-1 reverted to wild-type virulence after serial passages in MT-4 cells. Remarkably, no reversion was observed in the optimized virus. Conclusion These data demonstrate that SAVE is a useful strategy to phenotypically affect the replicative properties of HIV-1. PMID:23885919

  15. A small segment of the MAT alpha 1 transcript promotes mRNA decay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a stimulatory role for rare codons.

    PubMed Central

    Caponigro, G; Muhlrad, D; Parker, R

    1993-01-01

    Differences in decay rates of eukaryotic transcripts can be determined by discrete sequence elements within mRNAs. Through the analysis of chimeric transcripts and internal deletions, we have identified a 65-nucleotide segment of the MAT alpha 1 mRNA coding region, termed the MAT alpha 1 instability element, that is sufficient to confer instability to a stable PGK1 reporter transcript and that accelerates turnover of the unstable MAT alpha 1 mRNA. This 65-nucleotide element is composed of two parts, one located within the 5' 33 nucleotides and the second located in the 3' 32 nucleotides. The first part, which can be functionally replaced by sequences containing rare codons, is unable to promote rapid decay by itself but can enhance the action of the 3' 32 nucleotides (positions 234 to 266 in the MAT alpha 1 mRNA) in accelerating turnover. A second portion of the MAT alpha 1 mRNA (nucleotides 265 to 290) is also sufficient to destabilize the PGK1 reporter transcript when positioned 3' of rare codons, suggesting that the 3' half of the MAT alpha 1 instability element is functionally reiterated within the MAT alpha 1 mRNA. The observation that rare codons are part of the 65-nucleotide MAT alpha 1 instability element suggests possible mechanisms through which translation and mRNA decay may be linked. Images PMID:8355674

  16. Chemistry & Biology, Vol. 9, 237244, February, 2002, 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII S1074-5521(02)00094-7 Exploring the Limits of Codon and Anticodon Size

    E-print Network

    Magliery, Thomas J.

    feature of life, and its universality is curring prolyl and glycyl suppressors from yeast and Salmonella, efficient four-base codon suppressors haveconsidered key evidence for the common ancestry of all known life

  17. Towards sustainable material usage : time-dependent evaluation of upgrading technologies for recycling

    E-print Network

    Gaustad, Gabrielle G

    2009-01-01

    As consumption in the US grows, so does concern about sustainable materials usage. Increasing recycling is a key component within a broad arsenal of strategies for moving towards sustainable materials usage. There are many ...

  18. 47 CFR 90.535 - Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements. 90...MHz Bands § 90.535 Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements. ...least one voice path per 6.25 kHz of spectrum bandwidth. (2) Licensees...

  19. 47 CFR 90.535 - Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements. 90...MHz Bands § 90.535 Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements. ...least one voice path per 6.25 kHz of spectrum bandwidth. (2) Licensees...

  20. 47 CFR 90.535 - Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements. 90...MHz Bands § 90.535 Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements. ...least one voice path per 6.25 kHz of spectrum bandwidth. (2) Licensees...

  1. 47 CFR 90.535 - Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements. 90...MHz Bands § 90.535 Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements. ...least one voice path per 6.25 kHz of spectrum bandwidth. (2) Licensees...

  2. 47 CFR 90.535 - Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements. 90...MHz Bands § 90.535 Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements. ...least one voice path per 6.25 kHz of spectrum bandwidth. (2) Licensees...

  3. Suppression of CFTR premature termination codons and rescue of CFTR protein and function by the synthetic aminoglycoside NB54

    PubMed Central

    Sloane, Peter; Tang, Li Ping; Backer, Kyle; Mazur, Marina; Buckley-Lanier, Jessica; Nudelman, Igor; Belakhov, Valery; Bebok, Zsuzsa; Schwiebert, Erik; Baasov, Timor; Bedwell, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Certain aminoglycosides are capable of inducing “translational readthrough” of premature termination codons (PTCs). However, toxicity and relative lack of efficacy deter treatment with clinically available aminoglycosides for genetic diseases caused by PTCs, including cystic fibrosis (CF). Using a structure-based approach, the novel aminoglycoside NB54 was developed that exhibits reduced toxicity and enhanced suppression of PTCs in cell-based reporter assays relative to gentamicin. We examined whether NB54 administration rescued CFTR protein and function in clinically relevant CF models. In a fluorescence-based halide efflux assay, NB54 partially restored halide efflux in a CF bronchial epithelial cell line (CFTR genotype W1282X/F508del), but not in a CF epithelial cell line lacking a PTC (F508del/F508del). In polarized airway epithelial cells expressing either a CFTR-W1282X or -G542X cDNA, treatment with NB54 increased stimulated short-circuit current (ISC) with greater efficiency than gentamicin. NB54 and gentamicin induced comparable increases in forskolin-stimulated ISC in primary airway epithelial cells derived from a G542X/F508del CF donor. Systemic administration of NB54 to Cftr?/? mice expressing a human CFTR-G542X transgene restored 15–17% of the average stimulated transepithelial chloride currents observed in wild-type (Cftr+/+) mice, comparable to gentamicin. NB54 exhibited reduced cellular toxicity in vitro and was tolerated at higher concentrations than gentamicin in vivo. These results provide evidence that synthetic aminoglycosides are capable of PTC suppression in relevant human CF cells and a CF animal model and support further development of these compounds as a treatment modality for genetic diseases caused by PTCs. PMID:21779978

  4. Sensitivity of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detection of codon 249 mutations in the p53 gene compared with RFLP.

    PubMed

    Qian, Geng-Sun; Kuang, Shuang-Yuan; He, Xia; Groopman, John D; Jackson, Peta E

    2002-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has several major etiological risk factors, including infection with hepatitis viruses and exposure to aflatoxin B(1). A specific missense mutation resulting from a guanine to thymine transversion at the third position of codon 249 in the p53 tumor suppressor gene has been reported in 10-70% of HCCs from areas of high dietary exposure to aflatoxin B(1.) This mutation has not only been detected in tumor samples but has also been measured in DNA isolated from the blood of patients with HCC in two separate studies by two independent methods: RFLP and short oligonucleotide mass analysis (SOMA), an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry technique. To compare the relative sensitivities of these methodologies, a set of serially diluted samples was analyzed by both techniques. The detection limits of RFLP and SOMA were 6% and 2.4% mutant alleles in the presence of wild-type alleles, respectively. When the DNA samples were predigested with HaeIII before SOMA, the detection limit was improved to 0.4% mutant allele in the presence of wild-type alleles. We have therefore found that SOMA is about 2.5-15-fold more sensitive than RFLP for detection of specific p53 mutations. A set of 26 DNA samples from HCC and normal liver was analyzed by RFLP and SOMA, and 5 samples were positive for the p53 mutation. An additional 4 samples were found to be positive for the mutation when SOMA was repeated after HaeIII predigestion. PMID:12376521

  5. Suppression of stop codon UGA in acrB can contribute to antibiotic resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC10031.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Motoyasu; Mizusawa, Minako; Tsuchiya, Tomofusa; Kuroda, Teruo; Ogawa, Wakano

    2013-10-25

    We previously reported that Klebsiella pneumoniae MGH78578 exhibited higher resistance against various antimicrobials than K. pneumoniae ATCC10031.?In this study, we showed that the plasmid, pKPN5 in K. pneumoniae MGH78578 played an important role in resistance against aminoglycosides, ampicillin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol, while genome-derived ß-lactamases and drug efflux pumps appeared to be more important in resistance to cloxacillin. acrAB, encoding a potent multidrug efflux pump, was cloned from K. pneumoniae MGH78578 and ATCC10031, to investigate reasons for the high drug resistance of K. pneumoniae MGH78578, and the results revealed that AcrAB from K. pneumoniae ATCC10031 conferred weaker drug resistance than AcrAB from K. pneumoniae MGH78578. DNA sequencing revealed that acrB from K. pneumoniae ATCC10031 carried the nonsense mutation, UGA, which was not found in acrB from K. pneumoniae MGH78578. However, acrB from K. pneumoniae ATCC10031 conferred slightly elevated resistant levels to several antimicrobials. The intact length of AcrB was detected in K. pneumoniae ATCC10031 by Western blot analysis, even though its quantity was small. Therefore, the stop codon UGA in acrB was thought to be overcome to some extent in this strain. We artificially introduced the nonsense mutation, UGA to the cat gene on pACYC184, and the plasmid also elevated the MIC of chloramphenicol in K. pneumoniae ATCC10031. These results suggest that a mechanism to overcome the nonsense mutation in acrB sustained resistance against a few ?-lactams, dyes, and cholic acid in K. pneumoniae ATCC10031. PMID:24513333

  6. Molecular Analysis of Codon 548 in the rpoB Gene Involved in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Resistance to Rifampin

    PubMed Central

    Horng, Yu-Tze; Jeng, Wen-Yih; Chen, Yih-Yuan; Liu, Che-Hung; Dou, Horng-Yunn; Lee, Jen-Jyh; Chang, Kai-Chih; Chien, Chih-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Most Mycobacterium tuberculosis rifampin-resistant strains have been associated with mutations in an 81-bp rifampin resistance-determining region (RRDR) in the gene rpoB. However, if this region alone were targeted, rifampin-resistant strains with mutations outside the RRDR would not be detected. In this study, among 51 rifampin-resistant clinical isolates analyzed by sequencing 1,681-bp-long DNA fragments containing the RRDR, 47 isolates contained mutations within the RRDR, three isolates contained mutations both within and outside the RRDR, and only one isolate had a single missense mutation (Arg548His) located outside the RRDR. A drug susceptibility test of recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. tuberculosis isolates carrying mutated rpoB (Arg548His) showed an increased MIC for rifampin compared to that of the control strains. Modeling of the Arg548His mutant RpoB-DNA complex revealed that the His548 side chain formed a more stable hydrogen bond structure than did Arg548, reducing the flexibility of the rifampin-resistant cluster II region of RpoB, suggesting that the RpoB Arg548His mutant does not effectively interact with rifampin and results in bacterial resistance to the drug. This is the first report on the relationship between the mutation in codon 548 of RpoB and rifampin resistance in tuberculosis. The novel mutational profile of the rpoB gene described here will contribute to the comprehensive understanding of rifampin resistance patterns and to the development of a useful tool for simple and rapid drug susceptibility tests. PMID:25534743

  7. Immunohistochemical expression of GLUT1 and its correlation with unfavorable histology and TP53 codon 72 polymorphism in Wilms tumors.

    PubMed

    Rakheja, Dinesh; Khokhar, Shama; Mitui, Midori; Cost, Nicholas G

    2012-01-01

    Reprogramming of energy metabolism, such as increased glycolysis, is a hallmark of cancer cells. One mechanism by which cancer cells fuel glycolysis is through increased uptake of glucose across cell membranes via the glucose transporter GLUT1. One of the transcriptional repressors of GLUT1 is wild-type TP53, and cancer-associated loss of function mutations within the DNA-binding domain of TP53 impairs the repressive effect of TP53 on transcriptional activity of the GLUT1 gene promoter. Because TP53 mutations are associated with unfavorable histology (diffuse anaplasia) in Wilms tumors, we hypothesized increased expression of GLUT1 in these tumors. To evaluate this hypothesis, we performed tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry for GLUT1 in a set of 50 Wilms tumors, including 5 with unfavorable histology. In a subset of 16 favorable histology Wilms tumors, we compared the GLUT1 immunoexpression with TP53 codon 72 polymorphism status. We found consistently stronger immunoexpression of GLUT1 in unfavorable histology Wilms tumors compared to favorable histology Wilms tumors (P ?=? 0.04). We noted that the favorable histology Wilms tumors with a proline residue at position 72 of TP53 tended to have higher immunoexpression of GLUT1, although this immunoexpression did not reach statistical significance in this small set of cases. In summary, our finding of strong GLUT1 immunoexpression in unfavorable histology Wilms tumors indicates that these tumors are likely to be 2-deoxy-2-((18)F)fluoro-d-glucose avid and that GLUT1 should be evaluated as a therapeutic target for these tumors that otherwise show resistance to conventional therapy. PMID:22483234

  8. Examination of alternate codon bias solutions for expression and purification of recombinant mechano-growth factor in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianguo; Wan, Rongxue; Yi, Qian; He, Ling; Yang, Li; Tang, Liling

    2015-09-01

    Mechano-growth factor (MGF), an alternative splicing variant of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene, promotes cell proliferation and inhibits cell differentiation. It also plays an important role in tumor development. It is important to optimize the production process and achieve MGF protein because there is no commercial MGF protein available. In this study, the human MGF gene is cloned into pGEX-4T-1 and the recombinant human MGF (rhMGF) protein could be expressed in Rosetta (DE3) by isopropyl ?-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside induction but not in BL21 (DE3). Mutation from rare codons to Escherichia coli preferred ones is performed. We obtain MGF(Mut54-56) and MGF(Mut-total) fragments through site-directed mutagenesis and overlapping PCR. Both pGEX-4T-1/MGF(Mut54-56)- and pGEX-4T-1/MGF(Mut-total)-transformed BL21 (DE3) can be induced to express rhMGF protein. To optimize the production technology, expression and purification of rhMGF are analyzed and compared in Rosetta (DE3) and BL21 (DE3). Results indicate that rhMGF expression in BL21 (DE3) is significantly higher than that in Rosetta (DE3). The protein yield of pGEX-4T-1/MGF(Mut-total) in BL21 (DE3) is higher than that of pGEX-4T-1/MGF(Mut54-56). We test the biological activity of MGF protein purified by affinity chromatography in C2C12 cell line and find that rhMGF promotes cell proliferation significantly. In conclusion, we establish a method to produce rhMGF economically with high biological activity in BL21 (DE3). PMID:25345350

  9. Suppression of stop codon UGA in acrB can contribute to antibiotic resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC10031.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Motoyasu; Mizusawa, Minako; Tsuchiya, Tomofusa; Kuroda, Teruo; Ogawa, Wakano

    2014-01-25

    We previously reported that Klebsiella pneumoniae MGH78578 exhibited higher resistance against various antimicrobials than K. pneumoniae ATCC10031. In this study, we showed that the plasmid, pKPN5, in K. pneumoniae MGH78578 played an important role in resistance against aminoglycosides, ampicillin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol, while genome-derived ?-lactamases and drug efflux pumps appeared to be more important in resistance to cloxacillin. acrAB, encoding a potent multidrug efflux pump, was cloned from K. pneumoniae MGH78578 and ATCC10031, to investigate reasons for the high drug resistance of K. pneumoniae MGH78578, and the results revealed that AcrAB from K. pneumoniae ATCC10031 conferred weaker drug resistance than AcrAB from K. pneumoniae MGH78578. DNA sequencing revealed that acrB from K. pneumoniae ATCC10031 carried the nonsense mutation, UGA, which was not found in acrB from K. pneumoniae MGH78578. However, acrB from K. pneumoniae ATCC10031 conferred slightly elevated resistant levels to several antimicrobials. The intact length of AcrB was detected in K. pneumoniae ATCC10031 by Western blot analysis, even though its quantity was small. Therefore, the stop codon UGA in acrB was thought to be overcome to some extent in this strain. We artificially introduced the nonsense mutation,UGA to the cat gene on pACYC184, and the plasmid also elevated the MIC of chloramphenicol in K. pneumoniae ATCC10031. These results suggest that a mechanism to overcome the nonsense mutation in acrB sustained resistance against a few ?-lactams, dyes, and cholic acid in K. pneumoniae ATCC10031. PMID:24498649

  10. Rapid selection for ?-tubulin alleles in codon 200 conferring benzimidazole resistance in an Ostertagia ostertagi isolate on pasture.

    PubMed

    Knapp-Lawitzke, Friederike; Krücken, Jürgen; Ramünke, Sabrina; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina

    2015-04-15

    Resistance to benzimidazoles (BZs) is widespread in sheep nematodes and increasing in those of cattle. Several reasons including the predominant use of pour-on anthelmintics and lack of scales in field conditions lead to under-dosing of cattle and therefore to increased selection pressure. In an field experiment the frequency of BZ-resistance associated allele (TAC) in codon 200 in the ?-tubulin isotype 1 gene of Ostertagia ostertagi was monitored over one grazing season (approximately 30 weeks). Group 1, consisting of four calves, was experimentally infected with a pure O. ostertagi population displaying ?50% of the TAC allele. The subsequently following groups of calves (four groups of two calves each) acquired natural infections by grazing contaminated pastures. Each group was treated with increasing percentages of sub-therapeutic dosages of albendazole (35-65%). Larvae obtained from faecal cultures pre and post treatment were subjected to species/genus-specific PCR as well as pyrosequencing to determine allele frequencies. PCR revealed the presence of Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Haemonchus and Cooperia in pre-treatment samples and predominantly Ostertagia as well as some Trichostrongylus in post treatment samples. Faecal egg count reduction was always less than 90% 7-10 days post treatment. In naturally infected calves TAC allele frequencies were significantly increased (p<0.05) after treatment and they also rapidly increased during the grazing season (pre: 15-63%; post: 55-89%). The more than 4-fold increase in resistant genotypes before treatment indicates how fast selection for BZ resistance can occur when sub-therapeutic dosages are combined with a high treatment frequency, even under moderated climatic conditions and in the presence of a refugium. PMID:25725546

  11. A precursor form of vascular endothelial growth factor arises by initiation from an upstream in-frame CUG codon.

    PubMed Central

    Tee, M K; Jaffe, R B

    2001-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a mitogen in physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Understanding the expression of different VEGF isoforms might be important for distinguishing angiogenesis in tissue development, vascular remodelling and tumour formation. We examined its expression and noted the presence of the isoforms VEGF(121) and VEGF(165) (121 and 165 residues long respectively) in fetal heart, lung, ovary, spleen, placenta and ovarian tumours. Unexpectedly, a 47 kDa species predominated in fetal intestine and muscle. The presumed initiation site in VEGF is an AUG codon (AUG(1039)), 1039 nt from its main transcriptional start site. AUG(1039) is preceded in the 5' untranslated region by an in-frame CUG at nt 499 (CUG(499)), which could produce the 47 kDa form with a 180-residue N-terminal extension. We therefore assessed whether CUG(499) functions as an initiator. CUG(499) initiation produced the 47 kDa VEGF(165) precursor, which was processed at two sites to yield VEGF and three N-terminal fragments. When CTG(499) was mutated to CGC, the precursor and N-terminal fragments were barely detectable. Although the precursor form was predominant in VEGF(165), both CUG(499) and AUG(1039) forms were found in VEGF(121). VEGF precursor induced neither the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells nor the expression of angiopoietin 2, which can be induced by, and act with, VEGF to induce tumour angiogenesis. The precursor also adheres to the extracellular matrix (ECM), suggesting that it might be a storage form for generating active VEGF in the cell or ECM. Alternate CUG(499) and AUG(1039) initiation and processing of the inactive precursor and its products might be important in regulating angiogenesis. PMID:11563986

  12. A high-throughput assay for connexin 43 (Cx43, GJA1) gap junctions using codon-optimized aequorin.

    PubMed

    Haq, Nazia; Grose, David; Ward, Emma; Chiu, Oiyee; Tigue, Natalie; Dowell, Simon J; Powell, Andrew J; Chen, Mao Xiang

    2013-03-01

    Gap junctions (GJs) are intercellular channels which are composed of the connexin family of proteins that allow electrical and chemical communications and synchronization in tissue ensembles. Evidence suggests that pharmaceutical modulators of these channels may have therapeutic potential or carry undesired liability. In this report, we exogenously expressed human connexin 43 (Cx43, GJA1) and demonstrated functionality in a 96-well flow cytometry assay detecting intercellular transfer of the calcein dye. We have designed a 384-well high-throughput method for detecting the transfer of calcium between HeLa cells expressing Cx43. In this assay, donor cells coexpress Cx43 and the ?1A adrenergic G?-coupled receptor, while recipient cells coexpress Cx43 and the cytoplasmic version of the calcium-sensitive luminescent protein aequorin enhanced by codon optimization (cytoAeq). The two cell populations were mixed, dispensed to 384-well plates, and incubated for 3 h to allow the formation of GJs. Activation of ?1A by epinephrine in donor cells led to dose-dependent calcium increases in recipient cells, which were detected by measuring the intensity of aequorin luminescence. The response was dependent on the expression of Cx43 and inhibited by the GJ blocker 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid, suggesting Cx43 GJ-mediated activity. In a parallel experiment with capsaicin and the TrpV1 ion channel in place of phenylephrine and ?1A, a similar magnitude of difference in the maximal calcium response was detected in both donor and recipient cells, suggesting that calcium is likely the permeant ion through the GJ. This assay may pave the way for high-throughput screening of GJ modulators for drug discovery. PMID:23046406

  13. Latent Class Models in action: bridging social capital & Internet usage.

    PubMed

    Neves, Barbara Barbosa; Fonseca, Jaime R S

    2015-03-01

    This paper explores how Latent Class Models (LCM) can be applied in social research, when the basic assumptions of regression models cannot be validated. We examine the usefulness of this method with data collected from a study on the relationship between bridging social capital and the Internet. Social capital is defined here as the resources that are potentially available in one's social ties. Bridging is a dimension of social capital, usually related to weak ties (acquaintances), and a source of instrumental resources such as information. The study surveyed a stratified random sample of 417 inhabitants of Lisbon, Portugal. We used LCM to create the variable bridging social capital, but also to estimate the relationship between bridging social capital and Internet usage when we encountered convergence problems with the logistic regression analysis. We conclude by showing a positive relationship between bridging and Internet usage, and by discussing the potential of LCM for social science research. PMID:25592918

  14. Effects of Perceived Values on Continuance Usage of Facebook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Heng-Li; Lai, Cheng-Yu

    Facebook is one of the renowned social networking sites (SNS) on the Internet. As compared to the conventional SNS, it not only provides social interaction features, but has more entertainment elements on the website. Many Facebook users use the website for the purpose of playing the embedded games rather than use its original social features, i.e., individual's perceived values about the usage of Facebook may have changed. Consequently, it is an interesting issue to know individual's perceived values and satisfaction toward continuance usage of the new style SNS like Facebook. Based on prior literatures, three different value orientations, including social orientation, entertainment orientation and fashion orientation, were adopted in this study to examine their influence on individual's satisfaction and continuance intention to use Facebook. An empirical survey and partial least squares (PLS) technology was utilized to test the proposed hypotheses. Several empirical results were found. Both academic and practical implications are discussed.

  15. Mobile phones: time to rethink and limit usage.

    PubMed

    Paul, Bobby; Saha, Indranil; Kumar, Sanjay; Samim Ferdows, S K; Ghose, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Radiofrequency waves generated from mobile phones cause potential public health problems. Short-term effects like changes in sleep, heart rate, and blood pressure, and long-term effects like carcinoma are well documented. The Government of India's efforts in laying down regulations regarding the safety limits, manufacture, marketing, and mobile use are still in nascent stage. The need for stringent enforcement of laws for prevention of phone usage while driving and guidelines of medical regulatory bodies regarding rules and regulations of phone usage while at class or attending patients is of utmost importance. This should be supplemented by mass media to raise awareness among people regarding the possible health effects of radiofrequency emissions from mobile phones and the guidelines to minimize its exposure. It is the need of the hour to teach young people to be structured, to know when to have the cell phone on, and to avoid becoming the slave of technology instead of its mastery. PMID:25758729

  16. Long memory in patterns of mobile phone usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owczarczuk, Marcin

    2012-02-01

    In this article we show that usage of a mobile phone, i.e. daily series of number of calls made by a customer, exhibits long memory. We use a sample of 4502 postpaid users from a Polish mobile operator and study their two-year billing history. We estimate Hurst exponent by nine estimators: aggregated variance method, differencing the variance, absolute values of the aggregated series, Higuchi's method, residuals of regression, the R/S method, periodogram method, modified periodogram method and Whittle estimator. We also analyze empirically relations between estimators. Long memory implies an inertial effect in clients' behavior which may be used by mobile operators to accelerate usage and gain additional profit.

  17. Effects of an Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Intervention on Health Service Usage by Young People in Northern Ghana: A Community-Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Aninanya, Gifty Apiung; Debpuur, Cornelius Y.; Awine, Timothy; Williams, John E.; Hodgson, Abraham; Howard, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Background While many Ghanaian adolescents encounter sexual and reproductive health problems, their usage of services remains low. A social learning intervention, incorporating environment, motivation, education, and self-efficacy to change behaviour, was implemented in a low-income district of northern Ghana to increase adolescent services usage. This study aimed to assess the impact of this intervention on usage of sexual and reproductive health services by young people. Methods Twenty-six communities were randomly allocated to (i) an intervention consisting of school-based curriculum, out-of-school outreach, community mobilisation, and health-worker training in youth-friendly health services, or (ii) comparison consisting of community mobilisation and youth-friendly health services training only. Outcome measures were usage of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) management, HIV counselling and testing, antenatal care or perinatal services in the past year and reported service satisfaction. Data was collected, at baseline and three years after, from a cohort of 2,664 adolescents aged 15–17 at baseline. Results Exposure was associated with over twice the odds of using STI services (AOR 2.47; 95%CI 1.78–3.42), 89% greater odds of using perinatal services (AOR 1.89; 95%CI 1.37–2.60) and 56% greater odds of using antenatal services (AOR 1.56; 95%CI 1.10–2.20) among participants in intervention versus comparison communities, after adjustment for baseline differences. Conclusions The addition of targeted school-based and outreach activities increased service usage by young people more than community mobilisation and training providers in youth-friendly services provision alone. PMID:25928562

  18. Indexes as Tools for Measuring Usage of Print and Electronic Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Describes two indexes, the Electronic and Print Usage Indexes, created at the Cushing/Whitney Medical Library at Yale University, that can be used easily by librarians to clearly demonstrate usage trends in their libraries. The indexes show that in 1998-1999, patron usage of electronic resources more than doubled, whereas print use declined. (AEF)

  19. Antecedents of Continued Usage Intentions of Web-Based Learning Management System in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lwoga, Edda Tandi; Komba, Mercy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that predict students' continued usage intention of web-based learning management systems (LMS) in Tanzania, with a specific focus on the School of Business of Mzumbe University. Specifically, the study investigated major predictors of actual usage and continued usage intentions of…

  20. Modeling Preservice Teachers' TPACK Competencies Based on ICT Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurdakul, I. Kabakci; Coklar, A. N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to build a model that predicts the relationships between the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) competencies and information and communication technology (ICT) usages. Research data were collected from 3105 Turkish preservice teachers. The TPACK-Deep Scale, ICT usage phase survey and the ICT usage