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Sample records for cognitive ability experiment

  1. Language Experience Changes Language and Cognitive Ability

    PubMed Central

    Poarch, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    The sustained use of two languages by bilinguals has been shown to induce broad changes in language and cognitive abilities across the lifespan. The largest changes are seen as advantages in executive control, a set of processes responsible for controlled attention, inhibition, and shifting. Moreover, there is evidence that these executive control advantages mitigate cognitive decline in older age and contribute to cognitive reserve. In this paper, we examine some of the evidence for these findings and explain their relation to bilingual language use. These effects are considered in terms of their implications for our understanding of cognitive and brain plasticity. Some implications for social policy are discussed. PMID:25435805

  2. Musical Experience and the Aging Auditory System: Implications for Cognitive Abilities and Hearing Speech in Noise

    PubMed Central

    Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Strait, Dana L.; Anderson, Samira; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Much of our daily communication occurs in the presence of background noise, compromising our ability to hear. While understanding speech in noise is a challenge for everyone, it becomes increasingly difficult as we age. Although aging is generally accompanied by hearing loss, this perceptual decline cannot fully account for the difficulties experienced by older adults for hearing in noise. Decreased cognitive skills concurrent with reduced perceptual acuity are thought to contribute to the difficulty older adults experience understanding speech in noise. Given that musical experience positively impacts speech perception in noise in young adults (ages 18–30), we asked whether musical experience benefits an older cohort of musicians (ages 45–65), potentially offsetting the age-related decline in speech-in-noise perceptual abilities and associated cognitive function (i.e., working memory). Consistent with performance in young adults, older musicians demonstrated enhanced speech-in-noise perception relative to nonmusicians along with greater auditory, but not visual, working memory capacity. By demonstrating that speech-in-noise perception and related cognitive function are enhanced in older musicians, our results imply that musical training may reduce the impact of age-related auditory decline. PMID:21589653

  3. Musical experience and the aging auditory system: implications for cognitive abilities and hearing speech in noise.

    PubMed

    Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Strait, Dana L; Anderson, Samira; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Much of our daily communication occurs in the presence of background noise, compromising our ability to hear. While understanding speech in noise is a challenge for everyone, it becomes increasingly difficult as we age. Although aging is generally accompanied by hearing loss, this perceptual decline cannot fully account for the difficulties experienced by older adults for hearing in noise. Decreased cognitive skills concurrent with reduced perceptual acuity are thought to contribute to the difficulty older adults experience understanding speech in noise. Given that musical experience positively impacts speech perception in noise in young adults (ages 18-30), we asked whether musical experience benefits an older cohort of musicians (ages 45-65), potentially offsetting the age-related decline in speech-in-noise perceptual abilities and associated cognitive function (i.e., working memory). Consistent with performance in young adults, older musicians demonstrated enhanced speech-in-noise perception relative to nonmusicians along with greater auditory, but not visual, working memory capacity. By demonstrating that speech-in-noise perception and related cognitive function are enhanced in older musicians, our results imply that musical training may reduce the impact of age-related auditory decline. PMID:21589653

  4. Conservatism and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar

    2009-01-01

    Conservatism and cognitive ability are negatively correlated. The evidence is based on 1254 community college students and 1600 foreign students seeking entry to United States' universities. At the individual level of analysis, conservatism scores correlate negatively with SAT, Vocabulary, and Analogy test scores. At the national level of…

  5. Emotional Experiences during Test Taking: Does Cognitive Ability Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Thomas; Preckel, Franzis; Pekrun, Reinhard; Hall, Nathan C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined test-related experiences of enjoyment, anger, anxiety, and boredom in a sample of 2059 German school students (50% female) from grade 6, and how they relate to students' abstract reasoning ability (ARA). Emotions were assessed immediately before, during, and after a mathematics achievement test. Analysis of variance showed that…

  6. Minority Performance on the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test, Second Edition, versus the Cognitive Abilities Test, Form 6: One Gifted Program's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giessman, Jacob A.; Gambrell, James L.; Stebbins, Molly S.

    2013-01-01

    The Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test, Second Edition (NNAT2), is used widely to screen students for possible inclusion in talent development programs. The NNAT2 claims to provide a more culturally neutral evaluation of general ability than tests such as Form 6 of the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT6), which has Verbal and Quantitative batteries in…

  7. Community Influences on Cognitive Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, Hilary; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Associations between community environment and cognitive ability were studied in 167 adoptive and 175 nonadoptive Colorado families. Seven families were omitted. A proposed model, tested by census measures, finds several aspects of communities showing environmental relationships with child IQ over parental influences. Rural communities have a…

  8. Cognitive Abilities of Maltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Freer, Benjamin D.; Lowell, Ari; Castillo, Jenean A.

    2015-01-01

    School psychologists should be aware of developmental risk factors for children who have been abused or neglected. The present study used the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition" to examine the cognitive abilities of 120 children in foster care subsequent to maltreatment. Results indicated that, compared to a…

  9. Predicting Academic Achievement with Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Treena Eileen; Thompson, Lee Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explain variation in academic achievement with general cognitive ability and specific cognitive abilities. Grade point average, Wide Range Achievement Test III scores, and SAT scores represented academic achievement. The specific cognitive abilities of interest were: working memory, processing speed, and…

  10. Everyday Cognition: Age and Intellectual Ability Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Allaire, Jason C.; Marsiske, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the relationship between a new battery of everyday cognition measures, which assessed 4 cognitive abilities within 3 familiar real-world domains, and traditional psychometric tests of the same basic cognitive abilities. Several theoreticians have argued that everyday cognition measures are somewhat distinct from traditional cognitive assessment approaches, and the authors investigated this assertion correlationally in the present study. The sample consisted of 174 community-dwelling older adults from the Detroit metropolitan area, who had an average age of 73 years. Major results of the study showed that (a) each everyday cognitive test was strongly correlated with the basic cognitive abilities; (b) several basic abilities, as well as measures of domain-specific knowledge, predicted everyday cognitive performance; and (c) everyday and basic measures were similarly related to age. The results suggest that everyday cognition is not unrelated to traditional measures, nor is it less sensitive to age-related differences. PMID:10632150

  11. Is playing video games related to cognitive abilities?

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Redick, Thomas S; McMillan, Brittany D; Hambrick, David Z; Kane, Michael J; Engle, Randall W

    2015-06-01

    The relations between video-game experience and cognitive abilities were examined in the current study. In two experiments, subjects performed a number of working memory, fluid intelligence, and attention-control measures and filled out a questionnaire about their video-game experience. In Experiment 1, an extreme-groups analysis indicated that experienced video-game players outperformed nonplayers on several cognitive-ability measures. However, in Experiments 1 and 2, when analyses examined the full range of subjects at both the task level and the latent-construct level, nearly all of the relations between video-game experience and cognitive abilities were near zero. These results cast doubt on recent claims that playing video games leads to enhanced cognitive abilities. Statistical and methodological issues with prior studies of video-game experience are discussed along with recommendations for future studies. PMID:25896420

  12. Effect on development of proportional reasoning skill of physical experience and cognitive abilities associated with prefrontal lobe activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Yong-Ju; Lawson, Anton E.; Chung, Wan-Ho; Kim, Young-Shin

    2000-12-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that maturing prefrontal lobes play a role in the development of proportional reasoning skill because the prefrontal lobes are involved in the inhibition of task-irrelevant information and the representation of task-relevant information. The hypothesis that reasoning development is in part dependent upon physical experience was also tested. Students (all males) who failed to solve a diagnostic proportions task were administered several tests of prefrontal lobe functions. The students were then randomly assigned to manipulative or verbal tutoring groups. Both groups received a series of individual testing, tutoring and testing sessions on proportional reasoning. As predicted, performance on the prefrontal lobe tasks (measures of inhibiting ability, planning ability, dissembedding ability, and working memory capacity) significantly predicted performance on proportional reasoning tasks following tutoring. Students' computational skills were not a significant predictor. Also, the manipulative group's proportional reasoning performance was significantly higher than that of the verbal tutoring group. Therefore, the present results provide support for the hypothesis that maturing prefrontal lobes and physical experience play roles in the development of proportional reasoning skill.

  13. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    This book examines the science and politics of cognitive sex differences, reflecting theories and research in the area over the past several years. Eight chapters discuss: (1) "Introduction and Overview" (e.g., theoretical approaches, values and science, and terminology); (2) "Searching for Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" (e.g., the need…

  14. The Effects of Mood, Cognitive Style, and Cognitive Ability on Implicit Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretz, Jean E.; Totz, Kathryn Sentman; Kaufman, Scott Barry

    2010-01-01

    In an experiment with 109 undergraduates, we examined the effect of mood, cognitive style, and cognitive ability on implicit learning in the Artificial Grammar (AG) and Serial Reaction Time (SRT) tasks. Negative mood facilitated AG learning, but had no significant effect on SRT learning. Rational cognitive style predicted greater learning on both…

  15. Torque, Cognitive Ability, and Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1985-01-01

    West African Hausan Children (N=110) aged 5-6 were administered a torque test and relationshps between the torque task and visual spatial tasks were analyzed. Findings supported the assumption that educational experience related to circling accounts for decrease in torque, or that the educational experiences have potential influence on cortical…

  16. Educational Attainment as a Proxy for Cognitive Ability in Selection: Effects on Levels of Cognitive Ability and Adverse Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Christopher M.; Gruys, Melissa L.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the differences in mean level of cognitive ability and adverse impact that can be expected when selecting employees solely on educational attainment as a proxy for cognitive ability versus selecting employees directly on cognitive ability. Selection using cognitive ability worked as a more efficient cognitive screen. Imposing…

  17. Cognitive Ability and the Demand for Redistribution

    PubMed Central

    Mollerstrom, Johanna; Seim, David

    2014-01-01

    Empirical research suggests that the cognitively able are politically more influential than the less able, by being more likely to vote and to assume leadership positions. This study asks whether this pattern matters for public policy by investigating what role a person's cognitive ability plays in determining his preferences for redistribution of income among citizens in society. To answer this question, we use a unique Swedish data set that matches responses to a tailor-made questionnaire to administrative tax records and to military enlistment records for men, with the latter containing a measure of cognitive ability. On a scale of 0 to 100 percent redistribution, a one-standard-deviation increase in cognitive ability reduces the willingness to redistribute by 5 percentage points, or by the same amount as a $35,000 increase in mean annual income. We find support for two channels mediating this economically strong and statistically significant relation. First, higher ability is associated with higher income. Second, ability is positively correlated with the view that economic success is the result of effort, rather than luck. Both these factors are, in turn, related to lower demand for redistribution. PMID:25343713

  18. Haplogroups as Evolutionary Markers of Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindermann, Heiner; Woodley, Michael A.; Stratford, James

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating evolutionary theories on the origins of national differences in intelligence have been criticized on the basis that both national cognitive ability measures and supposedly evolutionarily informative proxies (such as latitude and climate) are confounded with general developmental status. In this study 14 Y chromosomal…

  19. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

  20. Assessment of basic cognitive abilities in relation to cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Detterman, D K; Mayer, J D; Caruso, D R; Legree, P J; Conners, F A; Taylor, R

    1992-11-01

    A modal model of information-processing was used to select a battery of nine tasks of basic cognitive ability (learning, relearning, reaction time, probe recall, Sternberg search, self-paced probe, stimulus discrimination, tachistoscopic full report, tachistoscopic partial report). Parameters from these tasks operationalized the model. After extensive pilot testing of the tasks to establish reliability, we tested 40 subjects (20 with mental retardation and 20 college students) on all tasks and the WAIS-R. The parameters from the tasks were generally reliable (.7 through .9) and had low correlations with IQ (average about .37). Nearly all of the major cognitive parameters differentiated significantly between groups. A subset of the basic cognitive parameters predicted IQ with an estimated multiple correlation in the general population of .72. Prediction of IQ using basic cognitive parameters was better for subjects with mental retardation than for college students. A modified version of the modal model was supported. Results show that individual differences in higher mental processes are highly dependent on basic cognitive abilities and can be predicted from them. These findings have substantial implications for the development of models of information-processing. PMID:1449729

  1. The contributions of memory and attention processes to cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Rockstroh, S; Schweizer, K

    2001-01-01

    In two experiments, the contributions of memory and attention processes to the cognitive abilities of reasoning and perceptual speed were investigated. Two measures of speed of information retrieval from long-term and short-term memory (Posner paradigm, Sternberg paradigm) and two attention measures (continuous attention test, attention switching test) were included in the first experiment (N = 220). The memory tests led to correlations with the measures of cognitive abilities, whereas the attention test did not. The same tests as well as one additional memory test and one attention test (working memory test, test of covert orientation) were administered in the second experiment (N = 116). Again, the memory tests led to the larger correlations with the measures of cognitive abilities. Two components were obtained in components analysis, of which the first was characterized by high loadings of the memory tests and the second by high loadings of the attention tests. Only the memory component contributed to the prediction of cognitive abilities. PMID:11277445

  2. Change in Cognitive Abilities in Older Latinos.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert S; Capuano, Ana W; Marquez, David X; Amofa, Priscilla; Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare patterns of cognitive decline in older Latinos and non-Latinos. At annual intervals for a mean of 5.7 years, older Latino (n=104) and non-Latino (n=104) persons of equivalent age, education, and race completed a battery of 17 cognitive tests from which previously established composite measures of episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and visuospatial ability were derived. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, and education, performance declined over time in each cognitive domain, but there were no ethnic group differences in initial level of function or annual rate of decline. There was evidence of retest learning following the baseline evaluation, but neither the magnitude nor duration of the effect was related to Latino ethnicity, and eliminating the first two evaluations, during which much of retest learning occurred, did not affect ethnic group comparisons. Compared to the non-Latino group, the Latino group had more diabetes (38.5% vs. 25.0; χ2[1]=4.4; p=.037), fewer histories of smoking (24.0% vs. 39.4%, χ2[1]=5.7; p=.017), and lower childhood household socioeconomic level (-0.410 vs. -0.045, t[185.0]=3.1; p=.002), but controlling for these factors did not affect results. Trajectories of cognitive aging in different abilities are similar in Latino and non-Latino individuals of equivalent age, education, and race. (JINS, 2016, 22, 58-65). PMID:26553103

  3. Childhood cognitive ability accounts for associations between cognitive ability and brain cortical thickness in old age.

    PubMed

    Karama, S; Bastin, M E; Murray, C; Royle, N A; Penke, L; Muñoz Maniega, S; Gow, A J; Corley, J; Valdés Hernández, M del C; Lewis, J D; Rousseau, M-É; Lepage, C; Fonov, V; Collins, D L; Booth, T; Rioux, P; Sherif, T; Adalat, R; Starr, J M; Evans, A C; Wardlaw, J M; Deary, I J

    2014-05-01

    Associations between brain cortical tissue volume and cognitive function in old age are frequently interpreted as suggesting that preservation of cortical tissue is the foundation of successful cognitive aging. However, this association could also, in part, reflect a lifelong association between cognitive ability and cortical tissue. We analyzed data on 588 subjects from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 who had intelligence quotient (IQ) scores from the same cognitive test available at both 11 and 70 years of age as well as high-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging data obtained at approximately 73 years of age. Cortical thickness was estimated at 81 924 sampling points across the cortex for each subject using an automated pipeline. Multiple regression was used to assess associations between cortical thickness and the IQ measures at 11 and 70 years. Childhood IQ accounted for more than two-third of the association between IQ at 70 years and cortical thickness measured at age 73 years. This warns against ascribing a causal interpretation to the association between cognitive ability and cortical tissue in old age based on assumptions about, and exclusive reference to, the aging process and any associated disease. Without early-life measures of cognitive ability, it would have been tempting to conclude that preservation of cortical thickness in old age is a foundation for successful cognitive aging when, instead, it is a lifelong association. This being said, results should not be construed as meaning that all studies on aging require direct measures of childhood IQ, but as suggesting that proxy measures of prior cognitive function can be useful to take into consideration. PMID:23732878

  4. Does Environmental Heterogeneity Promote Cognitive Abilities?

    PubMed

    González-Gómez, Paulina L; Razeto-Barry, Pablo; Araya-Salas, Marcelo; Estades, Cristian F

    2015-09-01

    In the context of global change the possible loss of biodiversity has been identified as a major concern. Biodiversity could be seriously threatened as a direct consequence of changes in availability of food, changing thermal conditions, and loss and fragmentation of habitat. Considering the magnitude of global change, an understanding of the mechanisms involved in coping with a changing environment is urgent. We explore the hypothesis that species and individuals experiencing highly variable environments are more likely to develop a wider range of responses to handle the different and unpredictable conditions imposed by global change. In the case of vertebrates, the responses to the challenges imposed by unpredictable perturbations ultimately are linked to cognitive abilities allowing the solving of problems, and the maximization of energy intake. Our models were hummingbirds, which offer a particularly compelling group in which to examine the functional and mechanistic links between behavioral and energetic strategies in individuals experiencing different degrees of social and environmental heterogeneity. PMID:26082484

  5. Cognitive Ability: Social Correlates and Consequences in Contemporary China*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guoying; Xie, Yu; Xu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the measurement of cognitive ability in the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), especially for verbal skill, mathematical skill, memory, and quantitative reasoning. The available CFPS cognitive measurements can be useful for studies on the importance of cognitive ability in many substantive domains of interest. Using the CFPS data, we show that measures of cognitive ability are clearly related to key demographic and social characteristics, such as age, gender, education, and hukou status. We also illustrate how cognitive ability influences school performance and deviant behaviors among children, income and political capital among adults, and daily functioning among the elderly. PMID:27570709

  6. Effects of age and ability on components of cognitive change

    PubMed Central

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Prior experience with a cognitive task is often associated with higher performance on a second assessment, and these experience effects can complicate the interpretation of cognitive change. The current study was designed to investigate experience effects by obtaining measures of cognitive performance separated by days and by years. The analyses were based on data from 2017 adults with two longitudinal occasions, of whom 948 had also completed a third occasion, with each occasion consisting of three parallel versions of the tests on separate sessions. Change across short intervals was typically positive, and greater among older adults and adults with low levels of cognitive ability, whereas change over intervals of approximately three years was often negative, particularly at older ages. In contrast to the expectation that change over short intervals might be informative about change over longer intervals, relations between short-term change and long-term change were negative, as the individuals who gained the most with assessments separated by days tended to experience the greatest losses across assessments separated by years. PMID:24159248

  7. Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2009-01-01

    Existing representations of cognitive ability structure are exclusively based on linear patterns of interrelations. However, a number of developmental and cognitive theories predict that abilities are differentially related across ages (age differentiation-dedifferentiation) and across levels of functioning (ability differentiation). Nonlinear…

  8. Relationship between Work Ability Index and Cognitive Failure among Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Milad; Zakerian, Abolfazl; Kolahdouzi, Malihe; Mehri, Ahmad; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Frequent nursing errors are considered as factors that affect the quality of healthcare of patients. Capable nurses who are compatible with work conditions are more focused on their tasks, and this reduces their errors and cognitive failures. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of investigating the relationship between work ability index (WAI) and cognitive failures (CFs) as well as some factors that affect them in nurses working in the ICU, CCU, and emergency wards. Methods This descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study was conducted with 750 nurses at educational hospitals affiliated with the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2015. A questionnaire of work ability index and cognitive failures was used to collect data. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20 and the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, chi-squared, ANOVA, and the Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Using the Pearson correlation test, the results of this study showed that there is a significant, inverse relationship between WAI, personal prognosis of work ability, and mental resources with CFs along with all its subscales in nurses (p < 0.05). In addition, there was an inverse and significant relationship between the total score of CFs and the estimated work impairment due to diseases (p < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation of CFs with age and experience, while WAI was inversely related to age, work experience, and body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.05). WAI and CFs were related significantly to working units (p < 0.05). Conclusion Considering the results obtained in this study, WAI and the cognitive status of nurses were lower than the specified limit. It is suggested that the work ability of nurses be improved and that their CFs be reduced through various measures, including pre-employment examinations, proper management of work-shift conditions, and using engineering and administrative strategies to ensure the safety of hospitalized patients

  9. Parenting practices and intergenerational associations in cognitive ability

    PubMed Central

    Byford, M; Kuh, D; Richards, M

    2012-01-01

    Background Cognitive ability is an important contributor to life chances, with implications for cycles of advantage or disadvantage across generations. Parenting practices are known to influence offspring cognitive development, but the extent to which these mediate intergenerational continuities and discontinuities in cognitive ability has not been adequately studied. Methods We used factor analysis to derive summary measures of parenting practices, and regression analyses and path modelling to test associations between these and cognitive function at age 8 years in 1690 first offspring of the British 1946 birth cohort. Analyses allowed for direct and indirect effects of parental original and achieved social circumstances, educational attainment and own childhood cognitive ability. Additional covariates were provided by indicators of parental physical and mental health. Results Regression analyses revealed that three aspects of parenting, intellectual home environment, parental aspiration and cognitive stimulation, were positively and independently associated with offspring childhood cognitive ability, whereas coercive discipline was negatively and independently associated. Path modelling was appropriate for intellectual environment, which also revealed direct and indirect effects of parental cognitive ability and educational and occupational attainment on offspring cognitive ability. Conclusion Parenting practices, particularly provision of an intellectual environment, were directly associated with offspring cognitive development. These data add to the relatively few studies that examine intergenerational continuity and discontinuity in cognitive ability. PMID:22422461

  10. A Study of the Relationship between Learning Styles and Cognitive Abilities in Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hames, E.; Baker, M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning preferences have been indirectly linked to student success in engineering programmes, without a significant body of research to connect learning preferences with cognitive abilities. A better understanding of the relationship between learning styles and cognitive abilities will allow educators to optimise the classroom experience for…

  11. Motor Proficiency Predicts Cognitive Ability in Four-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Amanda Martinez; Caçola, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown links between motor proficiency and cognition in school-age children, however, few have explored earlier ages. We aimed to determine the association between motor proficiency and cognitive ability in four-year-olds. Motor and cognitive skills were examined in 32 (15 males, 17 females) four-year-olds (±5.59 months) using the…

  12. Gender-Stereotyping of Cognitive Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlin, Margaret W.; Matkoski, Kathleen M.

    In the area of cognitive skills, the actual differences between males and females are relatively small. Females score slightly higher on verbal tasks and males score slightly higher on mathematical tasks. According to the cognitive approach to stereotypes, people should perceive these differences to be quite large. To determine whether subjects…

  13. Cognitive Process Modeling of Spatial Ability: The Assembling Objects Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Jennifer L.; Embretson, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial ability tasks appear on many intelligence and aptitude tests. Although the construct validity of spatial ability tests has often been studied through traditional correlational methods, such as factor analysis, less is known about the cognitive processes involved in solving test items. This study examines the cognitive processes involved in…

  14. DNA Markers Associated with General and Specific Cognitive Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrill, Stephen A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Data on specific cognitive abilities for 86 children ages 6 to 12 from an allelic association study found three DNA markers significantly associated with specific cognitive ability scales after the effects of general intelligence were removed. These preliminary results support the hierarchical model predicted by genetic research. (SLD)

  15. Cognitive Ability, Learning Approaches and Personality Correlates of General Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Swami, Viren; Arteche, Adriane; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between general knowledge (GK) and cognitive ability (IQ and abstract reasoning), learning approaches, and personality ("big five" traits and typical intellectual engagement) was investigated in a sample of 101 British undergraduates. As predicted, GK was positively correlated with cognitive ability (more so with IQ than with…

  16. Effects of General and Broad Cognitive Abilities on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Floyd, Randy G.; Mcgrew, Kevin S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the direct and indirect effects of general intelligence and 7 broad cognitive abilities on mathematics achievement. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the simultaneous effects of both general and broad cognitive abilities on students' mathematics achievement. A hierarchical model of intelligence derived…

  17. Get Smarty Pants: Cognitive Ability, Personality, and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eugene; Glomb, Theresa M.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the victim precipitation model, this study provides an empirical investigation of the relationship between cognitive ability and victimization at work. We propose that people high in cognitive ability are more prone to victimization. In this study, we also examine the direct and moderating effects of victims' personality traits,…

  18. The Influence of Exercise on Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando; Hillman, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Scientific evidence based on neuroimaging approaches over the last decade has demonstrated the efficacy of physical activity improving cognitive health across the human lifespan. Aerobic fitness spares age-related loss of brain tissue during aging, and enhances functional aspects of higher order regions involved in the control of cognition. More active or higher fit individuals are capable of allocating greater attentional resources toward the environment and are able to process information more quickly. These data are suggestive that aerobic fitness enhances cognitive strategies enabling to respond effectively to an imposed challenge with a better yield in task performance. In turn, animal studies have shown that exercise has a benevolent action on health and plasticity of the nervous system. New evidence indicates that exercise exerts its effects on cognition by affecting molecular events related to the management of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity. An important instigator in the molecular machinery stimulated by exercise is brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which acts at the interface of metabolism and plasticity. Recent studies show that exercise collaborates with other aspects of lifestyle to influence the molecular substrates of cognition. In particular, select dietary factors share similar mechanisms with exercise, and in some cases they can complement the action of exercise. Therefore, exercise and dietary management appear as a noninvasive and effective strategy to counteract neurological and cognitive disorders. PMID:23720292

  19. Effects of First Occasion Test Experience on Longitudinal Cognitive Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of additional test experience on longitudinal change in 5 cognitive abilities was examined in a sample of healthy adults ranging from 18 to 80 years of age. Participants receiving experience with parallel versions of the cognitive tests on the first occasion had more positive cognitive change an average of 2.5 years later than participants…

  20. Relationship between Auditory and Cognitive Abilities in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sheft, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective was to evaluate the association of peripheral and central hearing abilities with cognitive function in older adults. Methods Recruited from epidemiological studies of aging and cognition at the Rush Alzheimer’s Disease Center, participants were a community-dwelling cohort of older adults (range 63–98 years) without diagnosis of dementia. The cohort contained roughly equal numbers of Black (n=61) and White (n=63) subjects with groups similar in terms of age, gender, and years of education. Auditory abilities were measured with pure-tone audiometry, speech-in-noise perception, and discrimination thresholds for both static and dynamic spectral patterns. Cognitive performance was evaluated with a 12-test battery assessing episodic, semantic, and working memory, perceptual speed, and visuospatial abilities. Results Among the auditory measures, only the static and dynamic spectral-pattern discrimination thresholds were associated with cognitive performance in a regression model that included the demographic covariates race, age, gender, and years of education. Subsequent analysis indicated substantial shared variance among the covariates race and both measures of spectral-pattern discrimination in accounting for cognitive performance. Among cognitive measures, working memory and visuospatial abilities showed the strongest interrelationship to spectral-pattern discrimination performance. Conclusions For a cohort of older adults without diagnosis of dementia, neither hearing thresholds nor speech-in-noise ability showed significant association with a summary measure of global cognition. In contrast, the two auditory metrics of spectral-pattern discrimination ability significantly contributed to a regression model prediction of cognitive performance, demonstrating association of central auditory ability to cognitive status using auditory metrics that avoided the confounding effect of speech materials. PMID:26237423

  1. Computerized Adaptive Assessment of Cognitive Abilities among Disabled Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engdahl, Brian

    This study examined computerized adaptive testing and cognitive ability testing of adults with cognitive disabilities. Adult subjects (N=250) were given computerized tests on language usage and space relations in one of three administration conditions: paper and pencil, fixed length computer adaptive, and variable length computer adaptive.…

  2. Socioemotional Competencies, Cognitive Ability, and Achievement in Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relations between cognitive ability, socioemotional competency (SEC), and achievement in gifted children. Data were collected on children between the ages of 8 and 15 years (n = 124). Children were assessed via teacher reports of SEC, standardized cognitive assessment, and standardized achievement assessment. Composite…

  3. What Cognitive Abilities Are Involved in Trail-Making Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The cognitive abilities involved in the Connections (Salthouse, et al., 2000) version of the trail making test were investigated by administering the test, along with a battery of cognitive tests and tests of complex span and updating conceptualizations of working memory, to a sample of over 3600 adults. The results indicate that this variant of…

  4. Online Collaboration for Programming: Assessing Students' Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Othman, Mahfudzah; Muhd Zain, Nurzaid

    2015-01-01

    This study is primarily focused on assessing the students' logical thinking and cognitive levels in an online collaborative environment. The aim is to investigate whether the online collaboration has significant impact to the students' cognitive abilities. The assessment of the logical thinking involved the use of the online Group Assessment…

  5. Birth Weight and Cognitive Ability in Childhood: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenkin, Susan D.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2004-01-01

    Individual differences in cognitive ability may in part have prenatal origins. In high-risk (low birth weight/premature) babies, birth weight correlates positively with cognitive test scores in childhood, but it is unclear whether this holds for those with birth weights in the normal range. The authors systematically reviewed literature on the…

  6. The role of cognitive abilities in laparoscopic simulator training.

    PubMed

    Groenier, M; Schraagen, J M C; Miedema, H A T; Broeders, I A J M

    2014-05-01

    Learning minimally invasive surgery (MIS) differs substantially from learning open surgery and trainees differ in their ability to learn MIS. Previous studies mainly focused on the role of visuo-spatial ability (VSA) on the learning curve for MIS. In the current study, the relationship between spatial memory, perceptual speed, and general reasoning ability, in addition to VSA, and performance on a MIS simulator is examined. Fifty-three laparoscopic novices were tested for cognitive aptitude. Laparoscopic performance was assessed with the LapSim simulator (Surgical Science Ltd., Gothenburg, Sweden). Participants trained multiple sessions on the simulator until proficiency was reached. Participants showed significant improvement on the time to complete the task and efficiency of movement. Performance was related to different cognitive abilities, depending on the performance measure and type of cognitive ability. No relationship between cognitive aptitude and duration of training or steepness of the learning curve was found. Cognitive aptitude mediates certain aspects of performance during training on a laparoscopic simulator. Based on the current study, we conclude that cognitive aptitude tests cannot be used for resident selection but are potentially useful for developing individualized training programs. More research will be performed to examine how cognitive aptitude testing can be used to design training programs. PMID:23568181

  7. Polygenic risk of ischemic stroke is associated with cognitive ability

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Rainer; Marioni, Riccardo; Campbell, Archie; Seshadri, Sudha; Worrall, Bradford B.; Sudlow, Cathie L.M.; Hayward, Caroline; Bastin, Mark E.; Starr, John M.; Porteous, David J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the correlation between polygenic risk of ischemic stroke (and its subtypes) and cognitive ability in 3 relatively healthy Scottish cohorts: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936), the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (LBC1921), and Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS). Methods: Polygenic risk scores for ischemic stroke were created in LBC1936 (n = 1005), LBC1921 (n = 517), and GS (n = 6,815) using genome-wide association study summary data from the METASTROKE collaboration. We investigated whether the polygenic risk scores correlate with cognitive ability in the 3 cohorts. Results: In the largest cohort, GS, polygenic risk of all ischemic stroke, small vessel disease stroke, and large vessel disease stroke, but not cardioembolic stroke, were correlated with both fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities. The highest correlation was between a polygenic risk score for all ischemic stroke and general cognitive ability (r = −0.070, p = 1.95 × 10−8). Few correlations were identified in LBC1936 and LBC1921, but a meta-analysis of all 3 cohorts supported the correlation between polygenic risk of ischemic stroke and cognitive ability. Conclusions: The findings from this study indicate that even in the absence of stroke, being at high polygenic risk of ischemic stroke is associated with lower cognitive ability. PMID:26695942

  8. Estimating Premorbid Cognitive Abilities in Low-Educated Populations

    PubMed Central

    Apolinario, Daniel; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi; Ferretti, Renata Eloah de Lucena; Farfel, José Marcelo; Magaldi, Regina Miksian; Busse, Alexandre Leopold; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop an informant-based instrument that would provide a valid estimate of premorbid cognitive abilities in low-educated populations. Methods A questionnaire was drafted by focusing on the premorbid period with a 10-year time frame. The initial pool of items was submitted to classical test theory and a factorial analysis. The resulting instrument, named the Premorbid Cognitive Abilities Scale (PCAS), is composed of questions addressing educational attainment, major lifetime occupation, reading abilities, reading habits, writing abilities, calculation abilities, use of widely available technology, and the ability to search for specific information. The validation sample was composed of 132 older Brazilian adults from the following three demographically matched groups: normal cognitive aging (n = 72), mild cognitive impairment (n = 33), and mild dementia (n = 27). The scores of a reading test and a neuropsychological battery were adopted as construct criteria. Post-mortem inter-informant reliability was tested in a sub-study with two relatives from each deceased individual. Results All items presented good discriminative power, with corrected item-total correlation varying from 0.35 to 0.74. The summed score of the instrument presented high correlation coefficients with global cognitive function (r = 0.73) and reading skills (r = 0.82). Cronbach's alpha was 0.90, showing optimal internal consistency without redundancy. The scores did not decrease across the progressive levels of cognitive impairment, suggesting that the goal of evaluating the premorbid state was achieved. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.96, indicating excellent inter-informant reliability. Conclusion The instrument developed in this study has shown good properties and can be used as a valid estimate of premorbid cognitive abilities in low-educated populations. The applicability of the PCAS, both as an estimate of premorbid intelligence and cognitive

  9. Longitudinal Stability of Cognitive Ability in the Colorado Adoption Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Laura A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Measures of general cognitive ability in one- and two-year-old adopted and nonadopted infants and their parents were subjected to path analysis to estimate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to short-term stability of mental ability. (Author/RH)

  10. Rational thinking and cognitive sophistication: development, cognitive abilities, and thinking dispositions.

    PubMed

    Toplak, Maggie E; West, Richard F; Stanovich, Keith E

    2014-04-01

    We studied developmental trends in 5 important reasoning tasks that are critical components of the operational definition of rational thinking. The tasks measured denominator neglect, belief bias, base rate sensitivity, resistance to framing, and the tendency toward otherside thinking. In addition to age, we examined 2 other individual difference domains that index cognitive sophistication: cognitive ability (intelligence and executive functioning) and thinking dispositions (actively open-minded thinking, superstitious thinking, and need for cognition). All 5 reasoning domains were consistently related to cognitive sophistication regardless of how it was indexed (age, cognitive ability, thinking dispositions). The implications of these findings for taxonomies of developmental trends in rational thinking tasks are discussed. PMID:24188038

  11. A New Theoretical Perspective of Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Sharon A.; Warner, Laverne

    2012-01-01

    Defining intelligence is a puzzle that has challenged educators and researchers for years. More recently, professionals are acknowledging that individuals possess many facets of intelligence and that learning is a complex combination of genetic factors, environmental influences, and life experiences that affect learning in unique ways (Salvia,…

  12. Early numerical abilities and cognitive skills in kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Lanfranchi, Silvia; Altoè, Gianmarco; Sollazzo, Nadia

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a unitary path analysis model was developed to investigate the relationship between cognitive variables (derived from published studies) and early numerical abilities in children attending the last year of kindergarten. We tested 100 children starting their last year of kindergarten on the following cognitive abilities: intelligence, phonological abilities, counting, verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and working memory, processing speed, and early numerical abilities. The same children were tested again on early numerical abilities at the end of the same year. The children's early numerical abilities at the beginning of the final year of kindergarten were found to be directly related to their verbal intelligence, phonological abilities, processing speed, and working memory and to be indirectly related to their nonverbal intelligence. Early numerical abilities at the end of the same year are directly related not only to early numerical abilities assessed at the beginning of the year but also to working memory and phonological abilities as well as have an indirect relationship with verbal and nonverbal intelligence. Overall, our results showed that both general and specific abilities are related to early mathematic learning in kindergarten-age children. PMID:25818537

  13. Education and Health: the Role of Cognitive Ability*

    PubMed Central

    Bijwaard, Govert; Veenman, Justus

    2015-01-01

    We aim to disentangle the relative impact of (i) cognitive ability, and (ii) education on health and mortality using a structural equation model suggested by Conti et al. (2010). We extend their model by allowing for a duration dependent variable (mortality), and an ordinal educational variable. Data come from a Dutch cohort born between 1937 and 1941, including detailed measures of cognitive ability and family background in the final grade of primary school. The data are linked to the mortality register 1995–2011, such that we observe mortality between ages 55 and 75. The results suggest that at least half of the unconditional survival differences between educational groups are due to a ‘selection effect’, primarily on the basis of cognitive ability. Conditional survival differences across those having finished just primary school and those entering secondary education are still substantial, and amount to a 4 years gain in life expectancy, on average. PMID:25912224

  14. Raymond B. Cattell's Contributions to the Theory of Cognitive Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews Raymond B. Cattell's important contributions to intelligence testing and the theory of intelligence. His theory of fluid and crystallized intelligences and other high-order factors of cognitive ability has offered the most well-founded and reasonable approach to an acceptable theory. (Author/BS)

  15. Generalist genes and cognitive abilities in Chinese twins.

    PubMed

    Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Wong, Simpson Wai-Lap; Waye, Mary M Y; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2013-03-01

    This study considered how far nonverbal cognitive, language and reading abilities are affected by common genetic influences in a sample of 312 typically developing Chinese twin pairs aged from 3 to 11 years. Children were individually given tasks of Chinese word reading, receptive vocabulary, phonological memory, tone awareness, syllable and rhyme awareness, rapid automatized naming, morphological awareness and orthographic skills, and Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. Factor analyses on the verbal tasks adjusted for age indicated two factors: Language as the first factor and Reading as the second factor. Univariate genetic analyses indicated that genetic influences were substantial for nonverbal cognitive ability and moderate for language and reading. Multivariate genetic analyses showed that nonverbal cognitive ability, language and reading were influenced by shared genetic origins, although there were specific genetic influences on verbal skills that were distinct from those on nonverbal cognitive ability. This study extends the Generalist Genes Hypothesis to Chinese language and reading skills, suggesting that the general effects of genes could be universal across languages. PMID:23432835

  16. Cognitive Abilities Relate to Self-Reported Hearing Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; George, Erwin L. J.; Houtgast, Tammo; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1996) and…

  17. The Relationships between Cognitive Ability and Dynamic Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, C.; Thomas, R.P.; Vanyukov, P.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between cognitive ability (as assessed by the Raven Progressive Matrices Test [RPM] and the Visual-Span Test [VSPAN]) and individuals' performance in three dynamic decision making (DDM) tasks (i.e., regular Water Purification Plant [WPP], Team WPP, and Firechief). Participants interacted repeatedly with…

  18. Generalist Genes and Cognitive Abilities in Chinese Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Wong, Simpson Wai-Lap; Waye, Mary M. Y.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2013-01-01

    This study considered how far nonverbal cognitive, language and reading abilities are affected by common genetic influences in a sample of 312 typically developing Chinese twin pairs aged from 3 to 11 years. Children were individually given tasks of Chinese word reading, receptive vocabulary, phonological memory, tone awareness, syllable and rhyme…

  19. Returns to Schooling, Ability and Cognitive Skills in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslam, Monazza; Bari, Faisal; Kingdon, Geeta

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the economic outcomes of education for wage earners in Pakistan. This is done by analysing the relationship between schooling, cognitive skills and ability, on the one hand, and economic activity, occupation, sectoral choice and earnings, on the other. In Pakistan, an important question remains largely unaddressed: what…

  20. Cattell-Horn-Carroll Cognitive Ability Profiles of Poor Comprehenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Bergeron, Renee; Alfonso, Vincent C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines cognitive ability profiles of children with specific age-based normative weaknesses in reading comprehension and compares those profiles to the profiles of (a) children with at least average achievement in reading comprehension, reading decoding skills, and mathematics and (b) children with low achievement across the 3…

  1. The Influence of Cognitive Abilities on Mathematical Problem Solving Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahar, Abdulkadir

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of students. The…

  2. Cattell-Horn-Carroll Cognitive Abilities and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Structural equation modeling procedures are applied to the standardization sample of the Woodcock-Johnson III to simultaneously estimate the effects of a psychometric general factor (g), specific cognitive abilities, and reading skills on reading achievement. The results of this study indicate that g has a strong direct relationship with basic…

  3. Improvisation as Ability, Culture, and Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Lee; Mantie, Roger

    2013-01-01

    We argue in this article for greater role for improvisation in the music classroom. Based on an extensive examination of scholarship about improvisational practices, we propose three conceptualizations--ability, culture, experience--that can serve to guide the teaching of improvisation. When considered as an "ability," improvisation is a…

  4. Sex Differences in Latent Cognitive Abilities Ages 6 to 59: Evidence from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Patel, Puja G.; Ridley, Kristen P.

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences in the latent general and broad cognitive abilities underlying the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities were investigated for children, youth, and adults ages 6 through 59. A developmental, multiple indicator-multiple cause, structural equation model was used to investigate sex differences in latent cognitive abilities as…

  5. Experience-dependent reduction of soluble β-amyloid oligomers and rescue of cognitive abilities in middle-age Ts65Dn mice, a model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sansevero, Gabriele; Begenisic, Tatjana; Mainardi, Marco; Sale, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most diffused genetic cause of intellectual disability and, after the age of forty, is invariantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the last years, the prolongation of life expectancy in people with DS renders the need for intervention paradigms aimed at improving mental disability and counteracting AD pathology particularly urgent. At present, however, there are no effective therapeutic strategies for DS and concomitant AD in mid-life people. The most intensively studied mouse model of DS is the Ts65Dn line, which summarizes the main hallmarks of the DS phenotype, included severe learning and memory deficits and age-dependent AD-like pathology. Here we report for the first time that middle-age Ts65Dn mice display a marked increase in soluble Aβ oligomer levels in their hippocampus. Moreover, we found that long-term exposure to environmental enrichment (EE), a widely used paradigm that increases sensory-motor stimulation, reduces Aβ oligomers and rescues spatial memory abilities in trisomic mice. Our findings underscore the potential of EE procedures as a non-invasive paradigm for counteracting brain aging processes in DS subjects. PMID:27288239

  6. Childhood Cognitive Ability: Relationship to Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in India

    PubMed Central

    Veena, S R; Krishnaveni, G V; Srinivasan, K; Kurpad, A V; Muthayya, S; Hill, J C; Kiran, K N; Fall, C H D

    2012-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis To test the hypothesis that maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with poorer cognitive ability in children born to mothers with GDM compared to children born to non-GDM mothers in India. Methods During 1997-98 maternal GDM status was assessed at 30±2 weeks of gestation. Between 2007-2008, at a mean age of 9.7 years, 515 children (32-offspring of GDM mothers (ODM’s); 483-offspring of non-GDM mothers (controls)) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort underwent cognitive function assessment using tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children-second edition and additional tests measuring learning, long-term storage/retrieval, short-term memory, reasoning, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. Results Compared to controls, ODM’S scored higher in tests for learning, long-term retrieval/storage (p=0.008), reasoning (p=0.02), verbal ability (p=0.01) and attention and concentration (p=0.003). In multiple regression, adjusted for the child’s age, sex, gestation, neonatal weight and head circumference, maternal age, parity, BMI, parent’s socio-economic status, education and rural/urban residence, this difference remained significant only for learning, long-term retrieval/storage (β=0.4SD (95% CI: 0.01, 0.75); p=0.042) and verbal ability (β=0.5SD (95% CI: 0.09, 0.83); p=0.015) and not with other test scores. Conclusions/interpretation In this population of healthy Indian children, there was no evidence of lower cognitive ability in ODM’s. In fact some cognitive scores were higher in ODM’s. PMID:20614102

  7. Cognitive abilities associated with the Silver-Russell syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lai, K Y; Skuse, D; Stanhope, R; Hindmarsh, P

    1994-12-01

    There is no consensus opinion on whether or not cognitive impairments are found in the Silver-Russell syndrome. An investigation of a substantial sample was undertaken, using standardised assessments, in 20 boys and five girls aged 6.0 years to 11.8 years. Mean (SD) birth weights were -2.65 (0.95) SD scores, corrected for gestation. At evaluation the children had a mean (SD) age of 8.8 (1.8) years and a mean height of -2.26 (1.5) SD scores. Tests of cognitive abilities included assessments of general intelligence, reading and arithmetic attainments, and a cognitive processing task. Most had some degree of developmental delay: mean (SD) full scale IQ was 86 (24); 32% scored within the learning disability range (that is, IQ < 70); 40% were reading at least 24 months below their chronological age. Current head circumference correlated highly with full scale IQ. Assessments of special educational needs had been completed on 36%; 48% were receiving speech therapy. Approximately half of children with the Silver-Russell syndrome have significant impairment of their cognitive abilities. PMID:7726606

  8. Cognitive abilities associated with the Silver-Russell syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Lai, K Y; Skuse, D; Stanhope, R; Hindmarsh, P

    1994-01-01

    There is no consensus opinion on whether or not cognitive impairments are found in the Silver-Russell syndrome. An investigation of a substantial sample was undertaken, using standardised assessments, in 20 boys and five girls aged 6.0 years to 11.8 years. Mean (SD) birth weights were -2.65 (0.95) SD scores, corrected for gestation. At evaluation the children had a mean (SD) age of 8.8 (1.8) years and a mean height of -2.26 (1.5) SD scores. Tests of cognitive abilities included assessments of general intelligence, reading and arithmetic attainments, and a cognitive processing task. Most had some degree of developmental delay: mean (SD) full scale IQ was 86 (24); 32% scored within the learning disability range (that is, IQ < 70); 40% were reading at least 24 months below their chronological age. Current head circumference correlated highly with full scale IQ. Assessments of special educational needs had been completed on 36%; 48% were receiving speech therapy. Approximately half of children with the Silver-Russell syndrome have significant impairment of their cognitive abilities. PMID:7726606

  9. Experience and assessment of pain in individuals with cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Gabre, Pia; Sjöquist, Kerstin

    2002-01-01

    The authors review the literature on pain experience and pain assessment in people with cognitive impairments, focusing on individuals with dementia and mental retardation. The impact of cognitive impairments on pain sensation is not well understood, although some observations have been published. For example, research suggests that pain experience can be influenced by neuropathological processes in the brain and memory impairments. Reporting of pain decreases as cognitive impairment increases. In addition, poor verbal skills lead to difficulties in communicating pain. Pain assessment depends primarily on one's ability to describe the dimensions of pain. Individuals with limited ability to report pain can use pain assessment methods that rely on simple cognitive tasks. For individuals who have no ability to report pain, an outside observer must describe the discomfort experienced by interpreting the patient's body language. The authors conclude that further research is needed to develop valid and reliable assessment methods for people with cognitive impairments. PMID:12580355

  10. Age-Sensitive Cognitive Abilities Related to Children's Acquisition of Spatial Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Gary L.; Ondracek, Pamela J.

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relationship between developmental improvement in performance on tasks requiring acquisition of spatial knowledge and age-sensitive cognitive abilities. Found that age differences in landmark knowledge were mediated primarily by recognition-in-context memory and that age differences in route knowledge were mediated…

  11. Sex Differences in Latent Cognitive Abilities Ages 5 to 17: Evidence from the Differential Ability Scales--Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Roberts, Lisa G.; Winter, Amanda L.; Austin, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in the latent general and broad cognitive abilities underlying the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition were investigated for children and youth ages 5 through 17. Multi-group mean and covariance structural equation modeling was used to investigate sex differences in latent cognitive abilities as well as changes in these…

  12. Fluid cognitive ability is a resource for successful emotion regulation in older and younger adults.

    PubMed

    Opitz, Philipp C; Lee, Ihno A; Gross, James J; Urry, Heather L

    2014-01-01

    The Selection, Optimization, and Compensation with Emotion Regulation (SOC-ER) framework suggests that (1) emotion regulation (ER) strategies require resources and that (2) higher levels of relevant resources may increase ER success. In the current experiment, we tested the specific hypothesis that individual differences in one internal class of resources, namely cognitive ability, would contribute to greater success using cognitive reappraisal (CR), a form of ER in which one reinterprets the meaning of emotion-eliciting situations. To test this hypothesis, 60 participants (30 younger and 30 older adults) completed standardized neuropsychological tests that assess fluid and crystallized cognitive ability, as well as a CR task in which participants reinterpreted the meaning of sad pictures in order to alter (increase or decrease) their emotions. In a control condition, they viewed the pictures without trying to change how they felt. Throughout the task, we indexed subjective emotional experience (self-reported ratings of emotional intensity), expressive behavior (corrugator muscle activity), and autonomic physiology (heart rate and electrodermal activity) as measures of emotional responding. Multilevel models were constructed to explain within-subjects variation in emotional responding as a function of ER contrasts comparing increase or decrease conditions with the view control condition and between-subjects variation as a function of cognitive ability and/or age group (older, younger). As predicted, higher fluid cognitive ability-indexed by perceptual reasoning, processing speed, and working memory-was associated with greater success using reappraisal to alter emotional responding. Reappraisal success did not vary as a function of crystallized cognitive ability or age group. Collectively, our results provide support for a key tenet of the SOC-ER framework that higher levels of relevant resources may confer greater success at emotion regulation. PMID:24987387

  13. The Relationships between Cognitive Ability and Dental Status in a National Sample of USA Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbah, Wael; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2010-01-01

    There are very few studies on the relationship between cognitive ability and dental status in middle aged and younger adults. We postulate that lower cognitive ability is directly related to poorer dental status and that this relationship operates through the relationship between cognitive ability and health-related behaviors. The objectives of…

  14. The Cognitive Basis of Trust. The Relation between Education, Cognitive Ability, and Generalized and Political Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooghe, Marc; Marien, Sofie; de Vroome, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has established convincingly that there is a strong positive relation between educational attainment and trust. There is less agreement however, about the precise determinants of this relation. In this article, we assess how education is related to generalized and political trust, controlling for cognitive ability and…

  15. Inattentional Blindness and Individual Differences in Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Kreitz, Carina; Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel; Simons, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    People sometimes fail to notice salient unexpected objects when their attention is otherwise occupied, a phenomenon known as inattentional blindness. To explore individual differences in inattentional blindness, we employed both static and dynamic tasks that either presented the unexpected object away from the focus of attention (spatial) or near the focus of attention (central). We hypothesized that noticing in central tasks might be driven by the availability of cognitive resources like working memory, and that noticing in spatial tasks might be driven by the limits on spatial attention like attention breadth. However, none of the cognitive measures predicted noticing in the dynamic central task or in either the static or dynamic spatial task. Only in the central static task did working memory capacity predict noticing, and that relationship was fairly weak. Furthermore, whether or not participants noticed an unexpected object in a static task was only weakly associated with their odds of noticing an unexpected object in a dynamic task. Taken together, our results are largely consistent with the notion that noticing unexpected objects is driven more by stochastic processes common to all people than by stable individual differences in cognitive abilities. PMID:26258545

  16. Cognitive Styles in Mood Disorders: Discriminative Ability of Unipolar and Bipolar Cognitive Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Goldstein, Kim E.; Black, Chelsea L.; Molz, Ashleigh R.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Black, Shimrit K.; Boccia, Angelo S.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research has identified cognitive styles that distinguish individuals with bipolar disorder (BD), individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD), and individuals without mood disorders from one another, findings have been inconsistent. The current study included 381 participants classified into a BD group, a MDD group, and a no mood disorder group. To differentiate between these groups, this study evaluated cognitive styles with a battery of traditional and more recently-developed measures. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses were used to determine the discriminate ability of variables with significant between group differences. Results supported that BD and MDD may be characterized by distinct cognitive styles. Given work showing that interventions for MDD may not be effective at treating BD, it is important to directly compare individuals with these disorders. By clarifying the overlapping and divergent cognitive styles characterizing BD and MDD, research can not only improve diagnostic validity, but also provide more efficacious and effective interventions. PMID:25893033

  17. Gender, Culture, and Sex-Typed Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, David

    2012-01-01

    Although gender differences in cognitive abilities are frequently reported, the magnitude of these differences and whether they hold practical significance in the educational outcomes of boys and girls is highly debated. Furthermore, when gender gaps in reading, mathematics and science literacy are reported they are often attributed to innate, biological differences rather than social and cultural factors. Cross-cultural evidence may contribute to this debate, and this study reports national gender differences in reading, mathematics and science literacy from 65 nations participating in the 2009 round of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Consistently across all nations, girls outperform boys in reading literacy, d = −.44. Boys outperform girls in mathematics in the USA, d = .22 and across OECD nations, d = .13. For science literacy, while the USA showed the largest gender difference across all OECD nations, d = .14, gender differences across OECD nations were non-significant, and a small female advantage was found for non-OECD nations, d = −.09. Across all three domains, these differences were more pronounced at both tails of the distribution for low- and high-achievers. Considerable cross-cultural variability was also observed, and national gender differences were correlated with gender equity measures, economic prosperity, and Hofstede’s cultural dimension of power distance. Educational and societal implications of such gender gaps are addressed, as well as the mechanisms by which gender differences in cognitive abilities are culturally mediated. PMID:22808072

  18. Fluid cognitive ability is a resource for successful emotion regulation in older and younger adults

    PubMed Central

    Opitz, Philipp C.; Lee, Ihno A.; Gross, James J.; Urry, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    The Selection, Optimization, and Compensation with Emotion Regulation (SOC-ER) framework suggests that (1) emotion regulation (ER) strategies require resources and that (2) higher levels of relevant resources may increase ER success. In the current experiment, we tested the specific hypothesis that individual differences in one internal class of resources, namely cognitive ability, would contribute to greater success using cognitive reappraisal (CR), a form of ER in which one reinterprets the meaning of emotion-eliciting situations. To test this hypothesis, 60 participants (30 younger and 30 older adults) completed standardized neuropsychological tests that assess fluid and crystallized cognitive ability, as well as a CR task in which participants reinterpreted the meaning of sad pictures in order to alter (increase or decrease) their emotions. In a control condition, they viewed the pictures without trying to change how they felt. Throughout the task, we indexed subjective emotional experience (self-reported ratings of emotional intensity), expressive behavior (corrugator muscle activity), and autonomic physiology (heart rate and electrodermal activity) as measures of emotional responding. Multilevel models were constructed to explain within-subjects variation in emotional responding as a function of ER contrasts comparing increase or decrease conditions with the view control condition and between-subjects variation as a function of cognitive ability and/or age group (older, younger). As predicted, higher fluid cognitive ability—indexed by perceptual reasoning, processing speed, and working memory—was associated with greater success using reappraisal to alter emotional responding. Reappraisal success did not vary as a function of crystallized cognitive ability or age group. Collectively, our results provide support for a key tenet of the SOC-ER framework that higher levels of relevant resources may confer greater success at emotion regulation. PMID:24987387

  19. A study of the relationship between learning styles and cognitive abilities in engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hames, E.; Baker, M.

    2015-03-01

    Learning preferences have been indirectly linked to student success in engineering programmes, without a significant body of research to connect learning preferences with cognitive abilities. A better understanding of the relationship between learning styles and cognitive abilities will allow educators to optimise the classroom experience for students. The goal of this study was to determine whether relationships exist between student learning styles, as determined by the Felder-Soloman Inventory of Learning Styles (FSILS), and their cognitive performance. Three tests were used to assess student's cognitive abilities: a matrix reasoning task, a Tower of London task, and a mental rotation task. Statistical t-tests and correlation coefficients were used to quantify the results. Results indicated that the global-sequential, active-referential, and visual-verbal FSILS learning styles scales are related to performance on cognitive tasks. Most of these relationships were found in response times, not accuracy. Differences in task performance between gender groups (male and female) were more notable than differences between learning styles groups.

  20. Types of deception revealed by individual differences in cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Charity J; LeSage, Julia B; Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2009-01-01

    The two studies reported in this article are an extension of the neuroimaging study by Ganis et al. (2003), which provided evidence that different types of lies arise from different cognitive processes. We examined the initial response times (IRTs) to questions answered both deceptively and truthfully. We considered four types of deceptive responses: a coherent set of rehearsed, memorized lies about a life experience; a coherent set of lies spontaneously created about a life experience; a set of isolated lies involving self-knowledge; and a set of isolated lies involving knowledge of another person. We assessed the difference between truthful and deceptive IRTs. Scores from cognitive tasks included in the MiniCog Rapid Assessment Battery (MRAB) were significant predictors of IRT differences. Each type of lie was predicted by a distinct set of MRAB scores. These results provide further evidence that deception is a multifaceted process and that different kinds of lies arise from the operation of different cognitive processes. PMID:18654937

  1. Toward a Unified Theory of the Relationship between Training Methods and Factors of Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Shani D.

    2008-01-01

    The paper proposes a theory that trainees have varying ability levels across different factors of cognitive ability, and that these abilities are used in varying levels by different training methods. The paper reviews characteristics of training methods and matches these characteristics to different factors of cognitive ability. The paper proposes…

  2. Student Perceptions of Science Ability, Experiences, Expectations, and Career Choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherney, Michael; Cherney, I.

    2006-12-01

    The decision to study physics or astronomy is affected by many factors, including preferences, motivations, and expectations for success. Differing cognitive profiles contribute to the learning of science through a complex process in which intrinsic capacities are tuned both by everyday experience and by instruction. In an attempt to identify the developmental pathways and intrinsic factors that most strongly influence the choice to study science, we administered an extensive survey to a sample of 400 students. The survey questions were based on Eccles et al.’s model of achievement-related choices and findings showing that previous play experiences, spatial experiences, task beliefs, as well as perceived mathematics ability, motivational and personality characteristics affect mathematics achievement and science career choices. The perceptions of students planning a science career are compared with those planning a career in other areas. Gender differences are also discussed.

  3. The ABCs of Math: A Genetic Analysis of Mathematics and Its Links with Reading Ability and General Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.; Plomin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this first major report from the Western Reserve Reading Project Math component is to explore the etiology of the relationship among tester-administered measures of mathematics ability, reading ability, and general cognitive ability. Data are available on 314 pairs of monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins analyzed across 5 waves of…

  4. Music listening and cognitive abilities in 10- and 11-year-olds: the blur effect.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Hallam, Susan

    2005-12-01

    The spatial abilities of a large sample of 10 and 11 year olds were tested after they listened to contemporary pop music, music composed by Mozart, or a discussion about the present experiment. After being assigned at random to one of the three listening experiences, each child completed two tests of spatial abilities. Performance on one of the tests (square completion) did not differ as a function of the listening experience, but performance on the other test (paper folding) was superior for children who listened to popular music compared to the other two groups. These findings are consistent with the view that positive benefits of music listening on cognitive abilities are most likely to be evident when the music is enjoyed by the listener. PMID:16597767

  5. Assessments of cognitive abilities in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease with a touch screen test.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Chuljung; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-03-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience both motor output deficits and cognitive disabilities. Various PD rodent models have been developed to investigate the genetic and brain circuit-related causes of PD and have contributed to the basic and clinical research and to therapeutic strategies for this disease. Most studies using PD rodent models have focused on the motor output deficits, rather than cognitive disabilities due to the lack of appropriate testing tools that do not require significant motor abilities. In this study, we assessed the cognitive disabilities of PD model mice using a touch screen test that required only little motor ability. We found that the PD model mice, which had motor deficits caused by unilateral striatal dopaminergic degeneration, successfully underwent operant conditioning with a touch screen test. Additionally, we found that the PD model mice demonstrated impaired location discrimination, but intact attention and reversal learning in the cognitive tests. Therefore, the touch screen test is useful for assessing hidden cognitive disabilities in disease model animals with decreased motor function. PMID:26698399

  6. Investigating the Roles of Knowledge and Cognitive Abilities in Older Adult Information Seeking on the Web

    PubMed Central

    SHARIT, JOSEPH; HERNÁNDEZ, MARIO A.; CZAJA, SARA J.; PIROLLI, PETER

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the influences of knowledge, particularly Internet, Web browser, and search engine knowledge, as well as cognitive abilities on older adult information seeking on the Internet. The emphasis on aspects of cognition was informed by a modeling framework of search engine information-seeking behavior. Participants from two older age groups were recruited: twenty people in a younger-old group (ages 60–70) and twenty people in an older-old group (ages 71–85). Ten younger adults (ages 18–39) served as a comparison group. All participants had at least some Internet search experience. The experimental task consisted of six realistic search problems, all involving information related to health and well-being and which varied in degree of complexity. The results indicated that though necessary, Internet-related knowledge was not sufficient in explaining information-seeking performance, and suggested that a combination of both knowledge and key cognitive abilities is important for successful information seeking. In addition, the cognitive abilities that were found to be critical for task performance depended on the search problem’s complexity. Also, significant differences in task performance between the younger and the two older age groups were found on complex, but not on simple problems. Overall, the results from this study have implications for instructing older adults on Internet information seeking and for the design of Web sites. PMID:20011130

  7. Does Mother's IQ Explain the Association between Birth Weight and Cognitive Ability in Childhood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Der, Geoff; Shenkin, Susan D.

    2005-01-01

    There is a significant association between birth weight and cognitive test scores in childhood, even among individuals born at term and with normal birth weight. The association is not explained by the child's social background. Here we examine whether mother's cognitive ability accounts for the birth weight-cognitive ability association. We…

  8. You Are What You Eat? Meal Type, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Ability in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stumm, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…

  9. The heritability of general cognitive ability increases linearly from childhood to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Haworth, C M A; Wright, M J; Luciano, M; Martin, N G; de Geus, E J C; van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Bartels, M; Posthuma, D; Boomsma, D I; Davis, O S P; Kovas, Y; Corley, R P; Defries, J C; Hewitt, J K; Olson, R K; Rhea, S-A; Wadsworth, S J; Iacono, W G; McGue, M; Thompson, L A; Hart, S A; Petrill, S A; Lubinski, D; Plomin, R

    2010-11-01

    Although common sense suggests that environmental influences increasingly account for individual differences in behavior as experiences accumulate during the course of life, this hypothesis has not previously been tested, in part because of the large sample sizes needed for an adequately powered analysis. Here we show for general cognitive ability that, to the contrary, genetic influence increases with age. The heritability of general cognitive ability increases significantly and linearly from 41% in childhood (9 years) to 55% in adolescence (12 years) and to 66% in young adulthood (17 years) in a sample of 11 000 pairs of twins from four countries, a larger sample than all previous studies combined. In addition to its far-reaching implications for neuroscience and molecular genetics, this finding suggests new ways of thinking about the interface between nature and nurture during the school years. Why, despite life's 'slings and arrows of outrageous fortune', do genetically driven differences increasingly account for differences in general cognitive ability? We suggest that the answer lies with genotype-environment correlation: as children grow up, they increasingly select, modify and even create their own experiences in part based on their genetic propensities. PMID:19488046

  10. A sensitive period for musical training: contributions of age of onset and cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jennifer; Penhune, Virginia B

    2012-04-01

    The experiences we engage in during childhood can stay with us well into our adult years. The idea of a sensitive period--a window during maturation when our brains are most influenced by behavior--has been proposed. Work from our laboratory has shown that early-trained musicians (ET) performed better on visual-motor and auditory-motor synchronization tasks than late-trained musicians (LT), even when matched for total musical experience. Although the groups of musicians showed no cognitive differences, working memory scores correlated with task performance. In this study, we have replicated these findings in a larger sample of musicians and included a group of highly educated nonmusicians (NM). Participants performed six woodblock rhythms of varying levels of metrical complexity and completed cognitive subtests measuring verbal abilities, working memory, and pattern recognition. Working memory scores correlated with task performance across all three groups. Interestingly, verbal abilities were stronger among the NM, while nonverbal abilities were stronger among musicians. These findings are discussed in context of the sensitive period hypothesis as well as the debate surrounding cognitive differences between musicians and NM. PMID:22524355

  11. On the genetic basis of face cognition and its relation to fluid cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Kiy, A; Wilhelm, O; Hildebrandt, A; Reuter, M; Sommer, W

    2013-06-01

    The oxytocin and the dopaminergic systems have turned out to be highly relevant for social abilities and cognition. Therefore, we examined the association between two functional gene polymorphisms and face cognition (FC) in a multivariate study (N = 250) by applying structural equation modeling. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met polymorphism influences the enzyme activity of COMT, which affects the prefrontal dopamine concentration. The rs226849 is a single-nucleotide polymorphism located in the promoter region of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene, modulating the mRNA expression. By modeling a general fluid ability factor (defined by working memory and reasoning) and nested FC factors, we tested genetic contributions to FC, after controlling for variance in FC that was also associated with fluid abilities. In line with several previous studies, we found a significant association between the COMT genotype and fluid abilities (Gf) but not with FC. The association between the oxytocin polymorphism and Gf was opposite in direction for men and women. Women with the C(+) genotype performed better on Gf tasks than those with the C(-) genotype. Conversely, men with the C(-) genotype performed better than those with the C(+) genotype. There was no significant association between OXTR and the nested FC factor. Therefore, the relationship between the oxytocin polymorphism and FC can be fully accounted for by Gf. The sex specificity of this relationship is a novel finding and warrants a mechanistic explanation. PMID:23489762

  12. Cognitive Abilities of Patients with Lesch-Nyhan Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lowell T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Parents of 42 children (ages 2-32) with Lesch-Nyhan disease were questioned concerning the subjects' behavior patterns. Grouping of responses into nine categories of cognitive skills indicated that only one boy showed any significant cognitive impairment. Despite evidence of good cognitive and emotional skills, subjects were academically delayed,…

  13. Do Participants Differ in Their Cognitive Abilities, Task Motivation, or Personality Characteristics as a Function of Time of Participation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Matthew K.; Unsworth, Nash

    2016-01-01

    Four experiments tested the conventional wisdom in experimental psychology that participants who complete laboratory tasks systematically differ in their cognitive abilities, motivational levels, and personality characteristics as a function of the time at which they participate during an academic term. Across 4 experiments with over 2,900…

  14. Classical and Molecular Genetic Research on General Cognitive Ability.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Gottesman, Irving I

    2015-01-01

    Arguably, no psychological variable has received more attention from behavioral geneticists than what has been called "general cognitive ability" (as well as "general intelligence" or "g"), and for good reason. GCA has a rich correlational network, implying that it may play an important role in multiple domains of functioning. GCA is highly correlated with various indicators of educational attainment, yet its predictive utility is not limited to academic achievement. It is also correlated with work performance, navigating the complexities of everyday life, the absence of various social pathologies (such as criminal convictions), and even health and mortality. Although the causal basis for these associations is not always known, it is nonetheless the case that research on GCA has the potential to provide insights into the origins of a wide range of important social outcomes. In this essay, our discussion of why GCA is considered a fundamentally important dimension of behavior on which humans differ is followed by a look at behavioral genetics research on CGA. We summarize behavioral genetics research that has sought to identify and quantify the total contributions of genetic and environmental factors to individual differences in GCA as well as molecular genetic research that has sought to identify genetic variants that underlie inherited effects. PMID:26413945

  15. Test experience effects in longitudinal comparisons of adult cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Salthouse, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    It is widely recognized that experience with cognitive tests can influence estimates of cognitive change. Prior research has estimated experience effects at the level of groups by comparing the performance of a group of participants tested for the second time with the performance of a different group of participants at the same age tested for the first time. This twice-minus-once-tested method was adapted in the current study to derive estimates of test experience at the level of individual participants. Among the major findings were that experience estimates were smaller at older ages, with measures of vocabulary and speed compared to measures of memory, reasoning, and spatial visualization, and with longer intervals between the first and second occasion. Although relations of overall cognitive ability with test experience effects were weak, there were significant correlations among the experience estimates in different cognitive domains. These results imply that at least in adulthood, simple measures of cognitive change likely underestimate maturational influences on cognitive functioning, and to a greater extent in young adults than in older adults. PMID:26098579

  16. Neuroaesthetics: The Cognitive Neuroscience of Aesthetic Experience.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Marcus T; Zaidel, Dahlia W; Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin; Leder, Helmut; Chatterjee, Anjan; Nadal, Marcos

    2016-03-01

    The field of neuroaesthetics has gained in popularity in recent years but also attracted criticism from the perspectives both of the humanities and the sciences. In an effort to consolidate research in the field, we characterize neuroaesthetics as the cognitive neuroscience of aesthetic experience, drawing on long traditions of research in empirical aesthetics on the one hand and cognitive neuroscience on the other. We clarify the aims and scope of the field, identifying relations among neuroscientific investigations of aesthetics, beauty, and art. The approach we advocate takes as its object of study a wide spectrum of aesthetic experiences, resulting from interactions of individuals, sensory stimuli, and context. Drawing on its parent fields, a cognitive neuroscience of aesthetics would investigate the complex cognitive processes and functional networks of brain regions involved in those experiences without placing a value on them. Thus, the cognitive neuroscientific approach may develop in a way that is mutually complementary to approaches in the humanities. PMID:26993278

  17. Selected Cognitive Abilities in Elite Youth Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Baláková, Veronika; Boschek, Petr; Skalíková, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    The identification of talent in soccer is critical to various programs. Although many research findings have been presented, there have been only a few attempts to assess their validity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between talent and achievement variables in the Vienna Test System. The participants were 91 Czech soccer players, representing four youth soccer teams, who were born in the year 2000. These boys were divided into two groups according to their coaches’ assessments using a TALENT questionnaire. A two-factor model (component 1: “kinetic finesse”; component 2: “mental strength”) was designed to interpret the responses of the coaches on the questionnaire. The Vienna Test System was used to determine the level of players’ cognitive abilities. In total, the subjects performed seven tests in the following order: Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), a reaction test (RT), a determination test (DT), a visual pursuit test (LVT), a Corsi Block-Tapping Test (CORSI), a time/movement anticipation test (ZBA), and a peripheral perception test (PP). To analyze the relationship between talent and achievement variables within the Vienna Test System, correlation analyses were performed. The results revealed that the talented group attained significantly better results on only 1 of the 16 variables, which was ZBA2: movement anticipation - deviation of movement median (r = .217, p = .019). A comparison of the two talent components showed that component 1 (“kinetic finesse”) was a more significant factor than component 2 (“mental strength”). Although we observed statistically significant correlations, their actual significance remains questionable; thus, further research is required. PMID:26839627

  18. Selected Cognitive Abilities in Elite Youth Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Baláková, Veronika; Boschek, Petr; Skalíková, Lucie

    2015-12-22

    The identification of talent in soccer is critical to various programs. Although many research findings have been presented, there have been only a few attempts to assess their validity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between talent and achievement variables in the Vienna Test System. The participants were 91 Czech soccer players, representing four youth soccer teams, who were born in the year 2000. These boys were divided into two groups according to their coaches' assessments using a TALENT questionnaire. A two-factor model (component 1: "kinetic finesse"; component 2: "mental strength") was designed to interpret the responses of the coaches on the questionnaire. The Vienna Test System was used to determine the level of players' cognitive abilities. In total, the subjects performed seven tests in the following order: Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), a reaction test (RT), a determination test (DT), a visual pursuit test (LVT), a Corsi Block-Tapping Test (CORSI), a time/movement anticipation test (ZBA), and a peripheral perception test (PP). To analyze the relationship between talent and achievement variables within the Vienna Test System, correlation analyses were performed. The results revealed that the talented group attained significantly better results on only 1 of the 16 variables, which was ZBA2: movement anticipation - deviation of movement median (r = .217, p = .019). A comparison of the two talent components showed that component 1 ("kinetic finesse") was a more significant factor than component 2 ("mental strength"). Although we observed statistically significant correlations, their actual significance remains questionable; thus, further research is required. PMID:26839627

  19. Cognitive abilities of health and art college students a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S.; Kachanathu, Shaji John; AlKhamees, Abdullah K.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The selection of a college major is a struggle that high school students undergo every year; however, there is a dearth of studies examining the role of cognitive ability tests as a tool for determining the aptitude of prospective students. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess cognitive ability differences among students. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of 60 college students (30 health science and 30 art students) with a mean age of 19 ± 1.6 years, voluntarily participated in this study. Cognitive ability was assessed using the self-administered Cognitive Assessment of Minnesota (CAM) scale under the supervision of a researcher. [Results] The findings indicated that there was a significant cognitive ability difference between health science and art students, especially in the cognitive components of knowledge, calculation, and thinking. However, the difference in the social cognitive component of both the health science and art students was not significant. [Conclusion] The results indicate that the health science students’ cognitive abilities were better than those of the art students. This finding implies that it is important for high school graduates to undertake a cognitive ability assessment prior to choosing a subject major. Hence, it is recommended that cognitive scales should be included as an aptitude assessment tool for the decision-makers and prospective students to determine an appropriate career, since it might reduce the percentage of university drop-out ratio. PMID:27313350

  20. Cognitive abilities of health and art college students a pilot study.

    PubMed

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S; Kachanathu, Shaji John; AlKhamees, Abdullah K

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The selection of a college major is a struggle that high school students undergo every year; however, there is a dearth of studies examining the role of cognitive ability tests as a tool for determining the aptitude of prospective students. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess cognitive ability differences among students. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of 60 college students (30 health science and 30 art students) with a mean age of 19 ± 1.6 years, voluntarily participated in this study. Cognitive ability was assessed using the self-administered Cognitive Assessment of Minnesota (CAM) scale under the supervision of a researcher. [Results] The findings indicated that there was a significant cognitive ability difference between health science and art students, especially in the cognitive components of knowledge, calculation, and thinking. However, the difference in the social cognitive component of both the health science and art students was not significant. [Conclusion] The results indicate that the health science students' cognitive abilities were better than those of the art students. This finding implies that it is important for high school graduates to undertake a cognitive ability assessment prior to choosing a subject major. Hence, it is recommended that cognitive scales should be included as an aptitude assessment tool for the decision-makers and prospective students to determine an appropriate career, since it might reduce the percentage of university drop-out ratio. PMID:27313350

  1. Is Education Associated with Improvements in General Cognitive Ability, or in Specific Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Stuart J.; Bates, Timothy C.; Deary, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that education influences cognitive development, but it is unclear what, precisely, is being improved. Here, we tested whether education is associated with cognitive test score improvements via domain-general effects on general cognitive ability ("g"), or via domain-specific effects on particular cognitive…

  2. Profiling Fragile X Syndrome in Males: Strengths and Weaknesses in Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Molen, M. J. W.; Huizinga, M.; Huizenga, H. M.; Ridderinkhof, K. R.; Van der Molen, M. W.; Hamel, B. J. C.; Curfs, L. M. G.; Ramakers, G. J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the cognitive profile in Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) males, and investigated whether cognitive profiles are similar for FXS males at different levels of intellectual functioning. Cognitive abilities in non-verbal, verbal, memory and executive functioning domains were contrasted to both a non-verbal and verbal mental age…

  3. The Cognitive Profile of Adult Dyslexics and Its Relation to Their Reading Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beidas, Hanin; Khateb, Asaid; Breznitz, Zvia

    2013-01-01

    The question of which cognitive impairments are primarily associated with dyslexia has been a source of continuous debate. This study examined the cognitive profile of Hebrew-speaking compensated adult dyslexics and investigated whether their cognitive abilities accounted for a unique variance in their reading performance. Sixty-nine young adults…

  4. The Cycle of Schizoaffective Disorder, Cognitive Ability, Alcoholism, and Suicidality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Gerald; Haas, Gretchen L.; Pakrashi, Manish; Novero, Ada M.; Luther, James F.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we investigated the putative role of cognitive dysfunction, diagnosis (schizoaffective versus schizophrenia disorder), and alcoholism as risk factors for suicidal behavior among individuals with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. Subjects received cognitive tests and medical records were reviewed for evidence of a…

  5. The Analysis of Cognitive Abilities in the Preschool Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Marion

    In order to gain a greater understanding of the intellectual strengths and weaknesses of the young child, a test was developed (for which data collection is ongoing) to investigate a broad range of cognitive skills in the three- to five-year age range. The test covers skills within four main spheres--cognitively Directed Perception, Concepts and…

  6. Assessing cognitive impairment using PROMIS(®) applied cognition-abilities scales in a medical outpatient sample.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Boaz Y; Lanting, Shawnda C; Koehle, Michael S; Klonsky, E David; Iverson, Grant L

    2015-03-30

    Having a brief, standardized, reliable, and valid self-rated test of perceived cognitive functioning could be beneficial in psychiatry clinical practice, research, and clinical trials. The PROMIS(®) Applied Cognition-Abilities scales were developed, evaluated, and distributed by the National Institutes of Health to measure perceived cognitive functioning. This study examines several aspects of the reliability and validity of the PROMIS(®) Applied Cognition-Abilities eight and four-item scales in a sample of adult and older adult medical outpatients (N = 148). Internal consistency reliability was high for both PROMIS(®) cognition scales. The brief four-item scale was highly correlated with the full eight-item scale (rs = 0.98). There was a moderate correlation between the PROMIS(®) Applied Cognition-Abilities scales and measures of depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7). Subgroups of participants screening positively for depression or anxiety reported significantly worse cognitive functioning than medical controls, with large effect sizes. The base rates of individual items endorsed by depressed, anxious, and control participants are reported. More than 42% of depressed and anxious participants reported problems with their memory and concentration compared with fewer than 8% of medical controls. The field would benefit from studies using the PROMIS(®) Applied Cognition-Abilities scales in more demographically diverse samples and with other established measures of cognition. PMID:25639374

  7. The genetic and environmental etiologies of the relations between cognitive skills and components of reading ability.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Micaela E; Keenan, Janice M; Hulslander, Jacqueline; DeFries, John C; Miyake, Akira; Wadsworth, Sally J; Willcutt, Erik; Pennington, Bruce; Olson, Richard K

    2016-04-01

    Although previous research has shown cognitive skills to be important predictors of reading ability in children, the respective roles for genetic and environmental influences on these relations is an open question. The present study explored the genetic and environmental etiologies underlying the relations between selected executive functions and cognitive abilities (working memory, inhibition, processing speed, and naming speed) with 3 components of reading ability (word reading, reading comprehension, and listening comprehension). Twin pairs drawn from the Colorado Front Range (n = 676; 224 monozygotic pairs; 452 dizygotic pairs) between the ages of 8 and 16 (M = 11.11) were assessed on multiple measures of each cognitive and reading-related skill. Each cognitive and reading-related skill was modeled as a latent variable, and behavioral genetic analyses estimated the portions of phenotypic variance on each latent variable due to genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental influences. The covariance between the cognitive skills and reading-related skills was driven primarily by genetic influences. The cognitive skills also shared large amounts of genetic variance, as did the reading-related skills. The common cognitive genetic variance was highly correlated with the common reading genetic variance, suggesting that genetic influences involved in general cognitive processing are also important for reading ability. Skill-specific genetic variance in working memory and processing speed also predicted components of reading ability. Taken together, the present study supports a genetic association between children's cognitive ability and reading ability. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26974208

  8. Reverse causation in activity-cognitive ability associations: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936.

    PubMed

    Gow, Alan J; Corley, Janie; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2012-03-01

    Active lifestyles might protect cognitive abilities; however, studies rarely consider the reverse causal direction. Activity-cognition associations might reflect stable intelligence differences rather than a protective effect of activity. The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (n = 1091) completed cognitive tests aged 70, having taken an intelligence test aged 11. Activity (assessed by participation in 15 activities that produced a socio-intellectual activity factor, and by physical activity) was positively associated with cognition (r = .08 to .32, p ≤ .05). When age-11 IQ and adult social class were controlled, only physical activity remained significantly associated with general cognitive ability and processing speed. PMID:21644808

  9. Vestibular involvement in cognition: Visuospatial ability, attention, executive function, and memory.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Robin T; Agrawal, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests the inner ear vestibular system has a substantial impact on cognitive function. The strongest evidence exists in connecting vestibular function to the cognitive domain of visuospatial ability, which includes spatial memory, navigation, mental rotation, and mental representation of three-dimensional space. Substantial evidence also exists suggesting the vestibular system has an impact on attention and cognitive processing ability. The cognitive domains of memory and executive function are also implicated in a number of studies. We will review the current literature, discuss possible causal links between vestibular dysfunction and cognitive performance, and suggest areas of future research. PMID:26410672

  10. The Long-Term Effects of Childhood Music Instruction on Intelligence and General Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effects of music instruction on general cognitive abilities. The review of more than 75 reports shows (1) the consistency in results pertaining to the short-term effects of music instruction on cognitive abilities and the lack of clear evidence on the long-term effects on intelligence; (2) the complex nature of…

  11. Levels of Stress as Reported by Parents and Its Relationship to Their Child's Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodbury, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if any relationship exists between "Parenting Stress Index" factors and child's cognitive abilities (Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory of general intelligence). The participant population consisted of 16 mothers and 16 children. The cognitive abilities were measured by using one of the following measures: (1)…

  12. SES and CHAOS as Environmental Mediators of Cognitive Ability: A Longitudinal Genetic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Deckard, Kirby Deater; Thompson, Lee A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined shared environmental influences on the longitudinal stability of general cognitive ability, as mediated by socioeconomic status and chaos in the home, using 287 pairs of elementary school-age twins drawn from the Western Reserve Reading Project (WRRP). General cognitive ability was evaluated at two annual assessments using the…

  13. The Role of Social-Cognitive Abilities in Preschoolers' Aggressive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Rebecca Stetson; Cassidy, Kimberly Wright; Juliano, Mariel

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between preschool children's social-cognitive abilities (theory of mind and social information processing; SIP) and their observed physical and relational aggressive behaviour. Children with more advanced social-cognitive abilities engaged in fewer acts of physical aggression; however, much of the ability…

  14. Associations between Private Speech, Behavioral Self-Regulation, and Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aro, Tuija; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    We examined the associations between 5-year-old children's private speech, behavioural self-regulation, and cognitive abilities. Behavioural self-regulation was assessed using parental and preschool teacher questionnaires. Cognitive abilities (i.e., language, inhibition, planning and fluency, and memory) were assessed with neurocognitive tests,…

  15. Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities as a Function of Neuroticism Level: A Measurement Equivalence/Invariance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonaccio, Silvia; Reeve, Charlie L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the differentiation of cognitive abilities as a function of neuroticism. Specifically, we examine Eysenck and White's [Eysenck, H. J., and White, P. O. (1964). Personality and the measurement of intelligence. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 24, 197-201.] hypothesis that cognitive abilities are less differentiated…

  16. Assessment of Cognitive Ability of Students with Severe and Low-Incidence Disabilities--Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Vujeva, Hana

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of cognitive ability in students with the most severe disabilities presents a challenge to the clinicians who are charged with this task. This article is the second of a two-part series that summarizes what is currently known about effective assessment of the cognitive ability of students with significant impairments in order to…

  17. The Contribution of General Cognitive Abilities and Approximate Number System to Early Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Cargnelutti, Elisa; Pastore, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    Background: Math learning is a complex process that entails a wide range of cognitive abilities to be fulfilled. There is sufficient evidence that both general and specific cognitive skills assume a fundamental role, despite the absence of shared consensus about the relative extent of their involvement. Moreover, regarding general abilities, there…

  18. Chronotype, Cognitive Abilities, and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytic Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preckel, Franzis; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; Schneider, Sandra; Roberts, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Four meta-analyses examined relationships between morningness and cognitive ability (total N=2177), eveningness and cognitive ability (total N=1519), morningness and academic achievement (total N=3220), and eveningness and academic achievement (total N=700). The analyses focused on the population effect size (to reveal the effect across studies)…

  19. Social Networking Sites and Cognitive Abilities: Do They Make You Smarter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Horton, John; Alloway, Ross G.; Dawson, Clare

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of social networking sites (SNS) on cognitive abilities and reported levels of social connectedness in adolescents. In order to provide a reliable measure of cognitive skills, standardized tests of verbal ability, working memory, and academic attainment were administered. Students also…

  20. Increases in the Verbal and Fluid Cognitive Abilities of Disadvantaged Children Attending Preschool in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Tuijl, Cathy; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2007-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the development of general cognitive abilities of 4-6-year-old children of low-income, ethnic-minority families in preschool over two and a half years by determining the changes in general, and in verbal and fluid cognitive abilities, relative to age norms, using an intelligence test. The results revealed…

  1. The Reciprocal Relation between Children's Attachment Representations and Their Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stievenart, Marie; Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean Christophe; van de Moortele, Gaelle

    2011-01-01

    This study explores reciprocal relations between children's attachment representations and their cognitive ability. Previous literature has mainly focused on the prediction of cognitive abilities from attachment, rarely on the reverse prediction. This was explored in the current research. Attachment representations were assessed with the…

  2. Anatomical substrates and neurocognitive predictors of daily numerical abilities in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Burgio, Francesca; Meneghello, Francesca; De Marco, Matteo; Arcara, Giorgio; Rigon, Jessica; Pilosio, Cristina; Butterworth, Brian; Venneri, Annalena; Semenza, Carlo

    2015-10-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment experience difficulties in mathematics that affect their functioning in the activities of everyday life. What are the associated anatomical brain changes and the cognitive correlates underlying such deficits? In the present study, 33 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairments (MCI) and 29 cognitively normal controls underwent volumetric MRI, and completed the standardized battery of Numerical Activities of Daily Living (NADL) along with a comprehensive clinical neuropsychological assessment. Group differences were examined on the numerical tasks and volumetric brain measures. The gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volume correlates were also evaluated. The results showed that relative to controls, the MCI group had impairments in number comprehension, transcoding, written operations, and in daily activities involving time estimation and money usage. In the volumetric measures, group differences emerged for the transcoding subtask in the left insula and left superior temporal gyrus. Among MCI patients, number comprehension and formal numerical performance were correlated with volumetric variability in the right middle occipital areas and right frontal gyrus. Money-usage scores showed significant correlations with left mesial frontal cortex, right superior frontal and right superior temporal cortex. Regression models revealed that neuropsychological measures of long-term memory, language, visuo-spatial abilities, and abstract reasoning were predictive of the patients' decline in daily activities. The present findings suggest that early neuropathology in distributed cortical regions of the brain including frontal, temporal and occipital areas leads to a breakdown of cognitive abilities in MCI that impacts on numerical daily functioning. The findings have implications for diagnosis, clinical and domestic care of patients with MCI. PMID:26159324

  3. Activity engagement is related to level, but not change in cognitive ability across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bielak, Allison A M; Anstey, Kaarin J; Christensen, Helen; Windsor, Tim D

    2012-03-01

    It is unclear whether the longitudinal relation between activity participation and cognitive ability is due to preserved differentiation (active individuals have higher initial levels of cognitive ability), or differential preservation (active individuals show less negative change across time). This distinction has never been evaluated after dividing time-varying activity into its two sources of variation: between-person and within-person variability. Further, few studies have investigated how the association between activity participation and cognitive ability may differ from early to older adulthood. Using the PATH Through Life Project, we evaluated whether between- and within-person variation in activity participation was associated with cognitive ability and change within cohorts aged 20-24 years, 40-44 years, and 60-64 years at baseline (n = 7,152) assessed on three occasions over an 8-year interval. Multilevel models indicated that between-person differences in activity significantly predicted baseline cognitive ability for all age cohorts and for each assessed cognitive domain (perceptual speed, short-term memory, working memory, episodic memory, and vocabulary), even after accounting for sex, education, occupational status, and physical and mental health. In each case, greater average participation was associated with higher baseline cognitive ability. However, the size of the relationship involving average activity participation and baseline cognitive ability did not differ across adulthood. Between-person activity and within-person variation in activity level were both not significantly associated with change in cognitive test performance. Results suggest that activity participation is indeed related to cognitive ability across adulthood, but only in relation to the starting value of cognitive ability, and not change over time. PMID:21806303

  4. Cognitive experience and its effect on age-dependent cognitive decline in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Milgram, Norton W

    2003-11-01

    Test-sophisticated beagle dogs show marked age sensitivity in a size discrimination learning task, with old and senior dogs performing significantly more poorly than young dogs. By contrast, age differences in learning were not seen in dogs naive with respect to neuropsychological test experience. These results indicate that old animals benefit less from prior cognitive experience than young animals, which is an example of an age-dependent loss in plasticity. This finding also suggests that behaviorally experienced animals are a more useful model of human cognitive aging than behaviorally naïve animals. We also looked at the effect of a program of behavioral enrichment in aged dogs. One year of enrichment did not lead to significant differences, but after 2 years the behaviorally enriched group performed significantly better than the control group. The effect after 2 years indicates that a prolonged program of cognitive enrichment can serve as an effective intervention in aged dogs. These findings demonstrate that cognitive abilities in aged animals can be modified by providing behavioral experience, indicating that cognitive abilities remain moderately plastic, even in very old animals. PMID:14584821

  5. When does cognitive functioning peak? The asynchronous rise and fall of different cognitive abilities across the life span.

    PubMed

    Hartshorne, Joshua K; Germine, Laura T

    2015-04-01

    Understanding how and when cognitive change occurs over the life span is a prerequisite for understanding normal and abnormal development and aging. Most studies of cognitive change are constrained, however, in their ability to detect subtle, but theoretically informative life-span changes, as they rely on either comparing broad age groups or sparse sampling across the age range. Here, we present convergent evidence from 48,537 online participants and a comprehensive analysis of normative data from standardized IQ and memory tests. Our results reveal considerable heterogeneity in when cognitive abilities peak: Some abilities peak and begin to decline around high school graduation; some abilities plateau in early adulthood, beginning to decline in subjects' 30s; and still others do not peak until subjects reach their 40s or later. These findings motivate a nuanced theory of maturation and age-related decline, in which multiple, dissociable factors differentially affect different domains of cognition. PMID:25770099

  6. Ocular dominance, cognitive strategy, and sex differences in spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Freedman, R J; Rovegno, L

    1981-04-01

    Ocular dominance, handedness, and cognitive strategy were assessed in relation to performance by 146 undergraduates on the Vandenberg Mental Rotation Test. Higher spatial scores were found for right-eyed subjects, right-handed subjects, and males. These higher scoring groups reported using similar cognitive strategies. The counted blocks less, used their hands less, and pictured in their minds more than the left-eyed, left-handed and female subjects. Results confirm previous findings. PMID:7255075

  7. Cognitive ability, acquiescence, and the structure of personality in a sample of older adults.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Clemens M; Rammstedt, Beatrice

    2015-12-01

    Acquiescence, or the tendency to respond to descriptions of conceptually distinct personality attributes with agreement/affirmation, constitutes a major challenge in personality assessment. The aim of this study was to shed light on cognitive ability as a potential source of individual differences in acquiescent responding. We hypothesized that respondents with lower cognitive ability exhibit stronger acquiescent response tendencies than respondents with higher cognitive ability and that this leads to problems in establishing the Big Five structure by means of principal component analyses (exploratory factor analysis was not applicable to these data) in the former group. Further, we hypothesized that after controlling for acquiescence by using mean-corrected instead of raw item scores, the Big Five structure holds even among respondents with lower cognitive ability. Analyses in a sample of 1,071 German adults aged 56 to 75 years using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test as a measure of cognitive ability and the BFI-10, a 10-item abbreviated version of the Big Five Inventory, as a measure of personality, corroborated these hypotheses. These findings suggest that lower cognitive ability and age-related declines in cognitive functioning more specifically are associated with higher acquiescence, which in turn leads to problems in establishing the Big Five structure among individuals with lower cognitive ability that should be addressed by controlling for acquiescence. PMID:26011482

  8. Processing of space, time, and number contributes to mathematical abilities above and beyond domain-general cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Skagerlund, Kenny; Träff, Ulf

    2016-03-01

    The current study investigated whether processing of number, space, and time contributes to mathematical abilities beyond previously known domain-general cognitive abilities in a sample of 8- to 10-year-old children (N=133). Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive functions and general intelligence predicted all aspects of mathematics and overall mathematical ability. Working memory capacity did not contribute significantly to our models, whereas spatial ability was a strong predictor of achievement. The study replicates earlier research showing that non-symbolic number processing seems to lose predictive power of mathematical abilities once the symbolic system is acquired. Novel findings include the fact that time discrimination ability was tied to calculation ability. Therefore, a conclusion is that magnitude processing in general contributes to mathematical achievement. PMID:26637947

  9. Developing an Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Abilities in Down Syndrome: The Cognitive Scale for Down Syndrome (CS-DS)

    PubMed Central

    Rodger, Erin; Fodor-Wynne, Lucy; Hamburg, Sarah; Strydom, André

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID). Abilities relating to executive function, memory and language are particularly affected in DS, although there is a large variability across individuals. People with DS also show an increased risk of developing dementia. While assessment batteries have been developed for adults with DS to assess cognitive abilities, these batteries may not be suitable for those with more severe IDs, dementia, or visual / hearing difficulties. Here we report the development of an informant rated questionnaire, the Cognitive Scale for Down Syndrome (CS-DS), which focuses on everyday abilities relating to executive function, memory and language, and is suitable for assessing these abilities in all adults with DS regardless of cognitive ability. Complete questionnaires were collected about 128 individuals with DS. After final question selection we found high internal consistency scores across the total questionnaire and within the executive function, memory and language domains. CS-DS scores showed a wide range, with minimal floor and ceiling effects. We found high interrater (n = 55) and test retest (n = 36) intraclass correlations. CS-DS scores were significantly lower in those aged 41+ with significant cognitive decline compared to those without decline. Across all adults without cognitive decline, CS-DS scores correlated significantly to measures of general abilities. Exploratory factor analysis suggested five factors within the scale, relating to memory, self-regulation / inhibition, self-direction / initiation, communication, and focussing attention. The CS-DS therefore shows good interrater and test retest reliability, and appears to be a valid and suitable informant rating tool for assessing everyday cognitive abilities in a wide range of individuals with DS. Such a questionnaire may be a useful outcome measure for intervention studies to assess improvements to cognition, in addition to

  10. Developing an Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Abilities in Down Syndrome: The Cognitive Scale for Down Syndrome (CS-DS).

    PubMed

    Startin, Carla M; Rodger, Erin; Fodor-Wynne, Lucy; Hamburg, Sarah; Strydom, André

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID). Abilities relating to executive function, memory and language are particularly affected in DS, although there is a large variability across individuals. People with DS also show an increased risk of developing dementia. While assessment batteries have been developed for adults with DS to assess cognitive abilities, these batteries may not be suitable for those with more severe IDs, dementia, or visual / hearing difficulties. Here we report the development of an informant rated questionnaire, the Cognitive Scale for Down Syndrome (CS-DS), which focuses on everyday abilities relating to executive function, memory and language, and is suitable for assessing these abilities in all adults with DS regardless of cognitive ability. Complete questionnaires were collected about 128 individuals with DS. After final question selection we found high internal consistency scores across the total questionnaire and within the executive function, memory and language domains. CS-DS scores showed a wide range, with minimal floor and ceiling effects. We found high interrater (n = 55) and test retest (n = 36) intraclass correlations. CS-DS scores were significantly lower in those aged 41+ with significant cognitive decline compared to those without decline. Across all adults without cognitive decline, CS-DS scores correlated significantly to measures of general abilities. Exploratory factor analysis suggested five factors within the scale, relating to memory, self-regulation / inhibition, self-direction / initiation, communication, and focussing attention. The CS-DS therefore shows good interrater and test retest reliability, and appears to be a valid and suitable informant rating tool for assessing everyday cognitive abilities in a wide range of individuals with DS. Such a questionnaire may be a useful outcome measure for intervention studies to assess improvements to cognition, in addition to

  11. A Comparison of School Psychologists' and School Counselors' Ability to Identify Cognitive Abilities Underlying Basic Academic Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Myriam E.

    2010-01-01

    School counselors influence the referral process and delivery of educational recommendations. Their perceptions of students' cognitive abilities are likely to influence their referral decisions as well as their interpretation and use of the results of psychological testing. The Cattell-Horn-Carroll, (CHC), model of intelligence, is gaining…

  12. Experience, Spatial Abilities, and Chess Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, Dianne D.; Morgan, David

    A study examined chess expertise in 113 children in grades 1-12 who played competitive chess. Specific attention was given to the relationship between experience, as measured by number of games played, and skill, as measured by national chess ratings. For the top 15 players, emphasis was placed on relationships among chess skill, spatial…

  13. Cognitive Abilities Independent of IQ Correlate with Regional Brain Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Jung, Rex E.; Colom, Roberto; Haier, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence relating psychometric measures of general intelligence and reasoning to regional brain structure and function assessed with a variety of neuroimaging techniques. Cognitive dimensions independent of general intelligence can also be identified psychometrically and studied for any neuroanatomical correlates. Here we…

  14. Cognitive Therapy Abilities in People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sams, Kathryn; Collins, Suzanne; Reynolds, Shirley

    2006-01-01

    Background: There is a need to develop and adapt therapies for use with people with learning disabilities who have mental health problems. Aims: To examine the performance of people with learning disabilities on two cognitive therapy tasks (emotion recognition and discrimination among thoughts, feelings and behaviours). We hypothesized that…

  15. Do Twins Have Lower Cognitive Ability than Singletons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webbink, Dinand; Posthuma, Danielle; Boomsma, Dorret I.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Visscher, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies based on population cohorts born at least 35 years ago, have reported appreciable childhood cognitive deficits for twins. We compared longitudinal IQ scores from approximately 188,000 singletons and some 6000 twins who went to primary school in the Netherlands from 1994 to 2003. In addition, we used a family-based design in which…

  16. Developmental Changes in Imaginative Play and Cognitive Ability of Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James E.; Ershler, Joan

    This study tests the hypothesis that components of play such as immagination contribute to cognitive development. Twenty-four middle-class children attending a university-affiliated preschool were observed for 20 one-minute play observations during the Spring Semesters of 1978 and 1979. Play was coded using categories for both social (solitary,…

  17. Story Processing Ability in Cognitively Healthy Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among measures of comprehension and production for stories depicted in wordless pictures books and measures of memory and attention for 2 age groups. Method: Sixty cognitively healthy adults participated. They consisted of two groups--young adults (20-29 years of age) and older…

  18. Cognitive Style Correlates of Mathematical Ability among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Blerkom, Malcolm L.

    The field dependent-independent cognitive style has been noted by researchers to be related to mathematical achievement. Researchers have also noted a relationship between field dependence and measures of intelligence, and between sex and mathematical achievement. A multiple regression framework was used to examine the effects of field dependence,…

  19. The role of auditory abilities in basic mechanisms of cognition in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Massimo; Borella, Erika

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess age-related differences between young and older adults in auditory abilities and to investigate the relationship between auditory abilities and basic mechanisms of cognition in older adults. Although there is a certain consensus that the participant’s sensitivity to the absolute intensity of sounds (such as that measured via pure tone audiometry) explains his/her cognitive performance, there is not yet much evidence that the participant’s auditory ability (i.e., the whole supra-threshold processing of sounds) explains his/her cognitive performance. Twenty-eight young adults (age <35), 26 young–old adults (65 í age í 75), and 28 old–old adults (age >75) were presented with a set of tasks estimating several auditory abilities (i.e., frequency discrimination, intensity discrimination, duration discrimination, timbre discrimination, gap detection, amplitude modulation detection, and the absolute threshold for a 1 kHz pure tone) and the participant’s working memory, cognitive inhibition, and processing speed. Results showed an age-related decline in both auditory and cognitive performance. Moreover, regression analyses showed that a subset of the auditory abilities (i.e., the ability to discriminate frequency, duration, timbre, and the ability to detect amplitude modulation) explained a significant part of the variance observed in the processing speed of older adults. Overall, the present results highlight the relationship between auditory abilities and basic mechanisms of cognition. PMID:24115932

  20. Cognitive Modeling of Learning Abilities: A Status Report of LAMP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Christal, Raymond E.

    Research activities underway as part of the Air Force's Learning Abilities Measurement Program (LAMP) are described. A major objective of the program is to devise new models of the nature and organization of human abilities, that could be applied to improve personnel selection and classification systems. The activities of the project have been…

  1. What the Nose Knows: Olfaction and Cognitive Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danthiir, Vanessa; Roberts, Richard D.; Pallier, Gerry; Stankov, Lazar

    2001-01-01

    Studied the role of olfactory processes within the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence by testing 107 Australian college students with a battery of psychometric and olfactory tests. Results indicate the likely existence of an olfactory memory ability that is structurally independent of established higher-order abilities and not related…

  2. Map Skills Instruction and the Child's Developing Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Judith M. W.

    1973-01-01

    A hierarchial sequence for map skills instruction is proposed and related to existing programs. Emphasis in this sequential structure is placed on gradual development of the student's ability to use grid reference systems and orient himself satisfactorily on maps, as well as the gradual acquisition of certain measurement abilities. (SM)

  3. Cognitive Trait Modelling: The Case of Inductive Reasoning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinshuk, Taiyu Lin; McNab, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have regarded inductive reasoning as one of the seven primary mental abilities that account for human intelligent behaviours. Researchers have also shown that inductive reasoning ability is one of the best predictors for academic performance. Modelling of inductive reasoning is therefore an important issue for providing adaptivity in…

  4. The Role of Cognitive Abilities in Laparoscopic Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenier, M.; Schraagen, J. M. C.; Miedema, H. A. T.; Broeders, I. A. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Learning minimally invasive surgery (MIS) differs substantially from learning open surgery and trainees differ in their ability to learn MIS. Previous studies mainly focused on the role of visuo-spatial ability (VSA) on the learning curve for MIS. In the current study, the relationship between spatial memory, perceptual speed, and general…

  5. Multivariate Genetic Analysis of Specific Cognitive Abilities in the Colorado Adoption Project at Age 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Lon R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A multivariate hierarchical model of specific cognitive abilities was fitted to data from 196 adopted and 213 nonadopted children from the Colorado Adoption Project and 120 of their siblings to assess genetic influence on specific mental abilities. Genetic effects occur in middle childhood that differentially influence mental ability scores.…

  6. A General Model for the Organization of Cognitive Abilities. [Report] 1981:06.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Jan-Eric; And Others

    The report addresses the question of the structure of cognitive abilities, i.e., how many different abilities should be identified and the relations between abilities. Models suggested by Spearman, Thurstone, Guilford, Vernon, Cattell-Horn and others are reviewed. By combining features of the Vernon and Cattell-Horn models it is possible to…

  7. Number-specific and general cognitive markers of preschoolers' math ability profiles.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah A; Reeve, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Different number-specific and general cognitive markers have been claimed to underlie preschoolers' math ability. It is unclear, however, whether similar/different cognitive markers, or combinations of them, are associated with different patterns of emerging math abilities (i.e., different patterns of strength and weakness). To examine this question, 103 preschoolers (40-60 months of age) completed six math tasks (count sequence, object counting, give a number, naming numbers, ordinal relations, and arithmetic), three number-specific markers of math ability (dot enumeration, magnitude comparison, and spontaneous focusing on numerosity), and four general markers (working memory, response inhibition, attention, and vocabulary). A three-step latent profile modeling procedure identified five math ability profiles that differed in their patterns of math strengths and weaknesses; specifically, the profiles were characterized by (a) excellent math ability on all math tasks, (b) good arithmetic ability, (c) good math ability but relatively poor count sequence recitation ability, (d) average ability on all math tasks, and (e) poor ability on all math tasks. After controlling for age, only dot enumeration and spontaneous focusing on numerosity were associated with the math ability profiles, whereas vocabulary was also marginally significant, and these markers were differentially associated with different profiles; that is, different cognitive markers were associated with different patterns of strengths and weaknesses in math abilities. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the development of math cognition. PMID:26985575

  8. Mood-congruent cognitions constitute mood experience.

    PubMed

    Siemer, Matthias

    2005-09-01

    Three studies tested the assumption of a dispositional theory of moods that mood-related cognitions constitute essential parts of the phenomenal mood experience. In Study 1, after a hot- versus a cold-, sad-, or angry-mood induction, participants reported their momentary moods and their momentary mood-related cognitions. Self-reported moods and mood-related cognitions changed in a strictly parallel fashion in all mood induction groups. A mediation analysis showed that the influences of distraction on moods were completely mediated by changes in mood-related cognitions. Study 2 replicated the central findings of Study 1 with a musical mood induction procedure. Study 3 showed that the findings do not depend on the explicit manipulation of moods. The results support the tested assumption. PMID:16187865

  9. The association between family history of mental disorders and general cognitive ability

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, J J; Wray, N R; Pedersen, C B; Mortensen, P B; Greve, A N; Petersen, L

    2014-01-01

    There is an emerging literature linking cognitive ability with a wide range of psychiatric disorders. These findings have led to the hypothesis that diminished ‘cognitive reserve' is a causal risk factor for psychiatric disorders. However, it is also feasible that a family history of mental disorders may confound this relationship, by contributing to both a slight impairment in cognitive ability, and an increased risk of psychiatric disorder. On the basis of a large, population-based sample of young adult male conscripts (n=160 608), we examined whether the presence of a family history of a range of mental disorders was associated with cognitive ability, as tested by the Børge Priens Prøve. In those with no individual-level history of mental disorder, a family-level history of a mental disorder was associated with a slight reduction in cognitive ability. In general, this pattern was found regardless of the nature of the psychiatric disorder in the family. Our study suggests that shared familial factors may underpin both cognitive ability and the risk of a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Convergent evidence from epidemiology and genetics suggests that shared genetic factors underpin an unexpectedly diverse range of psychiatric disorders. On the basis of the findings of the current study, we speculate that these same shared genetic factors also contribute to general cognitive ability. PMID:25050992

  10. A Daily Process Analysis of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Perceived Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Patrick T.; Maher, Jaclyn P.; Doerksen, Shawna E.; Elavsky, Steriani; Rebar, Amanda L.; Conroy, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the role of both physical activity and sedentary behavior in daily perceptions of cognitive abilities and whether these relations exist within-person, between-person, or both. Design Non-experimental, intensive longitudinal research using ecological momentary assessments. Method College students wore accelerometers and provided end-of-day reports on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and perceived cognitive abilities for 14 days. Results Across self-reports and objective measures of behavior, daily deviations in physical activity were positively associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Daily deviations in self-reported, but not objectively-assessed, sedentary behavior also were negatively associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Contrary to previous research, overall levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviors were not associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Conclusions These findings indicate that physical activity has a within- rather than between-person association with perceived cognitive abilities although between-person associations effects may require longer monitoring periods to manifest. Further research is needed to establish the direction of causality and resolve whether the nature (rather than quantity) of sedentary activities influences cognition. PMID:25419176

  11. Cognitive Abilities Underlying Reading Accuracy, Fluency and Spelling Acquisition in Korean Hangul Learners from Grades 1 to 4: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Rin; Uno, Akira

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the cognitive abilities that predict reading and spelling performance in Korean children in Grades 1 to 4, depending on expertise and reading experience. As a result, visual cognition, phonological awareness, naming speed and receptive vocabulary significantly predicted reading accuracy in children in Grades 1 and 2, whereas visual cognition, phonological awareness and rapid naming speed did not predict reading accuracy in children in higher grades. For reading, fluency, phonological awareness, rapid naming speed and receptive vocabulary were crucial abilities in children in Grades 1 to 3, whereas phonological awareness was not a significant predictor in children in Grade 4. In spelling, reading ability and receptive vocabulary were the most important abilities for accurate Hangul spelling. The results suggested that the degree of cognitive abilities required for reading and spelling changed depending on expertise and reading experience. PMID:25997096

  12. Issues and advances in research methods on video games and cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Sobczyk, Bart; Dobrowolski, Paweł; Skorko, Maciek; Michalak, Jakub; Brzezicka, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs) over non-players (NVGPs) and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of recruited VGP groups and lack of genre differentiation have not yet been widely addressed. In this article we present objective and declarative gameplay time data gathered from large samples in order to illustrate how playtime is distributed over VGP populations. The implications of this data are then discussed in the context of previous studies in the field. We also argue in favor of differentiating video games based on their genre when recruiting study samples, as this form of classification reflects the core mechanics that they utilize and therefore provides a measure of insight into what cognitive functions are likely to be engaged most. Additionally, we present the Covert Video Game Experience Questionnaire as an example of how this sort of classification can be applied during the recruitment process. PMID:26483717

  13. Issues and advances in research methods on video games and cognitive abilities

    PubMed Central

    Sobczyk, Bart; Dobrowolski, Paweł; Skorko, Maciek; Michalak, Jakub; Brzezicka, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs) over non-players (NVGPs) and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of recruited VGP groups and lack of genre differentiation have not yet been widely addressed. In this article we present objective and declarative gameplay time data gathered from large samples in order to illustrate how playtime is distributed over VGP populations. The implications of this data are then discussed in the context of previous studies in the field. We also argue in favor of differentiating video games based on their genre when recruiting study samples, as this form of classification reflects the core mechanics that they utilize and therefore provides a measure of insight into what cognitive functions are likely to be engaged most. Additionally, we present the Covert Video Game Experience Questionnaire as an example of how this sort of classification can be applied during the recruitment process. PMID:26483717

  14. Is probability matching smart? Associations between probabilistic choices and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Stanovich, Keith E

    2003-03-01

    In three experiments involving over 1,500 university students (n = 1,557) and two different probabilistic choice tasks, we found that the utility-maximizing strategy of choosing the most probable alternative was not the majority response. In a story problem version of a probabilistic choice task in which participants chose from among five different strategies,the maximizing response and the probability-matching response were each selected by a similar number of students (roughly 35% of the sample selected each). In a more continuous, or trial-by-trial, task, the utility-maximizing response was chosen by only one half as many students asthe probability-matching response. More important, in both versions of the task, the participants preferring the utility-maximizing response were significantly higher in cognitive ability than were the participants showing a probability-matching tendency. Critiques of the traditional interpretation of probability matching as nonoptimal may well help explain why some humans are drawn to the nonmaximizing behavior of probability matching, but the traditional heuristics and biases interpretation can most easily accommodate the finding that participants high in computational ability are more likely to carry out the rule-based cognitive procedures that lead to maximizing behavior. PMID:12749466

  15. The Importance of Sound for Cognitive Sequencing Abilities: The Auditory Scaffolding Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Christopher M.; Pisoni, David B.; Kronenberger, William G.

    2010-01-01

    Sound is inherently a temporal and sequential signal. Experience with sound therefore may help bootstrap – i.e., provide a kind of “scaffolding” for – the development of general cognitive abilities related to representing temporal or sequential patterns. Accordingly, the absence of sound early in development may result in disturbances to these sequencing skills. In support of this hypothesis we present two types of findings. First, normal-hearing adults do best on sequencing tasks when the sense of hearing, rather than vision, can be used. Second, recent findings suggest that deaf children have disturbances on exactly these same kinds of tasks that involve learning and manipulation of serial order information. We suggest that sound provides an “auditory scaffolding” for time and serial order behavior, possibly mediated through neural connections between the temporal and frontal lobes of the brain. Under conditions of auditory deprivation, auditory scaffolding is absent, resulting in neural reorganization and a disturbance to cognitive sequencing abilities. PMID:20725604

  16. Genetic variations of FACL4 have no obvious influence on cognitive ability in young Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kejin; Zheng, Zijian; An, Caiyan; Gao, Xiaocai; Zhang, Fuchang

    2010-06-30

    The influence of genetic variants of FACL4 on individual cognitive ability was examined in a random sample of 213 boys and 224 girls. Both conventional genetic methods and analysis of variance were applied in this study. We found no significant relationship between FACL4 and cognitive function. PMID:20452052

  17. Specific Patterns of Cognitive Abilities in Young Children with Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Kathryn L.; Blair, Clancy; Scott, Marcia S.; Bolger, Kerry E.

    2004-01-01

    Whereas a wealth of research has examined cognitive abilities of groups of individuals with mild mental retardation (MMR), less research has investigated potential differences in cognitive performance among individuals with mental retardation (Baumeister, 1997). The present study was an exploratory analysis of variability in performance of…

  18. An Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Hypotheses About Cognitive Abilities and Achievement From Childhood to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Emilio; McArdle, John J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the dynamics of cognitive abilities and academic achievement from childhood to early adulthood. Predictions about time-dependent "coupling" relations between cognition and achievement based on R. B. Cattell's (1971, 1987) investment hypothesis were evaluated using linear dynamic models applied to longitudinal data (N=672).…

  19. Ability, Breadth, and Parsimony in Computational Models of Higher-Order Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassimatis, Nicholas L.; Bello, Paul; Langley, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Computational models will play an important role in our understanding of human higher-order cognition. How can a model's contribution to this goal be evaluated? This article argues that three important aspects of a model of higher-order cognition to evaluate are (a) its ability to reason, solve problems, converse, and learn as well as people do;…

  20. Heuristics and Biases as Measures of Critical Thinking: Associations with Cognitive Ability and Thinking Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Richard F.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Stanovich, Keith E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that there are a range of effects usually studied within cognitive psychology that are legitimately thought of as aspects of critical thinking: the cognitive biases studied in the heuristics and biases literature. In a study of 793 student participants, the authors found that the ability to avoid these biases was…

  1. Performance of Children with Autism on Selected Measures of Reading Achievement and Cognitive-Linguistic Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Vicky

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the performance of children with autism on selected measures of reading achievement and cognitive-linguistic ability. How children with autism performed on three reading achievement measures, Letter-Word Identification, Passage Comprehension, and Oral Reading Fluency, and two cognitive-linguistic measures, Rapid Letter Naming…

  2. Walking ability to predict future cognitive decline in old adults: A scoping review.

    PubMed

    Kikkert, Lisette H J; Vuillerme, Nicolas; van Campen, Jos P; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claudine J

    2016-05-01

    Early identification of individuals at risk for cognitive decline may facilitate the selection of those who benefit most from interventions. Current models predicting cognitive decline include neuropsychological and/or biological markers. Additional markers based on walking ability might improve accuracy and specificity of these models because motor and cognitive functions share neuroanatomical structures and psychological processes. We reviewed the relationship between walking ability at one point of (mid) life and cognitive decline at follow-up. A systematic literature search identified 20 longitudinal studies. The average follow-up time was 4.5 years. Gait speed quantified walking ability in most studies (n=18). Additional gait measures (n=4) were step frequency, variability and step-length. Despite methodological weaknesses, results revealed that gait slowing (0.68-1.1 m/sec) preceded cognitive decline and the presence of dementia syndromes (maximal odds and hazard ratios of 10.4 and 11.1, respectively). The results indicate that measures of walking ability could serve as additional markers to predict cognitive decline. However, gait speed alone might lack specificity. We recommend gait analysis, including dynamic gait parameters, in clinical evaluations of patients with suspected cognitive decline. Future studies should focus on examining the specificity and accuracy of various gait characteristics to predict future cognitive decline. PMID:26861693

  3. 50 CFR 253.13 - Ability and experience requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ability and experience requirements. 253.13 Section 253.13 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Obligation Guarantee Program § 253.13 Ability and experience requirements. A notemaker and the majority...

  4. Brain white matter damage in aging and cognitive ability in youth and older age.

    PubMed

    Valdés Hernández, Maria Del C; Booth, Tom; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J; Penke, Lars; Morris, Zoe; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Royle, Natalie A; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Bastin, Mark E; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2013-12-01

    Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) reflect accumulating white matter damage with aging and impair cognition. The role of childhood intelligence is rarely considered in associations between cognitive impairment and WMH. We studied community-dwelling older people all born in 1936, in whom IQ had been assessed at age 11 years. We assessed medical histories, current cognitive ability and quantified WMH on MR imaging. Among 634 participants, mean age 72.7 (SD 0.7), age 11 IQ was the strongest predictor of late life cognitive ability. After accounting for age 11 IQ, greater WMH load was significantly associated with lower late life general cognitive ability (β = -0.14, p < 0.01) and processing speed (β = -0.19, p < 0.001). WMH were also associated independently with lower age 11 IQ (β = -0.08, p < 0.05) and hypertension. In conclusion, having more WMH is significantly associated with lower cognitive ability, after accounting for prior ability, age 11IQ. Early-life IQ also influenced WMH in later life. Determining how lower IQ in youth leads to increasing brain damage with aging is important for future successful cognitive aging. PMID:23850341

  5. Partial least squares correlation of multivariate cognitive abilities and local brain structure in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, G; Dahnke, R; Winkler, A D; Gaser, C

    2013-11-15

    Intelligent behavior is not a one-dimensional phenomenon. Individual differences in human cognitive abilities might be therefore described by a 'cognitive manifold' of intercorrelated tests from partially independent domains of general intelligence and executive functions. However, the relationship between these individual differences and brain morphology is not yet fully understood. Here we take a multivariate approach to analyzing covariations across individuals in two feature spaces: the low-dimensional space of cognitive ability subtests and the high-dimensional space of local gray matter volume obtained from voxel-based morphometry. By exploiting a partial least squares correlation framework in a large sample of 286 healthy children and adolescents, we identify directions of maximum covariance between both spaces in terms of latent variable modeling. We obtain an orthogonal set of latent variables representing commonalities in the brain-behavior system, which emphasize specific neuronal networks involved in cognitive ability differences. We further explore the early lifespan maturation of the covariance between cognitive abilities and local gray matter volume. The dominant latent variable revealed positive weights across widespread gray matter regions (in the brain domain) and the strongest weights for parents' ratings of children's executive function (in the cognitive domain). The obtained latent variables for brain and cognitive abilities exhibited moderate correlations of 0.46-0.6. Moreover, the multivariate modeling revealed indications for a heterochronic formation of the association as a process of brain maturation across different age groups. PMID:23727321

  6. The Relationship between Language Ability and Cognitive Function in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Shim, Joo-Cheol; Kong, Bo-Geum; Kang, Je-Wook; Moon, Jung-Joon; Jeon, Dong-Wook; Jung, Sung-Soo; Seo, Beom-Joo; Jung, Do-Un

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cognitive dysfunction is common in people with schizophrenia, and language disability is one of the most notable cognitive deficits. This study assessed the use and comprehension ability of the Korean language in patients with schizophrenia and the correlations between language ability and cognitive function. Methods Eighty-six patients with schizophrenia and a group of 29 healthy controls were recruited. We assessed both clinical symptoms and cognitive functions including Korean language ability. For clinical symptoms, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia Scale, and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale were used. For the Korean language ability assessment, a portion of the Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) Korean Language Test was used. The Short-form of Korean-Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Korean version of the University of California San Diego (UCSD) Performance-based Skills Assessment (K-UPSA), and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were used to assess cognitive functions. Results Schizophrenic patients had significantly lower scores in the language and cognitive function tests both in the total and subscale scores. Various clinical scores had negative correlations with reading comprehension ability of the KBS Korean Language Test. The WCST and a part of the K-UPSA had positive correlations with multiple domains of the language test. Conclusion A significant difference was found between schizophrenic patients and controls in language ability. Correlations between Korean language ability and several clinical symptoms and cognitive functions were demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia. Tests of cognitive function had positive correlations with different aspects of language ability. PMID:26598588

  7. Individual differences in social dominance orientation predict support for the use of cognitive ability tests.

    PubMed

    Kim, Anita; Berry, Christopher M

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the personality processes involved in the debate surrounding the use of cognitive ability tests in college admissions. In Study 1, 108 undergraduates (Mage  = 18.88 years, 60 women, 80 Whites) completed measures of social dominance orientation (SDO), testing self-efficacy, and attitudes regarding the use of cognitive ability tests in college admissions; SAT/ACT scores were collected from the registrar. Sixty-seven undergraduates (Mage  = 19.06 years, 39 women, 49 Whites) completed the same measures in Study 2, along with measures of endorsement of commonly presented arguments about test use. In Study 3, 321 American adults (Mage  = 35.58 years, 180 women, 251 Whites) completed the same measures used in Study 2; half were provided with facts about race and validity issues surrounding cognitive ability tests. Individual differences in SDO significantly predicted support for the use of cognitive ability tests in all samples, after controlling for SAT/ACT scores and test self-efficacy and also among participants who read facts about cognitive ability tests. Moreover, arguments for and against test use mediated this effect. The present study sheds new light on an old debate by demonstrating that individual differences in beliefs about hierarchy play a key role in attitudes toward cognitive ability test use. PMID:24219574

  8. Whole genome sequences of two octogenarians with sustained cognitive abilities

    PubMed Central

    Nickles, Dorothee; Madireddy, Lohith; Patel, Nihar; Isobe, Noriko; Miller, Bruce L.; Baranzini, Sergio E.; Kramer, Joel H.; Oksenberg, Jorge R.

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous genetic variants affecting aging and mortality have been identified, e.g. APOE ε4, the genetic component influencing cognitive aging has not been fully defined yet. A better knowledge of the genetics of aging will prove helpful in understanding the underlying biological processes. Here, we describe the whole genome sequences of two female octogenarians. We provide the repertoire of genomic variants that the two octogenarians have in common. We also describe the overlap with the previously reported genomes of two supercentenarians - individuals aged ≥ 110 years. We assessed the genetic disease propensities of the octogenarians and non-aged control genomes and could not find support for the hypothesis that long-lived healthy individuals might exhibit greater genetic fitness than the general population. Furthermore, there is no evidence for an accumulation of previously described variants promoting longevity in the two octogenarians. These findings suggest that genetic fitness, as currently defined, is not the sole factor enabling an increased lifespan. We identified a number of healthy-cognitive-aging candidate genetic loci awaiting confirmation in larger studies. PMID:25618617

  9. Infant Hand Preference and the Development of Cognitive Abilities.

    PubMed

    Michel, George F; Campbell, Julie M; Marcinowski, Emily C; Nelson, Eliza L; Babik, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    Hand preference develops in the first two postnatal years with nearly half of infants exhibiting a consistent early preference for acquiring objects. Others exhibit a more variable developmental trajectory but by the end of their second postnatal year, most exhibit a consistent hand preference for role-differentiated bimanual manipulation. According to some forms of embodiment theory, these differences in hand use patterns should influence the way children interact with their environments, which, in turn, should affect the structure and function of brain development. Such early differences in brain development should result in different trajectories of psychological development. We present evidence that children with consistent early hand preferences exhibit advanced patterns of cognitive development as compared to children who develop a hand preference later. Differences in the developmental trajectory of hand preference are predictive of developmental differences in language, object management skills, and tool-use skills. As predicted by Casasanto's body-specificity hypothesis, infants with different hand preferences proceed along different developmental pathways of cognitive functioning. PMID:27047431

  10. Infant Hand Preference and the Development of Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Michel, George F.; Campbell, Julie M.; Marcinowski, Emily C.; Nelson, Eliza L.; Babik, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    Hand preference develops in the first two postnatal years with nearly half of infants exhibiting a consistent early preference for acquiring objects. Others exhibit a more variable developmental trajectory but by the end of their second postnatal year, most exhibit a consistent hand preference for role-differentiated bimanual manipulation. According to some forms of embodiment theory, these differences in hand use patterns should influence the way children interact with their environments, which, in turn, should affect the structure and function of brain development. Such early differences in brain development should result in different trajectories of psychological development. We present evidence that children with consistent early hand preferences exhibit advanced patterns of cognitive development as compared to children who develop a hand preference later. Differences in the developmental trajectory of hand preference are predictive of developmental differences in language, object management skills, and tool-use skills. As predicted by Casasanto’s body-specificity hypothesis, infants with different hand preferences proceed along different developmental pathways of cognitive functioning. PMID:27047431

  11. Cognitive Ability and Everyday Functioning in Women with Turner Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Jennifer; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of 23 Turner syndrome (TUS) women with 23 women with constitutional short stature (CSS) found significant group differences for Performance and Full Scale IQ, largely due to TUS women's deficits in spatial and mathematical ability. TUS individuals had significantly lower educational and occupational attainment than CSS controls but did…

  12. [A cognitive behavioural group therapy program for the improvement of the cognitive and social abilities of patients with schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Efthimiou, K; Rakitzi, S; Roder, V

    2009-07-01

    Pharmacotherapy is the main therapy for the positive and negative symptoms and for the relapse prevention for patients with schizophrenia. The cognitive and behavioural therapy can be combined with other therapies for schizophrenia. Within this frame of reference the cognitive behavioural therapy for schizophrenia and other psychotic syndromes is the first choice for psychiatrists and psychologists in European countries. The National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) has included the cognitive behavioural therapy as a recommended therapy for schizophrenia. The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy includes interventions for the acute phase in an episode (relapse) as well as for the rehabilitation of patients with schizophrenia. The Integrated Psychological Therapy, which is an effective group therapy for the improvement of cognitive and social abilities of patients with schizophrenia, will be represented in the following article. PMID:22218214

  13. Housing mobility and cognitive development: Change in verbal and nonverbal abilities.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Patrick J; McGrath, Lauren M; Henry, David B; Schoeny, Michael; Chavira, Dina; Taylor, Jeremy J; Day, Orin

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the influence of housing instability on verbal and nonverbal cognitive development among at-risk children and adolescents involved in the child welfare system. Frequent residential changes threaten child mental health, especially among low-income families. Little is known regarding disruptions to cognitive growth, specifically the impact on verbal and nonverbal abilities. The study tests whether developmental timing of housing mobility affects cognitive development beyond individual and family risks. A nationally representative study of families (n=2,442) susceptible to housing and family instability tracked children and adolescents aged 4-14 years (M=8.95 years) over 36 months following investigation by the child welfare system. Youth completed standardized cognitive assessments while caregivers reported on behavior problems and family risk at three time points. Latent growth models examined change in cognitive abilities over time. Housing mobility in the 12 months prior to baseline predicts lower verbal cognitive abilities that improve marginally. Similar effects emerge for all age groups; however, frequent moves in infancy diminish the influence of subsequent housing mobility on verbal tasks. Housing instability threatened cognitive development beyond child maltreatment, family changes, poverty, and other risks. Findings inform emerging research on environmental influences on neurocognitive development, as well as identify targets for early intervention. Systematic assessment of family housing problems, including through the child welfare system, provides opportunities for coordinated responses to prevent instability and cognitive threats. PMID:26184055

  14. Cognitive Ability, Self-Assessed Intelligence and Personality: Common Genetic but Independent Environmental Aetiologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratko, Denis; Butkovic, Ana; Vukasovic, Tena; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; von Stumm, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Self-perceived abilities (SPA), which play an important role in academic achievement, have been recently reported to be fully attributable to genetic and non-shared environmental influences. To replicate and extend this finding, 732 Croatian twins (15-22 years old) were assessed on cognitive ability, self-assessed intelligence (SAI), and Five…

  15. Do Interests and Cognitive Abilities Help Explain College Major Choice Equally Well for Women and Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passler, Katja; Hell, Benedikt

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines whether vocational interests, measured by Holland's RIASEC model, and objectively assessed cognitive abilities, were useful in discriminating among various major categories for a sample of 1990 German university students. Interests and specific abilities, in combination, significantly discriminated among major categories…

  16. Situational Effects May Account for Gain Scores in Cognitive Ability Testing: A Longitudinal SEM Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matton, Nadine; Vautier, Stephane; Raufaste, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Mean gain scores for cognitive ability tests between two sessions in a selection setting are now a robust finding, yet not fully understood. Many authors do not attribute such gain scores to an increase in the target abilities. Our approach consists of testing a longitudinal SEM model suitable to this view. We propose to model the scores' changes…

  17. Memory and Cognitive Strategies of High Ability Students in a Rural Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Fuziana; Yunus, Melor Md

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine language learning strategies employed by the high ability students in a rural secondary school. Memory and cognitive strategies employed by the high ability students were the main focus in this study. A survey design was used and data was collected using Oxford's questionnaires. Findings reveal that the high…

  18. Broad Cognitive Abilities of Children with Mental Retardation: An Analysis of Group and Individual Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Renee; Floyd, Randy G.

    2006-01-01

    Group and individual broad ability profiles of children with mental retardation and a matched sample of children with average achievement was investigated through use of the 7 Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) factor clusters from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Results indicate that, as a group, the ranked performance of the…

  19. Quantitative Genetic Analysis of Latent Growth Curve Models of Cognitive Abilities in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Chandra A.; Finkel, Deborah; McArdle, John J.; Gatz, Margaret; Berg, Stig; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2005-01-01

    Though many cognitive abilities exhibit marked decline over the adult years, individual differences in rates of change have been observed. In the current study, biometrical latent growth models were used to examine sources of variability for ability level (intercept) and change (linear and quadratic effects) for verbal, fluid, memory, and…

  20. Relations between Prenatal Testosterone Levels and Cognitive Abilities at 4 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegan, Jo-Anne K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared children's cognitive abilities at four years and their prenatal amniotic fluid testosterone levels. For girls, prenatal testosterone levels were related in a curvilinear manner to language comprehension and classification abilities, and inversely related to counting and knowledge of number facts. For boys, no relationships were found. (BC)

  1. Cognitive Ability and Continuous Measures of Relative Hand Skill: A Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This note re-examines a finding by Crow et al. [Crow, T. J., Crow, L. R., Done, D. J., & Leask, S. (1998). Relative hand skill predicts academic ability: Global deficits at the point of hemispheric indecision. "Neuropsychologia", 36(12), 1275-1281] that equal skill of right and left hands is associated with deficits in cognitive ability. This is…

  2. The Structure of Cognitive Abilities in Youths with Manic Symptoms: A Factorial Invariance Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaujean, A. Alexander; Freeman, Megan Joseph; Youngstrom, Eric; Carlson, Gabrielle

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the structure of cognitive ability (specifically, verbal/crystallized ["Gc"] and visual-spatial ability ["Gv"]), as measured in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, in youth with manic symptoms with a nationally representative group of similarly aged youth. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis found the majority of…

  3. Assessment of Cognitive Ability of Students with Severe and Low-Incidence Disabilities--Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Vujeva, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Students with severe and low-incidence disabilities comprise a heterogeneous population that often presents a challenge to the professionals charged with evaluating their skills and abilities. This is especially true in conducting a valid assessment of the cognitive ability of these children. Often, school psychologists are limited to the use of…

  4. White matter maturation profiles through early childhood predict general cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Deoni, Sean C L; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Elison, Jed T; Walker, Lindsay; Doernberg, Ellen; Waskiewicz, Nicole; Dirks, Holly; Piryatinsky, Irene; Dean, Doug C; Jumbe, N L

    2016-03-01

    Infancy and early childhood are periods of rapid brain development, during which brain structure and function mature alongside evolving cognitive ability. An important neurodevelopmental process during this postnatal period is the maturation of the myelinated white matter, which facilitates rapid communication across neural systems and networks. Though prior brain imaging studies in children (4 years of age and above), adolescents, and adults have consistently linked white matter development with cognitive maturation and intelligence, few studies have examined how these processes are related throughout early development (birth to 4 years of age). Here, we show that the profile of white matter myelination across the first 5 years of life is strongly and specifically related to cognitive ability. Using a longitudinal design, coupled with advanced magnetic resonance imaging, we demonstrate that children with above-average ability show differential trajectories of myelin development compared to average and below average ability children, even when controlling for socioeconomic status, gestation, and birth weight. Specifically, higher ability children exhibit slower but more prolonged early development, resulting in overall increased myelin measures by ~3 years of age. These results provide new insight into the early neuroanatomical correlates of cognitive ability, and suggest an early period of prolonged maturation with associated protracted white matter plasticity may result in strengthened neural networks that can better support later development. Further, these results reinforce the necessity of a longitudinal perspective in investigating typical or suspected atypical cognitive maturation. PMID:25432771

  5. The Association between Infections and General Cognitive Ability in Young Men – A Nationwide Study

    PubMed Central

    Benros, Michael Eriksen; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Nielsen, Philip Rising; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Petersen, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections and activated immune responses can affect the brain through several pathways that might also affect cognition. However, no large-scale study has previously investigated the effect of infections on the general cognitive ability in the general population. Methods Danish nationwide registers were linked to establish a cohort of all 161,696 male conscripts during the years 2006–2012 who were tested for cognitive ability, which was based on logical, verbal, numerical and spatial reasoning at a mean age of 19.4 years. Test scores were converted to a mean of 100.00 and with a standard deviation (SD) of 15. Data were analyzed as a cohort study with severe infections requiring hospitalization as exposure using linear regression. Results Adjusted effect sizes were calculated with non-exposure to severe infections as reference, ranging from 0.12 SD to 0.63 SD on general cognitive ability. A prior infection was associated with significantly lower cognitive ability by a mean of 1.76 (95%CI: -1.92 to -1.61; corresponding to 0.12 SD). The cognitive ability was affected the most by the temporal proximity of the last infection (P<0.001) and by the severity of infection measured by days of admission (P<0.001). The number of infections were associated with decreased cognitive ability in a dose-response relationship, and highest mean differences were found for ≥10 hospital contacts for infections (Mean: -5.54; 95%CI: -7.20 to -3.89; corresponding to 0.37 SD), and for ≥5 different types of infections (Mean: -9.44; 95%CI: -13.2 to -5.69; corresponding to 0.63 SD). Hospital contacts with infections had occurred in 35% of the individuals prior to conscription. Conclusions Independent of a wide range of possible confounders, significant associations between infections and cognitive ability were observed. Infections or related immune responses might directly affect the cognitive ability; however, associated heritable and environmental factors might also account

  6. Sex and familial sinistrality differences in cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Van Strien, J W; Bouma, A

    1995-03-01

    Cognitive functioning was assessed in 69 left-handed males and females with a positive family history of left-handedness and in 77 left-handed and 55 right-handed males and females without familial left-handedness. Compared to females, males performed better on numerical reasoning and on two visuospatial tasks involving spatial manipulations (Figure Rotation and Surface Development). Within the group of left-handers, the multivariate effect for Familial Sinistrality was significant. Left-handers with familial left-handedness exhibited better scores on numerical reasoning, on verbal reasoning, and on two visuospatial tasks involving visual closure (Hidden Figures, Picture Completion) than did left-handers without left-handed relatives. The nonfamilial left-handers also exhibited lower scores on both inductive reasoning tasks when they were compared to their right-handed counterparts. The outcome runs contrary to the prevalent conclusion that left-handers with left-handed relatives are more likely to exhibit lower performances on visuospatial tasks than left-handers without such relatives. PMID:7772330

  7. Cognitive ability and continuous measures of relative hand skill: a note.

    PubMed

    Denny, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This note re-examines a finding by Crow et al. [Crow, T. J., Crow, L. R., Done, D. J., & Leask, S. (1998). Relative hand skill predicts academic ability: Global deficits at the point of hemispheric indecision. Neuropsychologia, 36(12), 1275-1281] that equal skill of right and left hands is associated with deficits in cognitive ability. This is consistent with the idea that failure to develop dominance of one hemisphere is associated with various pathologies such as learning difficulties. Using the same data source but utilising additional data, evidence is found of a more complex relationship between cognitive ability and relative hand skill. PMID:18342341

  8. Childhood cognitive ability and adult mental health in the British 1946 birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Stephani L.; Jones, Peter B.; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Wadsworth, Michael E.J.; Richards, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    We examined whether childhood cognitive ability was associated with two mental health outcomes at age 53 years: the 28 item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) as a measure of internalising symptoms of anxiety and depression, and the CAGE screen for potential alcohol abuse as an externalising disorder. A total of 1875 participants were included from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, also known as the British 1946 birth cohort. The results indicated that higher childhood cognitive ability was associated with reporting fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression GHQ-28 scores in women, and increased risk of potential alcohol abuse in both men and women. Results were adjusted for educational attainment, early socioeconomic status (SES) and adverse circumstances, and adult SES, adverse circumstances, and negative health behaviours. After adjusting for childhood cognitive ability, greater educational attainment was associated with reporting greater symptoms of anxiety and depression on the GHQ-28. Although undoubtedly interrelated, our evidence on the diverging effects of childhood cognitive ability and educational attainment on anxiety and depression in mid-adulthood highlights the need for the two to be considered independently. While higher childhood cognitive ability is associated with fewer internalising symptoms of anxiety and depression in women, it places both men and women at higher risk for potential alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to examine possible psychosocial mechanisms that may be associated with both higher childhood cognitive ability and greater risk for alcohol abuse. In addition, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the gender-specific link between childhood cognitive ability and the risk of experiencing internalising disorders in mid-adulthood warrants further consideration. PMID:17397976

  9. Influence of cognitive abilities and age on word recall performance across trials and list segments.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Lacy E; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2011-01-01

    The influence of cognitive abilities and age on multitrial word recall performance was examined for different list segments (i.e., first, middle, and last) and across trials by having 2497 participants ages 18-98 complete a multitrial word list test along with reference cognitive ability tests. As expected, higher episodic memory ability was associated with better recall on all list segments but with a smaller influence for the last items on the early trials. Performance improved across trials, but there were no relations of the fluid intelligence construct that might be postulated to be associated with effective strategy implementation with any of the recall measures. Advanced age was associated with lower levels of performance, but very few of the age relations were significant after the variation in the reference cognitive abilities was controlled for. PMID:21977691

  10. Do participants differ in their cognitive abilities, task motivation, or personality characteristics as a function of time of participation?

    PubMed

    Robison, Matthew K; Unsworth, Nash

    2016-06-01

    Four experiments tested the conventional wisdom in experimental psychology that participants who complete laboratory tasks systematically differ in their cognitive abilities, motivational levels, and personality characteristics as a function of the time at which they participate during an academic term. Across 4 experiments with over 2,900 participants from 2 different universities with 2 different academic schedules, no convincing evidence suggested that individuals differ in cognitive abilities (working memory capacity, fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, long-term memory, and attention control). Similarly, no evidence suggested participants' task motivation varies systematically with time of participation, nor do any of the Big Five personality traits. The present study concludes that researchers need not be overly concerned with time of participation effects as a potential confound in individual differences or experimental psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26641446

  11. Elasmobranch cognitive ability: using electroreceptive foraging behaviour to demonstrate learning, habituation and memory in a benthic shark.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Joel A; Sims, David W; Bellamy, Patricia H; Gill, Andrew B

    2014-01-01

    Top predators inhabiting a dynamic environment, such as coastal waters, should theoretically possess sufficient cognitive ability to allow successful foraging despite unpredictable sensory stimuli. The cognition-related hunting abilities of marine mammals have been widely demonstrated. Having been historically underestimated, teleost cognitive abilities have also now been significantly demonstrated. Conversely, the abilities of elasmobranchs have received little attention, despite many species possessing relatively large brains comparable to some mammals. The need to determine what, if any, cognitive ability these globally distributed, apex predators are endowed with has been highlighted recently by questions arising from environmental assessments, specifically whether they are able to learn to distinguish between anthropogenic electric fields and prey bioelectric fields. We therefore used electroreceptive foraging behaviour in a model species, Scyliorhinus canicula (small-spotted catshark), to determine cognitive ability by analysing whether elasmobranchs are able to learn to improve foraging efficiency and remember learned behavioural adaptations. Positive reinforcement, operant conditioning was used to study catshark foraging behaviour towards artificial, prey-type electric fields (Efields). Catsharks rewarded with food for responding to Efields throughout experimental weeks were compared with catsharks that were not rewarded for responding in order to assess behavioural adaptation via learning ability. Experiments were repeated after a 3-week interval with previously rewarded catsharks this time receiving no reward and vice versa to assess memory ability. Positive reinforcement markedly and rapidly altered catshark foraging behaviour. Rewarded catsharks exhibited significantly more interest in the electrical stimulus than unrewarded catsharks. Furthermore, they improved their foraging efficiency over time by learning to locate and bite the electrodes to gain

  12. Younger Adults Show Long-Term Effects of Cognitive Training on Broad Cognitive Abilities over 2 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmiedek, Florian; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    In the COGITO study (Schmiedek, Lövdén, & Lindenberger, 2010), 101 younger adults practiced 12 tests of perceptual speed, working memory, and episodic memory for over 100 daily 1-hr sessions. The intervention resulted in positive transfer to broad cognitive abilities, including reasoning and episodic memory. Here, we examine whether these…

  13. Improving Cognition: A Multi-Cultural Approach. Final Report, MICA Project: Multi-Cultural Improvement of Cognitive Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Avila, Edward; And Others

    Described and summarized are the results of a program designed to improve the intellectual, academic, and linguistic functioning of children in a linguistically and culturally mixed setting. The program, Multicultural Improvement of Cognitive Abilities (MICA), was installed and supported by project staff in nine participating classrooms under two…

  14. Relative roles of cognitive ability and practical intelligence in the prediction of success.

    PubMed

    Taub, G E; Hayes, B G; Cunningham, W R; Sivo, S A

    2001-06-01

    Initial investigations into the construct of practical intelligence have identified a new general factor of practical intelligence (gp), which is believed to be independent of general cognitive ability. This construct, gp, is also believed to be a better predictor of success than cognitive ability, personality, or any combination of variables independent of gp. The existence of this construct and its independence from Spearman's g is, however, under debate. The purpose of the present study is to investigate both the relationship between gp and g and the relative roles of practical intelligence and cognitive ability in the prediction of success. The participants included 197 college students. Each completed both the Multidimensional Aptitude Battery and Sternberg and Wagner's measure of practical intelligence in academic psychology. The results of structural equation modeling support Sternberg and Wagner's assertion that practical intelligence and general cognitive ability are relatively independent constructs. Results of regression analysis, however, do not support their contention that practical intelligence is related to success after controlling for general cognitive ability. Implications of these results for research and theory on practical intelligence are discussed. PMID:11508047

  15. Enhancing Cognitive Abilities with Comprehensive Training: A Large, Online, Randomized, Active-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Joseph L.; Nelson, Rolf A.; Thomason, Moriah E.; Sternberg, Daniel A.; Katovich, Kiefer; Farzin, Faraz; Scanlon, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background A variety of studies have demonstrated gains in cognitive ability following cognitive training interventions. However, other studies have not shown such gains, and questions remain regarding the efficacy of specific cognitive training interventions. Cognitive training research often involves programs made up of just one or a few exercises, targeting limited and specific cognitive endpoints. In addition, cognitive training studies typically involve small samples that may be insufficient for reliable measurement of change. Other studies have utilized training periods that were too short to generate reliable gains in cognitive performance. Methods The present study evaluated an online cognitive training program comprised of 49 exercises targeting a variety of cognitive capacities. The cognitive training program was compared to an active control condition in which participants completed crossword puzzles. All participants were recruited, trained, and tested online (N = 4,715 fully evaluable participants). Participants in both groups were instructed to complete one approximately 15-minute session at least 5 days per week for 10 weeks. Results Participants randomly assigned to the treatment group improved significantly more on the primary outcome measure, an aggregate measure of neuropsychological performance, than did the active control group (Cohen’s d effect size = 0.255; 95% confidence interval = [0.198, 0.312]). Treatment participants showed greater improvements than controls on speed of processing, short-term memory, working memory, problem solving, and fluid reasoning assessments. Participants in the treatment group also showed greater improvements on self-reported measures of cognitive functioning, particularly on those items related to concentration compared to the control group (Cohen’s d = 0.249; 95% confidence interval = [0.191, 0.306]). Conclusion Taken together, these results indicate that a varied training program composed of a number of

  16. Cognitive aspects of young children's experience of economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Heberle, Amy E; Carter, Alice S

    2015-07-01

    Economic disadvantage is a well-studied risk factor for poorer behavioral and academic functioning in young children. Although the mechanisms by which disadvantage impacts children have long been of interest to researchers, studies to date have predominantly focused on mechanisms that are external to the child (e.g., parental depression, marital conflict). Very few studies have examined the internal, cognitive aspects of the experience of economic disadvantage, and almost none have considered how the effects of disadvantage on children's functioning might be mediated through cognitive processes. This article provides a framework for research into cognitive and social-cognitive mediators of economic disadvantage operating in early-to-middle childhood. The initial section of the article briefly reviews and summarizes the extant literature on childhood poverty and its effects. The second section reviews the evidence that preschool-aged children have the requisite cognitive abilities to recognize social inequality in their environments, to be aware of stereotypes related to social class, and to connect these social concepts to their own experience. The third section reviews and evaluates the small literature on children's appraisals, attributions, stereotypes, and perceptions of or about poverty and inequality. The fourth section defines and evaluates the literature on 2 social-cognitive processes-stereotype threat and status anxiety-that are hypothesized to mediate the effects of economic disadvantage on children's functioning. The article concludes with a series of proposed questions and hypotheses for future research, and elaborates on the potential implications of the proposed area of research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25822131

  17. Relations between Measures of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities and Mathematics Achievement across the School-Age Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Evans, Jeffrey J.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2003-01-01

    Cognitive clusters from the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) Tests of Cognitive Abilities that measure select Cattell-Horn-Carroll broad and narrow cognitive abilities were shown to be significantly related to mathematics achievement in a large, nationally representative sample of children and adolescents. Multiple regression analyses were used to…

  18. Selling points: What cognitive abilities are tapped by casual video games?

    PubMed

    Baniqued, Pauline L; Lee, Hyunkyu; Voss, Michelle W; Basak, Chandramallika; Cosman, Joshua D; Desouza, Shanna; Severson, Joan; Salthouse, Timothy A; Kramer, Arthur F

    2013-01-01

    The idea that video games or computer-based applications can improve cognitive function has led to a proliferation of programs claiming to "train the brain." However, there is often little scientific basis in the development of commercial training programs, and many research-based programs yield inconsistent or weak results. In this study, we sought to better understand the nature of cognitive abilities tapped by casual video games and thus reflect on their potential as a training tool. A moderately large sample of participants (n=209) played 20 web-based casual games and performed a battery of cognitive tasks. We used cognitive task analysis and multivariate statistical techniques to characterize the relationships between performance metrics. We validated the cognitive abilities measured in the task battery, examined a task analysis-based categorization of the casual games, and then characterized the relationship between game and task performance. We found that games categorized to tap working memory and reasoning were robustly related to performance on working memory and fluid intelligence tasks, with fluid intelligence best predicting scores on working memory and reasoning games. We discuss these results in the context of overlap in cognitive processes engaged by the cognitive tasks and casual games, and within the context of assessing near and far transfer. While this is not a training study, these findings provide a methodology to assess the validity of using certain games as training and assessment devices for specific cognitive abilities, and shed light on the mixed transfer results in the computer-based training literature. Moreover, the results can inform design of a more theoretically-driven and methodologically-sound cognitive training program. PMID:23246789

  19. Selling points: What cognitive abilities are tapped by casual video games?

    PubMed Central

    Baniqued, Pauline L.; Lee, Hyunkyu; Voss, Michelle W.; Basak, Chandramallika; Cosman, Joshua D.; DeSouza, Shanna; Severson, Joan; Salthouse, Timothy A.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2013-01-01

    The idea that video games or computer-based applications can improve cognitive function has led to a proliferation of programs claiming to “train the brain.” However, there is often little scientific basis in the development of commercial training programs, and many research-based programs yield inconsistent or weak results. In this study, we sought to better understand the nature of cognitive abilities tapped by casual video games and thus reflect on their potential as a training tool. A moderately large sample of participants (n=209) played 20 web-based casual games and performed a battery of cognitive tasks. We used cognitive task analysis and multivariate statistical techniques to characterize the relationships between performance metrics. We validated the cognitive abilities measured in the task battery, examined a task analysis-based categorization of the casual games, and then characterized the relationship between game and task performance. We found that games categorized to tap working memory and reasoning were robustly related to performance on working memory and fluid intelligence tasks, with fluid intelligence best predicting scores on working memory and reasoning games. We discuss these results in the context of overlap in cognitive processes engaged by the cognitive tasks and casual games, and within the context of assessing near and far transfer. While this is not a training study, these findings provide a methodology to assess the validity of using certain games as training and assessment devices for specific cognitive abilities, and shed light on the mixed transfer results in the computer-based training literature. Moreover, the results can inform design of a more theoretically-driven and methodologically-sound cognitive training program. PMID:23246789

  20. The Cognitive Roots of Scientific and Mathematical Ability and Discussant Reaction: Alternative Representations: A Key to Academic Talent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, D. N.; Simmons, Rebecca

    This paper examines the cognitive structures and processes that mediate mathematical and scientific ability. Ability is divided into achieved abilities and precursor abilities. Identified concepts in the area of achieved ability include expertise, understanding, and problem-solving. Other abilities can be seen as precursors to such achieved…

  1. Cognitive flexibility among individuals with Down syndrome: assessing the influence of verbal and nonverbal abilities.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Colin; Landry, Oriane; Russo, Natalie; Flores, Heidi; Jacques, Sophie; Burack, Jacob A

    2013-05-01

    The influences of verbal mental age (VMA) and performance mental age (PMA) on cognitive flexibility were examined among a group of participants with Down syndrome (DS), in order to disentangle the relative contributions of each. The impaired cognitive flexibility typically observed among individuals with DS in combination with uneven VMA and PMA development suggests an opportunity to further understand the developmental relationship between VMA, PMA, and cognitive flexibility. We examined the performance of 22 participants with DS on the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST), used for measuring cognitive flexibility among preschoolers. Partial correlations revealed that only VMA was related to the FIST after controlling for PMA, highlighting the role of verbal abilities in the development of cognitive flexibility. PMID:23734614

  2. Poor cognitive flexibility, and the experience thereof, in a subclinical sample of female students with obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sternheim, Lot; van der Burgh, Maureen; Berkhout, Lotte J; Dekker, Maria R; Ruiter, Channah

    2014-12-01

    Research indicates that people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have poor cognitive flexibility. However, studies have largely focused on actual abilities and while individuals' emotional responses may be just as important, little is known about how those with OCD experience a situation that requires cognitive flexibility. It is furthermore largely unknown whether cognitive flexibility may also be important for people with OCD symptoms, rather than only to those with full blown disorders. This study investigates the relationship between cognitive flexibility, and the experience thereof in female students with and without OCD symptoms. It was expected that poor cognitive flexibility would be positively associated to OCD symptoms, and that those with OCD symptoms would display poor cognitive flexibility, and experience situations requiring cognitive flexibility as more difficult, than those without OCD symptoms. Participants completed a measure for OCD symptoms, a neuropsychological task to measure cognitive flexibility, and a self-report measure assessing emotional experience of situations requiring cognitive flexibility. Positive associations between OCD symptoms and both poor cognitive flexibility and negative experience of situations requiring cognitive flexibility were found. Furthermore, those with OCD symptoms performed poorer on the cognitive flexibility task than those without OCD symptoms, and reported higher scores on the cognitive inflexibility questionnaire. Results confirm a relation between OCD symptoms and poor cognitive flexibility in a subclinical sample and identify a relation between OCD symptoms and a negative experience of situations that require cognitive flexibility. Overall findings suggest that poor cognitive flexibility may be an important part of OCD symptomatology. PMID:25283593

  3. Oral mixing ability and cognition in elderly persons with dementia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Weijenberg, R A F; Lobbezoo, F; Visscher, C M; Scherder, E J A

    2015-07-01

    Masticatory performance has been positively associated with cognitive ability in both animals and healthy humans. We hypothesised that there would also be a positive correlation between masticatory performance and cognition in older persons suffering from dementia. Older persons suffering from dementia (n = 114) and receiving institutionalised care were studied in a cross-sectional design. The assessments included masticatory performance, which was measured objectively with a two-colour gum mixing ability test, and cognition, which was assessed with a multidomain neuropsychological test battery. Significant relationships were observed between masticatory performance and general cognition and between masticatory performance and verbal fluency. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the correlation with general cognition was influenced by the scores for dependency in activities of daily living. The association between verbal fluency and masticatory performance was not significantly affected by secondary variables. An unexpected limitation of this study was the high dropout rate for the mixing ability test. The clinical implications of these findings are profound; care professionals should endeavour to maintain and stimulate mastication in older persons with dementia in an attempt to preserve cognition. PMID:25711519

  4. Higher cognitive ability buffers stress-related depressive symptoms in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Riglin, Lucy; Collishaw, Stephan; Shelton, Katherine H; McManus, I C; Ng-Knight, Terry; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Ajay K; Frederickson, Norah; Rice, Frances

    2016-02-01

    Stress has been shown to have a causal effect on risk for depression. We investigated the role of cognitive ability as a moderator of the effect of stressful life events on depressive symptoms and whether this varied by gender. Data were analyzed in two adolescent data sets: one representative community sample aged 11-12 years (n = 460) and one at increased familial risk of depression aged 9-17 years (n = 335). In both data sets, a three-way interaction was found whereby for girls, but not boys, higher cognitive ability buffered the association between stress and greater depressive symptoms. The interaction was replicated when the outcome was a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. This buffering effect in girls was not attributable to coping efficacy. However, a small proportion of the variance was accounted for by sensitivity to environmental stressors. Results suggest that this moderating effect of cognitive ability in girls is largely attributable to greater available resources for cognitive operations that offer protection against stress-induced reductions in cognitive processing and cognitive control which in turn reduces the likelihood of depressive symptomatology. PMID:25801205

  5. The influence of cognitive reasoning level, cognitive restructuring ability, disembedding ability, working memory capacity, and prior knowledge on students' performance on balancing equations by inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staver, John R.; Jacks, Tom

    Eighty-three (83) high school chemistry students were administered tests of cognitive reasoning level, cognitive restructuring ability, disembedding ability, working memory capacity, and prior knowledge before a learning segment on balancing chemical equations by inspection. After a four-day instructional segment utilizing direct teaching methodology, participants were given a posttest on balancing equations. Initial regression analysis indicated that a multicollinearity problem existed. Factor analysis and correlational data indicated that the reasoning, restructuring, and disembedding variables could be collapsed and redefined as a single restructuring variable. A hierarchial regression analysis was then performed, and the following conclusions were derived: (1) when prior knowledge alone is considered, students' understanding of chemical formulas significantly (p < 0.05) influences overall equation balancing performance; (2) when prior knowledge, restructuring, and working memory are considered, only restructuring ability significantly (p < 0.05) influences overall performance; (3) working memory capacity does not significantly (p < 0.05) influence overall performance but does on certain posttest items; (4) prior knowledge and restructuring ability also significantly (p < 0.05) influence performance on certain posttest items. Discussion includes the rationale for identifying the collapsed variable as restructuring and the absence of working memory capacity as a significant influence on overall performance.

  6. Influence of hearing loss and cognitive abilities on language development in CHARGE Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vesseur, Annemarie; Langereis, Margreet; Free, Rolien; Snik, Ad; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny; Mylanus, Emmanuel

    2016-08-01

    Hearing loss and cognitive delay are frequently occurring features in CHARGE syndrome that may contribute to impaired language development. However, not much is known about language development in patients with CHARGE syndrome. In this retrospective study, hearing loss, cognitive abilities, and language development are described in 50 patients with CHARGE syndrome. After informed consent was given, data were collected from local medical files. Most patients (38.3%; 18/47 patients) had moderate hearing loss (41-70 dB) and 58.5% (24/41 patients) had an IQ below 70. The mean language quotients of the receptive and expressive language were more than one standard deviation below the norm. Both hearing loss and cognitive delay had an influence on language development. Language and cognitive data were not available for all patients, which may have resulted in a pre-selection of patients with a delay. In conclusion, while hearing thresholds, cognitive abilities and language development vary widely in CHARGE syndrome, they are mostly below average. Hearing loss and cognitive delay have a significant influence on language development in children with CHARGE syndrome. To improve our knowledge about and the quality of care we can provide to CHARGE patients, hearing and developmental tests should be performed regularly in order to differentiate between the contributions of hearing loss and cognitive delay to delays in language development, and to provide adequate hearing amplification in the case of hearing loss. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27145116

  7. Genome-wide autozygosity is associated with lower general cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Howrigan, D P; Simonson, M A; Davies, G; Harris, S E; Tenesa, A; Starr, J M; Liewald, D C; Deary, I J; McRae, A; Wright, M J; Montgomery, G W; Hansell, N; Martin, N G; Payton, A; Horan, M; Ollier, W E; Abdellaoui, A; Boomsma, D I; DeRosse, P; Knowles, E E M; Glahn, D C; Djurovic, S; Melle, I; Andreassen, O A; Christoforou, A; Steen, V M; Hellard, S L; Sundet, K; Reinvang, I; Espeseth, T; Lundervold, A J; Giegling, I; Konte, B; Hartmann, A M; Rujescu, D; Roussos, P; Giakoumaki, S; Burdick, K E; Bitsios, P; Donohoe, G; Corley, R P; Visscher, P M; Pendleton, N; Malhotra, A K; Neale, B M; Lencz, T; Keller, M C

    2016-06-01

    Inbreeding depression refers to lower fitness among offspring of genetic relatives. This reduced fitness is caused by the inheritance of two identical chromosomal segments (autozygosity) across the genome, which may expose the effects of (partially) recessive deleterious mutations. Even among outbred populations, autozygosity can occur to varying degrees due to cryptic relatedness between parents. Using dense genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, we examined the degree to which autozygosity associated with measured cognitive ability in an unselected sample of 4854 participants of European ancestry. We used runs of homozygosity-multiple homozygous SNPs in a row-to estimate autozygous tracts across the genome. We found that increased levels of autozygosity predicted lower general cognitive ability, and estimate a drop of 0.6 s.d. among the offspring of first cousins (P=0.003-0.02 depending on the model). This effect came predominantly from long and rare autozygous tracts, which theory predicts as more likely to be deleterious than short and common tracts. Association mapping of autozygous tracts did not reveal any specific regions that were predictive beyond chance after correcting for multiple testing genome wide. The observed effect size is consistent with studies of cognitive decline among offspring of known consanguineous relationships. These findings suggest a role for multiple recessive or partially recessive alleles in general cognitive ability, and that alleles decreasing general cognitive ability have been selected against over evolutionary time. PMID:26390830

  8. Australian indigenous children with low cognitive ability: Family and cultural participation.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, John; Emerson, Eric

    2016-09-01

    Family and cultural inclusion are essential for the healthy development of young Australian Indigenous peoples with low cognitive ability. To date, this issue has received limited research attention. A secondary analysis of data collected in Wave 4 of Footprints in Time, Australia's Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children, was conducted to help address this research gap. The study results indicated that in some areas, Indigenous children with low cognitive ability are at a higher risk of social exclusion than their peers. We discuss the policy implications of these findings with regards to addressing Indigenous disadvantage. PMID:27286466

  9. Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities

    PubMed Central

    Spann, Marisa N.; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through two years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first two years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults. PMID:24615961

  10. Joint Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Differential Ability Scales and the "Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities--Third Edition"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Sarah; McIntosh, David E.; Dunham, Mardis; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; Finch, Holmes

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the underlying constructs measured by the "Differential Ability Scales" ("DAS"; C.D. Elliott, 1990a) as they relate to the "Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Theory" (K.S. McGrew, 1997) of cognitive abilities. The "DAS" and "Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities" ("WJ-III COG"; R.W.Woodcock, K.S. McGrew, & N. Mather, 2001)…

  11. Polygenic risk for coronary artery disease is associated with cognitive ability in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hagenaars, Saskia P; Harris, Sarah E; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Hall, Lynsey; Luciano, Michelle; Fernandez-Pujals, Ana Maria; Davies, Gail; Hayward, Caroline; Starr, John M; Porteous, David J; McIntosh, Andrew M; Deary, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with cognitive decrements and risk of later dementia, but it is not known if shared genetic factors underlie this association. We tested whether polygenic risk for CAD was associated with cognitive ability in community-dwelling cohorts of middle-aged and older adults. Methods: Individuals from Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS, N = 9865) and from the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 (LBC1921, N = 517) and 1936 (LBC1936, N = 1005) provided cognitive data and genome-wide genotype data. Polygenic risk profile scores for CAD were calculated for all of the cohorts using the largest available genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data set, the CARDIoGRAM consortium (22 233 cases and 64 762 controls). Polygenic risk profile scores for CAD were then tested for their association with cognitive abilities in the presence and absence of manifest cardiovascular disease. Results: A meta-analysis of all three cohorts showed a negative association between CAD polygenic risk and fluid cognitive ability (β = −0.022, P = 0.016), verbal intelligence (β = −0.024, P = 0.011) and memory (β = −0.021, P = 0.028). Conclusions: Increased polygenic risk for CAD is associated with lower cognitive ability in older adults. Common genetic variants may underlie some of the association between age-related cognitive decrements and the risk for CAD. PMID:26822939

  12. Investigation of Cognitive Abilities Related to Reading and Spelling in Korean: Readers with High, Average, and Low Skill Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyun-Rin; Uno, Akira

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of cognitive abilities as predictors of Korean reading and spelling ability, and the characteristics of the cognition of reading difficulty in Korean. In 103 Korean third-grade children, we tested ability to read and spell, nonverbal intelligence, vocabulary size, phonological cognitive…

  13. Inspection Time and the Relationship among Elementary Cognitive Tasks, General Intelligence, and Specific Cognitive Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrill, Stephen A.; Luo, Dasen; Thompson, Lee Anne; Detterman, Douglas K.

    2001-01-01

    Studied the extent to which inspection time (IT) relates to psychometric intelligence through general intelligence or through group factors and examined whether IT relates to psychometric intelligence independent from other elementary cognitive tasks. Results for 569 twins aged 6 to 13 years suggest that IT and other elementary tasks predict…

  14. Cognitive Epidemiology: With Emphasis on Untangling Cognitive Ability and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubinski, David

    2009-01-01

    This commentary touches on practical, public policy, and social science domains informed by cognitive epidemiology while pulling together common themes running through this important special issue. As is made clear in the contributions assembled here, and others (Deary, Whalley, & Starr, 2009; Gottfredson, 2004; Lubinski & Humphreys, 1992, 1997),…

  15. Association of obesity and treated hypertension and diabetes with cognitive ability in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Depp, Colin A; Strassnig, Martin; Mausbach, Brent T; Bowie, Christopher R; Wolyniec, Paula; Thornquist, Mary H; Luke, James R; McGrath, John A; Pulver, Ann E; Patterson, Thomas L; Harvey, Philip D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives People with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia are at greater risk for obesity and other cardio-metabolic risks, and several prior studies have linked these risks to poorer cognitive ability. In a large ethnically homogenous outpatient sample, we examined associations among variables related to obesity, treated hypertension and/or diabetes, and cognitive abilities in these two patient populations. Methods In a study cohort of outpatients with either bipolar disorder (n = 341) or schizophrenia (n = 417), we investigated the association of self-reported body mass index and current use of medications for hypertension or diabetes with performance on a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. We examined sociodemographic and clinical factors as potential covariates. Results Patients with bipolar disorder were less likely to be overweight or obese than patients with schizophrenia, and also less likely to be prescribed medication for hypertension or diabetes. However, obesity and treated hypertension were associated with worse global cognitive ability in bipolar disorder (as well as with poorer performance on individual tests of processing speed, reasoning/problem-solving, and sustained attention), with no such relationships observed in schizophrenia. Obesity was not associated with symptom severity in either group. Conclusions Although less prevalent in bipolar disorder compared to schizophrenia, obesity was associated with substantially worse cognitive performance in bipolar disorder. This association was independent of symptom severity and not present in schizophrenia. Better understanding of the mechanisms and management of obesity may aid in efforts to preserve cognitive health in bipolar disorder. PMID:24725166

  16. Safety Need Resolution and Cognitive Ability as Interwoven Antecedents to Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Logan L.

    1981-01-01

    Studied moral development as a nonadditive, interactive function of both recognized cognitive abilities and interpersonal security. Data showed preservice teachers (N=139) had a mean moral development score at about the national norm. Suggests constraints placed on moral thought by one's prepotent conative level should be considered in curricular…

  17. Development of Planning Abilities in Normal Aging: Differential Effects of Specific Cognitive Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köstering, Lena; Stahl, Christoph; Leonhart, Rainer; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P.

    2014-01-01

    In line with the frontal hypothesis of aging, the ability to plan ahead undergoes substantial change during normal aging. Although impairments on the Tower of London planning task were reported earlier, associations between age-related declines and specific cognitive demands on planning have not been studied. Here we investigated the impact of…

  18. The Relation between Specialty Choice of Psychology Students and Their Interests, Personality, and Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Vorst, Harrie C. M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate differences in interests, personality, and cognitive abilities between students majoring in the six specialties of psychology at the University of Amsterdam. Results show that students at Social Psychology and Work and Organizational Psychology were on average more extraverted than students of…

  19. Childhood Cognitive Ability, Education, and Personality Traits Predict Attainment in Adult Occupational Prestige over 17 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a longitudinal data set of nearly 5000 adults examining the effects of childhood cognitive ability (measured at age 11), parental social class (measured at birth), and personality on current occupational prestige (all measured at age 50), taking account the effects of education and the previous occupational levels (both…

  20. The Heritability of General Cognitive Ability: A Within-Family Adoption Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrill, Stephen A.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2004-01-01

    The current study employed a within-family adoption design to examine the genetic and environmental influences on general cognitive ability. A sample of 51 families with biological (mean age = 9.83 years, S.D. = 2.81) and adoptive children (mean age = 6.86, S.D. = 1.92) was selected from the larger "Northeast-Northwest Collaborative Adoption…

  1. Children's Cognitions, Behavioral Intent, and Affect toward Girls and Boys of Lower or Higher Learning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowicki, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Research is clear about children's negative biases toward the opposite gender, toward peers of lower learning ability, and toward out-group members in general, especially among younger children. In adulthood, the magnitude and valence of attitudes may be dependent on cognitive, behavioral, or affective response classes, but little is known of how…

  2. Reading and General Cognitive Ability: A Multivariate Analysis of 7-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    We examined the association between reading and general cognitive ability (g) in a population-based sample of 6,476 pairs of 7-year-old twins. Additive genetic influences largely accounted for individual differences in reading and the covariation between reading and g. Furthermore, both genetic and shared environmental influences on reading and g…

  3. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  4. Longitudinal Study of the Effects of LOGO Programming on Cognitive Abilities and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Douglas H.

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the delayed effects of LOGO programing on the cognitive abilities and achievement of children in the primary grades. Results of tests administered 18 months after first graders participated in either LOGO computer programing or computer-assisted instruction treatments and interviews five months after testing are reported…

  5. Support to Parents with Cognitive Limitations: Parental Abilities and Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milot, Élise; Turcotte, Daniel; Tétreault, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    In several countries, a growing number of adults with cognitive limitations decide to become parents. However, exercising this right requires the implementation of measures and services that foster their ability to assume parental responsibilities. This study presents results collected in an exploratory study documenting the type of support…

  6. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities Test Scores: A UK National Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve; Deary, Ian J.; Smith, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    Background and aims: There is uncertainty about the extent or even existence of sex differences in the mean and variability of reasoning test scores ( Jensen, 1998; Lynn, 1994, ; Mackintosh, 1996). This paper analyses the Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT) scores of a large and representative sample of UK pupils to determine the extent of any sex…

  7. Measurement Matters: Assessing Personal Qualities Other than Cognitive Ability for Educational Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Yeager, David Scott

    2015-01-01

    There has been perennial interest in personal qualities other than cognitive ability that determine success, including self-control, grit, growth mind-set, and many others. Attempts to measure such qualities for the purposes of educational policy and practice, however, are more recent. In this article, we identify serious challenges to doing so.…

  8. Cognitive Ability and Personality Variables as Predictors of School Grades and Test Scores in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia; Kilian, Britta; Fries, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The predictive power of cognitive ability and self-control strength for self-reported grades and an achievement test were studied. It was expected that the variables use of time structure, academic procrastination, and motivational interference during learning further aid in predicting students' achievement because they are operative in situations…

  9. The Effects of Schooling and Cognitive Ability on Smoking and Marijuana Use by Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, William

    1998-01-01

    Estimates effects of schooling, cognitive ability, and time preference on the probability that young adults smoke cigarettes or use marijuana, using data from the "High School and Beyond 1980 Study." Results show that all three variables affect the likelihood of smoking. Schooling and time preference have modest effects on using marijuana when…

  10. Consistencies in Sex Differences on the Cognitive Abilities Test across Countries, Grades, Test Forms, and Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, David F.; Lakin, Joni M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Strand, Deary, and Smith (2006) reported an analysis of sex differences on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT) for over 320,000 UK students 11-12 years old. Although mean differences were small, males were overrepresented at the upper and lower extremes of the score distributions on the quantitative and non-verbal batteries and at the…

  11. Validation of Brain Event-Related Potentials as Indicators of Cognitive Styles, Abilities, and Aptitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony; And Others

    Fifty Navy recruits were given 11 paper-and-pencil tests of cognitive styles, abilities, and aptitudes. Visual, auditory, and bimodal brain event-related potential (ERP) amplitudes were recorded from each of these subjects. Product-moment and canonical correlational analyses, as well as principal-factor analysis and varimax rotation, were…

  12. The Effects of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Cognitive Abilities on Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Jason R.; Beaujean, A. Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This study used structural equation modeling to examine the effect of Stratum III (i.e., general intelligence) and Stratum II (i.e., Comprehension-Knowledge, Fluid Reasoning, Short-Term Memory, Processing Speed, and Visual Processing) factors of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) cognitive abilities, as operationalized by the Wechsler Intelligence…

  13. Predicting Cognitive Development, Intellectual Styles, and Personality Traits from Self-Rated Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2005-01-01

    The present paper reports a series of six studies, each investigating the power of self-rated analytical, creative, and practical abilities for predicting one of six individual-difference variables: cognitive development, modes of thinking, career interests, learning approaches, thinking styles, and personality traits. Contributing to the…

  14. "Autistic" Traits in Non-Autistic Japanese Populations: Relationships with Personality Traits and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunihira, Yura; Senju, Atsushi; Dairoku, Hitoshi; Wakabayashi, Akio; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2006-01-01

    We explored the relationships between "autistic" traits as measured by the AQ (Autism-Spectrum Quotient; Baron-Cohen et al., J. Autism Develop. Disord. (2001b) 31 5) and various personality traits or cognitive ability, which usually coincide with autistic symptoms, for general populations. Results showed the AQ was associated with tendencies…

  15. Multivariate Screening Model for Later Word Reading Achievement: Predictive Utility of Prereading Skills and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Heidi H.; Sullivan, Amanda L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used multiple regression to determine the predictive value of Kindergarten phonemic awareness, rapid serial naming, letter knowledge, and cognitive ability for predicting first-grade word reading and fluency. Participants were 131 first-grade students from a mid-Atlantic school system. A combination of predictor variables was…

  16. Cognitive Abilities that Predict Success in a Computer-Based Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ownby, Raymond L.; Czaja, Sara J.; Loewenstein, David; Rubert, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were (a) to identify cognitive abilities and other factors related to successful completion of training for computer-based tasks that simulated real jobs and (b) to create a brief assessment battery useful in assessing older adults for these kinds of jobs. Design and Methods: Participants from three age groups…

  17. Cognitive Ability Is Associated with Different Outcome Trajectories in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Itzchak, Esther; Watson, Linda R.; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in clinical expression and in intervention outcome has been described in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study examined progress after 1 and 2 years of intervention and compared the impact of baseline cognitive ability on outcome trajectories in 46 children (m = 25.5 months) with ASD. The entire group showed a gradual decrease in…

  18. The Applicability of Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing for Cognitive Ability Measurement in Organizational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makransky, Guido; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive ability tests are widely used in organizations around the world because they have high predictive validity in selection contexts. Although these tests typically measure several subdomains, testing is usually carried out for a single subdomain at a time. This can be ineffective when the subdomains assessed are highly correlated. This…

  19. Is Cognitive Ability a Liability? A Critique and Future Research Agenda on Skilled Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beier, Margaret E.; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2012-01-01

    Over a century of psychological research provides strong and consistent support for the idea that cognitive ability correlates positively with success in tasks that people face in employment, education, and everyday life. Recent experimental research, however, has converged on a different and provocative conclusion, namely that lower-ability…

  20. Comparison of Three ADHD Screening Instruments in College Students of Varying Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller-Killgore, Melissa D.; Burlison, Jonathan; Dwyer, William

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess three of the better known screeners for Attention Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) and review the relationship between ADHD and cognitive ability. Method: The three ADHD screeners were administered to 111 college students enrolled in a college Introductory Psychology class, on whom ACT scores and total course performance…

  1. Interference Control, Working Memory Capacity, and Cognitive Abilities: A Latent Variable Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether various indices of interference control were related to one another and to other cognitive abilities. It was found that the interference control measures were weakly correlated and could form a single factor that was related to overall memory performance on the tasks as well as to measures of working memory…

  2. Where Cognitive Development and Aging Meet: Face Learning Ability Peaks after Age 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germine, Laura T.; Duchaine, Bradley; Nakayama, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Research on age-related cognitive change traditionally focuses on either development or aging, where development ends with adulthood and aging begins around 55 years. This approach ignores age-related changes during the 35 years in-between, implying that this period is uninformative. Here we investigated face recognition as an ability that may…

  3. Paternal antisocial behavior and sons' cognitive ability: a population-based quasiexperimental study.

    PubMed

    Latvala, Antti; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Parents' antisocial behavior is associated with developmental risks for their offspring, but its effects on their children's cognitive ability are unknown. We used linked Swedish register data for a large sample of adolescent men (N = 1,177,173) and their parents to estimate associations between fathers' criminal-conviction status and sons' cognitive ability assessed at compulsory military conscription. Mechanisms behind the association were tested in children-of-siblings models across three types of sibling fathers with increasing genetic relatedness (half-siblings, full siblings, and monozygotic twins) and in quantitative genetic models. Sons whose fathers had a criminal conviction had lower cognitive ability than sons whose fathers had no conviction (any crime: Cohen's d = -0.28; violent crime: Cohen's d = -0.49). As models adjusted for more genetic factors, the association was gradually reduced and eventually eliminated. Nuclear-family environmental factors did not contribute to the association. Our results suggest that the association between men's antisocial behavior and their children's cognitive ability is not causal but is due mostly to underlying genetic factors. PMID:25425060

  4. Does Learning Behavior Augment Cognitive Ability as an Indicator of Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Cherng-Jyh; Konold, Timothy R.; McDermott, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of cognitive ability have a rich history of accounting for meaningful levels of achievement variance. In contrast to other student characteristics, however, they are somewhat limited in terms of their intervention relevance and treatment validity. Alternatively, children's observable learning behaviors are believed to enhance both…

  5. Children's Cognitive Ability and Their Academic Achievement: The Mediation Effects of Parental Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Sivanes; Phillipson, Shane N.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that cognitive ability predicts academic achievement, and that parental involvement and expectations form part of the constellation of factors that predict their children's academic achievement, particularly for families within the Chinese-heritage Cultures. Although a number of interactions between these parental factors…

  6. Scholastic Adaptation and Socio-Cognitive Abilities of Children between 3 and 7 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillain, Andre; Pry, Rene

    Building on the assumption that there is cognitive organization to social abilities, two studies analyzed stability and change of this organization in children. The first study focused on children who attended the first year and second year of nursery school, and the first year of elementary school. The second study focused on those children who…

  7. Influence of Parent-Child Interaction during Reading on Preschoolers' Cognitive Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Catherine; Windecker, Elizabeth

    To gather information on the relationship of parent behavior during reading situations to preschool children's cognitive ability, a study of 12 female and 9 male preschool children and their parents was undertaken. Children were administered a battery of tests that measured intelligence, creativity, perceived self-competence, and language skills.…

  8. Fantasy Play, Language and Cognitive Ability of Four-Year-Old Children in Guyana South America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taharally, L. C.

    A controlled study involving 60 randomly selected 4- to 5-year-old children from Guyana (South America) assessed whether providing the opportunity for fantasy play to children in nursery schools that do not provide such opportunity would have an effect on the children's level of symbolic, language, and cognitive ability. Subjects included 20…

  9. Cognitive Abilities Explaining Age-Related Changes in Time Perception of Short and Long Durations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelanti, Pierre S.; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated how the development of cognitive abilities explains the age-related changes in temporal judgment over short and long duration ranges from 0.5 to 30 s. Children (5- and 9-year-olds) as well as adults were given a temporal bisection task with four different duration ranges: a duration range shorter than 1 s, two…

  10. Cognitive bias and unusual experiences in childhood.

    PubMed

    Hassanali, Nedah; Ruffell, Tamatha; Browning, Sophie; Bracegirdle, Karen; Ames, Catherine; Corrigall, Richard; Laurens, Kristin R; Hirsch, Colette; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Maddox, Lucy; Jolley, Suzanne

    2015-08-01

    Cognitive therapy is recommended for children with psychotic-like, or unusual, experiences associated with distress or impairment (UEDs; UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2013 [1]). Accurate models of the psychological underpinnings of childhood UEDs are required to effectively target therapies. Cognitive biases, such as the jumping to conclusions data-gathering bias (JTC), are implicated in the development and maintenance of psychosis in adults. In this study, we aimed to establish the suitability for children of a task developed to assess JTC in adults. Eighty-six participants (aged 5-14 years) were recruited from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) and community (school) settings, and completed the probabilistic reasoning ('Beads') task, alongside measures of intellectual functioning, general psychopathology, and UEDs. Self-reported reasoning strategy was coded as 'probabilistic' or 'other'. Younger children (5-10 years) were more likely than older children (11-14 years) to JTC (OR = 2.7, 95 % CI = 1.1-6.5, p = 0.03); and to use non-probabilistic reasoning strategies (OR = 9.4, 95 % CI = 1.7-48.8, p = 0.008). Both UED presence (OR = 5.1, 95 % CI = 1.2-21.9, p = 0.03) and lower IQ (OR = 0.9, 95 % CI = 0.9-1.0, p = 0.02) were significantly and independently associated with JTC, irrespective of age and task comprehension. Findings replicate research in adults, indicating that the 'Beads' task can be reliably employed in children to assess cognitive biases. Psychological treatments for children with distressing unusual experiences might usefully incorporate reasoning interventions. PMID:25395382