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Sample records for cognitive behavioural intervention

  1. Intervention of Behavioural, Cognitive and Sex on Early Childhood's Aggressive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purwati; Japar, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to find out the effect of behavioural intervention, cognitive intervention, and sex intervention toward the aggressive behaviour of early childhood. The study is conducted at two non-formal institutions of Education on Early Childhood in Magelang. This study obtains the data from two experimental groups consisting of 14 early…

  2. [Infertility: psychological-psychopathological consequences and cognitive-behavioural interventions].

    PubMed

    Mitsi, C; Efthimiou, K

    2014-01-01

    Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. Infertility may also refer to the state of a woman who is unable to carry a pregnancy to full term, however other causes can be found in both sexes. The diagnosis of infertility and the concurrent medical treatment are rather stressful events for the couple and can provoke a number of negative symptoms such as depression, anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms which may interfere with the medical therapeutic procedures especially with the in-vitro fertilisation technique. The relationship between infertility and psychological factors has not been explored fully and are still under research. However current findings can be summarized in three basic hypotheses; namely, the effect of psychological factors on the appearance of infertility, the psychological consequences of infertility at the couple, and the reciprocal relation of psychological factors and infertility. Stress and anxiety activate the hypothalamic-adrenal axis (HPA), and this activation can disturb the hormones of fertility. The presence of depressive/anxiety symptoms seems to have a negative impact on the treatment of infertility and sometimes can be a risk factor for lower pregnancy rate. There is a possibility that psychological complaints could develop, prior, during and after the diagnosis of infertility and may interfere with the fertilisation therapy. Should such psychological complaints develop it is suggested that psychotherapeutic treatment is used in conjunction with the treatment approach of infertility, e.g. IVF. The above mentioned suggestion is supported by a large number of researchers and current research efforts focus on different psychotherapeutic interventions such as Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) has shown during research its superiority compared to other psychotherapeutic interventions and that could be an effective way to decrease the depressive

  3. Can developmental cognitive neuroscience inform intervention for social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD)?

    PubMed Central

    Frederickson, Norah; Jones, Alice P.; Warren, Laura; Deakes, Tara; Allen, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the utility of designing an intervention to address neuroscience-based subtyping of children who have conduct problems was undertaken in this pilot study. Drawing on the literature on callous–unemotional traits, a novel intervention programme, ‘Let's Get Smart’, was implemented in a school for children with social emotional and behavioural difficulties. A mixed-methods design was used to investigate the perspectives of staff participant-observers in the change process, alongside standardised scores on measures of pupil performance and behaviour. Both qualitative and quantitative results showed reductions in externalising behaviour and improvements in measures of hypothesised underlying cognitive and affective processes. While externalising behaviour improved across subtypes, associated changes in underlying processes differed by subtype, supporting the potential value of neuroscience-informed contributions to intervention planning. PMID:26635493

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Cognitive Behavioural Intervention for Anger Management in Children Diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofronoff, Kate; Attwood, Tony; Hinton, Sharon; Levin, Irina

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study described was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural intervention for anger management with children diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Forty-five children and their parents were randomly assigned to either intervention or wait-list control conditions. Children in the intervention participated in six 2-h…

  5. Do We Need Both Cognitive and Behavioural Components in Interventions for Depressed Mood in People with Mild Intellectual Disability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, J. A.; Kershaw, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A growing literature suggests that people with mild intellectual disability (ID) who have depressed mood may benefit from cognitive--behavioural interventions. There has been some speculation regarding the relative merit of the components of this approach. The aim of this study was to compare (i) cognitive strategies; (ii) behavioural…

  6. Treatment of Adult Sexual Offenders: A Therapeutic Cognitive-Behavioural Model of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research indicates that, of the various forms of treatment available to sexual offenders, cognitive-behavioural methods are likely to have the greatest impact in reducing rates of sexual re-offending. Cognitive-behavioural treatment typically targets attitudes that support sexual offending, anger management, victim empathy, deviant sexual…

  7. Is a cognitive-behavioural biofeedback intervention useful to reduce injury risk in junior football players?

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, Arne; Ivarsson, Andreas; Johnson, Urban

    2012-01-01

    Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a relatively high injury risk. Previous research has suggested that it could be possible to reduce sports injuries through psychological skills training. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which a cognitive behavioural biofeedback intervention could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of players in Swedish elite football high schools. Participants from four elite football high schools (16-19 years old) were divided into one experiment (n = 13) and one control group (n = 14). Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires to assess anxiety level (Sport Anxiety Scale), history of stressors (Life Event Scale for Collegiate Athletes) and coping skills (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory - 28) in a baseline measure. Mann-Whitney U-tests showed no significant differences in pre-intervention scores based on the questionnaires. The experimental group participated in a nine-week intervention period consisting of seven sessions, including: somatic relaxation, thought stopping, emotions/problem focused coping, goal setting, biofeedback training as well as keeping a critical incident diary. A Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference between the control and experimental group U (n1 = 13, n2 = 14) = 51.00, p = 0.054. However, considering the small sample, the statistical power (0.05 for present study), to detect effects was low. The results of the study are discussed from a psychological perspective and proposals for future research are given. Key pointsCognitive-behavioral training together with biofeedback training seems to be an effective strategy to decrease the occurrence of injuries.More intervention studies should be conducted applying existing biofeedback methodology, especially in the injury preventive area.Future research should develop a bio-psychological injury model aimed at predicting injury occurrence which describes the physiological stress responses and how they

  8. Is a Cognitive-Behavioural Biofeedback Intervention Useful to Reduce Injury Risk in Junior Football Players?

    PubMed Central

    Edvardsson, Arne; Ivarsson, Andreas; Johnson, Urban

    2012-01-01

    Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a relatively high injury risk. Previous research has suggested that it could be possible to reduce sports injuries through psychological skills training. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which a cognitive behavioural biofeedback intervention could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of players in Swedish elite football high schools. Participants from four elite football high schools (16-19 years old) were divided into one experiment (n = 13) and one control group (n = 14). Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires to assess anxiety level (Sport Anxiety Scale), history of stressors (Life Event Scale for Collegiate Athletes) and coping skills (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory - 28) in a baseline measure. Mann-Whitney U-tests showed no significant differences in pre-intervention scores based on the questionnaires. The experimental group participated in a nine-week intervention period consisting of seven sessions, including: somatic relaxation, thought stopping, emotions/problem focused coping, goal setting, biofeedback training as well as keeping a critical incident diary. A Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference between the control and experimental group U (n1 = 13, n2 = 14) = 51.00, p = 0.054. However, considering the small sample, the statistical power (0.05 for present study), to detect effects was low. The results of the study are discussed from a psychological perspective and proposals for future research are given. Key pointsCognitive-behavioral training together with biofeedback training seems to be an effective strategy to decrease the occurrence of injuries.More intervention studies should be conducted applying existing biofeedback methodology, especially in the injury preventive area.Future research should develop a bio-psychological injury model aimed at predicting injury occurrence which describes the physiological stress responses and how they

  9. An Evaluation of a Short Cognitive-Behavioural Anger Management Intervention for Pupils at Risk of Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Neil; Brooks, A. George

    2006-01-01

    An increasing number of children and young people are being excluded from school as a direct result of anger management problems. The research literature suggests that short cognitive-behavioural intervention programmes may be effective in helping young people understand and control their anger. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the…

  10. Treatment of adult sexual offenders: a therapeutic cognitive-behavioural model of intervention.

    PubMed

    Yates, Pamela M

    2003-01-01

    Recent research indicates that, of the various forms of treatment available to sexual offenders, cognitive-behavioural methods are likely to have the greatest impact in reducing rates of sexual re-offending. Cognitive-behavioural treatment typically targets attitudes that support sexual offending, anger management, victim empathy, deviant sexual arousal, and relapse prevention. More recently, treatment has targeted cognitive processes more generally, management of other emotional states in addition to anger, intimacy deficits, and risk self-management (Marshall, Anderson, & Fernandez, 1999; Yates, Goguen, Nicholaichuk, Williams, & Long, 2000). This article describes the components of cognitive-behavioural treatment with sexual offenders, including recent developments, assessment, treatment methods, and the importance of therapist characteristics on the therapeutic process and on treatment outcome. PMID:15308452

  11. What students do schools allocate to a cognitive-behavioural intervention? Characteristics of adolescent participants in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne; Landstedt, Evelina; Gillander Gådin, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescents are a vulnerable group when it comes to the risk of developing depression. Preventing the onset of depressive episodes in this group is therefore a major public health priority. In the last decades, school-based cognitive-behavioural interventions have been a common primary prevention approach. However, evidence on what girls actually are allocated to such interventions when no researchers are involved is scarce. Objective To explore how a selective cognitive-behavioural program (Depression In Swedish Adolescents) developed to prevent depression in adolescents, was implemented in a naturalistic setting in schools in northern part of Sweden. The focus was on characteristics of participants allocated to the intervention. Design Cross-sectional baseline data on depressive symptoms, school environment and socio-economic factors were collected in 2011 by means of questionnaires in schools in a municipality in the northern part of Sweden. Intervention participants were identified in a follow-up questionnaire in 2012. Students (n=288) included in the analyses were in the ages of 14–15. Results Sixty-six girls and no boys were identified as intervention participants. They reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower personal relative affluence, more sexual harassment victimization and less peer support compared to female non-participants (n=222). Intervention participants were more likely to attend schools with a higher proportion of low parental education levels and a lower proportion of students graduating with a diploma. Conclusions The developers of the intervention originally intended the program to be universal or selective, but it was implemented as targeted in these schools. It is important for school administrations to adhere to program fidelity when it comes to what students it is aimed for. Implications for effectivenss trials of cognitive-behavioural interventions in the school setting is discussed. PMID:26538463

  12. [Reason and emotion: integration of cognitive-behavioural and experiential interventions in the treatment of long evolution food disorders].

    PubMed

    Vilariño Besteiro, M P; Pérez Franco, C; Gallego Morales, L; Calvo Sagardoy, R; García de Lorenzo, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper intends to show the combination of therapeutical strategies in the treatment of long evolution food disorders. This fashion of work entitled "Modelo Santa Cristina" is based on several theoretical paradigms: Enabling Model, Action Control Model, Change Process Transtheoretical Model and Cognitive-Behavioural Model (Cognitive Restructuring and Learning Theories). Furthermore, Gestalt, Systemic and Psychodrama Orientation Techniques. The purpose of the treatment is both the normalization of food patterns and the increase in self-knowledge, self-acceptance and self-efficacy of patients. The exploration of ambivalence to change, the discovery of the functions of symptoms and the search for alternative behaviours, the normalization of food patterns, bodily image, cognitive restructuring, decision taking, communication skills and elaboration of traumatic experiences are among the main areas of intervention. PMID:19893873

  13. A meta-analysis of cognitive-based behaviour change techniques as interventions to improve medication adherence

    PubMed Central

    Easthall, Claire; Song, Fujian; Bhattacharya, Debi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe and evaluate the use of cognitive-based behaviour change techniques as interventions to improve medication adherence. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions to improve medication adherence. Data sources Search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and The Cochrane Library databases from the earliest year to April 2013 without language restriction. References of included studies were also screened to identify further relevant articles. Review methods We used predefined criteria to select randomised controlled trials describing a medication adherence intervention that used Motivational Interviewing (MI) or other cognitive-based techniques. Data were extracted and risk of bias was assessed by two independent reviewers. We conducted the meta-analysis using a random effects model and Hedges’ g as the measure of effect size. Results We included 26 studies (5216 participants) in the meta-analysis. Interventions most commonly used MI, but many used techniques such as aiming to increase the patient's confidence and sense of self-efficacy, encouraging support-seeking behaviours and challenging negative thoughts, which were not specifically categorised. Interventions were most commonly delivered from community-based settings by routine healthcare providers such as general practitioners and nurses. An effect size (95% CI) of 0.34 (0.23 to 0.46) was calculated and was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Heterogeneity was high with an I2 value of 68%. Adjustment for publication bias generated a more conservative estimate of summary effect size of 0.21 (0.08 to 0.33). The majority of subgroup analyses produced statistically non-significant results. Conclusions Cognitive-based behaviour change techniques are effective interventions eliciting improvements in medication adherence that are likely to be greater than the behavioural and educational interventions largely used in current practice. Subgroup analyses suggest that these

  14. Body image interventions in cognitive-behavioural therapy of binge-eating disorder: a component analysis.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2004-11-01

    The present study sought to investigate effects of body exposure in the treatment of binge-eating disorder (BED). Cognitive-behavioural therapy with a body exposure component (CBT-E) was compared with CBT with a cognitive restructuring component focused on body image (CBT-C). Twenty-eight patients diagnosed with BED were randomly assigned to CBT-E or CBT-C, both delivered in a group format. Negative automatic thoughts about one's body, dysfunctional assumptions about shape and weight, and body dissatisfaction were assessed using experimental thought-sampling techniques, a clinical interview (Eating Disorder Examination), and self-report questionnaires. At posttreatment and at 4-month follow-up, CBT-E and CBT-C were equally effective in improving body image disturbance on all indicators assessed. Both CBT-E and CBT-C produced substantial and stable improvements in the specific and general eating disorder psychopathology. Results suggest that both treatment components are equally effective in the treatment of BED. PMID:15381441

  15. Persistent frequent attenders in primary care: costs, reasons for attendance, organisation of care and potential for cognitive behavioural therapeutic intervention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The top 3% of frequent attendance in primary care is associated with 15% of all appointments in primary care, a fivefold increase in hospital expenditure, and more mental disorder and functional somatic symptoms compared to normal attendance. Although often temporary if these rates of attendance last more than two years, they may become persistent (persistent frequent or regular attendance). However, there is no long-term study of the economic impact or clinical characteristics of regular attendance in primary care. Cognitive behaviour formulation and treatment (CBT) for regular attendance as a motivated behaviour may offer an understanding of the development, maintenance and treatment of regular attendance in the context of their health problems, cognitive processes and social context. Methods/design A case control design will compare the clinical characteristics, patterns of health care use and economic costs over the last 10 years of 100 regular attenders (≥30 appointments with general practitioner [GP] over 2 years) with 100 normal attenders (6–22 appointments with GP over 2 years), from purposefully selected primary care practices with differing organisation of care and patient demographics. Qualitative interviews with regular attending patients and practice staff will explore patient barriers, drivers and experiences of consultation, and organisation of care by practices with its challenges. Cognitive behaviour formulation analysed thematically will explore the development, maintenance and therapeutic opportunities for management in regular attenders. The feasibility, acceptability and utility of CBT for regular attendance will be examined. Discussion The health care costs, clinical needs, patient motivation for consultation and organisation of care for persistent frequent or regular attendance in primary care will be explored to develop training and policies for service providers. CBT for regular attendance will be piloted with a view to

  16. Cognitive science and behaviourism.

    PubMed

    Skinner, B F

    1985-08-01

    In this paper it is argued that cognitive scientists, claiming the support of brain science and computer simulation, have revived a traditional view that behaviour is initiated by an internal, autonomous mind. In doing so, they have misused the metaphor of storage and retrieval, given neurology a misleading assignment, frequently replaced controlled experimental conditions with mere descriptions of conditions and the assessment of behaviour with statements of expectations and intentions, given feelings and states of mind the status of causes of behaviour rather than the products of the causes, and failed to define many key terms in dimensions acceptable to science. PMID:4041702

  17. Can Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Inform Intervention for Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (SEBD)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Norah; Jones, Alice P.; Warren, Laura; Deakes, Tara; Allen, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the utility of designing an intervention to address neuroscience-based subtyping of children who have conduct problems was undertaken in this pilot study. Drawing on the literature on callous-unemotional traits, a novel intervention programme, "Let's Get Smart", was implemented in a school for children with social…

  18. [Cognitive-behaviour therapy of schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Keegan, Eduardo; Garay, Cristian Javier

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behaviour therapy is one of the evidence-based psychotherapies that have been successfully applied to the treatment of patients with psychotic symptoms. The article presents the core principles and objectives of cognitive models and interventions, and describes the generic steps of treatment. The results of the most methodologically-sound outcome studies are presented. PMID:18273431

  19. Impact of a physical activity intervention program on cognitive predictors of behaviour among adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes (ProActive randomised controlled trial)

    PubMed Central

    Hardeman, Wendy; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Michie, Susan; Sutton, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Background In the ProActive Trial an intensive theory-based intervention program was no more effective than theory-based brief advice in increasing objectively measured physical activity among adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes. We aimed to illuminate these findings by assessing whether the intervention program changed cognitions about increasing activity, defined by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, in ways consistent with the theory. Methods N = 365 sedentary participants aged 30–50 years with a parental history of Type 2 diabetes were randomised to brief advice alone or to brief advice plus the intervention program delivered face-to-face or by telephone. Questionnaires at baseline, 6 and 12 months assessed cognitions about becoming more physically active. Analysis of covariance was used to test intervention impact. Bootstrapping was used to test multiple mediation of intervention impact. Results At 6 months, combined intervention groups (face-to-face and telephone) reported that they found increasing activity more enjoyable (affective attitude, d = .25), and they perceived more instrumental benefits (e.g., improving health) (d = .23) and more control (d = .32) over increasing activity than participants receiving brief advice alone. Stronger intentions (d = .50) in the intervention groups than the brief advice group at 6 months were partially explained by affective attitude and perceived control. At 12 months, intervention groups perceived more positive instrumental (d = .21) and affective benefits (d = .29) than brief advice participants. The intervention did not change perceived social pressure to increase activity. Conclusion Lack of effect of the intervention program on physical activity over and above brief advice was consistent with limited and mostly small short-term effects on cognitions. Targeting affective benefits (e.g., enjoyment, social interaction) and addressing barriers to physical activity may strengthen intentions, but stronger intentions did

  20. Usefulness of Cognitive Intervention Programmes for Socio-Emotional and Behaviour Problems in Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitzer, Gila; Andries, Caroline; Lebeer, Jo

    2007-01-01

    Behavioural and emotional problems occur more frequently in children with learning problems than in a cross-section of the general population, both at home and at school. While behaviour problems reportedly are a key obstructive factor impeding inclusive education, children with both behavioural and learning disabilities carry a high risk of…

  1. Effects of an internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy intervention on preventing major depressive episodes among workers: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Kotaro; Kawakami, Norito; Furukawa, Toshi A; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Shimazu, Akihito; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study is to examine the effects of an internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) program on decreasing the risk of major depressive episodes (MDEs) among workers employed in a private corporate group in Japan, using a randomised controlled trial design. Methods and analysis All of the workers in a corporate group (n=20 000) will be recruited through an invitation email. Participants who fulfil the inclusion criteria will be randomly allocated to intervention or control groups (planned N=4050 for each group). They will be allowed to complete the six lessons of the iCBT program within 10 weeks after the baseline survey. Those in the control group will receive the same iCBT after 12 months. The program includes several CBT skills: self-monitoring, cognitive restructuring, assertiveness, problem-solving and relaxation. The primary outcome measure is no new onset of MDE (using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)/DSM-5 criteria) during the 12-month follow-up. Assessment will use the web version of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview V.3.0 depression section. Ethics and dissemination The Research Ethics Review Board of Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo (No. 3083-(2)), approved the study procedures. Trial registration number The study protocol is registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR; ID=UMIN000014146). PMID:25968004

  2. Cognitive intervention with elite performers: reversal theory.

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, J H

    1987-01-01

    Noticeable in the literature associated with the application of psychology to the area of sport and sports performance in particular has been the increasing frequency of references to the use of cognitive intervention in the sports context. Currently utilised in clinical psychology and behavioural medicine, and receiving increasing attention in sports psychology, are a number of intervention techniques primarily oriented towards altering the individual's level of arousal. These techniques, which have been advocated for use by sports performers as an aid to adapting and coping during competition, have been largely concerned with arousal reduction. This paper presents an alternative approach, the case of reversal theory, a new general theory of psychology concerned with motivation, and emphasises the conceptual implications of this new approach for the use of cognitive intervention techniques in sport. PMID:3620801

  3. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Children with Behavioural Difficulties in the Singapore Mainstream School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Choi, Pui Meng

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) programme delivered by a school psychologist for children with behavioural difficulties in Singapore elementary school classrooms. It examined the impact of a 12-session, psychoeducational group intervention in helping misbehaving pupils to control their…

  4. The evolution of behaviour therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy.

    PubMed

    Rachman, S

    2015-01-01

    The historical background of the development of behaviour therapy is described. It was based on the prevailing behaviourist psychology and constituted a fundamentally different approach to the causes and treatment of psychological disorders. It had a cold reception and the idea of treating the behaviour of neurotic and other patients was regarded as absurd. The opposition of the medical profession and psychoanalysts is explained. Parallel but different forms of behaviour therapy developed in the US and UK. The infusion of cognitive concepts and procedures generated a merger of behaviour therapy and cognitive therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The strengths and limitations of the early and current approaches are evaluated. PMID:25462876

  5. Embodied cognition and skilled health behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gangi, Cynthia; Sherman, David K; White, Marina L

    2011-08-01

    The present research examines health persuasion from an embodied cognition perspective by proposing that engaging the motor system during presentation of a health message will lead individuals to become more skilled at performing the prescribed behaviour. Participants watched a video on the importance of flossing while either imaging themselves flossing or imaging themselves flossing while minimally engaging the motor system (i.e. touching a piece of floss). Females (but not males) who touched an individual floss while watching the video demonstrated better flossing skills 1 week later. Over time, participants (both males and females) who engaged the motor system also developed more accessible attitudes and had a stronger relationship between their perceived flossing efficacy and actual flossing skill. Implications for the theories of embodied cognition and health interventions are discussed. PMID:21598186

  6. Self-Directed Behavioural Family Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2006-01-01

    Behavioural family intervention is effective for the prevention and treatment of a wide range of emotional and behavioural problems in children. There is a growing need to address the accessibility of these services. This paper reviews the literature on self-directed interventions designed to help parents manage difficult child behaviours.…

  7. Treatment compliance and effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural intervention for low back pain: a complier average causal effect approach to the BeST data set

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Group cognitive behavioural intervention (CBI) is effective in reducing low-back pain and disability in comparison to advice in primary care. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the impact of compliance on estimates of treatment effect and to identify factors associated with compliance. Methods In this multicentre trial, 701 adults with troublesome sub-acute or chronic low-back pain were recruited from 56 general practices. Participants were randomised to advice (control n = 233) or advice plus CBI (n = 468). Compliance was specified a priori as attending a minimum of three group sessions and the individual assessment. We estimated the complier average causal effect (CACE) of treatment. Results Comparison of the CACE estimate of the mean treatment difference to the intention-to-treat (ITT) estimate at 12 months showed a greater benefit of CBI amongst participants compliant with treatment on the Roland Morris Questionnaire (CACE: 1.6 points, 95% CI 0.51 to 2.74; ITT: 1.3 points, 95% CI 0.55 to 2.07), the Modified Von Korff disability score (CACE: 12.1 points, 95% CI 6.07 to 18.17; ITT: 8.6 points, 95% CI 4.58 to 12.64) and the Modified von Korff pain score (CACE: 10.4 points, 95% CI 4.64 to 16.10; ITT: 7.0 points, 95% CI 3.26 to 10.74). People who were non-compliant were younger and had higher pain scores at randomisation. Conclusions Treatment compliance is important in the effectiveness of group CBI. Younger people and those with more pain are at greater risk of non-compliance. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN54717854 PMID:24423146

  8. Linking behavioural syndromes and cognition: a behavioural ecology perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sih, Andrew; Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-01-01

    With the exception of a few model species, individual differences in cognition remain relatively unstudied in non-human animals. One intriguing possibility is that variation in cognition is functionally related to variation in personality. Here, we review some examples and present hypotheses on relationships between personality (or behavioural syndromes) and individual differences in cognitive style. Our hypotheses are based largely on a connection between fast–slow behavioural types (BTs; e.g. boldness, aggressiveness, exploration tendency) and cognitive speed–accuracy trade-offs. We also discuss connections between BTs, cognition and ecologically important aspects of decision-making, including sampling, impulsivity, risk sensitivity and choosiness. Finally, we introduce the notion of cognition syndromes, and apply ideas from theories on adaptive behavioural syndromes to generate predictions on cognition syndromes. PMID:22927575

  9. The STRIDE (Strategies to Increase confidence, InDependence and Energy) study: cognitive behavioural therapy-based intervention to reduce fear of falling in older fallers living in the community - study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Around 30% to 62% of older individuals fall each year, with adverse consequences of falls being by no means limited to physical injury and escalating levels of dependence. Many older individuals suffer from a variety of adverse psychosocial difficulties related to falling including fear, anxiety, loss of confidence and subsequent increasing activity avoidance, social isolation and frailty. Such ‘fear of falling’ is common and disabling, but definitive studies examining the effective management of the syndrome are lacking. Cognitive behavioural therapy has been trialed with some success in a group setting, but there is no adequately powered randomised controlled study of an individually based cognitive behavioural therapy intervention, and none using non-mental health professionals to deliver the intervention. Methods/Design We are conducting a two-phase study examining the role of individual cognitive behavioural therapy delivered by healthcare assistants in improving fear of falling in older adults. In Phase I, the intervention was developed and taught to healthcare assistants, while Phase II is the pragmatic randomised controlled study examining the efficacy of the intervention in improving fear of falling in community-dwelling elders attending falls services. A qualitative process evaluation study informed by Normalization Process Theory is being conducted throughout to examine the potential promoters and inhibitors of introducing such an intervention into routine clinical practice, while a health economic sub-study running alongside the trial is examining the costs and benefits of such an approach to the wider health economy. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN78396615 PMID:24906406

  10. Two Interventions that Enhance the Metacognition of Students with Disabilities: Cognitive Cue Cards and Correspondence Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richie, Garth

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines and reviews two types of interventions used with students with learning disabilities. Cognitive cue cards are regarded as a form of cognitive intervention and correspondence training is regarded as a behavioural intervention. It is concluded that both kinds of interventions are valuable and result in improvements in the…

  11. Compulsive buying: a cognitive-behavioural model.

    PubMed

    Kellett, Stephen; Bolton, Jessica V

    2009-01-01

    Compulsive buying (CB) has only relatively recently become a topic of interest for researchers and clinicians alike. This hiatus means that (unlike other impulse control disorders) there is currently little theoretical guidance for clinicians attempting to intervene with CB clients and no established model for researchers to evaluate, distil and refine. The current paper summarizes and organizes the main extant identified factors in the CB literature into four distinct phases: (1) antecedents; (2) internal/external triggers; (3) the act of buying; and finally, (4) post-purchase. The relationships and interactions between the identified phases are then hypothesized, within the proposed cognitive-behavioural model. The model distinguishes the key cognitive, affective and behavioural factors within each phase and identifies how CB can become self-reinforcing over time. The over-arching treatment implication is that CB can be re-conceptualized as chronic and repetitive failure in self-regulation efforts, and that psychological interventions can accommodate this in attempting to facilitate change. A successful case example is provided of a 'co-dependent compulsive buyer' using the model, with psychometric evaluation of key aspects of CB and mental health at assessment, termination and 6-month follow-up. The research and clinical implications of the proposed model are discussed, alongside identified short-comings and the need for psychological services to respond appropriately to CB clients seeking help. PMID:19229837

  12. Effective Intervention for School Refusal Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Clare; Woods, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of successful professional intervention for two case studies of female adolescents' school refusal behaviour is presented. Data gathered from the young person, professionals, and parents in each case are synthesised to propose a multi-level, ecologically situated model of intervention for school refusal behaviour. The proposed…

  13. The Applicability of Behaviour Change in Intervention Programmes Targeted at Ending Female Genital Mutilation in the EU: Integrating Social Cognitive and Community Level Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Katherine; Barrett, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    With increased migration, female genital mutilation (FGM) also referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting is no longer restricted to Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The European Parliament estimates that up to half a million women living in the EU have been subjected to FGM, with a further 180,000 at risk. Aware of the limited success of campaigns addressing FGM, the World Health Organization recommended a behavioural change approach be implemented in order to end FGM. To date, however, little progress has been made in adopting a behaviour change approach in strategies aimed at ending FGM. Based on research undertaken as part of the EU's Daphne III programme, which researched FGM intervention programmes linked to African communities in the EU (REPLACE), this paper argues that behaviour change has not been implemented due to a lack of understanding relating to the application of the two broad categories of behaviour change approach: individualistic decision-theoretic and community-change game-theoretic approaches, and how they may be integrated to aid our understanding and the development of future intervention strategies. We therefore discuss how these can be integrated and implemented using community-based participatory action research methods with affected communities. PMID:23983698

  14. The Applicability of Behaviour Change in Intervention Programmes Targeted at Ending Female Genital Mutilation in the EU: Integrating Social Cognitive and Community Level Approaches.

    PubMed

    Brown, Katherine; Beecham, David; Barrett, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    With increased migration, female genital mutilation (FGM) also referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting is no longer restricted to Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The European Parliament estimates that up to half a million women living in the EU have been subjected to FGM, with a further 180,000 at risk. Aware of the limited success of campaigns addressing FGM, the World Health Organization recommended a behavioural change approach be implemented in order to end FGM. To date, however, little progress has been made in adopting a behaviour change approach in strategies aimed at ending FGM. Based on research undertaken as part of the EU's Daphne III programme, which researched FGM intervention programmes linked to African communities in the EU (REPLACE), this paper argues that behaviour change has not been implemented due to a lack of understanding relating to the application of the two broad categories of behaviour change approach: individualistic decision-theoretic and community-change game-theoretic approaches, and how they may be integrated to aid our understanding and the development of future intervention strategies. We therefore discuss how these can be integrated and implemented using community-based participatory action research methods with affected communities. PMID:23983698

  15. Determinants of physicians' prescribing behaviour of methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ponnet, Koen; Wouters, Edwin; Van Hal, Guido; Heirman, Wannes; Walrave, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The non-medical use of methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement becomes a more and more common practice among college and university students. Although physicians are a source of access, little is known about the underlying mechanisms that might lead to physicians' intention and behaviour of prescribing methylphenidate to improve students' academic performance. Applying Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB), we tested whether attitudes, subjective norms (controllability and self-efficacy) and perceived behavioural control predicted the intention and the prescribing behaviour of physicians. Participants were 130 physicians (62.3% males). Structural equation modelling was used to test the ability of TPB to predict physicians' behaviour. Overall, the present study provides support for the TPB in predicting physicians' prescribing behaviour of methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement. Subjective norms, followed by attitudes, are the strongest predictors of physicians' intention to prescribe methylphenidate. To a lesser extent, controllability predicts the intention of physicians, and self-efficacy predicts the self-reported behaviour. Compared to their male colleagues, female physicians seem to have more negative attitudes towards prescribing methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement, feel less social pressure and perceive more control over their behaviour. Intervention programmes that want to decrease physicians' intention to prescribe methylphenidate for improving academic performance should primarily focus on alleviating the perceived social pressure to prescribe methylphenidate and on converting physician neutral or positive attitudes towards prescribing methylphenidate into negative attitudes. PMID:23713799

  16. Towards improved measurement of cognitive and behavioural work demands.

    PubMed

    Lysaght, Rosemary; Shaw, Lynn; Almas, Andrea; Jogia, Anita; Larmour-Trode, Sherrey

    2008-01-01

    Determination of the cognitive and behavioural demands of work is an important part of holistic workplace intervention. Attention to these factors is especially important when developing return-to-work programs for persons with reduced cognitive, behavioural or psycho-emotional capacity, and when designing risk management programs in organizations. Occupational therapists have the background knowledge and skills to assess these components of work, but often lack valid and reliable measurement tools. This paper reports on three field studies that assessed the reliability and validity of ratings made by novice users of the City of Toronto Job Demands Analysis, which includes a measure of cognitive and behavioural work demands. Numerous challenges to accuracy and reliability that are common to empirical measurement were disclosed, including the necessity for clear and strong definitions, and the importance of thorough rater training. Implications for therapist training and mentorship are discussed. PMID:18820416

  17. Behavioural and Cognitive-Behavioural Treatments of Parasomnias

    PubMed Central

    Galbiati, Andrea; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Giora, Enrico; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Marelli, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Parasomnias are unpleasant or undesirable behaviours or experiences that occur predominantly during or within close proximity to sleep. Pharmacological treatments of parasomnias are available, but their efficacy is established only for few disorders. Furthermore, most of these disorders tend spontaneously to remit with development. Nonpharmacological treatments therefore represent valid therapeutic choices. This paper reviews behavioural and cognitive-behavioural managements employed for parasomnias. Referring to the ICSD-3 nosology we consider, respectively, NREM parasomnias, REM parasomnias, and other parasomnias. Although the efficacy of some of these treatments is proved, in other cases their clinical evidence cannot be provided because of the small size of the samples. Due to the rarity of some parasomnias, further multicentric researches are needed in order to offer a more complete account of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural treatments efficacy. PMID:26101458

  18. Extending social cognition models of health behaviour.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Henderson, Marion

    2011-08-01

    A cross-sectional study assessed the extent to which indices of social structure, including family socio-economic status (SES), social deprivation, gender and educational/lifestyle aspirations correlated with adolescent condom use and added to the predictive utility of a theory of planned behaviour model. Analyses of survey data from 824 sexually active 16-year-olds (505 women and 319 men) tested three hypotheses. Firstly, social structure measures will correlate with behaviour-specific cognitions that predict condom use. Secondly, cognition measures will not fully mediate the effects of social structural indices and thirdly, the effects of cognitions on condom use will be moderated by social structure indices. All three hypotheses were supported. SES, gender and aspirations accounted for between 2 and 7% of the variance in behaviour-specific cognitions predicting condom use. Aspirations explained a further 4% of the variance in condom use, controlling for cognition effects. Mother's SES and gender added an additional 5%, controlling for aspirations. Overall, including significant moderation effects, of social structure indices increased the variance explained from 20.5% (for cognition measures alone) to 31%. These data indicate that social structure measures should to be investigated in addition to cognitions when modelling antecedents of behaviour, including condom use. PMID:21459763

  19. Internet-based interventions for disordered gamblers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of online self-directed cognitive-behavioural motivational therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gambling disorders affect about one percent of adults. Effective treatments are available but only a small proportion of affected individuals will choose to attend formal treatment. As a result, self-directed treatments have also been developed and found effective. Self-directed treatments provide individuals with information and support to initiate a recovery program without attending formal treatment. In previous research we developed an telephone-based intervention package that helps people to be motivated to tackle their gambling problem and to use basic behavioral and cognitive change strategies. The present study will investigate the efficacy of this self-directed intervention offered as a free online resource. The Internet is an excellent modality in which to offer self-directed treatment for gambling problems. The Internet is increasingly accessible to members of the public and is frequently used to access health-related information. Online gambling sites are also becoming more popular gambling platforms. Method/Design A randomized clinical trial (N=180) will be conducted in which individuals with gambling problems who are not interested in attending formal treatment are randomly assigned to have access to an online self-directed intervention or to a comparison condition. The comparison condition will be an alternative website that offers a self-assessment of gambling involvement and gambling-related problems. The participant’s use of the resources and their gambling involvement (days of gambling, dollars loss) and their gambling problems will be tracked for a twelve month follow-up period. Discussion The results of this research will be important for informing policy-makers who are developing treatment systems. Trial registration ISRCTN06220098 PMID:23294668

  20. Design considerations of a randomized clinical trial on a cognitive behavioural intervention using communication and information technologies for managing chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological treatments have been successful in treating chronic low back pain (CLBP). However, the effect sizes are still modest and there is room for improvement. A way to progress is by enhancing treatment adherence and self-management using information and communication technologies (ICTs). Therefore, the objective of this study was to design a trial investigating the short- and long-term efficacy of cognitive behavioural treatment (CBT) for CLBP using or not ICTs. A secondary objective of this trial will be to evaluate the influence of relevant variables on treatment response. Possible barriers in the implementation of CBT with and without ICT will also be investigated. Methods A randomised controlled trial with 180 CLBP patients recruited from specialised care will be conducted. Participants will be randomly assigned to three conditions: Control group (CG), CBT, and CBT supported by ICTs (CBT + ICT). Participants belonging to the three conditions will receive a conventional rehabilitation program (back school). The CBT group program will last six sessions. The CBT + ICT group will use the internet and SMS to practice the therapeutic strategies between sessions and in the follow-ups at their homes. Primary outcome variables will be self-reported disability and pain intensity. Assessment will be carried out by blinded assessors in five moments: pre-treatment, post-treatment and 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. The influence of catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety and depression in response to treatment in the primary outcomes will also be analysed. Discussion This study will show data of the possible benefits of using ICTs in the improvement of CBT for treating CLBP. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01802671 PMID:23607895

  1. Cognitive and behavioural concerns in epileptic children.

    PubMed

    Tamer, S K

    1999-01-01

    Cognitive performance in an epileptic child has been a difficult issue to predict in day-to-day clinical practice. Several observations made in early and later part of this century do not provide uniform and convincing answer to this issue. Recent trends in research however, have identified certain variables that are shown to be associated with cognitive decline in epileptic children. Together with associated behavioural problems, the resultant school difficulty is the essence of this concern for the parents. The variables related to cognitive deterioration as identified by several studies include underlying brain pathology (symptomatic epilepsy), early age of onset of seizure, severity and intractability of seizure, repeated head trauma, an episode of status epilepticus, presence of interictal subclinical EEG discharge, adverse psychosocial factor and antiepileptic drug (AED). Association of these variables in a given case cannot only predict adverse cognition outcome but also a preventive management package can be planned aiming at avoiding or minimizing these high risk variables. PMID:10798155

  2. Improving distress in dialysis (iDiD): a feasibility two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial of an online cognitive behavioural therapy intervention with and without therapist-led telephone support for psychological distress in patients undergoing haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Joanna L; Moss-Morris, Rona; Game, David; Carroll, Amy; McCrone, Paul; Hotopf, Matthew; Yardley, Lucy; Chilcot, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Psychological distress is common in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and is associated with poorer health outcomes. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is recommended in UK clinical guidelines for the management of depression in people with long-term conditions. Access to skilled therapists competent in managing the competing mental and physical health demands of ESKD is limited. Online CBT treatments tailored to the needs of the ESKD population offers a pragmatic solution for under-resourced services. This study examines the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial of online CBT with (intervention arm) and without (control arm) therapist support to improve psychological distress in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Methods Patients will be screened for depression and anxiety while attending for their haemodialysis treatments. We aim to recruit 60 adult patients undergoing haemodialysis who meet criteria for mild to moderately severe symptoms of depression and/or anxiety. Patients will be randomised individually (using a 1:1 computerised sequence ratio) to either online CBT with therapist telephone support (intervention arm), or online CBT with no therapist (control arm). Outcomes include feasibility and acceptability descriptive data on rates of recruitment, randomisation, retention and treatment adherence. Self-report outcomes include measures of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7), quality of life (Euro-QoL), service use (client service receipt inventory) and illness cognitions (brief illness perception questionnaire). A qualitative process evaluation will also be conducted. The statistician will be blinded to treatment allocation. Ethics and dissemination A National Health Service (NHS) research ethics committee approved the study. Data from this study will provide essential information for the design and testing of further interventions to

  3. Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaycox, Lisa H.; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Stein, Bradley D.; Langley, Audra K.; Wong, Marleen

    2012-01-01

    Developed out a community participatory research partnership with schools, the Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools Program is a targeted intervention for school children who have experienced a traumatic or violent event and have symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This article describes the original development of the…

  4. Cognitive behaviour therapy for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Johnston, D W

    2000-01-01

    Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is the main empirically evaluated from of psychological therapy. When applied to cardiovascular disease it can be directed at preventing the occurrence or recurrence of disease or at altering the psychological consequences of disease. Prevention can be achieved through the modification of behavioural risk factors (e.g. smoking, diet) or by attempting to directly modify the psychological processes involved in atherogenesis and thrombogenesis. Successful applications of CBT in cardiovascular disease are described, some the remaining problems indicated and new directions for research pointed out. PMID:11151801

  5. [A cognitive behavioural group therapy program for the improvement of the cognitive and social abilities of patients with schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Efthimiou, K; Rakitzi, S; Roder, V

    2009-07-01

    Pharmacotherapy is the main therapy for the positive and negative symptoms and for the relapse prevention for patients with schizophrenia. The cognitive and behavioural therapy can be combined with other therapies for schizophrenia. Within this frame of reference the cognitive behavioural therapy for schizophrenia and other psychotic syndromes is the first choice for psychiatrists and psychologists in European countries. The National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) has included the cognitive behavioural therapy as a recommended therapy for schizophrenia. The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy includes interventions for the acute phase in an episode (relapse) as well as for the rehabilitation of patients with schizophrenia. The Integrated Psychological Therapy, which is an effective group therapy for the improvement of cognitive and social abilities of patients with schizophrenia, will be represented in the following article. PMID:22218214

  6. Toothbrushing at School: Effects on Toothbrushing Behaviour, Cognitions and Habit Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wind, Marianne; Kremers, Stef; Thijs, Carel; Brug, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of a school-based toothbrushing intervention aimed at encouraging primary school children to brush their teeth daily at school, on cognitions, toothbrushing behaviour and habit strength. Design/methodology/approach: The effects of an intervention were examined in a quasi-experimental trial among 296 fifth-graders in…

  7. Cognitive Interventions for Older Diabetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sheila; Scogin, Forrest

    1998-01-01

    Older diabetic adults should receive memory training to improve their compliance with medication taking. The intervention should include comprehensible medical instructions, assistance with remembering the nutritional values of food, and higher order skills for disease management. (SK)

  8. Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    Internet-based, or computerised, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can be used to treat patients with depression or anxiety. Patients are engaged in structured programs of care, with several programs available either at no cost or moderate cost. Internet CBT (iCBT) may be particularly suited to patients with mobility issues or living in rural or remote areas. Although there are no adverse effects, clinicians should assess patients for risk issues and the need for more immediate assistance before recommending iCBT. Monitoring effectiveness of any intervention for the patient is important. iCBT has National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Level I evidence of efficacy. PMID:24217103

  9. A Cognitive Behavioural Group Approach for Adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruttledge, Richard A.; Petrides, K. V.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural approaches emphasize the links between thoughts, feelings and behaviour (Greig, 2007). Previous research has indicated that these approaches are efficacious in reducing disruptive behaviour in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to provide further evaluation of cognitive behavioural group work to reduce disruptive…

  10. HIV behavioural interventions targeted towards older adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing number of people living with HIV aged 50 years and older has been recognised around the world yet non-pharmacologic HIV behavioural and cognitive interventions specifically targeted to older adults are limited. Evidence is needed to guide the response to this affected group. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the available published literature in MEDLINE, Embase and the Education Resources Information Center. A search strategy was defined with high sensitivity but low specificity to identify behavioural interventions with outcomes in the areas of treatment adherence, HIV testing uptake, increased HIV knowledge and uptake of prevention measures. Data from relevant articles were extracted into excel. Results Twelve articles were identified all of which originated from the Americas. Eight of the interventions were conducted among older adults living with HIV and four for HIV-negative older adults. Five studies included control groups. Of the included studies, four focused on general knowledge of HIV, three emphasised mental health and coping, two focused on reduced sexual risk behaviour, two on physical status and one on referral for care. Only four of the studies were randomised controlled trials and seven – including all of the studies among HIV-negative older adults – did not include controls at all. A few of the studies conducted statistical testing on small samples of 16 or 11 older adults making inference based on the results difficult. The most relevant study demonstrated that using telephone-based interventions can reduce risky sexual behaviour among older adults with control reporting 3.24 times (95% CI 1.79-5.85) as many occasions of unprotected sex at follow-up as participants. Overall however, few of the articles are sufficiently rigorous to suggest broad replication or to be considered representative and applicable in other settings. Conclusions More evidence is needed on what interventions work among older adults to

  11. Cognitive-behavioural therapy-based intervention to reduce fear of falling in older people: therapy development and randomised controlled trial - the Strategies for Increasing Independence, Confidence and Energy (STRIDE) study.

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Steve W; Bamford, Claire; Deary, Vincent; Finch, Tracy L; Gray, Jo; MacDonald, Claire; McMeekin, Peter; Sabin, Neil J; Steen, I Nick; Whitney, Sue L; McColl, Elaine M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Falls cause fear, anxiety and loss of confidence, resulting in activity avoidance, social isolation and increasing frailty. The umbrella term for these problems is 'fear of falling', seen in up to 85% of older adults who fall. Evidence of effectiveness of physical and psychological interventions is limited, with no previous studies examining the role of an individually delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) approach. OBJECTIVES Primary objective To develop and then determine the effectiveness of a new CBT intervention (CBTi) delivered by health-care assistants (HCAs) plus usual care compared with usual care alone in reducing fear of falling. Secondary objectives To measure the impact of the intervention on falls, injuries, functional abilities, anxiety/depression, quality of life, social participation and loneliness; investigate the acceptability of the intervention for patients, family members and professionals and factors that promote or inhibit its implementation; and measure the costs and benefits of the intervention. DESIGN Phase I CBTi development. Phase II Parallel-group patient randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the new CBTi plus usual care compared with usual care alone. SETTING Multidisciplinary falls services. PARTICIPANTS Consecutive community-dwelling older adults, both sexes, aged ≥ 60 years, with excessive or undue fear of falling per Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) score of > 23. INTERVENTIONS Phase I Development of the CBTi. The CBTi was developed following patient interviews and taught to HCAs to maximise the potential for uptake and generalisability to a UK NHS setting. Phase II RCT. The CBTi was delivered by HCAs weekly for 8 weeks, with a 6-month booster session plus usual care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES These were assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. Primary outcome measure Fear of falling measured by change in FES-I scores at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures

  12. Exploration of use of SenseCam to support autobiographical memory retrieval within a cognitive-behavioural therapeutic intervention following acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Brindley, Rob; Bateman, Andrew; Gracey, Fergus

    2011-10-01

    Delivering effective psychotherapy to address the significant emotional consequences of acquired brain injury (ABI) is challenged by the presence of acquired cognitive impairments, especially retrieval of detailed autobiographical memories of emotional trigger events. Initial studies using a wearable camera (SenseCam) suggest long-term improvements in autobiographical retrieval of recorded events. In this study a single-case experimental design was implemented to explore the use of SenseCam as a memory aid for a man with a specific anxiety disorder and memory and executive difficulties following ABI. We predicted that SenseCam supported rehearsal of memories of events that trigger high levels of anxiety would yield improved retrieval of both factual detail and internal state information (thoughts and feelings) compared with a conventional psychotherapy aid (automatic thought record sheets, ATRs) and no strategy. The findings indicated SenseCam supported retrieval of anxiety trigger events was superior to ATRs or no strategy in terms of both detail and internal state information, with 94% of the information being recalled in the SenseCam condition, compared to 39% for the "no strategy" and 22% for the ATR conditions. It is concluded that SenseCam may be of use as a compensatory aid in psychotherapies relying on retrieval of emotionally salient trigger events. PMID:20635299

  13. The management of schizophrenia: cognitive behavioural therapy.

    PubMed

    Siddle, R; Kingdon, D

    2000-01-01

    Over the past decade advances in the management of schizophrenia in the community have involved increasing emphasis on the psychosocial dynamics of care, coordinated through a care programme approach, and the introduction of new medication. In particular, the use of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective means of tackling symptoms associated with schizophrenia (Jones et al, 1998). While some of the techniques used in CBT may be too advanced for untrained therapists to use, the approach described in this article may be used by registered mental health nurses and community professionals. This approach includes medication adherence, coping strategies, questioning style, the prevention of patient relapse and dealing with relatives. PMID:12784789

  14. Simulating behaviour change interventions based on the theory of planned behaviour: Impacts on intention and action.

    PubMed

    Fife-Schaw, Chris; Sheeran, Paschal; Norman, Paul

    2007-03-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) has been used extensively to predict social and health behaviours. However, a critical test of the TPB is whether interventions that increased scores on the theory's predictors would engender behaviour change. The present research deployed a novel technique in order to provide this test. Statistical simulations were conducted on data for 30 behaviours (N=211) that estimated the impact of interventions that generated maximum positive changes in attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) on subsequent intentions and behaviour. Findings indicated that interventions that maximized TPB variables had a substantial impact on behavioural intentions. Although TPB maximization increased the proportion of the sample that performed respective behaviours by 28% compared with baseline, the behaviour of a substantial minority of the sample (26%) did not change. The research also identified several interactions among TPB variables in predicting simulated intention and behaviour scores and investigated the mediating role of intentions in predicting behaviour. PMID:17355718

  15. The Addition of an Individualized Cognitive Intervention to a Standardized Behavioral Intervention for Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia, Janice L.; Kalodner, Cynthia R.

    This study examined the effectiveness of the addition of a cognitive intervention based on individualized assessment to a behavioral intervention for obesity. Overweight subjects (N=63) were randomly assigned to either a behavioral intervention or a behavioral intervention combined with a cognitive intervention which focused on changing specific…

  16. Evaluation of a Group CBT Early Intervention Program for Adolescents with Comorbid Depression and Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wignall, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Depression and externalising behaviour disorders frequently occur together in adolescence and are associated with a marked increase in symptom severity and poorer outcome. Clinical treatment research and early intervention programs for depression have not addressed the specific cognitive and interpersonal deficits associated with comorbidity. This…

  17. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Command Hallucinations and Intellectual Disability: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrowcliff, Alastair L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of literature detailing cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for psychosis in people with intellectual disability. Of the available literature, only two case studies involve people with command hallucinations and these do not address specific issues of intervention indicated in the wider literature for this type of…

  18. Embedding Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Training in Practice: Facilitators and Barriers for Trainee Educational Psychologists (TEPs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Garry; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    At the national level there has been a call for more therapeutic interventions and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) has been identified as one approach that can be used. The training of educational psychologists (EPs) has been extended to three years and this provides an opportunity to increase the depth of knowledge of particular therapeutic…

  19. A single blind randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy in a help-seeking population with an At Risk Mental State for psychosis: the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL) trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Psychotic disorders are a serious mental health problem. Intervention before the onset of psychosis might result in delaying the onset, reducing the impact or even preventing the first episode of psychosis. This study explores the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in targeting cognitive biases that are involved in the formation of delusions in persons with an ultra-high risk for developing psychosis. A single blind randomised controlled trial compares CBT with treatment as usual in preventing or delaying the onset of psychosis. Method/design All help seeking patients aged 14 to 35 years referred to the mental health services in three regions in the Netherlands are pre-screened with the Prodromal Questionnaire during a period of two years. Patients with a score of 18 or more on the sub-clinical positive symptoms items (45 items in total) will be assessed with the Comprehensive Assessment of At Risk Mental State (CAARMS). In a different pathway to care model all referrals from the mental health services in Amsterdam to the specialized psychosis clinic of the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam are also assessed with the CAARMS. The primary outcome is the transition rate to psychosis according to the CAARMS-criteria. Group differences will be analysed with chi-square tests and survival analyses. Discussion CBT is a highly tolerated treatment. The psycho-educational CBT approach may prove to be a successful strategy since most people with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS) are distressed by odd disturbing experiences. Giving explanations for and normalising these experiences may reduce the arousal (distress) and therefore may prevent people from developing a catastrophic delusional explanation for their odd experiences and thus prevent them from developing psychosis. Screening the entire help-seeking population referred to community mental health services with a two-stage strategy, as compared with traditional referral to a specialist

  20. Stepping out of the box: broadening the dialogue around the organizational implementation of cognitive behavioural psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Poole, J; Grant, A

    2005-08-01

    The dissemination and uptake of cognitive behavioural interventions is central to the evidence-based mental health agenda in Britain. However, some policy and related literature, in and of itself social constructed, tends to display discursive naïvety in assuming a rational basis for the dissemination and organizational integration of cognitive behavioural approaches. Rational constructions fail to acknowledge that the practice settings of key stakeholders in the process are likely to be socially constructed fields of multiple meanings. Within these, the importance of evidence-based interventions may be variously contested or reworked. To illustrate this, a case example from the first author will discuss the hypothetical introduction of a cognitive behavioural group for voice hearers in a forensic mental health unit. This will highlight contradictions and local organizational problems around the effective utilization of postgraduate cognitive behavioural knowledge and skills. A synthesis of social constructionist with organizational theory will be used to make better sense of these actual and anticipated difficulties. From this basis, specific ways in which nurses and supportive stakeholders could move the implementation of cognitive behavioural psychotherapy agenda forward within a postmodern leadership context will be proposed. PMID:16011501

  1. Walking the line: Understanding pedestrian behaviour and risk at rail level crossings with cognitive work analysis.

    PubMed

    Read, Gemma J M; Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    Pedestrian fatalities at rail level crossings (RLXs) are a public safety concern for governments worldwide. There is little literature examining pedestrian behaviour at RLXs and no previous studies have adopted a formative approach to understanding behaviour in this context. In this article, cognitive work analysis is applied to understand the constraints that shape pedestrian behaviour at RLXs in Melbourne, Australia. The five phases of cognitive work analysis were developed using data gathered via document analysis, behavioural observation, walk-throughs and critical decision method interviews. The analysis demonstrates the complex nature of pedestrian decision making at RLXs and the findings are synthesised to provide a model illustrating the influences on pedestrian decision making in this context (i.e. time, effort and social pressures). Further, the CWA outputs are used to inform an analysis of the risks to safety associated with pedestrian behaviour at RLXs and the identification of potential interventions to reduce risk. PMID:26518501

  2. Cognitive interventions for addiction medicine: Understanding the underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zilverstand, Anna; Parvaz, Muhammad A; Moeller, Scott J; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging provides a tool for investigating the neurobiological mechanisms of cognitive interventions in addiction. The aim of this review was to describe the brain circuits that are recruited during cognitive interventions, examining differences between various treatment modalities while highlighting core mechanisms, in drug addicted individuals. Based on a systematic Medline search we reviewed neuroimaging studies on cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive inhibition of craving, motivational interventions, emotion regulation, mindfulness, and neurofeedback training in addiction. Across intervention modalities, common results included the normalization of aberrant activity in the brain's reward circuitry, and the recruitment and strengthening of the brain's inhibitory control network. Results suggest that different cognitive interventions act, at least partly, through recruitment of a common inhibitory control network as a core mechanism. This implies potential transfer effects between training modalities. Overall, results confirm that chronically hypoactive prefrontal regions implicated in cognitive control in addiction can be normalized through cognitive means. PMID:26822363

  3. The contribution of behavioural science to primary care research: development and evaluation of behaviour change interventions.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    Behavioural science is concerned with predicting, explaining and changing behaviour. Taking a personal perspective, this article aims to show how behavioural science can contribute to primary care research, specifically in relation to the development and evaluation of interventions to change behaviour. After discussing the definition and measurement of behaviour, the principle of compatibility and theories of behaviour change, the article outlines two examples of behaviour change trials (one on medication adherence and the other on physical activity), which were part of a research programme on prevention of chronic disease and its consequences. The examples demonstrate how, in a multidisciplinary context, behavioural science can contribute to primary care research in several important ways, including posing relevant research questions, defining the target behaviour, understanding the psychological determinants of behaviour, developing behaviour change interventions and selection or development of measures. The article concludes with a number of recommendations: (i) whether the aim is prediction, explanation or change, defining the target behaviour is a crucial first step; (ii) interventions should be explicitly based on theories that specify the factors that need to be changed in order to produce the desired change in behaviour; (iii) intervention developers need to be aware of the differences between different theories and select a theory only after careful consideration of the alternatives assessed against relevant criteria; and (iv) developers need to be aware that interventions can never be entirely theory based. PMID:22284944

  4. Social Cognition in Children: A Model for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Robert D.

    1976-01-01

    An attempt to formulate a model of social cognition which will describe what may be involved in making social cognitive inferences in children. Techniques for intervention are then derived from the model. (Author/NG)

  5. Cognitive behavioural therapies versus treatment as usual for depression

    PubMed Central

    Hunot, Vivien; Moore, Theresa HM; Caldwell, Deborah; Davies, Philippa; Jones, Hannah; Furukawa, Toshi A; Lewis, Glyn; Churchill, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all cognitive behavioural therapies compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/attention placebo control conditions for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different cognitive behavioural therapy models (cognitive therapy, rational emotive behaviour therapy, problem-solving therapy, self-control therapy and the Coping with Depression course) compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/attention placebo control conditions for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all cognitive behavioural therapies compared with different types of comparator (standard care, no treatment, waiting list, attention placebo) for acute depression. PMID:25411558

  6. Cognition and Behaviour in Sotos Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Chloe; Milne, Elizabeth; Freeth, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Background Research investigating cognition and behaviour in Sotos syndrome has been sporadic and to date, there is no published overview of study findings. Method A systematic review of all published literature (1964–2015) presenting empirical data on cognition and behaviour in Sotos syndrome. Thirty four journal articles met inclusion criteria. Within this literature, data relating to cognition and/or behaviour in 247 individuals with a diagnosis of Sotos syndrome were reported. Ten papers reported group data on cognition and/or behaviour. The remaining papers employed a case study design. Results Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores were reported in twenty five studies. Intellectual disability (IQ < 70) or borderline intellectual functioning (IQ 70–84) was present in the vast majority of individuals with Sotos syndrome. Seven studies reported performance on subscales of intelligence tests. Data from these studies indicate that verbal IQ scores are consistently higher than performance IQ scores. Fourteen papers provided data on behavioural features of individuals with Sotos syndrome. Key themes that emerged in the behavioural literature were overlap with ASD, ADHD, anxiety and high prevalence of aggression/tantrums. Conclusion Although a range of studies have provided insight into cognition and behaviour in Sotos syndrome, specific profiles have not yet been fully specified. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:26872390

  7. Cognitive Styles and Managerial Behaviour: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cools, Eva; Van Den Broeck, Herman

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute further insights into how cognitive styles influence managerial behaviour, using a qualitative approach. Design/methodology/approach: Written testimonies were gathered from people with different cognitive styles, and content analysed (n = 100). Findings: Qualitative evidence was found for…

  8. The utility of cognitive behavioural therapy on chronic haemodialysis patients' fluid intake: a preliminary examination.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, M; Oka, M; Chaboyer, W

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) on chronic haemodialysis (HD) patients' ability to achieve fluid intake related behavioural objectives. This one group before and after quasi-experiment consisted of a four-week base-line phase, a six-week intervention phase and a four-week follow-up phase. Interventions included self-contract, reinforcement and self-monitoring. Participants were 10 Japanese HD outpatients. The average achievement of the fluid intake objective in the intervention phase was 65%. Fifty percent of participants achieved their objectives at least 3/4 of the time without individualised reinforcement. CBT was effective in helping patients change their fluid intake behaviours. PMID:12667513

  9. Intervention Validity of Cognitive Assessment: Knowns, Unknowables, and Unknowns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braden, Jeffery P.; Shaw, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The intervention validity of cognitive assessment batteries is considered within an historical context to identify what the evidence supports (knowns), what cannot be known (unknowables), and what is not yet known (unknowns). Two ways cognitive batteries could inform intervention are identified: a disordinal (i.e., aptitude-treatment interaction)…

  10. Cognitive behavioural therapy for medically unexplained physical symptoms: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Speckens, A. E.; van Hemert, A. M.; Spinhoven, P.; Hawton, K. E.; Bolk, J. H.; Rooijmans, H. G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the additional effect of cognitive behavioural therapy for patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms in comparison with optimised medical care. DESIGN--Randomised controlled trial with follow up assessments six and 12 months after the baseline evaluation. SETTING--General medical outpatient clinic in a university hospital. SUBJECTS--An intervention group of 39 patients and a control group of 40 patients. INTERVENTIONS--The intervention group received between six and 16 sessions of cognitive behavioural therapy. Therapeutic techniques used included identification and modification of dysfunctional automatic thoughts and behavioural experiments aimed at breaking the vicious cycles of the symptoms and their consequences. The control group received optimised medical care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The degree of change, frequency and intensity of the presenting symptoms, psychological distress, functional impairment, hypochondriacal beliefs and attitudes, and (at 12 months of follow up) number of visits to the general practitioner. RESULTS--At six months of follow up the intervention group reported a higher recovery rate (odds ratio 0.40; 95% confidence interval 0.16 to 1.00), a lower mean intensity of the physical symptoms (difference -1.2; -2.0 to -0.3), and less impairment of sleep (odds ratio 0.38; 0.15 to 0.94) than the controls. After adjustment for coincidental baseline differences the intervention and control groups also differed with regard to frequency of the symptoms (0.32; 0.13 to 0.77), limitations in social (0.35; 0.14 to 0.85) and leisure (0.36; 0.14 to 0.93) activities, and illness behaviour (difference -2.5; -4.6 to -0.5). At 12 months of follow up the differences between the groups were largely maintained. CONCLUSION--Cognitive behavioural therapy seems to be a feasible and effective treatment in general medical patients with unexplained physical symptoms. PMID:7496281

  11. Mindfulness-based interventions for obesity-related eating behaviours: a literature review.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, G A; Cook, L; Spruijt-Metz, D; Black, D S

    2014-06-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviours have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviours, such as binge eating, emotional eating and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO and Ovid Healthstar. Papers were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (i) describe a MBI or the use of mindfulness exercises as part of an intervention; (ii) include at least one obesity-related eating behaviour as an outcome; (iii) include quantitative outcomes; and (iv) be published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. A total of N = 21 papers were included in this review. Interventions used a variety of approaches to implement mindfulness training, including combined mindfulness and cognitive behavioural therapies, mindfulness-based stress reduction, acceptance-based therapies, mindful eating programmes, and combinations of mindfulness exercises. Targeted eating behaviour outcomes included binge eating, emotional eating, external eating and dietary intake. Eighteen (86%) of the reviewed studies reported improvements in the targeted eating behaviours. Overall, the results of this first review on the topic support the efficacy of MBIs for changing obesity-related eating behaviours, specifically binge eating, emotional eating and external eating. PMID:24636206

  12. The social cognitive determinants of offending drivers' speeding behaviour.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Mark A; Thomson, James A

    2010-11-01

    The efficacy of an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was tested in relation to offending drivers' (N=1403) speeding behaviour. Postal questionnaires were issued at Time 1 to measure intention, instrumental and affective attitude, subjective and descriptive norm, self-efficacy, perceived controllability, moral norm, anticipated regret, self-identity, and past speeding behaviour. At Time 2 (6 months later), subsequent speeding behaviour was measured, again using self-completion postal questionnaires. The extended TPB accounted for 68% of the variation in intention and 51% of the variation in subsequent behaviour. The independent predictors of intention were instrumental attitude, affective attitude, self-efficacy, moral norm, anticipated regret and past behaviour. The independent predictors of behaviour were intention, self-efficacy, anticipated regret and past behaviour. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed in relation to targeting road safety interventions. PMID:20728608

  13. Interpersonal Processes in Psychoanalytic, Cognitive Analytical and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habicht, Manuela H.

    The aim of the review was to compare interpersonal processes in psychoanalytic therapy, cognitive analytical therapy, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Since the emphasis is on psychodynamic therapy, Freud's conceptualization of the phenomenon of transference is discussed. Countertransference as an unconscious and defensive reaction to the…

  14. The behaviour change wheel: A new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Improving the design and implementation of evidence-based practice depends on successful behaviour change interventions. This requires an appropriate method for characterising interventions and linking them to an analysis of the targeted behaviour. There exists a plethora of frameworks of behaviour change interventions, but it is not clear how well they serve this purpose. This paper evaluates these frameworks, and develops and evaluates a new framework aimed at overcoming their limitations. Methods A systematic search of electronic databases and consultation with behaviour change experts were used to identify frameworks of behaviour change interventions. These were evaluated according to three criteria: comprehensiveness, coherence, and a clear link to an overarching model of behaviour. A new framework was developed to meet these criteria. The reliability with which it could be applied was examined in two domains of behaviour change: tobacco control and obesity. Results Nineteen frameworks were identified covering nine intervention functions and seven policy categories that could enable those interventions. None of the frameworks reviewed covered the full range of intervention functions or policies, and only a minority met the criteria of coherence or linkage to a model of behaviour. At the centre of a proposed new framework is a 'behaviour system' involving three essential conditions: capability, opportunity, and motivation (what we term the 'COM-B system'). This forms the hub of a 'behaviour change wheel' (BCW) around which are positioned the nine intervention functions aimed at addressing deficits in one or more of these conditions; around this are placed seven categories of policy that could enable those interventions to occur. The BCW was used reliably to characterise interventions within the English Department of Health's 2010 tobacco control strategy and the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence's guidance on reducing obesity

  15. Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment for Men with Intellectual Disabilities and Sexually Abusive Behaviour: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Glynis; Powell, Simon; Guzman, Ana-Maria; Hays, Sarah-Jane

    2007-01-01

    Background: Cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) seems to be becoming the treatment of choice for non-disabled sex offenders. Nevertheless, there have been relatively few evaluations of such treatment for men with intellectual disabilities (ID) and sexually abusive behaviour. Method: A pilot study providing CBT for two groups of men with ID is…

  16. Cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions affecting physical functioning: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments that are similar to cognitive impairments seen in aging. The aim was to identify potentially promising methods that might be used in future intervention type studies for older adults. Methods A systematic search was conducted for the Medline/Premedline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. The search was focused on older adults over the age of 65. To increase the number of articles for review, we also included those discussing adult patients with neurological impairments due to trauma, as these cognitive impairments are similar to those seen in the aging population. The search was restricted to English, German and French language literature without any limitation of publication date or restriction by study design. Cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions were defined as dual-tasking, virtual reality exercise, cognitive exercise, or a combination of these. Results 28 articles met our inclusion criteria. Three articles used an isolated cognitive rehabilitation intervention, seven articles used a dual-task intervention and 19 applied a computerized intervention. There is evidence to suggest that cognitive or motor-cognitive methods positively affects physical functioning, such as postural control, walking abilities and general functions of the upper and lower extremities, respectively. The majority of the included studies resulted in improvements of the assessed functional outcome measures. Conclusions The current evidence on the effectiveness of cognitive or

  17. Psychological Treatment of Depression: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Genest, Myles

    1989-01-01

    Psychotherapy is preferred over pharmacotherapy in many instances of depression, either because of side-effects or overdose concerns, or because of the patient's choice. Psychologists are most likely to provide a course of cognitive therapy for depressed individuals. This paper offers a brief description of treatment results, rationale for therapy, and the elements of therapy. PMID:21248949

  18. Extending Social Cognition Models of Health Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Henderson, Marion

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study assessed the extent to which indices of social structure, including family socio-economic status (SES), social deprivation, gender and educational/lifestyle aspirations correlated with adolescent condom use and added to the predictive utility of a theory of planned behaviour model. Analyses of survey data from 824 sexually…

  19. Consensus clinical guidelines for the assessment of cognitive and behavioural problems in Tuberous Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Petrus; Humphrey, Ayla; McCartney, Deborah; Prather, Penny; Bolton, Patrick; Hunt, Ann

    2005-07-01

    Tuberous Sclerosis (TSC) is a genetic disorder characterised by abnormal growths in a wide range of organs. In the brain, abnormalities of differentiation, proliferation and migration can produce a range of neuropsychiatric features such as mental retardation, autism and ADHD. Although these manifestations are not diagnostic of the disorder, cognitive and behavioural features are often of greatest concern to families yet limited clinical assessment and interventions are currently offered. A consensus panel at a TSC Brain/Behaviour workshop recommended that the cognitive and behavioural profiles of individuals with TSC should be assessed at regular intervals in a planned fashion in accordance with the difficulties associated with the disorder. Evaluations should include the use of standardised neuropsychological and behavioural tools as appropriate to the age and developmental level of the individual assessed. These cognitive and behavioural profiles should be incorporated in the overall formulation of the needs of the person with TSC to plan educational, social and clinical management strategies. Assessments should be documented so that individual longitudinal progress can be monitored. The paper outlines the problems associated with TSC, the purpose of recommended assessments, developmentally appropriate stages for assessment, and identifies specific areas that should be targeted for assessment. PMID:15981129

  20. Effects of a behaviour change intervention for Girl Scouts on child and parent energy-saving behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudet, Hilary; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Flora, June; Armel, K. Carrie; Desai, Manisha; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2016-08-01

    Energy education programmes for children are hypothesized to have great potential to save energy. Such interventions are often assumed to impact child and family behaviours. Here, using a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 30 Girl Scout troops in Northern California, we assess the efficacy of two social cognitive theory-based interventions focused on residential and food-and-transportation energy-related behaviours of Girl Scouts and their families. We show that Girl Scouts and parents in troops randomly assigned to the residential energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported residential energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention and after more than seven months of follow-up, compared with controls. Girl Scouts in troops randomly assigned to the food-and-transportation energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported food-and-transportation energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention, compared with controls, but not at follow-up. The results demonstrate that theory-based, child-focused energy interventions have the potential to increase energy-saving behaviours among both children and their parents.

  1. Addressing Anger Using Sensorimotor Psychotherapy and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Sarah M.

    2010-01-01

    A young woman initiated counselling services at a community agency to address her explosive anger that was a remnant of childhood physical and emotional abuse. Sensorimotor psychotherapy was used to help this client learn how to monitor and regulate her sensorimotor processes. In conjunction with this approach, Cognitive behavioural therapy was…

  2. Development of Rostral Prefrontal Cortex and Cognitive and Behavioural Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumontheil, Iroise; Burgess, Paul W.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2008-01-01

    Information on the development and functions of rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC), or Brodmann area 10, has been gathered from different fields, from anatomical development to functional neuroimaging in adults, and put forward in relation to three particular cognitive and behavioural disorders. Rostral PFC is larger and has a lower cell density in…

  3. The Use of Group Therapy as a Means of Facilitating Cognitive-Behavioural Instruction for Adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larmar, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of an action research enquiry examining the efficacy of group therapy as a means of facilitating cognitive-behavioural instruction for students who exhibit disruptive behaviours. A curriculum comprising the key tenets of cognitive-behaviour modification was developed and taught over a 9-week period to a group…

  4. Elderly Individuals with Diabetes: Adding Cognitive Training to Psychoeducational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vianna Paulo, Debora Lee; Sanches Yassuda, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The present research examined the effects of a cognitive training program combined with psychoeducational intervention for diabetic elderly patients. Specifically, it aimed at assessing the effects of an eight-session cognitive training and educational program in diabetic elderly individuals and investigating changes in their awareness about…

  5. Increasing Children's Self-Control through Cognitive Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Research is reviewed on cognitive interventions which affect children's self-control. Five types of effective manipulations are discussed: self-verbalization; external verbalization; affect manipulation; cognitive transformation; and manipulation of attention. Self-control behaviors include modification of impulsive behaviors; delay of…

  6. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and group recreational activity for adults with autism spectrum disorders: A preliminary randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This preliminary randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive behavioural therapy and recreational activity. Both interventions comprised 36 weekly 3-h sessions led by two therapists in groups of 6–8 patients. A total of 68 psychiatric patients with autism spectrum disorders participated in the study. Outcome measures were Quality of Life Inventory, Sense of Coherence Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an exploratory analysis on measures of psychiatric health. Participants in both treatment conditions reported an increased quality of life at post-treatment (d = 0.39, p < 0.001), with no difference between interventions. No amelioration of psychiatric symptoms was observed. The dropout rate was lower with cognitive behavioural therapy than with recreational activity, and participants in cognitive behavioural therapy rated themselves as more generally improved, as well as more improved regarding expression of needs and understanding of difficulties. Both interventions appear to be promising treatment options for adults with autism spectrum disorder. The interventions’ similar efficacy may be due to the common elements, structure and group setting. Cognitive behavioural therapy may be additionally beneficial in terms of increasing specific skills and minimizing dropout. PMID:24089423

  7. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program Shows Potential in Reducing Symptoms of Depression and Stress among Young People with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, J. A.; Evert, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered in groups on the reduction of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress in young people on the autism spectrum. Utilising a quasi-experimental design, comparisons were made between individuals allocated to a group intervention program and individuals allocated to a…

  8. From Behaviourism to Cognitive Behaviourism to Cognitive Development: Steps in the Evolution of Instructional Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Robbie; Bereiter, Carl

    1984-01-01

    Traces history of instructional technology, including Skinner's work, Gagne's task analytic approach, and contemporary efforts associated with the cognitive revolution. It is suggested that an understanding of cognitive development improves earlier approaches by adapting them directly to students' cognitive development levels. Recent instructional…

  9. Effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy in schoolchildren with depressive symptoms in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Habib, D; Seif El Din, A

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy for 12-14-year-old school-children from a low socioeconomic area in Alexandria, Egypt during the academic year 2003-04. Our sample comprised 198 boys and 136 girls. Students were assessed using the Child Depression Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. The frequency of depression was 9.6%; 7.1% in boys and 13.2% in girls. The 32 children with depression were offered cognitive behaviour therapy. Only 17 accepted the offer and received 9 sessions of therapy. They were assessed 3 months after the intervention using the same tools and the results indicate the short-term effectiveness of the therapy. PMID:17687835

  10. Cognitive behavioural therapy versus other psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher; Hacker, David; Cormac, Irene; Meaden, Alan; Irving, Claire B

    2014-01-01

    , mean difference (MD) Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) −6.21 CI −10.81 to −1.61). Few trials report on social functioning or quality of life. Findings do not convincingly favour either of the interventions (2 RCTs, n = 103, MD Social Functioning Scale(SFS) 1.32 CI −4.90 to 7.54; n = 37, MD EuroQOL −1.86 CI −19.20 to 15.48). For the outcome of leaving the study early, we found no significant advantage when CBT was compared with either non-active control therapies (4 RCTs, n = 433, RR 0.88 CI 0.63 to 1.23) or active therapies (6 RCTs, n = 339, RR 0.75 CI 0.40 to 1.43) Authors’ conclusions Trial-based evidence suggests no clear and convincing advantage for cognitive behavioural therapy over other - and sometime much less sophisticated - therapies for people with schizophrenia. PMID:22513966

  11. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach.

    PubMed

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S; Ruiter, Robert A C; Fernández, María E; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters for effectiveness of methods, and explicate the related distinction between theory-based methods and practical applications and the probability that poor translation of methods may lead to erroneous conclusions as to method-effectiveness. Third, we recommend a minimal set of intervention characteristics that may be reported when intervention descriptions and evaluations are published. Specifying these characteristics can greatly enhance the quality of our meta-analyses and other literature syntheses. In conclusion, the dynamics of behaviour change are such that any taxonomy of methods of behaviour change needs to acknowledge the importance of, and provide instruments for dealing with, three conditions for effectiveness for behaviour change methods. For a behaviour change method to be effective: (1) it must target a determinant that predicts behaviour; (2) it must be able to change that determinant; (3) it must be translated into a practical application in a way that preserves the parameters for effectiveness and fits with the target population, culture, and context. Thus, taxonomies of methods of behaviour change must distinguish the specific determinants that are targeted, practical, specific applications, and the theory-based methods they embody. In addition, taxonomies should acknowledge that the lists of behaviour change methods will be used by, and should be used by, intervention developers. Ideally, the taxonomy should be readily usable for this goal; but alternatively, it should be

  12. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H.; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S.; Ruiter, Robert A.C.; Fernández, María E.; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L. Kay

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters for effectiveness of methods, and explicate the related distinction between theory-based methods and practical applications and the probability that poor translation of methods may lead to erroneous conclusions as to method-effectiveness. Third, we recommend a minimal set of intervention characteristics that may be reported when intervention descriptions and evaluations are published. Specifying these characteristics can greatly enhance the quality of our meta-analyses and other literature syntheses. In conclusion, the dynamics of behaviour change are such that any taxonomy of methods of behaviour change needs to acknowledge the importance of, and provide instruments for dealing with, three conditions for effectiveness for behaviour change methods. For a behaviour change method to be effective: (1) it must target a determinant that predicts behaviour; (2) it must be able to change that determinant; (3) it must be translated into a practical application in a way that preserves the parameters for effectiveness and fits with the target population, culture, and context. Thus, taxonomies of methods of behaviour change must distinguish the specific determinants that are targeted, practical, specific applications, and the theory-based methods they embody. In addition, taxonomies should acknowledge that the lists of behaviour change methods will be used by, and should be used by, intervention developers. Ideally, the taxonomy should be readily usable for this goal; but alternatively, it

  13. Genetic Polymorphisms Influence Cognition in Patients Undergoing Carotid Interventions.

    PubMed

    Hitchner, Elizabeth; Morrison, Doug; Liao, Phoebe; Rosen, Allyson; Zhou, Wei

    2016-09-01

    While carotid interventions help decrease the risk of stroke, nearly 40% of patients experience cognitive deterioration. Genetic polymorphism in apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been implicated in cognitive impairment; however, it is unclear whether they may influence cognitive changes in patients undergoing carotid intervention. In this study, we seek to assess the role of genetic polymorphisms in carotid intervention-related cognitive change. Polymorphisms related to cognitive function were chosen for this preliminary analysis. Over 2 years, patients undergoing carotid interventions were prospectively recruited. Patients underwent neuropsychological testing 2 weeks prior to and at 1 month following their procedure. Saliva samples were collected for genetic analysis. Logistic regressions were used to identify associations between polymorphisms and cognitive measures. A total of 91 patients were included; all were male with an average age of 70 years. The majority of patients exhibited hypertension (95%) and a history of smoking (81%). Presence of ApoE 4 allele was associated with depression (p= 0.047). After correcting for age and genetic polymorphisms in BDNF and serotonin transporter (5-HTT), ApoE 4 allele was associated with depression (p= 0.044) and showed a trend with baseline cognitive impairment (p= 0.10). Age ≥ 70 years was associated with baseline cognitive impairment after adjusting for the three genetic polymorphisms (p= 0.03). Patients with ApoE 4 and BDNF A polymorphisms performed less well on the visual and verbal memory measures, respectively. Polymorphisms in ApoE and BDNF may provide insight on cognition in patients undergoing carotid interventions; however, the mechanism of this relationship remains unclear. PMID:27574384

  14. Forensic anogenital exam interventions: potential contributions of cognitive appraisal theory.

    PubMed

    Waibel-Duncan, Mary Katherine; Sandier, Howard M

    2002-02-01

    This manuscript proposes that Smith and Lazarus's cognitive appraisal theory offers a useful conceptual guide for exploring the mechanisms underlying psychoeducation's apparent efficacy at reducing children's forensic anogenital exam distress. After presenting an overview of Smith and Lazarus's cognitive emotional relational theory of emotions, the authors suggest how this model of cognition-emotion associations might inform the refinement and evaluation of current preparatory interventions as well as the design of future patient/family education programs. Empirical evidence from the broader pediatric literature and direct observations of children's anogenital exam experiences suggest how cognitive appraisal theory translates into clinical research and practice. Avenues for future research are proposed. PMID:11838519

  15. Cognitive behavioural therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Rachel; Moore, Theresa HM; Caldwell, Deborah; Davies, Philippa; Jones, Hannah; Furukawa, Toshi A; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all CBT approaches compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depressionTo examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different CBT approaches (cognitive therapy, rational emotive behaviour therapy, problem-solving therapy, self-control therapy and Coping with Depression course) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all CBT approaches compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, integrative, third wave CBT) for acute depression. PMID:25411559

  16. A Systematic Review of Psychological Interventions to Alleviate Cognitive and Psychosocial Problems in Children with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Kimberley A.; Dorris, Liam; McMillan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Aim: It is now generally accepted that paediatric acquired brain injury (ABI) can have an impact on a child's cognitive, social, and behavioural functioning. However, the lack of guidelines on effective interventions for the affected children and their families, particularly beyond the acute recovery phase, can limit access to effective support.…

  17. Interventions for encouraging sexual behaviours intended to prevent cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Jonathan P; Frampton, Geoff K; Harris, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the key risk factor for cervical cancer. Continuing high rates of HPV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in young people demonstrate the need for effective behavioural interventions. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for young women to encourage safer sexual behaviours to prevent transmission of STIs (including HPV) and cervical cancer. Search methods Systematic literature searches were performed on the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 4, 2009) Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Review Group (CGCRG) Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Social Science Citation Index and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI) up to the end of 2009. All references were screened for inclusion against selection criteria. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural interventions for young women up to the age of 25 years that included, amongst other things, information provision about the transmission and prevention of STIs. Trials had to measure behavioural outcomes (e.g. condom use) and/or biological outcomes (e.g. incidence of STIs, cervical cancer). Data collection and analysis A narrative synthesis was conducted. Meta-analysis was not considered appropriate due to heterogeneity between the interventions and trial populations. Main results A total of 5271 references were screened and of these 23 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Most were conducted in the USA and in health-care clinics (e.g. family planning). The majority of interventions provided information about STIs and taught safer sex skills (e.g. communication), occasionally supplemented with provision of resources (e.g. free sexual health services). They were heterogeneous in duration, contact time, provider, behavioural aims and outcomes. A variety of STIs were addressed including HIV and chlamydia. None of the trials explicitly

  18. Reducing stillbirths: behavioural and nutritional interventions before and during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Menezes, Esme V; Soomro, Tanya; Haws, Rachel A; Darmstadt, Gary L; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2009-01-01

    Background The vast majority of global stillbirths occur in low- and middle-income countries, and in many settings, the majority of stillbirths occur antenatally, prior to the onset of labour. Poor nutritional status, lack of antenatal care and a number of behaviours increase women's risk of stillbirth in many resource-poor settings. Interventions to reduce these risks could reduce the resulting burden of stillbirths, but the evidence for the impact of such interventions has not yet been comprehensively evaluated. Methods This second paper of a systematic review of interventions that could plausibly impact stillbirth rates covers 12 different interventions relating to behavioural and socially mediated risk factors, including exposures to harmful practices and substances, antenatal care utilisation and quality, and maternal nutrition before and during pregnancy. The search strategy reviewed indexed medical journals on PubMed and the Cochrane Library. If any eligible randomised controlled trials were identified that were published after the most recent Cochrane review, they were added to generate new meta-analyses. Interventions covered in this paper have a focus on low- and middle-income countries, both because of the large burden of stillbirths and because of the high prevalence of risk factors including maternal malnutrition and harmful environmental exposures. The reviews and studies belonging to these interventions were graded and conclusions derived about the evidence of benefit of these interventions. Results From a programmatic perspective, none of the interventions achieved clear evidence of benefit. Evidence for some socially mediated risk factors were identified, such as exposure to indoor air pollution and birth spacing, but still require the development of appropriate interventions. There is a need for additional studies on culturally appropriate behavioural interventions and clinical trials to increase smoking cessation and reduce exposure to smokeless

  19. Association between alcohol drinking behaviour and cognitive function: results from a nationwide longitudinal study of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sujin; Kim, Yongjoo; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This research intends to determine how drinking behaviour, such as episodic heavy drinking, is related to cognitive performance in middle-aged and old-aged people in South Korea. Methods A cohort data of 5157 adults, age 45 years or older, with normal cognitive function (the Korean version of the Mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE) ≥24) at baseline (2006), was derived from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. Alcohol drinking behaviour was assessed using the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener) questionnaire. The relationships between baseline drinking behaviour (in 2006) to the extent of cognitive decline (between 2006 and 2012) and development of cognitive impairment (in 2012) were assessed. Results Individuals with problematic drinking behaviour at baseline experienced a faster decline in cognitive function than those with non-problematic drinking (p<0.05) during 6 years of follow-up, especially among those with relatively lownormal K-MMSE score (24–26) at baseline (p<0.05). Problematic alcohol drinking behaviour was also significantly associated with onset of severe cognitive impairment (SCI) (K-MMSE score ≤17) among those with relatively low-normal K-MMSE score (adjusted OR (aOR)=3.76, 95% CI 1.46 to 9.67). In addition, abstinence, compared with non-problematic drinking, was related to higher risk for developing SCI among men (aOR=1.62, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.39). Conclusions Our results suggest that those with problematic alcohol drinking behaviour could be at an increased risk of cognitive impairment/decline. While further research will provide stronger evidence, intervention targeting alcohol abuse may play a role in prevention of cognitive impairment. PMID:27118285

  20. Family-Centred Applied Behaviour Analysis Verbal Behaviour Intervention for Young Taiwanese Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Szu-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Current educational policy promotes the use of evidence-based practices to maximize children's learning outcomes. With the goal of enhancing a child's ability to learn functional language, the purpose of this study was to focus on involving families through the utilization of evidence-based intervention based upon the Applied Behaviour Analysis…

  1. Moderation of cognition-intention and cognition-behaviour relations: a meta-analysis of properties of variables from the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Richard; Sheeran, Paschal

    2004-06-01

    Meta-analysis was used to quantify the moderating effects of seven properties of cognitions-accessibility, temporal stability, direct experience, involvement, certainty, ambivalence and affective-cognitive consistency-on cognition-intention and cognition-behaviour relations. Literature searches revealed 44 studies that could be included in the review. Findings showed that all of the properties, except involvement, moderated attitude-behaviour consistency. Similarly, all relevant moderators improved the consistency between intentions and behaviour. Temporal stability moderated PBC-behaviour relations, certainty moderated subjective norm-intention relations, and ambivalence, certainty, and involvement all moderated attitude-intention relations. Overall, temporal stability appeared to be the strongest moderator of cognition-behaviour relations. PMID:15285829

  2. Effects of Cognitive Training Interventions With Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Karlene; Berch, Daniel B.; Helmers, Karin F.; Jobe, Jared B.; Leveck, Mary D.; Marsiske, Michael; Morris, John N.; Rebok, George W.; Smith, David M.; Tennstedt, Sharon L.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Willis, Sherry L.

    2010-01-01

    Context Cognitive function in older adults is related to independent living and need for care. However, few studies have addressed whether improving cognitive functions might have short- or long-term effects on activities related to living independently. Objective To evaluate whether 3 cognitive training interventions improve mental abilities and daily functioning in older, independent-living adults. Design Randomized, controlled, single-blind trial with recruitment conducted from March 1998 to October 1999 and 2-year follow-up through December 2001. Setting and Participants Volunteer sample of 2832 persons aged 65 to 94 years recruited from senior housing, community centers, and hospital/clinics in 6 metropolitan areas in the United States. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: 10-session group training for memory (verbal episodic memory; n=711), or reasoning (ability to solve problems that follow a serial pattern; n=705), or speed of processing (visual search and identification; n=712); or a no-contact control group (n=704). For the 3 treatment groups, 4-session booster training was offered to a 60% random sample 11 months later. Main Outcome Measures Cognitive function and cognitively demanding everyday functioning. Results Thirty participants were incorrectly randomized and were excluded from the analysis. Each intervention improved the targeted cognitive ability compared with baseline, durable to 2 years (P<.001 for all). Eighty-seven percent of speed-, 74% of reasoning-, and 26% of memory-trained participants demonstrated reliable cognitive improvement immediately after the intervention period. Booster training enhanced training gains in speed (P<.001) and reasoning (P<.001) interventions (speed booster, 92%; no booster, 68%; reasoning booster, 72%; no booster, 49%), which were maintained at 2-year follow-up (P<.001 for both). No training effects on everyday functioning were detected at 2 years. Conclusions Results support the

  3. Identifying effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies underpinning preschool- and school-based obesity prevention interventions aimed at 4-6-year-olds: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nixon, C A; Moore, H J; Douthwaite, W; Gibson, E L; Vogele, C; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Manios, Y; Summerbell, C D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to identify the most effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies, underpinning preschool- and school-based interventions aimed at preventing obesity in 4-6-year-olds. Searching was conducted from April 1995 to April 2010 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library. Epidemiological studies relevant to the research question with controlled assignment of participants were included in the review, if they had follow-up periods of 6 months or longer. Outcomes included markers of weight gain; markers of body composition; physical activity behaviour changes and dietary behaviour changes. Twelve studies were included in the review. The most commonly used model was social cognitive theory (SCT)/social learning theory (SLT) either as a single model or in combination with other behavioural models. Studies that used SCT/SLT in the development of the intervention had significant favourable changes in one, or more, outcome measures. In addition, interventions that (i) combined high levels of parental involvement and interactive school-based learning; (ii) targeted physical activity and dietary change; and (iii) included long-term follow-up, appeared most effective. It is suggested that interventions should also be focused on developing children's (and parents') perceived competence at making dietary and physical changes. PMID:22309069

  4. Correlates of interventions with self-injurious behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, L; Taylor, R L; Babkie, A

    1994-10-01

    A review was conducted of published intervention research on the self-injurious behaviour (SIB) of individuals with severe or profound mental retardation. The review comprised articles published between 1980 and 1990. Thirty-eight biodemographic and environmental variables were investigated, with type of SIB and intervention type considered primary variable classes. Efficacy was also investigated as an additional variable. Cross-tabulations were performed on selected variables with 24 significant and five marginally significant results obtained. These results indicated that there were possible biases in treatment approaches, problems in compliance with standards of practice, and differential efficacy levels related to certain variable types. Findings were discussed in relation to establishing a prototype for successful SIB interventions. PMID:7841686

  5. Cognitive Somatic Behavioral Interventions for Maximizing Gymnastic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravizza, Kenneth; Rotella, Robert

    Psychological training programs developed and implemented for gymnasts of a wide range of age and varying ability levels are examined. The programs utilized strategies based on cognitive-behavioral intervention. The approach contends that mental training plays a crucial role in maximizing performance for most gymnasts. The object of the training…

  6. Intervention Fidelity for a Complex Behaviour Change Intervention in Community Pharmacy Addressing Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, K. P.; O'Reilly, S. L.; George, J.; Peterson, G. M.; Jackson, S. L.; Duncan, G.; Howarth, H.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs by community pharmacists appears effective and enhances health service access. However, their capacity to implement complex behavioural change processes during patient counselling remains largely unexplored. This study aims to determine intervention fidelity by pharmacists…

  7. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour - i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down - is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising' according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed. PMID:26315814

  8. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart JH

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour – i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down – is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as ‘very promising’, ‘quite promising’, or ‘non-promising’ according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed. PMID:26315814

  9. Developing a Complex Educational–Behavioural Intervention: The TREAT Intervention for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Clarkesmith, Danielle E.; Pattison, Helen M.; Borg Xuereb, Christian; Lane, Deirdre A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the theoretical and pragmatic development of a patient-centred intervention for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Theoretical models (Common Sense Model, Necessity-Concerns Framework), clinical frameworks, and AF patient feedback contributed to the design of a one-off hour-long behaviour-change intervention package. Intervention materials consisted of a DVD, educational booklet, diary and worksheet, which were patient-centred and easy to administer. The intervention was evaluated within a randomised controlled trial. Several “active theoretical ingredients” were identified (for e.g., where patients believed their medication was less harmful they spent more time within the therapeutic range (TTR), with general harm scores predicting TTR at 6 months). Allowing for social comparison and adopting behaviour change techniques enabled accurate patient understanding of their condition and medication. The process of developing the intervention using theory-derived content and evaluation tools allowed a greater understanding of the mechanisms by which this intervention was successful. Alleviating concerns about treatment medication by educating patients can help to improve adherence. This process of intervention development could be adopted for a range of chronic illnesses and treatments. Critical elements should include the use of: (1) clinical guidelines; (2) appropriate theoretical models; (3) patient input; and (4) appropriate evaluation tools. PMID:27417598

  10. Cognitive behavioural group training (CBGT) for patients with type 1 diabetes in persistent poor glycaemic control: who do we reach?

    PubMed

    van der Ven, Nicole C W; Lubach, Caroline H C; Hogenelst, Marloes H E; van Iperen, Ada; Tromp-Wever, Anita M E; Vriend, Annelies; van der Ploeg, Henk M; Heine, Robert J; Snoek, Frank J

    2005-03-01

    Approximately a quarter of adults with type 1 diabetes do not succeed in achieving satisfactory glycaemic control, partly due to problems with the demanding self-management regimen. To improve glycaemic control, interventions with a cognitive behavioural approach, aimed at modifying dysfunctional beliefs, reducing negative emotions and enhancing self-care practices are a potentially successful tool. Little is known about the reach of such an approach. This article describes characteristics of participants in a randomized, controlled trial of cognitive behavioural group training for patients with type 1 diabetes in poor glycaemic control. Results show that outpatients from seven hospitals in the area of Amsterdam, selected on long-standing high HbA1c and volunteering to participate, report high levels of psychological distress and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, self-care behaviours were perceived as important, but burdensome. Diabetes-specific self-efficacy was relatively low. It is concluded that this selected group of adults with type 1 diabetes would potentially benefit from a cognitive-behavioural intervention in order to reduce negative emotions, enhance diabetes self-efficacy, self-care behaviour and glycaemic outcomes. PMID:15721974

  11. Cognitive-behavioural therapy by psychiatric trainees: can a little knowledge be a good thing?

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Eric; Hayde, Melissa; Tone, Yvonne; Dud, Iulia; Kearns, Colette; McGoldrick, Mary; McDonough, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Aims and method To establish the competency of psychiatric trainees in delivering cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) to selected cases, following introductory lectures and supervision. Supervisor reports of trainees rotating through a national psychiatric hospital over 8.5 years were reviewed along with revised Cognitive Therapy Scale (CTS-R) ratings where available. Independent t-test was used to compare variables. Results Structured supervision reports were available for 52 of 55 (95%) trainees. The mean result (4.6, s.d. = 0.9) was at or above the accepted level for competency (≥3) for participating trainees. Available CTS-R ratings (n = 22) supported the supervisor report findings for those particular trainees. Clinical implications This study indicates that trainees under supervision can provide meaningful clinical interventions when delivering CBT to selected cases. The costs of supervision need to be judged against these clinical gains. PMID:26191424

  12. Advances in the cognitive behavioural treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Shafran, Roz; Radomsky, Adam S; Coughtrey, A E; Rachman, S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight key advances in the cognitive-behavioural treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder over the course of Professor Lars Göran Öst's illustrious career. The paper will focus on three specific areas of interest: the treatment of obsessions, compulsive checking, and the fear of contamination. It will also highlight recent advances concerning the broader need to ensure that treatment is acceptable. An increase in acceptability could result in improvements in completion rates so that more patients benefit from the recent improvements in the science and therapy for this disabling disorder. PMID:23758093

  13. Do People with Intellectual Disabilities and Psychosis Have the Cognitive Skills Required to Undertake Cognitive Behavioural Therapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oathamshaw, Stephen C.; Haddock, Gillian

    2006-01-01

    Background: Cognitive skills thought to be necessary to undertake cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) include the ability to recognize emotions, link events and emotions, and recognize cognitive mediation. These skills have been assessed in people with intellectual disabilities, but not in those who also have psychosis. Materials and methods:…

  14. Effectiveness of cognitive-behaviour therapy for hoarding disorder in people with mild intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Kellett, Stephen; Matuozzo, Heather; Kotecha, Chandanee

    2015-12-01

    Evaluations of cognitive behavioural interventions for hoarding for those with intellectual disabilities (ID) have not been previously attempted. This investigation therefore examined the acceptability and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in a sample of N=14 adults with mild ID. All participants had hoarding as their primary problem and received twelve individual CBT sessions, all conducted via domiciliary visits. The primary outcome measure was an environmental measure (Clutter Image Rating Scale), which was scored at baseline, end of treatment and at six-month follow-up. Acceptability of CBT was measured via the treatment refusal and dropout rate. Secondary self-report outcomes included measures of hoarding, depression and anxiety. Results demonstrate that hoarding significantly reduced following treatment on both self-report and environmental assessment. No participants refused or dropped out of treatment and that there was no evidence of relapse over the follow-up period. No adverse treatment incidences were reported. This open trial suggests that CBT may be a safe and effective intervention for hoarding difficulties in people with ID, but that the evidence base in this population needs urgent and detailed attention. PMID:26479825

  15. Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder: diagnosis, management, and the need for neuroprotective interventions.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; Tolosa, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (IRBD) manifests as unpleasant dreams and vigorous behaviours during REM sleep that can result in injuries. Patients with IRBD have no known neurological diseases or motor or cognitive complaints; however, this sleep disorder is not harmless. In most cases, IRBD is the prelude of the synucleinopathies Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, or, less frequently, multiple system atrophy. Patients can show abnormalities that are characteristic of the synucleinopathies, and longitudinal follow-up shows that most patients develop parkinsonism and cognitive impairments with time. Thus, diagnosis of IRBD needs to be accurate and involves informing the patient of the risk of developing a neurodegenerative disease. It is extraordinary for a sleep disorder to precede the full expression of a neurodegenerative disease, which renders IRBD of particular interest in studies of the prodromal stage of the synucleinopathies, and in the development of neuroprotective interventions to stop or slow neurodegenerative deterioration before motor and cognitive symptomatology emerges. Such therapeutics do not currently exist, and thus represent an unmet need in IRBD. PMID:26971662

  16. A group cognitive behaviour therapy programme with metastatic breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Edelman, S; Bell, D R; Kidman, A D

    1999-01-01

    One-hundred and twenty-four patients with metastatic breast cancer were randomised to either a group Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) intervention, or to a no-therapy control group condition. Both groups received standard oncological care; however, therapy recipients also attended eight weekly sessions of group CBT, followed by a family night, and three further monthly sessions. Patients completed the 'Profile of Mood States' (POMS) and the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (CSI) before and after therapy, and at 3 and 6 month follow-up periods. Outcome data in the period following therapy showed reduced depression and total mood disturbance, as well as improved self-esteem amongst therapy participants, relative to a no-therapy control group. These improvements were no longer evident at the 3 or 6 month follow-up assessments. We also report on the difficulties associated with conducting a group intervention with this patient cohort. PMID:10474848

  17. Towards Medication-Enhancement of Cognitive Interventions in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Hsun-Hua; Twamley, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Current antipsychotic medications do little to improve real-life function in most schizophrenia patients. A dispassionate view of the dispersed and variable neuropathology of schizophrenia strongly suggests that it is not currently, and may never be, correctable with drugs. In contrast, several forms of cognitive therapy have been demonstrated to have modest but lasting positive effects on cognition, symptoms, and functional outcomes in schizophrenia patients. To date, attempts to improve clinical outcomes in schizophrenia by adding pro-cognitive drugs to antipsychotic regimens have had limited success, but we propose that a more promising strategy would be to pair drugs that enhance specific neurocognitive functions with cognitive therapies that challenge and reinforce those functions. By using medications that engage spared neural resources in the service of cognitive interventions, it might be possible to significantly enhance the efficacy of cognitive therapies. We review and suggest several laboratory measures that might detect potential pro-neurocognitive effects of drugs in individual patients, using a “test dose” design, aided by specific biomarkers predicting an individual’s drug sensitivity. Lastly, we argue that drug classes viewed as “counter-intuitive” based on existing models for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia—including pro-catecholaminergic and NMDA-antagonistic drugs—might be important candidate “pro-cognitive therapy” drugs. PMID:23027413

  18. Cognitive-Behavioral Techniques and Interventions for Application in Counselor Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurpius, DeWayne J.; Morran, D. Keith

    1988-01-01

    Presents research supporting cognitive-behavioral model for counselor supervision and gives conceptual and procedural base for defining and implementing cognitive-behavioral supervision approach. Describes three supervision techniques (mental practice, covert modeling, cognitive modeling) and three supervision interventions (cognitive…

  19. Teacher Involvement in the Development of Function-Based Behaviour Intervention Plans for Students with Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Sue; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This article examines literature published since 1997 on functional behaviour assessment (FBA) and behaviour intervention plans (BIPs), involving school-based personnel, for children identified as having or being at risk of emotional/behavioural disorder (E/BD) in school settings. Of interest was the level of involvement of school-based personnel…

  20. Computer games supporting cognitive behaviour therapy in children.

    PubMed

    Brezinka, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic computer games might enhance children's motivation for psychotherapy, facilitate their understanding of important therapeutic concepts, structure therapy sessions, enhance treatment of migrant children and disseminate evidence-based treatment approaches. The game Treasure Hunt was developed to support cognitive behaviour therapy with children who come into treatment for various mental health problems. To evaluate the applicability and appropriateness of the game, 124 therapists answered a questionnaire on their impression of Treasure Hunt three months after download. Of these, 42 consented to participate in the further evaluation and sent questionnaires of 218 children in whose therapy Treasure Hunt had been used. A limitation of these data is an eventual positive bias, as therapists with a positive attitude towards therapeutic computer games may have been more likely to participate. Data show that the vast majority of children were satisfied their therapist had used the game during treatment. Therapists used Treasure Hunt for a broad range of diagnoses. They judged the game as helpful in the explanation of cognitive-behavioural concepts, used it as reinforcement and reported it enhanced child motivation for psychotherapy and strengthened the therapeutic relationship with the child. PMID:23258925

  1. Cognitive behavioural strategies and anxiety in elite orienteers.

    PubMed

    Gal-Or, Y; Tenenbaum, G; Shimrony, S

    1986-01-01

    The primary purpose of this exploratory field study was to examine the use of cognitive behavioural strategies by highly skilled orienteers prior to and during competition. A secondary purpose of the study was to investigate whether differences in the level of qualification in orienteering is related to state anxiety. The subjects were divided into three classes with respect to their international and national records. The first two classes (A and B) were composed of international and national level athletes. The third class (C) included orienteers with unknown international records. Examination of the use of behavioural cognitive strategies during competition indicated that all orienteers reported a moderate use of mental imagery, above moderate use of inner talk and a focus of attention on present action rather than past or future. The other major findings were that prior to competition, superior orienteers reported use of higher self-efficacy, more positive outcome expectations and more task demand orientation than their less successful counterparts. Top orienteers coped more successfully with pre-competition anxiety by lowering their anxiety to a more moderate level prior to the actual performance. PMID:3735483

  2. Parents' Use of Physical Interventions in the Management of Their Children's Severe Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Hawkins, Sarah; Cooper, Viv

    2006-01-01

    Background: Although training staff supporting people with challenging behaviour in physical interventions has become accepted practice, parents are often left to fend for themselves while managing equivalent behaviours. The study explores parents' experience of managing severe challenging behaviours, their use of physical interventions and access…

  3. Increasing access to Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Low and Middle Income Countries: A strategic framework.

    PubMed

    Beck, Andrew; Nadkarni, Abhijit; Calam, Rachel; Naeem, Farooq; Husain, Nusrat

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive Behaviour Therapy has been demonstrated to be an effective intervention in outpatient and inpatient settings for a wide range of presenting mental health problems including depression, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Post traumatic Stress Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder and Somatorform Disorder. There is likely to be an unmet need for this therapeutic approach in most Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). However, the training of therapists to deliver this intervention has historically been a lengthy and expensive process, with already highly trained staff such as psychiatrists and psychologists undertaking additional training of up to one year duration in order to develop expertise in this area. This paper proposes that a model where training, supervision, leadership and service evaluation is provided by a small number of highly trained staff to front-line non-specialist staff who will then deliver manualised therapy. These front-line staff may also be conceptualised as part of a stepped care model where self-help and manualised therapy approaches are used in the first instance. Where patient functioning does not improve there is then the possibility of being stepped-up for treatment by a more specialised and highly trained therapist. This approach may help in meeting the huge mental health treatment gap in LMIC. This paper also suggests that lessons learnt from the dissemination of behaviourally informed parenting interventions internationally can be applied to the dissemination of this therapeutic approach. PMID:26643366

  4. Specifying and reporting complex behaviour change interventions: the need for a scientific method

    PubMed Central

    Michie, Susan; Fixsen, Dean; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Eccles, Martin P

    2009-01-01

    Complex behaviour change interventions are not well described; when they are described, the terminology used is inconsistent. This constrains scientific replication, and limits the subsequent introduction of successful interventions. Implementation Science is introducing a policy of initially encouraging and subsequently requiring the scientific reporting of complex behaviour change interventions. PMID:19607700

  5. Studying nursing interventions in acutely ill, cognitively impaired older adults

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Kathleen; Bradway, Christine; Hirschman, Karen B; Naylor, Mary D

    2015-01-01

    Background Between one and two of every five hospitalized older adults have cognitive deficits, often not accurately assessed or well managed. Cognitive impairment adds substantially to the complexity of these patients’ care, places them at high risk for poor outcomes and increases the cost of health care. Methods We describe three evidence-based interventions, each capitalizing on the unique contributions of nurses and designed to improve outcomes of hospitalized older adults who have cognitive deficits. Interventions of varying intensity were compared across three hospitals (Phase I) and subsequently within the same hospitals (Phase II). All enrolled patients were screened during their index hospitalizations and cognitive deficits were communicated to relevant health care team members (Augmented Standard Care-ASC, lowest intensity). At one hospital, ASC was the only intervention. Patients at a second hospital also had care influenced by specially prepared registered nurses (Resource Nurse Care-RNC, medium intensity). Finally, patients at third hospital also received advanced practice nurse coordinated care (Transitional Care Model-TCM, higher intensity). In Phase II, newly enrolled patients at these same hospitals all received the TCM. We summarize major themes from review of multiple data sources and researcher recollections related to facilitators and barriers to implementing a complex research study. Findings Effective implementation of the three intervention strategies depended on clinician engagement and communication; degree of participation by nurses in the educational program with subsequent practice improvement; and success of advanced practice nurses in implementing the TCM with both with patients, family caregivers and clinicians. Implications Based on lessons learned in implementing complex research studies within the “real world” of clinical practice settings, recommendations focus on strengthening facilitators, minimizing barriers and gaining

  6. Classroom based cognitive behavioural therapy in reducing symptoms of depression in high risk adolescents: pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sayal, Kapil; Phillips, Rhiannon; Taylor, John A; Spears, Melissa; Anderson, Rob; Araya, Ricardo; Lewis, Glyn; Millings, Abigail; Montgomery, Alan A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of classroom based cognitive behavioural therapy with attention control and usual school provision for adolescents at high risk of depression. Design Three arm parallel cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting Eight UK secondary schools. Participants Adolescents (n=5030) aged 12-16 years in school year groups 8-11. Year groups were randomly assigned on a 1:1:1 ratio to cognitive behavioural therapy, attention control, or usual school provision. Allocation was balanced by school, year, number of students and classes, frequency of lessons, and timetabling. Participants were not blinded to treatment allocation. Interventions Cognitive behavioural therapy, attention control, and usual school provision provided in classes to all eligible participants. Main outcome measures Outcomes were collected by self completed questionnaire administered by researchers. The primary outcome was symptoms of depression assessed at 12 months by the short mood and feelings questionnaire among those identified at baseline as being at high risk of depression. Secondary outcomes included negative thinking, self worth, and anxiety. Analyses were undertaken on an intention to treat basis and accounted for the clustered nature of the design. Results 1064 (21.2%) adolescents were identified at high risk of depression: 392 in the classroom based cognitive behavioural therapy arm, 374 in the attention control arm, and 298 in the usual school provision arm. At 12 months adjusted mean scores on the short mood and feelings questionnaire did not differ for cognitive behavioural therapy versus attention control (−0.63, 95% confidence interval −1.85 to 0.58, P=0.41) or for cognitive behavioural therapy versus usual school provision (0.97, −0.20 to 2.15, P=0.12). Conclusion In adolescents with depressive symptoms, outcomes were similar for attention control, usual school provision, and cognitive behavioural therapy. Classroom based cognitive behavioural

  7. Social cognitive intervention reduces stress in Hungarian university students.

    PubMed

    Bíró, Eva; Veres-Balajti, Ilona; Adány, Róza; Kósa, Karolina

    2014-02-20

    A social cognitive intervention was developed and delivered as a credit course to improve mental distress of university students, based on findings in a previous health survey showing notable mental distress among future teachers in Hungary in 2007. The intervention included increasing information on psychoactive substances used for stress reduction; skills development in stress reduction methods; improving skills in communication and problem-solving. All students who participated in the previous health survey were targeted. Mental status of the participants was assessed by a questionnaire before (n: 128, 22% male, mean age 23.21 years) and after (n: 148, 30% male, mean age 23.54 years) the intervention. Specifically, self-efficacy as outcome was approximated by a trait measure (sense of coherence); psychological distress was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire ( Goldberg et al., 1997. The validity of two versions of the GHQ in the WHO study of mental illness in general health care. Psychological Medicine, 27, 191-197) after the intervention compared with that before. After the intervention, psychological distress was reduced among the participants (p: 0.013). Non-significant improvement occurred in the mean score for sense of coherence (from a mean 60.8 points before to 61.4 points after, p: 0.688). The intervention produced a modest but significant decrease in psychological distress in students at a cost of 54 US$ per 1 point improvement in mental distress. The intervention, a first example of the translation of the social cognitive theory into practice among students in higher education can be integrated into the curriculum as a standardized optional course. PMID:24556027

  8. Do cognitive interventions improve general cognition in dementia? A meta-analysis and meta-regression

    PubMed Central

    Huntley, J D; Gould, R L; Liu, K; Smith, M; Howard, R J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To review the efficacy of cognitive interventions on improving general cognition in dementia. Method Online literature databases and trial registers, previous systematic reviews and leading journals were searched for relevant randomised controlled trials. A systematic review, random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regression were conducted. Cognitive interventions were categorised as: cognitive stimulation (CS), involving a range of social and cognitive activities to stimulate multiple cognitive domains; cognitive training (CT), involving repeated practice of standardised tasks targeting a specific cognitive function; cognitive rehabilitation (CR), which takes a person-centred approach to target impaired function; or mixed  CT and stimulation (MCTS). Separate analyses were conducted for general cognitive outcome measures and for studies using ‘active’ (designed to control for non-specific therapeutic effects) and non-active (minimal or no intervention) control groups. Results 33 studies were included. Significant positive effect sizes (Hedges’ g) were found for CS with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) (g=0.51, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.69; p<0.001) compared to non-active controls and (g=0.35, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.65; p=0.019) compared to active controls. Significant benefit was also seen with the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale-Cognition (ADAS-Cog) (g=−0.26, 95% CI −0.445 to −0.08; p=0.005). There was no evidence that CT or MCTS produced significant improvements on general cognition outcomes and not enough CR studies for meta-analysis. The lowest accepted minimum clinically important difference was reached in 11/17 CS studies for the MMSE, but only 2/9 studies for the ADAS-Cog. Additionally, 95% prediction intervals suggested that although statistically significant, CS may not lead to benefits on the ADAS-Cog in all clinical settings. Conclusions CS improves scores on MMSE and ADAS-Cog in dementia, but benefits on the ADAS-Cog are generally

  9. Does emotional reasoning change during cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety?

    PubMed

    Berle, David; Moulds, Michelle L; Starcevic, Vladan; Milicevic, Denise; Hannan, Anthony; Dale, Erin; Viswasam, Kirupamani; Brakoulias, Vlasios

    2016-01-01

    Emotional reasoning refers to the use of subjective emotions, rather than objective evidence, to form conclusions about oneself and the world. It is a key interpretative bias in cognitive models of anxiety disorders and appears to be especially evident in individuals with anxiety disorders. However, the amenability of emotional reasoning to change during treatment has not yet been investigated. We sought to determine whether emotional reasoning tendencies change during a course of routine cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). Emotional reasoning tendencies were assessed in 36 individuals with a primary anxiety disorder who were seeking treatment at an outpatient clinic. Changes in anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as emotional reasoning tendencies after 12 sessions of CBT were examined in 25 individuals for whom there was complete data. Emotional reasoning tendencies were evident at pretreatment assessment. Although anxiety and depressive symptoms decreased during CBT, only one of six emotional reasoning interpretative styles (pertaining to conclusions that one is incompetent) changed significantly during the course of therapy. Attrition rates were high and there was not enough information regarding the extent to which therapy specifically focused on addressing emotional reasoning tendencies. Individuals seeking treatment for anxiety disorders appear to engage in emotional reasoning, however routine individual CBT does not appear to result in changes in emotional reasoning tendencies. PMID:26732906

  10. Degradation of cognitive timing mechanisms in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    Henley, Susie M.D.; Downey, Laura E.; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Kinnunen, Kirsi M.; Golden, Hannah L.; Buckley, Aisling; Mahoney, Colin J.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined motor timing in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), which manifests as progressive deterioration in social, behavioural and cognitive functions. Twenty-patients fulfilling consensus clinical criteria for behavioural variant FTD (bvFTD), 11 patients fulfilling consensus clinical criteria for semantic-variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), four patients fulfilling criteria for nonfluent/agrammatic primary progressive aphasia (naPPA), eight patients fulfilling criteria for Alzheimer׳s disease (AD), and 31 controls were assessed on both an externally- and self-paced finger-tapping task requiring maintenance of a regular, 1500 ms beat over 50 taps. Grey and white matter correlates of deficits in motor timing were examined using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). bvFTD patients exhibited significant deficits in aspects of both externally- and self-paced tapping. Increased mean inter-response interval (faster than target tap time) in the self-paced task was associated with reduced grey matter volume in the cerebellum bilaterally, right middle temporal gyrus, and with increased axial diffusivity in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus, regions and tracts which have been suggested to be involved in a subcortical–cortical network of structures underlying timing abilities. This suggests that such structures can be affected in bvFTD, and that impaired motor timing may underlie some characteristics of the bvFTD phenotype. PMID:25447066

  11. A cognitive-behavioural program for adolescents with chronic pain-a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Merlijn, Vivian P B M; Hunfeld, Joke A M; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice A J M; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette W A; Koes, Bart W; Passchier, Jan

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the feasibility of a cognitive-behavioural training program for adolescents with chronic pain irrespective of pain localisation. A secondary aim was to give an impression of the effect of the program on pain and quality of life. Eight adolescents (14-18 years) with chronic non-organic pain recruited from the general population (and their parents) participated in this pilot study. The intervention included five group meetings alternated with four telephone contacts (during the self-management weeks) over a period of 9 weeks. The training aimed to change pain behaviour through pain education, relaxation strategies, problem-solving techniques, assertiveness training, cognitive restructuring and by stimulating the adolescent's physical activity level. The training further addresses the social context of pain by inviting parents to attend two meetings for the parents only, and by asking the adolescents to bring a peer to one of the meetings. Adolescents and their parents were positive about the program. Adolescents felt they were more in control of their pain and parents valued the support they experienced in helping their children to master the pain. The training was considered to be feasible in daily life. Further, the preliminary data showed an effect on pain and quality of life in the expected direction. The results underline the need for a definitive study with a larger sample size and a random controlled design. PMID:16257616

  12. Rumination-focused cognitive behaviour therapy for residual depression: a case series.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Ed; Scott, Jan; Wingrove, Janet; Rimes, Katharine; Bathurst, Neil; Steiner, Herbert; Kennell-Webb, Sandra; Moulds, Michelle; Malliaris, Yanni

    2007-09-01

    The treatment of chronic and recurrent depression is a priority for the development of new interventions. The maintenance of residual symptoms following acute treatment for depression is a risk factor for both chronic depression and further relapse/recurrence. This open case series provides the first data on a cognitive-behavioural treatment for residual depression that explicitly targets depressive rumination. Rumination has been identified as a key factor in the onset and maintenance of depression, which is found to remain elevated following remission from depression. Fourteen consecutively recruited participants meeting criteria for medication--refractory residual depression [Paykel, E.S., Scott, J., Teasdale, J.D., Johnson, A.L., Garland, A., Moore, R. et al., 1999. Prevention of relapse in residual depression by cognitive therapy--a controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry 56, 829-835] were treated individually for up to 12 weekly 60-min sessions. Treatment specifically focused on switching patients from less helpful to more helpful styles of thinking through the use of functional analysis, experiential/imagery exercises and behavioural experiments. Treatment produced significant improvements in depressive symptoms, rumination and co-morbid disorders: 71% responded (50% reduction on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale) and 50% achieved full remission. Treating depressive rumination appears to yield generalised improvement in depression and co-morbidity. This study provides preliminary evidence that rumination-focused CBT may be an efficacious treatment for medication--refractory residual depression. PMID:17367751

  13. Seven Pervasive Statistical Flaws in Cognitive Training Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, David; Kirk, Ian J.; Waldie, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of enhancing cognition is undoubtedly among the most exciting research questions currently bridging psychology, neuroscience, and evidence-based medicine. Yet, convincing claims in this line of work stem from designs that are prone to several shortcomings, thus threatening the credibility of training-induced cognitive enhancement. Here, we present seven pervasive statistical flaws in intervention designs: (i) lack of power; (ii) sampling error; (iii) continuous variable splits; (iv) erroneous interpretations of correlated gain scores; (v) single transfer assessments; (vi) multiple comparisons; and (vii) publication bias. Each flaw is illustrated with a Monte Carlo simulation to present its underlying mechanisms, gauge its magnitude, and discuss potential remedies. Although not restricted to training studies, these flaws are typically exacerbated in such designs, due to ubiquitous practices in data collection or data analysis. The article reviews these practices, so as to avoid common pitfalls when designing or analyzing an intervention. More generally, it is also intended as a reference for anyone interested in evaluating claims of cognitive enhancement. PMID:27148010

  14. Seven Pervasive Statistical Flaws in Cognitive Training Interventions.

    PubMed

    Moreau, David; Kirk, Ian J; Waldie, Karen E

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of enhancing cognition is undoubtedly among the most exciting research questions currently bridging psychology, neuroscience, and evidence-based medicine. Yet, convincing claims in this line of work stem from designs that are prone to several shortcomings, thus threatening the credibility of training-induced cognitive enhancement. Here, we present seven pervasive statistical flaws in intervention designs: (i) lack of power; (ii) sampling error; (iii) continuous variable splits; (iv) erroneous interpretations of correlated gain scores; (v) single transfer assessments; (vi) multiple comparisons; and (vii) publication bias. Each flaw is illustrated with a Monte Carlo simulation to present its underlying mechanisms, gauge its magnitude, and discuss potential remedies. Although not restricted to training studies, these flaws are typically exacerbated in such designs, due to ubiquitous practices in data collection or data analysis. The article reviews these practices, so as to avoid common pitfalls when designing or analyzing an intervention. More generally, it is also intended as a reference for anyone interested in evaluating claims of cognitive enhancement. PMID:27148010

  15. The Effect of Stress Management Based on Group Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy on Marital Satisfaction in Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Solati, Kamal; Ja’Farzadeh, Lo’Bat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the developed world, infertility is on rise and has become a social concern. This is considered as a serious stress in life and exerts a severe psychological impact on the couple. Aim This study was conducted to study the efficacy of stress management based on group cognitive-behavioural therapy on marital satisfaction in infertile women. Materials and Methods This was a quasi-experimental study with a pretest-post-test design and control group. The study sample consisted of 40 infertile women enrolled based on convenience sampling and randomly assigned to two groups: experimental and control, of 20 each. Then, the experimental group underwent 10 two-hour stress management sessions per cognitive-behavioural therapy. The instruments used in this study were marital satisfaction inventory ENRICH and a checklist of demographic characteristics. Immediately and three months after completion of the intervention, the instruments were administered to the participants. The data was analysed by analysis of covariance in SPSS 18. Results There was a significant difference in marital satisfaction between the experimental and control groups in both post-test (p=0.001) and follow-up (p=0.001). Conclusion The stress management based on cognitive-behavioural therapy could contribute to increasing marital satisfaction in infertile women. The effect could remain stable three months after the last interventions (follow-up).

  16. Effect of cognitive intervention on children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Gharebaghy, Soraya; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Cameron, Debra

    2015-02-01

    Although not considered a diagnostic criterion in DSM-IV, motor difficulties in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are commonly reported. Prevalence of co-morbidity of ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorder is as high as 50%. Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) is a problem-solving approach originally developed for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder. In this approach, therapists support children to use cognitive strategies in a process of guided discovery to solve occupational performance problems. A single case experimental design (multiple baselines) was used to examine the influence of a 12-week intervention using CO-OP with six children with ADHD. Outcome measures included the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), Goal Attainment Scaling and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency and Performance (BOTMP). The results of this study demonstrated improvements in both goals and motor performance in the participants due to the intervention. These results provide some support for the use of CO-OP with children with ADHD. Further research into the application of CO-OP with children with ADHD is warranted based on these preliminary positive findings regarding the efficacy of this intervention to address motor-based performance difficulties. PMID:25246134

  17. A systematic review of behavioural interventions to increase maternal calcium intake.

    PubMed

    Jung, Mary E; Stork, Matthew J; Stapleton, Jessica; Bourne, Jessica E; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy and lactation are a time when adequate calcium consumption is essential for the development of the fetus and to ensure the health of the mother. Over 50% of Canadian women of childbearing and rearing age fail to meet the recommended daily intake of calcium. Identification of effective behavioural intervention strategies for increasing calcium intake is needed within this specific population. This paper brings together all published behavioural interventions designed to increase calcium consumption in pregnant, lactating or post-partum mothers in a systematic review. Relevant studies were obtained through searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library with no date restrictions. Studies were evaluated using previously published criteria for evaluating calcium behaviour change interventions. This systematic literature review identified five behavioural calcium interventions conducted within this population. Three interventions aimed to improve overall dietary behaviours, the fourth aimed to promote breastfeeding (including increasing calcium consumption) and the fifth aimed to increase daily servings of yoghurt. Only one of the five interventions yielded large effect sizes, with a mean change of 954 mg of calcium per day post-intervention. The number of behavioural change techniques did not appear to be related to intervention efficacy. Only one study used a theoretical framework to guide the intervention. This review highlights the lack of research examining behaviour change interventions aimed at increasing calcium consumption in pregnant, lactating and post-partum women and provides practical suggestions for researchers wishing to intervene with this population in the future. PMID:25536083

  18. Treating anxiety after stroke using cognitive-behaviour therapy: Two cases

    PubMed Central

    Kneebone, Ian I.; Jeffries, Fiona W.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are common after stroke. However, information on how to treat them with psychotherapy in this population is highly limited. Modified cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) has the potential to assist. Two cases of individuals treated with modified CBT for anxiety after stroke are presented. The modification was required in light of deficits in executive and memory function in one individual and in the context of communication difficulties in the other. The anxiety symptoms were treated over seven and nine sessions, respectively. Both participants improved following the intervention, and these improvements were maintained at 3 month follow-ups. Further case-series and randomised controlled designs are required to support and develop modified CBT for those with anxiety after stroke. PMID:23889561

  19. Providing Training in Positive Behavioural Support and Physical Interventions for Parents of Children with Autism and Related Behavioural Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, David

    2014-01-01

    Though professionals working with children on the autism spectrum who display challenging behaviour routinely receive training in the use of both positive behavioural support techniques and physical interventions, such training is rarely provided for the parents of these children. This article reports on the impact of training provided for family…

  20. A Meta-Analysis of Intervention Effects on Challenging Behaviour among Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyvaert, M.; Maes, B.; Onghena, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) often show challenging behaviour. We review distinct interventions that are applied to treat these challenging behaviours, and analyse intervention effects and moderating variables. Methods: A literature search was conducted using the databases "ERIC," "PsycINFO," "Web of Science" and…

  1. Peer Acceptance and the Development of Emotional and Behavioural Problems: Results from a Preventive Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menting, Barbara; Koot, Hans; van Lier, Pol

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties in peer acceptance during elementary school have been associated with emotional and behavioural problems. This study used a randomized controlled intervention design to test whether improvements in peer acceptance mediated reduced rates of emotional and behavioural problems in intervention compared to control-group children. A total…

  2. Effects of an Emotional Literacy Intervention for Students Identified with Bullying Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowler, Claire; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of a 12-week, small group emotional literacy (EL) intervention in reducing bullying behaviour in school was evaluated. Participants were 50 primary school pupils identified through peer nomination as engaging in bullying behaviours. The intervention was implemented in schools already engaged with a universal social and emotional…

  3. The neurobiology of HIV and its impact on cognitive reserve: A review of cognitive interventions for an aging population.

    PubMed

    Cody, Shameka L; Vance, David E

    2016-08-01

    The medications used to treat HIV have reduced the severity of cognitive deficits; yet, nearly half of adults with HIV still exhibit some degree of cognitive deficits, referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder or HAND. These cognitive deficits interfere with everyday functioning such as emotional regulation, medication adherence, instrumental activities of daily living, and even driving a vehicle. As adults are expected to live a normal lifespan, the process of aging in this clinical population may exacerbate such cognitive deficits. Therefore, it is important to understand the neurobiological mechanisms of HIV on cognitive reserve and develop interventions that are either neuroprotective or compensate for such cognitive deficits. Within the context of cognitive reserve, this article delivers a state of the science perspective on the causes of HAND and provides possible interventions for addressing such cognitive deficits. Suggestions for future research are also provided. PMID:26776767

  4. A review of physical and cognitive interventions in aging.

    PubMed

    Bamidis, P D; Vivas, A B; Styliadis, C; Frantzidis, C; Klados, M; Schlee, W; Siountas, A; Papageorgiou, S G

    2014-07-01

    Maintaining a healthy brain is a critical factor for the quality of life of elderly individuals and the preservation of their independence. Challenging aging brains through cognitive training and physical exercises has shown to be effective against age-related cognitive decline and disease. But how effective are such training interventions? What is the optimal combination/strategy? Is there enough evidence from neuropsychological observations, animal studies, as well as, structural and functional neuroimaging investigations to interpret the underlying neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the observed neuroplasticity of the aging brain? This piece of work summarizes recent findings toward these questions, but also highlights the role of functional brain connectivity work, an emerging discipline for future research in healthy aging and the study of the underlying mechanisms across the life span. The ultimate aim is to conclude on recommended multimodal training, in light of contemporary trends in the design of exergaming interventions. The latter issue is discussed in conjunction with building up neuroscientific knowledge and envisaged future research challenges in mapping, understanding and training the aging brain. PMID:24705268

  5. Planning for, implementing and assessing the impact of health promotion and behaviour change interventions: a way forward for health psychologists.

    PubMed

    Wallace, L M; Brown, K E; Hilton, S

    2014-01-01

    Researchers in the field of health psychology have increasingly been involved in translating a body of knowledge about psychological factors associated with health-relevant behaviours, into the development and evaluation of interventions that seek to apply that knowledge. In this paper we argue that a changing economic and political climate, and the strong behavioural contribution to disease morbidity and mortality in developed nations, requires health psychologists to plan more rigorously for, and communicate more effectively, about how health promotion, social cognition and behaviour change interventions will have impact and be increasingly embedded into health services or health promotion activity. We explain academic and wider socio-economic uses of 'impact' in health services research. We describe the relationship between impact and dissemination, and impact as distinct from, but often used interchangeably with the terms 'implementation', 'knowledge transfer' and 'knowledge translation' (KT). The evidence for establishing impact is emergent. We therefore draw on a number of impact planning and KT frameworks, with reference to two self- management interventions, to describe a framework that we hope will support health psychologists in embedding impact planning and execution in research. We illustrate this further in an on-line annexe with reference to one of our own interventions, Mums-and-MS (see Supplemental Material). PMID:25053005

  6. Interaction of Cognitive Distortions and Cognitive Deficits in the Formulation and Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Behaviours in a Woman with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willner, Paul; Goodey, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Aims: This case study describes the formulation and cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) of obsessive-compulsive thoughts and behaviours in a woman with an intellectual disability. The report aimed to distinguish the cognitive deficits that reflect her disability from the cognitive distortions integral to her obsessive-compulsive disorder. Case…

  7. Displays of inappropriate sexual behaviour by patients with progressive cognitive impairment: the forgotten form of challenging behaviour?

    PubMed

    Stubbs, B

    2011-09-01

    Persons with progressive cognitive impairment such as dementia or Alzheimer's disease may display an array of challenging behaviours. For instance, levels of agitation and aggression have been reported as high as 33% in home-dwelling individuals and 80% in those residing in institutions. One form of challenging behaviour that may be displayed by this group is inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB), but it is often overshadowed by other behaviours such as aggression. Inappropriate sexual behaviour involves any verbal of physical action of a sexual nature which is displayed in an inappropriate social context. Examples of ISB include: exposure of genitals in public/ward environments, 'groping' of nurses and masturbation in public areas. It has been estimated that the prevalence of ISB ranges from 2% to 17% of individuals with progressive cognitive impairment. Although it is less frequent than other challenging behaviours, it still may have significant deleterious effects on the victim's health. This paper is a review of the available literature on the nature, effects and management of ISB in persons with progressive cognitive impairment. Possible avenues for future research are also explored. PMID:21848594

  8. Impact of a facial-ageing intervention versus a health literature intervention on women's sun protection attitudes and behavioural intentions.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alison Leah; Grogan, Sarah; Clark-Carter, David; Buckley, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the impact of a facial-ageing intervention on women's sun protection attitudes and behavioural intentions, compared to a health literature intervention where participants viewed literature on the effect of ultraviolet (UV) exposure on health. Seventy women (35 in each condition) completed questionnaires at baseline and immediately post-intervention. The average age of the participants was 23.70 (SD = 5.03) years. Participants in the facial-ageing intervention condition scored significantly higher on intentions, negative attitudes and perceived sun damage susceptibility after taking part in the intervention, compared to those in the health literature intervention condition. The results are discussed in relation to suggestions for sun protection interventions aimed at women aged from 18 to 34. It is concluded that appearance-based interventions have a role to play in healthcare and educational settings with regard to UV exposure and sun protection intentions. PMID:23527527

  9. Using cognitive-behavioural techniques to improve exclusive breastfeeding in a low-literacy disadvantaged population.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Atif; Haq, Zaeem; Sikander, Siham; Ahmad, Ikhlaq; Ahmad, Mansoor; Hafeez, Assad

    2012-01-01

    Despite being an important component of Pakistan's primary health care programme, the rates of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months remain among the lowest in the world. Low levels of literacy in women and deeply held cultural beliefs and practices have been found to contribute to the ineffectiveness of routine counselling delivered universally by community health workers in Pakistan. We aimed to address this by incorporating techniques of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) into the routine counselling process. We conducted qualitative studies of stakeholders' opinions (mothers, community health workers, their trainers and programme managers) and used this data to develop a psycho-educational approach that combined education with techniques of CBT that could be integrated into the health workers' routine work. The workers were trained to use this approach and feedback was obtained after implementation. The new intervention was successfully integrated into the community health worker programme and found to be culturally acceptable, feasible and useful. Incorporating techniques of CBT into routine counselling may be useful to promote health behaviours in traditional societies with low literacy rates. PMID:22066882

  10. Alleviating distressing intrusive memories in depression: a comparison between computerised cognitive bias modification and cognitive behavioural education.

    PubMed

    Newby, Jill M; Lang, Tamara; Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Holmes, Emily; Moulds, Michelle L

    2014-05-01

    Negative appraisals maintain intrusive memories and intrusion-distress in depression, but treatment is underdeveloped. This study compared the efficacy of computerised bias modification positive appraisal training (CBM) versus a therapist-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy session (CB-Education) that both aimed to target and alter negative appraisals of a negative intrusive autobiographical memory. Dysphoric participants (Mean BDI-II = 27.85; N = 60) completed baseline ratings of a negative intrusive memory, negative appraisals and the Impact of Event Scale, and were randomly allocated either one session of CBM, CB-Education, or a no intervention monitoring control condition (Control). Mood and intrusion symptoms were assessed at one week follow-up. For all groups, there were significant reductions over one week in mood (depression and anxiety), memory intrusiveness and negative appraisals. Groups differed in terms of intrusion-related distress, with the CB-Education group showing greatest reduction, followed by the CBM group. The study provides evidence for the link between maladaptive appraisals of intrusive memories and distress in depressed mood. Further, both a single session of CB-Education and (to a lesser degree) CBM are useful in reducing intrusion-related distress. This study may have been underpowered to detect differences and replication is needed with larger samples. PMID:24685536

  11. The behavioural toxicity of antidepressants: effects on cognition and sexual function.

    PubMed

    Hindmarch, I

    1998-07-01

    The cognitive system is structured from sets of schema, patterns of neural activity that allow the assimilation or accommodation of new experiences and so, by a process of consolidation, the gradual development of knowledge and understanding. As well as schema for purely cognitive processes, there are similar structures that enable individuals to deal with sexual behaviour and affectual relationships (e.g. hedonia, self-esteem, personal preferences and body image). In depression, there is a well established disruption of cognitive function that results in anhedonia and a loss of pleasure, including that from sexual activities. Many antidepressants also have a direct pharmacological action on the central nervous system and disrupt cognitive function, so increasing anhedonia and impairing sexual function. Drug actions on cognitive structures, which in turn increase anhedonia and reduce sexual libido, are over and above any direct pharmacological effects on the more overt behavioural activities associated with sex, including orgasm, erectile function, potency and ejaculation. The tricyclic antidepressants, for example, destroy the cognitive structures that are vital to maintain normal libido as well as disturbing overt sexual behaviours. Some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; paroxetine and sertraline) are associated with behavioural activation that is also responsible for an impairment of sexual function. However, there are clear differences between the SSRIs, and fluvoxamine (relative to the other SSRIs) has little effect on objective measures of cognition or on cerebral and behavioural components of sexual function. PMID:9728668

  12. The Relationship between Specific Cognitive Impairment and Behaviour in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, K. A.; Oliver, C.; Humphreys, G. W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) have been shown to demonstrate a particular cognitive deficit in attention switching and high levels of preference for routine and temper outbursts. This study assesses whether a specific pathway between a cognitive deficit and behaviour via environmental interaction can exist in individuals…

  13. Brief Report: Are ADHD Traits Dissociable from the Autistic Profile? Links between Cognition and Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Catherine S.; White, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of co-morbid symptoms of ADHD in children with ASD have increased. This research sought to identify ADHD-related behaviours in a sample of children with ASD, and their relationship with the ASD triad of impairments and related cognitive impairments. Children with ASD (n = 55) completed a comprehensive cognitive assessment whilst a…

  14. The Role of Social-Cognitive Abilities in Preschoolers' Aggressive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Rebecca Stetson; Cassidy, Kimberly Wright; Juliano, Mariel

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between preschool children's social-cognitive abilities (theory of mind and social information processing; SIP) and their observed physical and relational aggressive behaviour. Children with more advanced social-cognitive abilities engaged in fewer acts of physical aggression; however, much of the ability…

  15. [Educational intervention for the expression of cognitive excellence].

    PubMed

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia

    2015-02-25

    The aim of the study is a reflection on the current standing of giftedness research and the effectiveness of gifted education in order to facilitate its optimal developmental trajectory from potential to eminence. The necessity of rethinking high intellectual ability as a developmental process is exposed from a new paradigm sustained by research results that could lead us to a better understanding of its nature and functioning as the product of the inter-relation of predictor factors and psychosocial modulators across the development, and the participation of executive functions on cognitive management. Rethinking giftedness education is needed, too, in order to prepare young people for outstanding achievement or eminence. Finally, one of the actual effective models of intervention for gifted learners to excellence is exposed and exemplified: the integrated curriculum model. PMID:25726830

  16. Development and Behaviour in Marshall-Smith Syndrome: An Exploratory Study of Cognition, Phenotype and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Balkom, I. D. C.; Shaw, A.; Vuijk, P. J.; Franssens, M.; Hoek, H. W.; Hennekam, R. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Marshall-Smith syndrome (MSS) is an infrequently described entity characterised by failure to thrive, developmental delay, abnormal bone maturation and a characteristic face. In studying the physical features of a group of patients, we noticed unusual behavioural traits. This urged us to study cognition, behavioural phenotype and…

  17. Stability and Change in the Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour Scores of Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Helen E.; Smith, Isabel M.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-01-01

    We examined the stability of cognitive and adaptive behaviour standard scores in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) between diagnosis and school entry approximately age 6. IQ increased 18 points in 2-year-olds, 12 points in 3-year-olds, and 9 points in 4-year-olds (N = 281). Adaptive behaviour scores increased 4 points across age groups…

  18. Effect of a social cognitive intervention on oral health status, behavior reports, and cognitions.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, L A; Keffer, M A; Davis, E L; Christersson, L A

    1992-07-01

    An intervention designed to test the influence of cognitive restructuring on protective oral health behaviors was conducted with 108 patients with mild to moderate gingivitis. Subjects in the experimental group viewed slides of active, mobile bacteria taken from their mouths on 5 occasions: before and after prophylaxis and at 3 appointments, one month apart. A specially trained hygienist discussed with these participants the process of periodontal disease, the role of bacteria, and self-efficacy (self-control) for oral hygiene self-care. Both experimental and control group subjects received instruction in oral self-care procedures. Assessments of oral health using Löe and Silness' plaque and gingival indices (PI and GI) were taken throughout the study and at 3- and 6-month follow-up visits. Self-efficacy, oral hygiene intentions, attitudes, and values comprised the set of cognition variables. Plaque and gingival indices mean differences between groups approached significance at visit 6. Analyses were also performed using percent of gingival surfaces scored at "0" (no visible bleeding on probing). A trend occurred for group differences in percent "0" scores at visit 6, with the experimental group maintaining higher percent zeros (better health) at this 3-month follow-up. At visit 7 (9-month follow-up), PI and GI differences disappeared. No significant differences were found between groups for oral health cognitions or behavior reports over time. The data suggest that the cognitive-behavioral intervention produced a delayed relapse in protective oral self-care behaviors, and by extension, oral health status. Such a delay could be clinically relevant in promoting adherence to oral hygiene behavior between professional visits. PMID:1507036

  19. Cognitive-Behavioral and Pharmacologic Interventions for Children's Distress during Painful Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, Susan M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Evaluated efficacy of cognitive-behavioral intervention package and low-risk pharmacologic intervention (oral Valium) as compared with minimal treatment-attention control condition, in reducing children leukemia patients' distress during bone marrow aspirations. The cognitive-behavioral therapy reduced behavioral distress, pain ratings and pulse…

  20. Connecting Neuroscience, Cognitive, and Educational Theories and Research to Practice: A Review of Mathematics Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeger, Lori A.; Brown, Rhonda Douglas; O'Brien, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This article describes major theories and research on math cognition across the fields of neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and education and connects these literatures to intervention practices. Commercially available math intervention programs were identified and evaluated using the following questions: (a) Did neuroscience…

  1. Developing cognitive-emotional training exercises as interventions for mood and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Iacoviello, B M; Charney, D S

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for more effective treatments for mood and anxiety disorders. As our understanding of the cognitive and affective neuroscience underlying psychiatric disorders expands, so do opportunities to develop novel interventions that capitalize on the capacity for brain plasticity. Cognitive training is one such strategy. This paper provides the background and rationale for developing cognitive-emotional training exercises as an intervention strategy, and proposes guidelines for the development and evaluation of cognitive training interventions with a specific focus on major depressive disorder as an example. PMID:25451246

  2. Development of an intervention program to increase effective behaviours by patients and clinicians in psychiatric services: Intervention Mapping study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Health clinicians perceive certain patients as 'difficult' across all settings, including mental health care. In this area, patients with non-psychotic disorders that become long-term care users may be perceived as obstructing their own recovery or seeking secondary gain. This negative perception of patients results in ineffective responses and low-quality care by health clinicians. Using the concept of illness behaviour, this paper describes the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of a structured intervention aimed at prevention and management of ineffective behaviours by long-term non-psychotic patients and their treating clinicians. Methods The principles of Intervention Mapping were applied to guide the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of the intervention. Qualitative (individual and group interviews), quantitative (survey), and mixed methods (Delphi-procedure) research was used to gain a broad perspective of the problem. Empirical findings, theoretical models, and existing evidence were combined to construct a program tailored to the needs of the target groups. Results A structured program to increase effective illness behaviour in long-term non-psychotic patients and effective professional behaviour in their treating clinicians was developed, consisting of three subsequent stages and four substantial components, that is described in detail. Implementation took place and evaluation of the intervention is being carried out. Conclusions Intervention Mapping proved to be a suitable method to develop a structured intervention for a multi-faceted problem in mental health care. PMID:20973985

  3. Brain and cognitive-behavioural development after asphyxia at term birth.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Michelle; Wyatt, John S; Roth, Simon; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Gadian, David; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2006-07-01

    Perinatal asphyxia occurs in approximately 1-6 per 1000 live full-term births. Different patterns of brain damage can result, though the relation of these patterns to long-term cognitive-behavioural outcome remains under investigation. The hippocampus is one brain region that can be damaged (typically not in isolation), and this site of damage has been implicated in two different long-term outcomes, cognitive memory impairment and the psychiatric disorder schizophrenia. Factors in addition to the acute episode of asphyxia likely contribute to these specific outcomes, making prediction difficult. Future studies that better document long-term cognitive-behavioural outcome, quantitatively identify patterns of brain injury over development and consider additional variables that may modulate the impact of asphyxia on cognitive and behavioural function will forward the goals of predicting long-term outcome and understanding the mechanisms by which it unfolds. PMID:16764608

  4. Impact of disease, cognitive and behavioural factors on caregiver outcome in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Watermeyer, Tamlyn J; Brown, Richard G; Sidle, Katie C L; Oliver, David J; Allen, Christopher; Karlsson, Joanna; Ellis, Cathy; Shaw, Christopher E; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Goldstein, Laura H

    2015-01-01

    Up to 50% of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) show mild to moderate cognitive-behavioural change alongside their progressive functional impairment. This study examines the relative impact of patients' disease symptoms, behavioural change and current executive function and social cognition abilities on psychosocial outcomes in spouse caregivers of people with ALS. Thirty-five spouse caregivers rated their own levels of depression and anxiety, subjective burden and marital satisfaction. Caregivers also rated their partner's everyday behaviour. The patients were assessed for disease severity and cognitive function, with composite scores derived for executive function and social cognition. Regression analyses revealed that caregiver burden was predicted by the severity of patients' limb involvement and behavioural problems. Depression was predicted by patients' limb involvement, while behavioural problems and patient age predicted caregiver anxiety. Current marital satisfaction was predicted by patient behavioural problems beyond the level of pre-illness marital satisfaction. In conclusion, the study highlights the potential impact of ALS patients' functional impairment and behavioural change on ALS caregivers' psychosocial functioning. Clinical communication with ALS families should emphasise both physical and psychological challenges presented by the disease. PMID:26199108

  5. Psychological Intervention for Improving Cognitive Function in Cancer Survivors: A Literature Review and Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    King, Summer; Green, Heather Joy

    2015-01-01

    Although the impact of cancer and associated treatments on cognitive functioning is becoming an increasingly recognized problem, there are few published studies that have investigated psychological interventions to address this issue. A waitlist randomized controlled trial methodology was used to assess the efficacy of a group cognitive rehabilitation intervention (“ReCog”) that successfully targeted cancer-related cognitive decline in previously published pilot research. Participants were 29 cancer survivors who were randomly allocated to either the intervention group or a waitlist group who received the intervention at a later date, and 16 demographically matched community volunteers with no history of cancer (trial registration ACTRN12615000009516, available at http://www.ANZCTR.org.au/ACTRN12615000009516.aspx). The study was the first to include an adapted version of the Traumatic Brain Injury Self-Efficacy Scale to assess cognitive self-efficacy (CSE) in people who have experienced cancer. Results revealed participating in the intervention was associated with significantly faster performance on one objective cognitive task that measures processing speed and visual scanning. Significantly larger improvements for the intervention group were also found on measures of perceived cognitive impairments and CSE. There was some evidence to support the roles of CSE and illness perceptions as potential mechanisms of change for the intervention. Overall, the study provided additional evidence of feasibility and efficacy of group psychological intervention for targeting cancer-related cognitive decline. PMID:25859431

  6. Effects of an emotional literacy intervention for students identified with bullying behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Knowler, Claire; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of a 12-week, small group emotional literacy (EL) intervention in reducing bullying behaviour in school was evaluated. Participants were 50 primary school pupils identified through peer nomination as engaging in bullying behaviours. The intervention was implemented in schools already engaged with a universal social and emotional learning initiative, including an anti-bullying component. Within schools, participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or a wait-list comparison group. Response to the intervention was found to be dependent on baseline levels of EL. Only children whose baseline level was low showed a significant reduction in peer-rated bullying behaviour. No effect of the intervention was detected on victimisation or adjustment scores, although positive changes in adjustment were associated with increased EL. PMID:26494932

  7. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change. PMID:21673826

  8. Behaviour Difficulties and Cognitive Function in Children Born Very Prematurely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayless, Sarah; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Stevenson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Children born very prematurely are at risk of low average IQ and behaviour difficulties throughout childhood and adolescence. Associations among preterm birth, IQ and behaviour have been reported; however, the nature of the relationship among these outcomes is not fully understood. Some studies have proposed that the consequences of preterm birth,…

  9. Association of the family environment with behavioural and cognitive outcomes in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Allen, T. M.; Hersh, J.; Schoch, K.; Curtiss, K.; Hooper, S. R.; Shashi, V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at risk for social-behavioural and neurocognitive sequelae throughout development. The current study examined the impact of family environmental characteristics on social-behavioural and cognitive outcomes in this pediatric population. Method Guardians of children with 22q11DS were recruited through two medical genetics clinics. Con senting guardians were asked to complete several questionnaires regarding their child's social, emotional and behavioural functioning, as well as family social environment and parenting styles. Children with 22q11DS were asked to undergo a cognitive assessment, including IQ and achievement testing, and measures of attention, executive function and memory. Results Modest associations were found between aspects of the family social environment and parenting styles with social-behavioural and cognitive/academic outcomes. Regression models indicated that physical punishment, socioeconomic status, parental control and family organisation significantly predicted social-behavioural and cognitive outcomes in children with 22q11DS. Conclusion Characteristics of the family social environment and parenting approaches appear to be associated with functional outcomes of children with 22q11DS. Understanding the impact of environmental variables on developmental outcomes can be useful in determining more effective targets for intervention. This will be important in order to improve the quality of life of individuals affected by 22q11DS. PMID:23742203

  10. Cost effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy and behavioural stress management for severe health anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Axelsson, Erland; Lekander, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Internet-delivered exposure-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of severe health anxiety. The health economic effects of the treatment have, however, been insufficiently studied and no prior study has investigated the effect of ICBT compared with an active psychological treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cost effectiveness of ICBT compared with internet-delivered behavioural stress management (IBSM) for adults with severe health anxiety defined as Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) hypochondriasis. ICBT was hypothesised to be the more cost-effective treatment. Setting This was a cost-effectiveness study within the context of a randomised controlled trial conducted in a primary care/university setting. Participants from all of Sweden could apply to participate. Participants Self-referred adults (N=158) with a principal diagnosis of DSM-IV hypochondriasis, of whom 151 (96%) provided baseline and post-treatment data. Interventions ICBT or IBSM for 12 weeks. Primary and secondary measures The primary outcome was the Health Anxiety Inventory. The secondary outcome was the EQ-5D. Other secondary measures were used in the main outcome study but were not relevant for the present health economic analysis. Results Both treatments led to significant reductions in gross total costs, costs of healthcare visits, direct non-medical costs and costs of domestic work cutback (p=0.000–0.035). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) indicated that the cost of one additional case of clinically significant improvement in ICBT compared with IBSM was $2214. The cost-utility ICER, that is, the cost of one additional quality-adjusted life year, was estimated to be $10 000. Conclusions ICBT is a cost-effective treatment compared with IBSM and treatment costs are offset by societal net cost reductions in a short time. A cost-benefit analysis

  11. Cost and outcome of behavioural activation versus cognitive behaviour therapy for depression (COBRA): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for depression. However, CBT is a complex therapy that requires highly trained and qualified practitioners, and its scalability is therefore limited by the costs of training and employing sufficient therapists to meet demand. Behavioural activation (BA) is a psychological treatment for depression that may be an effective alternative to CBT and, because it is simpler, might also be delivered by less highly trained and specialised mental health workers. Methods/Design COBRA is a two-arm, non-inferiority, patient-level randomised controlled trial, including clinical, economic, and process evaluations comparing CBT delivered by highly trained professional therapists to BA delivered by junior professional or para-professional mental health workers to establish whether the clinical effectiveness of BA is non-inferior to CBT and if BA is cost effective compared to CBT. Four hundred and forty patients with major depressive disorder will be recruited through screening in primary care. We will analyse for non-inferiority in per-protocol and intention-to-treat populations. Our primary outcome will be severity of depression symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) at 12 months follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be clinically significant change and severity of depression at 18 months, and anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form Health Survey-36) at 12 and 18 months. Our economic evaluation will take the United Kingdom National Health Service/Personal Social Services perspective to include costs of the interventions, health and social care services used, plus productivity losses. Cost-effectiveness will explored in terms of quality-adjusted life years using the EuroQol-5D measure of health-related quality of life. Discussion The clinical and economic outcomes of this trial will provide the evidence to help policy makers, clinicians and guideline

  12. Group cognitive behavioural therapy program shows potential in reducing symptoms of depression and stress among young people with ASD.

    PubMed

    McGillivray, J A; Evert, H T

    2014-08-01

    We examined the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered in groups on the reduction of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress in young people on the autism spectrum. Utilising a quasi-experimental design, comparisons were made between individuals allocated to a group intervention program and individuals allocated to a waitlist. Following the intervention program, participants who were initially symptomatic reported significantly lower depression and stress scores on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in comparison to individuals on the waitlist. There was no significant change in anxiety related symptoms. The benefits were maintained at 3 and 9 month follow-up. Our findings demonstrate the potential of CBT in a small group setting for assisting young people with ASD who have symptoms of depression and stress. PMID:24634065

  13. Treatment of PTSD in older adults: Do cognitive-behavioral interventions remain viable?

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Joshua D.; Beck, J. Gayle

    2011-01-01

    The literature examining trauma among older adults is growing, but little is known about the efficacy of empirically supported interventions for PTSD within this population. Clinical writing on this topic often implies that cognitive-behavioral treatments may be ineffective or inappropriate for older adults with PTSD given physical and/or cognitive vulnerabilities. Review of the limited research in this area, however, provides little support for the claim that cognitive-behavioral interventions are ineffective in treating PTSD among the elderly. In an effort to explicate specific issues related to treatment process and outcome among older survivors of trauma, a case series is presented outlining the treatment of three older adults within the context of a structured, cognitive-behavioral group intervention. Observations from this case series suggests that cognitive-behavioral interventions continue to be useful in treating PTSD with this population. Specific treatment issues unique to older adults are explored and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:22383863

  14. Combined Cognitive-Psychological-Physical Intervention Induces Reorganization of Intrinsic Functional Brain Architecture in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Wang, Baoxi; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Xin; Li, Rui; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age. PMID:25810927

  15. Information Processing Versus Social Cognitive Mediators of Weight Loss in a Podcast-Delivered Health Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Linda K.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Campbell, Marci K.

    2016-01-01

    Podcasting is an emerging technology, and previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcast for weight loss among overweight and obese individuals. This study investigated whether constructs of social cognitive theory and information processing theories (IPTs) mediate the effect of a podcast intervention on weight loss among overweight individuals. Data are from Pounds off Digitally, a study testing the efficacy of two weight loss podcast interventions (control podcast and theory-based podcast). Path models were constructed (n = 66). The IPTs—elaboration likelihood model, information control theory, and cognitive load theory—mediated the effect of a theory-based podcast on weight loss. The intervention was significantly associated with all IPTs. Information control theory and cognitive load theory were related to elaboration, and elaboration was associated with weight loss. Social cognitive theory constructs did not mediate weight loss. Future podcast interventions grounded in theory may be effective in promoting weight loss. PMID:24082027

  16. Training a Family in Physical Interventions as Part of a Positive Behaviour Support Intervention for Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Olivia; Keeling, Natalie; Pearce, Malcom

    2016-01-01

    Between 10% and 15% of people with a learning disability have behaviour that challenges others, and half of these people live within the family home (Emerson et al., "Research in Developmental Disabilities," 2001; 22, 77). Current best practice in managing challenging behaviour combines person-centred planning, functional analysis, and…

  17. The 'balance intervention' for promoting caloric compensatory behaviours in response to overeating: a formative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wammes, Birgitte; Breedveld, Boudewijn; Kremers, Stef; Brug, Johannes

    2006-08-01

    To help people prevent weight gain, the Netherlands Nutrition Centre initiated the 'balance intervention', which promotes moderation of food intake and/or increased physical activity in response to occasions of overeating. The aim of this study was to determine whether intervention materials were appreciated, encouraged information seeking and increased motivation and caloric compensatory behaviours. A three-group randomized trial with pre-intervention measures (n = 963, response 86%) and post-intervention measures (n = 857) using electronic questionnaires was conducted among participants aged 25-40 years, recruited from an Internet research panel. The first group received a printed brochure and electronic newsletters (print group), the second group was exposed to radio advertisements (radio group) and the third group was the control group. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the impact of the materials on self-reported prevalence of overeating, attitudes, perceived behavioural control, intentions and compensatory behaviours. At follow-up, we found significantly more positive attitudes, intentions and dietary action in the print and radio groups. However, participants who received the radio advertisement had a significantly lower perceived behavioural control. No effects were found on the prevalence of overeating. The results indicate that the intervention materials have potential for increasing people's attitudes, motivation and self-reported behaviour actions, with a possible negative side-effect on perceived behavioural control. PMID:16606638

  18. A practical approach for applying best practices in behavioural interventions to injury prevention

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsohn, Lela

    2010-01-01

    Behavioural science when combined with engineering, epidemiology and other disciplines creates a full picture of the often fragmented injury puzzle and informs comprehensive solutions. To assist efforts to include behavioural science in injury prevention strategies, this paper presents a methodological tutorial that aims to introduce best practices in behavioural intervention development and testing to injury professionals new to behavioural science. This tutorial attempts to bridge research to practice through the presentation of a practical, systematic, six-step approach that borrows from established frameworks in health promotion and disease prevention. Central to the approach is the creation of a programme theory that links a theoretically grounded, empirically tested behaviour change model to intervention components and their evaluation. Serving as a compass, a programme theory allows for systematic focusing of resources on the likely most potent behavioural intervention components and directs evaluation of intervention impact and implementation. For illustration, the six-step approach is applied to the creation of a new peer-to-peer campaign, Ride Like a Friend/Drive Like You Care, to promote safe teen driver and passenger behaviours. PMID:20363817

  19. A longitudinal study of gender-related cognition and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anne; Shirley, Louisa; Candy, Julia

    2004-02-01

    Gender schema theory proposes that children's acquisition of gender labels and gender stereotypes informs gender-congruent behaviour. Most previous studies have been cross-sectional and do not address the temporal relationship between knowledge and behaviour. We report the results of a longitudinal study of gender knowledge and sex-typed behaviour across three domains in children tested at 24 and 36 months (N = 56). Although both knowledge and sex-typed behaviour increased significantly between 2 and 3 years, there was no systematic pattern of cross-lagged correlations between the two, although some concurrent relationships were present at 24 months. Future longitudinal work might profitably focus on younger children using reliable preverbal measures of gender knowledge and employing a shorter lag between measurement times. PMID:15323112

  20. Cognitive behaviour therapy for improving social recovery in psychosis: cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Barton, Garry R; Hodgekins, Jo; Mugford, Miranda; Jones, Peter B; Croudace, Tim; Fowler, David

    2009-07-01

    A randomised trial was conducted in order to estimate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of social recovery orientated cognitive behavioural therapy (SRCBT) for people diagnosed with psychosis, compared to case management alone (CMA). The mean incremental health and social care cost, and the mean incremental quality adjusted life year (QALY) gain, of SRCBT was calculated over the 9 month intervention period. The cost-effectiveness of SCRBT was in turn estimated, and considered in relation to the cost-effectiveness threshold of 20000 UK pounds per QALY. The level of uncertainty associated with that decision was estimated by calculating the cost-effectiveness acceptability curve for SRCBT. N=35 received SRCBT and N=42 received CMA. The mean incremental cost was estimated to be 668 UK pounds, and the mean incremental QALY gain 0.035. SRCBT was estimated to be cost-effective as it had a cost per QALY of 18844 UK pounds, which was more favourable than the assumed cost-effectiveness threshold of 20000 UK pounds per QALY. At that threshold the probability of being cost-effective was however estimated to be 54.3% according to the CEAC, suggesting that further research may be warranted in order to reduce the level of uncertainty associated with the decision as to whether SRCBT is cost-effective. PMID:19403270

  1. Effect of tetrahydroaminoacridine on cognition, function and behaviour in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, D W; Guyatt, G H; Wilson, D B; Duke, R; Rees, L; Singer, J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) in Alzheimer's disease. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, multiple crossover trial with three treatment periods, each consisting of 3 weeks of active drug therapy and 3 weeks of placebo administration. SETTING: Referral-based geriatric practice in a community hospital. PATIENTS: Thirty-four patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. Subjects were included if they had stage 3 to 6 disease (as determined by the Reisberg scale) and had not been taking psychotropic drugs for at least 1 month and if informed consent had been obtained from the patients and their next of kin. INTERVENTIONS: Fifty to 100 mg of THA daily and matched placebo. RESULTS: Of the initial 34 patients 14 experienced liver toxicity and 3 gastrointestinal side effects during the study; however, all 22 who completed the study were able to tolerate at least the minimum dose. For the 22 patients there was no clinically or statistically significant effect of THA on cognition, functional status or behaviour. The results for individual patients showed no subgroup of THA-responsive patients. CONCLUSION: THA has no clinically important benefits in Alzheimer's disease and is associated with appreciable toxic effects. PMID:1984813

  2. Evidence-based practice and the need for paradigmatic pluralism in cognitive behavioural psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Grant, A

    2009-05-01

    The scientist-practitioner model, which is based on positivistic methodological assumptions, is influential in the development, training and practice of cognitive behavioural psychotherapists. As the emergence of 'Nurse Cognitive Behavioural Therapist' training in the early 1970s in Britain, many of those trained have been mental health nurses and with the emergence of the Increased Access to Psychological Therapies agenda many more are likely to undergo training. Despite some acceptance of its relevance, the scientist-practitioner model is subject of criticism on the grounds of its achievability and contemporary relevance, and its exclusion of other modalities of counselling and psychotherapy without an, as yet, disseminated evidence base. In line with key policy-related work, the empirical and political issues inscribed within the scientist-practitioner model have direct implications for the educational preparation and ongoing professional development of cognitive behavioural practitioners. Specifically, in this polemical paper it is argued that there is a moral and educational need for 'senior' practitioners to question the philosophy of science assumptions underpinning the overwhelming dominance of the quantitative-experimental approach in cognitive behavioural psychotherapy. Such a critically evaluative and pluralistic stance would arguably distinguish senior practitioners in terms of them being able to make broad rather than narrow appraisals of the evidence base for their practice. A recognition of the relevance of paradigmatic and epistemological pluralism in cognitive behavioural work would, it is argued, confer considerable advantages on our practice communities and clients. A range of emerging implications for cognitive behavioural education, practice and relational ethics are described and discussed. PMID:19383016

  3. Cognitive interventions in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases: emerging mechanisms and role of imaging

    PubMed Central

    Vemuri, Prashanthi; Fields, Julie; Peter, Jessica; Klöppel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review There has been recent debate about the lack of compelling scientific evidence on the efficacy of cognitive interventions. The goal of this study is to review the current state of cognitive interventions in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, present emerging mechanisms, and discuss the role of imaging in designing effective intervention strategies. Recent findings Cognitive interventions appear to be promising in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Although feasibility has been shown in mild cognitive impairment, early Alzheimer's disease, and mild to moderate Parkinson's disease, studies to investigate long-term efficacy and mechanisms underlying these interventions are still needed. Summary There is a need to conduct scientifically rigorous studies to validate the efficacy of cognitive intervention trials. Future studies will greatly benefit from including longitudinal imaging in their study design. Imaging can be used to demonstrate the efficacy and mechanisms by measuring brain changes over the intervention period. Imaging can also be used to determine biological and disease-related factors that may influence the treatment response, that is, the effect modifiers. Consideration of effect modifiers will allow us to measure the treatment response in biomarkers and cognition with greater sensitivity and also aid in designing trials that will lead to better patient outcomes. PMID:27213773

  4. Cognitive Remediation: A New Generation of Psychosocial Interventions for People with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Eack, Shaun M.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a mental health condition characterized by broad impairments in cognition, which place profound limitations on functional recovery. Social work has an enduring legacy in pioneering the development of novel psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia, and this article introduces cognitive remediation, the latest advance in psychosocial treatments for the disorder designed to improve cognition. First, an overview of the nature of cognitive impairments and their functional consequences in schizophrenia is presented, followed by a description of the theoretical basis and key practice principles of cognitive remediation. Next, the latest biopsychosocial evidence for the efficacy of cognitive remediation in schizophrenia is critically reviewed. Finally, a model cognitive remediation program, Cognitive Enhancement Therapy, which was developed and evaluated by a social work-led multidisciplinary team is presented. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy represents a significant advance in cognitive remediation for schizophrenia, and uses a unique holistic approach that extends beyond traditional neurocognitive training to facilitate the achievement of adult social-cognitive milestones and broader functional recovery. It is concluded that cognitive remediation represents an effective next generation of psychosocial interventions that social workers can use to help improve the lives of many people who live with schizophrenia. PMID:23252315

  5. Behavioural Interventions for Self Injurious Behaviour: A Review of Recent Evidence (1998-2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prangnell, Simon J.

    2010-01-01

    Estimates suggest that up to one quarter of people who have a severe learning disability engage in self injurious behaviour (SIB). SIB poses serious risks, both to the person's physical health and their quality of life. Behavioural approaches have made a contribution to supporting people who engage in SIB, although the last review of these…

  6. Dyslexia at a Behavioural and a Cognitive Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helland, Turid

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to see whether patterns of neuro-cognitive assets and deficits seen in dyslexia also would lead to different patterns of reading and writing. A group of dyslexic children was subgrouped by language comprehension and mathematics skills in accordance with the definition of the British Dyslexia Association of 1998. This…

  7. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  8. The effectiveness of interventions to change six health behaviours: a review of reviews

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several World Health Organisation reports over recent years have highlighted the high incidence of chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and cancer. Contributory factors include unhealthy diets, alcohol and tobacco use and sedentary lifestyles. This paper reports the findings of a review of reviews of behavioural change interventions to reduce unhealthy behaviours or promote healthy behaviours. We included six different health-related behaviours in the review: healthy eating, physical exercise, smoking, alcohol misuse, sexual risk taking (in young people) and illicit drug use. We excluded reviews which focussed on pharmacological treatments or those which required intensive treatments (e.g. for drug or alcohol dependency). Methods The Cochrane Library, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) and several Ovid databases were searched for systematic reviews of interventions for the six behaviours (updated search 2008). Two reviewers applied the inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed the quality of the reviews. The results were discussed in a narrative synthesis. Results We included 103 reviews published between 1995 and 2008. The focus of interventions varied, but those targeting specific individuals were generally designed to change an existing behaviour (e.g. cigarette smoking, alcohol misuse), whilst those aimed at the general population or groups such as school children were designed to promote positive behaviours (e.g. healthy eating). Almost 50% (n = 48) of the reviews focussed on smoking (either prevention or cessation). Interventions that were most effective across a range of health behaviours included physician advice or individual counselling, and workplace- and school-based activities. Mass media campaigns and legislative interventions also showed small to moderate effects in changing health behaviours. Generally, the evidence related to short-term effects rather than sustained/longer-term impact and

  9. An Exploration Based Cognitive Bias Test for Mice: Effects of Handling Method and Stereotypic Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Janja; Bailoo, Jeremy D.; Melotti, Luca; Rommen, Jonas; Würbel, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural tests to assess affective states are widely used in human research and have recently been extended to animals. These tests assume that affective state influences cognitive processing, and that animals in a negative affective state interpret ambiguous information as expecting a negative outcome (displaying a negative cognitive bias). Most of these tests however, require long discrimination training. The aim of the study was to validate an exploration based cognitive bias test, using two different handling methods, as previous studies have shown that standard tail handling of mice increases physiological and behavioural measures of anxiety compared to cupped handling. Therefore, we hypothesised that tail handled mice would display a negative cognitive bias. We handled 28 female CD-1 mice for 16 weeks using either tail handling or cupped handling. The mice were then trained in an eight arm radial maze, where two adjacent arms predicted a positive outcome (darkness and food), while the two opposite arms predicted a negative outcome (no food, white noise and light). After six days of training, the mice were also given access to the four previously unavailable intermediate ambiguous arms of the radial maze and tested for cognitive bias. We were unable to validate this test, as mice from both handling groups displayed a similar pattern of exploration. Furthermore, we examined whether maze exploration is affected by the expression of stereotypic behaviour in the home cage. Mice with higher levels of stereotypic behaviour spent more time in positive arms and avoided ambiguous arms, displaying a negative cognitive bias. While this test needs further validation, our results indicate that it may allow the assessment of affective state in mice with minimal training—a major confound in current cognitive bias paradigms. PMID:26154309

  10. An Exploration Based Cognitive Bias Test for Mice: Effects of Handling Method and Stereotypic Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Novak, Janja; Bailoo, Jeremy D; Melotti, Luca; Rommen, Jonas; Würbel, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural tests to assess affective states are widely used in human research and have recently been extended to animals. These tests assume that affective state influences cognitive processing, and that animals in a negative affective state interpret ambiguous information as expecting a negative outcome (displaying a negative cognitive bias). Most of these tests however, require long discrimination training. The aim of the study was to validate an exploration based cognitive bias test, using two different handling methods, as previous studies have shown that standard tail handling of mice increases physiological and behavioural measures of anxiety compared to cupped handling. Therefore, we hypothesised that tail handled mice would display a negative cognitive bias. We handled 28 female CD-1 mice for 16 weeks using either tail handling or cupped handling. The mice were then trained in an eight arm radial maze, where two adjacent arms predicted a positive outcome (darkness and food), while the two opposite arms predicted a negative outcome (no food, white noise and light). After six days of training, the mice were also given access to the four previously unavailable intermediate ambiguous arms of the radial maze and tested for cognitive bias. We were unable to validate this test, as mice from both handling groups displayed a similar pattern of exploration. Furthermore, we examined whether maze exploration is affected by the expression of stereotypic behaviour in the home cage. Mice with higher levels of stereotypic behaviour spent more time in positive arms and avoided ambiguous arms, displaying a negative cognitive bias. While this test needs further validation, our results indicate that it may allow the assessment of affective state in mice with minimal training-a major confound in current cognitive bias paradigms. PMID:26154309

  11. Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions for Treatment of Depression in Alzheimer's Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teri, Linda; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    1991-01-01

    Presents two strategies for treating depression in Alzheimer's patients: cognitive therapy for mildly demented adults which challenges patient's negative cognitions to reduce distortions and enable patient to generate more adaptive ways of viewing specific events; and behavioral intervention for moderately or severely demented adults which…

  12. Cognitive Remediation: A New Generation of Psychosocial Interventions for People with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a mental health condition characterized by broad impairments in cognition that place profound limitations on functional recovery. Social work has an enduring legacy in pioneering the development of novel psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia, and in this article the author introduces cognitive remediation, the…

  13. Introduction to The Special Issue: Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions with Students with EBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Matthew; Lochman, John; Van Acker, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in developing models of social information processing, and cognitive-behavioral processes and related interventions. While there has been limited attention to cognitive-behavioral modification (CBM) in the special education literature, the majority of the contributions have come from the fields of school,…

  14. Mathematics Intervention Utilizing Carnegie Learning's Cognitive Tutor® and Compass Learning's Odyssey Math®

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Carnegie Learning's Cognitive Tutor®The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between pre-test and post-test achievement scores when Compass Learning's Odyssey Math® is used together with Carnegie Learning's Math Cognitive Tutor® in a mathematics intervention program at ABC Middle School. The…

  15. Cognitive Hypothesis Testing and Response to Intervention for Children with Reading Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorello, Catherine A.; Hale, James B.; Snyder, Lindsey E.

    2006-01-01

    Response to intervention (RTI) must be combined with comprehensive cognitive assessment to identify children with learning disabilities. This article presents the Cognitive Hypothesis Testing (CHT) model for integrating RTI and comprehensive evaluation practices in the identification of children with reading disabilities. The CHT model utilizes a…

  16. Clinical supervision in cognitive behavioural psychotherapy: development of a model for mental health nursing through grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Townend, M

    2008-05-01

    This study focuses on the development of a cognitive behavioural model of supervision for mental health nurses. The study utilized a grounded theory approach with cognitive behavioural psychotherapy training course directors. The aim was to more fully understand cognitive behavioural supervision from the perspective of expert supervisors, and develop a model of supervision for mental health nurses who are also cognitive behavioural psychotherapists. For this purpose, 16 course directors were interviewed in-depth, with data analysis taking place after each interview. Through a process of inductive reasoning, core categories were identified from the participants themselves. The relationships between the categories are described. The findings are discussed in terms of a new model that can be used to underpin cognitive behavioural psychotherapy supervision in mental health nursing. PMID:18387152

  17. Acceptability of a theory of planned behaviour email-based nutrition intervention.

    PubMed

    Kothe, E J; Mullan, B A

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated feasibility and acceptability of a new email-delivered intervention promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in a university-based population of Australian young adults. The study explored whether there are differences in the reported feasibility and acceptability between demographic groups within the population of interest and at three levels of intervention intensity. The email-delivered intervention program consists of an implementation intention 'planning task' and between 3 and 15 short email messages over a 15-day study period. The intervention program was developed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour and was designed to modify perceived behavioural control. One hundred and ten participants (mean age = 19.21 years, 25.6% male) completed the feasibility and acceptability questionnaire at Day 15. This questionnaire contained items about all intervention components. High acceptability and feasibility scores were found for all intervention parts and at all levels of intervention intensity. There were few significant differences in the reported acceptability of items between key demographic sub-groups, and no differences in reported acceptability at different levels of intervention intensity. These results suggest that this email-delivered intervention is an acceptable and feasible tool for promoting fruit and vegetable consumption for participants in the target population. PMID:22942273

  18. Febrile Seizures and Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes in Preschool Children: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Annemarie M.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning; Moll, Henriette A.; Arts, Willem Frans M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: General developmental outcome is known to be good in school-aged children who experienced febrile seizures. We examined cognitive and behavioural outcomes in preschool children with febrile seizures, including language and executive functioning outcomes. Method: This work was performed in the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort…

  19. Behavioural and Cognitive Phenotypes in Idiopathic Autism versus Autism Associated with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissanayake, Cheryl; Bui, Quang; Bulhak-Paterson, Danuta; Huggins, Richard; Loesch, Danuta Z.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In order to better understand the underlying biological mechanism/s involved in autism, it is important to investigate the cognitive and behavioural phenotypes associated with idiopathic autism (autism without a known cause) and comorbid autism (autism associated with known genetic/biological disorders such as fragile X syndrome).…

  20. Staff Expectations and Views of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroese, Biza Stenfert; Jahoda, Andrew; Pert, Carol; Trower, Peter; Dagnan, Dave; Selkirk, Mhairi

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of support workers and other professionals in the psychotherapeutic process has been commented upon but not as yet been systematically investigated. Method: To explore their views and expectations of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for adults with intellectual disabilities, eleven paid support workers and professionals were…

  1. A Pilot Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program for Problem Gamblers in a Rural Australian Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Jane; Gardiner, Paula; McLaughlin, Kristin; Battersby, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    An innovative pilot treatment program was developed for problem gamblers living in rural areas of Australia using cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) modified from an established specialist therapy service. The standard 12 weekly group program was delivered on site by adapting it to two 1 week blocks with daily group sessions and 1 week of patient…

  2. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviours, Sensory Processing and Cognitive Style in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Han; Rodgers, Jacqui; McConachie, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Many individuals with autism tend to focus on details. It has been suggested that this cognitive style may underlie the presence of stereotyped routines, repetitive interests and behaviours, and both relate in some way to sensory abnormalities. Twenty-nine children with diagnosis of high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome completed the…

  3. Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study Using Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeney, Farah; Egan, Sarah; Gasson, Natalie

    2005-01-01

    Depression and anxiety affect up to 50% of people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) (Marsh, 2000; Murray, 1996), however, few studies have examined the effectiveness of psychological treatment. This study examined the effectiveness of group cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in treating depression and anxiety in PD. Four participants, aged between 56…

  4. An evaluation of the enhanced cognitive-behavioural model of bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lampard, Amy M; Byrne, Susan M; McLean, Neil; Fursland, Anthea

    2011-09-01

    The original cognitive-behavioural model of bulimia nervosa (BN) has been enhanced to include four additional maintaining mechanisms: low self esteem, clinical perfectionism, interpersonal problems, and mood intolerance. These models have been used to guide cognitive-behavioural treatment for BN, but the enhanced model has yet to be directly evaluated as a whole in a clinical sample. This study aimed to compare and evaluate the original and the enhanced cognitive-behavioural models of BN using structural equation modelling. The Eating Disorder Examination and self-report questionnaires were completed by 162 patients seeking treatment for BN (N = 129) or atypical BN (N = 33). Fit indices suggested that both the original and enhanced models provided a good fit to the data, but the enhanced model accounted for more variance in dietary restraint and binge eating. In the enhanced model, low self esteem was associated with greater overevaluation of weight and shape, which, in turn, was associated with increased dietary restraint. Interpersonal problems were also directly associated with dietary restraint, and binge eating was associated with increased purging. While the current study provides support for some aspects of the enhanced cognitive-behavioural model of BN, some key relationships in the model were not supported, including the important conceptual relationship between dietary restraint and binge eating. PMID:21724176

  5. Digital Leisure-Time Activities, Cognition, Learning Behaviour and Information Literacy: What Are Our Children Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimley, Mick

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in digital technology have resulted in the unprecedented uptake of digital technology engagement as a leisure-time pursuit across the age span. This has resulted in the speculation that such use of digital technology is responsible for changes in cognition and learning behaviour. This study investigated two groups of…

  6. Synchronisation effects on the behavioural performance and information dynamics of a simulated minimally cognitive robotic agent.

    PubMed

    Moioli, Renan C; Vargas, Patricia A; Husbands, Phil

    2012-09-01

    Oscillatory activity is ubiquitous in nervous systems, with solid evidence that synchronisation mechanisms underpin cognitive processes. Nevertheless, its informational content and relationship with behaviour are still to be fully understood. In addition, cognitive systems cannot be properly appreciated without taking into account brain-body- environment interactions. In this paper, we developed a model based on the Kuramoto Model of coupled phase oscillators to explore the role of neural synchronisation in the performance of a simulated robotic agent in two different minimally cognitive tasks. We show that there is a statistically significant difference in performance and evolvability depending on the synchronisation regime of the network. In both tasks, a combination of information flow and dynamical analyses show that networks with a definite, but not too strong, propensity for synchronisation are more able to reconfigure, to organise themselves functionally and to adapt to different behavioural conditions. The results highlight the asymmetry of information flow and its behavioural correspondence. Importantly, it also shows that neural synchronisation dynamics, when suitably flexible and reconfigurable, can generate minimally cognitive embodied behaviour. PMID:22810898

  7. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy: From Face to Face Interaction to a Broader Contextual Understanding of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahoda, A.; Dagnan, D.; Kroese, B. Stenfert; Pert, C.; Trower, P.

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is increasingly used to address the emotional and interpersonal problems of people with ID. There is a limited but promising evidence base supporting this activity. However, these individuals face real and continuing challenges in their lives that have implications for their self and interpersonal perceptions.…

  8. Teacher Interpersonal Behaviour and Secondary Students' Cognitive, Affective and Moral Outcomes in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivan, Atara; Chan, Dennis W. K.

    2013-01-01

    This study validated the Chinese version of the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) in the Hong Kong context as well as examined the relationship between students' perceptions of interpersonal teacher behaviour and their cognitive, affective and moral learning outcomes. Data were collected with the QTI and four other measures of student…

  9. ADHD and Adaptability: The Roles of Cognitive, Behavioural, and Emotional Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Emma; Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptability has been recently proposed as cognitive, behavioural, and emotional regulation assisting individuals to effectively respond to change, uncertainty and novelty. Given students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have known impairments with regulatory functions, they may be at particular disadvantage as they seek to…

  10. Paedophilia: a cognitive/behavioural treatment approach in a single case.

    PubMed

    Enright, S J

    1989-09-01

    Our confidence in being able to offer successful treatment of paedophilia remains low. A multifaceted cognitive/behavioural treatment approach is described in the hitherto successful treatment of a man with a 13-year history of sexually interfering with young children of both sexes. PMID:2611554

  11. Evaluation of 11th Grade Students' Cognitive Behaviour on Some Subjects of Analysis According to Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, Orhun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate students' cognitive behaviour in the subjects of function, limit, and derivative according to gender. The research was conducted with the participation of 67 female and 58 male 11th grade students of Gazi High School in Eskisehir in the academic year 2000/2001. The data were obtained through a test…

  12. Brain and Cognitive-Behavioural Development after Asphyxia at Term Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Haan, Michelle; Wyatt, John S.; Roth, Simon; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Gadian, David; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2006-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia occurs in approximately 1-6 per 1000 live full-term births. Different patterns of brain damage can result, though the relation of these patterns to long-term cognitive-behavioural outcome remains under investigation. The hippocampus is one brain region that can be damaged (typically not in isolation), and this site of damage has…

  13. Increase in Prefrontal Cortical Volume following Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lange, Floris P.; Koers, Anda; Kalkman, Joke S.; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Hagoort, Peter; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Toni, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disabling disorder, characterized by persistent or relapsing fatigue. Recent studies have detected a decrease in cortical grey matter volume in patients with CFS, but it is unclear whether this cerebral atrophy constitutes a cause or a consequence of the disease. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an…

  14. Is Talent in Autism Spectrum Disorders Associated with a Specific Cognitive and Behavioural Phenotype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Emily; Heaton, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Parents of 125 children, adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders completed a newly developed questionnaire aimed at identifying cognitive and behavioural characteristics associated with savant skills in this group. Factors distinguishing skilled individuals were then further investigated in case studies of three individuals…

  15. Assessment of Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour among Individuals with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain and Anhidrosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erez, Daniella Levy; Levy, Jacov; Friger, Michael; Aharoni-Mayer, Yael; Cohen-Iluz, Moran; Goldstein, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Individuals with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) are reported to have mental retardation but to our knowledge no detailed study on the subject has ever been published. The present study assessed and documented cognitive and adaptive behaviour among Arab Bedouin children with CIPA. Methods: Twenty-three Arab Bedouin…

  16. How Does Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Work with Opioid-Dependent Clients? Results of the UKCBTMM Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouimtsidis, Christos; Reynolds, Martina; Coulton, Simon; Drummond, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Process research in psychotherapy is important to understand how treatment works. The National Institute of Clinical Excellence guidelines suggest that in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opioid dependence, drug key-working should be based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) principles. This article reports the findings…

  17. Changes in cognition and behaviour in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: nature of impairment and implications for assessment.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Laura H; Abrahams, Sharon

    2013-04-01

    Increased awareness of cognitive and behavioural change in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has been driven by various clinic-based and population-based studies. A frontotemporal syndrome occurs in a substantial proportion of patients, a subgroup of whom present with frontotemporal dementia. Deficits are characterised by executive and working-memory impairments, extending to changes in language and social cognition. Behaviour and social cognition abnormalities are closely similar to those reported in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, implying a clinical spectrum linking amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Cognitive impairment should be considered in clinical management, but few specialist assessment resources are available, and thus the cognitive status of most patients is unknown. Standard assessment procedures are not appropriate to detect dysfunction due to progressive physical disability; techniques that better measure the problems encountered by this group of patients are needed to further establish disease effects. Screening instruments are needed that are validated specifically for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, encompass the heterogeneity of impairment, and accommodate physical disability. PMID:23518330

  18. Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption. Testing an intervention based on the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kothe, E J; Mullan, B A; Butow, P

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) based intervention to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. The extent to which fruit and vegetable consumption and change in intake could be explained by the TPB was also examined. Participants were randomly assigned to two levels of intervention frequency matched for intervention content (low frequency n=92, high frequency n=102). Participants received TPB-based email messages designed to increase fruit and vegetable consumption, messages targeted attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control (PBC). Baseline and post-intervention measures of TPB variables and behaviour were collected. Across the entire study cohort, fruit and vegetable consumption increased by 0.83 servings/day between baseline and follow-up. Intention, attitude, subjective norm and PBC also increased (p<.05). The TPB successfully modelled fruit and vegetable consumption at both time points but not behaviour change. The increase of fruit and vegetable consumption is a promising preliminary finding for those primarily interested in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. However, those interested in theory development may have concerns about the use of this model to explain behaviour change in this context. More high quality experimental tests of the theory are needed to confirm this result. PMID:22349778

  19. [Pilot study on the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural group programme for adolescents with pathological internet use].

    PubMed

    Wartberg, Lutz; Thomsen, Monika; Moll, Bettina; Thomasius, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Excessive Internet use and its severe form, pathological internet use, are currently increasing in many industrial nations in Asia, North America and Europe. According to recent epidemiological studies pathological internet use occurs more frequently in youth than in adults. In Germany between 4 and 6% of the adolescents use the internet in a pathological way. Only few studies have investigated therapeutic interventions and their effectiveness in affected adolescents. In this pilot study, we surveyed over a period of 15 months all minor participants (aged up to 17) of a cognitive behavioural group programme at the beginning and at the end of the treatment (pre-post design) with standardized questionnaires (CIUS, SPS-J). At the second point of measurement the adolescents (n = 18, 75 percent retention rate) reported a significantly lower severity of problematic internet use as well as reduced average usage times during the week and at the weekend. No changes were revealed in psychological well-being of the youth. The results of this pilot study indicate positive effects of a cognitive behavioural group programme with psychoeducative elements in the treatment of youth affected by pathological internet use. PMID:24693802

  20. Cognitive-behavioural approaches to self-management in rheumatic disease.

    PubMed

    Dures, Emma; Hewlett, Sarah

    2012-09-01

    Patients with rheumatic disease must adjust psychosocially and behaviourally in order to manage the impact of symptoms and treatment on their daily lives, and the emotional consequences of the disease. However, patients can improve their well-being by taking a proactive role in self-management, for example by using coping strategies. Support for patient self-management from clinical teams usually comprises information and advice on disease management; however, this largely didactic approach often focuses on the biomedical aspects of rheumatic disease, without addressing how these aspects interact with psychosocial factors to influence health behaviours and thus outcomes. A cognitive-behavioural approach based on the biopsychosocial model of rheumatic disease can facilitate the identification of effective self-management strategies through collaboration between patients and clinicians. Most patients do not require intense cognitive-behavioural therapy from a clinical psychologist; rather, basic cognitive-behavioural techniques and tools could be used by rheumatology clinical teams to expand and enhance the support already offered to patients. PMID:22801981

  1. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Family Cognitive-Behavioral Preventive Intervention for Children of Depressed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; Forehand, Rex; Keller, Gary; Champion, Jennifer E.; Rakow, Aaron; Reeslund, Kristen L.; McKee, Laura; Fear, Jessica M.; Colletti, Christina J. M.; Hardcastle, Emily; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lori; Potts, Jennifer; Garai, Emily; Coffelt, Nicole; Roland, Erin; Sterba, Sonya K.; Cole, David A.

    2009-01-01

    A family cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention for parents with a history of depression and their 9-15-year-old children was compared with a self-study written information condition in a randomized clinical trial (n = 111 families). Outcomes were assessed at post-intervention (2 months), after completion of 4 monthly booster sessions (6…

  2. Promoting Autonomy in the Workplace--A Cognitive-Developmental Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hascher, Tina A.; Oser, Fritz

    A new cognitive intervention strategy was developed to improve teaching and learning in the workplace within the context of Germany's standard system of vocational training, a dual system of theoretical learning at school and practical learning in the workplace. The intervention was based on two elements: training apprentices to learn and work…

  3. Information Processing Versus Social Cognitive Mediators of Weight Loss in a Podcast-Delivered Health Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Linda K.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Campbell, Marci K.

    2014-01-01

    Podcasting is an emerging technology, and previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcast for weight loss among overweight and obese individuals. This study investigated whether constructs of social cognitive theory and information processing theories (IPTs) mediate the effect of a podcast intervention on weight loss…

  4. Making Connections: Linking Cognitive Psychology and Intervention Research to Improve Comprehension of Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Kristen L.; Espin, Christine A.; van den Broek, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of reading comprehension interventions for struggling readers, including students with learning disabilities. Yet, some readers continue to struggle with comprehension despite receiving these interventions. In this article, we argue that an explicit link between cognitive psychology and intervention…

  5. Interpersonal Accuracy of Interventions and the Outcome of Cognitive and Interpersonal Therapies for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crits-Christoph, Paul; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly; Temes, Christina M.; Elkin, Irene; Gallop, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the interpersonal accuracy of interventions in cognitive therapy and interpersonal therapy as a predictor of the outcome of treatment for patients with major depressive disorder. Method: The interpersonal accuracy of interventions was rated using transcripts of treatment sessions…

  6. Stability and Change in the Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour Scores of Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Helen E; Smith, Isabel M; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-09-01

    We examined the stability of cognitive and adaptive behaviour standard scores in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) between diagnosis and school entry approximately age 6. IQ increased 18 points in 2-year-olds, 12 points in 3-year-olds, and 9 points in 4-year-olds (N = 281). Adaptive behaviour scores increased 4 points across age groups (N = 289). At school entry, 24 % of children met criteria for intellectual disability (cognitive and adaptive behaviour scores <70). No children with both scores ≥70 at diagnosis later met criteria for intellectual disability. Outcomes were more variable for children with initial delays in both areas (in 57 %, both scores remained <70). Findings are relevant to clinical decision-making, including specification of intellectual disability in young children with ASD. PMID:25835210

  7. Invisible Writing: An Intervention for Examining Cognitive Processes in Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Sheridan

    To demonstrate how discourse tasks can differ in their cognitive difficulties, students in a graduate course on the teaching of writing participated in a procedure called "invisible writing." The purpose was to show the students that as they took on more cognitively demanding writing tasks, their ability to produce coherent discourse would be…

  8. Mobility and cognition: End points for dietary interventions in aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Healthy aging is associated with functional declines in mobility and cognition among both humans and non-human animals. OBJECTIVE: This study combines human measures of mobility and cognition to develop a test battery for evaluating the effects of dietary supplements among older adults....

  9. [Cognitive enrichment in zoo and farm animals--implications for animal behaviour and welfare].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Susann; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Animals in the wild are facing a wide variety of challenges and ever-changing environmental stimuli. For successful coping, animals use both innate behavioural programs and their cognitive skills. In contrast, zoo- and farm animals have to cope with restricted husbandry conditions, which offer only few opportunities to adequately satisfy their various needs. Consequences could be sensory and cognitive underchallenge that can cause boredom and frustration as well as behavioural disturbances. Initially intended for improvement of management and husbandry, different forms of operant behavioural training have been applied firstly in zoo- and later also in farm animals. It has been suggested that successful coping with appropriate cognitive challenges is a source of positive emotions and may lead to improved welfare. Under the term cognitive enrichment, new approaches have been developed to integrate cognitive challenges into the housing of zoo- and farm animals. The present article reviews actual research in the field. Previous results indicate that, beyond improvement of management and handling routines, such approaches can positively affect animal behaviour and welfare. The combination of explorative and appetitive behaviour with successful learning improves environmental predictability and controllability for the animals, activates reward-related brain systems and can directly affect emotional processes of appraisal. For practical implementation in farm animal husbandry, it sounds promising to link individual access to e.g. automated feeders or milking systems with previously conditioned stimuli and/or discriminatory learning tasks. First experimental approaches in pigs, dwarf goats and cattle are available and will be discussed in the present article. PMID:21141273

  10. Physical Intervention with People with Intellectual Disabilities: The Influence of Cognitive and Emotional Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagnan, Dave; Weston, Clive

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study examines the relationship between the topography of challenging behaviour, subsequent attributions and emotional responses, with whether carers use physical intervention and their satisfaction with their intervention. Method: Thirty-seven carers described incidents where a person with an intellectual disability had exhibited…

  11. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment for Men with Intellectual Disabilities at Risk of Sexual Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Background: For non-disabled men, group cognitive-behaviour therapy is a successful form of treatment when men have committed sexual offences. However, men with intellectual disabilities and sexually abusive behaviour are rarely offered treatment for their sexual behaviour and little research data on the effectiveness of such treatment has been…

  12. A Cognitive Profile of Obesity and Its Translation into New Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Anita; Houben, Katrijn; Roefs, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Change your lifestyle: decrease your energy intake and increase your energy expenditure, is what obesity experts tell people who need to lose weight. Though the advice might be correct, it appears to be extremely difficult to change one’s lifestyle. Unhealthy habits usually are ingrained and hard to change, especially for people with an “obese cognitive profile.” Knowledge of the cognitive mechanisms that maintain unhealthy eating habits is necessary for the development of interventions that can change behavior effectively. This paper discusses some cognitive processes that might maintain unhealthy eating habits and make healthier eating difficult, like increased food cue reactivity, weak executive skills and attention bias. An effort is also done to translate these basic scientific findings into new interventions which aim to tackle the sabotaging cognitive processes. Preliminary studies into the effectiveness of these interventions, if available, are presented. PMID:26640451

  13. Cognitive Interventions in Older Persons: Do They Change the Functioning of the Brain?

    PubMed Central

    van Os, Yindee; de Vugt, Marjolein E.; van Boxtel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cognitive interventions for older persons that may diminish the burden of cognitive problems and could delay conversion to dementia are of great importance. The underlying mechanisms of such interventions might be psychological compensation and neuronal plasticity. This review provides an overview of the literature concerning the evidence that cognitive interventions cause brain activation changes, even in damaged neural systems. Method. A systematic search of the literature was conducted in several international databases, Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Cochrane, and Psychinfo. The methodological quality was assessed according to the guidelines of the Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement (CBO). Results. Nineteen relevant articles were included with varied methodological quality. All studies were conducted in diverse populations from healthy elderly to patients with dementia and show changes in brain activation after intervention. Conclusions. The results thus far show that cognitive interventions cause changes in brain activation patterns. The exact interpretation of these neurobiological changes remains unclear. More study is needed to understand the extent to which cognitive interventions are effective to delay conversion to dementia. Future studies should more explicitly try to relate clinically significant improvement to changes in brain activation. Long-term follow-up data are necessary to evaluate the stability of the effects. PMID:26583107

  14. Developmental dyslexia in adults: behavioural manifestations and cognitive correlates.

    PubMed

    Nergård-Nilssen, Trude; Hulme, Charles

    2014-08-01

    This paper explores the nature of residual literacy and cognitive deficits in self-reported dyslexic Norwegian adults. The performance of 26 self-reported dyslexic adults was compared with that of a comparison group of 47 adults with no history of reading or spelling difficulties. Participants completed standardized and experimental measures tapping literacy skills, working memory, phonological awareness and rapid naming. Spelling problems were the most prominent marker of dyslexia in adults, followed by text reading fluency and nonword decoding. Working memory and phoneme awareness explained unique variance in spelling, whereas rapid automatized naming explained unique variance in reading fluency and nonword reading. The moderate to strong correlations between self-reported history, self-rating of current literacy skills and outcomes on literacy tests indicate that adults estimated their literacy skills fairly well. Results suggest that spelling impairments, more strongly than reading impairments, make adults perceive themselves as being dyslexic. A combination of three literacy and three cognitive tests predicted group membership with 90.4% accuracy. It appears that weaknesses in phoneme awareness, rapid automatized naming and working memory are strong and persistent correlates of literacy problems even in adults learning a relatively transparent orthography. PMID:24842581

  15. Effects of cognitive enrichment on behavioural and physiological reactions of pigs.

    PubMed

    Zebunke, Manuela; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2013-06-13

    Cognitive enrichment, a special form of environmental enrichment, addresses the cognitive abilities of animals in captivity. Through cognitive interaction with the environment, the animals regain a certain control over their environment, and essential resources, such as food or water, act as a reward for successful coping. It is assumed that this process has important implications for animal welfare, especially in the intensive housing systems of farm animals. This study investigates the effects of cognitive enrichment on welfare-relevant behaviour (agonistic interactions and behavioural reactivity in a repeated open-field test) and autonomic control (heart rate variability during feeding, resting and in a repeated open-field test) in domestic pigs. A total of forty-eight pigs, Sus scrofa, were housed in groups of four. In six replicates, an experimental group was compared with a conventionally fed control group. The pigs in the experimental group were confronted with a cognitive challenge that was integrated into their familiar housing environment. Pigs were rewarded with food after they successfully mastered the discrimination of an individual acoustical signal followed by an operant task. The pigs in both groups reacted with sympathetic arousal to feeding announcement (increased heart rate (HR)). During feeding, the experimental pigs' HR decreased, and heart rate variability (HRV) increased, while the control pigs' HR stayed highly elevated and HRV decreased. These results are supported by a considerably larger number of agonistic interactions during feeding in the control group. During resting, the basal HRV of the experimental pigs increased (during operant conditioning) compared to the control. In the repeated open-field test, the experimental pigs displayed less locomotion and elimination as well as more contact with the wall and an unknown object compared to the control group. We conclude that cognitive enrichment leads to relaxed feeding and evokes longer

  16. Cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive functioning following short-term interventions in chronic stroke survivors with cognitive impairment: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Sophie; Richards, Carol L; Leblond, Jean; Olivier, Charles; Maltais, Désirée B

    2016-06-01

    This study, a quasi-experimental, one-group pretest-post-test design, evaluated the effects on cognitive functioning and cardiorespiratory fitness of 8-week interventions (aerobic exercise alone and aerobic exercise and cognitive training combined) in patients with chronic stroke and cognitive impairment living in the community (participants: n=14, 61.93±9.90 years old, 51.50±38.22 months after stroke, n=7 per intervention group). Cognitive functions and cardiorespiratory fitness were evaluated before and after intervention, and at a 3-month follow-up visit (episodic memory: revised-Hopkins Verbal Learning Test; working memory: Brown-Peterson paradigm; attention omission and commission errors: Continuous Performance Test; cardiorespiratory fitness: peak oxygen uptake during a symptom-limited, graded exercise test performed on a semirecumbent ergometer). Friedman's two-way analysis of variance by ranks evaluated differences in score distributions related to time (for the two groups combined). Post-hoc testing was adjusted for multiple comparisons. Compared with before the intervention, there was a significant reduction in attention errors immediately following the intervention (omission errors: 14.6±21.5 vs. 8±13.9, P=0.01; commission errors: 16.4±6.3 vs. 10.9±7.2, P=0.04), and in part at follow-up (omission errors on follow-up: 3.4±4.3, P=0.03; commission errors on follow-up: 13.2±7.6, P=0.42). These results suggest that attention may improve in chronic stroke survivors with cognitive impairment following short-term training that includes an aerobic component, without a change in cardiorespiratory fitness. Randomized-controlled studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:26954991

  17. Development of an exercise intervention to improve cognition in people with mild to moderate dementia: Dementia And Physical Activity (DAPA) Trial, registration ISRCTN32612072.

    PubMed

    Brown, Deborah; Spanjers, Katie; Atherton, Nicky; Lowe, Janet; Stonehewer, Louisa; Bridle, Chris; Sheehan, Bart; Lamb, Sarah E

    2015-06-01

    More than 800000 people in the UK have dementia, and it is a government priority to improve dementia care. Drug treatment options are relatively limited. The Dementia And Physical Activity (DAPA) study is a randomised trial which targets cognition in people with dementia, using an exercise programme. There is evidence to suggest that both aerobic and resistance exercise may be useful in improving cognition. Hence the intervention comprises a supervised part of twice-weekly exercise classes of one hour duration for 4 months, including aerobic exercise at moderate intensity on static bicycles, and resistance (weight training) exercise using weight vests, weight belts and dumbbells. Thereafter participants progress to unsupervised, independent exercise. Aids to behaviour modification have been incorporated into the intervention. The DAPA intervention has been designed to maximise likelihood of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, and for delivery in the UK National Health Service. PMID:25724322

  18. Relationships among cognition, emotion, and motivation: implications for intervention and neuroplasticity in psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Laura D.; Heller, Wendy; Warren, Stacie L.; O'Hare, Aminda J.; Infantolino, Zachary P.; Miller, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Emotion-cognition and motivation-cognition relationships and related brain mechanisms are receiving increasing attention in the clinical research literature as a means of understanding diverse types of psychopathology and improving biological and psychological treatments. This paper reviews and integrates some of the growing evidence for cognitive biases and deficits in depression and anxiety, how these disruptions interact with emotional and motivational processes, and what brain mechanisms appear to be involved. This integration sets the stage for understanding the role of neuroplasticity in implementing change in cognitive, emotional, and motivational processes in psychopathology as a function of intervention. PMID:23781184

  19. The impact on sleep of a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural pain management programme: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reduced sleep quality is a common complaint among patients with chronic pain, with 50-80% of patients reporting sleep disturbance. Improvements in pain and quality of life measures have been achieved using a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural therapy pain management programme (CBT-PMP) that aims to recondition attitudes to pain, and improve patients' self-management of their condition. Despite its high prevalence in patients with chronic pain, there is very limited objective evidence for the effect of this intervention on sleep quality. The primary research objective is to investigate the short-term effect of a multidisciplinary CBT-PMP on subjective (measured by Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index) and objective sleep quality (measured by Actigraphy) in patients with chronic pain by comparison with a control group. The secondary objectives will investigate changes in function and mood, and then explore the relationship between objective and subjective sleep quality and physical and psychological outcome measures. Methods/Design Patients who fulfil the inclusion criteria for attendance on the multidisciplinary CBT-PMP in the Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin and are currently listed on the PMP waiting list will be invited to participate in this pilot study. Potential patients will be screened for sleep disturbance [determined by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)]. Those patients with a sleep disturbance (PSQI >5) will be assigned to either the intervention group (immediate treatment), or control group (deferred treatment, i.e. the PMP they are listed for is more than six months away) based on where they appear on the waiting list. Baseline measures of sleep, function, and mood will be obtained using a combination of self-report questionnaires (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Short Form 36 health survey, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia), and functional outcome measures. Sleep will be

  20. Functional research and cognitive-process research in behavioural science: An unequal but firmly connected pair.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Drawing on illustrative examples of the functional and cognitive psychology in contemporary research, the present article emphasizes the primacy of functional relationships, which provide the fundament for all attempts to uncover invisible cognitive processes. Cognitive research is not only inherently more difficult and much more ambitious than functional research. It also suffers from several home-made problems, such as unwarranted inferences from model fitting, the mediation-analysis cult and the failure to take environmental influences into account. However, despite the primacy of functional psychology and the problems associated with the ambitious goals of cognitive research, the two partners in this unequal pair are firmly connected and jointly responsible for the most impressive examples of progress in behavioural science. PMID:25921294

  1. Performance cognitive de futurs professionnels de l'intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larivee, Serge; Normandeau, Sylvie

    1984-01-01

    Cognitive levels of 48 university students enrolled in humanities were assessed by Piagetian tasks. Three formal abilities were measured: combinatory, probability, control of variables. Results were analyzed according to school training effect and content of tasks. (Author/MLW)

  2. Therapy-relevant factors in adult ADHD from a cognitive behavioural perspective.

    PubMed

    Newark, Patricia Elizabeth; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2010-06-01

    Adult individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been suffering from this neurobiological and highly heritable disorder chronically since childhood. Resulting from their longstanding neuropsychological impairments, such as attentional problems, emotional instability, and disinhibition, they are familiar to a multiplicity of negative life outcomes and underachievement. Furthermore, a large part of this population suffers from psychiatric comorbidity. This accumulation of negative experiences has an impact on therapy-relevant factors such as the individual's self-esteem, self-efficacy, development of core beliefs/schemas, and coping strategies. Based on negative beliefs about the self, individuals confronted with difficult situations develop maladaptive coping strategies, for instance avoidance and procrastination. These strategies lead to maintenance and reinforcement of maladaptive beliefs, and as such they acquit themselves as schema-confirming. Captured in this vicious cycle, the individual sees her negative view of the self confirmed. The purpose of this paper is to illuminate these interactive factors that influence the aforementioned cycle in order to emphasize the cognitive behavioural interventions tailored to those factors on the basis of latest research. Furthermore, the authors want to attract notice to the resources people with ADHD are said to have, namely creativity and resilience. These postulated resources could be therapy-relevant by creating positive beliefs about the self, hence improving coping skills and breaking the vicious circle of negative appraisal. Taking into account personal resources and their fostering may be an important fundament for the treatment plan of adult ADHD. Information on the current state of research and theoretical approaches concerning the below-mentioned key words was gathered through MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PSYNDEXplus, and PubMed databases. PMID:21432591

  3. Transdiagnostic computerised cognitive behavioural therapy for depression and anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Newby, Jill M; Twomey, Conal; Yuan Li, Susan Shi; Andrews, Gavin

    2016-07-15

    An increasing number of computerised transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural therapy programs (TD-cCBT) have been developed in the past decade, but there are no meta-analyses to explore the efficacy of these programs, nor moderators of the effects. The current meta-analysis focused on studies evaluating TD-cCBT interventions to examine their effects on anxiety, depression and quality of life (QOL). Results from 17 RCTs showed computerised TD-cCBT outperformed control conditions on all outcome measures at post-treatment, with large effect sizes for depression (g's=.84), and medium effect sizes for anxiety (g=.78) and QOL (g=.48). RCT quality was generally good, although heterogeneity was moderate to high. Further analyses revealed that studies comparing TD-cCBT to waitlist controls had the largest differences (g=.93) compared to active (g=.59) and usual care control groups (g=.37) on anxiety outcomes, but there was no influence of control group subtype on depression outcomes. Treatment length, symptom target (mixed versus anxiety only), treatment design (standardised versus tailored), and therapist experience (students versus qualified therapists) did not influence the results. Preliminary evidence from 4 comparisons with disorder-specific treatments suggests transdiagnostic treatments are as effective for reducing anxiety, and there may be small but superior outcomes for TD-cCBT programs for reducing depression (g=.21) and improving QOL (g=.21) compared to disorder-specific cCBT. These findings show that TD-cCBT programs are efficacious, and have comparable effects to disorder-specific cCBT programs. PMID:27060430

  4. Reading Intervention for Secondary Students with Hyperactive Behaviours in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Wai Chung; Zhang, Kaili Chen

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of a reading intervention aimed at improving the comprehension performance of three students with hyperactive behaviours in Hong Kong. Comprehension tasks, adopted from local exercise books based on Hong Kong Certificate Education Examination Paper I, were used to appraise three participants' reading performance, and…

  5. Teacher-Reported Effects of the Playing-2-Gether Intervention on Child Externalising Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vancraeyveldt, Caroline; Verschueren, Karine; Van Craeyevelt, Sanne; Wouters, Sofie; Colpin, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the teacher-perceived effect of a school-based intervention (i.e. Playing-2-gether) targeting teacher-child interactions to reduce externalising problem behaviour (EPB) amongst preschoolers. Boys with the highest score for EPB in the classroom and their teacher participated in the study. Teacher-child dyads…

  6. Psycho-Demographic Correlates of Behaviour towards Seeking Counselling Intervention among Workers in Lagos, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesinde, Abiodun Matthew; Sanu, Oluwafunto Jolade

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to examine the impact which age, gender and psychological adjustment have on behaviour towards seeking professional counselling intervention. Multistage sampling technique was employed to select a total of three hundred workers across Lagos metropolis. The ex post facto research design was adopted for the study. Inventory of…

  7. Mobile Phone-Based Behavioural Interventions for Health: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhi, Eric R.; Trudnak, Tara E.; Martinasek, Mary P.; Oberne, Alison B.; Fuhrmann, Hollie J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To perform a systematic review of the literature concerning behavioural mobile health (mHealth) and summarize points related to heath topic, use of theory, audience, purpose, design, intervention components, and principal results that can inform future health education applications. Design: A systematic review of the literature. Method:…

  8. Restrictive Interventions for People with a Disability Exhibiting Challenging Behaviours: Analysis of a Population Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Lynne S.; McVilly, Keith R.; Chan, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Background: People with an intellectual disability whose behaviours are perceived to be of serious harm to themselves or others are at risk of being subjected to restrictive interventions. Prevalence rates are difficult to determine, as most research is unable to draw on the results of population-level data. Method: The current study reports on…

  9. The Impacts of Home-Based Early Behavioural Intervention Programmes on Families of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudgeon, Clare; Carr, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Background: In the UK, Early Intensive Behavioural Intervention [EIBI] programmes typically are conducted within the homes of children with autism. Despite evidence for their effectiveness in producing appreciable developmental gains in children with autism, a concern expressed about EIBI programmes is that stressful effects from the high levels…

  10. Exploring the Ecological Approach Used by RTLBs in Interventions for Students with Learning and Behaviour Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebestian, Sandiyao

    2013-01-01

    The ecological approach, based on the RTLB Toolkit that guides RTLBs in New Zealand, is one of the seven principles used for interventions for students with learning and behaviour concerns. As a result of a paradigm shift moving from a functional limitations perspective to a more inclusive/ecological perspective in 1999, RTLBs have been trained…

  11. Behavioural Intervention Effects in Dysarthria Following Stroke: Communication Effectiveness, Intelligibility and Dysarthria Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Lowit, Anja

    2007-01-01

    Background: Dysarthria is a common post-stroke presentation. Its management falls within the remit of the speech and language therapy profession. Little controlled evaluation of the effects of intervention for dysarthria in stroke has been reported. Aims: The study aimed to determine the effects of a period of behavioural communication…

  12. Formal Versus Informal Interventions for Challenging Behaviour in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, M. A.; Atkinson, L.; Foti-Gervais, L.; Condillac, R.

    2004-01-01

    Although effective, humane treatments exist for persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) who have challenging behaviour, little research has examined the extent to which clients receive formal, documented vs. undocumented interventions. Caregivers (of 625 persons with ID living in community and institutional residences in Ontario, Canada) were…

  13. In a green frame of mind: perspectives on the behavioural ecology and cognitive nature of plants

    PubMed Central

    Gagliano, Monica

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that plants are highly sensitive organisms that perceive, assess, learn, remember, resolve problems, make decisions and communicate with each other by actively acquiring information from their environment. However, the fact that many of the sophisticated behaviours plants exhibit reveal cognitive competences, which are generally attributed to humans and some non-human animals, has remained unappreciated. Here, I will outline the theoretical barriers that have precluded the opportunity to experimentally test such behavioural/cognitive phenomena in plants. I will then suggest concrete alternative approaches to cognition by highlighting how (i) the environment offers a multitude of opportunities for decision-making and action and makes behaviours possible, rather than causing them; (ii) perception in itself is action in the form of a continuous flow of information; (iii) all living organisms viewed within this context become agents endowed with autonomy rather than objects in a mechanistically conceived world. These viewpoints, combined with recent evidence, may contribute to move the entire field towards an integrated study of cognitive biology. PMID:25416727

  14. In a green frame of mind: perspectives on the behavioural ecology and cognitive nature of plants.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, Monica

    2014-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that plants are highly sensitive organisms that perceive, assess, learn, remember, resolve problems, make decisions and communicate with each other by actively acquiring information from their environment. However, the fact that many of the sophisticated behaviours plants exhibit reveal cognitive competences, which are generally attributed to humans and some non-human animals, has remained unappreciated. Here, I will outline the theoretical barriers that have precluded the opportunity to experimentally test such behavioural/cognitive phenomena in plants. I will then suggest concrete alternative approaches to cognition by highlighting how (i) the environment offers a multitude of opportunities for decision-making and action and makes behaviours possible, rather than causing them; (ii) perception in itself is action in the form of a continuous flow of information; (iii) all living organisms viewed within this context become agents endowed with autonomy rather than objects in a mechanistically conceived world. These viewpoints, combined with recent evidence, may contribute to move the entire field towards an integrated study of cognitive biology. PMID:25416727

  15. A comparison of individual and group cognitive-behavioural treatment for female pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Nicki; Smith, David; Thomas, Trang

    2007-09-01

    The current study aimed to determine the differential efficacy of a cognitive-behavioural treatment program for female pathological gamblers delivered in individual and group format. Fifty-six female pathological gamblers with electronic gaming machine gambling problems were randomly assigned to the control (waiting list) group or one of the treatment groups (individual or group treatment). Treatment comprised a 12-session program including financial limit setting, alternative activity planning, cognitive correction, problem solving, communication training, relapse prevention, and imaginal desensitisation. Treatment outcome was evaluated with conceptually related measures within the areas of gambling behaviour and psychological functioning. While individual and group treatment formats generally produced comparable outcomes in terms of gambling behaviour and psychological functioning, group treatment failed to produce superior outcomes to the control group in relation to several measures of psychological functioning. Moreover, by the completion of the six-month follow-up, 92% of the gamblers allocated to individual treatment compared with 60% allocated to group treatment no longer satisfied the diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling. These findings suggest that some caution should be employed when delivering cognitive-behavioural treatment in a group format until further research is conducted to establish its efficacy. PMID:17196159

  16. The Extended Theory of Planned Behaviour and College Grades: The Role of Cognition and Past Behaviour in the Prediction of Students' Academic Intentions and Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovac, Velibor Bobo; Cameron, David Lansing; Høigaard, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the underlying processes influencing college students' academic achievement represents an important goal of educational research. The aim of the present study was to examine the utility of the extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the relative influence of cognitive processes and measures of past behaviour in the prediction…

  17. Changing handwashing behaviour in southern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study on infrastructural and commitment interventions.

    PubMed

    Contzen, Nadja; Meili, Iara Helena; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Improved hand hygiene efficiently prevents the major killers of children under the age of five years in Ethiopia and globally, namely diarrhoeal and respiratory diseases. Effective handwashing interventions are thus in great demand. Evidence- and theory-based interventions, especially when matched to the target population's needs, are expected to perform better than common practice. To test this hypothesis, we selected two interventions drawing on a baseline questionnaire-study that applied the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) approach and focused on the primary caregivers of households in four rural, water-scarce kebeles (smallest administrative units of Ethiopia) in southern Ethiopia (N = 462). The two interventions were tested in combination with a standard education intervention in a quasi-experiment, as follows: kebele 1, education intervention, namely an f-diagram exercise, (n = 23); kebele 2, education intervention and public-commitment (n = 122); kebele 3, education intervention and tippy-tap-promotion (i.e. handwashing-station-promotion; n = 150); kebele 4, education intervention, public-commitment and tippy-tap-promotion (n = 113). In kebeles 3 and 4, nearly 100% of the households followed the promotion and invested material and time to construct for themselves a tippy-tap. Three months after intervention termination, the tippy-taps were in use with water and soap being present in up to 83% of the households (kebele 4). Pre-post data analysis on self-reported handwashing revealed that the population-tailored interventions, and especially the tippy-tap-promotion, performed better than the standard education intervention. Tendencies in observed behaviour and a recently developed implicit self-measure pointed to similar results. Changing people's hand hygiene is known to be a challenging task, especially in a water-scarce environment. The present project suggests not only to apply theory and evidence to improve handwashing

  18. The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen in a Chinese Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Population

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Shan; Ji, Ying; Li, Chengyu; He, Ji; Liu, Xiaolu; Fan, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective The existing screening batteries assessing multiple neuropsychological functions are not specific to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and are limited to their physical dysfunctions, whereas category cognitive tests are too time-consuming to assess all the domains. The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) was recently developed as a fast and easy cognitive screening tool specifically designed for patients. The purpose of the study was to validate the effectiveness of the Chinese version in Chinese ALS populations. Methods Eighty-four ALS patients and 84 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls were included in this cross-sectional study. All the participants took the ECAS, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB). Primary caregivers of patients were interviewed for behavioural and psychiatric changes. Results Significant differences were noted in language (p = 0.01), fluency, executive function, ALS-specific functions, and ECAS total score (p<0.01) between ALS patients and controls. The cut-off value of the total ECAS score was 81.92. Cognitive impairment was observed in 35.71% of patients, and 27.38% exhibited behavioural abnormalities. The ECAS total score had a medium correlation with education year. Memory was more easily impaired in the lower education group, whereas verbal fluency and language function tended to be preserved in the higher education group. The average time of ECAS was only 18 minutes. Conclusion The Chinese version of the ECAS is the first screening battery assessing multiple neuropsychological functions specially designed for the ALS population in China, which provides an effective and rapid tool to screen cognitive and behavioural impairments. PMID:27195772

  19. School-Based Intervention for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects on Academic, Social, and Behavioural Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Weyandt, Lisa L.

    2006-01-01

    Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) exhibit significant academic, social, and behavioural difficulties in school settings. This article reviews empirical findings regarding the effects of classroom interventions for students with ADHD. Three major types of interventions are reviewed including behavioural (e.g., token…

  20. Modification of Fear Memory by Pharmacological and Behavioural Interventions during Reconsolidation

    PubMed Central

    Thome, Janine; Koppe, Georgia; Hauschild, Sophie; Liebke, Lisa; Schmahl, Christian; Lis, Stefanie; Bohus, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Dysfunctional fear responses play a central role in many mental disorders. New insights in learning and memory suggest that pharmacological and behavioural interventions during the reconsolidation of reactivated fear memories may increase the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. It has been proposed that interventions applied during reconsolidation may modify the original fear memory, and thus prevent the spontaneous recovery and reinstatement of the fear response. Methods We investigated whether pharmacological (propranolol) and behavioural (reappraisal, multisensory stimulation) interventions reduce fear memory, and prevent reinstatement of fear in comparison to a placebo control group. Eighty healthy female subjects underwent a differential fear conditioning procedure with three stimuli (CS). Two of these (CS+) were paired with an electric shock on day 1. On day 2, 20 subjects were pseudo-randomly assigned to either the propranolol or placebo condition, or underwent one of the two behavioural interventions after one of the two CS+ was reactivated. On day 3, all subjects underwent an extinction phase, followed by a reinstatement test. Dependent variables were US expectancy ratings, fear-potentiated startle, and skin conductance response. Results Differential fear responses to the reactivated and non-reactivated CS+ were observed only in the propranolol condition. Here, the non-reactivated CS+ evoked stronger fear-potentiated startle-responses compared to the placebo group. None of the interventions prevented the return of the extinguished fear response after re-exposure to the unconditioned stimulus. Conclusions Our data are in line with an increasing body of research stating that the occurrence of reconsolidation may be constrained by boundary conditions such as subtle differences in experimental manipulations and instructions. In conclusion, our findings do not support a beneficial effect in using reconsolidation processes to enhance effects of

  1. Characteristics of Interventions Targeting Multiple Lifestyle Risk Behaviours in Adult Populations: A Systematic Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    King, Kristel; Meader, Nick; Wright, Kath; Graham, Hilary; Power, Christine; Petticrew, Mark; White, Martin; Sowden, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Modifiable lifestyle risk behaviours such as smoking, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and alcohol misuse are the leading causes of major, non-communicable diseases worldwide. It is increasingly being recognised that interventions which target more than one risk behaviour may be an effective and efficient way of improving people’s lifestyles. To date, there has been no attempt to summarise the global evidence base for interventions targeting multiple risk behaviours. Objective To identify and map the characteristics of studies evaluating multiple risk behaviour change interventions targeted at adult populations in any country. Methods Seven bibliographic databases were searched between January, 1990, and January/ May, 2013. Authors of protocols, conference abstracts, and other relevant articles were contacted. Study characteristics were extracted and inputted into Eppi-Reviewer 4. Results In total, 220 studies were included in the scoping review. Most were randomised controlled trials (62%) conducted in the United States (49%), and targeted diet and physical activity (56%) in people from general populations (14%) or subgroups of general populations (45%). Very few studies had been conducted in the Middle East (2%), Africa (0.5%), or South America (0.5%). There was also a scarcity of studies conducted among young adults (1%), or racial and minority ethnic populations (4%) worldwide. Conclusions Research is required to investigate the interrelationships of lifestyle risk behaviours in varying cultural contexts around the world. Cross-cultural development and evaluation of multiple risk behaviour change interventions is also needed, particularly in populations of young adults and racial and minority ethnic populations. PMID:25617783

  2. Cognitive Behavioural Suicide Prevention for Male Prisoners: A pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, D.; Tarrier, N.; Dunn, G.; Awenat, Y.; Shaw, J.; Ulph, F.; Gooding, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prisoners have an exceptional risk of suicide. Cognitive behavioural therapy for suicidal behaviour has been shown to offer considerable potential, but has yet to be formally evaluated within prisons. This study investigated the feasibility of delivering and evaluating a novel, manualised cognitive behavioural suicide prevention (CBSP) therapy for suicidal male prisoners. Methods A pilot randomised controlled trial of CBSP in addition to treatment as usual (CBSP; n=31) compared to treatment as usual alone (TAU; n=31), was conducted in a male prison in England. The primary outcome was self-injurious behaviour occurring within the past six months. Secondary outcomes were dimensions of suicidal ideation, psychiatric symptomatology, personality dysfunction and psychological determinants of suicide, including depression and hopelessness. The trial was prospectively registered (number ISRCTN59909209). Results Relative to TAU, participants receiving CBSP therapy achieved a significantly greater reduction in suicidal behaviours with a moderate treatment effect (Cohen’s d=−0.72, 95%CI: −1.71 to 0.09; baseline mean [SD], TAU: 1.39[3.28] vs CBSP: 1.06[2.10], 6 months mean [SD], TAU: 1.48[3.23] vs CBSP: 0.58[1.52]). Significant improvements were achieved on measures of psychiatric symptomatology and personality dysfunction. Improvements on psychological determinants of suicide were non-significant. More than half of participants in the CBSP group achieved a clinically significant recovery by the end of therapy, compared to a quarter of the TAU group. Conclusions The delivery and evaluation of cognitive behavioural suicide prevention therapy within a prison is feasible. CBSP therapy offers significant promise in the prevention of prison suicide and an adequately powered randomised controlled trial is warranted. PMID:26165919

  3. Effects of School-Based Physical Activity Interventions on Cognition and Academic Achievement: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mura, Gioia; Vellante, Marcello; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Schools are an ideal setting to implement physical activity programs targeted at youths' learning and intellectual abilities, as exercise has been associated with improvement in cognitive skills and academic proficiency. A systematic review of the literature was performed to examine the effects of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and cognitive outcomes. A search for relevant papers was carried out on PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar. Only quasi-experimental and experimental studies were included, if focused on school-based physical activity interventions targeting 3 to 18 year-old healthy pupils, and designed to establish a relationship between exercise performed in a school setting and cognitive/academic performance. Thirty-one papers were retrieved by the search, reporting the findings of twenty-eight school-based physical activity interventions. Most of the included studies were published in the past five years. A large majority of the studies showed positive results in terms of academic achievement and, above all, cognitive skills. In the recent years, the number of studies on school-based physical interventions aimed to establish a relationship between physical activity performed in school setting and cognitive/academic outcomes significantly increased, as well as high quality assessments and designs. This review highlights the effectiveness of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and, above all, on youths' cognitive performance. Some interesting findings come from studies assessing brain functional changes, from interventions targeting culturally diverse or low-income samples, and from interventions where physical activity is in the form of active videogames. PMID:26556088

  4. Effects of Npas4 deficiency on anxiety, depression-like, cognition and sociability behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jaehne, Emily J; Klarić, Thomas S; Koblar, Simon A; Baune, Bernhard T; Lewis, Martin D

    2015-03-15

    The transcription factor neuronal PAS domain-containing protein 4 (Npas4), which regulates the formation of inhibitory synapses on excitatory neurons, has been suggested as a candidate gene for neurological and psychiatric conditions such as bipolar depression, autism spectrum and cognitive disorders. A mouse model of Npas4 deficiency has been developed to investigate any role in these disorders. Behavioural characterisation of Npas4(-/-), Npas4(+/-) and Npas4(+/+) mice has been conducted using the open field, elevated zero maze (EZM), Y-maze, sociability test and forced swim test (FST) to investigate a range of behaviours. Npas4(-/-) mice spent more time in the open arm of the EZM than other genotypes, suggesting decreased anxiety-like behaviour. Npas4(+/-) mice, however, were more immobile in the FST than other genotypes, suggesting increased depression-like behaviour, and also showed impaired spatial recognition memory in the Y-maze. There were no differences between genotype in social behaviour. These results suggest that differential levels of Npas4 expression in the brain may regulate anxiety, depression and cognition related disorders. PMID:25549857

  5. A Theory-Based Approach for Developing Interventions to Change Patient Behaviours: A Medication Adherence Example from Paediatric Secondary Care

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Gemma; Cooke, Richard; Cameron, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    In this article we introduce a Health Psychology approach to changing patient behaviour, in order to demonstrate the value of Health Psychology professional practice as applied within healthcare settings. Health Psychologists are experts in understanding, predicting and changing health-related behaviours at the individual, group and population level. They combine psychological theory, research evidence and service-user views to design interventions to solve clinically relevant behavioural problems and improve health outcomes. We provide a pragmatic overview of a theory and evidence-based Intervention Mapping approach for developing, implementing and evaluating interventions to change health-related behaviour. An example of a real behaviour change intervention designed to improve medication adherence in an adolescent patient with poorly controlled asthma is described to illustrate the main stages of the intervention development process. PMID:27417822

  6. ["Treasure Hunt"--a cognitive-behavioural computer game].

    PubMed

    Brezinka, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The development of video games promoting health related behaviour is increasing. This holds not only for chronic diseases like asthma and diabetes, but also for the field of child psychotherapy. At the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of Zürich University, the video game Treasure Hunt was developed to support psychotherapeutic treatment of children between eight and thirteen years of age. Treasure Hunt does not replace the therapist but supports treatment by offering attractive electronic work assignments. The scope of this article is an overview on health games for children and a description of Treasure Hunt. After the explanation of its therapeutic potentials, an evaluation based on questionnaires for therapists and children will be presented. 124 therapists answered a questionnaire on their impression of the game three months after download. 41 therapists were willing to participate in the further evaluation and sent questionnaires of 200 children with whom Treasure Hunt had been used. A limitation of these data is that a positive bias can not be excluded, as therapists with a positive attitude towards psychotherapeutic computer games were more likely to answer the questionnaire. 118 therapists (95.2%) considered Treasure Hunt a useful tool in child psychotherapy. 197 children (98.5%) report being satisfied with the use of the game during treatment. Treasure Hunt was predominantly used for the age group it is designed for and both, by very experienced and by young therapists. Eleven diagnostic categories reflect a broader range of indications than expected. PMID:22242257

  7. [Cognitive level and behaviour in nutritional health education in a group of parents].

    PubMed

    Indrei, L L; Cărăuşu, Mihaela Elena; Mihăilă, C B; Foia, Iolanda

    2002-01-01

    In the last years, the education for health developed itself rapidly, due to the close relationship between scientific development and social life dynamics. The relation between the cognitive level, behaviour and nutrition was assessed in a group of parents with children 9 to 12 years of age. The majority of the parents, and also of children, have an adequate cognitive level, knowing very well the basic principles of a sanogenic diet. Many parents give as their information source the mass-media, and especially the television, the education for nutritional health must be reconsidered, in order to have a greater impact in preserving the health status of the individual. PMID:14974231

  8. Improving the management of behaviour that challenges associated with dementia in care homes: protocol for pharmacy–health psychology intervention feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Rachel L; Killick, Kirsty; Damery, Sarah; Hilton, Andrea; Wilcock, Jane; Barnes, Nigel; Brown, Graeme; Gillespie, Sarah; Fox, Chris; Barton, Garry; Iliffe, Steve; Seare, Nichola

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The inappropriate use of antipsychotics in people with dementia for behaviour that challenges is associated with an estimated 1800 deaths annually. However, solely focusing on antipsychotics may transfer prescribing to other equally dangerous psychotropics. Little is known about the role of pharmacists in the management of psychotropics used to treat behaviours that challenge. This research aims to determine whether it is feasible to implement and measure the effectiveness of a combined pharmacy–health psychology intervention incorporating a medication review and staff training package to limit the prescription of psychotropics to manage behaviour that challenges in care home residents with dementia. Methods/analysis 6 care homes within the West Midlands will be recruited. People with dementia receiving medication for behaviour that challenges, or their personal consultee, will be approached regarding participation. Medication used to treat behaviour that challenges will be reviewed by the pharmacist, in collaboration with the general practitioner (GP), person with dementia and carer. The behavioural intervention consists of a training package for care home staff and GPs promoting person-centred care and treating behaviours that challenge as an expression of unmet need. The primary outcome measure is the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home version (NPI-NH). Other outcomes include quality of life (EQ-5D and DEMQoL), cognition (sMMSE), health economic (CSRI) and prescribed medication including whether recommendations were implemented. Outcome data will be collected at 6 weeks, and 3 and 6 months. Pretraining and post-training interviews will explore stakeholders’ expectations and experiences of the intervention. Data will be used to estimate the sample size for a definitive study. Ethics/dissemination The project has received a favourable opinion from the East Midlands REC (15/EM/3014). If potential participants lack capacity, a personal

  9. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Depression and Anxiety in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Sarah J.; Laidlaw, Ken; Starkstein, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Evidence is reviewed demonstrating that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is effective in the treatment of depression and anxiety in Parkinson’s disease. The aims were to review the extant literature, specify a model of cognitive and behavioral maintenance factors in depression and anxiety in Parkinson’s disease and provide a guide to treatment. It is argued that treatment should take into account specific cognitive and behavioral maintaining factors. Symptoms of depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in Parkinson’s disease and therapists should consider how to augment the efficacy of CBT for patients with Parkinson’s disease. Cognitive and behavioral interventions can help people overcome some of the challenges in living with PD by maximizing wellbeing and overall quality of life. PMID:26406124

  10. Development and evaluation of a mass media Theory of Planned Behaviour intervention to reduce speeding.

    PubMed

    Stead, Martine; Tagg, Stephen; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Eadie, Douglas

    2005-02-01

    The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) has been widely applied to the explanation of health and social behaviours. However, despite its potential to inform behaviour change efforts, there have been surprisingly few attempts to use the TPB to design actual interventions. In 1998, the Scottish Road Safety Campaign implemented a 3-year mass media campaign to reduce speeding on Scotland's roads which was explicitly shaped by the TPB's three main predictors: Attitude, Subjective Norms and Perceived Behavioural Control. A 4-year longitudinal cohort study examined the impact of the campaign on communications outcomes and on TPB constructs. Overall, empirical support was found for the decision to use TPB as the theoretical underpinning of the advertising. The advertising was effective in triggering desired communications outcomes, and was associated with significant changes in attitudes and affective beliefs about speeding. In conclusion, future directions for road safety advertising and for TPB research are discussed. PMID:15198999

  11. Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for adults with tinnitus in the UK: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Beukes, Eldré W; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Allen, Peter M; Baguley, David M; Andersson, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tinnitus is one of the most distressing hearing-related symptoms. Innovative ways of managing tinnitus distress and the related healthcare burden of treating tinnitus are required. An internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) intervention has been developed in Sweden to improve access to evidence-based tinnitus treatments. This study aims to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of iCBT in reducing the impact associated with tinnitus, in the UK. It, furthermore, aims to establish whether there are subgroups of tinnitus sufferers for whom this iCBT intervention may be more suitable. Methods and analysis A two-armed randomised control trial—with a 1-year follow-up design—will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of iCBT on tinnitus distress. A delayed treatment design using a weekly check-in control group will be used. 70 participants will be randomly assigned to each group by an independent researcher by using a computer-generated randomisation schedule, and after being prestratified for age and tinnitus severity. They will undergo the iCBT e-health intervention online together with audiological therapeutic support. The main outcome measure is the Tinnitus Functional Index. Process evaluation of the intervention will also be conducted. Data analysis will be in accordance with Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials guidelines. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been granted. If this intervention proves effective, it may be possible that at least some tinnitus sufferers can be managed though an iCBT e-learning treatment programme. This would be cost effective and potentially will free up services for those with more severe problems that need face-to-face treatment. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT02370810, date 05/03/2015. PMID:26399571

  12. Behavioural and Developmental Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Clinical Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Maria B.; Krebs Seida, Jennifer; Clark, Brenda; Karkhaneh, Mohammad; Hartling, Lisa; Tjosvold, Lisa; Vandermeer, Ben; Smith, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    Background Much controversy exists regarding the clinical efficacy of behavioural and developmental interventions for improving the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence on the effectiveness of behavioural and developmental interventions for ASD. Methods and Findings Comprehensive searches were conducted in 22 electronic databases through May 2007. Further information was obtained through hand searching journals, searching reference lists, databases of theses and dissertations, and contacting experts in the field. Experimental and observational analytic studies were included if they were written in English and reported the efficacy of any behavioural or developmental intervention for individuals with ASD. Two independent reviewers made the final study selection, extracted data, and reached consensus on study quality. Results were summarized descriptively and, where possible, meta-analyses of the study results were conducted. One-hundred-and-one studies at predominantly high risk of bias that reported inconsistent results across various interventions were included in the review. Meta-analyses of three controlled clinical trials showed that Lovaas treatment was superior to special education on measures of adaptive behaviour, communication and interaction, comprehensive language, daily living skills, expressive language, overall intellectual functioning and socialization. High-intensity Lovaas was superior to low-intensity Lovaas on measures of intellectual functioning in two retrospective cohort studies. Pooling the results of two randomized controlled trials favoured developmental approaches based on initiative interaction compared to contingency interaction in the amount of time spent in stereotyped behaviours and distal social behaviour, but the effect sizes were not clinically significant. No statistically significant differences were found for: Lovaas versus special education for non

  13. Micronutrient interventions on cognitive performance of children aged 5-15 years in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Khor, Geok Lin; Misra, Snigdha

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 200 million young children worldwide fail to reach their potential in cognitive development owing to undernutrition. Numerous studies have assessed the effects of micronutrient supplementation on growth and cognitive development in infants, toddlers and preschoolers. However, micronutrient interventions on the cognitive performance of older children are limited. This article seeks to provide an update on micronutrient interventions and cognitive outcomes among children aged 5-15 years in developing countries. A total of 13 randomized controlled trials published since 2000 were identified. Majority of these studies assessed the effects of micronutrient-fortified foods on various domains of cognitive function. Among key micronutrients assessed were iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A. This review found a lack of consistency in the impact of micronutrient supplementation on intelligence, long term mental functions and school examination grades of the children. A beneficial effect of micronutrient supplementation on short term memory was more consistently reported. Overall, the evidence from this review for the impact of micronutrients on cognitive performance in older children remains equivocal. In light of the growing interest on the influence of nutrition on cognition, it is important that culturally-appropriate and sufficiently sensitive assessment tools be used for measuring the desired cognitive outcomes that are most likely to be affected by the nutrients under study. PMID:23017305

  14. Influence of Aerobic Training and Combinations of Interventions on Cognition and Neuroplasticity after Stroke.

    PubMed

    Constans, Annabelle; Pin-Barre, Caroline; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Decherchi, Patrick; Laurin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Stroke often aggravated age-related cognitive impairments that strongly affect several aspects of quality of life. However, few studies are, to date, focused on rehabilitation strategies that could improve cognition. Among possible interventions, aerobic training is well known to enhance cardiovascular and motor functions but may also induce beneficial effects on cognitive functions. To assess the effectiveness of aerobic training on cognition, it seems necessary to know whether training promotes the neuroplasticity in brain areas involved in cognitive functions. In the present review, we first explore in both human and animal how aerobic training could improve cognition after stroke by highlighting the neuroplasticity mechanisms. Then, we address the potential effect of combinations between aerobic training with other interventions, including resistance exercises and pharmacological treatments. In addition, we postulate that classic recommendations for aerobic training need to be reconsidered to target both cognition and motor recovery because the current guidelines are only focused on cardiovascular and motor recovery. Finally, methodological limitations of training programs and cognitive function assessment are also developed in this review to clarify their effectiveness in stroke patients. PMID:27445801

  15. Review complementary and integrative interventions for cancer-related cognitive changes

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jamie S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive sequelae from a diagnosis of cancer and the subsequent treatment impact survivors’ quality of life and can interfere with both social relationships and employment. The search for evidence-based prevention and intervention strategies continues for both central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS cancer-related cognitive changes. Complementary therapies in conjunction with conventional medicine are being included in integrative programs designed to maximize symptom management in cancer treatment centers providing survivorship care. The purpose of this article is to review the existing evidence for the use of complementary and integrative interventions to prevent or treat cancer-related cognitive changes and to discuss the rationale for current and future research. Search terminology included: Complementary, alternative, and integrative medicine, cognition, cognitive function, and cancer, and yielded 20 studies that met criteria for inclusion. Preliminary results published to date indicate that some complementary therapies may be beneficial to cancer survivors experiencing cognitive concerns. A number of gaps in the literature remain primarily due to preliminary study designs, small sample sizes, lack of objective cognitive testing, and cognitive function not being a primary endpoint for much of the published work. PMID:26719850

  16. Influence of Aerobic Training and Combinations of Interventions on Cognition and Neuroplasticity after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Constans, Annabelle; Pin-barre, Caroline; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Decherchi, Patrick; Laurin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Stroke often aggravated age-related cognitive impairments that strongly affect several aspects of quality of life. However, few studies are, to date, focused on rehabilitation strategies that could improve cognition. Among possible interventions, aerobic training is well known to enhance cardiovascular and motor functions but may also induce beneficial effects on cognitive functions. To assess the effectiveness of aerobic training on cognition, it seems necessary to know whether training promotes the neuroplasticity in brain areas involved in cognitive functions. In the present review, we first explore in both human and animal how aerobic training could improve cognition after stroke by highlighting the neuroplasticity mechanisms. Then, we address the potential effect of combinations between aerobic training with other interventions, including resistance exercises and pharmacological treatments. In addition, we postulate that classic recommendations for aerobic training need to be reconsidered to target both cognition and motor recovery because the current guidelines are only focused on cardiovascular and motor recovery. Finally, methodological limitations of training programs and cognitive function assessment are also developed in this review to clarify their effectiveness in stroke patients. PMID:27445801

  17. Cognitive behavioural therapy for individuals with longstanding anorexia nervosa: adaptations, clinician survival and system issues.

    PubMed

    Bamford, Bryony H; Mountford, Victoria A

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of anorexia nervosa, some individuals will progress to a severe and enduring illness, with associated physical, psychological and social consequences. Working with these patients, however, may leave clinicians feeling overwhelmed, risking difficulties in the therapeutic relationship including disengagement or despair. Cognitive behaviour therapy has shown some promise in the treatment of eating disorders, yet some features may not be appropriate for this group. In this paper, we outline the ways in which we have adapted cognitive behaviour therapy to best meet the complex and challenging needs of this group. We stress the importance of maintaining a reassuring, accepting and motivational approach in combination with clear goal setting and boundaries. PMID:22223392

  18. Interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth

    PubMed Central

    Naranbhai, Vivek; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Background Homeless youth are at high risk for HIV infection as a consequence of risky sexual behavior. Interventions in homeless youth are challenging. Assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth is needed. Objectives To evaluate and summarize the effectiveness of interventions for modifying sexual risk behaviours and preventing transmission of HIV among homeless youth. Search methods We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, Medline, EMBASE, AIDSearch, Gateway, PsycInfo, LILACS), reference lists of eligible articles, international health agency publication lists, and clinical trial registries. The search was updated January 2010. We contacted authors of published reports and other key role players. Selection criteria Randomized studies of interventions to modify sexual risk behavior (biological, self-report sexual-risk behavior or health seeking behavior) in homeless youth (12–24 years). Data collection and analysis Data from eligible studies were extracted by two reviewers. We assessed risk of bias per the Cochrane Collaborations tool. None of the eligible studies reported any primary biological outcomes for this review and the reporting of self-report sexual risk behavior outcomes was highly variable across studies precluding calculation of summary measures of effect; we present the outcomes descriptively for each study. We contacted authors for missing or ambiguous data. Results We identified three eligible studies after screening a total of 255 unique records. All three were performed in the United States of America and recruited substance-abusing male and female adolescents (total N=615) through homeless shelters into randomised controlled trials of independent and non-overlapping behavioural interventions. The three trials differed in theoretical background, delivery method, dosage (number of sessions,) content and outcome assessments. Overall, the variability in delivery and

  19. COPING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH EPILEPSY--EVALUATION OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY INTERVENTION.

    PubMed

    Batista, Maja; Mestrović, Antonela; Vekić, Ana Marija; Malenical, Masa; Kukuruzović, Monika; Begovac, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    A pilot study was conducted to examine the efficiency and satisfaction of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention in youth with epilepsy regarding coping strategies. The CBT intervention was based on the main principles and empirically supported cognitive-behavioral techniques. The intervention consists of epilepsy education, stress education, and coping skill strategies. Seventeen children and adolescents aged 9-17 diagnosed with epilepsy for at least one year, with at least average intelligence and no history of serious mental illness completed the CBT intervention during summer camp, providing data on the efficiency of and satisfaction with CBT intervention. Upon completion of the CBT intervention, study subjects achieved significantly higher scores on the following Scale of Coping with Stress subscales: Problem solving; Seeking for social support from friends; Seeking for social support from family; and Cognitive restructuring, for both measures of usage frequency and effectiveness of each subscale. The participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the CBT intervention. This study provided explanation of research limitations and recommendations for future clinical trials. PMID:27017721

  20. Cognitive Tutor[R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Cognitive Tutor[R]", a full-year course, covers organizing single variable data, simplifying linear expressions, mathematical modeling, solving systems with linear equations, problem-solving using proportional reasoning, and powers and exponents. Students work at their own pace to develop problem-solving skills. The duration of each lesson can…

  1. An Intervention Study Using Cognitive Conflict to Foster Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Tuck-Choy F.; Treagust, David F.

    2013-01-01

    The study involved evaluating the efficacy of a conceptual change instructional programme involving cognitive conflict in (1) facilitating form 2 (grade 8) students' understanding of algebra concepts, and (2) assessing changes in students' attitudes towards learning mathematics, in a mixed quantitative-qualitative research design. The…

  2. Coping with Pain: A Review of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Gail

    The phenomenon of pain is still very puzzling. It is not a purely physical phenomenon. Overwhelming research evidence suggests various psychological variables affecting the pain experience. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of some promising cognitive-behavioral approaches to the control of pain. Anxiety clearly plays a role in…

  3. Using Cognitive Interventions with Counseling Practicum Students during Group Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, Trey J.; Marshall, Jennifer L.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that students in counseling practicum courses experience many self-defeating thoughts and anxieties which can impede their performance as new counselors and can have a negative impact on the supervision process. Outlines innovative methods used by cognitive therapists to address this anxiety and presents a model for counselor educators to…

  4. Cognitive Tutor®. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Cognitive Tutor"® is a secondary mathematics curriculum developed by Carnegie Learning that focuses on how students think about and learn mathematics. Teachers facilitate student learning as students acquire and apply new information and discuss their work. The curriculum can be implemented using a textbook, adaptive software, or…

  5. Public acceptability of government intervention to change health-related behaviours: a systematic review and narrative synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Governments can intervene to change health-related behaviours using various measures but are sensitive to public attitudes towards such interventions. This review describes public attitudes towards a range of policy interventions aimed at changing tobacco and alcohol use, diet, and physical activity, and the extent to which these attitudes vary with characteristics of (a) the targeted behaviour (b) the intervention and (c) the respondents. Methods We searched electronic databases and conducted a narrative synthesis of empirical studies that reported public attitudes in Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand towards interventions relating to tobacco, alcohol, diet and physical activity. Two hundred studies met the inclusion criteria. Results Over half the studies (105/200, 53%) were conducted in North America, with the most common interventions relating to tobacco control (110/200, 55%), followed by alcohol (42/200, 21%), diet-related interventions (18/200, 9%), interventions targeting both diet and physical activity (18/200, 9%), and physical activity alone (3/200, 2%). Most studies used survey-based methods (160/200, 80%), and only ten used experimental designs. Acceptability varied as a function of: (a) the targeted behaviour, with more support observed for smoking-related interventions; (b) the type of intervention, with less intrusive interventions, those already implemented, and those targeting children and young people attracting most support; and (c) the characteristics of respondents, with support being highest in those not engaging in the targeted behaviour, and with women and older respondents being more likely to endorse more restrictive measures. Conclusions Public acceptability of government interventions to change behaviour is greatest for the least intrusive interventions, which are often the least effective, and for interventions targeting the behaviour of others, rather than the respondent him or herself. Experimental studies

  6. Occupational therapists use of cognitive interventions for clients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Robert, Alexandra; Gélinas, Isabelle; Mazer, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a profile of occupational therapy practice for cognitive interventions for clients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in an urban setting. Seventy-four occupational therapists working with older adults with AD in diverse settings in the city of Montreal were randomly selected and were sent a self-administered questionnaire by mail. Sixty-five (87.8%) therapists responded. Findings indicated that 52.3% of occupational therapists are performing cognitive interventions with persons with AD. Of those, 82.4% report using cognitive rehabilitation, 61.8% using cognitive stimulation and 50.0% using cognitive training. Intervention use varied across settings and differed according to severity of AD. The sessions are usually provided individually and often include the client's caregiver. Generalizability of the results is limited to urban areas, and possible differences in service provision should be taken into consideration. Further research is needed to measure the effectiveness of these interventions provided by occupational therapists and to compare occupational therapy practices in urban and rural areas. PMID:19688778

  7. A RCT Comparing Specific Intensive Cognitive Training to Aspecific Psychological Intervention in RRMS: The SMICT Study

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Flavia; Stampatori, Chiara; Bellomi, Fabio; Danni, Maura; Compagnucci, Laura; Uccelli, Antonio; Pardini, Matteo; Santuccio, Giuseppe; Fregonese, Giuditta; Pattini, Marianna; Allegri, Beatrice; Clerici, Raffaella; Lattuada, Annalisa; Montomoli, Cristina; Corso, Barbara; Capra, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    Background: Specific cognitive rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis (MS) resulted to be effective compared to no treatment. So far the possible role of an aspecific psychological intervention on cognition has not been investigated. Objective: The aim of the SMICT RCT was to compare the efficacy of a specific cognitive training with an aspecific psychological intervention in relapsing-remitting MS patients. Methods: From a sample of 150 patients, with the same disability and immunomodulatory therapy, submitted to neuropsychological examination, 45 impaired in at least one test were included and 41 randomized to have either a specific cognitive training for the impaired function (22) or to an aspecific psychological intervention (19) for 4 months, starting after baseline examination. Neuropsychological tests and functional scales were administered at baseline and 1 year later. Results: After 1 year, the mean number of pathological tests was significantly lower in the specific treatment group, compared to the aspecific group. Memory and attention/speeded information processing functions were mostly improved. Depression and quality of life were not different between groups at follow up. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that an intensive and domain specific cognitive approach results to be more effective than aspecific psychological intervention in patients with MS. PMID:25628596

  8. Are Behavioural Interventions Doomed to Fail? Challenges to Self-Management Support in Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Vallis, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Self-management and self-management support are concepts very familiar to those of us in diabetes care. These concepts require openness to understanding the behaviours of persons with diabetes broadly, not only behaviours restricted to the biomedical perspective. Understanding the importance of health behaviour change and working within the Expanded Chronic Care Model define the context within which self-management support should occur. The purpose of this perspective is to identify a potential limitation in existing self-management support initiatives. This potential limitation reflects provider issues, not patient issues; that is, true self-management support might require changes by healthcare providers. Specifically, although behavioural interventions within the context of academic research studies are evidence based, behaviour change interventions implemented in general practice settings might prove less effective unless healthcare providers are able to shift from a practice based on the biomedical model to a practice based on the self-management support model. The purpose of this article is to facilitate effective self-management support by encouraging providers to switch from a model of care based on the expert clinician encountering the uninformed help seeker (the biomedical model) to one guided by collaboration grounded in the principles of description, prediction and choice. Key to understanding the value of making this shift are patient-centered communication principles and the tenets of complexity theory. PMID:25837809

  9. Evaluation of a cognitive behavioural programme for rehabilitating patients with chronic pain.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A C; Nicholas, M K; Richardson, P H; Pither, C E; Justins, D M; Chamberlain, J H; Harding, V R; Ralphs, J A; Jones, S C; Dieudonné, I

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to evaluate an inpatient cognitive behavioural pain management programme for patients with chronic pain. A physical and psychological assessment of patients was carried out before and after treatment, and at one and six months follow up. A total of 212 patients with disabling chronic pain of mean duration 10.5 years, for whom no further medical or psychiatric treatment was appropriate or available, were admitted; their mean age was 50 years and 65% were women. The four week programme was delivered by a multidisciplinary team of two psychologists, a physiotherapist, nurse, occupational therapist and anaesthetist. The main components of therapy included: education, teaching behavioural and cognitive skills, a stretch and exercise programme, medication reduction, goal setting and pacing, and relaxation training. Outcome measures assessed quality of life, physical performance (for example walking speed), pain intensity and distress, depression severity and confidence. Assessment immediately after treatment revealed significant improvements on all measures. Improvements were well maintained at six month follow up. Cognitive behavioural treatment can be of value in improving the day-to-day functioning and quality of life of patients with chronic pain for whom conventional medical treatments have apparently failed. PMID:8312023

  10. Effects of Implementing School-Wide Positive Behavioural Interventions and Supports on Problem Behaviour and Academic Achievement in a Canadian Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelm, Joanna L.; McIntosh, Kent; Cooley, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Although there is much research on School-Wide Positive Behavioural Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in the United States, there is little such research in Canada. The purpose of the current study was to provide a case study example of the relation between implementing PBIS and student academic and behavioural outcomes, as well as student…

  11. Cognitive intervention in unemployed individuals with reading and writing disabilities.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J; Lindgren, M; Andersson, K; Ingvar, D H; Levander, S

    2000-01-01

    Sixty native-born Swedish unemployed participants with reading and writing disabilities (R&WD) participated in a 20-week educational program aimed at improving reading and writing, verbal memory, self-confidence, and flexibility of perspectives. They were tested with a comprehensive battery (interviews, questionnaires, neuropsychological tests, and tests of academic achievement) before and after the intervention. Sixteen controls, matched for sex, age, education, and nonverbal IQ, participated in the pre- and posttest sessions but received only standard unemployment interventions. The educational program participants' performance in tests assessing spelling, decoding of letters, self-confidence, and flexibility improved significantly in comparison with the controls after the intervention. A significantly larger number of the participants had obtained work or started a regular education than expected. A substantial proportion of unemployed participants have R&WD and it appears that an intensive but fairly short educational program can improve their accessibility to the labor market and their motivation for study. PMID:11296685

  12. Review of recent studies on interventions for cognitive deficits in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Karin; Roukema, Jan Anne; Sitskoorn, Margriet M

    2012-02-01

    Research has demonstrated that patients with cancer experience cognitive deficits, often due to aggressive anticancer treatments. In this article, we critically review the interventional studies that have been conducted to investigate beneficial effects on cognitive function in cancer patients. Pharmacological agents that have been studied include psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and modafinil, erythropoietin, and hormonal (supplement) treatments for patients who receive hormonal suppression therapy. In addition, several cognitive rehabilitation programs have been evaluated in cancer patients. Recently, the approach of physical exercise to treat cognitive deficits has received great interest, and findings from novel studies are keenly anticipated. Although, in general, the studies reviewed were well designed, future studies may wish to include larger sample sizes and pay more attention to the accurate assessment of cognitive function. PMID:22316373

  13. Revisiting cognitive rehearsal as an intervention against incivility and lateral violence in nursing: 10 years later.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Martha; Clark, Cynthia M

    2014-12-01

    Ten years ago, Griffin wrote an article on the use of cognitive rehearsal as a shield for lateral violence. Since then, cognitive rehearsal has been used successfully in several studies as an evidence-based strategy to address uncivil and bullying behaviors in nursing. In the original study, 26 newly licensed nurses learned about lateral violence and used cognitive rehearsal techniques as an intervention for nurse-to-nurse incivility. The newly licensed nurses described using the rehearsed strategies as difficult, yet successful in reducing or eliminating incivility and lateral violence. This article updates the literature on cognitive rehearsal and reviews the use of cognitive rehearsal as an evidence-based strategy to address incivility and bullvina behaviors in nursing. PMID:25406637

  14. ACTIVE: A Cognitive Intervention Trial to Promote Independence in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jobe, Jared B.; Smith, David M.; Ball, Karlene; Tennstedt, Sharon L.; Marsiske, Michael; Willis, Sherry L.; Rebok, George W.; Morris, John N.; Helmers, Karin F.; Leveck, Mary D.; Kleinman, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) trial is a randomized, controlled, single-masked trial designed to determine whether cognitive training interventions (memory, reasoning, and speed of information processing), which have previously been found to be successful at improving mental abilities under laboratory or small-scale field conditions, can affect cognitively based measures of daily functioning. Enrollment began during 1998; 2-year follow-up will be completed by January 2002. Primary outcomes focus on measures of cognitively demanding everyday functioning, including financial management, food preparation, medication use, and driving. Secondary outcomes include health-related quality of life, mobility, and health-service utilization. Trial participants (n = 2832) are aged 65 and over, and at entry into the trial, did not have significant cognitive, physical, or functional decline. Because of its size and the carefully developed rigor, ACTIVE may serve as a guide for future behavioral medicine trials of this nature. PMID:11514044

  15. Neurogenetic Effects on Cognition in Aging Brains: A Window of Opportunity for Intervention?

    PubMed Central

    Reinvang, Ivar; Deary, Ian J.; Fjell, Anders M.; Steen, Vidar M.; Espeseth, Thomas; Parasuraman, Raja

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of genetic influences on cognitive aging can constrain and guide interventions aimed at limiting age-related cognitive decline in older adults. Progress in understanding the neural basis of cognitive aging also requires a better understanding of the neurogenetics of cognition. This selective review article describes studies aimed at deriving specific neurogenetic information from three parallel and interrelated phenotype-based approaches: psychometric constructs, cognitive neuroscience-based processing measures, and brain imaging morphometric data. Developments in newer genetic analysis tools, including genome wide association, are also described. In particular, we focus on models for establishing genotype–phenotype associations within an explanatory framework linking molecular, brain, and cognitive levels of analysis. Such multiple-phenotype approaches indicate that individual variation in genes central to maintaining synaptic integrity, neurotransmitter function, and synaptic plasticity are important in affecting age-related changes in brain structure and cognition. Investigating phenotypes at multiple levels is recommended as a means to advance understanding of the neural impact of genetic variants relevant to cognitive aging. Further knowledge regarding the mechanisms of interaction between genetic and preventative procedures will in turn help in understanding the ameliorative effect of various experiential and lifestyle factors on age-related cognitive decline. PMID:21103005

  16. Randomised controlled trial of behavioural infant sleep intervention to improve infant sleep and maternal mood

    PubMed Central

    Hiscock, H; Wake, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of a behavioural sleep intervention with written information about normal sleep on infant sleep problems and maternal depression. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Well child clinics, Melbourne, Australia Participants 156 mothers of infants aged 6-12 months with severe sleep problems according to the parents. Main outcome measures Maternal report of infant sleep problem; scores on Edinburgh postnatal depression scale at two and four months. Intervention Discussion on behavioural infant sleep intervention (controlled crying) delivered over three consultations. Results At two months more sleep problems had resolved in the intervention group than in the control group (53/76 v 36/76, P=0.005). Overall depression scores fell further in the intervention group than in the control group (mean change −3.7, 95% confidence interval −4.7 to −2.7, v −2.5, −1.7 to −3.4, P=0.06). For the subgroup of mothers with depression scores of 10 and over more sleep problems had resolved in the intervention group than in the control group (26/33 v 13/33, P=0.001). In this subgroup depression scores also fell further for intervention mothers than control mothers at two months (−6.0, −7.5 to −4.0, v −3.7, −4.9 to −2.6, P=0.01) and at four months (−6.5, −7.9 to 5.1 v –4.2, –5.9 to −2.5, P=0.04). By four months, changes in sleep problems and depression scores were similar. Conclusions Behavioural intervention significantly reduces infant sleep problems at two but not four months. Maternal report of symptoms of depression decreased significantly at two months, and this was sustained at four months for mothers with high depression scores. What is already known on this topicInfant sleep problems and postnatal depression are both common potentially serious problemsWomen whose infants have sleep problems are more likely to report symptoms of depressionUncontrolled studies in clinical populations suggest that reducing infant

  17. The Half Empty Question for Socio-Cognitive Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Daniel L.; Cheng, Katherine M.; Salehi, Shima; Wieman, Carl

    2016-01-01

    The studies in this special section of the "Journal of Educational Psychology" present a variety of social-psychological interventions across large numbers of classrooms and populations. They show notable benefits for many students at risk for low performance. This is the glass half-full interpretation, and we consider the strengths of…

  18. Cognitive Counselling Intervention: Treatment Effectiveness in an Italian University Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strepparava, Maria Grazia; Bani, Marco; Zorzi, Federico; Corrias, Deborah; Dolce, Rossella; Rezzonico, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Offering counselling to students is increasingly considered as a key academic service. However, the reduction of resources allocated to Italian universities emphasises the need to assess the quality of interventions. This paper presents data reporting the effectiveness of a university counselling service. A sample of 45 undergraduate students…

  19. Cognitive, behavioural and psychological barriers to the prevention of severe hypoglycaemia: A qualitative study of adults with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Barendse, Shalleen M; Singh, Harsimran; Little, Stuart A; Rutter, Martin K; Heller, Simon R; Shaw, James AM

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Severe hypoglycaemia affects approximately one in three people with type 1 diabetes and is the most serious side effect of insulin therapy. Our aim was to explore individualistic drivers of severe hypoglycaemia events. Methods: In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 17 adults with type 1 diabetes and a history of recurrent severe hypoglycaemia, to elicit experiences of hypoglycaemia (symptoms/awareness, progression from mild to severe and strategies for prevention/treatment). Interviews were analysed using an adapted grounded theory approach. Results: Three main themes emerged: hypoglycaemia-induced cognitive impairment, behavioural factors and psychological factors. Despite experiencing early hypoglycaemic symptoms, individuals often delayed intervention due to impaired/distracted attention, inaccurate risk assessment, embarrassment, worry about rebound hyperglycaemia or unavailability of preferred glucose source. Delay coupled with use of a slow-acting glucose source compromised prevention of severe hypoglycaemia. Conclusion: Our qualitative data highlight the multifaceted, idiosyncratic nature of severe hypoglycaemia and confirm that individuals with a history of recurrent severe hypoglycaemia may have specific thought and behaviour risk profiles. Individualised prevention plans are required, emphasising both the need to attend actively to mild hypoglycaemic symptoms and to intervene promptly with an appropriate, patient-preferred glucose source to prevent progression to severe hypoglycaemia. PMID:26770717

  20. A randomised comparison of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) in disaster-exposed children

    PubMed Central

    de Roos, Carlijn; Greenwald, Ricky; den Hollander-Gijsman, Margien; Noorthoorn, Eric; van Buuren, Stef; de Jongh, Ad

    2011-01-01

    Background Building on previous research with disaster-exposed children and adolescents, a randomised clinical trial was performed in the treatment of trauma-related symptoms. In the current study two active treatments were compared among children in a broad age range and from a wide diversity of ethnic populations. Objective The primary aim was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR). Design Children (n=52, aged 4–18) were randomly allocated to either CBT (n=26) or EMDR (n=26) in a disaster mental health after-care setting after an explosion of a fireworks factory. All children received up to four individual treatment sessions over a 4–8 week period along with up to four sessions of parent guidance. Blind assessment took place pre- and post-treatment and at 3 months follow-up on a variety of parent-rated and self-report measures of post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology, depression, anxiety, and behaviour problems. Analyses of variance (general linear model repeated measures) were conducted on the intention-to-treat sample and the completers. Results Both treatment approaches produced significant reductions on all measures and results were maintained at follow-up. Treatment gains of EMDR were reached in fewer sessions. Conclusion Standardised CBT and EMDR interventions can significantly improve functioning of disaster-exposed children. PMID:22893815

  1. Do Early Intervention Programmes Improve Cognitive and Motor Outcomes for Preterm Infants after Discharge? A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orton, Jane; Spittle, Alicia; Doyle, Lex; Anderson, Peter; Boyd, Roslyn

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to review the effects of early developmental intervention after discharge from hospital on motor and cognitive development in preterm infants. Method: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs of early developmental intervention programmes for preterm infants in which motor or cognitive outcomes were reported…

  2. Impact of Training on Cognitive Representation of Challenging Behaviour in Staff Working with Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Martin; Hogg, James

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cognitive representations of challenging behaviour among staff may influence therapeutic outcomes. This study looked at how cognitive dimensions of Identity, Cause, Consequences, Emotional Reaction and Treatment/Control are affected by training. Materials and Methods: A theoretically derived questionnaire was used to measure the impact…

  3. Microstructural White Matter Changes Underlying Cognitive and Behavioural Impairment in ALS – An In Vivo Study Using DTI

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Elisabeth; Schuster, Christina; Machts, Judith; Kaufmann, Joern; Bittner, Daniel; Vielhaber, Stefan; Benecke, Reiner; Teipel, Stefan; Prudlo, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Background A relevant fraction of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) exhibit a fronto-temporal pattern of cognitive and behavioural disturbances with pronounced deficits in executive functioning and cognitive control of behaviour. Structural imaging shows a decline in fronto-temporal brain areas, but most brain imaging studies did not evaluate cognitive status. We investigated microstructural white matter changes underlying cognitive impairment using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in a large cohort of ALS patients. Methods We assessed 72 non-demented ALS patients and 65 matched healthy control subjects using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and DTI. We compared DTI measures of fiber tract integrity using tract-based spatial statistics among ALS patients with and without cognitive impairment and healthy controls. Neuropsychological performance and behavioural measures were correlated with DTI measures. Results Patients without cognitive impairment demonstrated white matter changes predominantly in motor tracts, including the corticospinal tract and the body of corpus callosum. Those with impairments (ca. 30%) additionally presented significant white matter alterations in extra-motor regions, particularly the frontal lobe. Executive and memory performance and behavioural measures were correlated with fiber tract integrity in large association tracts. Conclusion In non-demented cognitively impaired ALS patients, white matter changes measured by DTI are related to disturbances of executive and memory functions, including prefrontal and temporal regions. In a group comparison, DTI is able to observe differences between cognitively unimpaired and impaired ALS patients. PMID:25501028

  4. The Relationship of Academic and Social Cognition to Behaviour in Bullying Situations among Greek Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Eleni; Metallidou, Panagiota

    2004-01-01

    This research explored links between cognition (both social and academic) and children's behaviour in a bullying situation (participant roles). Participants were 186 fourth to sixth grade boys and girls from four primary schools in central Greece. Six categories of social cognition (self-efficacy for assertion, self-efficacy for aggression,…

  5. A Behavioural Genomic Analysis of DNA Markers Associated with General Cognitive Ability in 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Butcher, Lee M.; Meaburn, Emma; Sham, Pak; Craig, Ian W.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background: Five DNA markers (single-nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) have recently been found to be associated with general cognitive ability "g") in a sample of 7414 7-year-old twins. These children have also been studied at 2, 3, 4, and 7 years of age on measures of cognitive and language development and behaviour problems; family environment…

  6. Evidence-Based Training in Cognitive-Behavioural Coaching: Can Personal Development Bring Less Distress and Better Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Oana A.; Cobeanu, Oana

    2016-01-01

    Coaching has become during the past years an emergent guidance profession. Cognitive-behavioural coaching (CBC) emphasises the importance of enhancing the emotion-regulation abilities of clients and replacing their non-productive behaviours. Qualified professionals are needed in order to effectively facilitate the desired changes in their clients.…

  7. Identifying determinants of effective complementary feeding behaviour change interventions in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Cecilia S; van Liere, Marti; Pelto, Gretel

    2014-10-01

    As stunting moves to the forefront of the global agenda, there is substantial evidence that behaviour change interventions (BCI) can improve infant feeding practices and growth. However, this evidence has not been translated into improved outcomes on a national level because we do not know enough about what makes these interventions work, for whom, when, why, at what cost and for how long. Our objective was to examine the design and implementation of complementary feeding BCI, from the peer-reviewed literature, to identify generalisable key determinants. We identified 29 studies that evaluated BCI efficacy or effectiveness, were conducted in developing countries, and reported outcomes on infant and young children aged 6-24 months. Two potential determinants emerged: (1) effective studies used formative research to identify cultural barriers and enablers to optimal feeding practices, to shape the intervention strategy, and to formulate appropriate messages and mediums for delivery; (2) effective studies delineated the programme impact pathway to the target behaviour change and assessed intermediary behaviour changes to learn what worked. We found that BCI that used these developmental and implementation processes could be effective despite heterogeneous approaches and design components. Our analysis was constrained, however, by the limited published data on how design and implementation were carried out, perhaps because of publishing space limits. Information on cost-effectiveness, sustainability and scalability was also very limited. We suggest a more comprehensive reporting process and a more strategic research agenda to enable generalisable evidence to accumulate. PMID:24798264

  8. Identifying determinants of effective complementary feeding behaviour change interventions in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Fabrizio, Cecilia S; van Liere, Marti; Pelto, Gretel

    2014-01-01

    As stunting moves to the forefront of the global agenda, there is substantial evidence that behaviour change interventions (BCI) can improve infant feeding practices and growth. However, this evidence has not been translated into improved outcomes on a national level because we do not know enough about what makes these interventions work, for whom, when, why, at what cost and for how long. Our objective was to examine the design and implementation of complementary feeding BCI, from the peer-reviewed literature, to identify generalisable key determinants. We identified 29 studies that evaluated BCI efficacy or effectiveness, were conducted in developing countries, and reported outcomes on infant and young children aged 6–24 months. Two potential determinants emerged: (1) effective studies used formative research to identify cultural barriers and enablers to optimal feeding practices, to shape the intervention strategy, and to formulate appropriate messages and mediums for delivery; (2) effective studies delineated the programme impact pathway to the target behaviour change and assessed intermediary behaviour changes to learn what worked. We found that BCI that used these developmental and implementation processes could be effective despite heterogeneous approaches and design components. Our analysis was constrained, however, by the limited published data on how design and implementation were carried out, perhaps because of publishing space limits. Information on cost-effectiveness, sustainability and scalability was also very limited. We suggest a more comprehensive reporting process and a more strategic research agenda to enable generalisable evidence to accumulate. PMID:24798264

  9. Are Child Cognitive Characteristics Strong Predictors of Responses to Intervention? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuebing, Karla K.; Barth, Amy E.; Trahan, Lisa H.; Reddy, Radhika R.; Miciak, Jeremy; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of 28 studies comprising 39 samples to ask the question, "What is the magnitude of the association between various baseline child cognitive characteristics and response to reading intervention?" Studies were located via literature searches, contact with researchers in the field, and review of references from…

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Worry, Uncertainty, and Insomnia for Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-22

    Anxiety Disorder; Worry; Uncertainty; Sleep Disorders; Insomnia; Fatigue; Pain; Depression; Cognitive-behavioral Therapy; Psychological Intervention; Esophageal Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Leukemia; Lung Cancer; Multiple Myeloma; Ovarian Neoplasm; Stage III or IV Cervical or Uterine Cancer; Stage IIIB, IIIC, or IV Breast Cancer; Glioblastoma Multiforme; Relapsed Lymphoma; Stage III or IV Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC or IV Melanoma

  11. Response to Intervention for Young Children with Mild, Moderate/Severe Cognitive Disabilities: Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almalki, Nabil; Abaoud, Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    This study has discussed in-depth information about understanding the Response to Intervention (RTI) linking with children from pre-school to kindergarten (three to eight years old) who have Cognitive Disabilities (CD), including different levels from mild to moderate and/or severe. The study consists of five main sections--RTI, CD, RTI Linking…

  12. Post-Admission Cognitive Therapy: A Brief Intervention for Psychiatric Inpatients Admitted After a Suicide Attempt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Cox, Daniel W.; Greene, Farrah N.

    2012-01-01

    To date, no empirically based inpatient intervention for individuals who have attempted suicide exists. We present an overview of a novel psychotherapeutic approach, Post-Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT), currently under development and empirical testing for inpatients who have been admitted for a recent suicide attempt. PACT is adapted from an…

  13. An Evidence-Based Systematic Review on Cognitive Interventions for Individuals with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Tammy; Bourgeois, Michelle; Pimentel, Jane; Qualls, Constance Dean; Hickey, Ellen; Frymark, Tobi; Schooling, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the current state of research evidence related to cognitive interventions for individuals with Alzheimer's disease or related dementias. Method: A systematic search of the literature was conducted across 27 electronic databases based on a set of a priori questions, inclusion/exclusion criteria, and search parameters. Studies…

  14. Mechanisms of Action in Cognitive-Behavioral and Pharmacological Interventions for Obesity and Bulimia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craighead, Linda W.; Agras, W. Stewart

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes data pertaining to separate and combined effects of cognitive-behavioral and psychopharmacologic treatments for obesity and bulimia nervosa. Anorexiant medication appears to enhance restraint and facilitates weight loss with behavioral interventions in the treatment of obesity, but relapse occurs once medication is withdrawn.…

  15. Differences in Language and Cognitive Development: ECI-3. Early Childhood Intervention Catalog Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Joyce; Bricker, Donna

    The third of seven training modules for professionals in early intervention focuses on working with young (birth to age 3) children who are speech/language impaired, learning disabled, slow learning, or socially delayed. Background information summarized what is known about language, cognitive and social dysfunction or affect in infants and young…

  16. Carer Reports of the Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Interventions for Anger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, John

    2010-01-01

    Anger resulting in Aggression can be a significant problem for some people with Intellectual Disabilities. Carers were asked to complete a provocation inventory and an attribution scale before and after a group cognitive behavioral intervention aimed for anger and at similar points in time for a waiting list control. When compared using an…

  17. Cancer Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: Testing a Biobehavioral/Cognitive Behavior Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brothers, Brittany M.; Yang, Hae-Chung; Strunk, Daniel R.; Andersen, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this Phase II trial, we evaluated a novel psychological treatment for depressed patients coping with the stresses of cancer. Effectiveness of a combined biobehavioral intervention (BBI) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was studied. Method: Participants were 36 cancer survivors (mean age = 49 years; 88% Caucasian; 92% female)…

  18. Systematic Review of Cognitive Development across Childhood in Down Syndrome: Implications for Treatment Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, T.; Rapsey, C. M.; Glue, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is conjecture regarding the profile of cognitive development over time in children with Down syndrome (DS). Characterising this profile would be valuable for the planning and assessment of intervention studies. Method: A systematic search of the literature from 1990 to the present was conducted to identify longitudinal data on…

  19. The Effects of a Cognitive-Based Intervention on Drug Awareness in Private School Preadolescent Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Phyllis M.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of a Cognitive-Based Intervention on Drug Awareness in Private School Preadolescent Students. Parsons, Phyllis M., 2005: Applied Dissertation, Nova Southeastern University, Fischler School of Education and Human Services. Adolescents/Substance Abuse/Prevention/Family Influence/Drug Education. This applied dissertation was designed to…

  20. Cognitive-Behavioral and Pharmacological Interventions for Hyperactive Boys: Comparative and Combined Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Stephen P.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Assessed the effects of two interventions on hyperactive children's (N=24) social behavior. Results indicated that both methylphenidate (Ritalin) and reinforced self-evaluation were superior to the contrast treatments. Medication plus cognitive-behavioral self-evaluation proved optimal, and placebo plus reinforcement alone was significantly worse…

  1. Development and Pilot Evaluation of an Internet-Facilitated Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Maternal Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeber, Lisa B.; Seeley, John R.; Feil, Edward G.; Davis, Betsy; Sorensen, Erik; Kosty, Derek B.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Develop and pilot an Internet-facilitated cognitive-behavioral treatment intervention for depression, tailored to economically disadvantaged mothers of young children. Method: Mothers (N = 70) of children enrolled in Head Start, who reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, were randomized to either the 8-session,…

  2. Promoting the Social and Cognitive Competence of Children with Autism: Interventions at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skokut, Mary; Robinson, Suzanne; Openden, Daniel; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2008-01-01

    Addressing the needs of children with autism in the school context is an essential component of facilitating the success of these students. This article provides an overview of scientifically based and promising interventions that may be used to promote the social and cognitive competence of children with autism, focusing on the research base of…

  3. Promoting Cognitive Development among Young Offenders through Pre-Trial Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, R. Dean; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study assessing the effectiveness of an intervention program for youthful offenders in Iowa based on a cognitive approach to rehabilitation, which pivots on the theme that "bad thinking leads to bad behavior." There were gains in prospects for improving life goals and empathy toward victims. Other results were mixed. (LKS)

  4. Application of Instrumental Enrichment Cognitive Intervention Program with Deaf Immigrant Children from Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Lea; Kozulin, Alex

    R. Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment (IE) Program was used as a tool of cognitive educational intervention with 10 deaf children (ages 7 to 15), all recent immigrants from Ethiopia to Israel. The group's special education needs resulted from their deafness, lack of formal educational experience, lack of previous exposure to sign language or…

  5. What Factors Does Friction Depend On? A Socio-Cognitive Teaching Intervention with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravanis, Konstantinos; Koliopoulos, Dimitris; Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a socio-cognitive teaching strategy on young children. It tests their understanding of the factors that friction depends on when an object is projected across a horizontal surface. The study was conducted in three phases: pre-test, teaching intervention, and post-test. The sample…

  6. Comparing Two Inquiry Professional Development Interventions in Science on Primary Students' Questioning and Other Inquiry Behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Kim; Burgh, Gilbert; Kennedy, Callie

    2015-12-01

    Developing students' skills to pose and respond to questions and actively engage in inquiry behaviours enables students to problem solve and critically engage with learning and society. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of providing teachers with an intervention in inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum in comparison to an intervention in non-inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum on student questioning and other inquiry behaviours. Teacher participants in the comparison condition received training in four inquiry-based science units and in collaborative strategic reading. The experimental group, the community of inquiry (COI) condition, received training in facilitating a COI in addition to training in the same four inquiry-based science units. This study involved 227 students and 18 teachers in 9 primary schools across Brisbane, Australia. The teachers were randomly allocated by school to one of the two conditions. The study followed the students across years 6 and 7 and students' discourse during small group activities was recorded, transcribed and coded for verbal inquiry behaviours. In the second year of the study, students in the COI condition demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of procedural and substantive higher-order thinking questions and other inquiry behaviours than those in the comparison condition. Implementing a COI within an inquiry science curriculum develops students' questioning and science inquiry behaviours and allows teachers to foster inquiry skills predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum. Provision of inquiry science curriculum resources alone is not sufficient to promote the questioning and other verbal inquiry behaviours predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum.

  7. Correlation of Cognitive and Social Outcomes among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Randomized Trial of Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Jill; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; Xie, Ming; Harker, Colleen; Mandell, David

    2014-01-01

    Although social impairments are considered the hallmark deficit of autism, many behavioral intervention studies rely on cognitive functioning as a primary outcome. Fewer studies have examined whether changes in cognition are associated with changes in social functioning. This study examined whether cognitive gains among 192 students from 47…

  8. Cognitive Interventions Targeting Brain Plasticity in the Prodromal and Early Phases of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Melissa; Loewy, Rachel; Hardy, Kate; Schlosser, Danielle; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Several important paradigm shifts have occurred in the field of schizophrenia treatment, including an increased focus on early detection, the development of preemptive interventions, and the view of schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by decreased efficiency and abnormal connectivity in cortical and subcortical neural networks. In this review article, we will briefly describe some of the neural impairments that contribute to the development of schizophrenia, with an emphasis on the impact of stress and trauma on cognitively vulnerable neural systems. We will then present current data on two behavioral interventions that target these critical risk factors and that aim to preempt the onset of schizophrenia in vulnerable individuals or improve the clinical course in recent onset schizophrenia: cognitive therapy and computerized cognitive training. PMID:23297786

  9. Cognition and behavioural development in early childhood: the role of birth weight and postnatal growth

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ren, Aiguo; Li, Zhiwen

    2013-01-01

    Background We evaluate the relative importance of birth weight and postnatal growth for cognition and behavioural development in 8389 Chinese children, 4–7 years of age. Method Weight was the only size measure available at birth. Weight, height, head circumference and intelligence quotient (IQ) were measured between 4 and 7 years of age. Z-scores of birth weight and postnatal conditional weight gain to 4–7 years, as well as height and head circumference at 4–7 years of age, were the exposure variables. Z-scores of weight at 4–7 years were regressed on birth weight Z-scores, and the residual was used as the measure of postnatal conditional weight gain. The outcomes were child’s IQ, measured by the Chinese Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence, as well as internalizing behavioural problems, externalizing behavioural problems and other behavioural problems, evaluated by the Child Behavior Checklist 4–18. Multivariate regressions were conducted to investigate the relationship of birth weight and postnatal growth variables with the outcomes, separately for preterm children and term children. Results Both birth weight and postnatal weight gain were associated with IQ among term children; 1 unit increment in Z-score of birth weight (∼450 g) was associated with an increase of 1.60 [Confidence interval (CI): 1.18–2.02; P < 0.001] points in IQ, and 1 unit increment in conditional postnatal weight was associated with an increase of 0.46 (CI: 0.06–0.86; P = 0.02) points in IQ, after adjustment for confounders; similar patterns were observed when Z-scores of postnatal height and head circumference at age 4–7 years were used as alternative measurements of postnatal growth. Effect sizes of relationships with IQ were smaller than 0.1 of a standard deviation in all cases. Neither birth weight nor postnatal growth indicators were associated with behavioural outcomes among term children. In preterm children, neither birth weight nor postnatal growth

  10. Psychotherapy for transdiagnostic binge eating: A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy, appetite-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy, and schema therapy.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Virginia V W; Jordan, Jennifer; Carter, Janet D; Frampton, Christopher M A; McKenzie, Janice M; Latner, Janet D; Joyce, Peter R

    2016-06-30

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is the recommended treatment for binge eating, yet many individuals do not recover, and innovative new treatments have been called for. The current study compares traditional CBT with two augmented versions of CBT; schema therapy, which focuses on early life experiences as pivotal in the history of the eating disorder; and appetite-focused CBT, which emphasises the role of recognising and responding to appetite in binge eating. 112 women with transdiagnostic DSM-IV binge eating were randomized to the three therapies. Therapy consisted of weekly sessions for six months, followed by monthly sessions for six months. Primary outcome was the frequency of binge eating. Secondary and tertiary outcomes were other behavioural and psychological aspects of the eating disorder, and other areas of functioning. No differences among the three therapy groups were found on primary or other outcomes. Across groups, large effect sizes were found for improvement in binge eating, other eating disorder symptoms and overall functioning. Schema therapy and appetite-focused CBT are likely to be suitable alternative treatments to traditional CBT for binge eating. PMID:27149410

  11. Brief Motivational Feedback and Cognitive Behavioral Interventions for Prevention of Disordered Gambling: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Larimer, Mary E.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lostutter, Ty W.; Whiteside, Ursula; Cronce, Jessica M.; Kaysen, Debra; Walker, Denise D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims The purpose of the current study was to evaluate feasibility and efficacy of two promising approaches to indicated prevention of disordered gambling in a college population. Design Randomized controlled trial with assignment to a Personalized Feedback Intervention (PFI), Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention (CBI), or Assessment-Only Control (AOC). PFI was individually delivered in a single session and included feedback regarding gambling behavior, norms, consequences, and risk-reduction tips, delivered in a motivational interviewing style. CBI was delivered in small groups over 4-6 sessions and included functional analysis, brief cognitive correction, as well as identification of and alternatives for responding to gambling triggers. Setting College campus. Participants At-risk or probable pathological gamblers (N = 147; 65.3% male; group assignment: PFI, n = 52; CBI, n = 44; AOC, n = 51). Measurements Self-reported gambling quantity, frequency, consequences, psychopathology, normative perceptions, and beliefs. Findings Relative to control, results at 6-month follow-up indicated reductions in both interventions for gambling consequences (PFI d = .48; CBI d = .39) and DSM-IV criteria (PFI d=.60; CBI d=.48), reductions in frequency for PFI (d = .48). CBI was associated with reduced illusions of control, whereas PFI was associated with reduced perceptions of gambling frequency norms. Reductions in perceived gambling frequency norms mediated effects of PFI on gambling frequency. Conclusions A single-session Personalized Feedback Intervention and a multi-session Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention may be helpful in reducing disordered gambling in US college students. PMID:22188239

  12. Chocolate, Air Pollution and Children's Neuroprotection: What Cognition Tools should be at Hand to Evaluate Interventions?

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; San Juan Chávez, Vanessa; Vacaseydel-Aceves, Nora B; Calderón-Sánchez, Raymundo; Macías-Escobedo, Edgar; Frías, Carmen; Giacometto, Marcela; Velasquez, Luis; Félix-Villarreal, Renata; Martin, Jessie D; Draheim, Christopher; Engle, Randall W

    2016-01-01

    Millions of children across the world are exposed to multiple sources of indoor and outdoor air pollutants, including high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). The established link between exposure to PM2.5, brain structural, volumetric and metabolic changes, severe cognitive deficits (1.5-2 SD from average IQ) in APOE 4 heterozygous females with >75 - < 94% BMI percentiles, and the presence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) hallmarks in urban children and young adults necessitates exploration of ways to protect these individuals from the deleterious neural effects of pollution exposure. Emerging research suggests that cocoa interventions may be a viable option for neuroprotection, with evidence suggesting that early cocoa interventions could limit the risk of cognitive and developmental concerns including: endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, and metabolic detrimental brain effects. Currently, however, it is not clear how early we should implement consumption of cocoa to optimize its neuroprotective effects. Moreover, we have yet to identify suitable instruments for evaluating cognitive responses to these interventions in clinically healthy children, teens, and young adults. An approach to guide the selection of cognitive tools should take into account neuropsychological markers of cognitive declines in patients with Alzheimer's neuropathology, the distinct patterns of memory impairment between early and late onset AD, and the key literature associating white matter integrity and poor memory binding performance in cases of asymptomatic familial AD. We highlight potential systemic and neural benefits of cocoa consumption. We also highlight Working Memory Capacity (WMC) and attention control tasks as opened avenues for exploration in the air pollution scenario. Exposures to air pollutants during brain development have serious brain consequences in the short and long term and reliable cognition tools should be at

  13. Chocolate, Air Pollution and Children's Neuroprotection: What Cognition Tools should be at Hand to Evaluate Interventions?

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; San Juan Chávez, Vanessa; Vacaseydel-Aceves, Nora B.; Calderón-Sánchez, Raymundo; Macías-Escobedo, Edgar; Frías, Carmen; Giacometto, Marcela; Velasquez, Luis; Félix-Villarreal, Renata; Martin, Jessie D.; Draheim, Christopher; Engle, Randall W.

    2016-01-01

    Millions of children across the world are exposed to multiple sources of indoor and outdoor air pollutants, including high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). The established link between exposure to PM2.5, brain structural, volumetric and metabolic changes, severe cognitive deficits (1.5-2 SD from average IQ) in APOE 4 heterozygous females with >75 − < 94% BMI percentiles, and the presence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) hallmarks in urban children and young adults necessitates exploration of ways to protect these individuals from the deleterious neural effects of pollution exposure. Emerging research suggests that cocoa interventions may be a viable option for neuroprotection, with evidence suggesting that early cocoa interventions could limit the risk of cognitive and developmental concerns including: endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, and metabolic detrimental brain effects. Currently, however, it is not clear how early we should implement consumption of cocoa to optimize its neuroprotective effects. Moreover, we have yet to identify suitable instruments for evaluating cognitive responses to these interventions in clinically healthy children, teens, and young adults. An approach to guide the selection of cognitive tools should take into account neuropsychological markers of cognitive declines in patients with Alzheimer's neuropathology, the distinct patterns of memory impairment between early and late onset AD, and the key literature associating white matter integrity and poor memory binding performance in cases of asymptomatic familial AD. We highlight potential systemic and neural benefits of cocoa consumption. We also highlight Working Memory Capacity (WMC) and attention control tasks as opened avenues for exploration in the air pollution scenario. Exposures to air pollutants during brain development have serious brain consequences in the short and long term and reliable cognition tools should be

  14. Mindfulness-based ‘third wave’ cognitive and behavioural therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression

    PubMed Central

    Hunot, Vivien; Moore, Theresa HM; Caldwell, Deborah; Davies, Philippa; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Churchill, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all third wave CBT approaches compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different third wave CBT approaches (ACT,compassionate mind training, functional analytic psychotherapy, extended behavioural activation and meta-cognitive therapy) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all third wave CBT approaches compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, integrative, cognitive-behavioural) for acute depression. PMID:25067906

  15. Space-use behaviour of woodland caribou based on a cognitive movement model.

    PubMed

    Avgar, Tal; Baker, James A; Brown, Glen S; Hagens, Jevon S; Kittle, Andrew M; Mallon, Erin E; McGreer, Madeleine T; Mosser, Anna; Newmaster, Steven G; Patterson, Brent R; Reid, Douglas E B; Rodgers, Art R; Shuter, Jennifer; Street, Garrett M; Thompson, Ian; Turetsky, Merritt J; Wiebe, Philip A; Fryxell, John M

    2015-07-01

    Movement patterns offer a rich source of information on animal behaviour and the ecological significance of landscape attributes. This is especially useful for species occupying remote landscapes where direct behavioural observations are limited. In this study, we fit a mechanistic model of animal cognition and movement to GPS positional data of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou; Gmelin 1788) collected over a wide range of ecological conditions. The model explicitly tracks individual animal informational state over space and time, with resulting parameter estimates that have direct cognitive and ecological meaning. Three biotic landscape attributes were hypothesized to motivate caribou movement: forage abundance (dietary digestible biomass), wolf (Canis lupus; Linnaeus, 1758) density and moose (Alces alces; Linnaeus, 1758) habitat. Wolves are the main predator of caribou in this system and moose are their primary prey. Resulting parameter estimates clearly indicated that forage abundance is an important driver of caribou movement patterns, with predator and moose avoidance often having a strong effect, but not for all individuals. From the cognitive perspective, our results support the notion that caribou rely on limited sensory inputs from their surroundings, as well as on long-term spatial memory, to make informed movement decisions. Our study demonstrates how sensory, memory and motion capacities may interact with ecological fitness covariates to influence movement decisions by free-ranging animals. PMID:25714592

  16. Expressing gambling-related cognitive biases in motor behaviour: rolling dice to win prizes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Matthew S M; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Rogers, Robert D

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive perspectives on gambling propose that biased thinking plays a significant role in sustaining gambling participation and, in vulnerable individuals, gambling problems. One prominent set of cognitive biases include illusions of control involving beliefs that it is possible to influence random gaming events. Sociologists have reported that (some) gamblers believe that it is possible to throw dice in different ways to achieve gaming outcomes (e.g., 'dice-setting' in craps). However, experimental demonstrations of these phenomena are lacking. Here, we asked regular gamblers to roll a computer-simulated, but fair, 6 sided die for monetary prizes. Gamblers allowed the die to roll for longer when attempting to win higher value bets, and when attempting to hit high winning numbers. This behaviour was exaggerated in gamblers motivated to keep gambling following the experience of almost-winning in gambling games. These results suggest that gambling cognitive biases find expression in the motor behaviour of rolling dice for monetary prizes, possibly reflecting embodied substrates. PMID:23620161

  17. Behavioural and cognitive effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin in rats.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, Michaël; Rozan, Pascale; Nejdi, Amine; Hidalgo, Sophie; Desor, Didier

    2005-04-01

    The behavioural and cognitive effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin at the doses of 5 and 10 % in the diet, orally ingested daily during 2 weeks, were investigated using a functional observational battery (FOB) and the light extinction test in male Wistar rats. Control rats received a standard diet and were tested in the same test situations. The behavioural effects were assessed 2 d before and 14 d after the beginning of the treatment period and the cognitive effects were investigated after the administration period by lever-pressing activity and learning discrimination using the light extinction test paradigm. In general, the study demonstrated that oligofructose-enriched inulin at 5 % in the diet, and particularly at 10 % in the diet, caused relaxing-like effects, stimulated and increased the general activity and interest of the rats to the test environment. In addition, both doses of oligofructose-enriched inulin showed significant effects on learning discrimination in male rats, in comparison with the control diet. These results suggest that oligofructose-enriched inulin, particularly at the dose of 10 %, improves cognitive performances in the light extinction test and the well-being of male rats using the FOB. PMID:15877891

  18. Cognitive, Behavioural and Psychiatric Phenotype in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    22q11.2 Deletion syndrome has become an important model for understanding the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental conditions, particularly schizophrenia which develops in about 20–25% of individuals with a chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion. From the initial discovery of the syndrome, associated developmental delays made it clear that changes in brain development were a key part of the expression. Once patients were followed through childhood into adult years, further neurobehavioural phenotypes became apparent, including a changing cognitive profile, anxiety disorders and seizure diathesis. The variability of expression is as wide as for the myriad physical features associated with the syndrome, with the addition of evolving phenotype over the developmental trajectory. Notably, variability appears unrelated to length of the associated deletion. Several mouse models of the deletion have been engineered and are beginning to reveal potential molecular mechanisms for the cognitive and behavioural phenotypes observable in animals. Both animal and human studies hold great promise for further discoveries relevant to neurodevelopment and associated cognitive, behavioural and psychiatric disorders. PMID:21573985

  19. Cognitive Enrichment in Piglet Rearing: An Approach to Enhance Animal Welfare and to Reduce Aggressive Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Rauterberg, Sally; Viazzi, Stefano; Oczak, Maciej; Bahr, Claudia; Guarino, Marcella; Vranken, Erik; Berckmans, Daniel; Hartung, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    It is known that pigs raised in enriched environments express less aggressive behaviour. For this reason, a new method of cognitive environmental enrichment was experimented at the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany. In the first phase, 78 suckling piglets were trained to learn the link between a sound given by an electronic feeder and a feed reward in the form of chocolate candies during a period of 8 days. In the second phase, the same piglets were used in resident-intruder tests to verify the potential of the feeding system to interrupt aggressive behaviour. The analysis of all training rounds revealed that piglets learned the commands during 8 days of training and the interest of the piglets increased within training days (P < 0.05). In the resident-intruder test, 79.5% of aggressive interactions were broken by feeder activation. In interactions where either the aggressor or the receiver reacted, a high number of fights were stopped (96.7% versus 93.1%) indicating that it was not relevant if the aggressor or the receiver responded to the feeder activation. We conclude that the electronic feeding system has the potential to be used as cognitive enrichment for piglets, being suitable for reducing aggressive behaviour in resident-intruder situations. PMID:24198969

  20. Efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation therapies for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older adults: Working toward a theoretical model and evidence-based interventions

    PubMed Central

    Huckans, Marilyn; Hutson, Lee; Twamley, Elizabeth; Jak, Amy; Kaye, Jeffrey; Storzbach, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation therapies (CRTs) for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Our review revealed a need for evidence-based treatments for MCI and a lack of a theoretical rehabilitation model to guide the development and evaluation of these interventions. We have thus proposed a theoretical rehabilitation model of MCI that yields key intervention targets - cognitive compromise, functional compromise, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and modifiable risk and protective factors known to be associated with MCI and dementia. Our model additionally defines specific cognitive rehabilitation approaches that may directly or indirectly target key outcomes - restorative cognitive training, compensatory cognitive training, lifestyle interventions, and psychotherapeutic techniques. Methods Fourteen randomized controlled trials met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Results Studies markedly varied in terms of intervention approaches and selected outcome measures and were frequently hampered by design limitations. The bulk of the evidence suggested that CRTs can change targeted behaviors in individuals with MCI and that CRTs are associated with improvements in objective cognitive performance, but the pattern of effects on specific cognitive domains was inconsistent across studies. Other important outcomes (i.e., daily functioning, quality of life, neuropsychiatric symptom severity) were infrequently assessed across studies. Few studies evaluated long-term outcomes or the impact of CRTs on conversion rates from MCI to dementia or normal cognition. Conclusions Overall, results from trials are promising but inconclusive. Additional well-designed and adequately powered trials are warranted and required before CRTs for MCI can be considered evidence based. PMID:23471631

  1. Efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation therapies for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older adults: working toward a theoretical model and evidence-based interventions.

    PubMed

    Huckans, Marilyn; Hutson, Lee; Twamley, Elizabeth; Jak, Amy; Kaye, Jeffrey; Storzbach, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation therapies (CRTs) for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Our review revealed a need for evidence-based treatments for MCI and a lack of a theoretical rehabilitation model to guide the development and evaluation of these interventions. We have thus proposed a theoretical rehabilitation model of MCI that yields key intervention targets-cognitive compromise, functional compromise, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and modifiable risk and protective factors known to be associated with MCI and dementia. Our model additionally defines specific cognitive rehabilitation approaches that may directly or indirectly target key outcomes-restorative cognitive training, compensatory cognitive training, lifestyle interventions, and psychotherapeutic techniques. Fourteen randomized controlled trials met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Studies markedly varied in terms of intervention approaches and selected outcome measures and were frequently hampered by design limitations. The bulk of the evidence suggested that CRTs can change targeted behaviors in individuals with MCI and that CRTs are associated with improvements in objective cognitive performance, but the pattern of effects on specific cognitive domains was inconsistent across studies. Other important outcomes (i.e., daily functioning, quality of life, neuropsychiatric symptom severity) were infrequently assessed across studies. Few studies evaluated long-term outcomes or the impact of CRTs on conversion rates from MCI to dementia or normal cognition. Overall, results from trials are promising but inconclusive. Additional well-designed and adequately powered trials are warranted and required before CRTs for MCI can be considered evidence-based. PMID:23471631

  2. Non-pharmacological Interventions for Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Stage Dementia: An Updated Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Rodakowski, Juleen; Saghafi, Ester; Butters, Meryl A.; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this scoping review was to examine the science related to non-pharmacological interventions designed to slow decline for older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment or early-stage dementia. We reviewed 32 unique randomized controlled trials that employed cognitive training (remediation or compensation approaches), physical exercise, or psychotherapeutic interventions that were published before November 2014. Evidence suggests that cognitive training focused on remediation and physical exercise interventions may promote small improvements in selected cognitive abilities. Cognitive training focused on compensation interventions and selected psychotherapeutic interventions may influence how cognitive changes impact daily living. However, confidence in these findings is limited due methodological limitations. To better assess the value of non-pharmacological interventions for this population, we recommend: 1) adoption of universal criteria for “early stage cognitive decline” among studies, 2) adherence to guidelines for the conceptualization, operationalization, and implementation of complex interventions, 3) consistent characterization of the impact of interventions on daily life, and 3) long-term follow-up of clinical outcomes to assess maintenance and meaningfulness of reported effects over time. PMID:26070444

  3. Food for Thought: A Randomised Controlled Trial of Emotional Freedom Techniques and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in the Treatment of Food Cravings.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Peta; Bannatyne, Amy Jean; Urzi, Keri-Charle; Porter, Brett; Sheldon, Terri

    2016-07-01

    Addressing the internal determinants of dysfunctional eating behaviours (e.g. food cravings) in the prevention and treatment of obesity has been increasingly recognised. This study compared Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) to Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for food cravings in adults who were overweight or obese (N = 83) in an 8-week intervention. Outcome data were collected at baseline, post-intervention, and at 6- and 12-months follow-up. Overall, EFT and CBT demonstrated comparable efficacy in reducing food cravings, one's responsiveness to food in the environment (power of food), and dietary restraint, with Cohen's effect size values suggesting moderate to high practical significance for both interventions. Results also revealed that both EFT and CBT are capable of producing treatment effects that are clinically meaningful, with reductions in food cravings, the power of food, and dietary restraint normalising to the scores of a non-clinical community sample. While reductions in BMI were not observed, the current study supports the suggestion that psychological interventions are beneficial for food cravings and both CBT and EFT could serve as vital adjunct tools in a multidisciplinary approach to managing obesity. PMID:27140673

  4. What works in school-based energy balance behaviour interventions and what does not? A systematic review of mediating mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    van Stralen, M M; Yildirim, M; Velde, SJ te; Brug, J; van Mechelen, W; Chinapaw, M J M

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Obesity prevention requires effective interventions targeting the so-called energy balance-related behaviours (that is, physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviours). To improve (cost-)effectiveness of these interventions, one needs to know the working mechanisms underlying behavioural change. Mediation analyses evaluates whether an intervention works via hypothesised working mechanisms. Identifying mediators can prompt intervention developers to strengthen effective intervention components and remove/adapt ineffective components. This systematic review aims to identify psychosocial and environmental mediators of energy balance-related behaviours interventions for youth. Method: Studies were identified by a systematic search of electronic databases (Pubmed, Embase, PsycINFO, ERIC and SPORTDiscus). Studies were included if they (1) were school-based randomised controlled or quasi-experimental studies; (2) targeted energy balance behaviours; (3) conducted among children and adolescents (4–18 years of age); (4) written in English; and (5) conducted mediation analyses. Results: A total of 24 studies were included. We found strong evidence for self-efficacy and moderate evidence for intention as mediators of physical activity interventions. Indications were found for attitude, knowledge and habit strength to be mediators of dietary behaviour interventions. The few sedentary behaviour interventions reporting on mediating effects prevented us from forming strong conclusions regarding mediators of sedentary behaviour interventions. The majority of interventions failed to significantly change hypothesised mediators because of ineffective intervention strategies, low power and/or use of insensitive measures. Conclusion: Despite its importance, few studies published results of mediation analysis, and more high-quality research into relevant mediators is necessary. On the basis of the limited number of published studies, self-efficacy and intention appear

  5. The Association of Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Behavioural Difficulties with Pre-Adolescent Problematic Eating Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Rebecca C.; Skugarevsky, Oleg; Yang, Seungmi; Kramer, Michael S.; Wade, Kaitlin H.; Patel, Rita; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Sergeichick, Natalia; Smith, George Davey; Oken, Emily; Martin, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Few studies have prospectively investigated associations of child cognitive ability and behavioural difficulties with later eating attitudes. We investigated associations of intelligence quotient (IQ), academic performance and behavioural difficulties at 6.5 years with eating attitudes five years later. Methods We conducted an observational cohort study nested within the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial, Belarus. Of 17,046 infants enrolled at birth, 13,751 (80.7%) completed the Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT) at 11.5 years, most with information on IQ (n = 12,667), academic performance (n = 9,954) and behavioural difficulties (n = 11,098) at 6.5 years. The main outcome was a ChEAT score ≥85th percentile, indicative of problematic eating attitudes. Results Boys with higher IQ at 6.5 years reported fewer problematic eating attitudes, as assessed by ChEAT scores ≥85th percentile, at 11.5 years (OR per SD increase in full-scale IQ = 0.87; 0.79, 0.94). No such association was observed in girls (1.01; 0.93, 1.10) (p for sex-interaction = 0.016). In both boys and girls, teacher-assessed academic performance in non-verbal subjects was inversely associated with high ChEAT scores five years later (OR per unit increase in mathematics ability = 0.88; 0.82, 0.94; and OR per unit increase in ability for other non-verbal subjects = 0.86; 0.79, 0.94). Behavioural difficulties were positively associated with high ChEAT scores five years later (OR per SD increase in teacher-assessed rating = 1.13; 1.07, 1.19). Conclusion Lower IQ, worse non-verbal academic performance and behavioural problems at early school age are positively associated with risk of problematic eating attitudes in early adolescence. PMID:25102171

  6. A computerized approach to cognitive behavioural assessment: an introduction to CBA-2.0 primary scales.

    PubMed

    Bertolotti, G; Zotti, A M; Michielin, P; Vidotto, G; Sanavio, E

    1990-03-01

    The Cognitive Behavioural Assessment-2.0 (CBA-2.0) Primary Scales is an automated assessment package investigating the cognitive-verbal response system. It consists of: (1) self-reports and questionnaires aimed at identifying and specifying patients' problems; (2) a group of programs and logical rules, implemented on personal computers, providing an editor with items, questionnaire scoring and an analysis of responses; (3) an intelligent program which analyzes the responses emerging from the questionnaires and forms hypotheses for the selection of Secondary Scales and for further assessment. The package is part of a research project aimed at reducing part of the decision-making process to an operational language and simulating behavioral therapists decisions in cases of clinical assessment. PMID:2197296

  7. Cognitive behaviour therapy to improve mood in people with epilepsy: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gandy, Milena; Sharpe, Louise; Nicholson Perry, Kathryn; Thayer, Zoe; Miller, Laurie; Boserio, Janet; Mohamed, Armin

    2014-01-01

    This study compared a 9-week individualised Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) programme for people with epilepsy (PWE), with a wait-list control. Fifty-nine PWE were randomised and 45 (75%) completed post-treatment outcomes. People with lower quality of life (QoL), particularly for cognitive functioning, were more likely to drop out. Analyses based on treatment completers demonstrated significant improvements on the Neurological Depressive Disorders Inventory for Epilepsy (p = .045) and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale-Depression subscale (p = .048). Importantly, CBT significantly reduced the likelihood of clinical depressive symptoms (p = .014) and suicidal ideation (p = .005). Improvements were not observed for anxiety, QoL or maintained overtime for depression. Results suggest that CBT was effective, however, and could be improved to increase patient retention and long-term outcomes. PMID:24635701

  8. Promoting professional behaviour change in healthcare: what interventions work, and why? A theory-led overview of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark J; May, Carl R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Translating research evidence into routine clinical practice is notoriously difficult. Behavioural interventions are often used to change practice, although their success is variable and the characteristics of more successful interventions are unclear. We aimed to establish the characteristics of successful behaviour change interventions in healthcare. Design We carried out a systematic overview of systematic reviews on the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions with a theory-led analysis using the constructs of normalisation process theory (NPT). MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychINFO and the Cochrane Library were searched electronically from inception to July 2015. Setting Primary and secondary care. Participants Participants were any patients and healthcare professionals in systematic reviews who met the inclusion criteria of having examined the effectiveness of professional interventions in improving professional practice and/or patient outcomes. Interventions Professional interventions as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group. Primary and secondary outcome measures Success of each intervention in changing practice or patient outcomes, and their mechanisms of action. Reviews were coded as to the interventions included, how successful they had been and which NPT constructs its component interventions covered. Results Searches identified 4724 articles, 67 of which met the inclusion criteria. Interventions fell into three main categories: persuasive; educational and informational; and action and monitoring. Interventions focusing on action or education (eg, Audit and Feedback, Reminders, Educational Outreach) acted on the NPT constructs of Collective Action and Reflexive Monitoring, and reviews using them tended to report more positive outcomes. Conclusions This theory-led analysis suggests that interventions which contribute to normative restructuring of practice, modifying peer group norms and expectations (eg

  9. Screening and Brief Intervention for Substance Misuse: Does It Reduce Aggression and HIV-Related Risk Behaviours?

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Catherine L.; Mertens, Jennifer R.; Bresick, Graham F.; Little, Francesca; Weisner, Constance M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore whether reducing substance misuse through a brief motivational intervention also reduces aggression and HIV risk behaviours. Methods: Participants were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in primary care if they screened positive for substance misuse. Substance misuse was assessed using the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test; aggression, using a modified version of the Explicit Aggression Scale; and HIV risk, through a count of common risk behaviours. The intervention was received on the day of the baseline interview, with a 3-month follow-up. Results: Participants who received the intervention were significantly more likely to reduce their alcohol use than those who did not; no effect was identified for other substances. In addition, participants who reduced substance misuse (whether as an effect of the intervention or not) also reduced aggression but not HIV risk behaviours. Conclusions: Reducing substance misuse through any means reduces aggression; other interventions are needed for HIV risk reduction. PMID:25731180

  10. Association of substance-use behaviours and their social-cognitive determinants in secondary school students.

    PubMed

    Victoir, An; Eertmans, Audrey; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van den Broucke, Stephan

    2007-02-01

    In two samples of Flemish secondary school students, co-occurrence of different types of substance use was observed: smoking was associated with marijuana use in Sample 1 (n = 597) and alcohol consumption in Sample 2 (n = 403). It was investigated whether social-cognitive determinants of these behaviours were also associated. Low to medium correlations were observed. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that a model with general social-cognitive factors (across different substances) did not have adequate fit. Substance use was mainly associated with variables referring to the specific substance under consideration, with the exception of self-efficacy in buying and smoking cigarettes; this factor was linked not only to smoking but also to alcohol and marijuana use. Adolescents who regularly used two substances generally held positions on social-cognitive scales that were more unfavourable than those who only used one substance. In order to change determinants of use, substance-specific cognitions and skills may be important targets. PMID:16807377

  11. Cognitive Rehabilitation of Dementia in Adults with Down Syndrome: A Review of Non-Pharmacological Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Luciana Mascarenhas; Navatta, Anna Carolina Rufino; Bottino, Cássio M.C.; Miotto, Eliane Correa

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a close genetic relationship between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down syndrome (DS), AD being the most severe mental disorder affecting ageing individuals with DS. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation interventions in DS patients with AD by means of a critical literature review. Summary Because AD is progressive and irreversible, treatment is aimed at delaying and reducing the cognitive and functional decline in order to preserve or improve quality of life. The effects that pharmacological treatments and cognitive interventions have on elderly individuals with AD are well documented. Recent clinical trials have investigated the use of pharmacological treatment in DS patients with AD, generating preliminary results that have been unfavourable. Key Messages There is a clear lack of studies addressing the efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation interventions in DS patients with AD, and there is an urgent need for studies providing evidence to inform decisions regarding the appropriate choice of treatment strategies. PMID:26483832

  12. Cognitive and physiological effects of an acute physical activity intervention in elementary school children

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Katja; Schmidt, Mirko; Conzelmann, Achim; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an acute physical activity intervention that included cognitive engagement on executive functions and on cortisol level in young elementary school children. Half of the 104 participating children (6–8 years old) attended a 20-min sport sequence, which included cognitively engaging and playful forms of physical activity. The other half was assigned to a resting control condition. Individual differences in children's updating, inhibition, and shifting performance as well as salivary cortisol were assessed before (pre-test), immediately after (post-test), and 40 min after (follow-up) the intervention or control condition, respectively. Results revealed a significantly stronger improvement in inhibition in the experimental group compared to the control group, while it appeared that acute physical activity had no specific effect on updating and shifting. The intervention effect on inhibition leveled out 40 min after physical activity. Salivary cortisol increased significantly more in the experimental compared to the control group between post-test and follow-up and results support partly the assumed inverted U-shaped relationship between cortisol level and cognitive performance. In conclusion, results indicate that acute physical activity that includes cognitive engagement may have immediate positive effects on inhibition, but not necessarily on updating and shifting in elementary school children. This positive effect may partly be explained through cortisol elevation after acute physical activity. PMID:25566148

  13. To boldly climb: behavioural and cognitive differences in migrating European glass eels

    PubMed Central

    Podgorniak, T.; Blanchet, S.; De Oliveira, E.; Daverat, F.; Pierron, F.

    2016-01-01

    European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a catadromous fish species that received substantial attention as its population has markedly declined in the last three decades. The possible causes of this decline include habitat fragmentation factors such as dams and weirs. In some cases, these obstacles are equipped with fish friendly passage devices that may select young eels according to their climbing behaviour. We tested how individual climbing tendency was related to the event of fishway passage experienced in the field and classified fish climbing profiles as climbing ‘leaders’, ‘followers’, ‘finishers’ and ‘no climbers’. Moreover, we analysed the brain transcription level of genes related to neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity and compared it to climbing profiles. We found that fish from the upstream segments of an impounded river had a higher climbing propensity. Their behaviour was also more repeatable throughout the whole test than the obstacle-naive fish from the downstream segment. Moreover, we found that boldly climbing ‘leaders’ had lower levels of transcription of synapse-related genes than the climbing ‘followers’. These differences could be related to coping styles of fish, where proactive ‘leaders’ express a routine and risky behaviour, whereas reactive fish need an environmental assessment before exploratory behaviour. Our study showed that differences in climbing propensity exist in glass eels separated by water obstacles. Moreover, eels could adopt climbing different strategies according to the way they deal with environmental stress and to the cognitive abilities they possess. PMID:26909192

  14. To boldly climb: behavioural and cognitive differences in migrating European glass eels.

    PubMed

    Podgorniak, T; Blanchet, S; De Oliveira, E; Daverat, F; Pierron, F

    2016-01-01

    European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a catadromous fish species that received substantial attention as its population has markedly declined in the last three decades. The possible causes of this decline include habitat fragmentation factors such as dams and weirs. In some cases, these obstacles are equipped with fish friendly passage devices that may select young eels according to their climbing behaviour. We tested how individual climbing tendency was related to the event of fishway passage experienced in the field and classified fish climbing profiles as climbing 'leaders', 'followers', 'finishers' and 'no climbers'. Moreover, we analysed the brain transcription level of genes related to neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity and compared it to climbing profiles. We found that fish from the upstream segments of an impounded river had a higher climbing propensity. Their behaviour was also more repeatable throughout the whole test than the obstacle-naive fish from the downstream segment. Moreover, we found that boldly climbing 'leaders' had lower levels of transcription of synapse-related genes than the climbing 'followers'. These differences could be related to coping styles of fish, where proactive 'leaders' express a routine and risky behaviour, whereas reactive fish need an environmental assessment before exploratory behaviour. Our study showed that differences in climbing propensity exist in glass eels separated by water obstacles. Moreover, eels could adopt climbing different strategies according to the way they deal with environmental stress and to the cognitive abilities they possess. PMID:26909192

  15. Three-Year Results of the Friendly Schools Whole-of-School Intervention on Children's Bullying Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Donna; Monks, Helen; Hall, Marg; Shaw, Therese; Pintabona, Yolanda; Erceg, Erin; Hamilton, Greg; Roberts, Clare; Waters, Stacey; Lester, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    A group randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of the Friendly Schools program to reduce student bullying behaviour. This socio-ecological intervention targeted the whole school, classroom, family, and individual students to reduce bullying behaviour. Self-report data were collected in 29 schools over three years from a cohort of 1968…

  16. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effectiveness of Behavioural Early Intervention Programs for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makrygianni, Maria K.; Reed, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of behavioural intervention programs for children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders was addressed by a meta-analysis, which reviewed 14 studies. The findings suggest that the behavioural programs are effective in improving several developmental aspects in the children, in terms of their treatment gains, and also relative to…

  17. The nuclear receptor Tlx regulates motor, cognitive and anxiety-related behaviours during adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, James D; Kozareva, Danka A; Hueston, Cara M; O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2016-06-01

    The nuclear receptor Tlx is a key regulator of embryonic and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and has been genetically linked to bipolar disorder. Mice lacking Tlx (Nr2e1(-/-)) display deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and behavioural abnormalities. However, whether Tlx regulates behaviour during adolescence or in a sex-dependent manner remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the role of Tlx in a series of behavioural tasks in adolescent male and female mice with a spontaneous deletion of Tlx (Nr2e1(-/-) mice). Testing commenced at adolescence (postnatal day 28) and continued until adulthood (postnatal day 67). Adolescent male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice were hyperactive in an open field, an effect that persisted in adulthood. Male but not female Nr2e1(-/-) mice exhibited reduced thigmotaxis during adolescence and adulthood. Impairments in rotarod motor performance developed in male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice at the onset of adulthood. Spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze, a hippocampus-dependent task, was impaired in adolescent but not adult male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice. Contextual fear conditioning was impaired in adolescent male Nr2e1(-/-) mice only, but both male and female adolescent Nr2e1(-/-) mice showed impaired cued fear conditioning, a hippocampal-amygdala dependent cognitive process. These deficits persisted into adulthood in males but not females. In conclusion, deletion of Tlx impairs motor, cognitive and anxiety-related behaviours during adolescence and adulthood in male and female mice with most effects occurring during adolescence rather than adulthood, independent of housing conditions. This suggests that Tlx has functions beyond regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and may be an important target in understanding neurobiological disorders. PMID:26970576

  18. Effects of Exercise Interventions on Stereotypic Behaviours in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Petrus, Christopher; Adamson, Sarah R.; Block, Laurie; Einarson, Sarah J.; Sharifnejad, Maryam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize evidence from studies examining the effect of exercise interventions on stereotypic behaviours in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: Only exercise-related physical therapy (PT) interventions were included. A multifaceted search strategy identified studies published between 1980 and 2007. Quality was assessed using the American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM) Study Quality Scale, the Clinical Relevance Tool for Case Studies, and the Quality, Rigour or Evaluative Criteria tool. Results: Seven studies (1982–2003) met our inclusion criteria; four of these used single-subject research designs, two were group studies, and one was a case study. Ages and behavioural characteristics of the children (N = 25) varied among the studies. Levels of evidence ranged from II to V (of a possible I–V). Study quality scores ranged from 2 to 5 (range: 0 to 7); mean = 3.9, mode = 5. Few studies in this area of PT practice have been published, and those identified scored low levels of rigour on the AACPDM criteria. Conclusions: Research suggests that exercise provides short-term reductions of stereotypic behaviours in children with ASD. Future research with stronger evidence levels, greater rigour, and longer-term outcome assessment is required to determine specific exercise parameters. PMID:20145777

  19. The Single-Case Reporting Guideline In BEhavioural Interventions (SCRIBE) 2016 statement: Énoncé concernant la Single-Case Reporting Guideline In BEhavioural Interventions (SCRIBE) 2016.

    PubMed

    Tate, Robyn L; Perdices, Michael; Rosenkoetter, Ulrike; Shadish, William; Vohra, Sunita; Barlow, David H; Horner, Robert; Kazdin, Alan; Kratochwill, Thomas; McDonald, Skye; Sampson, Margaret; Shamseer, Larissa; Togher, Leanne; Albin, Richard; Backman, Catherine; Douglas, Jacinta; Evans, Jonathan J; Gast, David; Manolov, Rumen; Mitchell, Geoffrey; Nickels, Lyndsey; Nikles, Jane; Ownsworth, Tamara; Rose, Miranda; Schmid, Christopher H; Wilson, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    We developed a reporting guideline to provide authors with guidance about what should be reported when writing a paper for publication in a scientific journal using a particular type of research design: the single-case experimental design. This report describes the methods used to develop the Single-Case Reporting guideline In BEhavioural interventions (SCRIBE) 2016. As a result of 2 online surveys and a 2-day meeting of experts, the SCRIBE 2016 checklist was developed, which is a set of 26 items that authors need to address when writing about single-case research. This article complements the more detailed SCRIBE 2016 Explanation and Elaboration article (Tate et al., 2016) that provides a rationale for each of the items and examples of adequate reporting from the literature. Both these resources will assist authors to prepare reports of single-case research with clarity, completeness, accuracy, and transparency. They will also provide journal reviewers and editors with a practical checklist against which such reports may be critically evaluated. We recommend that the SCRIBE 2016 is used by authors preparing manuscripts describing single-case research for publication, as well as journal reviewers and editors who are evaluating such manuscripts.Reporting guidelines, such as the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement, improve the reporting of research in the medical literature (Turner et al., 2012). Many such guidelines exist and the CONSORT Extension to Nonpharmacological Trials (Boutron et al., 2008) provides suitable guidance for reporting between-groups intervention studies in the behavioral sciences. The CONSORT Extension for N-of-1 Trials (CENT 2015) was developed for multiple crossover trials with single individuals in the medical sciences (Shamseer et al., 2015; Vohra et al., 2015), but there is no reporting guideline in the CONSORT tradition for single-case research used in the behavioral sciences. We developed the Single

  20. Effect of music intervention on the cognitive and depression status of senior apartment residents in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Shu-Yu; Wang, Ling-Chun; Yang, Yuan-Han

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the effect of music intervention on cognitive function and depression status of residents in senior citizen apartments based on the existing evidence regarding music therapy. Methods An experimental study was conducted from November 2008 to December 2009. Sixty healthy senior apartment residents over 65 years of age were recruited and separated into two groups. According to their opinion, 41 took part in the music intervention group and 19 in the comparison group. The music intervention involved Buddhist hymns. The short-term effects were evaluated based on the measurement of cognitive function and depression level using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale-short form (GDS-SF) at the baseline, 1 month, and 4 months. Results The means of the initial and the 1-month MMSE and GDS-SF scores did not differ between the two groups. The 4-month MMSE score significantly declined compared with the initial level in the comparison group, whereas no significant change was observed in the experimental group. Moreover, the 4-month GDS-SF score significantly improved in both groups compared with the initial level. Conclusion Music intervention may postpone cognitive decline in healthy residents preferring Buddhist hymns in the senior citizen apartments in 4 months follow-up, and intense contact with participants may improve their mood status. PMID:26109859

  1. Maternal scaffolding and home stimulation: Key mediators of early intervention effects on children's cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Obradović, Jelena; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Finch, Jenna E; Rasheed, Muneera A

    2016-09-01

    This study contributes to the understanding of how early parenting interventions implemented in low- and middle-income countries during the first 2 years of children's lives are sustained longitudinally to promote cognitive skills in preschoolers. We employed path analytic procedures to examine 2 family processes-the quality of home stimulation and maternal scaffolding behaviors-as underlying mechanisms through which a responsive stimulation intervention uniquely predicted children's verbal intelligence, performance intelligence, and executive functioning. The sample included 1,302 highly disadvantaged children and their mothers living in rural Pakistan, who from birth participated in a 2-year, community-based, cluster-randomized, controlled trial designed to promote sensitive and responsive caregiving. Family processes were assessed at 2 developmental time points using parent reports, ratings of home environments, and observed parent-child interactions. Cognitive skills at age 4 were assessed using standardized tests. Controlling for socioeconomic risk (e.g., wealth, maternal education, food insecurity) and individual factors (e.g., gender, growth status), the quality of current home stimulation as well as both earlier and concurrent measures of maternal scaffolding independently mediated the intervention effects on cognitive skills at age 4. In addition, the intervention had a significant direct effect on executive functioning and performance intelligence over and above significant family processes and other covariates. We highlight implications for future program design and evaluation studies. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27505702

  2. Effects of a physical education intervention on cognitive function in young children: randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials (RCT) are required to test relationships between physical activity and cognition in children, but these must be informed by exploratory studies. This study aimed to inform future RCT by: conducting practical utility and reliability studies to identify appropriate cognitive outcome measures; piloting an RCT of a 10 week physical education (PE) intervention which involved 2 hours per week of aerobically intense PE compared to 2 hours of standard PE (control). Methods 64 healthy children (mean age 6.2 yrs SD 0.3; 33 boys) recruited from 6 primary schools. Outcome measures were the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB), the Attention Network Test (ANT), the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) and the short form of the Connor's Parent Rating Scale (CPRS:S). Physical activity was measured habitually and during PE sessions using the Actigraph accelerometer. Results Test- retest intraclass correlations from CANTAB Spatial Span (r 0.51) and Spatial Working Memory Errors (0.59) and ANT Reaction Time (0.37) and ANT Accuracy (0.60) were significant, but low. Physical activity was significantly higher during intervention vs. control PE sessions (p < 0.0001). There were no significant differences between intervention and control group changes in CAS scores. Differences between intervention and control groups favoring the intervention were observed for CANTAB Spatial Span, CANTAB Spatial Working Memory Errors, and ANT Accuracy. Conclusions The present study has identified practical and age-appropriate cognitive and behavioral outcome measures for future RCT, and identified that schools are willing to increase PE time. Trial registration number ISRCTN70853932 (http://www.controlled-trials.com) PMID:22034850

  3. Road user behaviour changes following a self-explaining roads intervention.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Hamish W; Charlton, Samuel G; Baas, Peter H; Villasenor, Pablo C

    2013-01-01

    The self-explaining roads (SER) approach uses road designs that evoke correct expectations and driving behaviours from road users to create a safe and user-friendly road network. Following the implementation of an SER process and retrofitting of local and collector roads in a suburb within Auckland City, lower speeds on local roads and less variation in speed on both local and collector roads were achieved, along with a closer match between actual and perceived safe speeds. Preliminary analyses of crash data shows that the project has resulted in a 30% reduction crash numbers and an 86% reduction in crash costs per annum, since the road changes were completed. In order to further understand the outcomes from this project, a study was carried out to measure the effects of the SER intervention on the activity and behaviour of all road users. Video was collected over nine separate days, at nine different locations, both before and after SER construction. Road user behaviour categories were developed for all potential road users at different location types and then used to code the video data. Following SER construction, on local roads there was a relatively higher proportion of pedestrians, less uniformity in vehicle lane keeping and less indicating by motorists along with less through traffic, reflecting a more informal/low speed local road environment. Pedestrians were less constrained on local roads following SER construction, possibly reflecting a perceptually safer and more user-friendly environment. These behaviours were not generally evident on collector roads, a trend also shown by the previous study of speed changes. Given that one of the objectives of SER is to match road user behaviour with functionally different road categories, the road user behaviour differences demonstrated on different road types within the SER trial area provides further reinforcement of a successful SER trial. PMID:22868249

  4. A systematic review of school-based interventions targeting physical activity and sedentary behaviour among older adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hynynen, S-T.; van Stralen, M. M.; Sniehotta, F. F.; Araújo-Soares, V.; Hardeman, W.; Chinapaw, M. J. M.; Vasankari, T.; Hankonen, N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lack of physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary behaviour (SB) have been associated with health problems. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of school-based interventions to increase PA and decrease SB among 15–19-year-old adolescents, and examines whether intervention characteristics (intervention length, delivery mode and intervention provider) and intervention content (i.e. behaviour change techniques, BCTs) are related to intervention effectiveness. A systematic search of randomised or cluster randomised controlled trials with outcome measures of PA and/or SB rendered 10 results. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Intervention content was coded using Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy v1. Seven out of 10 studies reported significant increases in PA. Effects were generally small and short-term (Cohen's d ranged from 0.132 to 0.659). Two out of four studies that measured SB reported significant reductions in SB. Interventions that increased PA included a higher number of BCTs, specific BCTs (e.g., goal setting, action planning and self-monitoring), and were delivered by research staff. Intervention length and mode of delivery were unrelated to effectiveness. More studies are needed that evaluate long-term intervention effectiveness and target SBs among older adolescents. PMID:26807143

  5. Increasing chlamydia screening tests in general practice: a modified Zelen prospective Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial evaluating a complex intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, Cliodna A M; Hogan, Angela H; Ricketts, Ellie J; Wallace, Louise; Oliver, Isabel; Campbell, Rona; Kalwij, Sebastian; O'Connell, Elaine; Charlett, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if a structured complex intervention increases opportunistic chlamydia screening testing of patients aged 15–24 years attending English general practitioner (GP) practices. Methods A prospective, Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial with a modified Zelen design involving 160 practices in South West England in 2010. The intervention was based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). It comprised of practice-based education with up to two additional contacts to increase the importance of screening to GP staff and their confidence to offer tests through skill development (including videos). Practical resources (targets, posters, invitation cards, computer reminders, newsletters including feedback) aimed to actively influence social cognitions of staff, increasing their testing intention. Results Data from 76 intervention and 81 control practices were analysed. In intervention practices, chlamydia screening test rates were 2.43/100 15–24-year-olds registered preintervention, 4.34 during intervention and 3.46 postintervention; controls testing rates were 2.61/100 registered patients prior intervention, 3.0 during intervention and 2.82 postintervention. During the intervention period, testing in intervention practices was 1.76 times as great (CI 1.24 to 2.48) as controls; this persisted for 9 months postintervention (1.57 times as great, CI 1.27 to 2.30). Chlamydia infections detected increased in intervention practices from 2.1/1000 registered 15–24-year-olds prior intervention to 2.5 during the intervention compared with 2.0 and 2.3/1000 in controls (Estimated Rate Ratio intervention versus controls 1.4 (CI 1.01 to 1.93). Conclusions This complex intervention doubled chlamydia screening tests in fully engaged practices. The modified Zelen design gave realistic measures of practice full engagement (63%) and efficacy of this educational intervention in general practice; it should be used more often. Trial registration The trial was

  6. Effects of School-Based Interventions on Secondary School Students with High and Low Risks for Antisocial Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robin; John, Lindsay; Livingstone, Anne-Marie; Shepherd, Nicole; Duku, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the methodology and program effects of a multicomponent model of interventions designed to prevent antisocial behaviour in secondary school students. Interventions included cooperative learning, classroom management, and peer tutoring, mentoring, and mediation. Data from the Secondary Schools Demonstration Project (SSDP)…

  7. Peer-Mediated Interventions with Elementary and Secondary School Students with Emotional and Behavioural Disorders: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Cahit; Blake, John; Chan, Fong

    2015-01-01

    Peer-mediated interventions (PMIs) have been shown to be effective for increasing adaptive social and academic behaviours of children and youth. Although PMI efficacy is generally well supported, there have been relatively few published intervention studies that focus on elementary, middle and high school students with emotional and behavioural…

  8. Context and Communication Strategies in Naturalistic Behavioural Intervention: A Framework for Understanding How Practitioners Facilitate Communication in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowden, Hannah; Perkins, Mick; Clegg, Judy

    2011-01-01

    There are many different approaches to intervention aimed at facilitating the social and communicative abilities of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Behavioural interventions seek to improve the social and communicative abilities of children with ASD through interaction. Recently there has been a move towards naturalistic…

  9. Psychosis and behavioural symptoms of dementia: defining the role of neuroleptic interventions.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, B; Bhriain, S N

    2001-12-01

    Neuroleptics have a definite role in dementia but the treatment targets need to be more narrowly defined. Symptom clusters that are neuroleptic-responsive (e.g., aggression, psychomotor agitation and psychosis) appear to be emerging but need clearer definition and measurement. A number of these symptom clusters are relatively persistent over time and associated with increased risk of institutionalization, underscoring the need for treatment. The frequency, severity and persistence of the symptom or behaviour, the context in which it occurs and its impact on the carer must be considered before prescribing a neuroleptic. Given the modest effect size for neuroleptic interventions, the safety and tolerability of the agent is also a key factor in determining drug choice. Novel neuroleptics are safer and better tolerated and therefore should be used in preference to conventional agents when neuroleptic treatment is indicated for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. PMID:11748783

  10. The validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural model of eating disorders in predicting dietary restraint.

    PubMed

    Hoiles, Kimberley J; Egan, Sarah J; Kane, Robert T

    2012-04-01

    The study examined the validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural theory of eating disorders. The aim was to determine if the maintaining mechanisms of clinical perfectionism, core low self esteem, mood intolerance and interpersonal difficulties have a direct impact on dietary restraint or an indirect impact via eating, shape and weight concerns. The model was tested in a community sample of 224 females recruited via the internet. The structural equation model provided a good fit for the data. The relationship between maintaining mechanisms and dietary restraint was due to maintaining mechanisms impacting indirectly on dietary restraint via eating disorder psychopathology. The results lend support for the validity of the transdiagnostic model of eating disorders as the maintaining mechanisms lead to restraint via the core psychopathology of eating concerns, weight concerns and shape concerns. The findings suggest the four maintaining mechanisms alone are not enough to lead to dietary restraint, the core psychopathology of eating disorders needs to be present, which supports the predictions of the theory. These results help establish the validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural theory of eating disorders. PMID:22365794

  11. Inpatient Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Anorexia Nervosa: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Conti, Maddalena; Doll, Helen; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the immediate and longer-term effects of two cognitive behaviour therapy programmes for hospitalized patients with anorexia nervosa, one focused exclusively on the patients' eating disorder features and the other focused also on mood intolerance, clinical perfectionism, core low self-esteem or interpersonal difficulties. Both programmes were derived from enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) for eating disorders. Methods Eighty consecutive patients with severe anorexia nervosa were randomized to the two inpatient CBT-E programmes, both of which involved 20 weeks of treatment (13 weeks as an inpatient and 7 as a day patient). The patients were then followed up over 12 months. The assessments were made blind to treatment condition. Results Eighty-one percent of the eligible patients accepted inpatient CBT-E, of whom 90% completed the 20 weeks of treatment. The patients in both programmes showed significant improvements in weight, eating disorder and general psychopathology. Deterioration after discharge did occur but it was not marked and it was restricted to the first 6 months. There were no statistically significant differences between the effects of the two programmes. Conclusions These findings suggest that both versions of inpatient CBT-E are well accepted by these severely ill patients and might be a viable and promising treatment for severe anorexia nervosa. There appears to be no benefit from using the more complex form of the treatment. PMID:24060628

  12. Cognitive-behavioural treatment of pathological gambling in individuals with chronic schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; Gómez, Montserrat; Freixa, Montserrat

    2011-11-01

    The current study aimed to test the clinical effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural program (CBT) specifically adapted for pathological gamblers with chronic schizophrenia, carried out in a naturalistic setting of community Mental Health Centres. Forty-four pathological gamblers with chronic schizophrenia were assigned either to a standard drug therapy for schizophrenia (control group) or to cognitive-behavioural therapy for pathological gambling plus a standard drug therapy for schizophrenia (experimental group). Psychological treatment comprised a 20-session program including psychoeducation, stimulus control, gradual exposure and relapse prevention. Therapeutic success was defined as abstinence or the occurrence of only 1 or 2 episodes of gambling during the follow-up period. While the patients treated in the experimental group showed a rate of success of 73.9%, only 19% of the participants belonging to the control group gave up gambling at the 3-month follow-up. The CBT group also did better than the control group in the number of gambling episodes and in the amount of money spent on gambling. However, the improvement of the experimental group was weaker at the 6- and 12-month follow-up. These findings support the beneficial effects of CBT as adjunctive therapy for patients with dual diagnoses (schizophrenia and pathological gambling). PMID:21920501

  13. Perceptions of cognitive behavioural guided self-help treatment for bulimia nervosa in primary care.

    PubMed

    Banasiak, Susan J; Paxton, Susan J; Hay, Phillipa J

    2007-01-01

    This study examined perceptions of 36 women who participated in Guided Self-Help (GSH) treatment for bulimia nervosa delivered by general practitioners (GPs) in primary care. Qualitative responses revealed factors perceived to contribute toward treatment effectiveness including: improved eating behaviours, body image and emotional and general well-being; the empathic and practical style of the manual; specific behavioural strategies; GP facilitated positive therapeutic alliance and interventions with program implementation; and accessible treatment. Factors perceived as contributing to treatment ineffectiveness concerned: lack of changes to eating and body image; inadequacies of treatment program and approach; inadequate treatment dose; poor service delivery; and perceptions of low GP competence/professionalism and poor therapeutic alliance. PMID:17162639

  14. Developing interventions for cancer-related cognitive dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Castellino, Sharon M; Ullrich, Nicole J; Whelen, Megan J; Lange, Beverly J

    2014-08-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer frequently experience cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, commonly months to years after treatment for pediatric brain tumors, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), or tumors involving the head and neck. Risk factors for cancer-related cognitive dysfunction include young age at diagnosis, treatment with cranial irradiation, use of parenteral or intrathecal methotrexate, female sex, and pre-existing comorbidities. Limiting use and reducing doses and volume of cranial irradiation while intensifying chemotherapy have improved survival and reduced the severity of cognitive dysfunction, especially in leukemia. Nonetheless, problems in core functional domains of attention, processing speed, working memory and visual-motor integration continue to compromise quality of life and performance. We review the epidemiology, pathophysiology and assessment of cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, the impact of treatment changes for prevention, and the broad strategies for educational and pharmacological interventions to remediate established cognitive dysfunction following childhood cancer. The increased years of life saved after childhood cancer warrants continued study toward the prevention and remediation of cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, using uniform assessments anchored in functional outcomes. PMID:25080574

  15. Effects of non-pharmacological or pharmacological interventions on cognition and brain plasticity of aging individuals

    PubMed Central

    Pieramico, Valentina; Esposito, Roberto; Cesinaro, Stefano; Frazzini, Valerio; Sensi, Stefano L.

    2014-01-01

    Brain aging and aging-related neurodegenerative disorders are major health challenges faced by modern societies. Brain aging is associated with cognitive and functional decline and represents the favourable background for the onset and development of dementia. Brain aging is associated with early and subtle anatomo-functional physiological changes that often precede the appearance of clinical signs of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging approaches unveiled the functional correlates of these alterations and helped in the identification of therapeutic targets that can be potentially useful in counteracting age-dependent cognitive decline. A growing body of evidence supports the notion that cognitive stimulation and aerobic training can preserve and enhance operational skills in elderly individuals as well as reduce the incidence of dementia. This review aims at providing an extensive and critical overview of the most recent data that support the efficacy of non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions aimed at enhancing cognition and brain plasticity in healthy elderly individuals as well as delaying the cognitive decline associated with dementia. PMID:25228860

  16. Diet-Induced Cognitive Deficits: The Role of Fat and Sugar, Potential Mechanisms and Nutritional Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Beilharz, Jessica E.; Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    It is of vital importance to understand how the foods which are making us fat also act to impair cognition. In this review, we compare the effects of acute and chronic exposure to high-energy diets on cognition and examine the relative contributions of fat (saturated and polyunsaturated) and sugar to these deficits. Hippocampal-dependent memory appears to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of high-energy diets and these deficits can occur rapidly and prior to weight gain. More chronic diet exposure seems necessary however to impair other sorts of memory. Many potential mechanisms have been proposed to underlie diet-induced cognitive decline and we will focus on inflammation and the neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Finally, given supplementation of diets with omega-3 and curcumin has been shown to have positive effects on cognitive function in healthy ageing humans and in disease states, we will discuss how these nutritional interventions may attenuate diet-induced cognitive decline. We hope this approach will provide important insights into the causes of diet-induced cognitive deficits, and inform the development of novel therapeutics to prevent or ameliorate such memory impairments. PMID:26274972

  17. Developing Interventions for Cancer-Related Cognitive Dysfunction in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Nicole J.; Whelen, Megan J.; Lange, Beverly J.

    2014-01-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer frequently experience cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, commonly months to years after treatment for pediatric brain tumors, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), or tumors involving the head and neck. Risk factors for cancer-related cognitive dysfunction include young age at diagnosis, treatment with cranial irradiation, use of parenteral or intrathecal methotrexate, female sex, and pre-existing comorbidities. Limiting use and reducing doses and volume of cranial irradiation while intensifying chemotherapy have improved survival and reduced the severity of cognitive dysfunction, especially in leukemia. Nonetheless, problems in core functional domains of attention, processing speed, working memory and visual-motor integration continue to compromise quality of life and performance. We review the epidemiology, pathophysiology and assessment of cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, the impact of treatment changes for prevention, and the broad strategies for educational and pharmacological interventions to remediate established cognitive dysfunction following childhood cancer. The increased years of life saved after childhood cancer warrants continued study toward the prevention and remediation of cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, using uniform assessments anchored in functional outcomes. PMID:25080574

  18. Effects of non-pharmacological or pharmacological interventions on cognition and brain plasticity of aging individuals.

    PubMed

    Pieramico, Valentina; Esposito, Roberto; Cesinaro, Stefano; Frazzini, Valerio; Sensi, Stefano L

    2014-01-01

    Brain aging and aging-related neurodegenerative disorders are major health challenges faced by modern societies. Brain aging is associated with cognitive and functional decline and represents the favourable background for the onset and development of dementia. Brain aging is associated with early and subtle anatomo-functional physiological changes that often precede the appearance of clinical signs of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging approaches unveiled the functional correlates of these alterations and helped in the identification of therapeutic targets that can be potentially useful in counteracting age-dependent cognitive decline. A growing body of evidence supports the notion that cognitive stimulation and aerobic training can preserve and enhance operational skills in elderly individuals as well as reduce the incidence of dementia. This review aims at providing an extensive and critical overview of the most recent data that support the efficacy of non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions aimed at enhancing cognition and brain plasticity in healthy elderly individuals as well as delaying the cognitive decline associated with dementia. PMID:25228860

  19. Neural correlates of cognitive intervention in persons at risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, S. M. Hadi; Kramer, Joel H.; Kesler, Shelli R.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive training is an emergent approach that has begun to receive increased attention in recent years as a non-pharmacological, cost-effective intervention for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). There has been increasing behavioral evidence regarding training-related improvement in cognitive performance in early stages of AD. Although these studies provide important insight about the efficacy of cognitive training, neuroimaging studies are crucial to pinpoint changes in brain structure and function associated with training and to examine their overlap with pathology in AD. In this study, we reviewed the existing neuroimaging studies on cognitive training in persons at risk of developing AD to provide an overview of the overlap between neural networks rehabilitated by the current training methods and those affected in AD. The data suggest a consistent training-related increase in brain activity in medial temporal, prefrontal, and posterior default mode networks, as well as increase in gray matter structure in frontoparietal and entorhinal regions. This pattern differs from the observed pattern in healthy older adults that shows a combination of increased and decreased activity in response to training. Detailed investigation of the data suggests that training in persons at risk of developing AD mainly improves compensatory mechanisms and partly restores the affected functions. While current neuroimaging studies are quite helpful in identifying the mechanisms underlying cognitive training, the data calls for future multi-modal neuroimaging studies with focus on multi-domain cognitive training, network level connectivity, and individual differences in response to training. PMID:25206335

  20. Key Beliefs for Targeted Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children: Analyzing Data from an Extended Version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger-Gravel, A.; Godin, G.

    2010-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children, a better understanding of physical activity behaviour is an important step in intervention planning. This study, based on the theory of planned behaviour, was conducted among 313 fifth graders and their parents. Children completed a computer-based questionnaire to evaluate theoretical constructs and behaviour. Additional information was obtained from parents by means of a questionnaire. Correlates of children's physical activity were intention and self-identity. Determinants of intention were self-efficacy, self-identity, and attitude. Parental variables were mediated through cognitions. Among girls, practicing sedentary activities was an additional negative determinant of intention. Key beliefs of boys and girls were related to time management and difficulties associated with physical activity. For girls, social identification as an active girl was another important belief related to positive intention. This study provides theory-based information for the development of more effective interventions aimed at promoting physical activity among children. PMID:20652005

  1. [A Cognitive Behavioural Group Therapy Manual for Elderly People with Type 2 Diabetes and Minor Depression].

    PubMed

    Petrak, Frank; Hautzinger, Martin; Müller, Matthias J; Herpertz, Stephan

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes in the elderly is often associated with depressive symptoms. This comorbidity leads to a higher risk for diabetes related complications, disability and mortality and can be observed not only in major depression but also in subthreshold or minor depression. Specific psychological interventions for this high-risk patient group were not available yet. Therefore, we developed a diabetes specific cognitive behavioral group intervention for elderly outpatients with subthreshold or minor depression and type 2 diabetes within a randomized controlled trial. The treatment goals focus on improvement in health related quality of life, depression symptoms, glycemic control and cost effectiveness. In this article we give an overview of the manualized treatment program. PMID:27485930

  2. The effectiveness of aerobic training, cognitive behavioural therapy, and energy conservation management in treating MS-related fatigue: the design of the TREFAMS-ACE programme

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background TREFAMS is an acronym for TReating FAtigue in Multiple Sclerosis, while ACE refers to the rehabilitation treatment methods under study, that is, Aerobic training, Cognitive behavioural therapy, and Energy conservation management. The TREFAMS-ACE research programme consists of four studies and has two main objectives: (1) to assess the effectiveness of three different rehabilitation treatment strategies in reducing fatigue and improving societal participation in patients with MS; and (2) to study the neurobiological mechanisms of action that underlie treatment effects and MS-related fatigue in general. Methods/Design Ambulatory patients (n = 270) suffering from MS-related fatigue will be recruited to three single-blinded randomised clinical trials (RCTs). In each RCT, 90 patients will be randomly allocated to the trial-specific intervention or to a low-intensity intervention that is the same for all RCTs. This low-intensity intervention consists of three individual consultations with a specialised MS-nurse. The trial-specific interventions are Aerobic Training, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, and Energy Conservation Management. These interventions consist of 12 individual therapist-supervised sessions with additional intervention-specific home exercises. The therapy period lasts 16 weeks. All RCTs have the same design and the same primary outcome measures: fatigue - measured with the Checklist Individual Strength, and participation - measured with the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire. Outcomes will be assessed 1 week prior to, and at 0, 8, 16, 26 and 52 weeks after randomisation. The assessors will be blinded to allocation. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in serum, salivary cortisol, physical fitness, physical activity, coping, self-efficacy, illness cognitions and other determinants will be longitudinally measured in order to study the neurobiological mechanisms of action. Discussion The TREFAMS-ACE programme is unique in its aim to

  3. Surgical and Non-Surgical Interventions for Obesity in Service of Preserving Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Andreana P.; Alosco, Michael L.; Gunstad, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this article is to highlight what is currently known about the mechanisms of obesity-related cognitive impairment and weight-loss-related cognitive improvement, and discuss the benefits and drawbacks of available treatments. Methods The manuscript is based on a live debate, presenting the main advantages and disadvantages of exercise interventions and bariatric surgery as related to cognitive functioning. The live debate took place during a one-day conference on Diabetes, Obesity and the Brain, organized by the American Psychosomatic Society in October of 2013. Results While it is well established that bariatric surgery tends to lead to greater weight loss, better glycemic control, and cognitive improvement (effect sizes ranging between 0.61 to 0.78) during the first one to two years post intervention than non-surgical treatments, medical complications are possible, and follow-up data beyond five years is limited. In contrast, non-surgical therapies have been extensively studied in a variety of clinical settings and have proved that they can sustain positive health outcomes up to 10 years later, but their cognitive benefits tend to be more modest (effect sizes ranging from 0.18 to 0.69) and long-term regiment compliance, especially in obese individuals is uncertain. Conclusions Rather than focusing on debating whether surgical or no-surgical interventions for obesity are better, additional research is needed to identify the most efficient and practical combination of approaches to ensure sustained positive health outcomes for the largest number of patients possible. PMID:26163819

  4. Pharmacological intervention for cognitive deficits and aggression in frontal lobe injury.

    PubMed

    Sugden, Steven G; Kile, Shawn J; Farrimond, Derald D; Hilty, Donald M; Bourgeois, James A

    2006-01-01

    We present a case that promotes early intervention and pharmacological treatment for the neuropsychiatric sequelae (frontal lobe syndrome, including cognitive impairment and aggressive behavior) associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and delirium. The patient, who sustained significant systemic complications related to his trauma, was previously diagnosed with alcohol and drug dependence and antisocial personality disorder. These antecedent conditions and prolonged systemic complications likely played a complicating role in his course of recovery. PMID:16720932

  5. Orbitofrontal cortex, emotional decision-making and response to cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Preethi; Fannon, Dominic; Sapara, Adegboyega; Peters, Emmanuelle R; Anilkumar, Anantha P; Simmons, Andrew; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2015-03-30

    Grey matter volume (GMV) in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) may relate to better response to cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) because of the region׳s role in emotional decision-making and cognitive flexibility. This study aimed to determine the relation between pre-therapy OFC GMV or asymmetry, emotional decision-making and CBTp responsiveness. Emotional decision-making was measured by the Iowa Gambling task (IGT). Thirty patients received CBTp+standard care (CBTp+SC; 25 completers) for 6-8 months. All patients (before receiving CBTp) and 25 healthy participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Patients׳ symptoms were assessed before and after therapy. Pre-therapy OFC GMV was measured using a region-of-interest approach, and IGT performance was measured as overall learning, attention to reward, memory for past outcomes and choice consistency. Both these measures, were comparable between patient and healthy groups. In the CBTp+SC group, greater OFC GMV correlated with positive symptom improvement, specifically hallucinations and persecution. Greater rightward OFC asymmetry correlated with improvement in several negative and general psychopathology symptoms. Greater left OFC GMV was associated with lower IGT attention to reward. The findings suggest that greater OFC volume and rightward asymmetry, which maintain the OFC׳s function in emotional decision-making and cognitive flexibility, are beneficial for CBTp responsiveness. PMID:25659473

  6. Orbitofrontal cortex, emotional decision-making and response to cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Premkumar, Preethi; Fannon, Dominic; Sapara, Adegboyega; Peters, Emmanuelle R.; Anilkumar, Anantha P.; Simmons, Andrew; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2015-01-01

    Grey matter volume (GMV) in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) may relate to better response to cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) because of the region׳s role in emotional decision-making and cognitive flexibility. This study aimed to determine the relation between pre-therapy OFC GMV or asymmetry, emotional decision-making and CBTp responsiveness. Emotional decision-making was measured by the Iowa Gambling task (IGT). Thirty patients received CBTp+standard care (CBTp+SC; 25 completers) for 6–8 months. All patients (before receiving CBTp) and 25 healthy participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Patients׳ symptoms were assessed before and after therapy. Pre-therapy OFC GMV was measured using a region-of-interest approach, and IGT performance was measured as overall learning, attention to reward, memory for past outcomes and choice consistency. Both these measures, were comparable between patient and healthy groups. In the CBTp+SC group, greater OFC GMV correlated with positive symptom improvement, specifically hallucinations and persecution. Greater rightward OFC asymmetry correlated with improvement in several negative and general psychopathology symptoms. Greater left OFC GMV was associated with lower IGT attention to reward. The findings suggest that greater OFC volume and rightward asymmetry, which maintain the OFC׳s function in emotional decision-making and cognitive flexibility, are beneficial for CBTp responsiveness. PMID:25659473

  7. Gene-environment interaction of reelin and stress in cognitive behaviours in mice: Implications for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Anna; Buret, Laetitia; Hill, Rachel A; van den Buuse, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are a particularly debilitating symptom group in schizophrenia. We investigated the effect of a 'two hit' combination of two factors implicated in schizophrenia development, reelin deficiency and stress, on cognitive behaviours in mice. Male and female heterozygous reelin mice (HRM) and wild-type (WT) controls received the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT), during early adulthood to simulate chronic stress. The Y-maze, novel object recognition task (NORT), social interaction task and prepulse inhibition (PPI) were used to assess short-term spatial memory, visual non-spatial memory, social recognition memory and sensory gating, respectively. Reelin protein expression was measured in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. CORT induced spatial memory deficits in male and female HRM but not in WT controls suggesting increased vulnerability of HRM to the effects of stress on cognition. By contrast, CORT disrupted PPI only in male WT mice, but not in male HRM, suggesting a protective role of reelin deficiency against effects of stress on PPI. Male HRM performed worse in the social recognition memory task compared to wild-type controls, irrespective of CORT treatment. No differences were detected in the NORT. Reelin protein expression was increased in the PFC of female CORT-treated HRM but there were no group differences in the hippocampus. Overall, these findings extend our understanding of the role of reelin-stress interactions in schizophrenia. PMID:25845740

  8. The effectiveness of Grief-Help, a cognitive behavioural treatment for prolonged grief in children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing recognition of a syndrome of disturbed grief referred to as prolonged grief disorder (PGD). PGD is mostly studied in adults, but clinically significant PGD symptoms have also been observed in children and adolescents. Yet, to date no effective treatment for childhood PGD exists. The aims of this study are: (1) to investigate the effectiveness of Grief-Help, a nine-session cognitive-behavioural treatment for childhood PGD, combined with five sessions of parental counselling, immediately after the treatment and at three, six and twelve months follow-up; (2) to examine tentative mediators of the effects of Grief-Help, (i.e., maladaptive cognitions and behaviours and positive parenting), and (3) to determine whether demographic variables, child personality, as well as symptoms of PGD, anxiety, and depression in parents moderate the treatment effectiveness. Methods/Design We will conduct a Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) in which 160 children and adolescents aged 8–18 years are randomly allocated to cognitive behavioural Grief-Help or to a supportive counselling intervention; both treatments are combined with five sessions of parental counselling. We will recruit participants from clinics for mental health in the Netherlands. The primary outcome measure will be the severity of Prolonged Grief Disorder symptoms according to the Inventory of Prolonged Grief for Children (IPG-C). Secondary outcomes will include PTSD, depression and parent-rated internalizing and externalizing problems. Mediators like positive parenting and maladaptive cognitions and behaviours will be identified. We will also examine possible moderators including demographic variables (e.g. time since loss, cause of death), psychopathology symptoms in parents (PGD, anxiety and depression) and child personality. Assessments will take place in both groups at baseline, after the treatment-phase and three, six and twelve months after the post-treatment assessment. Discussion We

  9. Cognitive-behavioral intervention to promote smoking cessation for pregnant and postpartum inner city women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minsun; Wen, Kuang-Yi; Hui, Sui-kuen Azor; Roussi, Pagona; Hernandez, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated a theory-guided cognitive-behavioral counseling (CBC) intervention for smoking cessation during pregnancy and postpartum. It also explored the mediating role of cognitive-affective variables on the impact of CBC. Underserved inner city pregnant women (N = 277) were randomized to the CBC or a best practice (BP) condition, each of which consisted of two prenatal and two postpartum sessions. Assessments were obtained at baseline, late pregnancy, and 1- and 5-months postpartum. An intent-to-treat analysis found no differences between the two groups in 7-day point-prevalence abstinence. However, a respondents-only analysis revealed a significantly higher cessation rate in the CBC (37.3 %) versus the BP (19.0 %) condition at 5-months postpartum follow-up. This effect was mediated by higher quitting self-efficacy and lower cons of quitting. CBC, based on the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing model, has the potential to increase postpartum smoking abstinence by assessing and addressing cognitive-affective barriers among women who adhere to the intervention. PMID:26335312

  10. Therapeutic alliance in Enhanced Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for bulimia nervosa: probably necessary but definitely insufficient.

    PubMed

    Raykos, Bronwyn C; McEvoy, Peter M; Erceg-Hurn, David; Byrne, Susan M; Fursland, Anthea; Nathan, Paula

    2014-06-01

    The present paper assessed therapeutic alliance over the course of Enhanced Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT-E) in a community-based sample of 112 patients with a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa (BN) or atypical BN. Temporal assessment of alliance was conducted at three time points (the start, middle and end of treatment) and the relationship between alliance and treatment retention and outcome was explored. Results indicated that the alliance between patient and therapist was strong at all stages of CBT-E, and even improved in the early stages of treatment when behaviour change was initiated (weekly in-session weighing, establishing regular eating, and ceasing binge-eating and compensatory behaviours). The present study found no evidence that alliance was related to treatment retention or outcomes, or that symptom severity or problematic interpersonal styles interacted with alliance to influence outcomes. Alliance was also unrelated to baseline emotional or interpersonal difficulties. The study provides no evidence that alliance has clinical utility for the prediction of treatment retention or outcome in CBT-E for BN, even for individuals with severe symptoms or problematic interpersonal styles. Early symptom change was the best predictor of outcome in CBT-E. Further research is needed to determine whether these results are generalizable to patients with anorexia nervosa. PMID:24841726

  11. The impact of maternal control on children's anxious cognitions, behaviours and affect: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Thirlwall, Kerstin; Creswell, Cathy

    2010-10-01

    Controlling parenting is associated with child anxiety however the direction of effects remains unclear. The present study implemented a Latin-square experimental design to assess the impact of parental control on children's anxious affect, cognitions and behaviour. A non-clinical sample of 24 mothers of children aged 4-5 years were trained to engage in (a) controlling and (b) autonomy-granting behaviours in interaction with their child during the preparation of a speech. When mothers engaged in controlling parenting behaviours, children made more negative predictions about their performance prior to delivering their speech and reported feeling less happy about the task, and this was moderated by child trait anxiety. In addition, children with higher trait anxiety displayed a significant increase in observed child anxiety in the controlling condition. The pattern of results was maintained when differences in mothers' levels of negativity and habitual levels of control were accounted for. These findings are consistent with theories that suggest that controlling parenting is a risk factor in the development of childhood anxiety. PMID:20594546

  12. Cognitive behavioural therapy for depression in multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIB: a 1-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Castrejón, Jessica; Landa-Ramírez, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 24-year-old man diagnosed with multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIB and major depression. Because cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has proven effective in the treatment of major depression in the general population and patients with cancer, we decided to adapt and use this therapy and evaluate its impact on major depression and the patient’s quality of life. The therapy was conducted individually in 15 sessions that were given over a span of 25 weeks. The data show that therapy was a useful treatment that reduced depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria and self-report instruments. CBT also helped improve the patient’s quality of life, and it was considered to be an acceptable intervention for the patient, with ongoing positive results 1 year after the last psychotherapy session. CBT is a potential option for treating depression in this population but further research is needed. PMID:24898996

  13. A qualitative case study of LifeGuide: users' experiences of software for developing Internet-based behaviour change interventions.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sarah; Yardley, Lucy; Wills, Gary B

    2013-03-01

    Previously, behavioural scientists seeking to create Internet-based behaviour change interventions have had to rely on computer scientists to actually develop and modify web interventions. The LifeGuide software was designed to enable behavioural researchers to develop and adapt Internet-based behavioural interventions themselves. This article reports a qualitative case study of users' experiences and perceptions of the LifeGuide software. The aim was to explore users' experiences and their perceptions of the benefits and limitations of this approach to intervention development. Twenty LifeGuide users took part in semi-structured interviews and one provided feedback via email. Thematic analysis identified three overarching themes: 'Recognising LifeGuide's potential', 'I'm not a programmer' and 'Knowledge sharing - the future of LifeGuide'. Users valued LifeGuide's potential to allow them to flexibly develop and modify interventions at little cost. However, users noted that their lack of programming experience meant that they needed to learn new skills for using the software, and they varied in the extent to which they felt able to develop interventions without any input from programmers. Respondents saw the potential of using the LifeGuide Community Website to share technical support and examples of intervention components to support their use of LifeGuide. PMID:23486826

  14. Therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: single blind randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Erik; Mataix-Cols, David; Lichtenstein, Linn; Alström, Katarina; Andersson, Gerhard; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Rück, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-NET) compared with online supportive therapy. Design A 12 week single blind parallel group randomised controlled trial. Setting Academic medical centre. Participants 94 self referred adult outpatients with a diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder and a modified Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (BDD-YBOCS) score of ≥20. Concurrent psychotropic drug treatment was permitted if the dose had been stable for at least two months before enrolment and remained unchanged during the trial. Interventions Participants received either BDD-NET (n=47) or supportive therapy (n=47) delivered via the internet for 12 weeks. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the BDD-YBOCS score after treatment and follow-up (three and six months from baseline) as evaluated by a masked assessor. Responder status was defined as a ≥30% reduction in symptoms on the scale. Secondary outcomes were measures of depression (MADRS-S), global functioning (GAF), clinical global improvement (CGI-I), and quality of life (EQ5D). The six month follow-up time and all outcomes other than BDD-YBOCS and MADRS-S at 3 months were not pre-specified in the registration at clinicaltrials.gov because of an administrative error but were included in the original trial protocol approved by the regional ethics committee before the start of the trial. Results BDD-NET was superior to supportive therapy and was associated with significant improvements in severity of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-YBOCS group difference −7.1 points, 95% confidence interval −9.8 to −4.4), depression (MADRS-S group difference −4.5 points, −7.5 to −1.4), and other secondary measures. At follow-up, 56% of those receiving BDD-NET were classed as responders, compared with 13% receiving supportive therapy. The number needed to treat was 2.34 (1.71 to 4.35). Self

  15. Correlation of cognitive and social outcomes among children with autism spectrum disorder in a randomized trial of behavioral intervention

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Jill; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; Xie, Ming; Harker, Colleen; Mandell, David

    2015-01-01

    Although social impairments are considered the hallmark deficit of autism, many behavioral intervention studies rely on cognitive functioning as a primary outcome. Fewer studies have examined whether changes in cognition are associated with changes in social functioning. This study examined whether cognitive gains among 192 students from 47 kindergarten-through-second-grade autism support classrooms participating in a year-long behavioral intervention study were associated with gains in social functioning. Children’s gains in cognitive ability were modestly associated with independent assessors’ and teachers’ evaluations of social functioning but were not associated with changes in parent ratings. Observed social gains were not commensurate with gains in cognition, suggesting the need both for interventions that directly target social functioning and relevant field measures of social functioning. PMID:24104511

  16. Adolescent understanding of DOHaD concepts: a school-based intervention to support knowledge translation and behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Bay, J L; Mora, H A; Sloboda, D M; Morton, S M; Vickers, M H; Gluckman, P D

    2012-12-01

    A life-course approach to reduction of risk of non-communicable diseases (NCD) suggests that early-life interventions may be more effective than lifestyle modifications in middle age. Knowledge translation to develop understanding of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) within the community offers the potential to encourage informed diet and lifestyle choices supporting reduction of NCD risk in current and future generations. Many women do not make sustained dietary change before or during pregnancy, therefore appropriate nutritional behaviours need to be established prior to adulthood. This makes adolescence an appropriate stage for interventions to establish suitable dietary and lifestyle behaviours. Therefore, we engaged adolescents in a school-based educational intervention, and assessed the value of this in development of understanding of DOHaD concepts to support behaviour change that could lead to NCD risk reduction in the next generation. Modules of course work were written for 11-14 year olds and trialled in nine schools. Matched pre- and post-intervention questionnaire responses from 238 students and 99 parents, and post-intervention interviews evaluated the intervention. Understanding of a link between maternal diet during pregnancy and the health of the foetus in adulthood increased from 46% to 76% following intervention. Post-intervention evidence suggests the programme facilitated discussion of diet, lifestyle and DOHaD concepts in most families. The intervention was effective in improving understanding of DOHaD concepts and in some cases led to appropriate behaviour change. However, the sustainability of these changes remains to be determined through on-going evaluation of attitudes and behaviour within this cohort. PMID:25084300

  17. Would Confucius benefit from psychotherapy? The compatibility of cognitive behaviour therapy and Chinese values.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Julie; Oei, Tian P S

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to explore the conceptual compatibility between cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and the common values of Chinese Culture. In order to address such a question, the distinctive processes attributed to CBT (e.g., teaching of skills, emphasis on homework, cognitive processes, present/future focus), as summarized in the meta-analysis by Blagys and Hilsenroth [(2002). Distinctive activities of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of the comparative psychotherapy process literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 671-706], and the core values of Chinese Culture, determined through an integration of The Hofstede Project, [Hofstede, G.H. (1980). Culture's consequences: International differences in work related values. Beverly Hills: Sage]. The Chinese Value Survey [Chinese Culture Connection (1987). Chinese values and the search for culture-free dimensions of culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 18, 143-164]. The Schwartz Value Survey [Schwartz, S.H. (1994). Cultural dimensions of values: Towards an understanding of national differences. In Kim, U., Trandis, H.C., Katiticibasi, C., Choi, S.C., & Yoon, G. (eds.), Individualism and collectivism: Theory, method and application (pp. 85-119). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage] were used. A strong degree of compatibility between the two was found and it is argued that rather than developing new indigenized therapies, with some structural changes to the processes of CBT, this therapy can be effective for Chinese clients. It is further proposed that Chinese clients may benefit from challenging their irrational cognitions that are bound up in their strict adherence to social norms. Future recommendations for increasing the compatibility of CBT to Chinese culture are discussed. PMID:17045958

  18. Dietary Vitamin K Intake Is Associated with Cognition and Behaviour among Geriatric Patients: The CLIP Study.

    PubMed

    Chouet, Justine; Ferland, Guylaine; Féart, Catherine; Rolland, Yves; Presse, Nancy; Boucher, Kariane; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cedric

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins) study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles of dietary phylloquinone intake (i.e., lowest third below 207 µg/day versus the other two thirds combined). Daily dietary phylloquinone intake was estimated from 50-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cognition was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); behaviour with Frontotemporal Behavioral Rating Scale (FBRS). Age, gender, social problems, education, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, history of stroke, use vitamin K antagonists, inadequate fatty fish intake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), vitamin B12, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as confounders. Compared to participants in the lowest third of dietary phylloquinone intake (n = 64), those with higher intake had higher (i.e., better) mean MMSE score (22.0 ± 5.7 versus 19.9 ± 6.2, p = 0.024) and lower (i.e., better) FBRS score (1.5 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.042). In multivariate linear regressions, log dietary phylloquinone intake was positively associated with MMSE score (adjusted β = 1.66, p = 0.013) and inversely associated with FBRS score (adjusted β = -0.33, p = 0.037). Specifically, log dietary phylloquinone intake correlated negatively with FBRS subscore of physical neglect (r = -0.24, p = 0.001). Higher dietary phylloquinone intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults. PMID:26274973

  19. Dietary Vitamin K Intake Is Associated with Cognition and Behaviour among Geriatric Patients: The CLIP Study

    PubMed Central

    Chouet, Justine; Ferland, Guylaine; Féart, Catherine; Rolland, Yves; Presse, Nancy; Boucher, Kariane; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins) study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles of dietary phylloquinone intake (i.e., lowest third below 207 µg/day versus the other two thirds combined). Daily dietary phylloquinone intake was estimated from 50-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cognition was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); behaviour with Frontotemporal Behavioral Rating Scale (FBRS). Age, gender, social problems, education, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, history of stroke, use vitamin K antagonists, inadequate fatty fish intake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), vitamin B12, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as confounders. Compared to participants in the lowest third of dietary phylloquinone intake (n = 64), those with higher intake had higher (i.e., better) mean MMSE score (22.0 ± 5.7 versus 19.9 ± 6.2, p = 0.024) and lower (i.e., better) FBRS score (1.5 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.042). In multivariate linear regressions, log dietary phylloquinone intake was positively associated with MMSE score (adjusted β = 1.66, p = 0.013) and inversely associated with FBRS score (adjusted β = −0.33, p = 0.037). Specifically, log dietary phylloquinone intake correlated negatively with FBRS subscore of physical neglect (r = −0.24, p = 0.001). Higher dietary phylloquinone intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults. PMID:26274973

  20. An Evaluation of an Intervention Sequence Outline in Positive Behaviour Support for People with Autism and Severe Escape-Motivated Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClean, Brian; Grey, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Positive behaviour support emphasises the impact of contextual variables to enhance participation, choice, and quality of life. This study evaluates a sequence for implementing changes to key contextual variables for 4 individuals. Interventions were maintained and data collection continued over a 3-year period. Method: Functional…

  1. Cognitive-behavioral intervention among women with slight menopausal symptoms: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Larroy García, Cristina; Gómez-Calcerrada, Sonia Gutiérrez

    2011-05-01

    Menopause is associated with a considerable variety of physical, psychological and social symptoms that can be treated using cognitive-behavioral techniques. In the present study, 21 women took part in an eight-week group intervention consisting of weekly two-hour sessions to address their slight symptoms related to the climacteric stage of life. The intervention included: psycho education on menopause, relaxation techniques, nutrition and fitness exercises, Kegel exercises, and problem-solving techniques. A control group was included that did not receive treatment and consisted of 28 women. The results revealed a significant reduction in most symptoms (including depression and anxiety) after intervention as compared to the baseline period. No changes appeared in the control group. The relevance of this work lies in the potential element of prevention this therapeutic package could offer to relieve various symptoms, slight and incipient, during the perimenopausal stage. PMID:21568191

  2. Pilot Testing a Couples-focused Intervention for Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yvonne Yueh-Feng; Haase, Joan E.; Weaver, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and potential benefits of the multi-component Daily Enhancement of Meaningful Activity (DEMA) intervention, which was tailored to help couples facing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) work together to meet goals, remain engaged in meaningful activities, and adapt to changes over time. Using a single-group design, 10 persons with MCI and their family caregivers were recruited to receive DEMA over six bi-weekly sessions. Data were collected pre- and at one week and three months post-intervention. Consent, session, and questionnaire completion rates indicated the program and study procedures were well accepted. Qualitative and quantitative findings indicated positive trends in meaningful activity performance and maintenance of health-related outcomes, as well as high program satisfaction. The DEMA is a potentially promising intervention that will need further testing in a randomized clinical trial. PMID:23767062

  3. Integrating between-session interventions (homework) in therapy: the importance of the therapeutic relationship and cognitive case conceptualization.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Timothy J; Lawrence, Katherine A; Taylor, Kate; Norton, Peter J; Kazantzis, Nikolaos

    2015-05-01

    Between-session interventions, or homework, are crucial to a range of psychological therapies, including cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Therapeutic interventions often involve experiencing emotions and situations, or examining strongly held views about their problems, that clients can find distressing. Hence, the clinician faces a particular challenge in collaborating with the client to carry out these interventions between sessions. In this article, we convey how this process in CBT requires not only a consideration of the theoretically meaningful determinants of adherence behavior but also a sophisticated cognitive case conceptualization. Using case material, we illustrate the interplay between in-session design, planning, and review of between-session interventions and the conceptualization. We also include a distinction between generic elements of the therapeutic relationship and CBT-specific elements. The case material also attends to the person of the therapist, and his or her own cognitive and emotional reactions occurring throughout the process of discussing between-session interventions. PMID:25809713

  4. Developing theory-informed behaviour change interventions to implement evidence into practice: a systematic approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is little systematic operational guidance about how best to develop complex interventions to reduce the gap between practice and evidence. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting the development and use of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to advance the science of implementation research. Methods The intervention was developed considering three main components: theory, evidence, and practical issues. We used a four-step approach, consisting of guiding questions, to direct the choice of the most appropriate components of an implementation intervention: Who needs to do what, differently? Using a theoretical framework, which barriers and enablers need to be addressed? Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques and mode(s) of delivery) could overcome the modifiable barriers and enhance the enablers? And how can behaviour change be measured and understood? Results A complex implementation intervention was designed that aimed to improve acute low back pain management in primary care. We used the TDF to identify the barriers and enablers to the uptake of evidence into practice and to guide the choice of intervention components. These components were then combined into a cohesive intervention. The intervention was delivered via two facilitated interactive small group workshops. We also produced a DVD to distribute to all participants in the intervention group. We chose outcome measures in order to assess the mediating mechanisms of behaviour change. Conclusions We have illustrated a four-step systematic method for developing an intervention designed to change clinical practice based on a theoretical framework. The method of development provides a systematic framework that could be used by others developing complex implementation interventions. While this framework should be iteratively adjusted and refined to suit other contexts and settings, we believe that the four-step process should be maintained as the primary

  5. A pilot study of an exercise & cognitive behavioral therapy intervention for epithelial ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate of all gynaecologic cancers. Faced with poor prognoses, stressful treatment effects and a high likelihood of recurrence, survivors must confront significant physical and psychological morbidities that negatively impact health-related quality of life. Frequently reported side effects include cancer-related fatigue, peripheral neuropathy, and psychological distress. Exercise and cognitive behavioral therapy interventions have counteracted such adverse effects in other cancer populations. Objective To investigate the feasibility and benefits of a 24-week home-based exercise intervention, coordinated with 12 weeks of cognitive behavioral therapy (two sessions per month), developed for two types of patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer: 1) those undergoing primary treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy after primary surgery; 2) those on surveillance after completing treatment within the last 2 years. Methods Participants were recruited from the Gynaecologic Oncology Clinic. Eligible participants completed baseline assessments and were provided with home-based exercise equipment. Cognitive behavioral therapy was provided every other week for patients via telephone. Assessments were completed at baseline (T1), 3 months (T2) and 6 months (T3). Results 19 of the 46 eligible patients approached were enrolled, with 7 patients in the treatment group and 12 in the surveillance group. There was a significant within group increase in peak VO2 from baseline to 6 months: F(2,16) = 5.531, p = 0.015, partial η2 = 0.409. Conclusion The combined 6-month exercise-cognitive behavioral therapy intervention was associated with significant increases in aerobic fitness in epithelial ovarian cancer patients assessed. These improvements were similar regardless of whether the patient was receiving chemotherapy or under surveillance. PMID:23557323

  6. Mechanisms of behavioural maintenance: Long-term effects of theory-based interventions to promote safe water consumption.

    PubMed

    Inauen, Jennifer; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Theory-based interventions can enhance people's safe water consumption, but the sustainability of these interventions and the mechanisms of maintenance remain unclear. We investigated these questions based on an extended theory of planned behaviour. Seven hundred and ten (445 analysed) randomly selected households participated in two cluster-randomised controlled trials in Bangladesh. Study 1 promoted switching to neighbours' arsenic-safe wells, and Study 2 promoted switching to arsenic-safe deep wells. Both studies included two intervention phases. Structured interviews were conducted at baseline (T1), and at 1-month (T2), 2-month (T3) and 9-month (T4) follow-ups. In intervention phase 1 (between T1 and T2), commitment-based behaviour change techniques--reminders, implementation intentions and public commitment--were combined with information and compared to an information-only control group. In phase 2 (between T2 and T3), half of each phase 1 intervention group was randomly assigned to receive either commitment-based techniques once more or coping planning with reminders and information. Initial well-switching rates of up to 60% significantly declined by T4: 38.3% of T2 safe water users stopped consuming arsenic-safe water. The decline depended on the intervention. Perceived behavioural control, intentions, commitment strength and coping planning were associated with maintenance. In line with previous studies, the results indicate that commitment and reminders engender long-term behavioural change. PMID:26304476

  7. Weight change in control group participants in behavioural weight loss interventions: a systematic review and meta-regression study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Unanticipated control group improvements have been observed in intervention trials targeting various health behaviours. This phenomenon has not been studied in the context of behavioural weight loss intervention trials. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-regression of behavioural weight loss interventions to quantify control group weight change, and relate the size of this effect to specific trial and sample characteristics. Methods Database searches identified reports of intervention trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Data on control group weight change and possible explanatory factors were abstracted and analysed descriptively and quantitatively. Results 85 trials were reviewed and 72 were included in the meta-regression. While there was no change in control group weight, control groups receiving usual care lost 1 kg more than control groups that received no intervention, beyond measurement. Conclusions There are several possible explanations why control group changes occur in intervention trials targeting other behaviours, but not for weight loss. Control group participation may prevent weight gain, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:22873682

  8. A Randomized Trial to Measure the Impact of a Community-Based Cognitive Training Intervention on Balance and Gait in Cognitively Intact Black Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Ray, Renae L.; Makowski-Woidan, Beth; Hughes, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fall prevention is important for maintaining mobility and independence into old age. Approaches for reducing falls include exercise, tai chi, and home modifications; however, causes of falling are multifactorial and include not just physical but cognitive factors. Cognitive decline occurs with age, but older adults with the greatest declines in executive function experience more falls. The purpose of this study was twofold: to demonstrate the feasibility of a community-based cognitive training program for cognitively intact Black older adults and to analyze its impact on gait and balance in this population. Method This pilot study used a pretest/posttest randomized trial design with assignment to an intervention or control group. Participants assigned to the intervention completed a computer-based cognitive training class that met 2 days a week for 60 min over 10 weeks. Classes were held at senior/community centers. Primary outcomes included balance as measured by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), 10-meter gait speed, and 10-meter gait speed under visuospatial dual-task condition. All measures were assessed at baseline and immediately post-intervention. Results Participants were community-dwelling Black adults with a mean age of 72.5 and history of falls (N = 45). Compared to controls, intervention participants experienced statistically significant improvements in BBS and gait speed. Mean performance on distracted gait speed also improved more for intervention participants compared to controls. Conclusion Findings from this pilot randomized trial demonstrate the feasibility of a community-based cognitive training intervention. They provide initial evidence that cognitive training may be an efficacious approach toward improving balance and gait in older adults known to have a history of falls. PMID:25274713

  9. Comparison of evidence-based interventions on outcomes of hospitalized, cognitively impaired older adults

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Mary D; Hirschman, Karen B; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Bowles, Kathryn H; Bradway, Christine; McCauley, Kathleen M; Pauly, Mark V

    2014-01-01

    Aim This article reports the effects of three evidence-based interventions of varying intensity, each designed to improve outcomes of hospitalized cognitively impaired older adults. Patients & methods In this comparative effectiveness study, 202 older adults with cognitive impairment (assessed within 24 h of index hospitalization) were enrolled at one of three hospitals within an academic health system. Each hospital was randomly assigned one of the following interventions: Augmented Standard Care (ASC; lower dose: n = 65), Resource Nurse Care (RNC; medium dose: n = 71) or the Transitional Care Model (TCM; higher dose: n = 66). Since randomization at the patient level was not feasible due to potential contamination, generalized boosted modeling that estimated multigroup propensity score weights was used to balance baseline patient characteristics between groups. Analyses compared the three groups on time with first rehospitalization or death, the number and days of all-cause rehospitalizations per patient and functional status through 6-month postindex hospitalization. Results In total, 25% of the ASC group were rehospitalized or died by day 33 compared with day 58 for the RNC group versus day 83 for the TCM group. The largest differences between the three groups on time to rehospitalization or death were observed early in the Kaplan–Meier curve (at 30 days: ASC = 22% vs RNC = 19% vs TCM = 9%). The TCM group also demonstrated lower mean rehospitalization rates per patient compared with the RNC (p < 0.001) and ASC groups (p = 0.06) at 30 days. At 90-day postindex hospitalization, the TCM group continued to demonstrate lower mean rehospitalization rates per patient only when compared with the ASC group (p = 0.02). No significant group differences in functional status were observed. Conclusion Findings suggest that the TCM intervention, compared with interventions of lower intensity, has the potential to decrease costly resource use outcomes in the immediate

  10. Unravelling the Influence of Cognitive Style on Chinese Students' Classroom Behaviours: The Mediating Effects of the Structure-Oriented/Depth-Oriented Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hong-Yu; Guan, Shu-Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate how cognitive style affects Chinese students' learning behaviours in the classroom. A concept labelled as the structure-oriented vs. depth-oriented learning approach was constructed, and its mediating effects in the link between cognitive style and learning behaviour were proposed and examined in this study.…

  11. Strengths-based cognitive-behavioural therapy: a four-step model to build resilience.

    PubMed

    Padesky, Christine A; Mooney, Kathleen A

    2012-01-01

    Padesky and Mooney's four-step Strengths-Based cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) model is designed to help clients build positive qualities. This article shows how it can be used to build and strengthen personal resilience. A structured search for client strengths is central to the approach, and methods designed to bring hidden strengths into client awareness are demonstrated through therapist-client dialogues. Development of positive qualities requires a shift in therapy perspective and different therapy methods from those employed when therapy is designed to ameliorate distress. Required adjustments to classic CBT are highlighted with specific recommendations for clinical modifications designed to support client development of resilience such as a focus on current strengths, the constructive use of imagery and client-generated metaphors. Although the focus of this article is on resilience, this Strengths-Based CBT model offers a template that also can be used to develop other positive human qualities. PMID:22653834

  12. A case of Jikoshu-Kyofu treated with cognitive behavioural therapy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Leslie; Ajay, Divya

    2012-07-01

    Jikoshu-Kyofu (JKF) is a subtype of Taijin-Kyofu-Sho (TKS), a form of social anxiety first described in Japanese sufferers. Unlike the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 4th edition text revised definition of social anxiety disorder, TKS is characterised by a fear of offending others, whereas in the case of JKF, it is the fear of giving off a smell, thus causing offence. We describe the symptoms of JKF in a young woman who was treated with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). After only four sessions, the patient's anxiety ratings, as measured on the Social Phobia Inventory and Brief Social Phobia Scale, dropped considerably. This case illustrates the successful treatment of a patient with JKF-like symptoms using CBT. PMID:22815029

  13. A randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behaviour therapy for clinical perfectionism: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Caroline; Lee, Michelle; Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G.; Shafran, Roz

    2007-01-01

    Perfectionism can be a problem in its own right and it can impede the progress of treatment of Axis I disorders. This study reports on a preliminary randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for “clinical perfectionism”. Twenty participants were randomly assigned to either immediate treatment (IT) (n=10) or a waitlist (NL) (n=10). Treatment consisted of ten sessions of CBT over eight weeks. Two participants did not complete the follow-up assessments (10%). Fifteen of the original 20 participants (75%) were clinically significantly improved after treatment and the effect size was large (1.8). Treatment gains were maintained at 8-week and 16-week follow-up. PMID:17275781

  14. Is talent in autism spectrum disorders associated with a specific cognitive and behavioural phenotype?

    PubMed

    Bennett, Emily; Heaton, Pamela

    2012-12-01

    Parents of 125 children, adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders completed a newly developed questionnaire aimed at identifying cognitive and behavioural characteristics associated with savant skills in this group. Factors distinguishing skilled individuals were then further investigated in case studies of three individuals with exceptional skills for music, art and mathematics. The findings from the case studies largely confirmed the results from the questionnaire study in showing that special skills are associated with superior working memory and highly focused attention that is not associated with increased obsessesionality. Although intellectual impairment and a local bias have been widely associated with special skills in the savant literature, neither the screening nor case studies provided strong evidence for such associations. PMID:22527706

  15. A community intervention for behaviour modification: an experience to control cardiovascular diseases in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-communicable Disease (NCD) is increasingly burdening developing countries including Indonesia. However only a few intervention studies on NCD control in developing countries are reported. This study aims to report experiences from the development of a community-based pilot intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD), as initial part of a future extended PRORIVA program (Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Yogyakarta, Indonesia) in an urban area within Jogjakarta, Indonesia. Methods The study is quasi-experimental and based on a mixed design involving both quantitative and qualitative methods. Four communities were selected as intervention areas and one community was selected as a referent area. A community-empowerment approach was utilized to motivate community to develop health promotion activities. Data on knowledge and attitudes with regard to CVD risk factors, smoking, physical inactivity, and fruit and vegetable were collected using the WHO STEPwise questionnaire. 980 people in the intervention areas and 151 people in the referent area participated in the pre-test. In the post-test 883 respondents were re-measured from the intervention areas and 144 respondents from the referent area. The qualitative data were collected using written meeting records (80), facilitator reports (5), free-listing (112) and in-depth interviews (4). Those data were analysed to contribute a deeper understanding of how the population perceived the intervention. Results Frequency and participation rates of activities were higher in the low socioeconomic status (SES) communities than in the high SES communities (40 and 13 activities respectively). The proportion of having high knowledge increased significantly from 56% to 70% among men in the intervention communities. The qualitative study shows that respondents thought PRORIVA improved their awareness of CVD and encouraged them to experiment healthier behaviours. PRORIVA was perceived as a

  16. A controlled study of fluoxetine and cognitive-behavioural counselling in the treatment of postnatal depression.

    PubMed Central

    Appleby, L.; Warner, R.; Whitton, A.; Faragher, B.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effectiveness of fluoxetine and cognitive-behavioural counselling in depressive illness in postnatal women: to compare fluoxetine and placebo, six sessions and one session of counselling, and combinations of drugs and counselling. DESIGN: Randomised, controlled treatment trial, double blind in relation to drug treatment, with four treatment cells: fluoxetine or placebo plus one or six sessions of counselling. SUBJECTS: 87 women satisfying criteria for depressive illness 6-8 weeks after childbirth, 61 (70%) of whom completed 12 weeks of treatment. SETTING: Community based study in south Manchester. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Psychiatric morbidity after 1, 4, and 12 weeks, measured as mean scores and 95% confidence limits on the revised clinical interview schedule, the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale and the Hamilton depression scale. RESULTS: Highly significant improvement was seen in all four treatment groups. The improvement in subjects receiving fluoxetine was significantly greater than in those receiving placebo. The improvement after six sessions of counselling was significantly greater than after a single session. Interaction between counselling and fluoxetine was not statistically significant. These differences were evident after one week, and improvement in all groups was complete after four weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Both fluoxetine and cognitive-behavioural counselling given as a course of therapy are effective treatments for non-psychotic depression in postnatal women. After an initial session of counselling, additional benefit results from either fluoxetine or further counselling but there seems to be no advantage in receiving both. The choice of treatment may therefore be made by the women themselves. PMID:9099116

  17. Effects of a Cognitively Demanding Aerobic Intervention During Recess on Children's Physical Fitness and Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    van der Niet, Anneke G; Smith, Joanne; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Scherder, Erik J A; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a physical activity program including both aerobic exercise and cognitively engaging physical activities on children's physical fitness and executive functions. Children from 3 primary schools (aged 8-12 years) were recruited. A quasi-experimental design was used. Children in the intervention group (n = 53; 19 boys, 34 girls) participated in a 22-week physical activity program for 30 min during lunch recess, twice a week. Children in the control group (n = 52; 32 boys, 20 girls) followed their normal lunch routine. Aerobic fitness, speed and agility, and muscle strength were assessed using the Eurofit test battery. Executive functions were assessed using tasks measuring inhibition (Stroop test), working memory (Visual Memory Span test, Digit Span test), cognitive flexibility (Trailmaking test), and planning (Tower of London). Children in the intervention group showed significantly greater improvement than children in the control group on the Stroop test and Digit Span test, reflecting enhanced inhibition and verbal working memory skills, respectively. No differences were found on any of the physical fitness variables. A physical activity program including aerobic exercise and cognitively engaging physical activities can enhance aspects of executive functioning in primary school children. PMID:26252883

  18. Pushing the Limits: Cognitive, Affective, and Neural Plasticity Revealed by an Intensive Multifaceted Intervention.

    PubMed

    Mrazek, Michael D; Mooneyham, Benjamin W; Mrazek, Kaita L; Schooler, Jonathan W

    2016-01-01

    Scientific understanding of how much the adult brain can be shaped by experience requires examination of how multiple influences combine to elicit cognitive, affective, and neural plasticity. Using an intensive multifaceted intervention, we discovered that substantial and enduring improvements can occur in parallel across multiple cognitive and neuroimaging measures in healthy young adults. The intervention elicited substantial improvements in physical health, working memory, standardized test performance, mood, self-esteem, self-efficacy, mindfulness, and life satisfaction. Improvements in mindfulness were associated with increased degree centrality of the insula, greater functional connectivity between insula and somatosensory cortex, and reduced functional connectivity between posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and somatosensory cortex. Improvements in working memory and reading comprehension were associated with increased degree centrality of a region within the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) that was extensively and predominately integrated with the executive control network. The scope and magnitude of the observed improvements represent the most extensive demonstration to date of the considerable human capacity for change. These findings point to higher limits for rapid and concurrent cognitive, affective, and neural plasticity than is widely assumed. PMID:27047361

  19. Pushing the Limits: Cognitive, Affective, and Neural Plasticity Revealed by an Intensive Multifaceted Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Mrazek, Michael D.; Mooneyham, Benjamin W.; Mrazek, Kaita L.; Schooler, Jonathan W.

    2016-01-01

    Scientific understanding of how much the adult brain can be shaped by experience requires examination of how multiple influences combine to elicit cognitive, affective, and neural plasticity. Using an intensive multifaceted intervention, we discovered that substantial and enduring improvements can occur in parallel across multiple cognitive and neuroimaging measures in healthy young adults. The intervention elicited substantial improvements in physical health, working memory, standardized test performance, mood, self-esteem, self-efficacy, mindfulness, and life satisfaction. Improvements in mindfulness were associated with increased degree centrality of the insula, greater functional connectivity between insula and somatosensory cortex, and reduced functional connectivity between posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and somatosensory cortex. Improvements in working memory and reading comprehension were associated with increased degree centrality of a region within the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) that was extensively and predominately integrated with the executive control network. The scope and magnitude of the observed improvements represent the most extensive demonstration to date of the considerable human capacity for change. These findings point to higher limits for rapid and concurrent cognitive, affective, and neural plasticity than is widely assumed. PMID:27047361

  20. Would Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment Adhere to and Benefit from a Structured Lifestyle Activity Intervention to Enhance Cognition?: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Linda Chiu-wa; Chan, Wai Chi; Leung, Tony; Fung, Ada Wai-tung; Leung, Edward Man-fuk

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic evidence suggests that cognitive and physical activities are associated with better cognition in late life. The present study was conducted to examine the possible benefits of four structured lifestyle activity interventions and compare their effectiveness in optimizing cognition for older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Method and Findings This was a 12-month cluster randomized controlled trial. 555 community-dwelling Chinese older adults with MCI (295 with multiple-domain deficits (mdMCI), 260 with single-domain deficit (sdMCI)) were recruited. Participants were randomized into physical exercise (P), cognitive activity (C), integrated cognitive and physical exercise (CP), and social activity (S, active control) groups. Interventions comprised of one-hour structured activities three times per week. Primary outcome was Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes (CDR-SOB) scores. Secondary outcomes included Chinese versions of Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog), delayed recall, Mini-Mental State Examination, Category Verbal Fluency Test (CVFT) and Disability Assessment for Dementia – Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (DAD-IADL). Percentage adherence to programs and factors affecting adherence were also examined. At 12th month, 423 (76.2%) completed final assessment. There was no change in CDR-SOB and DAD-IADL scores across time and intervention groups. Multilevel normal model and linear link function showed improvement in ADAS-Cog, delayed recall and CVFT with time (p<0.05). Post-hoc subgroup analyses showed that the CP group, compared with other intervention groups, had more significant improvements of ADAS-Cog, delayed recall and CVFT performance with sdMCI participants (p<0.05). Overall adherence rate was 73.3%. Improvements in ADAS-Cog and delayed recall scores were associated with adherence after controlling for age, education, and intervention groups (univariate analyses). Conclusions

  1. Unique and shared techniques in cognitive-behavioural and short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy: a content analysis of randomised trials on depression

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Jürgen; Michlig, Nadja; Munder, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychotherapeutic interventions assume that specific techniques are used in treatments, which are responsible for changes in the client's symptoms. This assumption also holds true for meta-analyses, where evidence for specific interventions and techniques is compiled. However, it has also been argued that different treatments share important techniques and that an upcoming consensus about useful treatment strategies is leading to a greater integration of treatments. This makes assumptions about the effectiveness of specific interventions ingredients questionable if the shared (common) techniques are more often used in interventions than are the unique techniques. This study investigated the unique or shared techniques in RCTs of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP). Psychotherapeutic techniques were coded from 42 masked treatment descriptions of RCTs in the field of depression (1979–2010). CBT techniques were often used in studies identified as either CBT or STPP. However, STPP techniques were only used in STPP-identified studies. Empirical clustering of treatment descriptions did not confirm the original distinction of CBT versus STPP, but instead showed substantial heterogeneity within both approaches. Extraction of psychotherapeutic techniques from the treatment descriptions is feasible and could be used as a content-based approach to classify treatments in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. PMID:25750827

  2. Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for High-Risk Adolescents Outperforms Two Alternative Interventions: A Randomized Efficacy Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.

    2008-01-01

    In this depression prevention trial, 341 high-risk adolescents (mean age = 15.6 years, SD = 1.2) with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive-expressive intervention, bibliotherapy, or assessment-only control condition. CB participants showed significantly greater…

  3. Cognitive-Behaviour Formulation for Three Men with Learning Disabilities Who Experience Psychosis: How Do We Make It Make Sense?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkland, Jamie

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) is increasingly being used with people with learning disabilities. One of the challenges in working this way is effectively sharing and understanding the formulation of the client's problem. One could argue that only with a shared understanding can there be collaboration between the therapist and the client. By…

  4. Predicting Outcomes Following Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Child Anxiety Disorders: The Influence of Genetic, Demographic and Clinical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Jennifer L.; Lester, Kathryn J.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Tropeano, Maria; Creswell, Cathy; Collier, David A.; Cooper, Peter; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Morris, Talia; Rapee, Ronald M.; Roberts, Susanna; Donald, Jennifer A.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Within a therapeutic gene by environment (G × E) framework, we recently demonstrated that variation in the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism; "5HTTLPR" and marker rs6330 in Nerve Growth Factor gene; "NGF" is associated with poorer outcomes following cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for child anxiety…

  5. Internet Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Panic Disorder: Does the Inclusion of Stress Management Information Improve End-State Functioning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jeffrey C.; Klein, Britt; Austin, David W.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has established Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for panic disorder (PD) as effective in reducing panic severity and frequency. There is evidence, however, that such programs are less effective at improving overall end-state functioning, defined by a PD clinician severity rating of [less than or equal to] 2 and…

  6. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy from the Perspective of Clients with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Investigation of Process Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pert, C.; Jahoda, A.; Stenfert Kroese, B.; Trower, P.; Dagnan, D.; Selkirk, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Clinicians working with clients who have mild intellectual disabilities (IDs) have shown growing enthusiasm for using a cognitive behavioural approach, amid increasing evidence of good treatment outcomes for this client group. However, very little is known about the views and experiences of clients with IDs who have undergone cognitive…

  7. A Case Study on Pre-Service Secondary School Mathematics Teachers' Cognitive-Metacognitive Behaviours in Mathematical Modelling Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagirli, Meryem Özturan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate pre-service secondary mathematics teachers' cognitive-metacognitive behaviours during the mathematical problem-solving process considering class level. The study, in which the case study methodology was employed, was carried out with eight pre-service mathematics teachers, enrolled at a university in…

  8. Brief cognitive behavioural therapy with male adolescent offenders in open custody or on probation: an evaluation of management of anger.

    PubMed

    Valliant, P M; Jensen, B; Raven-Brook, L

    1995-06-01

    A 6-wk. cognitive behavioural program administered to 24 adolescent male offenders assigned to open custody and 5 to probation showed no mean differences on the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, and the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory. Significant correlations were found for the personality measures with pretreatment and posttreatment scores on the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory. PMID:7568580

  9. Adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions: gender-specific effects of child, maternal and family risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Micali, N.; De Stavola, B.; Ploubidis, G.; Simonoff, E.; Treasure, J.; Field, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating disorder behaviours begin in adolescence. Few longitudinal studies have investigated childhood risk and protective factors. Aims To investigate the prevalence of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions and associated childhood psychological, physical and parental risk factors among a cohort of 14-year-old children. Method Data were collected from 6140 boys and girls aged 14 years. Gender-stratified models were used to estimate prospective associations between childhood body dissatisfaction, body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, maternal eating disorder and family economic disadvantage on adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions. Results Childhood body dissatisfaction strongly predicted eating disorder cognitions in girls, but only in interaction with BMI in boys. Higher self-esteem had a protective effect, particularly in boys. Maternal eating disorder predicted body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concern in adolescent girls and dieting in boys. Conclusions Risk factors for eating disorder behaviours and cognitions vary according to gender. Prevention strategies should be gender-specific and target modifiable predictors in childhood and early adolescence. PMID:26206865

  10. Comparison of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy and Psychodynamic Therapy in the Treatment of Anxiety among University Students: An Effectiveness Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monti, Fiorella; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Ricci Bitti, Pio Enrico

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural (CBT) and psychodynamic (PDT) therapies in the treatment of anxiety among university students. To this aim, the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ) was completed by 30 students assigned to CBT and by 24 students assigned to PDT, both at the beginning and at the end of…

  11. Computerised Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for the Prevention and Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Thomas; Stallard, Paul; Velleman, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) can be effective in the treatment of depression and anxiety in adults, although the outcomes with children and adolescents are unclear. The aim of the study is to systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of cCBT for the prevention and treatment of depression…

  12. Satisfaction with Therapist-Delivered vs. Self-Administered Online Cognitive Behavioural Treatments for Depression Symptoms in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Derek; Timulak, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Participants with symptoms of depression received either eight sessions of therapist-delivered email cognitive behaviour therapy (eCBT; n = 37), or eight sessions of computerised CBT self-administered treatment (cCBT; n = 43). At post-treatment participants completed a questionnaire to determine what they found satisfying about their online…

  13. Randomized controlled trial of a brief dyadic cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to prevent PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Brunet, Alain; Des Groseilliers, Isabeau Bousquet; Cordova, Matthew J.; Ruzek, Josef I.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a dearth of effective interventions to prevent the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method We evaluated the efficacy of a brief dyadic two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention through a controlled trial involving trauma-exposed individuals recruited at the hospital's emergency room. Participants were randomly assigned to either the dyadic intervention group (n=37) or to a waiting list (assessment only) group (n=37). Results In an intent-to-treat analysis, a time-by-group interaction was found, whereby the treated participants had less PTSD symptoms at the post-treatment but not at the pre-treatment compared to controls. Controlling for the improvement observed in the control participants, the intervention yielded a net effect size of d=0.39. Conclusions A brief, early, and effective intervention can be provided by nurses or social workers in hospital settings, at a fairly low cost to individuals presenting to the emergency room as the result of trauma exposure. PMID:23986816

  14. Brief Cognitive-Behavioral and Relaxation Training Interventions for Breast Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gudenkauf, Lisa M.; Antoni, Michael H.; Stagl, Jamie M.; Lechner, Suzanne C.; Jutagir, Devika R.; Bouchard, Laura C.; Blomberg, Bonnie B.; Glück, Stefan; Derhagopian, Robert P.; Giron, Gladys L.; Avisar, Eli; Torres-Salichs, Manuel A.; Carver, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Women with breast cancer (BCa) report elevated distress post-surgery. Group-based cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM) following surgery improves psychological adaptation, though its key mechanisms remain speculative. This randomized controlled dismantling trial compared two interventions featuring elements thought to drive CBSM effects: a 5-week Cognitive-Behavioral Training (CBT) and 5-week Relaxation Training (RT) vs. a 5-week Health Education (HE) control group. Method Women with stage 0-III BCa (N = 183) were randomized to CBT, RT, or HE condition 2–10 weeks post-surgery. Psychosocial measures were collected at baseline (T1) and post-intervention (T2). Repeated-measures ANOVAs tested whether CBT and RT treatments improved primary measures of psychological adaptation and secondary measures of stress management resource perceptions from pre- to post-intervention relative to HE. Results Both CBT and RT groups reported reduced depressive affect. The CBT group reported improved emotional well-being/quality of life and less cancer-specific thought intrusions. The RT group reported improvements on illness-related social disruption. Regarding stress management resources, the CBT group reported increased reliability of social support networks, while the RT group reported increased confidence in relaxation skills. Psychological adaptation and stress management resource constructs were unchanged in the HE control group. Conclusions Non-metastatic breast cancer patients participating in two forms of brief, 5-week group-based stress management intervention after surgery showed improvements in psychological adaptation and stress management resources compared to an attention-matched control group. Findings provide preliminary support suggesting that using brief group-based stress management interventions may promote adaptation among non-metastatic breast cancer patients. PMID:25939017

  15. Barriers and Recommended Interventions to Prevent Melioidosis in Northeast Thailand: A Focus Group Study Using the Behaviour Change Wheel

    PubMed Central

    Suntornsut, Pornpan; Wongsuwan, Nittayasee; Malasit, Mayura; Kitphati, Rungreung; Michie, Susan; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Melioidosis, an often fatal infectious disease in Northeast Thailand, is caused by skin inoculation, inhalation or ingestion of the environmental bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei. The major underlying risk factor for melioidosis is diabetes mellitus. Recommendations for melioidosis prevention include using protective gear such as rubber boots and gloves when in direct contact with soil and environmental water, and consuming bottled or boiled water. Only a small proportion of people follow such recommendations. Methods Nine focus group discussions were conducted to evaluate barriers to adopting recommended preventive behaviours. A total of 76 diabetic patients from northeast Thailand participated in focus group sessions. Barriers to adopting the recommended preventive behaviours and future intervention strategies were identified using two frameworks: the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel. Results Barriers were identified in the following five domains: (i) knowledge, (ii) beliefs about consequences, (iii) intention and goals, (iv) environmental context and resources, and (v) social influence. Of 76 participants, 72 (95%) had never heard of melioidosis. Most participants saw no harm in not adopting recommended preventive behaviours, and perceived rubber boots and gloves to be hot and uncomfortable while working in muddy rice fields. Participants reported that they normally followed the behaviour of friends, family and their community, the majority of whom did not wear boots while working in rice fields and did not boil water before drinking. Eight intervention functions were identified as relevant for the intervention: (i) education, (ii) persuasion, (iii) incentivisation, (iv) coercion, (v) modeling, (vi) environmental restructuring, (vii) training, and (viii) enablement. Participants noted that input from role models in the form of physicians, diabetic clinics, friends and families, and from the government via mass media

  16. Cognitive processes associated with compulsive buying behaviours and related EEG coherence.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Lee Matthew; Ciorciari, Joseph; Kyrios, Michael

    2014-01-30

    The behavioural and cognitive phenomena associated with Compulsive Buying (CB) have been investigated previously but the underlying neurophysiological cognitive process has received less attention. This study specifically investigated the electrophysiology of CB associated with executive processing and cue-reactivity in order to reveal differences in neural connectivity (EEG Coherence) and distinguish it from characteristics of addiction or mood disorder. Participants (N=24, M=25.38 yrs, S.D.=7.02 yrs) completed the Sensitivity to Punishment Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire and a visual memory task associated with shopping items. Sensitivities to reward and punishment were examined with EEG coherence measures for preferred and non-preferred items and compared to CB psychometrics. Widespread EEG coherence differences were found in numerous regions, with an apparent left shifted lateralisation for preferred and right shifted lateralisation for non-preferred items. Different neurophysiological networks presented with CB phenomena, reflecting cue reactivity and episodic memory, from increased arousal and attachment to items. PMID:24239477

  17. The beneficial effects of berries on cognition, motor behaviour and neuronal function in ageing.

    PubMed

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Bielinski, Donna F; Lau, Francis C; Willis, Lauren M; Carey, Amanda N; Joseph, James A

    2015-11-28

    Previously, it has been shown that strawberry (SB) or blueberry (BB) supplementations, when fed to rats from 19 to 21 months of age, reverse age-related decrements in motor and cognitive performance. We have postulated that these effects may be the result of a number of positive benefits of the berry polyphenols, including decreased stress signalling, increased neurogenesis, and increased signals involved in learning and memory. Thus, the present study was carried out to examine these mechanisms in aged animals by administering a control, 2 % SB- or 2 % BB-supplemented diet to aged Fischer 344 rats for 8 weeks to ascertain their effectiveness in reversing age-related deficits in behavioural and neuronal function. The results showed that rats consuming the berry diets exhibited enhanced motor performance and improved cognition, specifically working memory. In addition, the rats supplemented with BB and SB diets showed increased hippocampal neurogenesis and expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, although the improvements in working memory performance could not solely be explained by these increases. The diverse polyphenolics in these berry fruits may have additional mechanisms of action that could account for their relative differences in efficacy. PMID:26392037

  18. Neural correlation of successful cognitive behaviour therapy for spider phobia: a magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Wright, Barry; Alderson-Day, Ben; Prendergast, Garreth; Kennedy, Juliette; Bennett, Sophie; Docherty, Mary; Whitton, Clare; Manea, Laura; Gouws, Andre; Tomlinson, Heather; Green, Gary

    2013-12-30

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can be an effective treatment for spider phobia, but the underlying neural correlates of therapeutic change are yet to be specified. The present study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to study responses within the first half second, to phobogenic stimuli in a group of individuals with spider phobia prior to treatment (n=12) and then in nine of them following successful CBT (where they could touch and manage live large common house spiders) at least 9 months later. We also compared responses to a group of age-matched healthy control participants (n=11). Participants viewed static photographs of real spiders, other fear-inducing images (e.g. snakes, sharks) and neutral stimuli (e.g. kittens). Beamforming methods were used to localise sources of significant power changes in response to stimuli. Prior to treatment, participants with spider phobia showed a significant maximum response in the right frontal pole when viewing images of real spiders specifically. No significant frontal response was observed for either control participants or participants with spider phobia post-treatment. In addition, participants' subjective ratings of spider stimuli significantly predicted peak responses in right frontal regions. The implications for understanding brain-based effects of cognitive therapies are discussed. PMID:24139305

  19. The Cognitive and Behavioural Impact of Alcohol Promoting and Alcohol Warning Advertisements: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kyle G.; Stautz, Kaidy; Hollands, Gareth J.; Winpenny, Eleanor M.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To assess the immediate effect of alcohol promoting and alcohol warning advertisements on implicit and explicit attitudes towards alcohol and on alcohol seeking behaviour. Methods We conducted a between-participants online experiment in which participants were randomly assigned to view one of three sets of advertisements: (a) alcohol promoting, (b) alcohol warning, or (c) unrelated to alcohol. A total of 373 participants (59.5% female) aged 18–40 (M = 28.03) living in the UK were recruited online through a research agency. Positive and negative implicit attitudes and explicit attitudes towards alcohol were assessed before and after advertisements were viewed. Alcohol seeking behaviour was measured by participants' choice of either an alcohol-related or non-alcohol-related voucher offered ostensibly as a reward for participation. Self-reported past week alcohol consumption was also recorded. Results There were no main effects on any of the outcome measures. In heavier drinkers, viewing alcohol promoting advertisements increased positive implicit attitudes (standardized beta = 0.15, P = 0.04) and decreased negative implicit attitudes (standardized beta = −0.17, P = 0.02). In heavier drinkers, viewing alcohol warning advertisements decreased negative implicit attitudes (standardized beta = −0.19, P = 0.01). Conclusions Viewing alcohol promoting advertisements has a cognitive impact on heavier drinkers, increasing positive and reducing negative implicit attitudes towards alcohol. Viewing alcohol warning advertisements reduces negative implicit attitudes towards alcohol in heavier drinkers, suggestive of a reactance effect. PMID:26391367

  20. Associations Between Ankle-Brachial Index and Cognitive Function: Results from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Trial

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Newman, Anne B.; Sink, Kaycee; Gill, Thomas M.; King, Abby C.; Miller, Michael E.; Guralnik, Jack; Katula, Jeff; Church, Timothy; Manini, Todd; Reid, Kieran F.; McDermott, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between ankle-brachial index (ABI) and indicators of cognitive function DESIGN Randomized clinical trial (Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Trial) SETTING Eight US academic centers PARTICIPANTS 1,601 adults (ages 70–89 years, sedentary, non-demented, and with functional limitations MEASUREMENTS Baseline ABI and interviewer- and computer-administered cognitive function assessments were obtained from which compared a physical activity intervention with a health education control. Cognitive function was re-assessed 24 months later (interviewer-administered) and 18 or 30 months later (computer-administered) and central adjudication was used to classify individuals as having mild cognitive impairment, probable dementia, or neither. RESULTS Lower ABI had a modest independent association poorer cognitive functioning at baseline (partial r=0.09; p<0.001). While, lower baseline ABI was not associated with overall changes in cognitive function test scores, it was associated with higher odds for two-year progression to a composite of either mild cognitive impairment or probable dementia (OR=2.60 per unit lower ABI; 95% confidence interval [1.06,6.37]). Across two years, changes in ABI were not associated with changes in cognitive function. CONCLUSION In an older cohort of non-demented sedentary individuals with functional limitations, lower baseline ABI was independently correlated with cognitive function and associated with greater 2-year risk for progression to mild cognitive impairment or probable dementia. PMID:25869993

  1. Elasmobranch cognitive ability: using electroreceptive foraging behaviour to demonstrate learning, habituation and memory in a benthic shark.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Joel A; Sims, David W; Bellamy, Patricia H; Gill, Andrew B

    2014-01-01

    Top predators inhabiting a dynamic environment, such as coastal waters, should theoretically possess sufficient cognitive ability to allow successful foraging despite unpredictable sensory stimuli. The cognition-related hunting abilities of marine mammals have been widely demonstrated. Having been historically underestimated, teleost cognitive abilities have also now been significantly demonstrated. Conversely, the abilities of elasmobranchs have received little attention, despite many species possessing relatively large brains comparable to some mammals. The need to determine what, if any, cognitive ability these globally distributed, apex predators are endowed with has been highlighted recently by questions arising from environmental assessments, specifically whether they are able to learn to distinguish between anthropogenic electric fields and prey bioelectric fields. We therefore used electroreceptive foraging behaviour in a model species, Scyliorhinus canicula (small-spotted catshark), to determine cognitive ability by analysing whether elasmobranchs are able to learn to improve foraging efficiency and remember learned behavioural adaptations. Positive reinforcement, operant conditioning was used to study catshark foraging behaviour towards artificial, prey-type electric fields (Efields). Catsharks rewarded with food for responding to Efields throughout experimental weeks were compared with catsharks that were not rewarded for responding in order to assess behavioural adaptation via learning ability. Experiments were repeated after a 3-week interval with previously rewarded catsharks this time receiving no reward and vice versa to assess memory ability. Positive reinforcement markedly and rapidly altered catshark foraging behaviour. Rewarded catsharks exhibited significantly more interest in the electrical stimulus than unrewarded catsharks. Furthermore, they improved their foraging efficiency over time by learning to locate and bite the electrodes to gain

  2. Physical Exercise with Multicomponent Cognitive Intervention for Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ji; Han, Chang-Wan; Min, Kyoung-Youn; Cho, Chae-Yoon; Lee, Chae-Won; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Mori, Etsuro; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to investigate the effect of 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive program (MCP) on the cognitive function of older adults with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods We included 33 participants with AD in a 6-month randomized controlled trial. The intervention group participated in physical exercise and received a MCP. The control group received only the MCP. Before and after the intervention, cognitive outcomes were assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog), Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Clock Drawing Test. Physical performance was evaluated by exercise time, the number of pedal rotation, total load, grip strength, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results In all cognitive measures, there were no significant improvements between the two groups after 6 months in the baseline value-adjusted primary analysis. However, the ADAS-cog score was significantly lower between the two groups in secondary analysis adjusted for baseline value, age, sex, and education years. All physical outcomes were significantly higher in the intervention group except for total load compared with baseline measurements. Conclusion This study indicates that it is possible to improve cognitive function in older adults with moderate to severe AD through 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive intervention. PMID:27403134

  3. What factors does friction depend on? A socio-cognitive teaching intervention with young children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravanis, Konstantinos; Koliopoulos, Dimitris; Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a socio-cognitive teaching strategy on young children. It tests their understanding of the factors that friction depends on when an object is projected across a horizontal surface. The study was conducted in three phases: pre-test, teaching intervention, and post-test. The sample consisted of 68 preschool children who were assigned to two groups according to age and cognitive ability, based on their responses to a pre-test. The children in the experimental group participated in activities that were approached from a socio-cognitive perspective while the children in the control group participated in the same activities but from a Piagetian perspective. A statistically significant difference was found (Mann-Whitney U-test), between the pre-test and the post-test, providing evidence for the effect of the socio-cognitive strategy on children's understanding of a 'precursor model' for the concept of friction.

  4. Brain structural connectivity distinguishes patients at risk for cognitive decline after carotid interventions.

    PubMed

    Soman, Salil; Prasad, Gautam; Hitchner, Elizabeth; Massaband, Payam; Moseley, Michael E; Zhou, Wei; Rosen, Allyson C

    2016-06-01

    While brain connectivity analyses have been demonstrated to identify ill patients for a number of diseases, their ability to predict cognitive impairment after brain injury is not well established. Traditional post brain injury models, such as stroke, are limited for this evaluation because pre-injury brain connectivity patterns are infrequently available. Patients with severe carotid stenosis, in contrast, often undergo non-emergent revascularization surgery, allowing the collection of pre and post-operative imaging, may experience brain insult due to perioperative thrombotic/embolic infarcts or hypoperfusion, and can suffer post-operative cognitive decline. We hypothesized that a distributed function such as memory would be more resilient in patients with brains demonstrating higher degrees of modularity. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed preoperative structural connectivity graphs (using T1 and DWI MRI) for 34 patients that underwent carotid intervention, and evaluated differences in graph metrics using the Brain Connectivity Toolbox. We found that patients with lower binary component number, binary community number and weighted community number prior to surgery were at greater risk for developing cognitive decline. These findings highlight the promise of brain connectivity analyses to predict cognitive decline following brain injury and serve as a clinical decision support tool. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2185-2194, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27028955

  5. Altering micro-environments to change population health behaviour: towards an evidence base for choice architecture interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The idea that behaviour can be influenced at population level by altering the environments within which people make choices (choice architecture) has gained traction in policy circles. However, empirical evidence to support this idea is limited, especially its application to changing health behaviour. We propose an evidence-based definition and typology of choice architecture interventions that have been implemented within small-scale micro-environments and evaluated for their effects on four key sets of health behaviours: diet, physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use. Discussion We argue that the limitations of the evidence base are due not simply to an absence of evidence, but also to a prior lack of definitional and conceptual clarity concerning applications of choice architecture to public health intervention. This has hampered the potential for systematic assessment of existing evidence. By seeking to address this issue, we demonstrate how our definition and typology have enabled systematic identification and preliminary mapping of a large body of available evidence for the effects of choice architecture interventions. We discuss key implications for further primary research, evidence synthesis and conceptual development to support the design and evaluation of such interventions. Summary This conceptual groundwork provides a foundation for future research to investigate the effectiveness of choice architecture interventions within micro-environments for changing health behaviour. The approach we used may also serve as a template for mapping other under-explored fields of enquiry. PMID:24359583

  6. Targeted intervention for the ultra poor in rural Bangladesh: Does it make any difference in their health-seeking behaviour?

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Petzold, Max; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Tomson, Göran

    2006-12-01

    It is now well recognised that regular microcredit intervention is not enough to effectively reach the ultra poor in rural Bangladesh, in fact it actively excludes them for structural reasons. A grants-based integrated intervention was developed (with health inputs to mitigate the income-erosion effect of illness) to examine whether such a targeted intervention could change the health-seeking behaviour of the ultra-poor towards greater use of health services and "formal allopathic" providers during illness, besides improving their poverty status and capacity for health expenditure. The study was carried out in three northern districts of Bangladesh with high density of ultra poor households, using a pre-test/post-test control group design. A pre-intervention baseline (2189 interventions and 2134 controls) survey was undertaken in 2002 followed by an intervention (of 18 months duration) and a post-intervention follow-up survey of the same households in 2004. Structured interviews were conducted to elicit information on health-seeking behaviour of household members. Findings reveal an overall change in health-seeking behaviour in the study population, but the intervention reduced self-care by 7 percentage units and increased formal allopathic care by 9 percentage units. The intervention increased the proportion of non-deficit households by 43 percentage units, as well as the capacity to spend more than Tk. 25 for treatment of illness during the reference period by 11 percentage units. Higher health expenditure and time (pre- to -post-intervention period) was associated with increased use of health care from formal allopathic providers. However, gender differences in health-seeking and health-expenditure disfavouring women were also noted. The programmatic implications of these findings are discussed in the context of improving the ability of health systems to reach the ultra poor. PMID:16954049

  7. A systematic review examining whether interventions are effective in reducing cognitive delay in children infected and affected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Sherr, Lorraine; Croome, Natasha; Bradshaw, Katie; Parra Castaneda, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive delay has been recorded in children infected and affected by HIV. This finding is well established, yet few countries report provision of special educational interventions for this group of children. The general rehabilitation literature describes an array of effective interventions for children with learning difficulties. These have rarely been adapted for children affected by HIV, despite their growing numbers. A systematic review was conducted to examine effective interventions for cognitive delay in children (under 18 years) infected with HIV and/or exposed to HIV (HIV-negative child born to an HIV-positive mother). A keyword search of electronic databases with reference follow-up generated 1745 hits. These abstracts were screened for relevance, resulting in 17 papers available for shortlisting. Studies were then included if they were randomised control trials, were longitudinal, pre/post or cohort studies and presented empirical data on an intervention for children infected by HIV or exposed to HIV and had at least one cognitive measure. Carer interventions were included if they had at least one child cognitive measure. Of the 17 papers, 4 met the inclusion criteria based on design and quality. Interventions included cognitive rehearsal, home-based stimulation and parental support. All four interventions showed at least one significant child improvement at follow-up. Despite such improvements, many children still scored within the disability range at follow-up. These results show that the effective interventions are available and should be scaled up to meet the needs of children. Complex interventions are not sufficiently studied. This review suggests an ongoing need to build evidence-based interventions, but calls on evidence-based programmes to be initiated for HIV-positive and HIV-affected children. PMID:24720704

  8. Treatment of anxiety from musical obsessions with a cognitive behaviour therapy tool.

    PubMed

    Liikkanen, Lassi A; Raaska, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Musical obsessions and hallucinations are disturbing experiences of repeating internal music. Antipsychotic medication can sometimes reduce these symptoms but can also trigger or augment them. We report the case of a female patient with schizophrenia with drug-resistant obsessive musical hallucinations. The patient volunteered to participate in a 9-month pilot study to follow the development of the condition using an involuntary music and mood inventory. The patient perceived benefits from the intervention, including reduced anxiety, increased feeling of being in control and understanding the condition better. Findings from this case study suggest that cognitive therapy can be a useful complementary method of care for persons with musical obsessions. The presented tool requires further investigations among those with this rare condition. PMID:24214156

  9. Treatment of anxiety from musical obsessions with a cognitive behaviour therapy tool

    PubMed Central

    Liikkanen, Lassi A; Raaska, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Musical obsessions and hallucinations are disturbing experiences of repeating internal music. Antipsychotic medication can sometimes reduce these symptoms but can also trigger or augment them. We report the case of a female patient with schizophrenia with drug-resistant obsessive musical hallucinations. The patient volunteered to participate in a 9-month pilot study to follow the development of the condition using an involuntary music and mood inventory. The patient perceived benefits from the intervention, including reduced anxiety, increased feeling of being in control and understanding the condition better. Findings from this case study suggest that cognitive therapy can be a useful complementary method of care for persons with musical obsessions. The presented tool requires further investigations among those with this rare condition. PMID:24214156

  10. Driver's behavioural changes with new intelligent transport system interventions at railway level crossings--A driving simulator study.

    PubMed

    Larue, Grégoire S; Kim, Inhi; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Haworth, Narelle L; Ferreira, Luis

    2015-08-01

    Improving safety at railway level crossings is an important issue for the Australian transport system. Governments, the rail industry and road organisations have tried a variety of countermeasures for many years to improve railway level crossing safety. New types of intelligent transport system (ITS) interventions are now emerging due to the availability and the affordability of technology. These interventions target both actively and passively protected railway level crossings and attempt to address drivers' errors at railway crossings, which are mainly a failure to detect the crossing or the train and misjudgement of the train approach speed and distance. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of three emerging ITS that the rail industry considers implementing in Australia: a visual in-vehicle ITS, an audio in-vehicle ITS, as well as an on-road flashing beacons intervention. The evaluation was conducted on an advanced driving simulator with 20 participants per trialled technology, each participant driving once without any technology and once with one of the ITS interventions. Every participant drove through a range of active and passive crossings with and without trains approaching. Their speed approach of the crossing, head movements and stopping compliance were measured. Results showed that driver behaviour was changed with the three ITS interventions at passive crossings, while limited effects were found at active crossings, even with reduced visibility. The on-road intervention trialled was unsuccessful in improving driver behaviour; the audio and visual ITS improved driver behaviour when a train was approaching. A trend toward worsening driver behaviour with the visual ITS was observed when no trains were approaching. This trend was not observed for the audio ITS intervention, which appears to be the ITS intervention with the highest potential for improving safety at passive crossings. PMID:25956609

  11. Which Pain Coping Strategies and Cognitions Are Associated with Outcomes of a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Neuropathic Pain after Spinal Cord Injury?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic neuropathic pain is one of the most difficult problems to manage after spinal cord injury (SCI). Pain coping and pain cognitions are known to be associated with the patient’s experience of neuropathic pain, but they have not been studied in the context of a cognitive behavioral treatment program for coping with neuropathic pain after SCI. Objective: To explore associations of pain coping strategies and cognitions with pain intensity and pain-related disability and changes in pain coping strategies and cognitions with changes in pain intensity and pain-related disability. Methods: Forty-seven persons who participated in the CONECSI (COping with NEuropathiC Spinal cord Injury pain) trial completed questionnaires before the intervention (baseline) and 3 months after of the intervention (follow-up). Results: Compared to baseline, participants showed more favorable scores on 2 pain coping scales (Pain Transformation and Worrying), the subtotal score Active Coping, and 3 pain cognitions scales (Catastrophizing, Optimism, and Reliance on Health Care) at follow-up. Baseline Reliance on Health Care was associated with change in pain intensity and pain-related disability. Change in Catastrophizing and change in Restriction cognitions were associated with change in pain-related disability. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that modifying pain coping strategies and cognitions by a cognitive behavioral intervention for chronic neuropathic pain after SCI may have some beneficial effects on pain intensity and pain-related disability. Further research should show how dysfunctional pain coping strategies and cognitions can be most effectively modified. PMID:24244098

  12. An Innovative Cognitive Strategy to Assist Problem Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coman, Gregory J.; Evans, Barry J.; Burrows, Graham D.

    2005-01-01

    The clinical and research literature suggests that cognitive and behavioural therapies are particularly helpful in assisting clients overcome problem gambling behaviour. Several articles have described the efficacy of a range of cognitive interventions, especially provision of information regarding rates of return and the odds of games and the…

  13. Feasibility of a Patient-Controlled Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Pain, Fatigue, and Sleep Disturbance in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kwekkeboom, Kristine L.; Abbott-Anderson, Kristen; Wanta, Britt

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of a patient-controlled cognitive-behavioral intervention for pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbance during treatment for advanced cancer, and to assess initial efficacy of the intervention in controlling symptoms. Design One-group pretest-posttest design. Setting Outpatient oncology clinics at a Comprehensive Cancer Center in the Midwestern United States. Sample 30 adults with advanced (recurrent or metastatic) colorectal, lung, prostate, or GYN cancer receiving chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Methods Participants completed baseline measures (demographics, symptom inventory) and received education and training to use an MP3 player loaded with 12 cognitive-behavioral strategies (e.g., relaxation exercises, guided imagery, nature sound recordings). Participants used the strategies as needed for symptom management over the following 2-weeks, keeping a log of symptom ratings with each use. Following the two-week intervention, participants completed a second symptom inventory and an evaluation of the intervention. Main Research Variables Feasibility, patient-controlled cognitive-behavioral intervention, pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance. Findings 73% of the 43 eligible patients agreed to participate (N=30) and of these, 90% (n=27) completed the study. The majority of participants reported that they enjoyed the intervention, had learned useful skills, and perceived improvement in their symptoms. Symptom scores at 2-weeks did not differ significantly from baseline, however significant reductions in pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbance severity were found in ratings made immediately before and after use of a cognitive-behavioral strategy. Conclusions The patient-controlled cognitive-behavioral intervention appears feasible for further study and could reduce day-to-day severity of co-occurring pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. Implications for Nursing A randomized controlled trial is necessary to test efficacy of the intervention for co

  14. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Family Cognitive-Behavioral Preventive Intervention for Children of Depressed Parents

    PubMed Central

    Compas, Bruce E.; Forehand, Rex; Keller, Gary; Champion, Jennifer E.; Rakow, Aaron; Reeslund, Kristen L.; McKee, Laura; Fear, Jessica M.; Colletti, Christina J. M.; Hardcastle, Emily; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lori; Potts, Jennifer; Garai, Emily; Coffelt, Nicole; Roland, Erin; Sterba, Sonya K.; Cole, David A.

    2010-01-01

    A family cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention for parents with a history of depression and their 9–15-year-old children was compared with a self-study written information condition in a randomized clinical trial (n = 111 families). Outcomes were assessed at postintervention (2 months), after completion of 4 monthly booster sessions (6 months), and at 12-month follow-up. Children were assessed by child reports on depressive symptoms, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems; by parent reports on internalizing and externalizing problems; and by child and parent reports on a standardized diagnostic interview. Parent depressive symptoms and parent episodes of major depression also were assessed. Evidence emerged for significant differences favoring the family group intervention on both child and parent outcomes; strongest effects for child outcomes were found at the 12-month assessment with medium effect sizes on most measures. Implications for the prevention of adverse outcomes in children of depressed parents are highlighted. PMID:19968378

  15. Randomized controlled trial of a family cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention for children of depressed parents.

    PubMed

    Compas, Bruce E; Forehand, Rex; Keller, Gary; Champion, Jennifer E; Rakow, Aaron; Reeslund, Kristen L; McKee, Laura; Fear, Jessica M; Colletti, Christina J M; Hardcastle, Emily; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lori; Potts, Jennifer; Garai, Emily; Coffelt, Nicole; Roland, Erin; Sterba, Sonya K; Cole, David A

    2009-12-01

    A family cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention for parents with a history of depression and their 9-15-year-old children was compared with a self-study written information condition in a randomized clinical trial (n = 111 families). Outcomes were assessed at postintervention (2 months), after completion of 4 monthly booster sessions (6 months), and at 12-month follow-up. Children were assessed by child reports on depressive symptoms, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems; by parent reports on internalizing and externalizing problems; and by child and parent reports on a standardized diagnostic interview. Parent depressive symptoms and parent episodes of major depression also were assessed. Evidence emerged for significant differences favoring the family group intervention on both child and parent outcomes; strongest effects for child outcomes were found at the 12-month assessment with medium effect sizes on most measures. Implications for the prevention of adverse outcomes in children of depressed parents are highlighted. PMID:19968378

  16. Adoption of the Good Behaviour Game: An Evidence-Based Intervention for the Prevention of Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkman, Marieke A. M.; Harting, Janneke; van der Wal, Marcel F.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: The Good Behaviour Game (GBG) has been shown to be effective in preventing childhood disruptive behaviours and their long-term unfavourable health-related outcomes. Like many other evidence-based preventive health programmes, however, its current use in Dutch primary schools is limited, and knowledge of the factors…

  17. Development and Pilot Evaluation of an Internet-Facilitated Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Maternal Depression

    PubMed Central

    Sheeber, Lisa B.; Seeley, John R.; Feil, Edward G.; Davis, Betsy; Sorensen, Erik; Kosty, Derek B.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Develop and pilot an Internet-facilitated cognitive-behavioral treatment intervention for depression, tailored to economically disadvantaged mothers of young children. Method Mothers (N = 70) of children enrolled in Head Start, who reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, were randomized to either the eight-session, Internet-facilitated intervention (Mom-Net) or delayed intervention/facilitated treatment-as-usual (DI/TAU). Outcomes were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996); the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9; Spitzer et al., 1999), Behavioral Observations of Parent-Child Interactions using the Living in Family Environments coding system (LIFE; Hops, Davis, & Longoria, 1995); and the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding Systems (DPICS; Eyberg, Nelson, Duke, & Boggs, 2005); the Parent Behavior Inventory (PBI; Lovejoy, Weis, O’Hare, & Rubin, 1999); and the Parenting Sense of Competence scale (PSOC; Gibaud-Wallston & Wandersman, 1978). Results Mom-Net demonstrated high levels of feasibility as indicated by low attrition and high program usage and satisfaction ratings. Participants in the Mom-Net condition demonstrated significantly greater reduction in depression, the primary outcome, at the level of both symptoms and estimates of criteria-based diagnoses over the course of the intervention. They also demonstrated significantly greater improvement on a questionnaire measure of parent satisfaction and efficacy as well as on both questionnaire and observational indices of harsh parenting behavior. Conclusions Initial results suggest that the Mom-Net intervention is feasible and efficacious as a remotely delivered intervention for economically disadvantaged mothers. PMID:22663903

  18. Respiratory and Cognitive Mediators of Treatment Change in Panic Disorder: Evidence for Intervention Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Meuret, Alicia E.; Rosenfield, David; Seidel, Anke; Bhaskara, Lavanya; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective There are numerous theories of panic disorder, each proposing a unique pathway of change leading to treatment success. However, little is known about whether improvements in proposed mediators are indeed associated with treatment outcomes and whether these mediators are specific to particular treatment modalities. Our purpose in this study was to analyze pathways of change in theoretically distinct interventions using longitudinal, moderated mediation analyses. Method Forty-one patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia were randomly assigned to receive 4 weeks of training aimed at altering either respiration (capnometry-assisted respiratory training) or panic-related cognitions (cognitive training). Changes in respiration (PCO2, respiration rate), symptom appraisal, and a modality-nonspecific mediator (perceived control) were considered as possible mediators. Results The reductions in panic symptom severity and panic-related cognitions and the improvements in perceived control were significant and comparable in both treatment groups. Capnometry-assisted respiratory training, but not cognitive training, led to corrections from initially hypocapnic to normocapnic levels. Moderated mediation and temporal analyses suggested that in capnometry-assisted respiratory training, PCO2 unidirectionally mediated and preceded changes in symptom appraisal and perceived control and was unidirectionally associated with changes in panic symptom severity. In cognitive training, reductions in symptom appraisal were bidirectionally associated with perceived control and panic symptom severity. In addition, perceived control was bidirectionally related to panic symptom severity in both treatment conditions. Conclusion The findings suggest that reductions in panic symptom severity can be achieved through different pathways, consistent with the underlying models. PMID:20873904

  19. Exploring patients' reasons for declining contact in a cognitive behavioural therapy randomised controlled trial in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Maria; Wiles, Nicola; Morrison, Jill; Kessler, David; Williams, Chris; Kuyken, Willem; Lewis, Glyn; Turner, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    Background The difficulties of recruiting individuals into mental health trials are well documented. Few studies have collected information from those declining to take part in research, in order to understand the reasons behind this decision. Aim To explore patients' reasons for declining to be contacted about a study of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy as a treatment for depression. Design and setting Questionnaire and telephone interview in general practices in England and Scotland. Method Patients completed a short questionnaire about their reasons for not taking part in research. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with a purposive sample to further explore reasons for declining. Results Of 4552 patients responding to an initial invitation to participate in research involving a talking therapy, 1642 (36%) declined contact. The most commonly selected reasons for declining were that patients did not want to take part in a research study (n = 951) and/or did not want to have a talking therapy (n = 688) (more than one response was possible). Of the decliners, 451 patients agreed to an interview about why they declined. Telephone interviews were completed with 25 patients. Qualitative analysis of the interview data indicated four main themes regarding reasons for non-participation: previous counselling experiences, negative feelings about the therapeutic encounter, perceived ineligibility, and misunderstandings about the research. Conclusion Collecting information about those who decline to take part in research provides information on the acceptability of the treatment being studied. It can also highlight concerns and misconceptions about the intervention and research, which can be addressed by researchers or recruiting GPs. This may improve recruitment to studies and thus ultimately increase the evidence base. PMID:22546597

  20. A pilot evaluation on a stress management programme using a combined approach of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for elementary school teachers.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Hector W H; Cheung, W M; Chan, Alan H L; Fung, Kelvin M T; Leung, Ada Y; Au, Doreen W H

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the efficacy of implementing a stress management programme based on a combined approach using cognitive behavioural therapy and complementary and alternative medicine for elementary school teachers who experienced mild level of stress, anxiety and/or depressive symptoms in Hong Kong. A 12-h programme involving cognitive behavioural therapy, self-management, relaxation techniques (diaphragmatic breathing and progressive muscle relaxation), mindful exercises (qigong and yoga), aromatherapy and acupressure was conducted. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare the intervention groups (n = 47) with the wait-list control groups (n = 46). The primary outcome measures were depression, anxiety and stress. Results indicated that the intervention group had significant reduction in depression [(F = 3.93; degrees of freedom (df) = 2.90; p = 0.023)], anxiety (F = 3.37; df = 2.90; p = 0.039) and stress (F = 3.63; df = 2.89; p = 0.031) when compared with the control group. Participants in both groups demonstrated lowered level of salivary cortisol at the post-assessment. The pilot results provided preliminary support to the multi-component stress management programme in relieving affective symptoms of teachers. The programme may be considered as an initial strategy to empower teachers with the abilities to cope with their affective symptoms. Further evaluation using a better designed randomized study with a larger sample size is warranted. (word: 198; max.: 200). PMID:24038798

  1. Behavioural Interventions for the Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Young People Aged 13-19 Years: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picot, Joanna; Shepherd, Jonathan; Kavanagh, Josephine; Cooper, Keith; Harden, Angela; Barnett-Page, Elaine; Jones, Jeremy; Clegg, Andrew; Hartwell, Debbie; Frampton, Geoff K.

    2012-01-01

    We systematically reviewed school-based skills building behavioural interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections. References were sought from 15 electronic resources, bibliographies of systematic reviews/included studies and experts. Two authors independently extracted data and quality-assessed studies. Fifteen randomized…

  2. Parents' Experiences of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA)-Based Interventions for Children Diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhilemy, Catherine; Dillenburger, Karola

    2013-01-01

    Applied behaviour analysis (ABA)-based programmes are endorsed as the gold standard for treatment of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in most of North America. This is not the case in most of Europe, where instead a non-specified "eclectic" approach is adopted. We explored the social validity of ABA-based interventions with…

  3. Using Narrated Literacy-Based Behavioural Interventions to Decrease Episodes of Physical Aggression in Elementary Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Shelley; Bucholz, Jessica L.; Hazelkorn, Michael; Cooper, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of literacy-based behavioural interventions (Bucholz et al., 2008) to decrease acts of physical aggression with kindergarten and first grade students. The study used a multiple baseline design across three participants. The results showed a decrease in acts of physical aggression by students with…

  4. The frequency of actions and thoughts scale: development and psychometric validation of a measure of adaptive behaviours and cognitions.

    PubMed

    Terides, Matthew D; Dear, Blake F; Karin, Eyal; Jones, Michael P; Gandy, Milena; Fogliati, Vincent J; Kayrouz, Rony; Staples, Lauren G; Titov, Nickolai

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of an instrument that measures the frequency of adaptive behaviours and cognitions related to therapeutic change during cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), for symptoms of anxiety and depression. Two studies were conducted. In study one, 661 participants completed an online survey with 28 items targeting adaptive behaviours and cognitions. Exploratory factor analysis performed on part of the sample (n = 451) revealed that a four-factor solution 'characterised' the data. This led to the development of a 12-item instrument, the Frequency of Actions and Thoughts Scale (FATS). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to confirm the factor structure of the FATS using the remaining sample (n = 210), which revealed an acceptable model fit. In study two, 125 participants with clinically significant symptoms of anxiety, depression, or both were recruited to an Internet-delivered CBT (iCBT) treatment course. Participants completed the FATS and other measures throughout treatment, after treatment, and at three-month follow-up. Correlations and residual change scores of the FATS and its subscales with measures of anxiety, depression, behavioural activation, and CBT-related skills usage supported the construct validity of the FATS. A significant increase in FATS scores over treatment was also observed. The findings provide preliminary support for the psychometric properties of the FATS, which appears to have utility in research investigating mechanisms of change in CBT. PMID:26926484

  5. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Philipp; Baumann, Freerk T; Oberste, Max; Wright, Peter; Garthe, Alexander; Schenk, Alexander; Elter, Thomas; Galvao, Daniel A; Bloch, Wilhelm; Hübner, Sven T; Wolf, Florian

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI). Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga) with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings. PMID:27144158

  6. New Evidence About Language and Cognitive Development Based on a Longitudinal Study: Hypotheses for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.; Hedges, Larry V.; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Small, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    We review findings from a four-year longitudinal study of language learning conducted on two samples: a sample of typically developing children whose parents vary substantially in socioeconomic status, and a sample of children with pre- or perinatal brain injury. This design enables us to study language development across a wide range of language learning environments and a wide range of language learners. We videotaped samples of children's and parents' speech and gestures during spontaneous interactions at home every four months, and then we transcribed and coded the tapes. We focused on two behaviors known to vary across individuals and environments—child gesture and parent speech—behaviors that have the potential to index, and perhaps even play a role in creating, differences across children in linguistic and other cognitive skills. Our observations have led to four hypotheses that have promise for the development of diagnostic tools and interventions to enhance language and cognitive development and brain plasticity after neonatal injury. One kind of hypothesis involves tools that could identify children who may be at risk for later language deficits. The other involves interventions that have the potential to promote language development. We present our four hypotheses as a summary of the findings from our study because there is scientific evidence behind them and because this evidence has the potential to be put to practical use in improving education. PMID:24911049

  7. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Philipp; Baumann, Freerk T.; Oberste, Max; Wright, Peter; Garthe, Alexander; Schenk, Alexander; Elter, Thomas; Galvao, Daniel A.; Bloch, Wilhelm; Hübner, Sven T.; Wolf, Florian

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI). Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga) with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings. PMID:27144158

  8. Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy for depression in people with diabetes: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Lisa; Newby, Jill; Wilhelm, Kay; Smith, Jessica; Fletcher, Therese; Ma, Trevor; Finch, Adam; Campbell, Lesley; Andrews, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Depression substantially contributes to the personal burden and healthcare costs of living with diabetes mellitus (DM). Comorbid depression and DM are associated with poorer quality of life, poorer self-management and glycemic control, increased risk for DM complications and higher mortality rates, and higher health service utilization. Depression remains under-recognized and undertreated in people with DM, which may, in part, result from barriers associated with accessing face-to-face treatment. This study will examine the efficacy of an internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy programme for major depressive disorder (iCBT-MDD) in people with DM. Methods and analysis A CONSORT 2010 compliant, registered randomised controlled trial of the intervention (iCBT-MDD) versus a treatment as usual control group will be conducted. The study will include 100 adults aged 18 years and over with a diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 DM and self-reported symptoms that satisfy MDD which will enable us to detect a statistically significant difference with a group effect size of 0.6 at a power of 80% and significance level of p=0.05. Participants will be randomised to receive the iCBT-MDD programme immediately, or to wait 10 weeks before accessing the programme. Primary outcomes will be self-reported depression severity, DM-related distress, and glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin). Secondary outcomes will be general distress and disability, generalized anxiety, lifestyle behaviours, somatization, eating habits, alcohol use, and acceptability of the iCBT programme to participants, and practicality for clinicians. Data will be analyzed with linear mixed models for each outcome measure. Ethics and dissemination The Human Research Ethics Committee of St Vincent's Hospital Australia have given ethics approval (HREC/13/SVH/291). Results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publication and social media channels of Australian Diabetes Consumer Representative Bodies

  9. The effectiveness of enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders: an open trial.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Susan M; Fursland, Anthea; Allen, Karina L; Watson, Hunna

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Enhanced Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT-E) for eating disorders in an open trial for adults with the full range of eating disorders found in the community. The only previously published trial of CBT-E for eating disorders was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) conducted in the U.K. for patients with a BMI ≥ 17.5. The current study represents the first published trial of CBT-E to include patients with a BMI<17.5. The study involved 125 patients referred to a public outpatient clinic in Perth, Western Australia. Patients attended, on average, 20-40 individual sessions with a clinical psychologist. Of those who entered the trial, 53% completed treatment. Longer waiting time for treatment was significantly associated with drop out. By the end of treatment full remission (cessation of all key eating disorder behaviours, BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2), not meeting DSM-IV criteria for an eating disorder) or partial remission (meeting at least 2 these criteria) was achieved by two thirds of the patients who completed treatment and 40% of the total sample. The results compared favourably to those reported in the previous RCT of CBT-E, with one exception being the higher drop-out rate in the current study. Overall, the findings indicated that CBT-E results in significant improvements, in both eating and more general psychopathology, in patients with all eating disorders attending an outpatient clinic. PMID:21345418

  10. Modulation of early stress-induced neurobiological changes: a review of behavioural and pharmacological interventions in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, E L; Baune, B T

    2014-01-01

    Childhood adversity alters the predisposition to psychiatric disorders later in life. Those with psychiatric conditions and a history of early adversity exhibit a higher incidence of treatment resistance compared with individuals with no such history. Modulation of the influence early stress exerts over neurobiology may help to prevent the development of psychiatric disorders in some cases, while attenuating the extent of treatment resistance in those with established psychiatric disorders. This review aims to critically evaluate the ability of behavioural, environmental and pharmacologic interventions to modulate neurobiological changes induced by early stress in animal models. Databases were systematically searched to locate literature relevant to this review. Early adversity was defined as stress that resulted from manipulation of the mother–infant relationship. Analysis was restricted to animal models to enable characterisation of how a given intervention altered specific neurobiological changes induced by early stress. A wide variety of changes in neurobiology due to early stress are amenable to intervention. Behavioural interventions in childhood, exercise in adolescence and administration of epigenetic-modifying drugs throughout life appear to best modulate cellar and behavioural alterations induced by childhood adversity. Other pharmacotherapies, such as endocannabinoid system modulators, anti-inflammatories and antidepressants can also influence these neurobiological and behavioural changes that result from early stress, although findings are less consistent at present and require further investigation. Further work is required to examine the influence that behavioural interventions, exercise and epigenetic-modifying drugs exert over alterations that occur following childhood stress in human studies, before possible translational into clinical practice is possible. PMID:24825729

  11. Overcoming Barriers to HIV Treatment Adherence: A Brief Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for HIV-Positive Adults on Antiretroviral Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Olem, David; Sharp, Kelly M.; Taylor, Jonelle M.; Johnson, Mallory O.

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing HIV treatment adherence is critical in efforts to optimize health outcomes and to prevent further HIV transmission. The Balance Project intervention uses cognitive behavioral approaches to improve antiretroviral medication adherence through promoting adaptive coping with medication side effect and distress related to HIV. This 5-session intervention has been documented to prevent nonadherence among persons living with HIV who experience high levels of distress associated with their antiretroviral medication side effects. We describe the theoretical underpinnings of the intervention, provide details of the training and session protocols with a case example, and discuss implications for future applications of the intervention in both research and clinical settings. PMID:24855332

  12. Behavioural symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease and their association with cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are non-cognitive symptoms commonly associated to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The characterization of the clinical profile of AD patients might help to better understand disease evolution and to improve diagnosis and treatment. Thus, the aim of the present study is to describe the clinical profile of AD patients, and to correlate the presence of BPSD with the severity of the disease. Methods A cross-sectional, observational and multicenter study was conducted at 115 centres in Spain. Patients suffering from AD with higher and lower BPSD scores (ADAS-Noncog score 26-50 and ≤25, respectively) were included. Demographic and clinical data were collected, and dementia severity was assessed by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) [mild 27-21, moderate 20-11, severe ≤10]. The use of ADAS-Noncog in clinical practice was also explored. Results A total of 1014 patients (463 with higher and 551 with lower BPSD scores) were included (mean age 77 ± 7 years, 65% women). Almost all patients (90%) had BPSD at inclusion, 17% of which reported psychotic outbreaks. The most prevalent symptoms were lack of concentration (56%), tremors (56%), depression (44%), lack of cooperation (36%), and delusions (32%). Patients with higher BPSD scores showed a significantly higher prevalence of psychotic symptoms (delusions, hallucinations, and delirium) and tremors, while emotional symptoms (tearfulness and apathy) predominated in patients with lower BPSD scores. MMSE and ADAS-Noncog scores were negatively associated (p = 0.0284), suggesting a correlation between cognitive impairment and BPSD. Lack of concentration and appetite change significantly correlated with MMSE (p = 0.0472 and p = 0.0346, respectively). Rivastigmine and donepezil were the first choice therapies in mild to moderate dementia. ADAS-Noncog was generally considered better or similar to other scales (82%), and 68% of the investigators were willing to

  13. A cognitive training intervention improves modality-specific attention in a randomized controlled trial of healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Long, Ashley B.; Morgan, Ashley R.; Rawley-Payne, Melissa; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Age-related deficits in cognitive and sensory function can result in increased distraction from background sensory stimuli. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of a cognitive training intervention aimed at helping healthy older adults suppress irrelevant auditory and visual stimuli. Sixty-six participants received 8 weeks of either the modality-specific attention training program or an educational lecture control program. Participants who completed the intervention program had larger improvements in modality-specific selective attention following training than controls. These improvements also correlated with reductions in bimodal integration during selective attention. Further, the intervention group showed larger improvements than the control group in non-trained domains such as processing speed and dual-task completion, demonstrating the utility of modality-specific attention training for improving cognitive function in healthy older adults. PMID:19428142

  14. Transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight

    PubMed Central

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Sartirana, Massimiliano; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the treatment of adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) is a potential option as it is a treatment for adult patients with eating disorders of this type and it has been shown to be effective with adolescent patients who are underweight. The aim of the present cohort study was to evaluate the effects of CBT-E on non-underweight adolescents with an eating disorder. Sixty-eight adolescent patients with an eating disorder and a body mass index (BMI) centile corresponding to an adult BMI ≥18.5 were recruited from consecutive referrals to a community-based eating disorder clinic. Each was offered 20 sessions of CBT-E over 20 weeks. Three-quarters completed the full 20 sessions. There was a marked treatment response with two-thirds (67.6%, intent-to-treat) having minimal residual eating disorder psychopathology by the end of treatment. CBT-E therefore appears to be a promising treatment for those adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. PMID:26275760

  15. Transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight.

    PubMed

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Sartirana, Massimiliano; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the treatment of adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) is a potential option as it is a treatment for adult patients with eating disorders of this type and it has been shown to be effective with adolescent patients who are underweight. The aim of the present cohort study was to evaluate the effects of CBT-E on non-underweight adolescents with an eating disorder. Sixty-eight adolescent patients with an eating disorder and a body mass index (BMI) centile corresponding to an adult BMI ≥ 18.5 were recruited from consecutive referrals to a community-based eating disorder clinic. Each was offered 20 sessions of CBT-E over 20 weeks. Three-quarters completed the full 20 sessions. There was a marked treatment response with two-thirds (67.6%, intent-to-treat) having minimal residual eating disorder psychopathology by the end of treatment. CBT-E therefore appears to be a promising treatment for those adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. PMID:26275760

  16. Serotonin tranporter methylation and response to cognitive behaviour therapy in children with anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S; Lester, K J; Hudson, J L; Rapee, R M; Creswell, C; Cooper, P J; Thirlwall, K J; Coleman, J R I; Breen, G; Wong, C C Y; Eley, T C

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders that are the most commonly occurring psychiatric disorders in childhood, are associated with a range of social and educational impairments and often continue into adulthood. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment option for the majority of cases, although up to 35–45% of children do not achieve remission. Recent research suggests that some genetic variants may be associated with a more beneficial response to psychological therapy. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation work at the interface between genetic and environmental influences. Furthermore, epigenetic alterations at the serotonin transporter (SERT) promoter region have been associated with environmental influences such as stressful life experiences. In this study, we measured DNA methylation upstream of SERT in 116 children with an anxiety disorder, before and after receiving CBT. Change during treatment in percentage DNA methylation was significantly different in treatment responders vs nonresponders. This effect was driven by one CpG site in particular, at which responders increased in methylation, whereas nonresponders showed a decrease in DNA methylation. This is the first study to demonstrate differences in SERT methylation change in association with response to a purely psychological therapy. These findings confirm that biological changes occur alongside changes in symptomatology following a psychological therapy such as CBT. PMID:25226553

  17. Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa: An alternative to family therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Doll, Helen A.; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    A specific form of family therapy (family-based treatment) is the leading treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. As this treatment has certain limitations, alternative approaches are needed. “Enhanced” cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) is a potential candidate given its utility as a treatment for adults with eating disorder psychopathology. The aim of the present study was to establish, in a representative cohort of patients with marked anorexia nervosa, the immediate and longer term outcome following CBT-E. Forty-nine adolescent patients were recruited from consecutive referrals to a community-based eating disorder clinic. Each was offered 40 sessions of CBT-E over 40 weeks from a single therapist. Two-thirds completed the full treatment with no additional input. In these patients there was a substantial increase in weight together with a marked decrease in eating disorder psychopathology. Over the 60-week post-treatment follow-up period there was little change despite minimal subsequent treatment. These findings suggest that CBT-E may prove to be a cost-effective alternative to family-based treatment. PMID:23123081

  18. Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy for adults with anorexia nervosa: a UK-Italy study.

    PubMed

    Fairburn, Christopher G; Cooper, Zafra; Doll, Helen A; O'Connor, Marianne E; Palmer, Robert L; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is difficult to treat and no treatment is supported by robust evidence. As it is uncommon, it has been recommended that new treatments should undergo extensive preliminary testing before being evaluated in randomized controlled trials. The aim of the present study was to establish the immediate and longer-term outcome following "enhanced" cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E). Ninety-nine adult patients with marked anorexia nervosa (body mass index ≤ 17.5) were recruited from consecutive referrals to clinics in the UK and Italy. Each was offered 40 sessions of CBT-E over 40 weeks with no concurrent treatment. Sixty-four percent of the patients were able to complete this outpatient treatment and in these patients there was a substantial increase in weight (7.47 kg, SD 4.93) and BMI (2.77, SD 1.81). Eating disorder features also improved markedly. Over the 60-week follow-up period there was little deterioration despite minimal additional treatment. These findings provide strong preliminary support for this use of CBT-E and justify its further evaluation in randomized controlled trials. As CBT-E has already been established as a treatment for bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified, the findings also confirm that CBT-E is transdiagnostic in its scope. PMID:23084515

  19. Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy for adults with anorexia nervosa: A UK–Italy study

    PubMed Central

    Fairburn, Christopher G.; Cooper, Zafra; Doll, Helen A.; O'Connor, Marianne E.; Palmer, Robert L.; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is difficult to treat and no treatment is supported by robust evidence. As it is uncommon, it has been recommended that new treatments should undergo extensive preliminary testing before being evaluated in randomized controlled trials. The aim of the present study was to establish the immediate and longer-term outcome following “enhanced” cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E). Ninety-nine adult patients with marked anorexia nervosa (body mass index ≤ 17.5) were recruited from consecutive referrals to clinics in the UK and Italy. Each was offered 40 sessions of CBT-E over 40 weeks with no concurrent treatment. Sixty-four percent of the patients were able to complete this outpatient treatment and in these patients there was a substantial increase in weight (7.47 kg, SD 4.93) and BMI (2.77, SD 1.81). Eating disorder features also improved markedly. Over the 60-week follow-up period there was little deterioration despite minimal additional treatment. These findings provide strong preliminary support for this use of CBT-E and justify its further evaluation in randomized controlled trials. As CBT-E has already been established as a treatment for bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified, the findings also confirm that CBT-E is transdiagnostic in its scope. PMID:23084515

  20. Changes in alcohol intake in response to transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Karačić, Matislava; Wales, Jackie A.; Arcelus, Jon; Palmer, Robert L.; Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine how alcohol intake changes during and after trans-diagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for eating disorders (CBT-E). Additionally, the paper considers the relationship between alcohol consumption, eating disorder diagnosis and current major depressive episode at the time of first assessment. Method One hundred and forty nine outpatients with an eating disorder (body mass index over 17.5) were divided into high or low alcohol intake groups (HIG and LIG) according to their intake at pre-treatment assessment. Their alcohol intake and eating disorder psychopathology were examined over the course of treatment and follow-up. Results There was no difference between the groups on response of the eating disorder to treatment. The HIG significantly reduced their alcohol intake following treatment whilst the intake of the LIG remained stable over the course of treatment and follow-up. There were no group differences in major depression and overall severity of eating disorder at baseline. Conclusions The response to CBT-E was not influenced by baseline level of alcohol use. The mean alcohol intake of the heavy drinking subjects decreased without being specifically addressed by the treatment. PMID:21704306

  1. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Mothers of Children with Food Allergy: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Knibb, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food allergy affects quality of life in patients and parents and mothers report high levels of anxiety and stress. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) may be helpful in reducing the psychological impact of food allergy. The aim of this study was to examine the appropriateness and effectiveness of CBT to improve psychological outcomes in parents of children with food allergy. Methods: Five parents (all mothers) from a local allergy clinic requested to have CBT; six mothers acted as controls and completed questionnaires only. CBT was individual and face-to face and lasted 12 weeks. All participants completed measures of anxiety and depression, worry, stress, general mental health, generic and food allergy specific quality of life at baseline and at 12 weeks. Results: Anxiety, depression and worry in the CBT group significantly reduced and overall mental health and QoL significantly improved from baseline to 12 weeks (all p < 0.05) in mothers in the CBT group; control group scores remained stable. Conclusions: CBT appears to be appropriate and effective in mothers of children with food allergy and a larger randomised control trial now needs to be conducted. Ways in which aspects of CBT can be incorporated into allergy clinic visits need investigation. PMID:27417820

  2. The need to promote behaviour change at the cultural level: one factor explaining the limited impact of the MEMA kwa Vijana adolescent sexual health intervention in rural Tanzania. A process evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few of the many behavioral sexual health interventions in Africa have been rigorously evaluated. Where biological outcomes have been measured, improvements have rarely been found. One of the most rigorous trials was of the multi-component MEMA kwa Vijana adolescent sexual health programme, which showed improvements in knowledge and reported attitudes and behaviour, but none in biological outcomes. This paper attempts to explain these outcomes by reviewing the process evaluation findings, particularly in terms of contextual factors. Methods A large-scale, primarily qualitative process evaluation based mainly on participant observation identified the principal contextual barriers and facilitators of behavioural change. Results The contextual barriers involved four interrelated socio-structural factors: culture (i.e. shared practices and systems of belief), economic circumstances, social status, and gender. At an individual level they appeared to operate through the constructs of the theories underlying MEMA kwa Vijana - Social Cognitive Theory and the Theory of Reasoned Action – but the intervention was unable to substantially modify these individual-level constructs, apart from knowledge. Conclusion The process evaluation suggests that one important reason for this failure is that the intervention did not operate sufficiently at a structural level, particularly in regard to culture. Recently most structural interventions have focused on gender or/and economics. Complementing these with a cultural approach could address the belief systems that justify and perpetuate gender and economic inequalities, as well as other barriers to behaviour change. PMID:22978613

  3. Pre- and post-intervention perceptions and water contact behaviour related to schistosomiasis in north-western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwanga, Joseph R; Lwambo, Nicholas J S

    2013-11-01

    Schistosomiasis is a widespread disease of public health importance in Tanzania requiring concerted efforts to control it. A study on schistosomiasis-related perceptions and water contact behaviour was undertaken in one community population of Hamuyebe village in Ukerewe district, north-western Tanzania, where intestinal schistosomiasis is endemic before and 2 years after implementation of a participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention. Data were obtained from baseline and post-intervention knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) questionnaire surveys conducted between 2008 and 2010 among 157 individuals aged 15 years and above. The surveys were further complemented by structured observations of human-water contact activities. We found significant increases in respondents' knowledge of the cause, transmission, symptoms and health consequences of schistosomiasis after the intervention. The reported treatment seeking and preventive practices were congruous with the actual (observed) behaviour. Frequency, duration and timing of water contacts also decreased significantly after the intervention and took into consideration the fact that those activities which need larger body surface exposure, for a long period and at an appropriate time when cercarial densities are high (i.e. around noon) are important for the transmission of schistosomiasis. We conclude that PHAST intervention has succeeded in effecting positive changes in peoples' perceptions and attitudes towards water. As a result, knowledge obtained from the said intervention was translated into actions to prevent schistosomiasis. Studies on knowledge, attitudes and practices coupled with structured observations should be part of the integrated approach for the control of schistosomiasis. PMID:23058736

  4. Mindfulness-based ‘third wave’ cognitive and behavioural therapies versus treatment as usual for depression

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Rachel; Moore, Theresa HM; Davies, Philippa; Caldwell, Deborah; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all third wave CBT approaches compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/attention placebo control conditions for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different third wave CBT approaches (ACT, compassionate mind training, functional analytic psychotherapy, meta-cognitive therapy, dialectical behaviour therapy, MBCT, extended behavioural activation and meta-cognitive therapy) compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/attention placebo control conditions for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all third wave CBT approaches compared with different types of comparator (standard care, no treatment, waiting list, attention placebo) for acute depression. PMID:25067907

  5. The Long-Term Impact of a Four-Session Work-Site Intervention on Selected Social Cognitive Theory Variables Linked to Adult Exercise Adherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Jeffrey S.; Petosa, Rick

    2004-01-01

    Many work-site physical activity interventions use theoretical variables in the design of their programs. Yet, these interventions do not document the degree of change in theoretical variables produced by the intervention. This study examined the construct validity of an intervention designed to affect social cognitive theory variables linked to…

  6. Three to four years after diagnosis: cognition and behaviour in children with 'epilepsy only'. A prospective, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Oostrom, K J; van Teeseling, H; Smeets-Schouten, A; Peters, A C B; Jennekens-Schinkel, A

    2005-07-01

    A 3.5-year follow-up study of cognition and behaviour in 42 children with newly diagnosed idiopathic or cryptogenic epilepsy ('epilepsy only') attending mainstream education and 30 healthy gender-matched classmate controls was carried out to identify differences between groups, to detect factors that contribute to the difference and its change over time, and to establish the proportion of poorly performing children. The neuropsychological battery covered the major domains of cognition, mental and motor speed and academic language skills. Children were tested at the time of diagnosis (before any anti-epileptic drug treatment started) and 3, 12 and approximately 42 months later. Parents and teachers completed behaviour checklists, for which the scoring was adapted to prevent any influence of epilepsy-related ambiguity. Based on parental interviews at the time of diagnosis, children with epilepsy were categorized as having longstanding behavioural and/or learning problems, as belonging to a troubled family, as being exposed to 'off-balance' parenting starting at the time of epilepsy onset and/or as reacting maladaptively to the changes in relation to the onset of epilepsy. Throughout follow-up, the group of children with epilepsy only performed less well than healthy classmates on measures of learning, memory span for words, attention and behaviour. After controlling for school delay, proactive interference (number of responses to the same images as in the learning trials, but now presented in reordered locations) was the only remaining variable that distinguished the group of children with epilepsy only. Group-wise, no changes in cognitive and behavioural differences over time were found, but instability in individual performances appeared to characterize children with epilepsy only. Rather than intrinsically epilepsy-related variables, such as idiopathic versus cryptogenic aetiology, seizure control or anti-epileptic drug treatment, the child's prediagnostic

  7. Program of arithmetic improvement by means of cognitive enhancement: an intervention in children with special educational needs.

    PubMed

    Deaño, Manuel Deaño; Alfonso, Sonia; Das, Jagannath Prasad

    2015-03-01

    This study reports the cognitive and arithmetic improvement of a mathematical model based on the program PASS Remedial Program (PREP), which aims to improve specific cognitive processes underlying academic skills such as arithmetic. For this purpose, a group of 20 students from the last four grades of Primary Education was divided into two groups. One group (n=10) received training in the program and the other served as control. Students were assessed at pre and post intervention in the PASS cognitive processes (planning, attention, simultaneous and successive processing), general level of intelligence, and arithmetic performance in calculus and solving problems. Performance of children from the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group in cognitive process and arithmetic. This joint enhancement of cognitive and arithmetic processes was a result of the operationalization of training that promotes the encoding task, attention and planning, and learning by induction, mediation and verbalization. The implications of this are discussed. PMID:25594486

  8. The Single-Case Reporting Guideline In BEhavioural Interventions (SCRIBE) 2016 Statement

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Robyn L.; Perdices, Michael; Rosenkoetter, Ulrike; Shadish, William; Vohra, Sunita; Barlow, David H.; Horner, Robert; Kazdin, Alan; Kratochwill, Thomas; McDonald, Skye; Sampson, Margaret; Shamseer, Larissa; Togher, Leanne; Albin, Richard; Backman, Catherine; Douglas, Jacinta; Evans, Jonathan J.; Gast, David; Manolov, Rumen; Mitchell, Geoffrey; Nickels, Lyndsey; Nikles, Jane; Ownsworth, Tamara; Rose, Miranda; Schmid, Christopher H.; Wilson, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    We developed a reporting guideline to provide authors with guidance about what should be reported when writing a paper for publication in a scientific journal using a particular type of research design: the single-case experimental design. This report describes the methods used to develop the Single-Case Reporting guideline In BEhavioural interventions (SCRIBE) 2016. As a result of 2 online surveys and a 2-day meeting of experts, the SCRIBE 2016 checklist was developed, which is a set of 26 items that authors need to address when writing about single-case research. This article complements the more detailed SCRIBE 2016 Explanation and Elaboration article (Tate et al., 2016) that provides a rationale for each of the items and examples of adequate reporting from the literature. Both these resources will assist authors to prepare reports of single-case research with clarity, completeness, accuracy, and transparency. They will also provide journal reviewers and editors with a practical checklist against which such reports may be critically evaluated. We recommend that the SCRIBE 2016 is used by authors preparing manuscripts describing single-case research for publication, as well as journal reviewers and editors who are evaluating such manuscripts. PMID:27279674

  9. Effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral intervention in patients with medically unexplained symptoms: cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Medically unexplained symptoms are an important mental health problem in primary care and generate a high cost in health services. Cognitive behavioral therapy and psychodynamic therapy have proven effective in these patients. However, there are few studies on the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions by primary health care. The project aims to determine whether a cognitive-behavioral group intervention in patients with medically unexplained symptoms, is more effective than routine clinical practice to improve the quality of life measured by the SF-12 questionary at 12 month. Methods/design This study involves a community based cluster randomized trial in primary healthcare centres in Madrid (Spain). The number of patients required is 242 (121 in each arm), all between 18 and 65 of age with medically unexplained symptoms that had seeked medical attention in primary care at least 10 times during the previous year. The main outcome variable is the quality of life measured by the SF-12 questionnaire on Mental Healthcare. Secondary outcome variables include number of consultations, number of drug (prescriptions) and number of days of sick leave together with other prognosis and descriptive variables. Main effectiveness will be analyzed by comparing the percentage of patients that improve at least 4 points on the SF-12 questionnaire between intervention and control groups at 12 months. All statistical tests will be performed with intention to treat. Logistic regression with random effects will be used to adjust for prognostic factors. Confounding factors or factors that might alter the effect recorded will be taken into account in this analysis. Discussion This study aims to provide more insight to address medically unexplained symptoms, highly prevalent in primary care, from a quantitative methodology. It involves intervention group conducted by previously trained nursing staff to diminish the progression to the chronicity of the symptoms, improve

  10. Impact of a brief intervention on physical activity and social cognitive determinants among working mothers: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Mailey, Emily L; McAuley, Edward

    2014-04-01

    Working mothers exhibit high levels of inactivity, and theory-based interventions to bolster physical activity within this population are needed. This study examined the effectiveness of a brief social cognitive theory-based intervention designed to increase physical activity among working mothers. Participants (N = 141) were randomly assigned to an intervention only, intervention plus follow-up support, or waitlist control condition. The intervention consisted of two group-based workshop sessions designed to teach behavior modification strategies using social cognitive theory. Data were collected at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up. Results showed intervention participants exhibited short-term increases in physical activity, which were partially maintained 6 months later. Improvements in physical activity were mediated by increases in self-regulation and self-efficacy. This study provides some support for the effectiveness of a brief intervention to increase physical activity among working mothers. Future programs should explore alternative support mechanisms which may lead to more effective maintenance of initial behavior changes. PMID:23338616

  11. Maternal Depression and Treatment Gains Following a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Posttraumatic Stress in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Weems, Carl F.; Scheeringa, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The evidence base for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to treat child emotional and behavioral symptoms following exposure to trauma in youth is compelling, but relatively few studies are available on preschool children and on moderators of treatment outcomes. This paper examines maternal and child characteristics as moderators of posttraumatic stress (PTS) treatment outcomes in preschool children. Outcome data from a previously published randomized trial in three to six year old preschool children with diagnostic interview data from participating mothers were used. Hypotheses were tested via hierarchical linear modeling. Maternal depression was associated with higher initial child posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and was associated with increasing PTSD symptom trends at follow up suggesting potential child PTSD symptom relapse. Maternal PTSD symptoms similarly predicted differential child separation anxiety symptom change but not child PTSD symptom change. Targeting dyads with child PTSD symptoms and maternal depression or PTSD symptoms with enhanced interventions may be a useful strategy to improve treatment maintenance. PMID:23376601

  12. A Systematic Review Exploring the Social Cognitive Theory of Self-Regulation as a Framework for Chronic Health Condition Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Tougas, Michelle E.; Hayden, Jill A.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Huguet, Anna; Rozario, Sharlene

    2015-01-01

    Background Theory is often recommended as a framework for guiding hypothesized mechanisms of treatment effect. However, there is limited guidance about how to use theory in intervention development. Methods We conducted a systematic review to provide an exemplar review evaluating the extent to which use of theory is identified and incorporated within existing interventions. We searched electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, and EMBASE from inception to May 2014. We searched clinicaltrials.gov for registered protocols, reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and included studies, and conducted a citation search in Web of Science. We included peer-reviewed publications of interventions that referenced the social cognitive theory of self-regulation as a framework for interventions to manage chronic health conditions. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for eligibility. We contacted all authors of included studies for information detailing intervention content. We describe how often theory mechanisms were addressed by interventions, and report intervention characteristics used to address theory. Results Of 202 articles that reported using the social cognitive theory of self-regulation, 52% failed to incorporate self-monitoring, a main theory component, and were therefore excluded. We included 35 interventions that adequately used the theory framework. Intervention characteristics were often poorly reported in peer-reviewed publications, 21 of 35 interventions incorporated characteristics that addressed each of the main theory components. Each intervention addressed, on average, six of eight self-monitoring mechanisms, two of five self-judgement mechanisms, and one of three self-evaluation mechanisms. The self-monitoring mechanisms ‘Feedback’ and ‘Consistency’ were addressed by all interventions, whereas the self-evaluation mechanisms ‘Self-incentives’ and ‘External rewards’ were addressed by six and four interventions

  13. Homocysteine and Mild Cognitive Impairment: Are These the Tools for Early Intervention in the Dementia Spectrum?

    PubMed

    Ansari, Z

    2016-02-01

    Dementia, being a neurodegenerative disease, has devastating consequences not just for the ailing but also for the carers as it has a tremendous negative impact on the quality of life. The pathophysiology of dementia commences far earlier than its diagnosis. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a stage prior to definite dementia. The progression from MCI to dementia is insidious with no definite demarcation, thus making diagnosis clinically difficult at an early stage. This paper attempts to throw light on the epidemiology, risk factors and the aetiopathogenesis of MCI. It further attempts to elaborate on the rate of conversion of MCI to definite dementia and the factors influencing the same. Many established as well as probable, modifiable as well as non-modifiable risk factors influence the progress of MCI to definite dementia. Homocysteine, a sulphur containing amino-acid has been identified as a probable risk factor for the dementia spectrum. Various existing clinical evidences and biological plausibility towards probable link between homocysteine and dementia are discussed in this paper. B vitamin mediated homocysteine reduction and cognitive outcomes demonstrate mixed results. This review attempts to evaluate hyperhomocysteinaemia and MCI as a brain risk marker and assess their potential for future research with a view to attempt early intervention. PMID:26812511

  14. Meditation as an intervention for cognitive disturbances following total sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Abhirup; Ray, Koushik; Panjwani, Usha; Thakur, Lalan; Anand, Jag Parvesh

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Decline in cognitive functions is a major challenge for professionals during sustained wakefulness. We used middle latency response (MLR), event related potentials P300-ERP and contingent negative variation (CNV) and Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) - a standard neuropsychological test were used to evaluate cognitive impairment after total sleep deprivation (SD); and to study the impact of meditation as an intervention for this impairment. Methods: Healthy male volunteers (n=10) drawn randomly from the Indian Army participated in a 6-night study design executed before and after two months of meditation practice: night 1–adaptation, night 2–baseline, night 3–24 h SD, night 4-recovery sleep, night 5–24 h SD after 60 days meditation, night 6-recovery sleep after SD. A 36 h SD was obtained by keeping the subject awake for 12 h after 24 h SD. Results: The latency and amplitude of P300 increased after 36 h SD. Amplitudes and latencies of both early and late CNV increased after 24 and 36 h SD, indicating deficient orientation and impairment of attention and perception. Prolonged CNV reaction time after 36 h SD manifested deficient motor response following second (imperative) stimulus. Latency of MLR Na registered significant change following 36 h SD compared to baseline (P<0.01) and recovery (P<0.05). RAPM score showed significant decrease after 36 h of wakefulness indicating impaired analytical ability and difficulty in problem solving. None of these parameters showed any significant alteration after SD, following meditation practice. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results showed that SD impaired cognitive performance to graded extents significantly, but this deterioration could be improved to a significant extent using meditation. PMID:23391801

  15. The Impact of a Student-Led Pedometer Intervention Incorporating Cognitive-Behavioral Strategies on Step Count and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raedeke, Thomas D.; Focht, Brian C.; King, Jenna S.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a student-led physical activity intervention that incorporated pedometers and cognitive-behavioral strategies. Undergraduate students (N = 117) enrolled in upper division exercise and sport science courses recruited participants. Participants in the cognitive-behavioral intervention condition received…

  16. Relationship between social cognitive theory constructs and self-reported condom use: assessment of behaviour in a subgroup of the Safe in the City trial

    PubMed Central

    Snead, Margaret C; O'Leary, Ann M; Mandel, Michele G; Kourtis, Athena P; Wiener, Jeffrey; Jamieson, Denise J; Warner, Lee; Malotte, C Kevin; Klausner, Jeffrey D; O'Donnell, Lydia; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A; Margolis, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies have found social cognitive theory (SCT)-framed interventions are successful for improving condom use and reducing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a secondary analysis of behavioural data from the Safe in the City intervention trial (2003–2005) to investigate the influence of SCT constructs on study participants’ self-reported use of condoms at last intercourse. Methods The main trial was conducted from 2003 to 2005 at three public US STI clinics. Patients (n=38 635) were either shown a ‘safer sex’ video in the waiting room, or received the standard waiting room experience, based on their visit date. A nested behavioural assessment was administered to a subsample of study participants following their index clinic visit and again at 3 months follow-up. We used multivariable modified Poisson regression models to examine the relationships among SCT constructs (sexual self-efficacy, self-control self-efficacy, self-efficacy with most recent partner, hedonistic outcome expectancies and partner expected outcomes) and self-reported condom use at last sex act at the 3-month follow-up study visit. Results Of 1252 participants included in analysis, 39% reported using a condom at last sex act. Male gender, homosexual orientation and single status were significant correlates of condom use. Both unadjusted and adjusted models indicate that sexual self-efficacy (adjusted relative risk (RRa)=1.50, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.84), self-control self-efficacy (RRa=1.67, 95% CI 1.37 to 2.04), self-efficacy with most recent partner (RRa=2.56, 95% CI 2.01 to 3.27), more favourable hedonistic outcome expectancies (RRa=1.83, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.17) and more favourable partner expected outcomes (RRa=9.74, 95% CI 3.21 to 29.57) were significantly associated with condom use at last sex act. Conclusions Social cognitive skills, such as self-efficacy and partner expected outcomes, are an important aspect of condom use behaviour. Trial

  17. A randomised controlled trial of a theory-based intervention to improve sun protective behaviour in adolescents ('you can still be HOT in the shade'): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most skin cancers are preventable by encouraging consistent use of sun protective behaviour. In Australia, adolescents have high levels of knowledge and awareness of the risks of skin cancer but exhibit significantly lower sun protection behaviours than adults. There is limited research aimed at understanding why people do or do not engage in sun protective behaviour, and an associated absence of theory-based interventions to improve sun safe behaviour. This paper presents the study protocol for a school-based intervention which aims to improve the sun safe behaviour of adolescents. Methods/design Approximately 400 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) will be recruited through Queensland, Australia public and private schools and randomized to the intervention (n = 200) or 'wait-list' control group (n = 200). The intervention focuses on encouraging supportive sun protective attitudes and beliefs, fostering perceptions of normative support for sun protection behaviour, and increasing perceptions of control/self-efficacy over using sun protection. It will be delivered during three × one hour sessions over a three week period from a trained facilitator during class time. Data will be collected one week pre-intervention (Time 1), and at one week (Time 2) and four weeks (Time 3) post-intervention. Primary outcomes are intentions to sun protect and sun protection behaviour. Secondary outcomes include attitudes toward performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., attitudes), perceptions of normative support to sun protect (i.e., subjective norms, group norms, and image norms), and perceived control over performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., perceived behavioural control). Discussion The study will provide valuable information about the effectiveness of the intervention in improving the sun protective behaviour of adolescents. PMID:22212211

  18. Computerised cognitive behaviour therapy for depression in adolescents: study protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Barry; Tindall, Lucy; Littlewood, Elizabeth; Adamson, Joy; Allgar, Victoria; Bennett, Sophie; Gilbody, Simon; Verduyn, Chrissie; Alderson-Day, Ben; Dyson, Lisa; Trépel, Dominic; Ali, Shehzad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The 1 year prevalence of depression in adolescents is about 2%. Treatment with antidepressant medication is not recommended for initial treatment in young people due to concerns over high side effects, poor efficacy and addictive potential. Evidence suggests that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for depression and is currently one of the main treatment options recommended in adolescents. Given the affinity young people have with information technology they may be treated effectively, more widely and earlier in their illness evolution using computer-administered CBT (CCBT). Currently little is known about the clinical and resource implications of implementing CCBT within the National Health Service for adolescents with low mood/depression. We aim to establish the feasibility of running a fully powered randomised controlled trial (RCT). Methods and analysis Adolescents aged 12–18 with low mood/depression, (scoring ≥20 on the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ)), will be approached to participate. Consenting participants will be randomised to either a CCBT programme (Stressbusters) or accessing selected websites providing information about low mood/depression. The primary outcome measure will be the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Participants will also complete generic health measures (EQ5D-Y, HUI2) and resource use questionnaires to examine the feasibility of cost-effectiveness analysis. Questionnaires will be completed at baseline, 4 and 12-month follow-ups. Progress and risk will be monitored via the MFQ administered at each treatment session. The acceptability of a CCBT programme to adolescents; and the willingness of clinicians to recruit participants and of participants to be randomised, recruitment rates, attrition rates and questionnaire completion rates will be collected for feasibility analysis. We will estimate ‘numbers needed’ to plan a fully powered RCT of clinical and cost-effectiveness. Ethics and

  19. Auricular Acupuncture and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia: A Randomised Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Bergdahl, L.; Broman, J.-E.; Berman, A. H.; Haglund, K.; von Knorring, L.; Markström, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The most effective nonpharmacological treatment for insomnia disorder is cognitive behavioural therapy-insomnia (CBT-i). However CBT-i may not suit everyone. Auricular acupuncture (AA) is a complementary treatment. Studies show that it may alleviate insomnia symptoms. The aim of this randomised controlled study was to compare treatment effects of AA with CBT-i and evaluate symptoms of insomnia severity, anxiety, and depression. Method. Fifty-nine participants, mean age 60.5 years (SD 9.4), with insomnia disorder were randomised to group treatment with AA or CBT-i. Self-report questionnaires, the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale (DBAS-16), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD), were collected at baseline, after treatment, and at 6-month follow-up. A series of linear mixed models were performed to examine treatment effect over time between and within the groups. Results. Significant between-group improvements were seen in favour of CBT-i in ISI after treatment and at the 6-month follow-up and in DBAS-16 after treatment. Both groups showed significant within-group postintervention improvements in ISI, and these changes were maintained six months later. The CBT-i group also showed a significant reduction in DBAS-16 after treatment and six months later. Conclusions. Compared to CBT-i, AA, as offered in this study, cannot be considered an effective stand-alone treatment for insomnia disorder. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01765959. PMID:27242930

  20. Auricular Acupuncture and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia: A Randomised Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Bergdahl, L; Broman, J-E; Berman, A H; Haglund, K; von Knorring, L; Markström, A

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The most effective nonpharmacological treatment for insomnia disorder is cognitive behavioural therapy-insomnia (CBT-i). However CBT-i may not suit everyone. Auricular acupuncture (AA) is a complementary treatment. Studies show that it may alleviate insomnia symptoms. The aim of this randomised controlled study was to compare treatment effects of AA with CBT-i and evaluate symptoms of insomnia severity, anxiety, and depression. Method. Fifty-nine participants, mean age 60.5 years (SD 9.4), with insomnia disorder were randomised to group treatment with AA or CBT-i. Self-report questionnaires, the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale (DBAS-16), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD), were collected at baseline, after treatment, and at 6-month follow-up. A series of linear mixed models were performed to examine treatment effect over time between and within the groups. Results. Significant between-group improvements were seen in favour of CBT-i in ISI after treatment and at the 6-month follow-up and in DBAS-16 after treatment. Both groups showed significant within-group postintervention improvements in ISI, and these changes were maintained six months later. The CBT-i group also showed a significant reduction in DBAS-16 after treatment and six months later. Conclusions. Compared to CBT-i, AA, as offered in this study, cannot be considered an effective stand-alone treatment for insomnia disorder. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01765959. PMID:27242930