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Sample records for cognitive behavioural intervention

  1. Intervention of Behavioural, Cognitive and Sex on Early Childhood's Aggressive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purwati; Japar, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to find out the effect of behavioural intervention, cognitive intervention, and sex intervention toward the aggressive behaviour of early childhood. The study is conducted at two non-formal institutions of Education on Early Childhood in Magelang. This study obtains the data from two experimental groups consisting of 14 early…

  2. [Infertility: psychological-psychopathological consequences and cognitive-behavioural interventions].

    PubMed

    Mitsi, C; Efthimiou, K

    2014-01-01

    Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. Infertility may also refer to the state of a woman who is unable to carry a pregnancy to full term, however other causes can be found in both sexes. The diagnosis of infertility and the concurrent medical treatment are rather stressful events for the couple and can provoke a number of negative symptoms such as depression, anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms which may interfere with the medical therapeutic procedures especially with the in-vitro fertilisation technique. The relationship between infertility and psychological factors has not been explored fully and are still under research. However current findings can be summarized in three basic hypotheses; namely, the effect of psychological factors on the appearance of infertility, the psychological consequences of infertility at the couple, and the reciprocal relation of psychological factors and infertility. Stress and anxiety activate the hypothalamic-adrenal axis (HPA), and this activation can disturb the hormones of fertility. The presence of depressive/anxiety symptoms seems to have a negative impact on the treatment of infertility and sometimes can be a risk factor for lower pregnancy rate. There is a possibility that psychological complaints could develop, prior, during and after the diagnosis of infertility and may interfere with the fertilisation therapy. Should such psychological complaints develop it is suggested that psychotherapeutic treatment is used in conjunction with the treatment approach of infertility, e.g. IVF. The above mentioned suggestion is supported by a large number of researchers and current research efforts focus on different psychotherapeutic interventions such as Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) has shown during research its superiority compared to other psychotherapeutic interventions and that could be an effective way to decrease the depressive

  3. Can developmental cognitive neuroscience inform intervention for social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD)?

    PubMed Central

    Frederickson, Norah; Jones, Alice P.; Warren, Laura; Deakes, Tara; Allen, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the utility of designing an intervention to address neuroscience-based subtyping of children who have conduct problems was undertaken in this pilot study. Drawing on the literature on callous–unemotional traits, a novel intervention programme, ‘Let's Get Smart’, was implemented in a school for children with social emotional and behavioural difficulties. A mixed-methods design was used to investigate the perspectives of staff participant-observers in the change process, alongside standardised scores on measures of pupil performance and behaviour. Both qualitative and quantitative results showed reductions in externalising behaviour and improvements in measures of hypothesised underlying cognitive and affective processes. While externalising behaviour improved across subtypes, associated changes in underlying processes differed by subtype, supporting the potential value of neuroscience-informed contributions to intervention planning. PMID:26635493

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Cognitive Behavioural Intervention for Anger Management in Children Diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofronoff, Kate; Attwood, Tony; Hinton, Sharon; Levin, Irina

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study described was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural intervention for anger management with children diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Forty-five children and their parents were randomly assigned to either intervention or wait-list control conditions. Children in the intervention participated in six 2-h…

  5. Do We Need Both Cognitive and Behavioural Components in Interventions for Depressed Mood in People with Mild Intellectual Disability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, J. A.; Kershaw, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A growing literature suggests that people with mild intellectual disability (ID) who have depressed mood may benefit from cognitive--behavioural interventions. There has been some speculation regarding the relative merit of the components of this approach. The aim of this study was to compare (i) cognitive strategies; (ii) behavioural…

  6. Treatment of Adult Sexual Offenders: A Therapeutic Cognitive-Behavioural Model of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research indicates that, of the various forms of treatment available to sexual offenders, cognitive-behavioural methods are likely to have the greatest impact in reducing rates of sexual re-offending. Cognitive-behavioural treatment typically targets attitudes that support sexual offending, anger management, victim empathy, deviant sexual…

  7. Is a Cognitive-Behavioural Biofeedback Intervention Useful to Reduce Injury Risk in Junior Football Players?

    PubMed Central

    Edvardsson, Arne; Ivarsson, Andreas; Johnson, Urban

    2012-01-01

    Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a relatively high injury risk. Previous research has suggested that it could be possible to reduce sports injuries through psychological skills training. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which a cognitive behavioural biofeedback intervention could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of players in Swedish elite football high schools. Participants from four elite football high schools (16-19 years old) were divided into one experiment (n = 13) and one control group (n = 14). Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires to assess anxiety level (Sport Anxiety Scale), history of stressors (Life Event Scale for Collegiate Athletes) and coping skills (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory - 28) in a baseline measure. Mann-Whitney U-tests showed no significant differences in pre-intervention scores based on the questionnaires. The experimental group participated in a nine-week intervention period consisting of seven sessions, including: somatic relaxation, thought stopping, emotions/problem focused coping, goal setting, biofeedback training as well as keeping a critical incident diary. A Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference between the control and experimental group U (n1 = 13, n2 = 14) = 51.00, p = 0.054. However, considering the small sample, the statistical power (0.05 for present study), to detect effects was low. The results of the study are discussed from a psychological perspective and proposals for future research are given. Key pointsCognitive-behavioral training together with biofeedback training seems to be an effective strategy to decrease the occurrence of injuries.More intervention studies should be conducted applying existing biofeedback methodology, especially in the injury preventive area.Future research should develop a bio-psychological injury model aimed at predicting injury occurrence which describes the physiological stress responses and how they

  8. Is a cognitive-behavioural biofeedback intervention useful to reduce injury risk in junior football players?

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, Arne; Ivarsson, Andreas; Johnson, Urban

    2012-01-01

    Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a relatively high injury risk. Previous research has suggested that it could be possible to reduce sports injuries through psychological skills training. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which a cognitive behavioural biofeedback intervention could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of players in Swedish elite football high schools. Participants from four elite football high schools (16-19 years old) were divided into one experiment (n = 13) and one control group (n = 14). Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires to assess anxiety level (Sport Anxiety Scale), history of stressors (Life Event Scale for Collegiate Athletes) and coping skills (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory - 28) in a baseline measure. Mann-Whitney U-tests showed no significant differences in pre-intervention scores based on the questionnaires. The experimental group participated in a nine-week intervention period consisting of seven sessions, including: somatic relaxation, thought stopping, emotions/problem focused coping, goal setting, biofeedback training as well as keeping a critical incident diary. A Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference between the control and experimental group U (n1 = 13, n2 = 14) = 51.00, p = 0.054. However, considering the small sample, the statistical power (0.05 for present study), to detect effects was low. The results of the study are discussed from a psychological perspective and proposals for future research are given. Key pointsCognitive-behavioral training together with biofeedback training seems to be an effective strategy to decrease the occurrence of injuries.More intervention studies should be conducted applying existing biofeedback methodology, especially in the injury preventive area.Future research should develop a bio-psychological injury model aimed at predicting injury occurrence which describes the physiological stress responses and how they

  9. An Evaluation of a Short Cognitive-Behavioural Anger Management Intervention for Pupils at Risk of Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Neil; Brooks, A. George

    2006-01-01

    An increasing number of children and young people are being excluded from school as a direct result of anger management problems. The research literature suggests that short cognitive-behavioural intervention programmes may be effective in helping young people understand and control their anger. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the…

  10. Treatment of adult sexual offenders: a therapeutic cognitive-behavioural model of intervention.

    PubMed

    Yates, Pamela M

    2003-01-01

    Recent research indicates that, of the various forms of treatment available to sexual offenders, cognitive-behavioural methods are likely to have the greatest impact in reducing rates of sexual re-offending. Cognitive-behavioural treatment typically targets attitudes that support sexual offending, anger management, victim empathy, deviant sexual arousal, and relapse prevention. More recently, treatment has targeted cognitive processes more generally, management of other emotional states in addition to anger, intimacy deficits, and risk self-management (Marshall, Anderson, & Fernandez, 1999; Yates, Goguen, Nicholaichuk, Williams, & Long, 2000). This article describes the components of cognitive-behavioural treatment with sexual offenders, including recent developments, assessment, treatment methods, and the importance of therapist characteristics on the therapeutic process and on treatment outcome. PMID:15308452

  11. What students do schools allocate to a cognitive-behavioural intervention? Characteristics of adolescent participants in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne; Landstedt, Evelina; Gillander Gådin, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescents are a vulnerable group when it comes to the risk of developing depression. Preventing the onset of depressive episodes in this group is therefore a major public health priority. In the last decades, school-based cognitive-behavioural interventions have been a common primary prevention approach. However, evidence on what girls actually are allocated to such interventions when no researchers are involved is scarce. Objective To explore how a selective cognitive-behavioural program (Depression In Swedish Adolescents) developed to prevent depression in adolescents, was implemented in a naturalistic setting in schools in northern part of Sweden. The focus was on characteristics of participants allocated to the intervention. Design Cross-sectional baseline data on depressive symptoms, school environment and socio-economic factors were collected in 2011 by means of questionnaires in schools in a municipality in the northern part of Sweden. Intervention participants were identified in a follow-up questionnaire in 2012. Students (n=288) included in the analyses were in the ages of 14–15. Results Sixty-six girls and no boys were identified as intervention participants. They reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower personal relative affluence, more sexual harassment victimization and less peer support compared to female non-participants (n=222). Intervention participants were more likely to attend schools with a higher proportion of low parental education levels and a lower proportion of students graduating with a diploma. Conclusions The developers of the intervention originally intended the program to be universal or selective, but it was implemented as targeted in these schools. It is important for school administrations to adhere to program fidelity when it comes to what students it is aimed for. Implications for effectivenss trials of cognitive-behavioural interventions in the school setting is discussed. PMID:26538463

  12. [Reason and emotion: integration of cognitive-behavioural and experiential interventions in the treatment of long evolution food disorders].

    PubMed

    Vilariño Besteiro, M P; Pérez Franco, C; Gallego Morales, L; Calvo Sagardoy, R; García de Lorenzo, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper intends to show the combination of therapeutical strategies in the treatment of long evolution food disorders. This fashion of work entitled "Modelo Santa Cristina" is based on several theoretical paradigms: Enabling Model, Action Control Model, Change Process Transtheoretical Model and Cognitive-Behavioural Model (Cognitive Restructuring and Learning Theories). Furthermore, Gestalt, Systemic and Psychodrama Orientation Techniques. The purpose of the treatment is both the normalization of food patterns and the increase in self-knowledge, self-acceptance and self-efficacy of patients. The exploration of ambivalence to change, the discovery of the functions of symptoms and the search for alternative behaviours, the normalization of food patterns, bodily image, cognitive restructuring, decision taking, communication skills and elaboration of traumatic experiences are among the main areas of intervention. PMID:19893873

  13. A meta-analysis of cognitive-based behaviour change techniques as interventions to improve medication adherence

    PubMed Central

    Easthall, Claire; Song, Fujian; Bhattacharya, Debi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe and evaluate the use of cognitive-based behaviour change techniques as interventions to improve medication adherence. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions to improve medication adherence. Data sources Search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and The Cochrane Library databases from the earliest year to April 2013 without language restriction. References of included studies were also screened to identify further relevant articles. Review methods We used predefined criteria to select randomised controlled trials describing a medication adherence intervention that used Motivational Interviewing (MI) or other cognitive-based techniques. Data were extracted and risk of bias was assessed by two independent reviewers. We conducted the meta-analysis using a random effects model and Hedges’ g as the measure of effect size. Results We included 26 studies (5216 participants) in the meta-analysis. Interventions most commonly used MI, but many used techniques such as aiming to increase the patient's confidence and sense of self-efficacy, encouraging support-seeking behaviours and challenging negative thoughts, which were not specifically categorised. Interventions were most commonly delivered from community-based settings by routine healthcare providers such as general practitioners and nurses. An effect size (95% CI) of 0.34 (0.23 to 0.46) was calculated and was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Heterogeneity was high with an I2 value of 68%. Adjustment for publication bias generated a more conservative estimate of summary effect size of 0.21 (0.08 to 0.33). The majority of subgroup analyses produced statistically non-significant results. Conclusions Cognitive-based behaviour change techniques are effective interventions eliciting improvements in medication adherence that are likely to be greater than the behavioural and educational interventions largely used in current practice. Subgroup analyses suggest that these

  14. Body image interventions in cognitive-behavioural therapy of binge-eating disorder: a component analysis.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2004-11-01

    The present study sought to investigate effects of body exposure in the treatment of binge-eating disorder (BED). Cognitive-behavioural therapy with a body exposure component (CBT-E) was compared with CBT with a cognitive restructuring component focused on body image (CBT-C). Twenty-eight patients diagnosed with BED were randomly assigned to CBT-E or CBT-C, both delivered in a group format. Negative automatic thoughts about one's body, dysfunctional assumptions about shape and weight, and body dissatisfaction were assessed using experimental thought-sampling techniques, a clinical interview (Eating Disorder Examination), and self-report questionnaires. At posttreatment and at 4-month follow-up, CBT-E and CBT-C were equally effective in improving body image disturbance on all indicators assessed. Both CBT-E and CBT-C produced substantial and stable improvements in the specific and general eating disorder psychopathology. Results suggest that both treatment components are equally effective in the treatment of BED. PMID:15381441

  15. Persistent frequent attenders in primary care: costs, reasons for attendance, organisation of care and potential for cognitive behavioural therapeutic intervention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The top 3% of frequent attendance in primary care is associated with 15% of all appointments in primary care, a fivefold increase in hospital expenditure, and more mental disorder and functional somatic symptoms compared to normal attendance. Although often temporary if these rates of attendance last more than two years, they may become persistent (persistent frequent or regular attendance). However, there is no long-term study of the economic impact or clinical characteristics of regular attendance in primary care. Cognitive behaviour formulation and treatment (CBT) for regular attendance as a motivated behaviour may offer an understanding of the development, maintenance and treatment of regular attendance in the context of their health problems, cognitive processes and social context. Methods/design A case control design will compare the clinical characteristics, patterns of health care use and economic costs over the last 10 years of 100 regular attenders (≥30 appointments with general practitioner [GP] over 2 years) with 100 normal attenders (6–22 appointments with GP over 2 years), from purposefully selected primary care practices with differing organisation of care and patient demographics. Qualitative interviews with regular attending patients and practice staff will explore patient barriers, drivers and experiences of consultation, and organisation of care by practices with its challenges. Cognitive behaviour formulation analysed thematically will explore the development, maintenance and therapeutic opportunities for management in regular attenders. The feasibility, acceptability and utility of CBT for regular attendance will be examined. Discussion The health care costs, clinical needs, patient motivation for consultation and organisation of care for persistent frequent or regular attendance in primary care will be explored to develop training and policies for service providers. CBT for regular attendance will be piloted with a view to

  16. Cognitive science and behaviourism.

    PubMed

    Skinner, B F

    1985-08-01

    In this paper it is argued that cognitive scientists, claiming the support of brain science and computer simulation, have revived a traditional view that behaviour is initiated by an internal, autonomous mind. In doing so, they have misused the metaphor of storage and retrieval, given neurology a misleading assignment, frequently replaced controlled experimental conditions with mere descriptions of conditions and the assessment of behaviour with statements of expectations and intentions, given feelings and states of mind the status of causes of behaviour rather than the products of the causes, and failed to define many key terms in dimensions acceptable to science. PMID:4041702

  17. Can Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Inform Intervention for Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (SEBD)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Norah; Jones, Alice P.; Warren, Laura; Deakes, Tara; Allen, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the utility of designing an intervention to address neuroscience-based subtyping of children who have conduct problems was undertaken in this pilot study. Drawing on the literature on callous-unemotional traits, a novel intervention programme, "Let's Get Smart", was implemented in a school for children with social…

  18. [Cognitive-behaviour therapy of schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Keegan, Eduardo; Garay, Cristian Javier

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behaviour therapy is one of the evidence-based psychotherapies that have been successfully applied to the treatment of patients with psychotic symptoms. The article presents the core principles and objectives of cognitive models and interventions, and describes the generic steps of treatment. The results of the most methodologically-sound outcome studies are presented. PMID:18273431

  19. Impact of a physical activity intervention program on cognitive predictors of behaviour among adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes (ProActive randomised controlled trial)

    PubMed Central

    Hardeman, Wendy; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Michie, Susan; Sutton, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Background In the ProActive Trial an intensive theory-based intervention program was no more effective than theory-based brief advice in increasing objectively measured physical activity among adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes. We aimed to illuminate these findings by assessing whether the intervention program changed cognitions about increasing activity, defined by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, in ways consistent with the theory. Methods N = 365 sedentary participants aged 30–50 years with a parental history of Type 2 diabetes were randomised to brief advice alone or to brief advice plus the intervention program delivered face-to-face or by telephone. Questionnaires at baseline, 6 and 12 months assessed cognitions about becoming more physically active. Analysis of covariance was used to test intervention impact. Bootstrapping was used to test multiple mediation of intervention impact. Results At 6 months, combined intervention groups (face-to-face and telephone) reported that they found increasing activity more enjoyable (affective attitude, d = .25), and they perceived more instrumental benefits (e.g., improving health) (d = .23) and more control (d = .32) over increasing activity than participants receiving brief advice alone. Stronger intentions (d = .50) in the intervention groups than the brief advice group at 6 months were partially explained by affective attitude and perceived control. At 12 months, intervention groups perceived more positive instrumental (d = .21) and affective benefits (d = .29) than brief advice participants. The intervention did not change perceived social pressure to increase activity. Conclusion Lack of effect of the intervention program on physical activity over and above brief advice was consistent with limited and mostly small short-term effects on cognitions. Targeting affective benefits (e.g., enjoyment, social interaction) and addressing barriers to physical activity may strengthen intentions, but stronger intentions did

  20. Usefulness of Cognitive Intervention Programmes for Socio-Emotional and Behaviour Problems in Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitzer, Gila; Andries, Caroline; Lebeer, Jo

    2007-01-01

    Behavioural and emotional problems occur more frequently in children with learning problems than in a cross-section of the general population, both at home and at school. While behaviour problems reportedly are a key obstructive factor impeding inclusive education, children with both behavioural and learning disabilities carry a high risk of…

  1. Effects of an internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy intervention on preventing major depressive episodes among workers: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Kotaro; Kawakami, Norito; Furukawa, Toshi A; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Shimazu, Akihito; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study is to examine the effects of an internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) program on decreasing the risk of major depressive episodes (MDEs) among workers employed in a private corporate group in Japan, using a randomised controlled trial design. Methods and analysis All of the workers in a corporate group (n=20 000) will be recruited through an invitation email. Participants who fulfil the inclusion criteria will be randomly allocated to intervention or control groups (planned N=4050 for each group). They will be allowed to complete the six lessons of the iCBT program within 10 weeks after the baseline survey. Those in the control group will receive the same iCBT after 12 months. The program includes several CBT skills: self-monitoring, cognitive restructuring, assertiveness, problem-solving and relaxation. The primary outcome measure is no new onset of MDE (using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)/DSM-5 criteria) during the 12-month follow-up. Assessment will use the web version of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview V.3.0 depression section. Ethics and dissemination The Research Ethics Review Board of Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo (No. 3083-(2)), approved the study procedures. Trial registration number The study protocol is registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR; ID=UMIN000014146). PMID:25968004

  2. Cognitive intervention with elite performers: reversal theory.

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, J H

    1987-01-01

    Noticeable in the literature associated with the application of psychology to the area of sport and sports performance in particular has been the increasing frequency of references to the use of cognitive intervention in the sports context. Currently utilised in clinical psychology and behavioural medicine, and receiving increasing attention in sports psychology, are a number of intervention techniques primarily oriented towards altering the individual's level of arousal. These techniques, which have been advocated for use by sports performers as an aid to adapting and coping during competition, have been largely concerned with arousal reduction. This paper presents an alternative approach, the case of reversal theory, a new general theory of psychology concerned with motivation, and emphasises the conceptual implications of this new approach for the use of cognitive intervention techniques in sport. PMID:3620801

  3. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Children with Behavioural Difficulties in the Singapore Mainstream School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Choi, Pui Meng

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) programme delivered by a school psychologist for children with behavioural difficulties in Singapore elementary school classrooms. It examined the impact of a 12-session, psychoeducational group intervention in helping misbehaving pupils to control their…

  4. The evolution of behaviour therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy.

    PubMed

    Rachman, S

    2015-01-01

    The historical background of the development of behaviour therapy is described. It was based on the prevailing behaviourist psychology and constituted a fundamentally different approach to the causes and treatment of psychological disorders. It had a cold reception and the idea of treating the behaviour of neurotic and other patients was regarded as absurd. The opposition of the medical profession and psychoanalysts is explained. Parallel but different forms of behaviour therapy developed in the US and UK. The infusion of cognitive concepts and procedures generated a merger of behaviour therapy and cognitive therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The strengths and limitations of the early and current approaches are evaluated. PMID:25462876

  5. Embodied cognition and skilled health behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gangi, Cynthia; Sherman, David K; White, Marina L

    2011-08-01

    The present research examines health persuasion from an embodied cognition perspective by proposing that engaging the motor system during presentation of a health message will lead individuals to become more skilled at performing the prescribed behaviour. Participants watched a video on the importance of flossing while either imaging themselves flossing or imaging themselves flossing while minimally engaging the motor system (i.e. touching a piece of floss). Females (but not males) who touched an individual floss while watching the video demonstrated better flossing skills 1 week later. Over time, participants (both males and females) who engaged the motor system also developed more accessible attitudes and had a stronger relationship between their perceived flossing efficacy and actual flossing skill. Implications for the theories of embodied cognition and health interventions are discussed. PMID:21598186

  6. Self-Directed Behavioural Family Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2006-01-01

    Behavioural family intervention is effective for the prevention and treatment of a wide range of emotional and behavioural problems in children. There is a growing need to address the accessibility of these services. This paper reviews the literature on self-directed interventions designed to help parents manage difficult child behaviours.…

  7. Treatment compliance and effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural intervention for low back pain: a complier average causal effect approach to the BeST data set

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Group cognitive behavioural intervention (CBI) is effective in reducing low-back pain and disability in comparison to advice in primary care. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the impact of compliance on estimates of treatment effect and to identify factors associated with compliance. Methods In this multicentre trial, 701 adults with troublesome sub-acute or chronic low-back pain were recruited from 56 general practices. Participants were randomised to advice (control n = 233) or advice plus CBI (n = 468). Compliance was specified a priori as attending a minimum of three group sessions and the individual assessment. We estimated the complier average causal effect (CACE) of treatment. Results Comparison of the CACE estimate of the mean treatment difference to the intention-to-treat (ITT) estimate at 12 months showed a greater benefit of CBI amongst participants compliant with treatment on the Roland Morris Questionnaire (CACE: 1.6 points, 95% CI 0.51 to 2.74; ITT: 1.3 points, 95% CI 0.55 to 2.07), the Modified Von Korff disability score (CACE: 12.1 points, 95% CI 6.07 to 18.17; ITT: 8.6 points, 95% CI 4.58 to 12.64) and the Modified von Korff pain score (CACE: 10.4 points, 95% CI 4.64 to 16.10; ITT: 7.0 points, 95% CI 3.26 to 10.74). People who were non-compliant were younger and had higher pain scores at randomisation. Conclusions Treatment compliance is important in the effectiveness of group CBI. Younger people and those with more pain are at greater risk of non-compliance. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN54717854 PMID:24423146

  8. Linking behavioural syndromes and cognition: a behavioural ecology perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sih, Andrew; Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-01-01

    With the exception of a few model species, individual differences in cognition remain relatively unstudied in non-human animals. One intriguing possibility is that variation in cognition is functionally related to variation in personality. Here, we review some examples and present hypotheses on relationships between personality (or behavioural syndromes) and individual differences in cognitive style. Our hypotheses are based largely on a connection between fast–slow behavioural types (BTs; e.g. boldness, aggressiveness, exploration tendency) and cognitive speed–accuracy trade-offs. We also discuss connections between BTs, cognition and ecologically important aspects of decision-making, including sampling, impulsivity, risk sensitivity and choosiness. Finally, we introduce the notion of cognition syndromes, and apply ideas from theories on adaptive behavioural syndromes to generate predictions on cognition syndromes. PMID:22927575

  9. The STRIDE (Strategies to Increase confidence, InDependence and Energy) study: cognitive behavioural therapy-based intervention to reduce fear of falling in older fallers living in the community - study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Around 30% to 62% of older individuals fall each year, with adverse consequences of falls being by no means limited to physical injury and escalating levels of dependence. Many older individuals suffer from a variety of adverse psychosocial difficulties related to falling including fear, anxiety, loss of confidence and subsequent increasing activity avoidance, social isolation and frailty. Such ‘fear of falling’ is common and disabling, but definitive studies examining the effective management of the syndrome are lacking. Cognitive behavioural therapy has been trialed with some success in a group setting, but there is no adequately powered randomised controlled study of an individually based cognitive behavioural therapy intervention, and none using non-mental health professionals to deliver the intervention. Methods/Design We are conducting a two-phase study examining the role of individual cognitive behavioural therapy delivered by healthcare assistants in improving fear of falling in older adults. In Phase I, the intervention was developed and taught to healthcare assistants, while Phase II is the pragmatic randomised controlled study examining the efficacy of the intervention in improving fear of falling in community-dwelling elders attending falls services. A qualitative process evaluation study informed by Normalization Process Theory is being conducted throughout to examine the potential promoters and inhibitors of introducing such an intervention into routine clinical practice, while a health economic sub-study running alongside the trial is examining the costs and benefits of such an approach to the wider health economy. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN78396615 PMID:24906406

  10. Two Interventions that Enhance the Metacognition of Students with Disabilities: Cognitive Cue Cards and Correspondence Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richie, Garth

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines and reviews two types of interventions used with students with learning disabilities. Cognitive cue cards are regarded as a form of cognitive intervention and correspondence training is regarded as a behavioural intervention. It is concluded that both kinds of interventions are valuable and result in improvements in the…

  11. Compulsive buying: a cognitive-behavioural model.

    PubMed

    Kellett, Stephen; Bolton, Jessica V

    2009-01-01

    Compulsive buying (CB) has only relatively recently become a topic of interest for researchers and clinicians alike. This hiatus means that (unlike other impulse control disorders) there is currently little theoretical guidance for clinicians attempting to intervene with CB clients and no established model for researchers to evaluate, distil and refine. The current paper summarizes and organizes the main extant identified factors in the CB literature into four distinct phases: (1) antecedents; (2) internal/external triggers; (3) the act of buying; and finally, (4) post-purchase. The relationships and interactions between the identified phases are then hypothesized, within the proposed cognitive-behavioural model. The model distinguishes the key cognitive, affective and behavioural factors within each phase and identifies how CB can become self-reinforcing over time. The over-arching treatment implication is that CB can be re-conceptualized as chronic and repetitive failure in self-regulation efforts, and that psychological interventions can accommodate this in attempting to facilitate change. A successful case example is provided of a 'co-dependent compulsive buyer' using the model, with psychometric evaluation of key aspects of CB and mental health at assessment, termination and 6-month follow-up. The research and clinical implications of the proposed model are discussed, alongside identified short-comings and the need for psychological services to respond appropriately to CB clients seeking help. PMID:19229837

  12. Effective Intervention for School Refusal Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Clare; Woods, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of successful professional intervention for two case studies of female adolescents' school refusal behaviour is presented. Data gathered from the young person, professionals, and parents in each case are synthesised to propose a multi-level, ecologically situated model of intervention for school refusal behaviour. The proposed…

  13. The Applicability of Behaviour Change in Intervention Programmes Targeted at Ending Female Genital Mutilation in the EU: Integrating Social Cognitive and Community Level Approaches.

    PubMed

    Brown, Katherine; Beecham, David; Barrett, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    With increased migration, female genital mutilation (FGM) also referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting is no longer restricted to Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The European Parliament estimates that up to half a million women living in the EU have been subjected to FGM, with a further 180,000 at risk. Aware of the limited success of campaigns addressing FGM, the World Health Organization recommended a behavioural change approach be implemented in order to end FGM. To date, however, little progress has been made in adopting a behaviour change approach in strategies aimed at ending FGM. Based on research undertaken as part of the EU's Daphne III programme, which researched FGM intervention programmes linked to African communities in the EU (REPLACE), this paper argues that behaviour change has not been implemented due to a lack of understanding relating to the application of the two broad categories of behaviour change approach: individualistic decision-theoretic and community-change game-theoretic approaches, and how they may be integrated to aid our understanding and the development of future intervention strategies. We therefore discuss how these can be integrated and implemented using community-based participatory action research methods with affected communities. PMID:23983698

  14. The Applicability of Behaviour Change in Intervention Programmes Targeted at Ending Female Genital Mutilation in the EU: Integrating Social Cognitive and Community Level Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Katherine; Barrett, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    With increased migration, female genital mutilation (FGM) also referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting is no longer restricted to Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The European Parliament estimates that up to half a million women living in the EU have been subjected to FGM, with a further 180,000 at risk. Aware of the limited success of campaigns addressing FGM, the World Health Organization recommended a behavioural change approach be implemented in order to end FGM. To date, however, little progress has been made in adopting a behaviour change approach in strategies aimed at ending FGM. Based on research undertaken as part of the EU's Daphne III programme, which researched FGM intervention programmes linked to African communities in the EU (REPLACE), this paper argues that behaviour change has not been implemented due to a lack of understanding relating to the application of the two broad categories of behaviour change approach: individualistic decision-theoretic and community-change game-theoretic approaches, and how they may be integrated to aid our understanding and the development of future intervention strategies. We therefore discuss how these can be integrated and implemented using community-based participatory action research methods with affected communities. PMID:23983698

  15. Determinants of physicians' prescribing behaviour of methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ponnet, Koen; Wouters, Edwin; Van Hal, Guido; Heirman, Wannes; Walrave, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The non-medical use of methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement becomes a more and more common practice among college and university students. Although physicians are a source of access, little is known about the underlying mechanisms that might lead to physicians' intention and behaviour of prescribing methylphenidate to improve students' academic performance. Applying Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB), we tested whether attitudes, subjective norms (controllability and self-efficacy) and perceived behavioural control predicted the intention and the prescribing behaviour of physicians. Participants were 130 physicians (62.3% males). Structural equation modelling was used to test the ability of TPB to predict physicians' behaviour. Overall, the present study provides support for the TPB in predicting physicians' prescribing behaviour of methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement. Subjective norms, followed by attitudes, are the strongest predictors of physicians' intention to prescribe methylphenidate. To a lesser extent, controllability predicts the intention of physicians, and self-efficacy predicts the self-reported behaviour. Compared to their male colleagues, female physicians seem to have more negative attitudes towards prescribing methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement, feel less social pressure and perceive more control over their behaviour. Intervention programmes that want to decrease physicians' intention to prescribe methylphenidate for improving academic performance should primarily focus on alleviating the perceived social pressure to prescribe methylphenidate and on converting physician neutral or positive attitudes towards prescribing methylphenidate into negative attitudes. PMID:23713799

  16. Towards improved measurement of cognitive and behavioural work demands.

    PubMed

    Lysaght, Rosemary; Shaw, Lynn; Almas, Andrea; Jogia, Anita; Larmour-Trode, Sherrey

    2008-01-01

    Determination of the cognitive and behavioural demands of work is an important part of holistic workplace intervention. Attention to these factors is especially important when developing return-to-work programs for persons with reduced cognitive, behavioural or psycho-emotional capacity, and when designing risk management programs in organizations. Occupational therapists have the background knowledge and skills to assess these components of work, but often lack valid and reliable measurement tools. This paper reports on three field studies that assessed the reliability and validity of ratings made by novice users of the City of Toronto Job Demands Analysis, which includes a measure of cognitive and behavioural work demands. Numerous challenges to accuracy and reliability that are common to empirical measurement were disclosed, including the necessity for clear and strong definitions, and the importance of thorough rater training. Implications for therapist training and mentorship are discussed. PMID:18820416

  17. Behavioural and Cognitive-Behavioural Treatments of Parasomnias

    PubMed Central

    Galbiati, Andrea; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Giora, Enrico; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Marelli, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Parasomnias are unpleasant or undesirable behaviours or experiences that occur predominantly during or within close proximity to sleep. Pharmacological treatments of parasomnias are available, but their efficacy is established only for few disorders. Furthermore, most of these disorders tend spontaneously to remit with development. Nonpharmacological treatments therefore represent valid therapeutic choices. This paper reviews behavioural and cognitive-behavioural managements employed for parasomnias. Referring to the ICSD-3 nosology we consider, respectively, NREM parasomnias, REM parasomnias, and other parasomnias. Although the efficacy of some of these treatments is proved, in other cases their clinical evidence cannot be provided because of the small size of the samples. Due to the rarity of some parasomnias, further multicentric researches are needed in order to offer a more complete account of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural treatments efficacy. PMID:26101458

  18. Extending social cognition models of health behaviour.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Henderson, Marion

    2011-08-01

    A cross-sectional study assessed the extent to which indices of social structure, including family socio-economic status (SES), social deprivation, gender and educational/lifestyle aspirations correlated with adolescent condom use and added to the predictive utility of a theory of planned behaviour model. Analyses of survey data from 824 sexually active 16-year-olds (505 women and 319 men) tested three hypotheses. Firstly, social structure measures will correlate with behaviour-specific cognitions that predict condom use. Secondly, cognition measures will not fully mediate the effects of social structural indices and thirdly, the effects of cognitions on condom use will be moderated by social structure indices. All three hypotheses were supported. SES, gender and aspirations accounted for between 2 and 7% of the variance in behaviour-specific cognitions predicting condom use. Aspirations explained a further 4% of the variance in condom use, controlling for cognition effects. Mother's SES and gender added an additional 5%, controlling for aspirations. Overall, including significant moderation effects, of social structure indices increased the variance explained from 20.5% (for cognition measures alone) to 31%. These data indicate that social structure measures should to be investigated in addition to cognitions when modelling antecedents of behaviour, including condom use. PMID:21459763

  19. Internet-based interventions for disordered gamblers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of online self-directed cognitive-behavioural motivational therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gambling disorders affect about one percent of adults. Effective treatments are available but only a small proportion of affected individuals will choose to attend formal treatment. As a result, self-directed treatments have also been developed and found effective. Self-directed treatments provide individuals with information and support to initiate a recovery program without attending formal treatment. In previous research we developed an telephone-based intervention package that helps people to be motivated to tackle their gambling problem and to use basic behavioral and cognitive change strategies. The present study will investigate the efficacy of this self-directed intervention offered as a free online resource. The Internet is an excellent modality in which to offer self-directed treatment for gambling problems. The Internet is increasingly accessible to members of the public and is frequently used to access health-related information. Online gambling sites are also becoming more popular gambling platforms. Method/Design A randomized clinical trial (N=180) will be conducted in which individuals with gambling problems who are not interested in attending formal treatment are randomly assigned to have access to an online self-directed intervention or to a comparison condition. The comparison condition will be an alternative website that offers a self-assessment of gambling involvement and gambling-related problems. The participant’s use of the resources and their gambling involvement (days of gambling, dollars loss) and their gambling problems will be tracked for a twelve month follow-up period. Discussion The results of this research will be important for informing policy-makers who are developing treatment systems. Trial registration ISRCTN06220098 PMID:23294668

  20. Design considerations of a randomized clinical trial on a cognitive behavioural intervention using communication and information technologies for managing chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological treatments have been successful in treating chronic low back pain (CLBP). However, the effect sizes are still modest and there is room for improvement. A way to progress is by enhancing treatment adherence and self-management using information and communication technologies (ICTs). Therefore, the objective of this study was to design a trial investigating the short- and long-term efficacy of cognitive behavioural treatment (CBT) for CLBP using or not ICTs. A secondary objective of this trial will be to evaluate the influence of relevant variables on treatment response. Possible barriers in the implementation of CBT with and without ICT will also be investigated. Methods A randomised controlled trial with 180 CLBP patients recruited from specialised care will be conducted. Participants will be randomly assigned to three conditions: Control group (CG), CBT, and CBT supported by ICTs (CBT + ICT). Participants belonging to the three conditions will receive a conventional rehabilitation program (back school). The CBT group program will last six sessions. The CBT + ICT group will use the internet and SMS to practice the therapeutic strategies between sessions and in the follow-ups at their homes. Primary outcome variables will be self-reported disability and pain intensity. Assessment will be carried out by blinded assessors in five moments: pre-treatment, post-treatment and 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. The influence of catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety and depression in response to treatment in the primary outcomes will also be analysed. Discussion This study will show data of the possible benefits of using ICTs in the improvement of CBT for treating CLBP. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01802671 PMID:23607895

  1. Cognitive and behavioural concerns in epileptic children.

    PubMed

    Tamer, S K

    1999-01-01

    Cognitive performance in an epileptic child has been a difficult issue to predict in day-to-day clinical practice. Several observations made in early and later part of this century do not provide uniform and convincing answer to this issue. Recent trends in research however, have identified certain variables that are shown to be associated with cognitive decline in epileptic children. Together with associated behavioural problems, the resultant school difficulty is the essence of this concern for the parents. The variables related to cognitive deterioration as identified by several studies include underlying brain pathology (symptomatic epilepsy), early age of onset of seizure, severity and intractability of seizure, repeated head trauma, an episode of status epilepticus, presence of interictal subclinical EEG discharge, adverse psychosocial factor and antiepileptic drug (AED). Association of these variables in a given case cannot only predict adverse cognition outcome but also a preventive management package can be planned aiming at avoiding or minimizing these high risk variables. PMID:10798155

  2. Improving distress in dialysis (iDiD): a feasibility two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial of an online cognitive behavioural therapy intervention with and without therapist-led telephone support for psychological distress in patients undergoing haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Joanna L; Moss-Morris, Rona; Game, David; Carroll, Amy; McCrone, Paul; Hotopf, Matthew; Yardley, Lucy; Chilcot, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Psychological distress is common in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and is associated with poorer health outcomes. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is recommended in UK clinical guidelines for the management of depression in people with long-term conditions. Access to skilled therapists competent in managing the competing mental and physical health demands of ESKD is limited. Online CBT treatments tailored to the needs of the ESKD population offers a pragmatic solution for under-resourced services. This study examines the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial of online CBT with (intervention arm) and without (control arm) therapist support to improve psychological distress in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Methods Patients will be screened for depression and anxiety while attending for their haemodialysis treatments. We aim to recruit 60 adult patients undergoing haemodialysis who meet criteria for mild to moderately severe symptoms of depression and/or anxiety. Patients will be randomised individually (using a 1:1 computerised sequence ratio) to either online CBT with therapist telephone support (intervention arm), or online CBT with no therapist (control arm). Outcomes include feasibility and acceptability descriptive data on rates of recruitment, randomisation, retention and treatment adherence. Self-report outcomes include measures of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7), quality of life (Euro-QoL), service use (client service receipt inventory) and illness cognitions (brief illness perception questionnaire). A qualitative process evaluation will also be conducted. The statistician will be blinded to treatment allocation. Ethics and dissemination A National Health Service (NHS) research ethics committee approved the study. Data from this study will provide essential information for the design and testing of further interventions to

  3. Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaycox, Lisa H.; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Stein, Bradley D.; Langley, Audra K.; Wong, Marleen

    2012-01-01

    Developed out a community participatory research partnership with schools, the Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools Program is a targeted intervention for school children who have experienced a traumatic or violent event and have symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This article describes the original development of the…

  4. Cognitive behaviour therapy for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Johnston, D W

    2000-01-01

    Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is the main empirically evaluated from of psychological therapy. When applied to cardiovascular disease it can be directed at preventing the occurrence or recurrence of disease or at altering the psychological consequences of disease. Prevention can be achieved through the modification of behavioural risk factors (e.g. smoking, diet) or by attempting to directly modify the psychological processes involved in atherogenesis and thrombogenesis. Successful applications of CBT in cardiovascular disease are described, some the remaining problems indicated and new directions for research pointed out. PMID:11151801

  5. [A cognitive behavioural group therapy program for the improvement of the cognitive and social abilities of patients with schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Efthimiou, K; Rakitzi, S; Roder, V

    2009-07-01

    Pharmacotherapy is the main therapy for the positive and negative symptoms and for the relapse prevention for patients with schizophrenia. The cognitive and behavioural therapy can be combined with other therapies for schizophrenia. Within this frame of reference the cognitive behavioural therapy for schizophrenia and other psychotic syndromes is the first choice for psychiatrists and psychologists in European countries. The National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) has included the cognitive behavioural therapy as a recommended therapy for schizophrenia. The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy includes interventions for the acute phase in an episode (relapse) as well as for the rehabilitation of patients with schizophrenia. The Integrated Psychological Therapy, which is an effective group therapy for the improvement of cognitive and social abilities of patients with schizophrenia, will be represented in the following article. PMID:22218214

  6. Toothbrushing at School: Effects on Toothbrushing Behaviour, Cognitions and Habit Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wind, Marianne; Kremers, Stef; Thijs, Carel; Brug, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of a school-based toothbrushing intervention aimed at encouraging primary school children to brush their teeth daily at school, on cognitions, toothbrushing behaviour and habit strength. Design/methodology/approach: The effects of an intervention were examined in a quasi-experimental trial among 296 fifth-graders in…

  7. Cognitive Interventions for Older Diabetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sheila; Scogin, Forrest

    1998-01-01

    Older diabetic adults should receive memory training to improve their compliance with medication taking. The intervention should include comprehensible medical instructions, assistance with remembering the nutritional values of food, and higher order skills for disease management. (SK)

  8. Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    Internet-based, or computerised, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can be used to treat patients with depression or anxiety. Patients are engaged in structured programs of care, with several programs available either at no cost or moderate cost. Internet CBT (iCBT) may be particularly suited to patients with mobility issues or living in rural or remote areas. Although there are no adverse effects, clinicians should assess patients for risk issues and the need for more immediate assistance before recommending iCBT. Monitoring effectiveness of any intervention for the patient is important. iCBT has National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Level I evidence of efficacy. PMID:24217103

  9. A Cognitive Behavioural Group Approach for Adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruttledge, Richard A.; Petrides, K. V.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural approaches emphasize the links between thoughts, feelings and behaviour (Greig, 2007). Previous research has indicated that these approaches are efficacious in reducing disruptive behaviour in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to provide further evaluation of cognitive behavioural group work to reduce disruptive…

  10. HIV behavioural interventions targeted towards older adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing number of people living with HIV aged 50 years and older has been recognised around the world yet non-pharmacologic HIV behavioural and cognitive interventions specifically targeted to older adults are limited. Evidence is needed to guide the response to this affected group. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the available published literature in MEDLINE, Embase and the Education Resources Information Center. A search strategy was defined with high sensitivity but low specificity to identify behavioural interventions with outcomes in the areas of treatment adherence, HIV testing uptake, increased HIV knowledge and uptake of prevention measures. Data from relevant articles were extracted into excel. Results Twelve articles were identified all of which originated from the Americas. Eight of the interventions were conducted among older adults living with HIV and four for HIV-negative older adults. Five studies included control groups. Of the included studies, four focused on general knowledge of HIV, three emphasised mental health and coping, two focused on reduced sexual risk behaviour, two on physical status and one on referral for care. Only four of the studies were randomised controlled trials and seven – including all of the studies among HIV-negative older adults – did not include controls at all. A few of the studies conducted statistical testing on small samples of 16 or 11 older adults making inference based on the results difficult. The most relevant study demonstrated that using telephone-based interventions can reduce risky sexual behaviour among older adults with control reporting 3.24 times (95% CI 1.79-5.85) as many occasions of unprotected sex at follow-up as participants. Overall however, few of the articles are sufficiently rigorous to suggest broad replication or to be considered representative and applicable in other settings. Conclusions More evidence is needed on what interventions work among older adults to

  11. Cognitive-behavioural therapy-based intervention to reduce fear of falling in older people: therapy development and randomised controlled trial - the Strategies for Increasing Independence, Confidence and Energy (STRIDE) study.

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Steve W; Bamford, Claire; Deary, Vincent; Finch, Tracy L; Gray, Jo; MacDonald, Claire; McMeekin, Peter; Sabin, Neil J; Steen, I Nick; Whitney, Sue L; McColl, Elaine M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Falls cause fear, anxiety and loss of confidence, resulting in activity avoidance, social isolation and increasing frailty. The umbrella term for these problems is 'fear of falling', seen in up to 85% of older adults who fall. Evidence of effectiveness of physical and psychological interventions is limited, with no previous studies examining the role of an individually delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) approach. OBJECTIVES Primary objective To develop and then determine the effectiveness of a new CBT intervention (CBTi) delivered by health-care assistants (HCAs) plus usual care compared with usual care alone in reducing fear of falling. Secondary objectives To measure the impact of the intervention on falls, injuries, functional abilities, anxiety/depression, quality of life, social participation and loneliness; investigate the acceptability of the intervention for patients, family members and professionals and factors that promote or inhibit its implementation; and measure the costs and benefits of the intervention. DESIGN Phase I CBTi development. Phase II Parallel-group patient randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the new CBTi plus usual care compared with usual care alone. SETTING Multidisciplinary falls services. PARTICIPANTS Consecutive community-dwelling older adults, both sexes, aged ≥ 60 years, with excessive or undue fear of falling per Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) score of > 23. INTERVENTIONS Phase I Development of the CBTi. The CBTi was developed following patient interviews and taught to HCAs to maximise the potential for uptake and generalisability to a UK NHS setting. Phase II RCT. The CBTi was delivered by HCAs weekly for 8 weeks, with a 6-month booster session plus usual care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES These were assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. Primary outcome measure Fear of falling measured by change in FES-I scores at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures

  12. Exploration of use of SenseCam to support autobiographical memory retrieval within a cognitive-behavioural therapeutic intervention following acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Brindley, Rob; Bateman, Andrew; Gracey, Fergus

    2011-10-01

    Delivering effective psychotherapy to address the significant emotional consequences of acquired brain injury (ABI) is challenged by the presence of acquired cognitive impairments, especially retrieval of detailed autobiographical memories of emotional trigger events. Initial studies using a wearable camera (SenseCam) suggest long-term improvements in autobiographical retrieval of recorded events. In this study a single-case experimental design was implemented to explore the use of SenseCam as a memory aid for a man with a specific anxiety disorder and memory and executive difficulties following ABI. We predicted that SenseCam supported rehearsal of memories of events that trigger high levels of anxiety would yield improved retrieval of both factual detail and internal state information (thoughts and feelings) compared with a conventional psychotherapy aid (automatic thought record sheets, ATRs) and no strategy. The findings indicated SenseCam supported retrieval of anxiety trigger events was superior to ATRs or no strategy in terms of both detail and internal state information, with 94% of the information being recalled in the SenseCam condition, compared to 39% for the "no strategy" and 22% for the ATR conditions. It is concluded that SenseCam may be of use as a compensatory aid in psychotherapies relying on retrieval of emotionally salient trigger events. PMID:20635299

  13. The management of schizophrenia: cognitive behavioural therapy.

    PubMed

    Siddle, R; Kingdon, D

    2000-01-01

    Over the past decade advances in the management of schizophrenia in the community have involved increasing emphasis on the psychosocial dynamics of care, coordinated through a care programme approach, and the introduction of new medication. In particular, the use of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective means of tackling symptoms associated with schizophrenia (Jones et al, 1998). While some of the techniques used in CBT may be too advanced for untrained therapists to use, the approach described in this article may be used by registered mental health nurses and community professionals. This approach includes medication adherence, coping strategies, questioning style, the prevention of patient relapse and dealing with relatives. PMID:12784789

  14. Simulating behaviour change interventions based on the theory of planned behaviour: Impacts on intention and action.

    PubMed

    Fife-Schaw, Chris; Sheeran, Paschal; Norman, Paul

    2007-03-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) has been used extensively to predict social and health behaviours. However, a critical test of the TPB is whether interventions that increased scores on the theory's predictors would engender behaviour change. The present research deployed a novel technique in order to provide this test. Statistical simulations were conducted on data for 30 behaviours (N=211) that estimated the impact of interventions that generated maximum positive changes in attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) on subsequent intentions and behaviour. Findings indicated that interventions that maximized TPB variables had a substantial impact on behavioural intentions. Although TPB maximization increased the proportion of the sample that performed respective behaviours by 28% compared with baseline, the behaviour of a substantial minority of the sample (26%) did not change. The research also identified several interactions among TPB variables in predicting simulated intention and behaviour scores and investigated the mediating role of intentions in predicting behaviour. PMID:17355718

  15. The Addition of an Individualized Cognitive Intervention to a Standardized Behavioral Intervention for Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia, Janice L.; Kalodner, Cynthia R.

    This study examined the effectiveness of the addition of a cognitive intervention based on individualized assessment to a behavioral intervention for obesity. Overweight subjects (N=63) were randomly assigned to either a behavioral intervention or a behavioral intervention combined with a cognitive intervention which focused on changing specific…

  16. Evaluation of a Group CBT Early Intervention Program for Adolescents with Comorbid Depression and Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wignall, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Depression and externalising behaviour disorders frequently occur together in adolescence and are associated with a marked increase in symptom severity and poorer outcome. Clinical treatment research and early intervention programs for depression have not addressed the specific cognitive and interpersonal deficits associated with comorbidity. This…

  17. Embedding Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Training in Practice: Facilitators and Barriers for Trainee Educational Psychologists (TEPs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Garry; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    At the national level there has been a call for more therapeutic interventions and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) has been identified as one approach that can be used. The training of educational psychologists (EPs) has been extended to three years and this provides an opportunity to increase the depth of knowledge of particular therapeutic…

  18. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Command Hallucinations and Intellectual Disability: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrowcliff, Alastair L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of literature detailing cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for psychosis in people with intellectual disability. Of the available literature, only two case studies involve people with command hallucinations and these do not address specific issues of intervention indicated in the wider literature for this type of…

  19. A single blind randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy in a help-seeking population with an At Risk Mental State for psychosis: the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL) trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Psychotic disorders are a serious mental health problem. Intervention before the onset of psychosis might result in delaying the onset, reducing the impact or even preventing the first episode of psychosis. This study explores the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in targeting cognitive biases that are involved in the formation of delusions in persons with an ultra-high risk for developing psychosis. A single blind randomised controlled trial compares CBT with treatment as usual in preventing or delaying the onset of psychosis. Method/design All help seeking patients aged 14 to 35 years referred to the mental health services in three regions in the Netherlands are pre-screened with the Prodromal Questionnaire during a period of two years. Patients with a score of 18 or more on the sub-clinical positive symptoms items (45 items in total) will be assessed with the Comprehensive Assessment of At Risk Mental State (CAARMS). In a different pathway to care model all referrals from the mental health services in Amsterdam to the specialized psychosis clinic of the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam are also assessed with the CAARMS. The primary outcome is the transition rate to psychosis according to the CAARMS-criteria. Group differences will be analysed with chi-square tests and survival analyses. Discussion CBT is a highly tolerated treatment. The psycho-educational CBT approach may prove to be a successful strategy since most people with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS) are distressed by odd disturbing experiences. Giving explanations for and normalising these experiences may reduce the arousal (distress) and therefore may prevent people from developing a catastrophic delusional explanation for their odd experiences and thus prevent them from developing psychosis. Screening the entire help-seeking population referred to community mental health services with a two-stage strategy, as compared with traditional referral to a specialist

  20. Stepping out of the box: broadening the dialogue around the organizational implementation of cognitive behavioural psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Poole, J; Grant, A

    2005-08-01

    The dissemination and uptake of cognitive behavioural interventions is central to the evidence-based mental health agenda in Britain. However, some policy and related literature, in and of itself social constructed, tends to display discursive naïvety in assuming a rational basis for the dissemination and organizational integration of cognitive behavioural approaches. Rational constructions fail to acknowledge that the practice settings of key stakeholders in the process are likely to be socially constructed fields of multiple meanings. Within these, the importance of evidence-based interventions may be variously contested or reworked. To illustrate this, a case example from the first author will discuss the hypothetical introduction of a cognitive behavioural group for voice hearers in a forensic mental health unit. This will highlight contradictions and local organizational problems around the effective utilization of postgraduate cognitive behavioural knowledge and skills. A synthesis of social constructionist with organizational theory will be used to make better sense of these actual and anticipated difficulties. From this basis, specific ways in which nurses and supportive stakeholders could move the implementation of cognitive behavioural psychotherapy agenda forward within a postmodern leadership context will be proposed. PMID:16011501

  1. Walking the line: Understanding pedestrian behaviour and risk at rail level crossings with cognitive work analysis.

    PubMed

    Read, Gemma J M; Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    Pedestrian fatalities at rail level crossings (RLXs) are a public safety concern for governments worldwide. There is little literature examining pedestrian behaviour at RLXs and no previous studies have adopted a formative approach to understanding behaviour in this context. In this article, cognitive work analysis is applied to understand the constraints that shape pedestrian behaviour at RLXs in Melbourne, Australia. The five phases of cognitive work analysis were developed using data gathered via document analysis, behavioural observation, walk-throughs and critical decision method interviews. The analysis demonstrates the complex nature of pedestrian decision making at RLXs and the findings are synthesised to provide a model illustrating the influences on pedestrian decision making in this context (i.e. time, effort and social pressures). Further, the CWA outputs are used to inform an analysis of the risks to safety associated with pedestrian behaviour at RLXs and the identification of potential interventions to reduce risk. PMID:26518501

  2. Cognitive interventions for addiction medicine: Understanding the underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zilverstand, Anna; Parvaz, Muhammad A; Moeller, Scott J; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging provides a tool for investigating the neurobiological mechanisms of cognitive interventions in addiction. The aim of this review was to describe the brain circuits that are recruited during cognitive interventions, examining differences between various treatment modalities while highlighting core mechanisms, in drug addicted individuals. Based on a systematic Medline search we reviewed neuroimaging studies on cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive inhibition of craving, motivational interventions, emotion regulation, mindfulness, and neurofeedback training in addiction. Across intervention modalities, common results included the normalization of aberrant activity in the brain's reward circuitry, and the recruitment and strengthening of the brain's inhibitory control network. Results suggest that different cognitive interventions act, at least partly, through recruitment of a common inhibitory control network as a core mechanism. This implies potential transfer effects between training modalities. Overall, results confirm that chronically hypoactive prefrontal regions implicated in cognitive control in addiction can be normalized through cognitive means. PMID:26822363

  3. The contribution of behavioural science to primary care research: development and evaluation of behaviour change interventions.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    Behavioural science is concerned with predicting, explaining and changing behaviour. Taking a personal perspective, this article aims to show how behavioural science can contribute to primary care research, specifically in relation to the development and evaluation of interventions to change behaviour. After discussing the definition and measurement of behaviour, the principle of compatibility and theories of behaviour change, the article outlines two examples of behaviour change trials (one on medication adherence and the other on physical activity), which were part of a research programme on prevention of chronic disease and its consequences. The examples demonstrate how, in a multidisciplinary context, behavioural science can contribute to primary care research in several important ways, including posing relevant research questions, defining the target behaviour, understanding the psychological determinants of behaviour, developing behaviour change interventions and selection or development of measures. The article concludes with a number of recommendations: (i) whether the aim is prediction, explanation or change, defining the target behaviour is a crucial first step; (ii) interventions should be explicitly based on theories that specify the factors that need to be changed in order to produce the desired change in behaviour; (iii) intervention developers need to be aware of the differences between different theories and select a theory only after careful consideration of the alternatives assessed against relevant criteria; and (iv) developers need to be aware that interventions can never be entirely theory based. PMID:22284944

  4. Social Cognition in Children: A Model for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Robert D.

    1976-01-01

    An attempt to formulate a model of social cognition which will describe what may be involved in making social cognitive inferences in children. Techniques for intervention are then derived from the model. (Author/NG)

  5. Cognitive behavioural therapies versus treatment as usual for depression

    PubMed Central

    Hunot, Vivien; Moore, Theresa HM; Caldwell, Deborah; Davies, Philippa; Jones, Hannah; Furukawa, Toshi A; Lewis, Glyn; Churchill, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all cognitive behavioural therapies compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/attention placebo control conditions for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different cognitive behavioural therapy models (cognitive therapy, rational emotive behaviour therapy, problem-solving therapy, self-control therapy and the Coping with Depression course) compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/attention placebo control conditions for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all cognitive behavioural therapies compared with different types of comparator (standard care, no treatment, waiting list, attention placebo) for acute depression. PMID:25411558

  6. Cognition and Behaviour in Sotos Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Chloe; Milne, Elizabeth; Freeth, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Background Research investigating cognition and behaviour in Sotos syndrome has been sporadic and to date, there is no published overview of study findings. Method A systematic review of all published literature (1964–2015) presenting empirical data on cognition and behaviour in Sotos syndrome. Thirty four journal articles met inclusion criteria. Within this literature, data relating to cognition and/or behaviour in 247 individuals with a diagnosis of Sotos syndrome were reported. Ten papers reported group data on cognition and/or behaviour. The remaining papers employed a case study design. Results Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores were reported in twenty five studies. Intellectual disability (IQ < 70) or borderline intellectual functioning (IQ 70–84) was present in the vast majority of individuals with Sotos syndrome. Seven studies reported performance on subscales of intelligence tests. Data from these studies indicate that verbal IQ scores are consistently higher than performance IQ scores. Fourteen papers provided data on behavioural features of individuals with Sotos syndrome. Key themes that emerged in the behavioural literature were overlap with ASD, ADHD, anxiety and high prevalence of aggression/tantrums. Conclusion Although a range of studies have provided insight into cognition and behaviour in Sotos syndrome, specific profiles have not yet been fully specified. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:26872390

  7. Cognitive Styles and Managerial Behaviour: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cools, Eva; Van Den Broeck, Herman

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute further insights into how cognitive styles influence managerial behaviour, using a qualitative approach. Design/methodology/approach: Written testimonies were gathered from people with different cognitive styles, and content analysed (n = 100). Findings: Qualitative evidence was found for…

  8. The utility of cognitive behavioural therapy on chronic haemodialysis patients' fluid intake: a preliminary examination.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, M; Oka, M; Chaboyer, W

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) on chronic haemodialysis (HD) patients' ability to achieve fluid intake related behavioural objectives. This one group before and after quasi-experiment consisted of a four-week base-line phase, a six-week intervention phase and a four-week follow-up phase. Interventions included self-contract, reinforcement and self-monitoring. Participants were 10 Japanese HD outpatients. The average achievement of the fluid intake objective in the intervention phase was 65%. Fifty percent of participants achieved their objectives at least 3/4 of the time without individualised reinforcement. CBT was effective in helping patients change their fluid intake behaviours. PMID:12667513

  9. Intervention Validity of Cognitive Assessment: Knowns, Unknowables, and Unknowns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braden, Jeffery P.; Shaw, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The intervention validity of cognitive assessment batteries is considered within an historical context to identify what the evidence supports (knowns), what cannot be known (unknowables), and what is not yet known (unknowns). Two ways cognitive batteries could inform intervention are identified: a disordinal (i.e., aptitude-treatment interaction)…

  10. Cognitive behavioural therapy for medically unexplained physical symptoms: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Speckens, A. E.; van Hemert, A. M.; Spinhoven, P.; Hawton, K. E.; Bolk, J. H.; Rooijmans, H. G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the additional effect of cognitive behavioural therapy for patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms in comparison with optimised medical care. DESIGN--Randomised controlled trial with follow up assessments six and 12 months after the baseline evaluation. SETTING--General medical outpatient clinic in a university hospital. SUBJECTS--An intervention group of 39 patients and a control group of 40 patients. INTERVENTIONS--The intervention group received between six and 16 sessions of cognitive behavioural therapy. Therapeutic techniques used included identification and modification of dysfunctional automatic thoughts and behavioural experiments aimed at breaking the vicious cycles of the symptoms and their consequences. The control group received optimised medical care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The degree of change, frequency and intensity of the presenting symptoms, psychological distress, functional impairment, hypochondriacal beliefs and attitudes, and (at 12 months of follow up) number of visits to the general practitioner. RESULTS--At six months of follow up the intervention group reported a higher recovery rate (odds ratio 0.40; 95% confidence interval 0.16 to 1.00), a lower mean intensity of the physical symptoms (difference -1.2; -2.0 to -0.3), and less impairment of sleep (odds ratio 0.38; 0.15 to 0.94) than the controls. After adjustment for coincidental baseline differences the intervention and control groups also differed with regard to frequency of the symptoms (0.32; 0.13 to 0.77), limitations in social (0.35; 0.14 to 0.85) and leisure (0.36; 0.14 to 0.93) activities, and illness behaviour (difference -2.5; -4.6 to -0.5). At 12 months of follow up the differences between the groups were largely maintained. CONCLUSION--Cognitive behavioural therapy seems to be a feasible and effective treatment in general medical patients with unexplained physical symptoms. PMID:7496281

  11. Mindfulness-based interventions for obesity-related eating behaviours: a literature review.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, G A; Cook, L; Spruijt-Metz, D; Black, D S

    2014-06-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviours have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviours, such as binge eating, emotional eating and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO and Ovid Healthstar. Papers were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (i) describe a MBI or the use of mindfulness exercises as part of an intervention; (ii) include at least one obesity-related eating behaviour as an outcome; (iii) include quantitative outcomes; and (iv) be published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. A total of N = 21 papers were included in this review. Interventions used a variety of approaches to implement mindfulness training, including combined mindfulness and cognitive behavioural therapies, mindfulness-based stress reduction, acceptance-based therapies, mindful eating programmes, and combinations of mindfulness exercises. Targeted eating behaviour outcomes included binge eating, emotional eating, external eating and dietary intake. Eighteen (86%) of the reviewed studies reported improvements in the targeted eating behaviours. Overall, the results of this first review on the topic support the efficacy of MBIs for changing obesity-related eating behaviours, specifically binge eating, emotional eating and external eating. PMID:24636206

  12. The social cognitive determinants of offending drivers' speeding behaviour.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Mark A; Thomson, James A

    2010-11-01

    The efficacy of an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was tested in relation to offending drivers' (N=1403) speeding behaviour. Postal questionnaires were issued at Time 1 to measure intention, instrumental and affective attitude, subjective and descriptive norm, self-efficacy, perceived controllability, moral norm, anticipated regret, self-identity, and past speeding behaviour. At Time 2 (6 months later), subsequent speeding behaviour was measured, again using self-completion postal questionnaires. The extended TPB accounted for 68% of the variation in intention and 51% of the variation in subsequent behaviour. The independent predictors of intention were instrumental attitude, affective attitude, self-efficacy, moral norm, anticipated regret and past behaviour. The independent predictors of behaviour were intention, self-efficacy, anticipated regret and past behaviour. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed in relation to targeting road safety interventions. PMID:20728608

  13. Interpersonal Processes in Psychoanalytic, Cognitive Analytical and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habicht, Manuela H.

    The aim of the review was to compare interpersonal processes in psychoanalytic therapy, cognitive analytical therapy, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Since the emphasis is on psychodynamic therapy, Freud's conceptualization of the phenomenon of transference is discussed. Countertransference as an unconscious and defensive reaction to the…

  14. The behaviour change wheel: A new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Improving the design and implementation of evidence-based practice depends on successful behaviour change interventions. This requires an appropriate method for characterising interventions and linking them to an analysis of the targeted behaviour. There exists a plethora of frameworks of behaviour change interventions, but it is not clear how well they serve this purpose. This paper evaluates these frameworks, and develops and evaluates a new framework aimed at overcoming their limitations. Methods A systematic search of electronic databases and consultation with behaviour change experts were used to identify frameworks of behaviour change interventions. These were evaluated according to three criteria: comprehensiveness, coherence, and a clear link to an overarching model of behaviour. A new framework was developed to meet these criteria. The reliability with which it could be applied was examined in two domains of behaviour change: tobacco control and obesity. Results Nineteen frameworks were identified covering nine intervention functions and seven policy categories that could enable those interventions. None of the frameworks reviewed covered the full range of intervention functions or policies, and only a minority met the criteria of coherence or linkage to a model of behaviour. At the centre of a proposed new framework is a 'behaviour system' involving three essential conditions: capability, opportunity, and motivation (what we term the 'COM-B system'). This forms the hub of a 'behaviour change wheel' (BCW) around which are positioned the nine intervention functions aimed at addressing deficits in one or more of these conditions; around this are placed seven categories of policy that could enable those interventions to occur. The BCW was used reliably to characterise interventions within the English Department of Health's 2010 tobacco control strategy and the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence's guidance on reducing obesity

  15. Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment for Men with Intellectual Disabilities and Sexually Abusive Behaviour: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Glynis; Powell, Simon; Guzman, Ana-Maria; Hays, Sarah-Jane

    2007-01-01

    Background: Cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) seems to be becoming the treatment of choice for non-disabled sex offenders. Nevertheless, there have been relatively few evaluations of such treatment for men with intellectual disabilities (ID) and sexually abusive behaviour. Method: A pilot study providing CBT for two groups of men with ID is…

  16. Cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions affecting physical functioning: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments that are similar to cognitive impairments seen in aging. The aim was to identify potentially promising methods that might be used in future intervention type studies for older adults. Methods A systematic search was conducted for the Medline/Premedline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. The search was focused on older adults over the age of 65. To increase the number of articles for review, we also included those discussing adult patients with neurological impairments due to trauma, as these cognitive impairments are similar to those seen in the aging population. The search was restricted to English, German and French language literature without any limitation of publication date or restriction by study design. Cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions were defined as dual-tasking, virtual reality exercise, cognitive exercise, or a combination of these. Results 28 articles met our inclusion criteria. Three articles used an isolated cognitive rehabilitation intervention, seven articles used a dual-task intervention and 19 applied a computerized intervention. There is evidence to suggest that cognitive or motor-cognitive methods positively affects physical functioning, such as postural control, walking abilities and general functions of the upper and lower extremities, respectively. The majority of the included studies resulted in improvements of the assessed functional outcome measures. Conclusions The current evidence on the effectiveness of cognitive or

  17. Psychological Treatment of Depression: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Genest, Myles

    1989-01-01

    Psychotherapy is preferred over pharmacotherapy in many instances of depression, either because of side-effects or overdose concerns, or because of the patient's choice. Psychologists are most likely to provide a course of cognitive therapy for depressed individuals. This paper offers a brief description of treatment results, rationale for therapy, and the elements of therapy. PMID:21248949

  18. Extending Social Cognition Models of Health Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Henderson, Marion

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study assessed the extent to which indices of social structure, including family socio-economic status (SES), social deprivation, gender and educational/lifestyle aspirations correlated with adolescent condom use and added to the predictive utility of a theory of planned behaviour model. Analyses of survey data from 824 sexually…

  19. Consensus clinical guidelines for the assessment of cognitive and behavioural problems in Tuberous Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Petrus; Humphrey, Ayla; McCartney, Deborah; Prather, Penny; Bolton, Patrick; Hunt, Ann

    2005-07-01

    Tuberous Sclerosis (TSC) is a genetic disorder characterised by abnormal growths in a wide range of organs. In the brain, abnormalities of differentiation, proliferation and migration can produce a range of neuropsychiatric features such as mental retardation, autism and ADHD. Although these manifestations are not diagnostic of the disorder, cognitive and behavioural features are often of greatest concern to families yet limited clinical assessment and interventions are currently offered. A consensus panel at a TSC Brain/Behaviour workshop recommended that the cognitive and behavioural profiles of individuals with TSC should be assessed at regular intervals in a planned fashion in accordance with the difficulties associated with the disorder. Evaluations should include the use of standardised neuropsychological and behavioural tools as appropriate to the age and developmental level of the individual assessed. These cognitive and behavioural profiles should be incorporated in the overall formulation of the needs of the person with TSC to plan educational, social and clinical management strategies. Assessments should be documented so that individual longitudinal progress can be monitored. The paper outlines the problems associated with TSC, the purpose of recommended assessments, developmentally appropriate stages for assessment, and identifies specific areas that should be targeted for assessment. PMID:15981129

  20. Effects of a behaviour change intervention for Girl Scouts on child and parent energy-saving behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudet, Hilary; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Flora, June; Armel, K. Carrie; Desai, Manisha; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2016-08-01

    Energy education programmes for children are hypothesized to have great potential to save energy. Such interventions are often assumed to impact child and family behaviours. Here, using a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 30 Girl Scout troops in Northern California, we assess the efficacy of two social cognitive theory-based interventions focused on residential and food-and-transportation energy-related behaviours of Girl Scouts and their families. We show that Girl Scouts and parents in troops randomly assigned to the residential energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported residential energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention and after more than seven months of follow-up, compared with controls. Girl Scouts in troops randomly assigned to the food-and-transportation energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported food-and-transportation energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention, compared with controls, but not at follow-up. The results demonstrate that theory-based, child-focused energy interventions have the potential to increase energy-saving behaviours among both children and their parents.

  1. Addressing Anger Using Sensorimotor Psychotherapy and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Sarah M.

    2010-01-01

    A young woman initiated counselling services at a community agency to address her explosive anger that was a remnant of childhood physical and emotional abuse. Sensorimotor psychotherapy was used to help this client learn how to monitor and regulate her sensorimotor processes. In conjunction with this approach, Cognitive behavioural therapy was…

  2. Development of Rostral Prefrontal Cortex and Cognitive and Behavioural Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumontheil, Iroise; Burgess, Paul W.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2008-01-01

    Information on the development and functions of rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC), or Brodmann area 10, has been gathered from different fields, from anatomical development to functional neuroimaging in adults, and put forward in relation to three particular cognitive and behavioural disorders. Rostral PFC is larger and has a lower cell density in…

  3. The Use of Group Therapy as a Means of Facilitating Cognitive-Behavioural Instruction for Adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larmar, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of an action research enquiry examining the efficacy of group therapy as a means of facilitating cognitive-behavioural instruction for students who exhibit disruptive behaviours. A curriculum comprising the key tenets of cognitive-behaviour modification was developed and taught over a 9-week period to a group…

  4. Elderly Individuals with Diabetes: Adding Cognitive Training to Psychoeducational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vianna Paulo, Debora Lee; Sanches Yassuda, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The present research examined the effects of a cognitive training program combined with psychoeducational intervention for diabetic elderly patients. Specifically, it aimed at assessing the effects of an eight-session cognitive training and educational program in diabetic elderly individuals and investigating changes in their awareness about…

  5. Increasing Children's Self-Control through Cognitive Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Research is reviewed on cognitive interventions which affect children's self-control. Five types of effective manipulations are discussed: self-verbalization; external verbalization; affect manipulation; cognitive transformation; and manipulation of attention. Self-control behaviors include modification of impulsive behaviors; delay of…

  6. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program Shows Potential in Reducing Symptoms of Depression and Stress among Young People with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, J. A.; Evert, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered in groups on the reduction of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress in young people on the autism spectrum. Utilising a quasi-experimental design, comparisons were made between individuals allocated to a group intervention program and individuals allocated to a…

  7. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and group recreational activity for adults with autism spectrum disorders: A preliminary randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This preliminary randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive behavioural therapy and recreational activity. Both interventions comprised 36 weekly 3-h sessions led by two therapists in groups of 6–8 patients. A total of 68 psychiatric patients with autism spectrum disorders participated in the study. Outcome measures were Quality of Life Inventory, Sense of Coherence Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an exploratory analysis on measures of psychiatric health. Participants in both treatment conditions reported an increased quality of life at post-treatment (d = 0.39, p < 0.001), with no difference between interventions. No amelioration of psychiatric symptoms was observed. The dropout rate was lower with cognitive behavioural therapy than with recreational activity, and participants in cognitive behavioural therapy rated themselves as more generally improved, as well as more improved regarding expression of needs and understanding of difficulties. Both interventions appear to be promising treatment options for adults with autism spectrum disorder. The interventions’ similar efficacy may be due to the common elements, structure and group setting. Cognitive behavioural therapy may be additionally beneficial in terms of increasing specific skills and minimizing dropout. PMID:24089423

  8. From Behaviourism to Cognitive Behaviourism to Cognitive Development: Steps in the Evolution of Instructional Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Robbie; Bereiter, Carl

    1984-01-01

    Traces history of instructional technology, including Skinner's work, Gagne's task analytic approach, and contemporary efforts associated with the cognitive revolution. It is suggested that an understanding of cognitive development improves earlier approaches by adapting them directly to students' cognitive development levels. Recent instructional…

  9. Effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy in schoolchildren with depressive symptoms in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Habib, D; Seif El Din, A

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy for 12-14-year-old school-children from a low socioeconomic area in Alexandria, Egypt during the academic year 2003-04. Our sample comprised 198 boys and 136 girls. Students were assessed using the Child Depression Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. The frequency of depression was 9.6%; 7.1% in boys and 13.2% in girls. The 32 children with depression were offered cognitive behaviour therapy. Only 17 accepted the offer and received 9 sessions of therapy. They were assessed 3 months after the intervention using the same tools and the results indicate the short-term effectiveness of the therapy. PMID:17687835

  10. Cognitive behavioural therapy versus other psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher; Hacker, David; Cormac, Irene; Meaden, Alan; Irving, Claire B

    2014-01-01

    , mean difference (MD) Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) −6.21 CI −10.81 to −1.61). Few trials report on social functioning or quality of life. Findings do not convincingly favour either of the interventions (2 RCTs, n = 103, MD Social Functioning Scale(SFS) 1.32 CI −4.90 to 7.54; n = 37, MD EuroQOL −1.86 CI −19.20 to 15.48). For the outcome of leaving the study early, we found no significant advantage when CBT was compared with either non-active control therapies (4 RCTs, n = 433, RR 0.88 CI 0.63 to 1.23) or active therapies (6 RCTs, n = 339, RR 0.75 CI 0.40 to 1.43) Authors’ conclusions Trial-based evidence suggests no clear and convincing advantage for cognitive behavioural therapy over other - and sometime much less sophisticated - therapies for people with schizophrenia. PMID:22513966

  11. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H.; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S.; Ruiter, Robert A.C.; Fernández, María E.; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L. Kay

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters for effectiveness of methods, and explicate the related distinction between theory-based methods and practical applications and the probability that poor translation of methods may lead to erroneous conclusions as to method-effectiveness. Third, we recommend a minimal set of intervention characteristics that may be reported when intervention descriptions and evaluations are published. Specifying these characteristics can greatly enhance the quality of our meta-analyses and other literature syntheses. In conclusion, the dynamics of behaviour change are such that any taxonomy of methods of behaviour change needs to acknowledge the importance of, and provide instruments for dealing with, three conditions for effectiveness for behaviour change methods. For a behaviour change method to be effective: (1) it must target a determinant that predicts behaviour; (2) it must be able to change that determinant; (3) it must be translated into a practical application in a way that preserves the parameters for effectiveness and fits with the target population, culture, and context. Thus, taxonomies of methods of behaviour change must distinguish the specific determinants that are targeted, practical, specific applications, and the theory-based methods they embody. In addition, taxonomies should acknowledge that the lists of behaviour change methods will be used by, and should be used by, intervention developers. Ideally, the taxonomy should be readily usable for this goal; but alternatively, it

  12. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach.

    PubMed

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S; Ruiter, Robert A C; Fernández, María E; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters for effectiveness of methods, and explicate the related distinction between theory-based methods and practical applications and the probability that poor translation of methods may lead to erroneous conclusions as to method-effectiveness. Third, we recommend a minimal set of intervention characteristics that may be reported when intervention descriptions and evaluations are published. Specifying these characteristics can greatly enhance the quality of our meta-analyses and other literature syntheses. In conclusion, the dynamics of behaviour change are such that any taxonomy of methods of behaviour change needs to acknowledge the importance of, and provide instruments for dealing with, three conditions for effectiveness for behaviour change methods. For a behaviour change method to be effective: (1) it must target a determinant that predicts behaviour; (2) it must be able to change that determinant; (3) it must be translated into a practical application in a way that preserves the parameters for effectiveness and fits with the target population, culture, and context. Thus, taxonomies of methods of behaviour change must distinguish the specific determinants that are targeted, practical, specific applications, and the theory-based methods they embody. In addition, taxonomies should acknowledge that the lists of behaviour change methods will be used by, and should be used by, intervention developers. Ideally, the taxonomy should be readily usable for this goal; but alternatively, it should be

  13. Genetic Polymorphisms Influence Cognition in Patients Undergoing Carotid Interventions.

    PubMed

    Hitchner, Elizabeth; Morrison, Doug; Liao, Phoebe; Rosen, Allyson; Zhou, Wei

    2016-09-01

    While carotid interventions help decrease the risk of stroke, nearly 40% of patients experience cognitive deterioration. Genetic polymorphism in apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been implicated in cognitive impairment; however, it is unclear whether they may influence cognitive changes in patients undergoing carotid intervention. In this study, we seek to assess the role of genetic polymorphisms in carotid intervention-related cognitive change. Polymorphisms related to cognitive function were chosen for this preliminary analysis. Over 2 years, patients undergoing carotid interventions were prospectively recruited. Patients underwent neuropsychological testing 2 weeks prior to and at 1 month following their procedure. Saliva samples were collected for genetic analysis. Logistic regressions were used to identify associations between polymorphisms and cognitive measures. A total of 91 patients were included; all were male with an average age of 70 years. The majority of patients exhibited hypertension (95%) and a history of smoking (81%). Presence of ApoE 4 allele was associated with depression (p= 0.047). After correcting for age and genetic polymorphisms in BDNF and serotonin transporter (5-HTT), ApoE 4 allele was associated with depression (p= 0.044) and showed a trend with baseline cognitive impairment (p= 0.10). Age ≥ 70 years was associated with baseline cognitive impairment after adjusting for the three genetic polymorphisms (p= 0.03). Patients with ApoE 4 and BDNF A polymorphisms performed less well on the visual and verbal memory measures, respectively. Polymorphisms in ApoE and BDNF may provide insight on cognition in patients undergoing carotid interventions; however, the mechanism of this relationship remains unclear. PMID:27574384

  14. Forensic anogenital exam interventions: potential contributions of cognitive appraisal theory.

    PubMed

    Waibel-Duncan, Mary Katherine; Sandier, Howard M

    2002-02-01

    This manuscript proposes that Smith and Lazarus's cognitive appraisal theory offers a useful conceptual guide for exploring the mechanisms underlying psychoeducation's apparent efficacy at reducing children's forensic anogenital exam distress. After presenting an overview of Smith and Lazarus's cognitive emotional relational theory of emotions, the authors suggest how this model of cognition-emotion associations might inform the refinement and evaluation of current preparatory interventions as well as the design of future patient/family education programs. Empirical evidence from the broader pediatric literature and direct observations of children's anogenital exam experiences suggest how cognitive appraisal theory translates into clinical research and practice. Avenues for future research are proposed. PMID:11838519

  15. Cognitive behavioural therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Rachel; Moore, Theresa HM; Caldwell, Deborah; Davies, Philippa; Jones, Hannah; Furukawa, Toshi A; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all CBT approaches compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depressionTo examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different CBT approaches (cognitive therapy, rational emotive behaviour therapy, problem-solving therapy, self-control therapy and Coping with Depression course) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all CBT approaches compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, integrative, third wave CBT) for acute depression. PMID:25411559

  16. A Systematic Review of Psychological Interventions to Alleviate Cognitive and Psychosocial Problems in Children with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Kimberley A.; Dorris, Liam; McMillan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Aim: It is now generally accepted that paediatric acquired brain injury (ABI) can have an impact on a child's cognitive, social, and behavioural functioning. However, the lack of guidelines on effective interventions for the affected children and their families, particularly beyond the acute recovery phase, can limit access to effective support.…

  17. Interventions for encouraging sexual behaviours intended to prevent cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Jonathan P; Frampton, Geoff K; Harris, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the key risk factor for cervical cancer. Continuing high rates of HPV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in young people demonstrate the need for effective behavioural interventions. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for young women to encourage safer sexual behaviours to prevent transmission of STIs (including HPV) and cervical cancer. Search methods Systematic literature searches were performed on the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 4, 2009) Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Review Group (CGCRG) Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Social Science Citation Index and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI) up to the end of 2009. All references were screened for inclusion against selection criteria. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural interventions for young women up to the age of 25 years that included, amongst other things, information provision about the transmission and prevention of STIs. Trials had to measure behavioural outcomes (e.g. condom use) and/or biological outcomes (e.g. incidence of STIs, cervical cancer). Data collection and analysis A narrative synthesis was conducted. Meta-analysis was not considered appropriate due to heterogeneity between the interventions and trial populations. Main results A total of 5271 references were screened and of these 23 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Most were conducted in the USA and in health-care clinics (e.g. family planning). The majority of interventions provided information about STIs and taught safer sex skills (e.g. communication), occasionally supplemented with provision of resources (e.g. free sexual health services). They were heterogeneous in duration, contact time, provider, behavioural aims and outcomes. A variety of STIs were addressed including HIV and chlamydia. None of the trials explicitly

  18. Association between alcohol drinking behaviour and cognitive function: results from a nationwide longitudinal study of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sujin; Kim, Yongjoo; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This research intends to determine how drinking behaviour, such as episodic heavy drinking, is related to cognitive performance in middle-aged and old-aged people in South Korea. Methods A cohort data of 5157 adults, age 45 years or older, with normal cognitive function (the Korean version of the Mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE) ≥24) at baseline (2006), was derived from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. Alcohol drinking behaviour was assessed using the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener) questionnaire. The relationships between baseline drinking behaviour (in 2006) to the extent of cognitive decline (between 2006 and 2012) and development of cognitive impairment (in 2012) were assessed. Results Individuals with problematic drinking behaviour at baseline experienced a faster decline in cognitive function than those with non-problematic drinking (p<0.05) during 6 years of follow-up, especially among those with relatively lownormal K-MMSE score (24–26) at baseline (p<0.05). Problematic alcohol drinking behaviour was also significantly associated with onset of severe cognitive impairment (SCI) (K-MMSE score ≤17) among those with relatively low-normal K-MMSE score (adjusted OR (aOR)=3.76, 95% CI 1.46 to 9.67). In addition, abstinence, compared with non-problematic drinking, was related to higher risk for developing SCI among men (aOR=1.62, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.39). Conclusions Our results suggest that those with problematic alcohol drinking behaviour could be at an increased risk of cognitive impairment/decline. While further research will provide stronger evidence, intervention targeting alcohol abuse may play a role in prevention of cognitive impairment. PMID:27118285

  19. Reducing stillbirths: behavioural and nutritional interventions before and during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Menezes, Esme V; Soomro, Tanya; Haws, Rachel A; Darmstadt, Gary L; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2009-01-01

    Background The vast majority of global stillbirths occur in low- and middle-income countries, and in many settings, the majority of stillbirths occur antenatally, prior to the onset of labour. Poor nutritional status, lack of antenatal care and a number of behaviours increase women's risk of stillbirth in many resource-poor settings. Interventions to reduce these risks could reduce the resulting burden of stillbirths, but the evidence for the impact of such interventions has not yet been comprehensively evaluated. Methods This second paper of a systematic review of interventions that could plausibly impact stillbirth rates covers 12 different interventions relating to behavioural and socially mediated risk factors, including exposures to harmful practices and substances, antenatal care utilisation and quality, and maternal nutrition before and during pregnancy. The search strategy reviewed indexed medical journals on PubMed and the Cochrane Library. If any eligible randomised controlled trials were identified that were published after the most recent Cochrane review, they were added to generate new meta-analyses. Interventions covered in this paper have a focus on low- and middle-income countries, both because of the large burden of stillbirths and because of the high prevalence of risk factors including maternal malnutrition and harmful environmental exposures. The reviews and studies belonging to these interventions were graded and conclusions derived about the evidence of benefit of these interventions. Results From a programmatic perspective, none of the interventions achieved clear evidence of benefit. Evidence for some socially mediated risk factors were identified, such as exposure to indoor air pollution and birth spacing, but still require the development of appropriate interventions. There is a need for additional studies on culturally appropriate behavioural interventions and clinical trials to increase smoking cessation and reduce exposure to smokeless

  20. Family-Centred Applied Behaviour Analysis Verbal Behaviour Intervention for Young Taiwanese Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Szu-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Current educational policy promotes the use of evidence-based practices to maximize children's learning outcomes. With the goal of enhancing a child's ability to learn functional language, the purpose of this study was to focus on involving families through the utilization of evidence-based intervention based upon the Applied Behaviour Analysis…

  1. Moderation of cognition-intention and cognition-behaviour relations: a meta-analysis of properties of variables from the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Richard; Sheeran, Paschal

    2004-06-01

    Meta-analysis was used to quantify the moderating effects of seven properties of cognitions-accessibility, temporal stability, direct experience, involvement, certainty, ambivalence and affective-cognitive consistency-on cognition-intention and cognition-behaviour relations. Literature searches revealed 44 studies that could be included in the review. Findings showed that all of the properties, except involvement, moderated attitude-behaviour consistency. Similarly, all relevant moderators improved the consistency between intentions and behaviour. Temporal stability moderated PBC-behaviour relations, certainty moderated subjective norm-intention relations, and ambivalence, certainty, and involvement all moderated attitude-intention relations. Overall, temporal stability appeared to be the strongest moderator of cognition-behaviour relations. PMID:15285829

  2. Effects of Cognitive Training Interventions With Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Karlene; Berch, Daniel B.; Helmers, Karin F.; Jobe, Jared B.; Leveck, Mary D.; Marsiske, Michael; Morris, John N.; Rebok, George W.; Smith, David M.; Tennstedt, Sharon L.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Willis, Sherry L.

    2010-01-01

    Context Cognitive function in older adults is related to independent living and need for care. However, few studies have addressed whether improving cognitive functions might have short- or long-term effects on activities related to living independently. Objective To evaluate whether 3 cognitive training interventions improve mental abilities and daily functioning in older, independent-living adults. Design Randomized, controlled, single-blind trial with recruitment conducted from March 1998 to October 1999 and 2-year follow-up through December 2001. Setting and Participants Volunteer sample of 2832 persons aged 65 to 94 years recruited from senior housing, community centers, and hospital/clinics in 6 metropolitan areas in the United States. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: 10-session group training for memory (verbal episodic memory; n=711), or reasoning (ability to solve problems that follow a serial pattern; n=705), or speed of processing (visual search and identification; n=712); or a no-contact control group (n=704). For the 3 treatment groups, 4-session booster training was offered to a 60% random sample 11 months later. Main Outcome Measures Cognitive function and cognitively demanding everyday functioning. Results Thirty participants were incorrectly randomized and were excluded from the analysis. Each intervention improved the targeted cognitive ability compared with baseline, durable to 2 years (P<.001 for all). Eighty-seven percent of speed-, 74% of reasoning-, and 26% of memory-trained participants demonstrated reliable cognitive improvement immediately after the intervention period. Booster training enhanced training gains in speed (P<.001) and reasoning (P<.001) interventions (speed booster, 92%; no booster, 68%; reasoning booster, 72%; no booster, 49%), which were maintained at 2-year follow-up (P<.001 for both). No training effects on everyday functioning were detected at 2 years. Conclusions Results support the

  3. Identifying effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies underpinning preschool- and school-based obesity prevention interventions aimed at 4-6-year-olds: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nixon, C A; Moore, H J; Douthwaite, W; Gibson, E L; Vogele, C; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Manios, Y; Summerbell, C D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to identify the most effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies, underpinning preschool- and school-based interventions aimed at preventing obesity in 4-6-year-olds. Searching was conducted from April 1995 to April 2010 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library. Epidemiological studies relevant to the research question with controlled assignment of participants were included in the review, if they had follow-up periods of 6 months or longer. Outcomes included markers of weight gain; markers of body composition; physical activity behaviour changes and dietary behaviour changes. Twelve studies were included in the review. The most commonly used model was social cognitive theory (SCT)/social learning theory (SLT) either as a single model or in combination with other behavioural models. Studies that used SCT/SLT in the development of the intervention had significant favourable changes in one, or more, outcome measures. In addition, interventions that (i) combined high levels of parental involvement and interactive school-based learning; (ii) targeted physical activity and dietary change; and (iii) included long-term follow-up, appeared most effective. It is suggested that interventions should also be focused on developing children's (and parents') perceived competence at making dietary and physical changes. PMID:22309069

  4. Correlates of interventions with self-injurious behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, L; Taylor, R L; Babkie, A

    1994-10-01

    A review was conducted of published intervention research on the self-injurious behaviour (SIB) of individuals with severe or profound mental retardation. The review comprised articles published between 1980 and 1990. Thirty-eight biodemographic and environmental variables were investigated, with type of SIB and intervention type considered primary variable classes. Efficacy was also investigated as an additional variable. Cross-tabulations were performed on selected variables with 24 significant and five marginally significant results obtained. These results indicated that there were possible biases in treatment approaches, problems in compliance with standards of practice, and differential efficacy levels related to certain variable types. Findings were discussed in relation to establishing a prototype for successful SIB interventions. PMID:7841686

  5. Cognitive Somatic Behavioral Interventions for Maximizing Gymnastic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravizza, Kenneth; Rotella, Robert

    Psychological training programs developed and implemented for gymnasts of a wide range of age and varying ability levels are examined. The programs utilized strategies based on cognitive-behavioral intervention. The approach contends that mental training plays a crucial role in maximizing performance for most gymnasts. The object of the training…

  6. Intervention Fidelity for a Complex Behaviour Change Intervention in Community Pharmacy Addressing Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, K. P.; O'Reilly, S. L.; George, J.; Peterson, G. M.; Jackson, S. L.; Duncan, G.; Howarth, H.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs by community pharmacists appears effective and enhances health service access. However, their capacity to implement complex behavioural change processes during patient counselling remains largely unexplored. This study aims to determine intervention fidelity by pharmacists…

  7. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour - i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down - is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising' according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed. PMID:26315814

  8. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart JH

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour – i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down – is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as ‘very promising’, ‘quite promising’, or ‘non-promising’ according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed. PMID:26315814

  9. Developing a Complex Educational–Behavioural Intervention: The TREAT Intervention for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Clarkesmith, Danielle E.; Pattison, Helen M.; Borg Xuereb, Christian; Lane, Deirdre A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the theoretical and pragmatic development of a patient-centred intervention for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Theoretical models (Common Sense Model, Necessity-Concerns Framework), clinical frameworks, and AF patient feedback contributed to the design of a one-off hour-long behaviour-change intervention package. Intervention materials consisted of a DVD, educational booklet, diary and worksheet, which were patient-centred and easy to administer. The intervention was evaluated within a randomised controlled trial. Several “active theoretical ingredients” were identified (for e.g., where patients believed their medication was less harmful they spent more time within the therapeutic range (TTR), with general harm scores predicting TTR at 6 months). Allowing for social comparison and adopting behaviour change techniques enabled accurate patient understanding of their condition and medication. The process of developing the intervention using theory-derived content and evaluation tools allowed a greater understanding of the mechanisms by which this intervention was successful. Alleviating concerns about treatment medication by educating patients can help to improve adherence. This process of intervention development could be adopted for a range of chronic illnesses and treatments. Critical elements should include the use of: (1) clinical guidelines; (2) appropriate theoretical models; (3) patient input; and (4) appropriate evaluation tools. PMID:27417598

  10. Cognitive behavioural group training (CBGT) for patients with type 1 diabetes in persistent poor glycaemic control: who do we reach?

    PubMed

    van der Ven, Nicole C W; Lubach, Caroline H C; Hogenelst, Marloes H E; van Iperen, Ada; Tromp-Wever, Anita M E; Vriend, Annelies; van der Ploeg, Henk M; Heine, Robert J; Snoek, Frank J

    2005-03-01

    Approximately a quarter of adults with type 1 diabetes do not succeed in achieving satisfactory glycaemic control, partly due to problems with the demanding self-management regimen. To improve glycaemic control, interventions with a cognitive behavioural approach, aimed at modifying dysfunctional beliefs, reducing negative emotions and enhancing self-care practices are a potentially successful tool. Little is known about the reach of such an approach. This article describes characteristics of participants in a randomized, controlled trial of cognitive behavioural group training for patients with type 1 diabetes in poor glycaemic control. Results show that outpatients from seven hospitals in the area of Amsterdam, selected on long-standing high HbA1c and volunteering to participate, report high levels of psychological distress and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, self-care behaviours were perceived as important, but burdensome. Diabetes-specific self-efficacy was relatively low. It is concluded that this selected group of adults with type 1 diabetes would potentially benefit from a cognitive-behavioural intervention in order to reduce negative emotions, enhance diabetes self-efficacy, self-care behaviour and glycaemic outcomes. PMID:15721974

  11. Cognitive-behavioural therapy by psychiatric trainees: can a little knowledge be a good thing?

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Eric; Hayde, Melissa; Tone, Yvonne; Dud, Iulia; Kearns, Colette; McGoldrick, Mary; McDonough, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Aims and method To establish the competency of psychiatric trainees in delivering cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) to selected cases, following introductory lectures and supervision. Supervisor reports of trainees rotating through a national psychiatric hospital over 8.5 years were reviewed along with revised Cognitive Therapy Scale (CTS-R) ratings where available. Independent t-test was used to compare variables. Results Structured supervision reports were available for 52 of 55 (95%) trainees. The mean result (4.6, s.d. = 0.9) was at or above the accepted level for competency (≥3) for participating trainees. Available CTS-R ratings (n = 22) supported the supervisor report findings for those particular trainees. Clinical implications This study indicates that trainees under supervision can provide meaningful clinical interventions when delivering CBT to selected cases. The costs of supervision need to be judged against these clinical gains. PMID:26191424

  12. Advances in the cognitive behavioural treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Shafran, Roz; Radomsky, Adam S; Coughtrey, A E; Rachman, S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight key advances in the cognitive-behavioural treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder over the course of Professor Lars Göran Öst's illustrious career. The paper will focus on three specific areas of interest: the treatment of obsessions, compulsive checking, and the fear of contamination. It will also highlight recent advances concerning the broader need to ensure that treatment is acceptable. An increase in acceptability could result in improvements in completion rates so that more patients benefit from the recent improvements in the science and therapy for this disabling disorder. PMID:23758093

  13. Do People with Intellectual Disabilities and Psychosis Have the Cognitive Skills Required to Undertake Cognitive Behavioural Therapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oathamshaw, Stephen C.; Haddock, Gillian

    2006-01-01

    Background: Cognitive skills thought to be necessary to undertake cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) include the ability to recognize emotions, link events and emotions, and recognize cognitive mediation. These skills have been assessed in people with intellectual disabilities, but not in those who also have psychosis. Materials and methods:…

  14. Effectiveness of cognitive-behaviour therapy for hoarding disorder in people with mild intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Kellett, Stephen; Matuozzo, Heather; Kotecha, Chandanee

    2015-12-01

    Evaluations of cognitive behavioural interventions for hoarding for those with intellectual disabilities (ID) have not been previously attempted. This investigation therefore examined the acceptability and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in a sample of N=14 adults with mild ID. All participants had hoarding as their primary problem and received twelve individual CBT sessions, all conducted via domiciliary visits. The primary outcome measure was an environmental measure (Clutter Image Rating Scale), which was scored at baseline, end of treatment and at six-month follow-up. Acceptability of CBT was measured via the treatment refusal and dropout rate. Secondary self-report outcomes included measures of hoarding, depression and anxiety. Results demonstrate that hoarding significantly reduced following treatment on both self-report and environmental assessment. No participants refused or dropped out of treatment and that there was no evidence of relapse over the follow-up period. No adverse treatment incidences were reported. This open trial suggests that CBT may be a safe and effective intervention for hoarding difficulties in people with ID, but that the evidence base in this population needs urgent and detailed attention. PMID:26479825

  15. Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder: diagnosis, management, and the need for neuroprotective interventions.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; Tolosa, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (IRBD) manifests as unpleasant dreams and vigorous behaviours during REM sleep that can result in injuries. Patients with IRBD have no known neurological diseases or motor or cognitive complaints; however, this sleep disorder is not harmless. In most cases, IRBD is the prelude of the synucleinopathies Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, or, less frequently, multiple system atrophy. Patients can show abnormalities that are characteristic of the synucleinopathies, and longitudinal follow-up shows that most patients develop parkinsonism and cognitive impairments with time. Thus, diagnosis of IRBD needs to be accurate and involves informing the patient of the risk of developing a neurodegenerative disease. It is extraordinary for a sleep disorder to precede the full expression of a neurodegenerative disease, which renders IRBD of particular interest in studies of the prodromal stage of the synucleinopathies, and in the development of neuroprotective interventions to stop or slow neurodegenerative deterioration before motor and cognitive symptomatology emerges. Such therapeutics do not currently exist, and thus represent an unmet need in IRBD. PMID:26971662

  16. A group cognitive behaviour therapy programme with metastatic breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Edelman, S; Bell, D R; Kidman, A D

    1999-01-01

    One-hundred and twenty-four patients with metastatic breast cancer were randomised to either a group Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) intervention, or to a no-therapy control group condition. Both groups received standard oncological care; however, therapy recipients also attended eight weekly sessions of group CBT, followed by a family night, and three further monthly sessions. Patients completed the 'Profile of Mood States' (POMS) and the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (CSI) before and after therapy, and at 3 and 6 month follow-up periods. Outcome data in the period following therapy showed reduced depression and total mood disturbance, as well as improved self-esteem amongst therapy participants, relative to a no-therapy control group. These improvements were no longer evident at the 3 or 6 month follow-up assessments. We also report on the difficulties associated with conducting a group intervention with this patient cohort. PMID:10474848

  17. Towards Medication-Enhancement of Cognitive Interventions in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Hsun-Hua; Twamley, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Current antipsychotic medications do little to improve real-life function in most schizophrenia patients. A dispassionate view of the dispersed and variable neuropathology of schizophrenia strongly suggests that it is not currently, and may never be, correctable with drugs. In contrast, several forms of cognitive therapy have been demonstrated to have modest but lasting positive effects on cognition, symptoms, and functional outcomes in schizophrenia patients. To date, attempts to improve clinical outcomes in schizophrenia by adding pro-cognitive drugs to antipsychotic regimens have had limited success, but we propose that a more promising strategy would be to pair drugs that enhance specific neurocognitive functions with cognitive therapies that challenge and reinforce those functions. By using medications that engage spared neural resources in the service of cognitive interventions, it might be possible to significantly enhance the efficacy of cognitive therapies. We review and suggest several laboratory measures that might detect potential pro-neurocognitive effects of drugs in individual patients, using a “test dose” design, aided by specific biomarkers predicting an individual’s drug sensitivity. Lastly, we argue that drug classes viewed as “counter-intuitive” based on existing models for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia—including pro-catecholaminergic and NMDA-antagonistic drugs—might be important candidate “pro-cognitive therapy” drugs. PMID:23027413

  18. Cognitive-Behavioral Techniques and Interventions for Application in Counselor Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurpius, DeWayne J.; Morran, D. Keith

    1988-01-01

    Presents research supporting cognitive-behavioral model for counselor supervision and gives conceptual and procedural base for defining and implementing cognitive-behavioral supervision approach. Describes three supervision techniques (mental practice, covert modeling, cognitive modeling) and three supervision interventions (cognitive…

  19. Teacher Involvement in the Development of Function-Based Behaviour Intervention Plans for Students with Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Sue; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This article examines literature published since 1997 on functional behaviour assessment (FBA) and behaviour intervention plans (BIPs), involving school-based personnel, for children identified as having or being at risk of emotional/behavioural disorder (E/BD) in school settings. Of interest was the level of involvement of school-based personnel…

  20. Computer games supporting cognitive behaviour therapy in children.

    PubMed

    Brezinka, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic computer games might enhance children's motivation for psychotherapy, facilitate their understanding of important therapeutic concepts, structure therapy sessions, enhance treatment of migrant children and disseminate evidence-based treatment approaches. The game Treasure Hunt was developed to support cognitive behaviour therapy with children who come into treatment for various mental health problems. To evaluate the applicability and appropriateness of the game, 124 therapists answered a questionnaire on their impression of Treasure Hunt three months after download. Of these, 42 consented to participate in the further evaluation and sent questionnaires of 218 children in whose therapy Treasure Hunt had been used. A limitation of these data is an eventual positive bias, as therapists with a positive attitude towards therapeutic computer games may have been more likely to participate. Data show that the vast majority of children were satisfied their therapist had used the game during treatment. Therapists used Treasure Hunt for a broad range of diagnoses. They judged the game as helpful in the explanation of cognitive-behavioural concepts, used it as reinforcement and reported it enhanced child motivation for psychotherapy and strengthened the therapeutic relationship with the child. PMID:23258925

  1. Cognitive behavioural strategies and anxiety in elite orienteers.

    PubMed

    Gal-Or, Y; Tenenbaum, G; Shimrony, S

    1986-01-01

    The primary purpose of this exploratory field study was to examine the use of cognitive behavioural strategies by highly skilled orienteers prior to and during competition. A secondary purpose of the study was to investigate whether differences in the level of qualification in orienteering is related to state anxiety. The subjects were divided into three classes with respect to their international and national records. The first two classes (A and B) were composed of international and national level athletes. The third class (C) included orienteers with unknown international records. Examination of the use of behavioural cognitive strategies during competition indicated that all orienteers reported a moderate use of mental imagery, above moderate use of inner talk and a focus of attention on present action rather than past or future. The other major findings were that prior to competition, superior orienteers reported use of higher self-efficacy, more positive outcome expectations and more task demand orientation than their less successful counterparts. Top orienteers coped more successfully with pre-competition anxiety by lowering their anxiety to a more moderate level prior to the actual performance. PMID:3735483

  2. Parents' Use of Physical Interventions in the Management of Their Children's Severe Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Hawkins, Sarah; Cooper, Viv

    2006-01-01

    Background: Although training staff supporting people with challenging behaviour in physical interventions has become accepted practice, parents are often left to fend for themselves while managing equivalent behaviours. The study explores parents' experience of managing severe challenging behaviours, their use of physical interventions and access…

  3. Increasing access to Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Low and Middle Income Countries: A strategic framework.

    PubMed

    Beck, Andrew; Nadkarni, Abhijit; Calam, Rachel; Naeem, Farooq; Husain, Nusrat

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive Behaviour Therapy has been demonstrated to be an effective intervention in outpatient and inpatient settings for a wide range of presenting mental health problems including depression, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Post traumatic Stress Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder and Somatorform Disorder. There is likely to be an unmet need for this therapeutic approach in most Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). However, the training of therapists to deliver this intervention has historically been a lengthy and expensive process, with already highly trained staff such as psychiatrists and psychologists undertaking additional training of up to one year duration in order to develop expertise in this area. This paper proposes that a model where training, supervision, leadership and service evaluation is provided by a small number of highly trained staff to front-line non-specialist staff who will then deliver manualised therapy. These front-line staff may also be conceptualised as part of a stepped care model where self-help and manualised therapy approaches are used in the first instance. Where patient functioning does not improve there is then the possibility of being stepped-up for treatment by a more specialised and highly trained therapist. This approach may help in meeting the huge mental health treatment gap in LMIC. This paper also suggests that lessons learnt from the dissemination of behaviourally informed parenting interventions internationally can be applied to the dissemination of this therapeutic approach. PMID:26643366

  4. Specifying and reporting complex behaviour change interventions: the need for a scientific method

    PubMed Central

    Michie, Susan; Fixsen, Dean; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Eccles, Martin P

    2009-01-01

    Complex behaviour change interventions are not well described; when they are described, the terminology used is inconsistent. This constrains scientific replication, and limits the subsequent introduction of successful interventions. Implementation Science is introducing a policy of initially encouraging and subsequently requiring the scientific reporting of complex behaviour change interventions. PMID:19607700

  5. Studying nursing interventions in acutely ill, cognitively impaired older adults

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Kathleen; Bradway, Christine; Hirschman, Karen B; Naylor, Mary D

    2015-01-01

    Background Between one and two of every five hospitalized older adults have cognitive deficits, often not accurately assessed or well managed. Cognitive impairment adds substantially to the complexity of these patients’ care, places them at high risk for poor outcomes and increases the cost of health care. Methods We describe three evidence-based interventions, each capitalizing on the unique contributions of nurses and designed to improve outcomes of hospitalized older adults who have cognitive deficits. Interventions of varying intensity were compared across three hospitals (Phase I) and subsequently within the same hospitals (Phase II). All enrolled patients were screened during their index hospitalizations and cognitive deficits were communicated to relevant health care team members (Augmented Standard Care-ASC, lowest intensity). At one hospital, ASC was the only intervention. Patients at a second hospital also had care influenced by specially prepared registered nurses (Resource Nurse Care-RNC, medium intensity). Finally, patients at third hospital also received advanced practice nurse coordinated care (Transitional Care Model-TCM, higher intensity). In Phase II, newly enrolled patients at these same hospitals all received the TCM. We summarize major themes from review of multiple data sources and researcher recollections related to facilitators and barriers to implementing a complex research study. Findings Effective implementation of the three intervention strategies depended on clinician engagement and communication; degree of participation by nurses in the educational program with subsequent practice improvement; and success of advanced practice nurses in implementing the TCM with both with patients, family caregivers and clinicians. Implications Based on lessons learned in implementing complex research studies within the “real world” of clinical practice settings, recommendations focus on strengthening facilitators, minimizing barriers and gaining

  6. Classroom based cognitive behavioural therapy in reducing symptoms of depression in high risk adolescents: pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sayal, Kapil; Phillips, Rhiannon; Taylor, John A; Spears, Melissa; Anderson, Rob; Araya, Ricardo; Lewis, Glyn; Millings, Abigail; Montgomery, Alan A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of classroom based cognitive behavioural therapy with attention control and usual school provision for adolescents at high risk of depression. Design Three arm parallel cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting Eight UK secondary schools. Participants Adolescents (n=5030) aged 12-16 years in school year groups 8-11. Year groups were randomly assigned on a 1:1:1 ratio to cognitive behavioural therapy, attention control, or usual school provision. Allocation was balanced by school, year, number of students and classes, frequency of lessons, and timetabling. Participants were not blinded to treatment allocation. Interventions Cognitive behavioural therapy, attention control, and usual school provision provided in classes to all eligible participants. Main outcome measures Outcomes were collected by self completed questionnaire administered by researchers. The primary outcome was symptoms of depression assessed at 12 months by the short mood and feelings questionnaire among those identified at baseline as being at high risk of depression. Secondary outcomes included negative thinking, self worth, and anxiety. Analyses were undertaken on an intention to treat basis and accounted for the clustered nature of the design. Results 1064 (21.2%) adolescents were identified at high risk of depression: 392 in the classroom based cognitive behavioural therapy arm, 374 in the attention control arm, and 298 in the usual school provision arm. At 12 months adjusted mean scores on the short mood and feelings questionnaire did not differ for cognitive behavioural therapy versus attention control (−0.63, 95% confidence interval −1.85 to 0.58, P=0.41) or for cognitive behavioural therapy versus usual school provision (0.97, −0.20 to 2.15, P=0.12). Conclusion In adolescents with depressive symptoms, outcomes were similar for attention control, usual school provision, and cognitive behavioural therapy. Classroom based cognitive behavioural

  7. Social cognitive intervention reduces stress in Hungarian university students.

    PubMed

    Bíró, Eva; Veres-Balajti, Ilona; Adány, Róza; Kósa, Karolina

    2014-02-20

    A social cognitive intervention was developed and delivered as a credit course to improve mental distress of university students, based on findings in a previous health survey showing notable mental distress among future teachers in Hungary in 2007. The intervention included increasing information on psychoactive substances used for stress reduction; skills development in stress reduction methods; improving skills in communication and problem-solving. All students who participated in the previous health survey were targeted. Mental status of the participants was assessed by a questionnaire before (n: 128, 22% male, mean age 23.21 years) and after (n: 148, 30% male, mean age 23.54 years) the intervention. Specifically, self-efficacy as outcome was approximated by a trait measure (sense of coherence); psychological distress was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire ( Goldberg et al., 1997. The validity of two versions of the GHQ in the WHO study of mental illness in general health care. Psychological Medicine, 27, 191-197) after the intervention compared with that before. After the intervention, psychological distress was reduced among the participants (p: 0.013). Non-significant improvement occurred in the mean score for sense of coherence (from a mean 60.8 points before to 61.4 points after, p: 0.688). The intervention produced a modest but significant decrease in psychological distress in students at a cost of 54 US$ per 1 point improvement in mental distress. The intervention, a first example of the translation of the social cognitive theory into practice among students in higher education can be integrated into the curriculum as a standardized optional course. PMID:24556027

  8. Do cognitive interventions improve general cognition in dementia? A meta-analysis and meta-regression

    PubMed Central

    Huntley, J D; Gould, R L; Liu, K; Smith, M; Howard, R J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To review the efficacy of cognitive interventions on improving general cognition in dementia. Method Online literature databases and trial registers, previous systematic reviews and leading journals were searched for relevant randomised controlled trials. A systematic review, random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regression were conducted. Cognitive interventions were categorised as: cognitive stimulation (CS), involving a range of social and cognitive activities to stimulate multiple cognitive domains; cognitive training (CT), involving repeated practice of standardised tasks targeting a specific cognitive function; cognitive rehabilitation (CR), which takes a person-centred approach to target impaired function; or mixed  CT and stimulation (MCTS). Separate analyses were conducted for general cognitive outcome measures and for studies using ‘active’ (designed to control for non-specific therapeutic effects) and non-active (minimal or no intervention) control groups. Results 33 studies were included. Significant positive effect sizes (Hedges’ g) were found for CS with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) (g=0.51, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.69; p<0.001) compared to non-active controls and (g=0.35, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.65; p=0.019) compared to active controls. Significant benefit was also seen with the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale-Cognition (ADAS-Cog) (g=−0.26, 95% CI −0.445 to −0.08; p=0.005). There was no evidence that CT or MCTS produced significant improvements on general cognition outcomes and not enough CR studies for meta-analysis. The lowest accepted minimum clinically important difference was reached in 11/17 CS studies for the MMSE, but only 2/9 studies for the ADAS-Cog. Additionally, 95% prediction intervals suggested that although statistically significant, CS may not lead to benefits on the ADAS-Cog in all clinical settings. Conclusions CS improves scores on MMSE and ADAS-Cog in dementia, but benefits on the ADAS-Cog are generally

  9. Does emotional reasoning change during cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety?

    PubMed

    Berle, David; Moulds, Michelle L; Starcevic, Vladan; Milicevic, Denise; Hannan, Anthony; Dale, Erin; Viswasam, Kirupamani; Brakoulias, Vlasios

    2016-01-01

    Emotional reasoning refers to the use of subjective emotions, rather than objective evidence, to form conclusions about oneself and the world. It is a key interpretative bias in cognitive models of anxiety disorders and appears to be especially evident in individuals with anxiety disorders. However, the amenability of emotional reasoning to change during treatment has not yet been investigated. We sought to determine whether emotional reasoning tendencies change during a course of routine cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). Emotional reasoning tendencies were assessed in 36 individuals with a primary anxiety disorder who were seeking treatment at an outpatient clinic. Changes in anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as emotional reasoning tendencies after 12 sessions of CBT were examined in 25 individuals for whom there was complete data. Emotional reasoning tendencies were evident at pretreatment assessment. Although anxiety and depressive symptoms decreased during CBT, only one of six emotional reasoning interpretative styles (pertaining to conclusions that one is incompetent) changed significantly during the course of therapy. Attrition rates were high and there was not enough information regarding the extent to which therapy specifically focused on addressing emotional reasoning tendencies. Individuals seeking treatment for anxiety disorders appear to engage in emotional reasoning, however routine individual CBT does not appear to result in changes in emotional reasoning tendencies. PMID:26732906

  10. Degradation of cognitive timing mechanisms in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    Henley, Susie M.D.; Downey, Laura E.; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Kinnunen, Kirsi M.; Golden, Hannah L.; Buckley, Aisling; Mahoney, Colin J.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined motor timing in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), which manifests as progressive deterioration in social, behavioural and cognitive functions. Twenty-patients fulfilling consensus clinical criteria for behavioural variant FTD (bvFTD), 11 patients fulfilling consensus clinical criteria for semantic-variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), four patients fulfilling criteria for nonfluent/agrammatic primary progressive aphasia (naPPA), eight patients fulfilling criteria for Alzheimer׳s disease (AD), and 31 controls were assessed on both an externally- and self-paced finger-tapping task requiring maintenance of a regular, 1500 ms beat over 50 taps. Grey and white matter correlates of deficits in motor timing were examined using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). bvFTD patients exhibited significant deficits in aspects of both externally- and self-paced tapping. Increased mean inter-response interval (faster than target tap time) in the self-paced task was associated with reduced grey matter volume in the cerebellum bilaterally, right middle temporal gyrus, and with increased axial diffusivity in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus, regions and tracts which have been suggested to be involved in a subcortical–cortical network of structures underlying timing abilities. This suggests that such structures can be affected in bvFTD, and that impaired motor timing may underlie some characteristics of the bvFTD phenotype. PMID:25447066

  11. Rumination-focused cognitive behaviour therapy for residual depression: a case series.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Ed; Scott, Jan; Wingrove, Janet; Rimes, Katharine; Bathurst, Neil; Steiner, Herbert; Kennell-Webb, Sandra; Moulds, Michelle; Malliaris, Yanni

    2007-09-01

    The treatment of chronic and recurrent depression is a priority for the development of new interventions. The maintenance of residual symptoms following acute treatment for depression is a risk factor for both chronic depression and further relapse/recurrence. This open case series provides the first data on a cognitive-behavioural treatment for residual depression that explicitly targets depressive rumination. Rumination has been identified as a key factor in the onset and maintenance of depression, which is found to remain elevated following remission from depression. Fourteen consecutively recruited participants meeting criteria for medication--refractory residual depression [Paykel, E.S., Scott, J., Teasdale, J.D., Johnson, A.L., Garland, A., Moore, R. et al., 1999. Prevention of relapse in residual depression by cognitive therapy--a controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry 56, 829-835] were treated individually for up to 12 weekly 60-min sessions. Treatment specifically focused on switching patients from less helpful to more helpful styles of thinking through the use of functional analysis, experiential/imagery exercises and behavioural experiments. Treatment produced significant improvements in depressive symptoms, rumination and co-morbid disorders: 71% responded (50% reduction on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale) and 50% achieved full remission. Treating depressive rumination appears to yield generalised improvement in depression and co-morbidity. This study provides preliminary evidence that rumination-focused CBT may be an efficacious treatment for medication--refractory residual depression. PMID:17367751

  12. A cognitive-behavioural program for adolescents with chronic pain-a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Merlijn, Vivian P B M; Hunfeld, Joke A M; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice A J M; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette W A; Koes, Bart W; Passchier, Jan

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the feasibility of a cognitive-behavioural training program for adolescents with chronic pain irrespective of pain localisation. A secondary aim was to give an impression of the effect of the program on pain and quality of life. Eight adolescents (14-18 years) with chronic non-organic pain recruited from the general population (and their parents) participated in this pilot study. The intervention included five group meetings alternated with four telephone contacts (during the self-management weeks) over a period of 9 weeks. The training aimed to change pain behaviour through pain education, relaxation strategies, problem-solving techniques, assertiveness training, cognitive restructuring and by stimulating the adolescent's physical activity level. The training further addresses the social context of pain by inviting parents to attend two meetings for the parents only, and by asking the adolescents to bring a peer to one of the meetings. Adolescents and their parents were positive about the program. Adolescents felt they were more in control of their pain and parents valued the support they experienced in helping their children to master the pain. The training was considered to be feasible in daily life. Further, the preliminary data showed an effect on pain and quality of life in the expected direction. The results underline the need for a definitive study with a larger sample size and a random controlled design. PMID:16257616

  13. Seven Pervasive Statistical Flaws in Cognitive Training Interventions.

    PubMed

    Moreau, David; Kirk, Ian J; Waldie, Karen E

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of enhancing cognition is undoubtedly among the most exciting research questions currently bridging psychology, neuroscience, and evidence-based medicine. Yet, convincing claims in this line of work stem from designs that are prone to several shortcomings, thus threatening the credibility of training-induced cognitive enhancement. Here, we present seven pervasive statistical flaws in intervention designs: (i) lack of power; (ii) sampling error; (iii) continuous variable splits; (iv) erroneous interpretations of correlated gain scores; (v) single transfer assessments; (vi) multiple comparisons; and (vii) publication bias. Each flaw is illustrated with a Monte Carlo simulation to present its underlying mechanisms, gauge its magnitude, and discuss potential remedies. Although not restricted to training studies, these flaws are typically exacerbated in such designs, due to ubiquitous practices in data collection or data analysis. The article reviews these practices, so as to avoid common pitfalls when designing or analyzing an intervention. More generally, it is also intended as a reference for anyone interested in evaluating claims of cognitive enhancement. PMID:27148010

  14. Seven Pervasive Statistical Flaws in Cognitive Training Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, David; Kirk, Ian J.; Waldie, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of enhancing cognition is undoubtedly among the most exciting research questions currently bridging psychology, neuroscience, and evidence-based medicine. Yet, convincing claims in this line of work stem from designs that are prone to several shortcomings, thus threatening the credibility of training-induced cognitive enhancement. Here, we present seven pervasive statistical flaws in intervention designs: (i) lack of power; (ii) sampling error; (iii) continuous variable splits; (iv) erroneous interpretations of correlated gain scores; (v) single transfer assessments; (vi) multiple comparisons; and (vii) publication bias. Each flaw is illustrated with a Monte Carlo simulation to present its underlying mechanisms, gauge its magnitude, and discuss potential remedies. Although not restricted to training studies, these flaws are typically exacerbated in such designs, due to ubiquitous practices in data collection or data analysis. The article reviews these practices, so as to avoid common pitfalls when designing or analyzing an intervention. More generally, it is also intended as a reference for anyone interested in evaluating claims of cognitive enhancement. PMID:27148010

  15. The Effect of Stress Management Based on Group Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy on Marital Satisfaction in Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Solati, Kamal; Ja’Farzadeh, Lo’Bat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the developed world, infertility is on rise and has become a social concern. This is considered as a serious stress in life and exerts a severe psychological impact on the couple. Aim This study was conducted to study the efficacy of stress management based on group cognitive-behavioural therapy on marital satisfaction in infertile women. Materials and Methods This was a quasi-experimental study with a pretest-post-test design and control group. The study sample consisted of 40 infertile women enrolled based on convenience sampling and randomly assigned to two groups: experimental and control, of 20 each. Then, the experimental group underwent 10 two-hour stress management sessions per cognitive-behavioural therapy. The instruments used in this study were marital satisfaction inventory ENRICH and a checklist of demographic characteristics. Immediately and three months after completion of the intervention, the instruments were administered to the participants. The data was analysed by analysis of covariance in SPSS 18. Results There was a significant difference in marital satisfaction between the experimental and control groups in both post-test (p=0.001) and follow-up (p=0.001). Conclusion The stress management based on cognitive-behavioural therapy could contribute to increasing marital satisfaction in infertile women. The effect could remain stable three months after the last interventions (follow-up).

  16. Effect of cognitive intervention on children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Gharebaghy, Soraya; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Cameron, Debra

    2015-02-01

    Although not considered a diagnostic criterion in DSM-IV, motor difficulties in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are commonly reported. Prevalence of co-morbidity of ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorder is as high as 50%. Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) is a problem-solving approach originally developed for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder. In this approach, therapists support children to use cognitive strategies in a process of guided discovery to solve occupational performance problems. A single case experimental design (multiple baselines) was used to examine the influence of a 12-week intervention using CO-OP with six children with ADHD. Outcome measures included the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), Goal Attainment Scaling and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency and Performance (BOTMP). The results of this study demonstrated improvements in both goals and motor performance in the participants due to the intervention. These results provide some support for the use of CO-OP with children with ADHD. Further research into the application of CO-OP with children with ADHD is warranted based on these preliminary positive findings regarding the efficacy of this intervention to address motor-based performance difficulties. PMID:25246134

  17. A systematic review of behavioural interventions to increase maternal calcium intake.

    PubMed

    Jung, Mary E; Stork, Matthew J; Stapleton, Jessica; Bourne, Jessica E; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy and lactation are a time when adequate calcium consumption is essential for the development of the fetus and to ensure the health of the mother. Over 50% of Canadian women of childbearing and rearing age fail to meet the recommended daily intake of calcium. Identification of effective behavioural intervention strategies for increasing calcium intake is needed within this specific population. This paper brings together all published behavioural interventions designed to increase calcium consumption in pregnant, lactating or post-partum mothers in a systematic review. Relevant studies were obtained through searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library with no date restrictions. Studies were evaluated using previously published criteria for evaluating calcium behaviour change interventions. This systematic literature review identified five behavioural calcium interventions conducted within this population. Three interventions aimed to improve overall dietary behaviours, the fourth aimed to promote breastfeeding (including increasing calcium consumption) and the fifth aimed to increase daily servings of yoghurt. Only one of the five interventions yielded large effect sizes, with a mean change of 954 mg of calcium per day post-intervention. The number of behavioural change techniques did not appear to be related to intervention efficacy. Only one study used a theoretical framework to guide the intervention. This review highlights the lack of research examining behaviour change interventions aimed at increasing calcium consumption in pregnant, lactating and post-partum women and provides practical suggestions for researchers wishing to intervene with this population in the future. PMID:25536083

  18. Treating anxiety after stroke using cognitive-behaviour therapy: Two cases

    PubMed Central

    Kneebone, Ian I.; Jeffries, Fiona W.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are common after stroke. However, information on how to treat them with psychotherapy in this population is highly limited. Modified cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) has the potential to assist. Two cases of individuals treated with modified CBT for anxiety after stroke are presented. The modification was required in light of deficits in executive and memory function in one individual and in the context of communication difficulties in the other. The anxiety symptoms were treated over seven and nine sessions, respectively. Both participants improved following the intervention, and these improvements were maintained at 3 month follow-ups. Further case-series and randomised controlled designs are required to support and develop modified CBT for those with anxiety after stroke. PMID:23889561

  19. Providing Training in Positive Behavioural Support and Physical Interventions for Parents of Children with Autism and Related Behavioural Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, David

    2014-01-01

    Though professionals working with children on the autism spectrum who display challenging behaviour routinely receive training in the use of both positive behavioural support techniques and physical interventions, such training is rarely provided for the parents of these children. This article reports on the impact of training provided for family…

  20. Effects of an Emotional Literacy Intervention for Students Identified with Bullying Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowler, Claire; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of a 12-week, small group emotional literacy (EL) intervention in reducing bullying behaviour in school was evaluated. Participants were 50 primary school pupils identified through peer nomination as engaging in bullying behaviours. The intervention was implemented in schools already engaged with a universal social and emotional…

  1. A Meta-Analysis of Intervention Effects on Challenging Behaviour among Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyvaert, M.; Maes, B.; Onghena, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) often show challenging behaviour. We review distinct interventions that are applied to treat these challenging behaviours, and analyse intervention effects and moderating variables. Methods: A literature search was conducted using the databases "ERIC," "PsycINFO," "Web of Science" and…

  2. Peer Acceptance and the Development of Emotional and Behavioural Problems: Results from a Preventive Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menting, Barbara; Koot, Hans; van Lier, Pol

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties in peer acceptance during elementary school have been associated with emotional and behavioural problems. This study used a randomized controlled intervention design to test whether improvements in peer acceptance mediated reduced rates of emotional and behavioural problems in intervention compared to control-group children. A total…

  3. The neurobiology of HIV and its impact on cognitive reserve: A review of cognitive interventions for an aging population.

    PubMed

    Cody, Shameka L; Vance, David E

    2016-08-01

    The medications used to treat HIV have reduced the severity of cognitive deficits; yet, nearly half of adults with HIV still exhibit some degree of cognitive deficits, referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder or HAND. These cognitive deficits interfere with everyday functioning such as emotional regulation, medication adherence, instrumental activities of daily living, and even driving a vehicle. As adults are expected to live a normal lifespan, the process of aging in this clinical population may exacerbate such cognitive deficits. Therefore, it is important to understand the neurobiological mechanisms of HIV on cognitive reserve and develop interventions that are either neuroprotective or compensate for such cognitive deficits. Within the context of cognitive reserve, this article delivers a state of the science perspective on the causes of HAND and provides possible interventions for addressing such cognitive deficits. Suggestions for future research are also provided. PMID:26776767

  4. A review of physical and cognitive interventions in aging.

    PubMed

    Bamidis, P D; Vivas, A B; Styliadis, C; Frantzidis, C; Klados, M; Schlee, W; Siountas, A; Papageorgiou, S G

    2014-07-01

    Maintaining a healthy brain is a critical factor for the quality of life of elderly individuals and the preservation of their independence. Challenging aging brains through cognitive training and physical exercises has shown to be effective against age-related cognitive decline and disease. But how effective are such training interventions? What is the optimal combination/strategy? Is there enough evidence from neuropsychological observations, animal studies, as well as, structural and functional neuroimaging investigations to interpret the underlying neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the observed neuroplasticity of the aging brain? This piece of work summarizes recent findings toward these questions, but also highlights the role of functional brain connectivity work, an emerging discipline for future research in healthy aging and the study of the underlying mechanisms across the life span. The ultimate aim is to conclude on recommended multimodal training, in light of contemporary trends in the design of exergaming interventions. The latter issue is discussed in conjunction with building up neuroscientific knowledge and envisaged future research challenges in mapping, understanding and training the aging brain. PMID:24705268

  5. Planning for, implementing and assessing the impact of health promotion and behaviour change interventions: a way forward for health psychologists.

    PubMed

    Wallace, L M; Brown, K E; Hilton, S

    2014-01-01

    Researchers in the field of health psychology have increasingly been involved in translating a body of knowledge about psychological factors associated with health-relevant behaviours, into the development and evaluation of interventions that seek to apply that knowledge. In this paper we argue that a changing economic and political climate, and the strong behavioural contribution to disease morbidity and mortality in developed nations, requires health psychologists to plan more rigorously for, and communicate more effectively, about how health promotion, social cognition and behaviour change interventions will have impact and be increasingly embedded into health services or health promotion activity. We explain academic and wider socio-economic uses of 'impact' in health services research. We describe the relationship between impact and dissemination, and impact as distinct from, but often used interchangeably with the terms 'implementation', 'knowledge transfer' and 'knowledge translation' (KT). The evidence for establishing impact is emergent. We therefore draw on a number of impact planning and KT frameworks, with reference to two self- management interventions, to describe a framework that we hope will support health psychologists in embedding impact planning and execution in research. We illustrate this further in an on-line annexe with reference to one of our own interventions, Mums-and-MS (see Supplemental Material). PMID:25053005

  6. Interaction of Cognitive Distortions and Cognitive Deficits in the Formulation and Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Behaviours in a Woman with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willner, Paul; Goodey, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Aims: This case study describes the formulation and cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) of obsessive-compulsive thoughts and behaviours in a woman with an intellectual disability. The report aimed to distinguish the cognitive deficits that reflect her disability from the cognitive distortions integral to her obsessive-compulsive disorder. Case…

  7. Displays of inappropriate sexual behaviour by patients with progressive cognitive impairment: the forgotten form of challenging behaviour?

    PubMed

    Stubbs, B

    2011-09-01

    Persons with progressive cognitive impairment such as dementia or Alzheimer's disease may display an array of challenging behaviours. For instance, levels of agitation and aggression have been reported as high as 33% in home-dwelling individuals and 80% in those residing in institutions. One form of challenging behaviour that may be displayed by this group is inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB), but it is often overshadowed by other behaviours such as aggression. Inappropriate sexual behaviour involves any verbal of physical action of a sexual nature which is displayed in an inappropriate social context. Examples of ISB include: exposure of genitals in public/ward environments, 'groping' of nurses and masturbation in public areas. It has been estimated that the prevalence of ISB ranges from 2% to 17% of individuals with progressive cognitive impairment. Although it is less frequent than other challenging behaviours, it still may have significant deleterious effects on the victim's health. This paper is a review of the available literature on the nature, effects and management of ISB in persons with progressive cognitive impairment. Possible avenues for future research are also explored. PMID:21848594

  8. Impact of a facial-ageing intervention versus a health literature intervention on women's sun protection attitudes and behavioural intentions.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alison Leah; Grogan, Sarah; Clark-Carter, David; Buckley, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the impact of a facial-ageing intervention on women's sun protection attitudes and behavioural intentions, compared to a health literature intervention where participants viewed literature on the effect of ultraviolet (UV) exposure on health. Seventy women (35 in each condition) completed questionnaires at baseline and immediately post-intervention. The average age of the participants was 23.70 (SD = 5.03) years. Participants in the facial-ageing intervention condition scored significantly higher on intentions, negative attitudes and perceived sun damage susceptibility after taking part in the intervention, compared to those in the health literature intervention condition. The results are discussed in relation to suggestions for sun protection interventions aimed at women aged from 18 to 34. It is concluded that appearance-based interventions have a role to play in healthcare and educational settings with regard to UV exposure and sun protection intentions. PMID:23527527

  9. Using cognitive-behavioural techniques to improve exclusive breastfeeding in a low-literacy disadvantaged population.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Atif; Haq, Zaeem; Sikander, Siham; Ahmad, Ikhlaq; Ahmad, Mansoor; Hafeez, Assad

    2012-01-01

    Despite being an important component of Pakistan's primary health care programme, the rates of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months remain among the lowest in the world. Low levels of literacy in women and deeply held cultural beliefs and practices have been found to contribute to the ineffectiveness of routine counselling delivered universally by community health workers in Pakistan. We aimed to address this by incorporating techniques of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) into the routine counselling process. We conducted qualitative studies of stakeholders' opinions (mothers, community health workers, their trainers and programme managers) and used this data to develop a psycho-educational approach that combined education with techniques of CBT that could be integrated into the health workers' routine work. The workers were trained to use this approach and feedback was obtained after implementation. The new intervention was successfully integrated into the community health worker programme and found to be culturally acceptable, feasible and useful. Incorporating techniques of CBT into routine counselling may be useful to promote health behaviours in traditional societies with low literacy rates. PMID:22066882

  10. Alleviating distressing intrusive memories in depression: a comparison between computerised cognitive bias modification and cognitive behavioural education.

    PubMed

    Newby, Jill M; Lang, Tamara; Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Holmes, Emily; Moulds, Michelle L

    2014-05-01

    Negative appraisals maintain intrusive memories and intrusion-distress in depression, but treatment is underdeveloped. This study compared the efficacy of computerised bias modification positive appraisal training (CBM) versus a therapist-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy session (CB-Education) that both aimed to target and alter negative appraisals of a negative intrusive autobiographical memory. Dysphoric participants (Mean BDI-II = 27.85; N = 60) completed baseline ratings of a negative intrusive memory, negative appraisals and the Impact of Event Scale, and were randomly allocated either one session of CBM, CB-Education, or a no intervention monitoring control condition (Control). Mood and intrusion symptoms were assessed at one week follow-up. For all groups, there were significant reductions over one week in mood (depression and anxiety), memory intrusiveness and negative appraisals. Groups differed in terms of intrusion-related distress, with the CB-Education group showing greatest reduction, followed by the CBM group. The study provides evidence for the link between maladaptive appraisals of intrusive memories and distress in depressed mood. Further, both a single session of CB-Education and (to a lesser degree) CBM are useful in reducing intrusion-related distress. This study may have been underpowered to detect differences and replication is needed with larger samples. PMID:24685536

  11. The behavioural toxicity of antidepressants: effects on cognition and sexual function.

    PubMed

    Hindmarch, I

    1998-07-01

    The cognitive system is structured from sets of schema, patterns of neural activity that allow the assimilation or accommodation of new experiences and so, by a process of consolidation, the gradual development of knowledge and understanding. As well as schema for purely cognitive processes, there are similar structures that enable individuals to deal with sexual behaviour and affectual relationships (e.g. hedonia, self-esteem, personal preferences and body image). In depression, there is a well established disruption of cognitive function that results in anhedonia and a loss of pleasure, including that from sexual activities. Many antidepressants also have a direct pharmacological action on the central nervous system and disrupt cognitive function, so increasing anhedonia and impairing sexual function. Drug actions on cognitive structures, which in turn increase anhedonia and reduce sexual libido, are over and above any direct pharmacological effects on the more overt behavioural activities associated with sex, including orgasm, erectile function, potency and ejaculation. The tricyclic antidepressants, for example, destroy the cognitive structures that are vital to maintain normal libido as well as disturbing overt sexual behaviours. Some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; paroxetine and sertraline) are associated with behavioural activation that is also responsible for an impairment of sexual function. However, there are clear differences between the SSRIs, and fluvoxamine (relative to the other SSRIs) has little effect on objective measures of cognition or on cerebral and behavioural components of sexual function. PMID:9728668

  12. The Role of Social-Cognitive Abilities in Preschoolers' Aggressive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Rebecca Stetson; Cassidy, Kimberly Wright; Juliano, Mariel

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between preschool children's social-cognitive abilities (theory of mind and social information processing; SIP) and their observed physical and relational aggressive behaviour. Children with more advanced social-cognitive abilities engaged in fewer acts of physical aggression; however, much of the ability…

  13. The Relationship between Specific Cognitive Impairment and Behaviour in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, K. A.; Oliver, C.; Humphreys, G. W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) have been shown to demonstrate a particular cognitive deficit in attention switching and high levels of preference for routine and temper outbursts. This study assesses whether a specific pathway between a cognitive deficit and behaviour via environmental interaction can exist in individuals…

  14. Brief Report: Are ADHD Traits Dissociable from the Autistic Profile? Links between Cognition and Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Catherine S.; White, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of co-morbid symptoms of ADHD in children with ASD have increased. This research sought to identify ADHD-related behaviours in a sample of children with ASD, and their relationship with the ASD triad of impairments and related cognitive impairments. Children with ASD (n = 55) completed a comprehensive cognitive assessment whilst a…

  15. [Educational intervention for the expression of cognitive excellence].

    PubMed

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia

    2015-02-25

    The aim of the study is a reflection on the current standing of giftedness research and the effectiveness of gifted education in order to facilitate its optimal developmental trajectory from potential to eminence. The necessity of rethinking high intellectual ability as a developmental process is exposed from a new paradigm sustained by research results that could lead us to a better understanding of its nature and functioning as the product of the inter-relation of predictor factors and psychosocial modulators across the development, and the participation of executive functions on cognitive management. Rethinking giftedness education is needed, too, in order to prepare young people for outstanding achievement or eminence. Finally, one of the actual effective models of intervention for gifted learners to excellence is exposed and exemplified: the integrated curriculum model. PMID:25726830

  16. Stability and Change in the Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour Scores of Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Helen E.; Smith, Isabel M.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-01-01

    We examined the stability of cognitive and adaptive behaviour standard scores in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) between diagnosis and school entry approximately age 6. IQ increased 18 points in 2-year-olds, 12 points in 3-year-olds, and 9 points in 4-year-olds (N = 281). Adaptive behaviour scores increased 4 points across age groups…

  17. Development and Behaviour in Marshall-Smith Syndrome: An Exploratory Study of Cognition, Phenotype and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Balkom, I. D. C.; Shaw, A.; Vuijk, P. J.; Franssens, M.; Hoek, H. W.; Hennekam, R. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Marshall-Smith syndrome (MSS) is an infrequently described entity characterised by failure to thrive, developmental delay, abnormal bone maturation and a characteristic face. In studying the physical features of a group of patients, we noticed unusual behavioural traits. This urged us to study cognition, behavioural phenotype and…

  18. Effect of a social cognitive intervention on oral health status, behavior reports, and cognitions.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, L A; Keffer, M A; Davis, E L; Christersson, L A

    1992-07-01

    An intervention designed to test the influence of cognitive restructuring on protective oral health behaviors was conducted with 108 patients with mild to moderate gingivitis. Subjects in the experimental group viewed slides of active, mobile bacteria taken from their mouths on 5 occasions: before and after prophylaxis and at 3 appointments, one month apart. A specially trained hygienist discussed with these participants the process of periodontal disease, the role of bacteria, and self-efficacy (self-control) for oral hygiene self-care. Both experimental and control group subjects received instruction in oral self-care procedures. Assessments of oral health using Löe and Silness' plaque and gingival indices (PI and GI) were taken throughout the study and at 3- and 6-month follow-up visits. Self-efficacy, oral hygiene intentions, attitudes, and values comprised the set of cognition variables. Plaque and gingival indices mean differences between groups approached significance at visit 6. Analyses were also performed using percent of gingival surfaces scored at "0" (no visible bleeding on probing). A trend occurred for group differences in percent "0" scores at visit 6, with the experimental group maintaining higher percent zeros (better health) at this 3-month follow-up. At visit 7 (9-month follow-up), PI and GI differences disappeared. No significant differences were found between groups for oral health cognitions or behavior reports over time. The data suggest that the cognitive-behavioral intervention produced a delayed relapse in protective oral self-care behaviors, and by extension, oral health status. Such a delay could be clinically relevant in promoting adherence to oral hygiene behavior between professional visits. PMID:1507036

  19. Cognitive-Behavioral and Pharmacologic Interventions for Children's Distress during Painful Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, Susan M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Evaluated efficacy of cognitive-behavioral intervention package and low-risk pharmacologic intervention (oral Valium) as compared with minimal treatment-attention control condition, in reducing children leukemia patients' distress during bone marrow aspirations. The cognitive-behavioral therapy reduced behavioral distress, pain ratings and pulse…

  20. Connecting Neuroscience, Cognitive, and Educational Theories and Research to Practice: A Review of Mathematics Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeger, Lori A.; Brown, Rhonda Douglas; O'Brien, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This article describes major theories and research on math cognition across the fields of neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and education and connects these literatures to intervention practices. Commercially available math intervention programs were identified and evaluated using the following questions: (a) Did neuroscience…

  1. Developing cognitive-emotional training exercises as interventions for mood and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Iacoviello, B M; Charney, D S

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for more effective treatments for mood and anxiety disorders. As our understanding of the cognitive and affective neuroscience underlying psychiatric disorders expands, so do opportunities to develop novel interventions that capitalize on the capacity for brain plasticity. Cognitive training is one such strategy. This paper provides the background and rationale for developing cognitive-emotional training exercises as an intervention strategy, and proposes guidelines for the development and evaluation of cognitive training interventions with a specific focus on major depressive disorder as an example. PMID:25451246

  2. Development of an intervention program to increase effective behaviours by patients and clinicians in psychiatric services: Intervention Mapping study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Health clinicians perceive certain patients as 'difficult' across all settings, including mental health care. In this area, patients with non-psychotic disorders that become long-term care users may be perceived as obstructing their own recovery or seeking secondary gain. This negative perception of patients results in ineffective responses and low-quality care by health clinicians. Using the concept of illness behaviour, this paper describes the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of a structured intervention aimed at prevention and management of ineffective behaviours by long-term non-psychotic patients and their treating clinicians. Methods The principles of Intervention Mapping were applied to guide the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of the intervention. Qualitative (individual and group interviews), quantitative (survey), and mixed methods (Delphi-procedure) research was used to gain a broad perspective of the problem. Empirical findings, theoretical models, and existing evidence were combined to construct a program tailored to the needs of the target groups. Results A structured program to increase effective illness behaviour in long-term non-psychotic patients and effective professional behaviour in their treating clinicians was developed, consisting of three subsequent stages and four substantial components, that is described in detail. Implementation took place and evaluation of the intervention is being carried out. Conclusions Intervention Mapping proved to be a suitable method to develop a structured intervention for a multi-faceted problem in mental health care. PMID:20973985

  3. Brain and cognitive-behavioural development after asphyxia at term birth.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Michelle; Wyatt, John S; Roth, Simon; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Gadian, David; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2006-07-01

    Perinatal asphyxia occurs in approximately 1-6 per 1000 live full-term births. Different patterns of brain damage can result, though the relation of these patterns to long-term cognitive-behavioural outcome remains under investigation. The hippocampus is one brain region that can be damaged (typically not in isolation), and this site of damage has been implicated in two different long-term outcomes, cognitive memory impairment and the psychiatric disorder schizophrenia. Factors in addition to the acute episode of asphyxia likely contribute to these specific outcomes, making prediction difficult. Future studies that better document long-term cognitive-behavioural outcome, quantitatively identify patterns of brain injury over development and consider additional variables that may modulate the impact of asphyxia on cognitive and behavioural function will forward the goals of predicting long-term outcome and understanding the mechanisms by which it unfolds. PMID:16764608

  4. Impact of disease, cognitive and behavioural factors on caregiver outcome in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Watermeyer, Tamlyn J; Brown, Richard G; Sidle, Katie C L; Oliver, David J; Allen, Christopher; Karlsson, Joanna; Ellis, Cathy; Shaw, Christopher E; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Goldstein, Laura H

    2015-01-01

    Up to 50% of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) show mild to moderate cognitive-behavioural change alongside their progressive functional impairment. This study examines the relative impact of patients' disease symptoms, behavioural change and current executive function and social cognition abilities on psychosocial outcomes in spouse caregivers of people with ALS. Thirty-five spouse caregivers rated their own levels of depression and anxiety, subjective burden and marital satisfaction. Caregivers also rated their partner's everyday behaviour. The patients were assessed for disease severity and cognitive function, with composite scores derived for executive function and social cognition. Regression analyses revealed that caregiver burden was predicted by the severity of patients' limb involvement and behavioural problems. Depression was predicted by patients' limb involvement, while behavioural problems and patient age predicted caregiver anxiety. Current marital satisfaction was predicted by patient behavioural problems beyond the level of pre-illness marital satisfaction. In conclusion, the study highlights the potential impact of ALS patients' functional impairment and behavioural change on ALS caregivers' psychosocial functioning. Clinical communication with ALS families should emphasise both physical and psychological challenges presented by the disease. PMID:26199108

  5. Psychological Intervention for Improving Cognitive Function in Cancer Survivors: A Literature Review and Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    King, Summer; Green, Heather Joy

    2015-01-01

    Although the impact of cancer and associated treatments on cognitive functioning is becoming an increasingly recognized problem, there are few published studies that have investigated psychological interventions to address this issue. A waitlist randomized controlled trial methodology was used to assess the efficacy of a group cognitive rehabilitation intervention (“ReCog”) that successfully targeted cancer-related cognitive decline in previously published pilot research. Participants were 29 cancer survivors who were randomly allocated to either the intervention group or a waitlist group who received the intervention at a later date, and 16 demographically matched community volunteers with no history of cancer (trial registration ACTRN12615000009516, available at http://www.ANZCTR.org.au/ACTRN12615000009516.aspx). The study was the first to include an adapted version of the Traumatic Brain Injury Self-Efficacy Scale to assess cognitive self-efficacy (CSE) in people who have experienced cancer. Results revealed participating in the intervention was associated with significantly faster performance on one objective cognitive task that measures processing speed and visual scanning. Significantly larger improvements for the intervention group were also found on measures of perceived cognitive impairments and CSE. There was some evidence to support the roles of CSE and illness perceptions as potential mechanisms of change for the intervention. Overall, the study provided additional evidence of feasibility and efficacy of group psychological intervention for targeting cancer-related cognitive decline. PMID:25859431

  6. Effects of an emotional literacy intervention for students identified with bullying behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Knowler, Claire; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of a 12-week, small group emotional literacy (EL) intervention in reducing bullying behaviour in school was evaluated. Participants were 50 primary school pupils identified through peer nomination as engaging in bullying behaviours. The intervention was implemented in schools already engaged with a universal social and emotional learning initiative, including an anti-bullying component. Within schools, participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or a wait-list comparison group. Response to the intervention was found to be dependent on baseline levels of EL. Only children whose baseline level was low showed a significant reduction in peer-rated bullying behaviour. No effect of the intervention was detected on victimisation or adjustment scores, although positive changes in adjustment were associated with increased EL. PMID:26494932

  7. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change. PMID:21673826

  8. Behaviour Difficulties and Cognitive Function in Children Born Very Prematurely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayless, Sarah; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Stevenson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Children born very prematurely are at risk of low average IQ and behaviour difficulties throughout childhood and adolescence. Associations among preterm birth, IQ and behaviour have been reported; however, the nature of the relationship among these outcomes is not fully understood. Some studies have proposed that the consequences of preterm birth,…

  9. Association of the family environment with behavioural and cognitive outcomes in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Allen, T. M.; Hersh, J.; Schoch, K.; Curtiss, K.; Hooper, S. R.; Shashi, V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at risk for social-behavioural and neurocognitive sequelae throughout development. The current study examined the impact of family environmental characteristics on social-behavioural and cognitive outcomes in this pediatric population. Method Guardians of children with 22q11DS were recruited through two medical genetics clinics. Con senting guardians were asked to complete several questionnaires regarding their child's social, emotional and behavioural functioning, as well as family social environment and parenting styles. Children with 22q11DS were asked to undergo a cognitive assessment, including IQ and achievement testing, and measures of attention, executive function and memory. Results Modest associations were found between aspects of the family social environment and parenting styles with social-behavioural and cognitive/academic outcomes. Regression models indicated that physical punishment, socioeconomic status, parental control and family organisation significantly predicted social-behavioural and cognitive outcomes in children with 22q11DS. Conclusion Characteristics of the family social environment and parenting approaches appear to be associated with functional outcomes of children with 22q11DS. Understanding the impact of environmental variables on developmental outcomes can be useful in determining more effective targets for intervention. This will be important in order to improve the quality of life of individuals affected by 22q11DS. PMID:23742203

  10. Cost effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy and behavioural stress management for severe health anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Axelsson, Erland; Lekander, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Internet-delivered exposure-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of severe health anxiety. The health economic effects of the treatment have, however, been insufficiently studied and no prior study has investigated the effect of ICBT compared with an active psychological treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cost effectiveness of ICBT compared with internet-delivered behavioural stress management (IBSM) for adults with severe health anxiety defined as Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) hypochondriasis. ICBT was hypothesised to be the more cost-effective treatment. Setting This was a cost-effectiveness study within the context of a randomised controlled trial conducted in a primary care/university setting. Participants from all of Sweden could apply to participate. Participants Self-referred adults (N=158) with a principal diagnosis of DSM-IV hypochondriasis, of whom 151 (96%) provided baseline and post-treatment data. Interventions ICBT or IBSM for 12 weeks. Primary and secondary measures The primary outcome was the Health Anxiety Inventory. The secondary outcome was the EQ-5D. Other secondary measures were used in the main outcome study but were not relevant for the present health economic analysis. Results Both treatments led to significant reductions in gross total costs, costs of healthcare visits, direct non-medical costs and costs of domestic work cutback (p=0.000–0.035). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) indicated that the cost of one additional case of clinically significant improvement in ICBT compared with IBSM was $2214. The cost-utility ICER, that is, the cost of one additional quality-adjusted life year, was estimated to be $10 000. Conclusions ICBT is a cost-effective treatment compared with IBSM and treatment costs are offset by societal net cost reductions in a short time. A cost-benefit analysis

  11. Cost and outcome of behavioural activation versus cognitive behaviour therapy for depression (COBRA): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for depression. However, CBT is a complex therapy that requires highly trained and qualified practitioners, and its scalability is therefore limited by the costs of training and employing sufficient therapists to meet demand. Behavioural activation (BA) is a psychological treatment for depression that may be an effective alternative to CBT and, because it is simpler, might also be delivered by less highly trained and specialised mental health workers. Methods/Design COBRA is a two-arm, non-inferiority, patient-level randomised controlled trial, including clinical, economic, and process evaluations comparing CBT delivered by highly trained professional therapists to BA delivered by junior professional or para-professional mental health workers to establish whether the clinical effectiveness of BA is non-inferior to CBT and if BA is cost effective compared to CBT. Four hundred and forty patients with major depressive disorder will be recruited through screening in primary care. We will analyse for non-inferiority in per-protocol and intention-to-treat populations. Our primary outcome will be severity of depression symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) at 12 months follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be clinically significant change and severity of depression at 18 months, and anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form Health Survey-36) at 12 and 18 months. Our economic evaluation will take the United Kingdom National Health Service/Personal Social Services perspective to include costs of the interventions, health and social care services used, plus productivity losses. Cost-effectiveness will explored in terms of quality-adjusted life years using the EuroQol-5D measure of health-related quality of life. Discussion The clinical and economic outcomes of this trial will provide the evidence to help policy makers, clinicians and guideline

  12. Group cognitive behavioural therapy program shows potential in reducing symptoms of depression and stress among young people with ASD.

    PubMed

    McGillivray, J A; Evert, H T

    2014-08-01

    We examined the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered in groups on the reduction of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress in young people on the autism spectrum. Utilising a quasi-experimental design, comparisons were made between individuals allocated to a group intervention program and individuals allocated to a waitlist. Following the intervention program, participants who were initially symptomatic reported significantly lower depression and stress scores on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in comparison to individuals on the waitlist. There was no significant change in anxiety related symptoms. The benefits were maintained at 3 and 9 month follow-up. Our findings demonstrate the potential of CBT in a small group setting for assisting young people with ASD who have symptoms of depression and stress. PMID:24634065

  13. Treatment of PTSD in older adults: Do cognitive-behavioral interventions remain viable?

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Joshua D.; Beck, J. Gayle

    2011-01-01

    The literature examining trauma among older adults is growing, but little is known about the efficacy of empirically supported interventions for PTSD within this population. Clinical writing on this topic often implies that cognitive-behavioral treatments may be ineffective or inappropriate for older adults with PTSD given physical and/or cognitive vulnerabilities. Review of the limited research in this area, however, provides little support for the claim that cognitive-behavioral interventions are ineffective in treating PTSD among the elderly. In an effort to explicate specific issues related to treatment process and outcome among older survivors of trauma, a case series is presented outlining the treatment of three older adults within the context of a structured, cognitive-behavioral group intervention. Observations from this case series suggests that cognitive-behavioral interventions continue to be useful in treating PTSD with this population. Specific treatment issues unique to older adults are explored and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:22383863

  14. Combined Cognitive-Psychological-Physical Intervention Induces Reorganization of Intrinsic Functional Brain Architecture in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Wang, Baoxi; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Xin; Li, Rui; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age. PMID:25810927

  15. Information Processing Versus Social Cognitive Mediators of Weight Loss in a Podcast-Delivered Health Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Linda K.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Campbell, Marci K.

    2016-01-01

    Podcasting is an emerging technology, and previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcast for weight loss among overweight and obese individuals. This study investigated whether constructs of social cognitive theory and information processing theories (IPTs) mediate the effect of a podcast intervention on weight loss among overweight individuals. Data are from Pounds off Digitally, a study testing the efficacy of two weight loss podcast interventions (control podcast and theory-based podcast). Path models were constructed (n = 66). The IPTs—elaboration likelihood model, information control theory, and cognitive load theory—mediated the effect of a theory-based podcast on weight loss. The intervention was significantly associated with all IPTs. Information control theory and cognitive load theory were related to elaboration, and elaboration was associated with weight loss. Social cognitive theory constructs did not mediate weight loss. Future podcast interventions grounded in theory may be effective in promoting weight loss. PMID:24082027

  16. Training a Family in Physical Interventions as Part of a Positive Behaviour Support Intervention for Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Olivia; Keeling, Natalie; Pearce, Malcom

    2016-01-01

    Between 10% and 15% of people with a learning disability have behaviour that challenges others, and half of these people live within the family home (Emerson et al., "Research in Developmental Disabilities," 2001; 22, 77). Current best practice in managing challenging behaviour combines person-centred planning, functional analysis, and…

  17. The 'balance intervention' for promoting caloric compensatory behaviours in response to overeating: a formative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wammes, Birgitte; Breedveld, Boudewijn; Kremers, Stef; Brug, Johannes

    2006-08-01

    To help people prevent weight gain, the Netherlands Nutrition Centre initiated the 'balance intervention', which promotes moderation of food intake and/or increased physical activity in response to occasions of overeating. The aim of this study was to determine whether intervention materials were appreciated, encouraged information seeking and increased motivation and caloric compensatory behaviours. A three-group randomized trial with pre-intervention measures (n = 963, response 86%) and post-intervention measures (n = 857) using electronic questionnaires was conducted among participants aged 25-40 years, recruited from an Internet research panel. The first group received a printed brochure and electronic newsletters (print group), the second group was exposed to radio advertisements (radio group) and the third group was the control group. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the impact of the materials on self-reported prevalence of overeating, attitudes, perceived behavioural control, intentions and compensatory behaviours. At follow-up, we found significantly more positive attitudes, intentions and dietary action in the print and radio groups. However, participants who received the radio advertisement had a significantly lower perceived behavioural control. No effects were found on the prevalence of overeating. The results indicate that the intervention materials have potential for increasing people's attitudes, motivation and self-reported behaviour actions, with a possible negative side-effect on perceived behavioural control. PMID:16606638

  18. A practical approach for applying best practices in behavioural interventions to injury prevention

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsohn, Lela

    2010-01-01

    Behavioural science when combined with engineering, epidemiology and other disciplines creates a full picture of the often fragmented injury puzzle and informs comprehensive solutions. To assist efforts to include behavioural science in injury prevention strategies, this paper presents a methodological tutorial that aims to introduce best practices in behavioural intervention development and testing to injury professionals new to behavioural science. This tutorial attempts to bridge research to practice through the presentation of a practical, systematic, six-step approach that borrows from established frameworks in health promotion and disease prevention. Central to the approach is the creation of a programme theory that links a theoretically grounded, empirically tested behaviour change model to intervention components and their evaluation. Serving as a compass, a programme theory allows for systematic focusing of resources on the likely most potent behavioural intervention components and directs evaluation of intervention impact and implementation. For illustration, the six-step approach is applied to the creation of a new peer-to-peer campaign, Ride Like a Friend/Drive Like You Care, to promote safe teen driver and passenger behaviours. PMID:20363817

  19. A longitudinal study of gender-related cognition and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anne; Shirley, Louisa; Candy, Julia

    2004-02-01

    Gender schema theory proposes that children's acquisition of gender labels and gender stereotypes informs gender-congruent behaviour. Most previous studies have been cross-sectional and do not address the temporal relationship between knowledge and behaviour. We report the results of a longitudinal study of gender knowledge and sex-typed behaviour across three domains in children tested at 24 and 36 months (N = 56). Although both knowledge and sex-typed behaviour increased significantly between 2 and 3 years, there was no systematic pattern of cross-lagged correlations between the two, although some concurrent relationships were present at 24 months. Future longitudinal work might profitably focus on younger children using reliable preverbal measures of gender knowledge and employing a shorter lag between measurement times. PMID:15323112

  20. Cognitive behaviour therapy for improving social recovery in psychosis: cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Barton, Garry R; Hodgekins, Jo; Mugford, Miranda; Jones, Peter B; Croudace, Tim; Fowler, David

    2009-07-01

    A randomised trial was conducted in order to estimate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of social recovery orientated cognitive behavioural therapy (SRCBT) for people diagnosed with psychosis, compared to case management alone (CMA). The mean incremental health and social care cost, and the mean incremental quality adjusted life year (QALY) gain, of SRCBT was calculated over the 9 month intervention period. The cost-effectiveness of SCRBT was in turn estimated, and considered in relation to the cost-effectiveness threshold of 20000 UK pounds per QALY. The level of uncertainty associated with that decision was estimated by calculating the cost-effectiveness acceptability curve for SRCBT. N=35 received SRCBT and N=42 received CMA. The mean incremental cost was estimated to be 668 UK pounds, and the mean incremental QALY gain 0.035. SRCBT was estimated to be cost-effective as it had a cost per QALY of 18844 UK pounds, which was more favourable than the assumed cost-effectiveness threshold of 20000 UK pounds per QALY. At that threshold the probability of being cost-effective was however estimated to be 54.3% according to the CEAC, suggesting that further research may be warranted in order to reduce the level of uncertainty associated with the decision as to whether SRCBT is cost-effective. PMID:19403270

  1. Effect of tetrahydroaminoacridine on cognition, function and behaviour in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, D W; Guyatt, G H; Wilson, D B; Duke, R; Rees, L; Singer, J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) in Alzheimer's disease. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, multiple crossover trial with three treatment periods, each consisting of 3 weeks of active drug therapy and 3 weeks of placebo administration. SETTING: Referral-based geriatric practice in a community hospital. PATIENTS: Thirty-four patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. Subjects were included if they had stage 3 to 6 disease (as determined by the Reisberg scale) and had not been taking psychotropic drugs for at least 1 month and if informed consent had been obtained from the patients and their next of kin. INTERVENTIONS: Fifty to 100 mg of THA daily and matched placebo. RESULTS: Of the initial 34 patients 14 experienced liver toxicity and 3 gastrointestinal side effects during the study; however, all 22 who completed the study were able to tolerate at least the minimum dose. For the 22 patients there was no clinically or statistically significant effect of THA on cognition, functional status or behaviour. The results for individual patients showed no subgroup of THA-responsive patients. CONCLUSION: THA has no clinically important benefits in Alzheimer's disease and is associated with appreciable toxic effects. PMID:1984813

  2. Evidence-based practice and the need for paradigmatic pluralism in cognitive behavioural psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Grant, A

    2009-05-01

    The scientist-practitioner model, which is based on positivistic methodological assumptions, is influential in the development, training and practice of cognitive behavioural psychotherapists. As the emergence of 'Nurse Cognitive Behavioural Therapist' training in the early 1970s in Britain, many of those trained have been mental health nurses and with the emergence of the Increased Access to Psychological Therapies agenda many more are likely to undergo training. Despite some acceptance of its relevance, the scientist-practitioner model is subject of criticism on the grounds of its achievability and contemporary relevance, and its exclusion of other modalities of counselling and psychotherapy without an, as yet, disseminated evidence base. In line with key policy-related work, the empirical and political issues inscribed within the scientist-practitioner model have direct implications for the educational preparation and ongoing professional development of cognitive behavioural practitioners. Specifically, in this polemical paper it is argued that there is a moral and educational need for 'senior' practitioners to question the philosophy of science assumptions underpinning the overwhelming dominance of the quantitative-experimental approach in cognitive behavioural psychotherapy. Such a critically evaluative and pluralistic stance would arguably distinguish senior practitioners in terms of them being able to make broad rather than narrow appraisals of the evidence base for their practice. A recognition of the relevance of paradigmatic and epistemological pluralism in cognitive behavioural work would, it is argued, confer considerable advantages on our practice communities and clients. A range of emerging implications for cognitive behavioural education, practice and relational ethics are described and discussed. PMID:19383016

  3. Cognitive interventions in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases: emerging mechanisms and role of imaging

    PubMed Central

    Vemuri, Prashanthi; Fields, Julie; Peter, Jessica; Klöppel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review There has been recent debate about the lack of compelling scientific evidence on the efficacy of cognitive interventions. The goal of this study is to review the current state of cognitive interventions in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, present emerging mechanisms, and discuss the role of imaging in designing effective intervention strategies. Recent findings Cognitive interventions appear to be promising in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Although feasibility has been shown in mild cognitive impairment, early Alzheimer's disease, and mild to moderate Parkinson's disease, studies to investigate long-term efficacy and mechanisms underlying these interventions are still needed. Summary There is a need to conduct scientifically rigorous studies to validate the efficacy of cognitive intervention trials. Future studies will greatly benefit from including longitudinal imaging in their study design. Imaging can be used to demonstrate the efficacy and mechanisms by measuring brain changes over the intervention period. Imaging can also be used to determine biological and disease-related factors that may influence the treatment response, that is, the effect modifiers. Consideration of effect modifiers will allow us to measure the treatment response in biomarkers and cognition with greater sensitivity and also aid in designing trials that will lead to better patient outcomes. PMID:27213773

  4. Cognitive Remediation: A New Generation of Psychosocial Interventions for People with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Eack, Shaun M.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a mental health condition characterized by broad impairments in cognition, which place profound limitations on functional recovery. Social work has an enduring legacy in pioneering the development of novel psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia, and this article introduces cognitive remediation, the latest advance in psychosocial treatments for the disorder designed to improve cognition. First, an overview of the nature of cognitive impairments and their functional consequences in schizophrenia is presented, followed by a description of the theoretical basis and key practice principles of cognitive remediation. Next, the latest biopsychosocial evidence for the efficacy of cognitive remediation in schizophrenia is critically reviewed. Finally, a model cognitive remediation program, Cognitive Enhancement Therapy, which was developed and evaluated by a social work-led multidisciplinary team is presented. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy represents a significant advance in cognitive remediation for schizophrenia, and uses a unique holistic approach that extends beyond traditional neurocognitive training to facilitate the achievement of adult social-cognitive milestones and broader functional recovery. It is concluded that cognitive remediation represents an effective next generation of psychosocial interventions that social workers can use to help improve the lives of many people who live with schizophrenia. PMID:23252315

  5. Behavioural Interventions for Self Injurious Behaviour: A Review of Recent Evidence (1998-2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prangnell, Simon J.

    2010-01-01

    Estimates suggest that up to one quarter of people who have a severe learning disability engage in self injurious behaviour (SIB). SIB poses serious risks, both to the person's physical health and their quality of life. Behavioural approaches have made a contribution to supporting people who engage in SIB, although the last review of these…

  6. Dyslexia at a Behavioural and a Cognitive Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helland, Turid

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to see whether patterns of neuro-cognitive assets and deficits seen in dyslexia also would lead to different patterns of reading and writing. A group of dyslexic children was subgrouped by language comprehension and mathematics skills in accordance with the definition of the British Dyslexia Association of 1998. This…

  7. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  8. The effectiveness of interventions to change six health behaviours: a review of reviews

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several World Health Organisation reports over recent years have highlighted the high incidence of chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and cancer. Contributory factors include unhealthy diets, alcohol and tobacco use and sedentary lifestyles. This paper reports the findings of a review of reviews of behavioural change interventions to reduce unhealthy behaviours or promote healthy behaviours. We included six different health-related behaviours in the review: healthy eating, physical exercise, smoking, alcohol misuse, sexual risk taking (in young people) and illicit drug use. We excluded reviews which focussed on pharmacological treatments or those which required intensive treatments (e.g. for drug or alcohol dependency). Methods The Cochrane Library, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) and several Ovid databases were searched for systematic reviews of interventions for the six behaviours (updated search 2008). Two reviewers applied the inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed the quality of the reviews. The results were discussed in a narrative synthesis. Results We included 103 reviews published between 1995 and 2008. The focus of interventions varied, but those targeting specific individuals were generally designed to change an existing behaviour (e.g. cigarette smoking, alcohol misuse), whilst those aimed at the general population or groups such as school children were designed to promote positive behaviours (e.g. healthy eating). Almost 50% (n = 48) of the reviews focussed on smoking (either prevention or cessation). Interventions that were most effective across a range of health behaviours included physician advice or individual counselling, and workplace- and school-based activities. Mass media campaigns and legislative interventions also showed small to moderate effects in changing health behaviours. Generally, the evidence related to short-term effects rather than sustained/longer-term impact and

  9. An Exploration Based Cognitive Bias Test for Mice: Effects of Handling Method and Stereotypic Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Novak, Janja; Bailoo, Jeremy D; Melotti, Luca; Rommen, Jonas; Würbel, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural tests to assess affective states are widely used in human research and have recently been extended to animals. These tests assume that affective state influences cognitive processing, and that animals in a negative affective state interpret ambiguous information as expecting a negative outcome (displaying a negative cognitive bias). Most of these tests however, require long discrimination training. The aim of the study was to validate an exploration based cognitive bias test, using two different handling methods, as previous studies have shown that standard tail handling of mice increases physiological and behavioural measures of anxiety compared to cupped handling. Therefore, we hypothesised that tail handled mice would display a negative cognitive bias. We handled 28 female CD-1 mice for 16 weeks using either tail handling or cupped handling. The mice were then trained in an eight arm radial maze, where two adjacent arms predicted a positive outcome (darkness and food), while the two opposite arms predicted a negative outcome (no food, white noise and light). After six days of training, the mice were also given access to the four previously unavailable intermediate ambiguous arms of the radial maze and tested for cognitive bias. We were unable to validate this test, as mice from both handling groups displayed a similar pattern of exploration. Furthermore, we examined whether maze exploration is affected by the expression of stereotypic behaviour in the home cage. Mice with higher levels of stereotypic behaviour spent more time in positive arms and avoided ambiguous arms, displaying a negative cognitive bias. While this test needs further validation, our results indicate that it may allow the assessment of affective state in mice with minimal training-a major confound in current cognitive bias paradigms. PMID:26154309

  10. An Exploration Based Cognitive Bias Test for Mice: Effects of Handling Method and Stereotypic Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Janja; Bailoo, Jeremy D.; Melotti, Luca; Rommen, Jonas; Würbel, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural tests to assess affective states are widely used in human research and have recently been extended to animals. These tests assume that affective state influences cognitive processing, and that animals in a negative affective state interpret ambiguous information as expecting a negative outcome (displaying a negative cognitive bias). Most of these tests however, require long discrimination training. The aim of the study was to validate an exploration based cognitive bias test, using two different handling methods, as previous studies have shown that standard tail handling of mice increases physiological and behavioural measures of anxiety compared to cupped handling. Therefore, we hypothesised that tail handled mice would display a negative cognitive bias. We handled 28 female CD-1 mice for 16 weeks using either tail handling or cupped handling. The mice were then trained in an eight arm radial maze, where two adjacent arms predicted a positive outcome (darkness and food), while the two opposite arms predicted a negative outcome (no food, white noise and light). After six days of training, the mice were also given access to the four previously unavailable intermediate ambiguous arms of the radial maze and tested for cognitive bias. We were unable to validate this test, as mice from both handling groups displayed a similar pattern of exploration. Furthermore, we examined whether maze exploration is affected by the expression of stereotypic behaviour in the home cage. Mice with higher levels of stereotypic behaviour spent more time in positive arms and avoided ambiguous arms, displaying a negative cognitive bias. While this test needs further validation, our results indicate that it may allow the assessment of affective state in mice with minimal training—a major confound in current cognitive bias paradigms. PMID:26154309

  11. Mathematics Intervention Utilizing Carnegie Learning's Cognitive Tutor® and Compass Learning's Odyssey Math®

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Carnegie Learning's Cognitive Tutor®The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between pre-test and post-test achievement scores when Compass Learning's Odyssey Math® is used together with Carnegie Learning's Math Cognitive Tutor® in a mathematics intervention program at ABC Middle School. The…

  12. Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions for Treatment of Depression in Alzheimer's Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teri, Linda; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    1991-01-01

    Presents two strategies for treating depression in Alzheimer's patients: cognitive therapy for mildly demented adults which challenges patient's negative cognitions to reduce distortions and enable patient to generate more adaptive ways of viewing specific events; and behavioral intervention for moderately or severely demented adults which…

  13. Cognitive Remediation: A New Generation of Psychosocial Interventions for People with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a mental health condition characterized by broad impairments in cognition that place profound limitations on functional recovery. Social work has an enduring legacy in pioneering the development of novel psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia, and in this article the author introduces cognitive remediation, the…

  14. Introduction to The Special Issue: Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions with Students with EBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Matthew; Lochman, John; Van Acker, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in developing models of social information processing, and cognitive-behavioral processes and related interventions. While there has been limited attention to cognitive-behavioral modification (CBM) in the special education literature, the majority of the contributions have come from the fields of school,…

  15. Cognitive Hypothesis Testing and Response to Intervention for Children with Reading Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorello, Catherine A.; Hale, James B.; Snyder, Lindsey E.

    2006-01-01

    Response to intervention (RTI) must be combined with comprehensive cognitive assessment to identify children with learning disabilities. This article presents the Cognitive Hypothesis Testing (CHT) model for integrating RTI and comprehensive evaluation practices in the identification of children with reading disabilities. The CHT model utilizes a…

  16. Clinical supervision in cognitive behavioural psychotherapy: development of a model for mental health nursing through grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Townend, M

    2008-05-01

    This study focuses on the development of a cognitive behavioural model of supervision for mental health nurses. The study utilized a grounded theory approach with cognitive behavioural psychotherapy training course directors. The aim was to more fully understand cognitive behavioural supervision from the perspective of expert supervisors, and develop a model of supervision for mental health nurses who are also cognitive behavioural psychotherapists. For this purpose, 16 course directors were interviewed in-depth, with data analysis taking place after each interview. Through a process of inductive reasoning, core categories were identified from the participants themselves. The relationships between the categories are described. The findings are discussed in terms of a new model that can be used to underpin cognitive behavioural psychotherapy supervision in mental health nursing. PMID:18387152

  17. Acceptability of a theory of planned behaviour email-based nutrition intervention.

    PubMed

    Kothe, E J; Mullan, B A

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated feasibility and acceptability of a new email-delivered intervention promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in a university-based population of Australian young adults. The study explored whether there are differences in the reported feasibility and acceptability between demographic groups within the population of interest and at three levels of intervention intensity. The email-delivered intervention program consists of an implementation intention 'planning task' and between 3 and 15 short email messages over a 15-day study period. The intervention program was developed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour and was designed to modify perceived behavioural control. One hundred and ten participants (mean age = 19.21 years, 25.6% male) completed the feasibility and acceptability questionnaire at Day 15. This questionnaire contained items about all intervention components. High acceptability and feasibility scores were found for all intervention parts and at all levels of intervention intensity. There were few significant differences in the reported acceptability of items between key demographic sub-groups, and no differences in reported acceptability at different levels of intervention intensity. These results suggest that this email-delivered intervention is an acceptable and feasible tool for promoting fruit and vegetable consumption for participants in the target population. PMID:22942273

  18. Is Talent in Autism Spectrum Disorders Associated with a Specific Cognitive and Behavioural Phenotype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Emily; Heaton, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Parents of 125 children, adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders completed a newly developed questionnaire aimed at identifying cognitive and behavioural characteristics associated with savant skills in this group. Factors distinguishing skilled individuals were then further investigated in case studies of three individuals…

  19. Synchronisation effects on the behavioural performance and information dynamics of a simulated minimally cognitive robotic agent.

    PubMed

    Moioli, Renan C; Vargas, Patricia A; Husbands, Phil

    2012-09-01

    Oscillatory activity is ubiquitous in nervous systems, with solid evidence that synchronisation mechanisms underpin cognitive processes. Nevertheless, its informational content and relationship with behaviour are still to be fully understood. In addition, cognitive systems cannot be properly appreciated without taking into account brain-body- environment interactions. In this paper, we developed a model based on the Kuramoto Model of coupled phase oscillators to explore the role of neural synchronisation in the performance of a simulated robotic agent in two different minimally cognitive tasks. We show that there is a statistically significant difference in performance and evolvability depending on the synchronisation regime of the network. In both tasks, a combination of information flow and dynamical analyses show that networks with a definite, but not too strong, propensity for synchronisation are more able to reconfigure, to organise themselves functionally and to adapt to different behavioural conditions. The results highlight the asymmetry of information flow and its behavioural correspondence. Importantly, it also shows that neural synchronisation dynamics, when suitably flexible and reconfigurable, can generate minimally cognitive embodied behaviour. PMID:22810898

  20. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy: From Face to Face Interaction to a Broader Contextual Understanding of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahoda, A.; Dagnan, D.; Kroese, B. Stenfert; Pert, C.; Trower, P.

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is increasingly used to address the emotional and interpersonal problems of people with ID. There is a limited but promising evidence base supporting this activity. However, these individuals face real and continuing challenges in their lives that have implications for their self and interpersonal perceptions.…

  1. Teacher Interpersonal Behaviour and Secondary Students' Cognitive, Affective and Moral Outcomes in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivan, Atara; Chan, Dennis W. K.

    2013-01-01

    This study validated the Chinese version of the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) in the Hong Kong context as well as examined the relationship between students' perceptions of interpersonal teacher behaviour and their cognitive, affective and moral learning outcomes. Data were collected with the QTI and four other measures of student…

  2. ADHD and Adaptability: The Roles of Cognitive, Behavioural, and Emotional Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Emma; Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptability has been recently proposed as cognitive, behavioural, and emotional regulation assisting individuals to effectively respond to change, uncertainty and novelty. Given students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have known impairments with regulatory functions, they may be at particular disadvantage as they seek to…

  3. Paedophilia: a cognitive/behavioural treatment approach in a single case.

    PubMed

    Enright, S J

    1989-09-01

    Our confidence in being able to offer successful treatment of paedophilia remains low. A multifaceted cognitive/behavioural treatment approach is described in the hitherto successful treatment of a man with a 13-year history of sexually interfering with young children of both sexes. PMID:2611554

  4. Febrile Seizures and Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes in Preschool Children: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Annemarie M.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning; Moll, Henriette A.; Arts, Willem Frans M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: General developmental outcome is known to be good in school-aged children who experienced febrile seizures. We examined cognitive and behavioural outcomes in preschool children with febrile seizures, including language and executive functioning outcomes. Method: This work was performed in the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort…

  5. Behavioural and Cognitive Phenotypes in Idiopathic Autism versus Autism Associated with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissanayake, Cheryl; Bui, Quang; Bulhak-Paterson, Danuta; Huggins, Richard; Loesch, Danuta Z.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In order to better understand the underlying biological mechanism/s involved in autism, it is important to investigate the cognitive and behavioural phenotypes associated with idiopathic autism (autism without a known cause) and comorbid autism (autism associated with known genetic/biological disorders such as fragile X syndrome).…

  6. Staff Expectations and Views of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroese, Biza Stenfert; Jahoda, Andrew; Pert, Carol; Trower, Peter; Dagnan, Dave; Selkirk, Mhairi

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of support workers and other professionals in the psychotherapeutic process has been commented upon but not as yet been systematically investigated. Method: To explore their views and expectations of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for adults with intellectual disabilities, eleven paid support workers and professionals were…

  7. A Pilot Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program for Problem Gamblers in a Rural Australian Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Jane; Gardiner, Paula; McLaughlin, Kristin; Battersby, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    An innovative pilot treatment program was developed for problem gamblers living in rural areas of Australia using cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) modified from an established specialist therapy service. The standard 12 weekly group program was delivered on site by adapting it to two 1 week blocks with daily group sessions and 1 week of patient…

  8. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviours, Sensory Processing and Cognitive Style in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Han; Rodgers, Jacqui; McConachie, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Many individuals with autism tend to focus on details. It has been suggested that this cognitive style may underlie the presence of stereotyped routines, repetitive interests and behaviours, and both relate in some way to sensory abnormalities. Twenty-nine children with diagnosis of high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome completed the…

  9. Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study Using Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeney, Farah; Egan, Sarah; Gasson, Natalie

    2005-01-01

    Depression and anxiety affect up to 50% of people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) (Marsh, 2000; Murray, 1996), however, few studies have examined the effectiveness of psychological treatment. This study examined the effectiveness of group cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in treating depression and anxiety in PD. Four participants, aged between 56…

  10. An evaluation of the enhanced cognitive-behavioural model of bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lampard, Amy M; Byrne, Susan M; McLean, Neil; Fursland, Anthea

    2011-09-01

    The original cognitive-behavioural model of bulimia nervosa (BN) has been enhanced to include four additional maintaining mechanisms: low self esteem, clinical perfectionism, interpersonal problems, and mood intolerance. These models have been used to guide cognitive-behavioural treatment for BN, but the enhanced model has yet to be directly evaluated as a whole in a clinical sample. This study aimed to compare and evaluate the original and the enhanced cognitive-behavioural models of BN using structural equation modelling. The Eating Disorder Examination and self-report questionnaires were completed by 162 patients seeking treatment for BN (N = 129) or atypical BN (N = 33). Fit indices suggested that both the original and enhanced models provided a good fit to the data, but the enhanced model accounted for more variance in dietary restraint and binge eating. In the enhanced model, low self esteem was associated with greater overevaluation of weight and shape, which, in turn, was associated with increased dietary restraint. Interpersonal problems were also directly associated with dietary restraint, and binge eating was associated with increased purging. While the current study provides support for some aspects of the enhanced cognitive-behavioural model of BN, some key relationships in the model were not supported, including the important conceptual relationship between dietary restraint and binge eating. PMID:21724176

  11. Digital Leisure-Time Activities, Cognition, Learning Behaviour and Information Literacy: What Are Our Children Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimley, Mick

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in digital technology have resulted in the unprecedented uptake of digital technology engagement as a leisure-time pursuit across the age span. This has resulted in the speculation that such use of digital technology is responsible for changes in cognition and learning behaviour. This study investigated two groups of…

  12. Increase in Prefrontal Cortical Volume following Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lange, Floris P.; Koers, Anda; Kalkman, Joke S.; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Hagoort, Peter; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Toni, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disabling disorder, characterized by persistent or relapsing fatigue. Recent studies have detected a decrease in cortical grey matter volume in patients with CFS, but it is unclear whether this cerebral atrophy constitutes a cause or a consequence of the disease. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an…

  13. Brain and Cognitive-Behavioural Development after Asphyxia at Term Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Haan, Michelle; Wyatt, John S.; Roth, Simon; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Gadian, David; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2006-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia occurs in approximately 1-6 per 1000 live full-term births. Different patterns of brain damage can result, though the relation of these patterns to long-term cognitive-behavioural outcome remains under investigation. The hippocampus is one brain region that can be damaged (typically not in isolation), and this site of damage has…

  14. Evaluation of 11th Grade Students' Cognitive Behaviour on Some Subjects of Analysis According to Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, Orhun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate students' cognitive behaviour in the subjects of function, limit, and derivative according to gender. The research was conducted with the participation of 67 female and 58 male 11th grade students of Gazi High School in Eskisehir in the academic year 2000/2001. The data were obtained through a test…

  15. Assessment of Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour among Individuals with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain and Anhidrosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erez, Daniella Levy; Levy, Jacov; Friger, Michael; Aharoni-Mayer, Yael; Cohen-Iluz, Moran; Goldstein, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Individuals with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) are reported to have mental retardation but to our knowledge no detailed study on the subject has ever been published. The present study assessed and documented cognitive and adaptive behaviour among Arab Bedouin children with CIPA. Methods: Twenty-three Arab Bedouin…

  16. How Does Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Work with Opioid-Dependent Clients? Results of the UKCBTMM Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouimtsidis, Christos; Reynolds, Martina; Coulton, Simon; Drummond, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Process research in psychotherapy is important to understand how treatment works. The National Institute of Clinical Excellence guidelines suggest that in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opioid dependence, drug key-working should be based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) principles. This article reports the findings…

  17. Changes in cognition and behaviour in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: nature of impairment and implications for assessment.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Laura H; Abrahams, Sharon

    2013-04-01

    Increased awareness of cognitive and behavioural change in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has been driven by various clinic-based and population-based studies. A frontotemporal syndrome occurs in a substantial proportion of patients, a subgroup of whom present with frontotemporal dementia. Deficits are characterised by executive and working-memory impairments, extending to changes in language and social cognition. Behaviour and social cognition abnormalities are closely similar to those reported in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, implying a clinical spectrum linking amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Cognitive impairment should be considered in clinical management, but few specialist assessment resources are available, and thus the cognitive status of most patients is unknown. Standard assessment procedures are not appropriate to detect dysfunction due to progressive physical disability; techniques that better measure the problems encountered by this group of patients are needed to further establish disease effects. Screening instruments are needed that are validated specifically for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, encompass the heterogeneity of impairment, and accommodate physical disability. PMID:23518330

  18. Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption. Testing an intervention based on the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kothe, E J; Mullan, B A; Butow, P

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) based intervention to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. The extent to which fruit and vegetable consumption and change in intake could be explained by the TPB was also examined. Participants were randomly assigned to two levels of intervention frequency matched for intervention content (low frequency n=92, high frequency n=102). Participants received TPB-based email messages designed to increase fruit and vegetable consumption, messages targeted attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control (PBC). Baseline and post-intervention measures of TPB variables and behaviour were collected. Across the entire study cohort, fruit and vegetable consumption increased by 0.83 servings/day between baseline and follow-up. Intention, attitude, subjective norm and PBC also increased (p<.05). The TPB successfully modelled fruit and vegetable consumption at both time points but not behaviour change. The increase of fruit and vegetable consumption is a promising preliminary finding for those primarily interested in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. However, those interested in theory development may have concerns about the use of this model to explain behaviour change in this context. More high quality experimental tests of the theory are needed to confirm this result. PMID:22349778

  19. [Pilot study on the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural group programme for adolescents with pathological internet use].

    PubMed

    Wartberg, Lutz; Thomsen, Monika; Moll, Bettina; Thomasius, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Excessive Internet use and its severe form, pathological internet use, are currently increasing in many industrial nations in Asia, North America and Europe. According to recent epidemiological studies pathological internet use occurs more frequently in youth than in adults. In Germany between 4 and 6% of the adolescents use the internet in a pathological way. Only few studies have investigated therapeutic interventions and their effectiveness in affected adolescents. In this pilot study, we surveyed over a period of 15 months all minor participants (aged up to 17) of a cognitive behavioural group programme at the beginning and at the end of the treatment (pre-post design) with standardized questionnaires (CIUS, SPS-J). At the second point of measurement the adolescents (n = 18, 75 percent retention rate) reported a significantly lower severity of problematic internet use as well as reduced average usage times during the week and at the weekend. No changes were revealed in psychological well-being of the youth. The results of this pilot study indicate positive effects of a cognitive behavioural group programme with psychoeducative elements in the treatment of youth affected by pathological internet use. PMID:24693802

  20. Cognitive-behavioural approaches to self-management in rheumatic disease.

    PubMed

    Dures, Emma; Hewlett, Sarah

    2012-09-01

    Patients with rheumatic disease must adjust psychosocially and behaviourally in order to manage the impact of symptoms and treatment on their daily lives, and the emotional consequences of the disease. However, patients can improve their well-being by taking a proactive role in self-management, for example by using coping strategies. Support for patient self-management from clinical teams usually comprises information and advice on disease management; however, this largely didactic approach often focuses on the biomedical aspects of rheumatic disease, without addressing how these aspects interact with psychosocial factors to influence health behaviours and thus outcomes. A cognitive-behavioural approach based on the biopsychosocial model of rheumatic disease can facilitate the identification of effective self-management strategies through collaboration between patients and clinicians. Most patients do not require intense cognitive-behavioural therapy from a clinical psychologist; rather, basic cognitive-behavioural techniques and tools could be used by rheumatology clinical teams to expand and enhance the support already offered to patients. PMID:22801981

  1. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Family Cognitive-Behavioral Preventive Intervention for Children of Depressed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; Forehand, Rex; Keller, Gary; Champion, Jennifer E.; Rakow, Aaron; Reeslund, Kristen L.; McKee, Laura; Fear, Jessica M.; Colletti, Christina J. M.; Hardcastle, Emily; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lori; Potts, Jennifer; Garai, Emily; Coffelt, Nicole; Roland, Erin; Sterba, Sonya K.; Cole, David A.

    2009-01-01

    A family cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention for parents with a history of depression and their 9-15-year-old children was compared with a self-study written information condition in a randomized clinical trial (n = 111 families). Outcomes were assessed at post-intervention (2 months), after completion of 4 monthly booster sessions (6…

  2. Promoting Autonomy in the Workplace--A Cognitive-Developmental Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hascher, Tina A.; Oser, Fritz

    A new cognitive intervention strategy was developed to improve teaching and learning in the workplace within the context of Germany's standard system of vocational training, a dual system of theoretical learning at school and practical learning in the workplace. The intervention was based on two elements: training apprentices to learn and work…

  3. Making Connections: Linking Cognitive Psychology and Intervention Research to Improve Comprehension of Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Kristen L.; Espin, Christine A.; van den Broek, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of reading comprehension interventions for struggling readers, including students with learning disabilities. Yet, some readers continue to struggle with comprehension despite receiving these interventions. In this article, we argue that an explicit link between cognitive psychology and intervention…

  4. Information Processing Versus Social Cognitive Mediators of Weight Loss in a Podcast-Delivered Health Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Linda K.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Campbell, Marci K.

    2014-01-01

    Podcasting is an emerging technology, and previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcast for weight loss among overweight and obese individuals. This study investigated whether constructs of social cognitive theory and information processing theories (IPTs) mediate the effect of a podcast intervention on weight loss…

  5. Interpersonal Accuracy of Interventions and the Outcome of Cognitive and Interpersonal Therapies for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crits-Christoph, Paul; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly; Temes, Christina M.; Elkin, Irene; Gallop, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the interpersonal accuracy of interventions in cognitive therapy and interpersonal therapy as a predictor of the outcome of treatment for patients with major depressive disorder. Method: The interpersonal accuracy of interventions was rated using transcripts of treatment sessions…

  6. Stability and Change in the Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour Scores of Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Helen E; Smith, Isabel M; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-09-01

    We examined the stability of cognitive and adaptive behaviour standard scores in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) between diagnosis and school entry approximately age 6. IQ increased 18 points in 2-year-olds, 12 points in 3-year-olds, and 9 points in 4-year-olds (N = 281). Adaptive behaviour scores increased 4 points across age groups (N = 289). At school entry, 24 % of children met criteria for intellectual disability (cognitive and adaptive behaviour scores <70). No children with both scores ≥70 at diagnosis later met criteria for intellectual disability. Outcomes were more variable for children with initial delays in both areas (in 57 %, both scores remained <70). Findings are relevant to clinical decision-making, including specification of intellectual disability in young children with ASD. PMID:25835210

  7. Invisible Writing: An Intervention for Examining Cognitive Processes in Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Sheridan

    To demonstrate how discourse tasks can differ in their cognitive difficulties, students in a graduate course on the teaching of writing participated in a procedure called "invisible writing." The purpose was to show the students that as they took on more cognitively demanding writing tasks, their ability to produce coherent discourse would be…

  8. Mobility and cognition: End points for dietary interventions in aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Healthy aging is associated with functional declines in mobility and cognition among both humans and non-human animals. OBJECTIVE: This study combines human measures of mobility and cognition to develop a test battery for evaluating the effects of dietary supplements among older adults....

  9. [Cognitive enrichment in zoo and farm animals--implications for animal behaviour and welfare].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Susann; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Animals in the wild are facing a wide variety of challenges and ever-changing environmental stimuli. For successful coping, animals use both innate behavioural programs and their cognitive skills. In contrast, zoo- and farm animals have to cope with restricted husbandry conditions, which offer only few opportunities to adequately satisfy their various needs. Consequences could be sensory and cognitive underchallenge that can cause boredom and frustration as well as behavioural disturbances. Initially intended for improvement of management and husbandry, different forms of operant behavioural training have been applied firstly in zoo- and later also in farm animals. It has been suggested that successful coping with appropriate cognitive challenges is a source of positive emotions and may lead to improved welfare. Under the term cognitive enrichment, new approaches have been developed to integrate cognitive challenges into the housing of zoo- and farm animals. The present article reviews actual research in the field. Previous results indicate that, beyond improvement of management and handling routines, such approaches can positively affect animal behaviour and welfare. The combination of explorative and appetitive behaviour with successful learning improves environmental predictability and controllability for the animals, activates reward-related brain systems and can directly affect emotional processes of appraisal. For practical implementation in farm animal husbandry, it sounds promising to link individual access to e.g. automated feeders or milking systems with previously conditioned stimuli and/or discriminatory learning tasks. First experimental approaches in pigs, dwarf goats and cattle are available and will be discussed in the present article. PMID:21141273

  10. Physical Intervention with People with Intellectual Disabilities: The Influence of Cognitive and Emotional Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagnan, Dave; Weston, Clive

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study examines the relationship between the topography of challenging behaviour, subsequent attributions and emotional responses, with whether carers use physical intervention and their satisfaction with their intervention. Method: Thirty-seven carers described incidents where a person with an intellectual disability had exhibited…

  11. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment for Men with Intellectual Disabilities at Risk of Sexual Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Background: For non-disabled men, group cognitive-behaviour therapy is a successful form of treatment when men have committed sexual offences. However, men with intellectual disabilities and sexually abusive behaviour are rarely offered treatment for their sexual behaviour and little research data on the effectiveness of such treatment has been…

  12. A Cognitive Profile of Obesity and Its Translation into New Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Anita; Houben, Katrijn; Roefs, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Change your lifestyle: decrease your energy intake and increase your energy expenditure, is what obesity experts tell people who need to lose weight. Though the advice might be correct, it appears to be extremely difficult to change one’s lifestyle. Unhealthy habits usually are ingrained and hard to change, especially for people with an “obese cognitive profile.” Knowledge of the cognitive mechanisms that maintain unhealthy eating habits is necessary for the development of interventions that can change behavior effectively. This paper discusses some cognitive processes that might maintain unhealthy eating habits and make healthier eating difficult, like increased food cue reactivity, weak executive skills and attention bias. An effort is also done to translate these basic scientific findings into new interventions which aim to tackle the sabotaging cognitive processes. Preliminary studies into the effectiveness of these interventions, if available, are presented. PMID:26640451

  13. Cognitive Interventions in Older Persons: Do They Change the Functioning of the Brain?

    PubMed Central

    van Os, Yindee; de Vugt, Marjolein E.; van Boxtel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cognitive interventions for older persons that may diminish the burden of cognitive problems and could delay conversion to dementia are of great importance. The underlying mechanisms of such interventions might be psychological compensation and neuronal plasticity. This review provides an overview of the literature concerning the evidence that cognitive interventions cause brain activation changes, even in damaged neural systems. Method. A systematic search of the literature was conducted in several international databases, Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Cochrane, and Psychinfo. The methodological quality was assessed according to the guidelines of the Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement (CBO). Results. Nineteen relevant articles were included with varied methodological quality. All studies were conducted in diverse populations from healthy elderly to patients with dementia and show changes in brain activation after intervention. Conclusions. The results thus far show that cognitive interventions cause changes in brain activation patterns. The exact interpretation of these neurobiological changes remains unclear. More study is needed to understand the extent to which cognitive interventions are effective to delay conversion to dementia. Future studies should more explicitly try to relate clinically significant improvement to changes in brain activation. Long-term follow-up data are necessary to evaluate the stability of the effects. PMID:26583107

  14. Developmental dyslexia in adults: behavioural manifestations and cognitive correlates.

    PubMed

    Nergård-Nilssen, Trude; Hulme, Charles

    2014-08-01

    This paper explores the nature of residual literacy and cognitive deficits in self-reported dyslexic Norwegian adults. The performance of 26 self-reported dyslexic adults was compared with that of a comparison group of 47 adults with no history of reading or spelling difficulties. Participants completed standardized and experimental measures tapping literacy skills, working memory, phonological awareness and rapid naming. Spelling problems were the most prominent marker of dyslexia in adults, followed by text reading fluency and nonword decoding. Working memory and phoneme awareness explained unique variance in spelling, whereas rapid automatized naming explained unique variance in reading fluency and nonword reading. The moderate to strong correlations between self-reported history, self-rating of current literacy skills and outcomes on literacy tests indicate that adults estimated their literacy skills fairly well. Results suggest that spelling impairments, more strongly than reading impairments, make adults perceive themselves as being dyslexic. A combination of three literacy and three cognitive tests predicted group membership with 90.4% accuracy. It appears that weaknesses in phoneme awareness, rapid automatized naming and working memory are strong and persistent correlates of literacy problems even in adults learning a relatively transparent orthography. PMID:24842581

  15. Effects of cognitive enrichment on behavioural and physiological reactions of pigs.

    PubMed

    Zebunke, Manuela; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2013-06-13

    Cognitive enrichment, a special form of environmental enrichment, addresses the cognitive abilities of animals in captivity. Through cognitive interaction with the environment, the animals regain a certain control over their environment, and essential resources, such as food or water, act as a reward for successful coping. It is assumed that this process has important implications for animal welfare, especially in the intensive housing systems of farm animals. This study investigates the effects of cognitive enrichment on welfare-relevant behaviour (agonistic interactions and behavioural reactivity in a repeated open-field test) and autonomic control (heart rate variability during feeding, resting and in a repeated open-field test) in domestic pigs. A total of forty-eight pigs, Sus scrofa, were housed in groups of four. In six replicates, an experimental group was compared with a conventionally fed control group. The pigs in the experimental group were confronted with a cognitive challenge that was integrated into their familiar housing environment. Pigs were rewarded with food after they successfully mastered the discrimination of an individual acoustical signal followed by an operant task. The pigs in both groups reacted with sympathetic arousal to feeding announcement (increased heart rate (HR)). During feeding, the experimental pigs' HR decreased, and heart rate variability (HRV) increased, while the control pigs' HR stayed highly elevated and HRV decreased. These results are supported by a considerably larger number of agonistic interactions during feeding in the control group. During resting, the basal HRV of the experimental pigs increased (during operant conditioning) compared to the control. In the repeated open-field test, the experimental pigs displayed less locomotion and elimination as well as more contact with the wall and an unknown object compared to the control group. We conclude that cognitive enrichment leads to relaxed feeding and evokes longer

  16. Cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive functioning following short-term interventions in chronic stroke survivors with cognitive impairment: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Sophie; Richards, Carol L; Leblond, Jean; Olivier, Charles; Maltais, Désirée B

    2016-06-01

    This study, a quasi-experimental, one-group pretest-post-test design, evaluated the effects on cognitive functioning and cardiorespiratory fitness of 8-week interventions (aerobic exercise alone and aerobic exercise and cognitive training combined) in patients with chronic stroke and cognitive impairment living in the community (participants: n=14, 61.93±9.90 years old, 51.50±38.22 months after stroke, n=7 per intervention group). Cognitive functions and cardiorespiratory fitness were evaluated before and after intervention, and at a 3-month follow-up visit (episodic memory: revised-Hopkins Verbal Learning Test; working memory: Brown-Peterson paradigm; attention omission and commission errors: Continuous Performance Test; cardiorespiratory fitness: peak oxygen uptake during a symptom-limited, graded exercise test performed on a semirecumbent ergometer). Friedman's two-way analysis of variance by ranks evaluated differences in score distributions related to time (for the two groups combined). Post-hoc testing was adjusted for multiple comparisons. Compared with before the intervention, there was a significant reduction in attention errors immediately following the intervention (omission errors: 14.6±21.5 vs. 8±13.9, P=0.01; commission errors: 16.4±6.3 vs. 10.9±7.2, P=0.04), and in part at follow-up (omission errors on follow-up: 3.4±4.3, P=0.03; commission errors on follow-up: 13.2±7.6, P=0.42). These results suggest that attention may improve in chronic stroke survivors with cognitive impairment following short-term training that includes an aerobic component, without a change in cardiorespiratory fitness. Randomized-controlled studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:26954991

  17. Development of an exercise intervention to improve cognition in people with mild to moderate dementia: Dementia And Physical Activity (DAPA) Trial, registration ISRCTN32612072.

    PubMed

    Brown, Deborah; Spanjers, Katie; Atherton, Nicky; Lowe, Janet; Stonehewer, Louisa; Bridle, Chris; Sheehan, Bart; Lamb, Sarah E

    2015-06-01

    More than 800000 people in the UK have dementia, and it is a government priority to improve dementia care. Drug treatment options are relatively limited. The Dementia And Physical Activity (DAPA) study is a randomised trial which targets cognition in people with dementia, using an exercise programme. There is evidence to suggest that both aerobic and resistance exercise may be useful in improving cognition. Hence the intervention comprises a supervised part of twice-weekly exercise classes of one hour duration for 4 months, including aerobic exercise at moderate intensity on static bicycles, and resistance (weight training) exercise using weight vests, weight belts and dumbbells. Thereafter participants progress to unsupervised, independent exercise. Aids to behaviour modification have been incorporated into the intervention. The DAPA intervention has been designed to maximise likelihood of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, and for delivery in the UK National Health Service. PMID:25724322

  18. Relationships among cognition, emotion, and motivation: implications for intervention and neuroplasticity in psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Laura D.; Heller, Wendy; Warren, Stacie L.; O'Hare, Aminda J.; Infantolino, Zachary P.; Miller, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Emotion-cognition and motivation-cognition relationships and related brain mechanisms are receiving increasing attention in the clinical research literature as a means of understanding diverse types of psychopathology and improving biological and psychological treatments. This paper reviews and integrates some of the growing evidence for cognitive biases and deficits in depression and anxiety, how these disruptions interact with emotional and motivational processes, and what brain mechanisms appear to be involved. This integration sets the stage for understanding the role of neuroplasticity in implementing change in cognitive, emotional, and motivational processes in psychopathology as a function of intervention. PMID:23781184

  19. The impact on sleep of a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural pain management programme: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reduced sleep quality is a common complaint among patients with chronic pain, with 50-80% of patients reporting sleep disturbance. Improvements in pain and quality of life measures have been achieved using a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural therapy pain management programme (CBT-PMP) that aims to recondition attitudes to pain, and improve patients' self-management of their condition. Despite its high prevalence in patients with chronic pain, there is very limited objective evidence for the effect of this intervention on sleep quality. The primary research objective is to investigate the short-term effect of a multidisciplinary CBT-PMP on subjective (measured by Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index) and objective sleep quality (measured by Actigraphy) in patients with chronic pain by comparison with a control group. The secondary objectives will investigate changes in function and mood, and then explore the relationship between objective and subjective sleep quality and physical and psychological outcome measures. Methods/Design Patients who fulfil the inclusion criteria for attendance on the multidisciplinary CBT-PMP in the Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin and are currently listed on the PMP waiting list will be invited to participate in this pilot study. Potential patients will be screened for sleep disturbance [determined by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)]. Those patients with a sleep disturbance (PSQI >5) will be assigned to either the intervention group (immediate treatment), or control group (deferred treatment, i.e. the PMP they are listed for is more than six months away) based on where they appear on the waiting list. Baseline measures of sleep, function, and mood will be obtained using a combination of self-report questionnaires (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Short Form 36 health survey, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia), and functional outcome measures. Sleep will be

  20. Functional research and cognitive-process research in behavioural science: An unequal but firmly connected pair.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Drawing on illustrative examples of the functional and cognitive psychology in contemporary research, the present article emphasizes the primacy of functional relationships, which provide the fundament for all attempts to uncover invisible cognitive processes. Cognitive research is not only inherently more difficult and much more ambitious than functional research. It also suffers from several home-made problems, such as unwarranted inferences from model fitting, the mediation-analysis cult and the failure to take environmental influences into account. However, despite the primacy of functional psychology and the problems associated with the ambitious goals of cognitive research, the two partners in this unequal pair are firmly connected and jointly responsible for the most impressive examples of progress in behavioural science. PMID:25921294

  1. Performance cognitive de futurs professionnels de l'intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larivee, Serge; Normandeau, Sylvie

    1984-01-01

    Cognitive levels of 48 university students enrolled in humanities were assessed by Piagetian tasks. Three formal abilities were measured: combinatory, probability, control of variables. Results were analyzed according to school training effect and content of tasks. (Author/MLW)

  2. Transdiagnostic computerised cognitive behavioural therapy for depression and anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Newby, Jill M; Twomey, Conal; Yuan Li, Susan Shi; Andrews, Gavin

    2016-07-15

    An increasing number of computerised transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural therapy programs (TD-cCBT) have been developed in the past decade, but there are no meta-analyses to explore the efficacy of these programs, nor moderators of the effects. The current meta-analysis focused on studies evaluating TD-cCBT interventions to examine their effects on anxiety, depression and quality of life (QOL). Results from 17 RCTs showed computerised TD-cCBT outperformed control conditions on all outcome measures at post-treatment, with large effect sizes for depression (g's=.84), and medium effect sizes for anxiety (g=.78) and QOL (g=.48). RCT quality was generally good, although heterogeneity was moderate to high. Further analyses revealed that studies comparing TD-cCBT to waitlist controls had the largest differences (g=.93) compared to active (g=.59) and usual care control groups (g=.37) on anxiety outcomes, but there was no influence of control group subtype on depression outcomes. Treatment length, symptom target (mixed versus anxiety only), treatment design (standardised versus tailored), and therapist experience (students versus qualified therapists) did not influence the results. Preliminary evidence from 4 comparisons with disorder-specific treatments suggests transdiagnostic treatments are as effective for reducing anxiety, and there may be small but superior outcomes for TD-cCBT programs for reducing depression (g=.21) and improving QOL (g=.21) compared to disorder-specific cCBT. These findings show that TD-cCBT programs are efficacious, and have comparable effects to disorder-specific cCBT programs. PMID:27060430

  3. Therapy-relevant factors in adult ADHD from a cognitive behavioural perspective.

    PubMed

    Newark, Patricia Elizabeth; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2010-06-01

    Adult individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been suffering from this neurobiological and highly heritable disorder chronically since childhood. Resulting from their longstanding neuropsychological impairments, such as attentional problems, emotional instability, and disinhibition, they are familiar to a multiplicity of negative life outcomes and underachievement. Furthermore, a large part of this population suffers from psychiatric comorbidity. This accumulation of negative experiences has an impact on therapy-relevant factors such as the individual's self-esteem, self-efficacy, development of core beliefs/schemas, and coping strategies. Based on negative beliefs about the self, individuals confronted with difficult situations develop maladaptive coping strategies, for instance avoidance and procrastination. These strategies lead to maintenance and reinforcement of maladaptive beliefs, and as such they acquit themselves as schema-confirming. Captured in this vicious cycle, the individual sees her negative view of the self confirmed. The purpose of this paper is to illuminate these interactive factors that influence the aforementioned cycle in order to emphasize the cognitive behavioural interventions tailored to those factors on the basis of latest research. Furthermore, the authors want to attract notice to the resources people with ADHD are said to have, namely creativity and resilience. These postulated resources could be therapy-relevant by creating positive beliefs about the self, hence improving coping skills and breaking the vicious circle of negative appraisal. Taking into account personal resources and their fostering may be an important fundament for the treatment plan of adult ADHD. Information on the current state of research and theoretical approaches concerning the below-mentioned key words was gathered through MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PSYNDEXplus, and PubMed databases. PMID:21432591

  4. Formal Versus Informal Interventions for Challenging Behaviour in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, M. A.; Atkinson, L.; Foti-Gervais, L.; Condillac, R.

    2004-01-01

    Although effective, humane treatments exist for persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) who have challenging behaviour, little research has examined the extent to which clients receive formal, documented vs. undocumented interventions. Caregivers (of 625 persons with ID living in community and institutional residences in Ontario, Canada) were…

  5. Reading Intervention for Secondary Students with Hyperactive Behaviours in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Wai Chung; Zhang, Kaili Chen

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of a reading intervention aimed at improving the comprehension performance of three students with hyperactive behaviours in Hong Kong. Comprehension tasks, adopted from local exercise books based on Hong Kong Certificate Education Examination Paper I, were used to appraise three participants' reading performance, and…

  6. Teacher-Reported Effects of the Playing-2-Gether Intervention on Child Externalising Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vancraeyveldt, Caroline; Verschueren, Karine; Van Craeyevelt, Sanne; Wouters, Sofie; Colpin, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the teacher-perceived effect of a school-based intervention (i.e. Playing-2-gether) targeting teacher-child interactions to reduce externalising problem behaviour (EPB) amongst preschoolers. Boys with the highest score for EPB in the classroom and their teacher participated in the study. Teacher-child dyads…

  7. Psycho-Demographic Correlates of Behaviour towards Seeking Counselling Intervention among Workers in Lagos, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesinde, Abiodun Matthew; Sanu, Oluwafunto Jolade

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to examine the impact which age, gender and psychological adjustment have on behaviour towards seeking professional counselling intervention. Multistage sampling technique was employed to select a total of three hundred workers across Lagos metropolis. The ex post facto research design was adopted for the study. Inventory of…

  8. Mobile Phone-Based Behavioural Interventions for Health: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhi, Eric R.; Trudnak, Tara E.; Martinasek, Mary P.; Oberne, Alison B.; Fuhrmann, Hollie J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To perform a systematic review of the literature concerning behavioural mobile health (mHealth) and summarize points related to heath topic, use of theory, audience, purpose, design, intervention components, and principal results that can inform future health education applications. Design: A systematic review of the literature. Method:…

  9. Restrictive Interventions for People with a Disability Exhibiting Challenging Behaviours: Analysis of a Population Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Lynne S.; McVilly, Keith R.; Chan, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Background: People with an intellectual disability whose behaviours are perceived to be of serious harm to themselves or others are at risk of being subjected to restrictive interventions. Prevalence rates are difficult to determine, as most research is unable to draw on the results of population-level data. Method: The current study reports on…

  10. Behavioural Intervention Effects in Dysarthria Following Stroke: Communication Effectiveness, Intelligibility and Dysarthria Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Lowit, Anja

    2007-01-01

    Background: Dysarthria is a common post-stroke presentation. Its management falls within the remit of the speech and language therapy profession. Little controlled evaluation of the effects of intervention for dysarthria in stroke has been reported. Aims: The study aimed to determine the effects of a period of behavioural communication…