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1

A Cognitive Reading Guide: Equalizing Instruction for "Where the Red Fern Grows."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a cognitive reading guide for the first four chapters of the novel, "Where the Red Fern Grows" (Rawls, 1961), that incorporates teacher-directed whole-class instruction with a student reading guide to equalize instruction for various levels of learners. Ideas for whole-class instruction are contained within the lesson plans. (CR)

Giannuzzi, Michelle L.; Hudson, Floyd

1998-01-01

2

Cognitive task analysis for instruction in single-injection ultrasound guided-regional anesthesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cognitive task analysis (CTA) is methodology for eliciting knowledge from subject matter experts. CTA has been used to capture the cognitive processes, decision-making, and judgments that underlie expert behaviors. A review of the literature revealed that CTA has not yet been used to capture the knowledge required to perform ultrasound guided regional anesthesia (UGRA). The purpose of this study was to utilize CTA to extract knowledge from UGRA experts and to determine whether instruction based on CTA of UGRA will produce results superior to the results of traditional training. This study adds to the knowledge base of CTA in being the first one to effectively capture the expert knowledge of UGRA. The derived protocol was used in a randomized, double blinded experiment involving UGRA instruction to 39 novice learners. The results of this study strongly support the hypothesis that CTA-based instruction in UGRA is more effective than conventional clinical instruction, as measured by conceptual pre- and post-tests, performance of a simulated UGRA procedure, and time necessary for the task performance. This study adds to the number of studies that have proven the superiority of CTA-informed instruction. Finally, it produced several validated instruments that can be used in instructing and evaluating UGRA.

Gucev, Gligor V.

3

Cognitive Task Analysis for Instruction in Single-Injection Ultrasound Guided-Regional Anesthesia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive task analysis (CTA) is methodology for eliciting knowledge from subject matter experts. CTA has been used to capture the cognitive processes, decision-making, and judgments that underlie expert behaviors. A review of the literature revealed that CTA has not yet been used to capture the knowledge required to perform ultrasound guided

Gucev, Gligor V.

2012-01-01

4

Apparel. Teacher's Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional guide for a one-half credit technological laboratory course for grades 10-12 focuses on apparel from the perspectives of personal decision making related to apparel, the apparel industry, and career preparation. Introductory materials are a course description; overview of course design; facilities, equipment, and resources; and…

Rambo, Patti

5

Cognitive Approaches to Automated Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains a snapshot of state-of-the-art research on the design of automated instructional systems. Selected cognitive psychologists were asked to describe their approach to instruction and cognitive diagnosis, the theoretical basis of the approach, its utility and applicability, and the knowledge engineering or task analysis methods…

Regian, J. Wesley, Ed.; Shute, Valerie J., Ed.

6

Professional Development Programs: Cognitively Guided Instruction (CGI) and Math as Text (MAT)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people feel mathematics education in the U.S. is in need of improvement. Fennema and Franke (1992) note that teachers' knowledge (or lack thereof) is often associated with poor instruction and thus, low student achievement on instruments which measure mathematical aptitude. For this reason, universities across the country have become…

Andrew, Lane

2006-01-01

7

Supervision: A Guide to Instructional Leadership-2nd Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first edition of this book, titled "A Design for Instructional Supervision", provided a structural framework for an effective program of instructional supervision. The basic cognitive thrust of this second edition, "Supervision: A Guide to Instructional Leadership", remains the same as the first. What has changed is the attention to the…

Burke, Peter J.; Krey, Robert D.

2005-01-01

8

Instructional Guide for Autobody Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum guide was developed to serve as a statewide model for Virginia auto body repair programs. The guide is designed to 1,080 hours of instruction in eleven blocks: orientation, introduction, welding and cutting, techniques of shaping metal, body filler and fiberglass repairs, body and frame, removing and replacing damaged parts, basic…

Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.

9

Career Education Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide is designed primarily for industrial arts teachers at the middle school level who wish to integrate career education into their curricula. The lessons and activities attempt to establish a balance among career information, technical information, and hands-on experience. The guide contains six lesson plans which cover the topics: the…

State Univ. of New York, Oswego. Coll. at Oswego. Dept. of Industrial Arts and Technology.

10

Linking cognitive learning theory to instructional prescriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an initial model of instructional design which directly links cognitive learning theory and instructional prescriptions. The major constructs of the model include components of the memory system, allocation of learning times by objectives and specific instructional methods. The model proposes that instructional time be divided so as to reach the educational goals of improvements in higher-order learning

Robert D. Tennyson; Mariana Rasch

1988-01-01

11

Interior Design: Teacher's Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year interior design programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductory…

Hays, Tricia

12

Child Development. Teacher's Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year child development programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductory…

Cheatham, Joyce

13

How cognitive theory guides neuroscience.  

PubMed

The field of cognitive science studies latent, unobservable cognitive processes that generate observable behaviors. Similarly, cognitive neuroscience attempts to link latent cognitive processes with the neural mechanisms that generate them. Although neural processes are partially observable (with imaging and electrophysiology), it would be a mistake to 'skip' the cognitive level and pursue a purely neuroscientific enterprise to studying behavior. In fact, virtually all of the major advances in understanding the neural basis of behavior over the last century have relied fundamentally on principles of cognition for guiding the appropriate measurements, manipulations, tasks, and interpretations. We provide several examples from the domains of episodic memory, working memory and cognitive control, and decision making in which cognitive theorizing and prior experimentation has been essential in guiding neuroscientific investigations and discoveries. PMID:25496988

Frank, Michael J; Badre, David

2015-02-01

14

Family and Career Management. Teacher's Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional guide for a one-half credit course for grades 11-12 emphasizes preparation for family and career roles, effective management, and personal and career effectiveness. Introductory materials are a course description; overview of course design; facilities, equipment, and resources; and how to use the instructional guide. Texas…

Mathieson, Mary

15

Adult Basic Education Instructional Materials Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Adult Basic Education (ABE) instructional materials guide was prepared by faculty members of Des Moines Area Community College to provide information about instructional materials in reading, language, and mathematics to teachers in ABE, General Educational Development, and English as a Second Language (ESL) programs. Each entry in the guide

Johnson, Bill, Ed.

16

Optimizing Cognitive Rehabilitation: Effective Instructional Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rehabilitation professionals face a key challenge when working with clients with acquired cognitive impairments: how to teach new skills to individuals who have difficulty learning. Unique in its focus, this book presents evidence-based instructional methods specifically designed to help this population learn more efficiently. The expert authors…

Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Turkstra, Lyn S.

2011-01-01

17

Instructional Guide for Vocational Welding. V & TECC Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This trade and industrial curriculum guide for welding is designed for vocational welding programs that provide 960 hours of instruction. The introductory section provides a statement of welding philosophy, objectives, block time schedule, and recommended facilities and equipment. Following the introductory section, ten blocks of instruction are…

Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Div. of Vocational-Technical Education.

18

Instructional Guide for Vocational Power Mechanics. V & TECC Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This trade and industrial curriculum guide for power mechanics is designed for vocational power mechanics programs that provide 960 hours of instruction. The introductory section provides a statement of philosophy, block time schedule, and the objectives for power mechanics. Following the introductory section, fourteen blocks of instruction are…

Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Div. of Vocational-Technical Education.

19

Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive load theory has been designed to provide guidelines intended to assist in the presentation of information in a manner that encourages learner activities that optimize intellectual performance. The theory assumes a limited capacity working memory that includes partially independent subcomponents to deal with auditory\\/verbal material and visual\\/2- or 3-dimensional information as well as an effectively unlimited long-term memory, holding

John Sweller; Merrienboer van Jeroen J. G; Fred G. W. C. Paas

1998-01-01

20

Some implications of cognitive theory for instructional design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines some of the implications of recent developments in cognitive theory for instructional design. It is argued that behavioral theory is inadequate to prescribe instructional strategies that teach for understanding. Examples of how instructional designers have adopted relevant aspects of cognitive theory are described. However, it is argued that such adoption is only a first step. The growing

William Winn

1990-01-01

21

Programmed Instruction Guide. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to programed learning materials provides teachers and industrial training personnel with information capable of immediate update by means of electronic data processing. Published twice each year, the Guide consists of four parts: appendices (methods of reporting the effectiveness of programed materials, bibliographies, periodicals,…

Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA. Instructional Technology Information Center.

22

Health Concepts, Guides for Health Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concepts and supporting data pertaining to major health problems facing youth today as well as those anticipated in the next decade are enumerated in this resource. The material is designed as a reference for curriculum planners and classroom teachers in developing curriculum and teaching guides, units and instruction, and other curriculum…

American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

23

Personal and Family Development. Teacher's Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional guide for a one-credit comprehensive laboratory course for grades 9-12 provides a broad range of knowledge and skills related to personal development and management, promotion of strong families, and preparation for adult roles. Introductory materials consist of a course description; overview of course design; facilities,…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

24

Individual and Family Life. Teacher's Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional guide for a one-half-credit technical course for grades 10-12 focuses on personal development, interpersonal relationships, effective individual and family functioning, and career preparation. Introductory materials consist of a course description; overview of course design; facilities, equipment, and resources; and a section on…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

25

Preparation for Parenting. Teacher's Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional guide for a one-half-credit technical laboratory course for grades 10-12 teaches parental responsibilities; child guidance techniques; positive role modeling and parenting practices that promote child development, health, safety, and well-being. Introductory materials consist of a course description; overview of course design;…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

26

Consumer and Family Economics: Teacher's Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year consumer and family economics programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1)…

Dennis, Bobbye

27

Cognitive Principles of Problem Solving and Instruction. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in this project studied cognitive processes involved in understanding and solving problems used in instruction in the domain of mathematics, and explored implications of these cognitive analyses for the design of instruction. Three general issues were addressed: knowledge required for understanding problems, knowledge of the conditions…

Greeno, James G.; And Others

28

Cognitive/Information Processing Psychology and Instruction: Reviewing Recent Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses recent developments in instructional psychology relative to cognitive task analysis, individual difference variables, and cognitive models of interactive instructional decision making, which use constructs developed within the field of cognitive/information processing psychology. (Author/WBC)

Gallagher, John P.

1979-01-01

29

Web-Based Instruction: A Guide for Libraries, Third Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expanding on the popular, practical how-to guide for public, academic, school, and special libraries, technology expert Susan Sharpless Smith offers library instructors the confidence to take Web-based instruction into their own hands. Smith has thoroughly updated "Web-Based Instruction: A Guide for Libraries" to include new tools and trends,…

Smith, Susan Sharpless

2010-01-01

30

Fundamentals of Art, Grades 9-12. Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional guide is written for junior/senior high school art teachers as an aid to teaching an elective visual arts course. The guide consists of 10 units, each with instructional objectives further defined through suggested performance objectives. Some performance objectives provide specific student activities to assist teacher planning.…

Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

31

Cognitive Strategy Instruction that Really Improves Children's Academic Performance. Cognitive Strategy Training Series. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is the flagship volume in a series on cognitive strategy instruction. While strategies instruction is particularly appropriate for the learning disabled, it is also very useful for normal learners, especially inner city and minority children. The series focuses on conveying strategies instruction methods for use with these children.…

Pressley, Michael, Ed.; Woloshyn, Vera, Ed.

32

Narrative Structure, Myth, and Cognition for Instructional Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the use of narrative and myth to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of instructional design. The central aim is to better connect instructional experiences with cognition. Explicitly stated, this writing proposes a structure for the interaction between the new technologies of contemporary education and the culturally…

Hokanson, Brad; Fraher, Robert

2008-01-01

33

Visualization in Learning and Instruction: A Cognitive Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines visual cognitive processes having to do with perception, the assimilation of new information, and learning by analogy, and identifies instructional strategies to control each process. Discussion of relationships between visual learning and instruction includes implications for research and design. An extensive bibliography is provided.…

Winn, William

1982-01-01

34

Using "Instructional Routines" to Differentiate Instruction: A Guide for Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differentiated instruction means matching instruction to meet the different needs of learners. To deliver the wide range of instruction required to accommodate differing levels of learners in a classroom, teachers must use data-informed, small group instruction designed specifically to meet students' needs (Kosanovich, Ladinsky, Nelson, Torgesen,…

Kosanovich, Marcia

2012-01-01

35

Cataloging Guide for Instructional Materials Used in Livonia Public Schools Instructional Materials Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This working guide for Livonia's Public Schools provides detailed instructions in preparing and handling catalog cards, a supplemental cataloging and classification guide, and typing rules for technical processing. Standard abbreviations are given for making classification entries, and separate cataloging instructions are given for charts,…

Livonia Public Schools, MI.

36

Preventing information overload: cognitive load theory as an instructional framework for teaching pharmacology.  

PubMed

Nursing students are challenged by content-laden curricula and learning environments that emphasize testing outcomes. Likewise, educators are challenged to support student-centered learning in a manner that encourages students to connect and act upon their personal motivations. This article describes the use of cognitive load theory (CLT) as an instructional design framework for an undergraduate pharmacology for nursing course. Guided by the principles of CLT, four instructional strategies were used in this course: (a) opening review activities, (b) providing students with lecture notes, (c) a "Top Five" prototype approach, and (d) deciphering "Need to Knows" from "Nice to Knows." Instructional style and strategies received positive student feedback and were found to promote a student-centered environment and active learning. On the basis of this feedback, cognitive load theory may be a successful and effective framework for undergraduate pharmacology and other nursing courses, thus assisting students and educators alike in overcoming obstacles imposed on learning environments. PMID:24444008

Kaylor, Sara K

2014-02-01

37

Detailing Reflection Instruction: The Efficacy of a Guided Instructional Procedure on Prospective Teachers' Pedagogical Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to investigate instructional conditions aimed at improving future teachers' reflective thinking, to systematically trace how features of a guided instructional procedure influenced these teachers' pedagogical reasoning. The reflective thinking protocol that formed the basis of the instructional approach was built…

Risko, Victoria J.; Vukelich, Carol; Roskos, Kathleen

2009-01-01

38

Seafood Products: An Instructional Guide for Home Economics Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The instructional materials contained in this guide are designed for consumer and nutrition education and have been structured in accordance with federal regulations for vocational consumer and homemaking educational programs. Instructional objectives and activities are divided into three levels: level 1 for youth in exploratory/beginning…

Webb, Anita H.; And Others

39

Multimedia Instructional Design Corresponded to Cognitive Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimedia extends the amount and type of information available to learners, but multimedia itself doesn’t mean effective\\u000a learning outcomes. A successful instruction needs to be designed with a great deal of consideration. And it is assumed that\\u000a multimedia instruction messages that are designed in light of how the human mind works are more likely to lead to meaningful\\u000a learning than

Hongjuan Zhang; Yunxia Wang; Baohua Zhao; Guijie Li; Yongjian Lou

2008-01-01

40

From behaviourism to cognitive behaviourism to cognitive development: Steps in the evolution of instructional design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent history of instructional technology is traced, starting with the work of Skinner, moving on to the task analytic approach of Gagné, and following through to contemporary efforts associated with the “cognitive revolution.” It is suggested that an understanding of the process of cognitive development may enable us to build on and improve earlier approaches, by adapting them more

Robbie Case; Carl Bereiter

1984-01-01

41

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE FOR ELECTRICITY, JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL INDUSTRIAL ARTS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS GUIDE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A PRACTICAL REFERENCE FOR TEACHERS PLANNING INSTRUCTION CONCERNING ELECTRICITY IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL INDUSTRIAL ARTS CLASSES. THE GUIDE IS FOR A 10-WEEK COURSE DESIGNED TO PROVIDE THE STUDENT WITH EXPLORATORY EXPERIENCES INVOLVING THE BASIC PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS OF ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRONICS. THE PROPER USE…

GOLDSMITH, J. LYMAN

42

Instruction, Cognitive Scaffolding, and Motivational Scaffolding in Writing Center Tutoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we quantitatively analyze the discourse of experienced writing center tutors in 10 highly satisfactory conferences. Specifically, we analyze tutors' instruction, cognitive scaffolding, and motivational scaffolding, all tutoring strategies identified in prior research from other disciplines as educationally effective. We find…

Mackiewicz, Jo; Thompson, Isabelle

2014-01-01

43

Rethinking Online Instruction: From Content Transmission to Cognitive Immersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

As faculty make greater use of Web-based instruction, pedagogical strategy sometimes evolves from the transmission of content to the creation of interactive courses that immerse students in the cognitive style of the discipline. One technique associated with this is the \\

Betty Ladner; Donald Beagle; James R. Steele; Linda Steele

2004-01-01

44

Composition Instruction and Cognitive Performance: Results of a Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a composition program, Composers in Public Schools (CiPS), on cognitive skills essential for academic success. The underlying hypothesis is that composition instruction will promote creative expression and increase performance on music-specific skills such as music reading, as well as foster…

Bugos, Jennifer; Jacobs, Edward

2012-01-01

45

Sequencing Instruction: A Cognitive Science Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews concepts proposed by researchers in linguistics, psychology, philosophy, and artificial intelligence, who have applied their knowledge and skills to the study of human information processing--i.e., memory content, storage, encoding, and retrieval. Guidelines derived from theory for use by instructional designers and subject specialists in…

Brien, Robert

1983-01-01

46

Instructional Design and Directed Cognitive Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that the information processing model provides a promising basis on which to build a comprehensive theory of instruction. Characteristics of the major information processing constructs are outlined including attention, encoding and rehearsal, working memory, long term memory, retrieval, and metacognitive processes, and a unifying…

Bovy, Ruth Colvin

47

A Short Guide to Instructional Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide a concise description of traditional instructional techniques, as well as more recent technology-based techniques, this 11-part guidebook includes the following sections: (1) "The Value of Planning"; (2) "Aids to Effective Instruction," reviewing the reasons for employing learning objectives, Bloom's taxonomy of objectives for…

Rubadeau, Duane O.; And Others

48

Managing Cognitive Demands for Writing: Comparing the Effects of Instructional Components in Strategy Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews a specific body of writing intervention research, that of component analyses of cognitive strategy instruction. One rationale for examining the effects of individual components comes from meta-analyses, which indicate powerful intervention outcomes for complex strategies, though it is frequently unclear which component has the greatest impact on students' writing. Such information can be used to streamline interventions,

2007-01-01

49

The Instructional Effects of Diagrams and Time-Compressed Instruction on Student Achievement and Learners' Perceptions of Cognitive Load  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of visual representations and time-compressed instruction on learning and learners' perceptions of cognitive load. Time-compressed instruction refers to instruction that has been increased in speed without sacrificing quality. It was anticipated that learners would be able to gain a conceptual…

Pastore, Raymond S.

2009-01-01

50

Nutrition and Food Science. Teacher's Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching, guide for a high school nutrition and food science course, includes introductory information about the course, course design, facilities and equipment, Future Homemakers of America, and use of the guide. The course addresses nutrition and food science from the perspective of food habits and wellness; menu planning; special dietary…

Hays, Tricia

51

Reducing Resistance to Diversity through Cognitive Dissonance Instruction: Implications for Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applied the principals of cognitive dissonance theory to an instructional strategy used to reduce resistance to the idea of white privilege, comparing groups of college students in diversity education courses that did and did not receive supplemental instruction on cognitive dissonance. Incorporating cognitive dissonance theory created an…

McFalls, Elisabeth L.; Cobb-Roberts, Deirdre

2001-01-01

52

Instructional Television Facilities: A Planning Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When planning an instructional television (ITV) system, it is suggested that educational objectives should outweigh technological considerations and that expert advice be secured before the planning process is far advanced. In line with the latter suggestion, the book offers a background of technical knowledge aimed at educational administrators…

Witherspoon, John P.; Kessler, William J.

53

Elementary Art Instructional Guide, Grades K-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Created to support aesthetic education for grades K-6, this document provides a scope and sequence for instruction which art teachers can use. Areas covered include: drawing, painting, collage, printmaking, textile arts, puppetry, architecture, environmental design, film-making, and commercial art. Detailed outlines of concepts, performance…

Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

54

Instruction Guide Training and Organizational Development -Updated September 11, 2012  

E-print Network

updates once every pay period cycle. After payroll closes for a pay period, the system will apply accruals. It starts counting during the pay period that crosses the calendar year. #12;© Training and OrganizationalInstruction Guide © Training and Organizational Development - Updated September 11, 2012 Office

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

55

Instruction Guide for 15 Passenger Van Training Northwest District Extension  

E-print Network

training. The training includes an online assessment which the trainee must pass in order to be authorizedInstruction Guide for 15 Passenger Van Training Northwest District Extension Section I For UF://www.ehs.ufl.edu/programs/hazard_ergo/vanpol/ 2) Please have each employee or volunteer complete new registration form (link below) and submit

Jawitz, James W.

56

Beginning English: An Instructional Guide for ESL Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An instructional guide for English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers is presented in this volume. The 18-week program contains the following modules, each of which includes sections on civics and structure: human relations; general information; housing; consumer education (money, banking, and shopping modules); occupations; health (two modules…

Brower, Lynne

57

Instruction Guide General Information Services, Inc. (GiS)  

E-print Network

Instruction Guide General Information Services, Inc. (GiS) EQuest+ Ordering and Viewing Process with your organization. GiS will contact you directly if we are in need of a copy of the signed REPORT 1. Go to website address: https://apps.geninfo.com/Login.aspx?CompanyParm=GIS-US 2. At the EQUEST

Butler, Laurie J.

58

Masonry. Teacher's Guide. Building Maintenance Units of Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching guide on masonry building maintenance, one in a series of six publications designed for building maintenance instructors in Texas, is designed to give students an understanding of masonry construction. Introductory material provides teachers with information on use of the units of instruction and personalization and localization of…

Barnes, Bill

59

General Metal Trades. Book II. Units of Instruction. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide was developed to aid in presenting units on general metal trades to students in Texas. The units are intended to provide students with basic knowledge and skills for each area of instruction in the general metal trades, and with the basic entry-level skills they will need to have in order to enter industry as trained workers.…

Hohhertz, Durwin

60

General Metal Trades. Book III. Units of Instruction. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide was developed to aid in presenting units on general metal trades to students in Texas. The units are intended to provide students with basic knowledge and skills for each area of instruction in the general metal trades, and with the basic entry-level skills they will need in order to enter industry as trained workers. This…

Hohhertz, Durwin

61

General Metal Trades Book I. Units of Instruction. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide provides instructional materials for a 10-unit course in the General Metal Trades program. Each unit includes most or all of these basic components: performance objectives (unit and specific objectives), suggested teaching activities (a sheet outlining steps to follow to accomplish specific objectives), information sheets,…

East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

62

Industrial Ecology Instructional Guide for the Industrial Arts Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The detailed guide was prepared to help industrial arts personnel direct their students in a unit on environmental education, specifically geared for the industrial arts laboratory, which employs the Maryland Plan for implementing the unit method of instruction. Guidelines for implementing the program are based on experience with pilot projects…

State Univ. of New York, Oswego. Coll. at Oswego. Dept. of Industrial Arts and Technology.

63

Teacher's Survival Guide: Differentiating Instruction in the Elementary Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Teacher's Survival Guide: Differentiating Instruction in the Elementary Classroom" answers the most common questions about differentiation, including what it is, how teachers can set up a classroom that promotes differentiation, which topics should be differentiated, what strategies are most effective, and how teachers can assess students engaged…

Roberts, Julia L.; Inman, Tracy F.

2012-01-01

64

A GUIDE TO PREPARING INTRINSICALLY PROGRAMED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TO AID THOSE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE PREPARATION OF INTRINSICALLY PROGRAMED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS, THE PROCEDURES AND TECHNIQUES DEVELOPED BY THE EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE DIVISION OF U.S. INDUSTRIES, INC., HAVE HERE BEEN ORGANIZED INTO A PRACTICAL WORKING GUIDE. THE ORGANIZATION OF THIS REPORT CLOSELY FOLLOWS THE SEQUENCE OF STEPS REQUIRED TO PRODUCE AN…

CROWDER, N.; WALTHER, R.E.

65

Food Science and Technology. Teacher's Instructional Guide [and] Reference Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference book and teacher's instructional guide are intended for use in one- and two-year food science and technology programs for Texas high school students. The reference book provides information needed by employees in the food science and technology occupational area. Each chapter includes the following components: (1) a list of the…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences.

66

Instruction Guide Shopping With the Punch-Out Websites  

E-print Network

of the page and a search button b. Indexes or listings to help shoppers browse through organized topics cInstruction Guide Shopping With the Punch-Out Websites Updated February 13, 2014 © Office of Human-outs are UF-specific websites provided by vendors with pricing reviewed by Purchasing Services. At the Home

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

67

Problem Solving with Guided Repeated Oral Reading Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students with disabilities require specialized instructional interventions and frequent progress monitoring in reading. The guided repeated oral reading technique promotes oral reading fluency while providing a reliable data-based monitoring system. This article emphasizes the importance of problem-solving when using this reading approach.

Conderman, Greg; Strobel, Debra

2006-01-01

68

Twentieth Century Art and Architecture: Instructional Guide and Resource.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum guide is designed to help high school art teachers develop a course of instruction to enhance student understanding and knowledge of 20th century art and architecture. A major objective of the course is to develop student ability to recognize, compare, and analyze style, form, and expressive content as a means of achieving greater…

Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

69

Emergency Management Instruction. Instructor's Guide for Grades 7-9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emergency Management education seeks to give students basic information about natural and man-made disasters, preparedness procedures, and survival techniques. The intent of this guide is to aid teachers in presenting disaster survival instruction in the junior high school grades. The materials are designed to supplement existing curricula, where…

North Carolina State Div. of Emergency Management, Raleigh.

70

Health Occupations Education. Units of Instruction. Teacher's Guide. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is the second part of a two-volume teacher's guide to a series of instructional units for use in health occupations education programs in Texas. Covered in the 10 units included in this volume are the following topics: special procedures (administering oxygen to patients; using elastic bandages; assisting with postural drainage; and…

Williams, Catherine

71

Effects of Instructions, Biofeedback, and Cognitive Activities on Heart Rate Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a factorial experiment, 90 male and 90 female subjects were given (a) either instructions to increase heart rate (HR), decrease HR, or no instructions to change their HR; (b) either true biofeedback, false biofeedback, or no biofeedback; and (c) either instructions concerning cognitions to help them change HR or no instructions concerning…

White, Thomas W.; And Others

1977-01-01

72

Skills for Living. Teacher's Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching guide for the Skills for Living course, designed for 7th and 8th grade students in Texas, provides opportunities to explore family relationships and personal development, personal management, and planning for the future. Emphasis is on the importance of the family, effective communication skills, management skills, getting along with…

Albro, Amy

73

Resident Outdoor Education Program. Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An extensive list of outdoor education activities that can be integrated into the traditional curriculum is presented in this guide. Activities are arranged by grade (from kindergarten through sixth) and by subject areas taught at each grade level. Subjects covered in grades 1-6 are science, social studies, language arts, mathematics, art, music,…

Hayes, Jonathan; Deem, Robert

74

The Effects of Metaphorical Interface on Germane Cognitive Load in Web-Based Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a metaphorical interface on germane cognitive load in Web-based instruction. Based on cognitive load theory, germane cognitive load is a cognitive investment for schema construction and automation. A new instrument developed in a previous study was used to measure students' mental activities…

Cheon, Jongpil; Grant, Michael M.

2012-01-01

75

A Guide to Practical Babooning: Historical, Social, and Cognitive Contingency  

E-print Network

A Guide to Practical Babooning: Historical, Social, and Cognitive Contingency LOUISE BARRETT As ecologically adaptable animals, baboons are distributed widely across Africa, and display a variety. As long-lived, slowly reproducing animals, baboons face numerous ecological challenges to survival

Indiana University

76

The Effects of Instructional Control, Cognitive Style, and Prior Knowledge on Learning of Computer-Assisted Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study of Korean elementary school students that was conducted to investigate the effects of differing types of instructional control strategies and cognitive style on achievement in arithmetic skills using computer-assisted instruction. Hypotheses tested are discussed, time on task is investigated, and future research is suggested.…

Yoon, Gwan-Sik

1994-01-01

77

Explore Elementary Teachers' Professional Knowledge of Guiding Science Fair Product by Using Different Instruction Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is about using two different instruction models, "theory course combined with sample introduction" and "theory course combined with case method teaching", to instruct elementary teachers on how to guide the science fair product in two courses (16 and 12 teachers in each class) and observe their guiding tactics after the instructed

Lu, Chow-Chin

2013-01-01

78

A Global View of Cognitive Structure and Implications for Instruction and Assessment  

E-print Network

We assert that models of cognitive structure all have the same basic features. These basic features, independent of the model, have important implications for instruction and assessment. We describe the basic features of models of cognitive structure, giving examples from our research. We then discuss the implications for instruction and assessment.

Terrel, Andy

2007-01-01

79

Applying Cognitive Theory to Statistics Instruction Marsha C. Lovett and Joel B. Greenhouse  

E-print Network

is to proliferate new instructional techniques that will be effective in the classroom. During the same time periodApplying Cognitive Theory to Statistics Instruction Marsha C. Lovett and Joel B. Greenhouse these reforms, and a framework for generating new and effective instructional innovations. Key Words

80

The Relationships between Cognitive Style of Field Dependence and Learner Variables in E-Learning Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationships between cognitive styles of field dependent learners with their attitudes towards e-learning (distance education) and instructional behavior in e-learning instruction. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) and the attitude survey (for students' preferences) towards e-learning instruction as distance…

Sozcu, Omer Faruk

2014-01-01

81

A Home for Pearl. A Videotape Series about Wildlife Habitat for Elementary Students. Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional guide (accompanied by a video) teaches children from ages 6 to 12 about wildlife habitats. The instructional guide is divided into four parts and consists of supplementary activities to enhance the video. Each section of the guide provides an overview, objectives, story summary, key words in the video, discussion questions,…

Lambeth, Ellen; Westervelt, Miriam O.

82

Cognitive Load Theory, Educational Research, and Instructional Design: Some Food for Thought  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive load is a theoretical notion with an increasingly central role in the educational research literature. The basic idea of cognitive load theory is that cognitive capacity in working memory is limited, so that if a learning task requires too much capacity, learning will be hampered. The recommended remedy is to design instructional systems…

de Jong, Ton

2010-01-01

83

Responsive Guided Reading in Grades K-5: Simplifying Small-Group Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guided reading is a staple of elementary literacy instruction, yet planning and conducting reading groups can be time consuming and challenging. This hands-on book presents an innovative approach to guided reading that is manageable even for teachers who are new to small-group, differentiated reading instruction. Numerous classroom examples…

Berne, Jennifer; Degener, Sophie C.

2010-01-01

84

Teacher's Guide to Accompany "Artes Latinae," the Encyclopaedia Britannica Latin Instructional System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, a supplement to the "Artes Latinae Level One Teacher's Manual," prepared for use in the School District of Philadelphia, focuses primarily on how to adapt this course, intended for individualized instruction, to group instruction. Discussion of the multisensory instructional system includes remarks concerning the use of films, study…

Masciantonio, Rudolph; And Others

85

Technology Resource Guide: Reading Instructional Intervention Supplement, Grades 4-8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed as a companion document to the Reading Instructional Intervention Supplements, Grades 4-8, to provide the reading teacher options for including technology in instructional practices. Instructional intervention strategies for each grade level are listed and paired with resources such as student activities, suggested software,…

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson.

86

Mathematics Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities or Difficulty Learning Mathematics: A Guide for Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide for teachers is a companion piece to the meta-analysis from the Center on Instruction, "Mathematics Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities or Difficulty Learning Mathematics: A Synthesis of the Intervention Research". Based on the findings of this report, seven effective instructional practices were identified for teaching…

Jayanthi, Madhavi; Gersten, Russell; Baker, Scott

2008-01-01

87

Operationalizing Cognitive Constructs in the Design of Computer-Based Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of the application of cognitive style theory to the development of computer-based instruction explored two questions, i.e., whether computer-based courseware can be designed to address specific learner characteristics, and, if so, which characteristics. Several factors involved in the optimization of instruction are described: learner…

Hettinger, Gary A.

88

A Unitary Model of Cognition and Instruction in Higher Order Thinking Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an instructional model for thinking skills and discusses implementing the model. Based on a unitary theory of human cognition and some basic assumptions about the conditions for successfully intervening in public education, the model can be implemented at any grade level within any instructional framework. Currently used models…

Marzano, Robert J.

89

Beyond Cognitive and Metacognitive Tools: The Use of the Internet as an Epistemological Tool for Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that Internet-based instruction should not be only perceived as a cognitive tool or a metacognitive tool; rather, it can be perceived and used as an epistemological tool. When the Internet is used as an epistemological tool for instruction, learners are encouraged to evaluate the merits of information and knowledge acquired from…

Tsai, Chin-Chung

2004-01-01

90

Cognitive Apprenticeship as an Instructional Strategy for Solving Corporate Training Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive apprenticeship is a teaching approach proponed by social constructivist educators that scaffolds upon students' "zones of proximal development" in authentic situations. It is an effective approach used by teachers of instructional technology when teaching student practitioners. Nevertheless, implementation of instructional design…

Chan, Peter; Miller, Ronald; Monroe, Eula

2009-01-01

91

Cognitive Complexity of Mathematics Instructional Tasks in a Taiwanese Classroom: An Examination of Task Sources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined geometric calculation with number tasks used within a unit of geometry instruction in a Taiwanese classroom, identifying the source of each task used in classroom instruction and analyzing the cognitive complexity of each task with respect to 2 distinct features: diagram complexity and problem-solving complexity. We found that…

Hsu, Hui-Yu; Silver, Edward A.

2014-01-01

92

Cognitive Advantages of Blending with Material Anchors in Energy Instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conceptual blending theory [1] explains how the human imagination creates unreal situations that help us think about reality. In these imaginary blended situations, we establish new correspondences, interactions, and dynamics, and the outcomes of the dynamics lend insight to the nature of various real situations that were used to compose the blend. Blends are not just in the head, however; in some cases, a material system participates in the blend by lending its material structure as conceptual structure [2]. In the instructional activity Energy Theater [3], people represent units of energy and move around in order to solve puzzles of energy transfer and transformation. We use the ideas of blending and material anchors to understand how learners are able to use the representation to their cognitive advantage. [4pt] [1] Fauconnier, G. & Turner, M. (2002). The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities. New York: Basic Books.[0pt] [2] Hutchins, E. (2005) Material anchors for conceptual blends. Journal of Pragmatics 37, 1555-1577.[0pt] [3] Scherr, R. E., Close, H. G., McKagan, S. B., & Close, E. W. (2010) ``Energy Theater'': Using the body symbolically to understand energy. In C. Singh, M. Sabella, & S. Rebello (Eds.) 2010 PERC Proceedings. Melville, NY: AIP Press.

Close, Hunter; Close, Eleanor; Scherr, Rachel; McKagan, Sarah

2012-03-01

93

Cognitive and Metacognitive Learning Strategy Instruction: Its Relevance for Media and Material Design. The Instructional Methods Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is intended to provide publishers and product developers with a summary of background information about strategy instruction for disabled learners. It also offers suggestions for how media and materials could be produced and designed to facilitate the teaching and learning of strategies. The first section looks at cognitive and…

Scheid, Karen

94

Cognitive Research and Elementary Science Instruction: From the Laboratory, to the Classroom, and Back  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Can cognitive research generate usable knowledge for elementary science instruction? Can issues raised by classroom practice drive the agenda of laboratory cognitive research? Answering yes to both questions, we advocate building a reciprocal interface between basic and applied research. We discuss five studies of the teaching, learning, and…

Klahr, David; Li, Junlei

2005-01-01

95

Changes in the Cognitive Components of Achievement as Students Progress Through Sequential Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ascertaining changes in cognitive correlates of learning as students advanced through hierarchical instruction, 24 individual difference measures were obtained from 166 Navy trainees who had completed a computer-managed mastery course in electricity and electronics. Three types of cognitive characteristic measures were used in the study--tests of…

Federico, Pat-Anthony

96

Implications of Designing Instructional Video Using Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the last decade, cognitive researchers identified three major challenges facing the use of multimedia materials in instruction. The first challenge is the inclusion of extraneous content that competes with the essential information for limited cognitive resources. Researchers found that including extraneous material in multimedia materials…

Ibrahim, Mohamed

2012-01-01

97

Cognitive Aids for Guiding Graph Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to improve students' comprehension of scientific graphs by adapting scaffolding techniques used to aid text comprehension. In 3 experiments involving 121 female and 88 male college students, some students were shown cognitive aids prior to viewing 4 geography graphs whereas others were not; all students were then asked to write a…

Mautone, Patricia D.; Mayer, Richard E.

2007-01-01

98

Toward Evidence for Instructional Design Principles: Examples from Cognitive Tutor Math 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a significant gap between theories of general psychological functions on one hand (e.g., memory) and theories of mathematical content knowledge on the other (e.g., content of algebra). To better guide the design of ground breaking and demonstrably better mathematics instruction, we need instructional principles and associated design…

Koedinger, Kenneth R.

99

78 FR 35321 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-IBM Instructional Guide and Assessment Tool Development  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement--IBM Instructional Guide...Justice. ACTION: Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement...groups, or individuals to enter into a cooperative agreement for a 12-month period...

2013-06-12

100

Teacher's Toolkit: Building a vision of effective science instruction--How an observation guide supports dialogue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To help establish common language, to shape a common vision for a science program, guide individual and group reflection on instruction, and support partner teachers in eliciting the involvement of their colleagues, the North Cascades and Olympic Science

Brian MacNevin

2009-12-01

101

An Embedded and Embodied Cognition Review of Instructional Manipulatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent literature on learning with instructional manipulatives seems to call for a moderate view on the effects of perceptual and interactive richness of instructional manipulatives on learning. This "moderate view" holds that manipulatives' perceptual and interactive richness may compromise learning in two ways: (1) by imposing a…

Pouw, Wim T. J. L.; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred

2014-01-01

102

Ideas in Practice: "Where's the Periodical Guide to Books?" or Library Instruction in Developmental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and evaluates a library skills instruction unit, "Integration of Instruction in Basic Writing and Library Usage," offered at Kendall College, Illinois to help students become familiar with the library, the card catalog, the "Reader's Guide," and correct bibliographiic formats; and use these skills in writing research papers. (AYC)

Silverman, Sharon; And Others

1981-01-01

103

RTI with Differentiated Instruction, Grades 6-8: A Classroom Teacher's Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collecting, processing, and using assessment data to form instruction for each student can be overwhelming--especially with so much diversity in the classroom. Help is here, with this hands-on guide that brings together the two leading approaches to teaching students of varying abilities: Response to Instruction and Intervention (RTI) and…

O'Meara, Jodi

2011-01-01

104

Practitioners' Views on Instructional Guides in College Teaching: The Purdue Three-Stage Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three-stage model of instruction developed at Purdue University--which has been applied successfully in graduate and undergraduate college courses, workshops, and high school courses--is discussed. The system depends heavily on printed instructional material to guide student efforts. The model provides an approach for teaching basic subject…

Feldhusen, John F.

105

Industrial Education. Electricity/Electronics Curriculum Guide, Phase II. Instructional Modules, Level II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for students in the ninth grade, this electricity/electronics curriculum guide contains instructional modules for twenty-four units of instruction. Among the modules included are (1) introduction to the world of electricity, (2) electrical safety, (3) the electrical team, (4) resistance and resistors, (5) electric lamps and heating…

Lillo, Robert E.; Soffiotto, Nicholas S.

106

The Principal's Guide to the First 100 Days of the School Year: Creating Instructional Momentum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For veteran principals, new principals, and aspiring principals, this book is a valuable resource for building instructional momentum during the beginning of the school year. Educational leadership expert Shawn Joseph guides administrators through five key areas: (1) Vision; (2) Instructional Leadership; (3) Politics; (4) Data; and (5) Planning.

Joseph, Shawn

2012-01-01

107

An instructional design guide for web-based physics courses  

E-print Network

notion of the classroom. Distance learning, especially Internet use in the form of web-based instruction, is becoming a widely used alternative to conventional instruction delivery worldwide. Unfortunately, despite the great student potential, centuries...

Ozmetin, Ali Esad

2002-01-01

108

A Cognitive Strategy Instruction to Improve Math Calculation for Children with ADHD and LD: A Randomized Controlled Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the effectiveness of cognitive strategy instruction based on PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive) given by special education teachers to students with ADHD randomly assigned by classroom. Students in the experimental group were exposed to a brief cognitive strategy instruction for 10 days, which was designed to…

Iseman, Jackie S.; Naglieri, Jack A.

2011-01-01

109

Cognitive Strategy Instruction for Adolescents: What We Know about the Promise, What We Don't Know about the Potential  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Strategy instruction" is quickly becoming one of the most common--and perhaps the most commonly misunderstood--components of adolescent literacy research and practice. In this essay, veteran teacher educator Mark Conley argues that a particular type of strategy instruction known as cognitive strategy instruction holds great promise for improving…

Conley, Mark W.

2008-01-01

110

Designing LibGuides as Instructional Tools for Critical Thinking and Effective Online Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Did you ever wish for an easy-to-maintain tool to create course-level or assignment-level instruction for online or distance students? LibGuides can provide the solution! LibGuides provide a versatile and easy-to-maintain platform for delivering step-by-step, scaffolded tutorials that enhance learning outcomes through chunking, reduced strain on…

Baker, Ruth L.

2014-01-01

111

Intelligent Cognitive Tutors as Modeling Tool and Instructional Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective technologies for learning and doing mathematics should be based on sound cognitive theory, be empirically tested against alternatives, and be primarily addressed at mathematics as a modeling language. I will discuss the status and promise of research- based \\

Kenneth R. Koedinger; David Osborne; Ted Gaebler

1998-01-01

112

Cognitive Behavior Modification: Use of Self-Instruction Strategies by First Graders on Academic Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of this study indicate that the cognitive behavior modification technique of self-instruction is effective and appropriate as a means of improving the basal reading academic task performance of first-grade children (N=57) in a school setting. (IAH)

Mahn, Christopher; Greenwood, Gordon E.

1990-01-01

113

Differential Relations of Constructivist and Didactic Instruction to Students' Cognition, Motivation, and Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how constructivist and didactic instruction was related to students' cognitive, motivational, and achievement outcomes in English classrooms, using a sample of 3000 Grade 9 students from 108 classrooms in 39 secondary schools in Singapore. Results of hierarchical linear modeling showed differential cross-level relations. After…

Nie, Youyan; Lau, Shun

2010-01-01

114

How the Instructional and Learning Environments of Liberal Arts Colleges Enhance Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzes longitudinal data from 17 four-year institutions in the United States to determine how the distinctive instructional and learning environment of American liberal arts colleges accounts for the positive impact of liberal arts college attendance on four-year growth in critical thinking skills and need for cognition. We find that,…

Pascarella, Ernest T.; Wang, Jui-Sheng; Trolian, Teniell L.; Blaich, Charles

2013-01-01

115

Applying Cognitive Theory to Chemistry Instruction: The Case for Worked Examples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The case for chemistry instruction based on worked examples is presented, using a contemporary model of human learning. We begin by detailing human cognitive architecture and outlining the Interactive Compensatory Model of Learning (ICML). Through the ICML, the role of motivation, deliberate practice and feedback are detailed as key variables in…

Crippen, Kent J.; Brooks, David W.

2009-01-01

116

Effects of Constructivist-Oriented Instruction on Elementary School Students' Cognitive Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was primarily to explore the effects of constructivist-oriented instruction on fifth graders' cognitive structures about biological reproduction. Furthermore, such effects on different science achievers were also investigated. The subjects of this study were 69 eleven year olds in Taiwan, who were assigned to either a…

Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2005-01-01

117

The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on the Mathematical Problem Solving of Adolescents with Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of cognitive strategy instruction on the mathematical problem solving of three adolescents with spina bifida. Conditions of the multiple-baseline across-individuals design included baseline, two levels of treatment, posttesting, and maintenance. Treatment 1 focused on one-step math problems, and Treatment 2…

Coughlin, Judy; Montague, Marjorie

2011-01-01

118

Evaluating the Evidence Base for Cognitive Strategy Instruction and Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review considers both the content and methodologies of 5 single-subject and 2 group experimental design studies investigating the effects of cognitive strategy instruction on the mathematical problem solving of students with disabilities, using quality indicators proposed by Horner et al. (2005) and Gersten et al. (2005). Findings indicated…

Montague, Marjorie; Dietz, Samantha

2009-01-01

119

The Role of Teacher Epistemic Cognition, Epistemic Beliefs, and Calibration in Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review examines the literature on teacher epistemic cognition, epistemic beliefs, and calibration to consider the relation between these constructs and instruction that emerged from empirical studies. In considering how this body of literature can enhance understanding of how students become masters of their learning processes, we will…

Maggioni, Liliana; Parkinson, Meghan M.

2008-01-01

120

Spatial Cognition and Gender: Instructional and Stimulus Influences on Mental Image Rotation Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments involving 112 college students, half male and half female, examined the spatial nature of mental-image rotation (MIR) tasks and the use of MIR in stereotypically male or female tasks. Results add to the evidence that instructional and stimulus effects may exacerbate or eliminate sex differences in spatial cognition. (SLD)

Sharps, Matthew J.; And Others

1994-01-01

121

Effect of Three Instructional Strategies on Students' Attitudes and Cognitive Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different instructional strategies upon the attitudes and cognitive achievement of nursing students. The major conclusions were: (a) fewer students were manifesting philosophies supportive of independent study strategies, and (b) significant interaction between students' attitudes,…

Schaffer, Dennis R.; Purohit, Anal

1975-01-01

122

A Cognitive-Apprenticeship-Inspired Instructional Approach for Teaching Scientific Writing and Reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article presents an approach for integrating instruction of scientific writing and reading into undergraduate science courses, inspired by the pedagogical theory of cognitive apprenticeship. Included, is a demonstration of its implementation and a description of a study of students' feedback that enabled developers to elicit students' difficulties and fine-tune the next application accordingly.

David W. Gatchell

2006-11-01

123

Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Instructed L2 Learning: The English Modals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results of a quasi-experimental effects-of-instruction study examining the efficacy of applying a Cognitive Linguistic (CL) approach to L2 learning of the semantics of English modals. In spite of their frequency in typical input, modal verbs present L2 learners with difficulties, party due to their inherent…

Tyler, Andrea; Mueller, Charles M.; Ho, Vu

2010-01-01

124

Using the Cognitive Apprenticeship Web-based Argumentation System to Improve Argumentation Instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated how the instruction of argumentation skills could be promoted by using an online argumentation system. This system entitled `Cognitive Apprenticeship Web-based Argumentation' (CAWA) system was based on cognitive apprenticeship model. One hundred eighty-nine fifth grade students took part in this study. A quasi-experimental design was adopted and qualitative and quantitative analyses were used to evaluate the effectiveness of this online system in measuring students' progress in learning argumentation. The results of this study showed that different teaching strategies had effects on students' use of argumentation in the topics of daily life and the concept of `vision.' When the CAWA system was employed during the instruction and practice of argumentation on these two topics, the students' argumentation performance improved. Suggestions on how the CAWA system could be used to enhance the instruction of argumentation skills in science education were also discussed.

Tsai, Chun-Yen; Jack, Brady Michael; Huang, Tai-Chu; Yang, Jin-Tan

2012-08-01

125

Can Music Instruction Affect Children's Cognitive Development? ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies have examined the effects of music instruction on children's abilities in other disciplines. Other studies have explored the effects of listening to music on adults' spatial abilities. Noting that these two sets of findings have been confused, leading to claims that listening to music can improve children's academic abilities, this…

Rauscher, Frances H.

126

Biofunctional Cognitive Theory in Poetry Instruction: Lessons from Third Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biofunctional cognitive theory describes learning as a dynamic cycle of reflection between the brain, which coordinates contributions from multiple biological sources, and the mind, which selects and organizes them into wholethemes. The children in the lead author's third-grade class participated in a study of how the theory supported learning in…

Gregg, Madeleine; Sekeres, Diane Carver

2008-01-01

127

What the Science of Cognition Tells Us about Instructional Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research by cognitive psychologist Harry Bahrick and colleagues suggests that people typically forget course material at an exponential rate, with this rapid forgetting continuing for a period of several years before leveling off. Assuming that teachers want their students to leave college with not just the ability to think critically but also a…

Miller, Michelle D.

2009-01-01

128

Functional Internet Literacy: Required Cognitive Skills with Implications for Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patterns of typical Internet use provide the basis for defining "functional Internet literacy." Internet use commonly includes communication, information, recreation, and commercial activities. Technical competence with connectivity, security, and downloads is a prerequisite for using the Internet for such activities. Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive

Johnson, Genevieve Marie

2007-01-01

129

Organizational Factors and Instructional Decision-Making: A Cognitive Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the limited adoption of research-based teaching methods at the postsecondary level, research is necessary that examines why faculty choose to teach the way they do. In this article, I draw on insights from research on teacher cognition and naturalistic decision-making research to identify how perceptions of organizational factors influence…

Hora, Matthew Tadashi

2012-01-01

130

Instructional Coaches and the Instructional Leadership Team: A Guide for School-Building Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For instructional coaches, no two days are ever the same. This unique companion melds theory and practice to show how coaches can seamlessly integrate themselves into the fabric of the school and help teachers improve their practice from day one. Dean Spaulding and Gail Smith address common challenges of coaches and instructional leadership teams,…

Spaulding, Dean T.; Smith, Gail

2012-01-01

131

Case study of the implementation of cognitive coaching by an instructional coach in a Title 1 elementary school  

E-print Network

ethnicity. The purpose of the study was to document teachers' perceptions and understanding of the implementation process and those factors they perceived that inhibited and facilitated the implementation by an instructional coach of the Cognitive Coaching...

Reed, Linda A.

2007-09-17

132

A Guide for Developing the Instructional Program in Agricultural Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin contains materials suggested for use by agricultural teachers in the improvement of their agricultural mechanics programs. In its function as a guide to planning a teaching program in agricultural mechanics the document outlines the principles and procedures in course planning, 12 guiding concepts in the teaching of agricultural…

Illinois State Board of Vocational Education and Rehabilitation, Springfield. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

133

Pre-Calculus Instructional Guide for Elementary Functions, Analytic Geometry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a guide for use in semester-long courses in Elementary Functions and Analytic Geometry. A list of entry-level skills and a list of approved textbooks is provided. Each of the 18 units consists of: (1) overview, suggestions for teachers, and suggested time; (2) list of objectives; (3) cross-references guide to approved textbooks; (4) sample…

Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

134

Rapid instructed task learning: A new window into the human brain’s unique capacity for flexible cognitive control  

PubMed Central

The human ability to flexibly adapt to novel circumstances is extraordinary. Perhaps the most illustrative yet underappreciated form of this cognitive flexibility is rapid instructed task learning (RITL) – the ability to rapidly reconfigure our minds to perform new tasks from instruction. This ability is important for everyday life (e.g., learning to use new technologies), and is used to instruct participants in nearly every study of human cognition. We review the development of RITL as a circumscribed domain of cognitive neuroscience investigation, culminating in recent demonstrations that RITL is implemented via brain circuits centered on lateral prefrontal cortex. We then build on this and other insights to develop an integrative theory of cognitive flexibility and cognitive control, identifying theoretical principles and mechanisms that may make RITL possible in the human brain. Insights gained from this new theoretical account have important implications for further developments and applications of RITL research. PMID:23065743

Cole, Michael W.; Laurent, Patryk; Stocco, Andrea

2012-01-01

135

Web-Assisted Instruction for Changing Social Cognitive Variables Related to Physical Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the efficacy of Web-assisted instruction for promoting the use of social cognitive theory (SCT) strategies related to physical activity. They recruited college students attending health courses. The authors created 3 groups (Web-assisted, comparison, and control) based on the course structure. The Web-assisted group received information on exercise and fitness and a Web-based program (treatment, n = 127);

Richard R. Suminski; Rick Petosa

2006-01-01

136

Instructions matter: a comparison of baseline conditions for cognitive emotion regulation paradigms  

PubMed Central

The choice of a meaningful baseline condition is a crucial issue for each experimental design. In the case of cognitive emotion regulation, it is common to either let participants passively view emotional stimuli without any further specific instructions or to instruct them to actively attend to and permit any arising emotions, and to contrast one of these baseline conditions with a regulation condition. While the “view” strategy can be assumed to allow for a more spontaneous emotional response, the “permit” strategy may result in a more pronounced affective and cognitive response. As these conceptual differences may be associated with differences both in subjective emotional experience and neural activation, we compared these two common control conditions within a single functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, during which participants were instructed to either passively view a set of unpleasant and neutral pictures or to actively permit any emotions arising in response to the unpleasant pictures. Trial-by-trial ratings confirmed that participants perceived the unpleasant pictures as more arousing than the neutral pictures, but also indicated higher subjective arousal during the “permit negative” as compared to the “view negative” and “view neutral” conditions. While both the “permit negative” and “view negative” conditions led to increased activation of the bilateral amygdala when contrasted with the passive viewing of neutral pictures, activation in the left amygdala was increased in response to the “permit” instruction as compared to the “view” instruction for unpleasant pictures. The increase in amygdala activation in both the “permit” and “view” conditions renders both strategies as suitable baseline conditions for studies of cognitive emotion regulation. Conceptual and activation differences, however, indicate that these two variants are not exchangeable and should be chosen depending on the experimental context. PMID:24808872

Diers, Kersten; Weber, Fanny; Brocke, Burkhard; Strobel, Alexander; Schönfeld, Sabine

2014-01-01

137

The Effects of Time-Compressed Instruction and Redundancy on Learning and Learners' Perceptions of Cognitive Load  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Can increasing the speed of audio narration in multimedia instruction decrease training time and still maintain learning? The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of time-compressed instruction and redundancy on learning and learners' perceptions of cognitive load. 154 university students were placed into conditions that consisted of…

Pastore, Ray

2012-01-01

138

Profile guided selection of ARM and thumb instructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ARM processor core is a leading processor design for the embedded domain. In the embedded domain, both memory and energy are important concerns. For this reason the 32 bit ARM processor also supports the 16 bit Thumb instruction set. For a given program, typically the Thumb code is smaller than the ARM code. Therefore by using Thumb code the

Arvind Krishnaswamy; Rajiv Gupta

2002-01-01

139

The Paraprofessional's Guide to Assisting Classroom Instruction. Video and Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This videotape and accompanying workbook are intended to help paraprofessional school personnel learn necessary skills to assist in classroom instruction. The workbook provides supplementary information and each section includes suggested activities for putting knowledge and skills into practice and suggestions for reflection. Individual sections…

Wallace, Teri

140

Building Maintenance: Introduction. Units of Instruction. Teacher's Guide. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume, the first in a series of publications that will provide entry-level competencies in the area of building maintenance, is designed as an introduction. The seven instructional units cover these areas in the shop program: (1) introduction to building maintenance, (2) leadership development, (3) personal development, (4) job application…

Barnes, Bill

141

Resisting Technological Gravity: Using Guiding Principles for Instructional Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional designers face tremendous pressure to abandon the essential characteristics of educational approaches, and settle instead for routine practices that do not preserve the level of quality those approaches originally expressed. Because this pressure can be strong enough to affect designers almost as gravity affects objects in the…

McDonald, Jason K.

2010-01-01

142

The Training Director's Guide. Volume 1. Administration of Training. Volume 2. Instructional Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to employee development within industry appears in two sections: Volume 1, administrative guidelines for training directors; and Volume 2, instructional practices for training staffs. Considerations in formulating training policies, steps in organizing the training function, identification and analysis of training needs, employee…

Department of Manpower and Immigration, Ottawa (Ontario).

143

Using a Combined Approach of Guided Inquiry & Direct Instruction to Explore How Physiology Affects Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hands-on activities with live organisms allow students to actively explore scientific investigation. Here, I present activities that combine guided inquiry with direct instruction and relate how nutrition affects the physiology and behavior of the common housefly. These experiments encourage student involvement in the formulation of experimental…

Machtinger, Erika T.

2014-01-01

144

Agricultural Science and Mechanics I and II. An Instructional Guide for Agricultural Education. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional guide contains guidelines and course outlines for a two- and three-year course in agricultural science and mechanics for students in grades 8, 9, and 10. Provided in the first 4 sections are course outlines for Agricultural Science and Mechanics I and II and references for use in each course. Each course outline contains an…

Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Agricultural Education Program.

145

Vocational Curriculum Resources for Bilingual Students. A Guide to Print and Non-Print Instructional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to vocational curriculum resources for bilingual students consists of instructional checklists for resources identified in the following areas: auto mechanics, basic math skills, basic reading skills, business education, career education, carpentry, custodial and maintenance, distributive education, electricity/electronics, engineering,…

Mangano, R. Michael; Kryszak, Sarah J.

146

Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Machine Shop Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This articulation guide contains 21 units of instruction for two years of machine shop. The objectives of the program are to provide the student with the basic terminology and fundamental knowledge and skills in machining (year 1) and to teach him/her to set up and operate machine tools and make or repair metal parts, tools, and machines (year 2).…

Henderson, William Edward, Jr., Ed.

147

A Guide to Instruction in the Shooting Sports-Rifles; Air Rifles; Shotguns; Pistols; Hunter Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared for instruction in the use of rifles, air guns, shotguns, pistols, and hunter safety, this guide supplements other materials which are available from the National Rifle Association of America, the National Shooting Sports Foundation, the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, industry, and other sources. The…

Niemeyer, Roy K.; And Others

148

The Effect of Guided Inquiry-Based Instruction on Middle School Students' Understanding of Lunar Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of non-traditional guided inquiry instruction on middle school students' conceptual understandings of lunar concepts. Multiple data sources were used to describe participants' conceptions of lunar phases and their cause, including drawings, interviews, and a lunar shapes card sort. The data were analyzed via a…

Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.; Sackes, Mesut

2010-01-01

149

Does a Repeated Guided-Instruction Approach with Multiple Assessments Increase Student Learning of Science?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guided instruction is an approach that fully explains the concepts and procedures that students are required to learn. It seems intuitive that this approach should increase student learning; however, there is evidence in the literature that this may not always be the case. We wanted to assess the effectiveness of our own repeated…

Smith, Robert; Peethambaran, Bela; Pontiggia, Laura; Blumberg, Phyllis

2013-01-01

150

Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Welding. Final Document. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed during a project designed to provide continuous, performance-based vocational training at the secondary and postsecondary levels, this instructional guide is intended to help teachers implement a laterally and vertically articulated secondary level welding program. Introductory materials include descriptions of Welding I and II,…

Henderson, William Edward, Jr.

151

Adult ESL Instruction: A Challenge and a Pleasure. An Orientation Guide for Adult ESL Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, written in narrative format by several adult English as a second language (ESL) experts, presents an overview of ESL instruction. The manual is organized in six sections. The first section, an introduction to ESL, contains definitions, describes adult ESL students, and provides tips for new ESL teachers. The second section sketches a…

Guglielmino, Lucy M.; Burrichter, Arthur W.

152

[A List of Curriculum Guides, Course Outlines, and Instructional Materials for All Areas of Vocational Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The bibliography provides listings of currently available curriculum guides, course outlines, instructional and reference materials, and visual aids relevant to all areas of vocational education. The major areas under which listings are grouped include business and office occupations, trade and technical vocations, health education and…

153

Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objective Guide for Food Service/Food Service Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed during a project designed to provide continuous, performance-based vocational training at the secondary and postsecondary levels, this instructional guide is intended to help teachers implement a laterally and vertically articulated secondary level food service and food service management program. Introductory materials include…

Henderson, William Edward, Jr.

154

Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Automotive Mechanics. Final Document. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed during a project designed to provide continuous, performance-based vocational training at the secondary and postsecondary levels, this instructional guide is intended to help teachers implement a laterally and vertically articulated secondary level automotive mechanics program. Introductory materials include descriptions of Automotive…

Henderson, William Edward, Jr.

155

Using Spatial Language to Guide and Instruct Robots in Household Environments  

E-print Network

Using Spatial Language to Guide and Instruct Robots in Household Environments Juan Fasola and Maja of the proposed methodology to interactive robot learning is discussed, and the paper concludes with a description of interacting with and learning from non-expert users in a manner that is both natural and practical

Mataric, Maja J.

156

Cognitive mechanisms underlying instructed choice exploration of small city maps  

PubMed Central

We investigated the cognitive mechanisms underlying the exploration and decision-making in realistic and novel environments. Twelve human subjects were shown small circular U.S. city maps with two locations highlighted on the circumference, as possible choices for a post office (“targets”). At the beginning of a trial, subjects fixated a spot at the center of the map and ultimately chose one of the two locations. A space syntax analysis of the map paths (from the center to each target) revealed that the chosen location was associated with the less convoluted path, as if subjects navigated mentally the paths in an “ant's way,” i.e., by staying within street boundaries, and ultimately choosing the target that could be reached from the center in the shortest way, and the fewest turns and intersections. The subjects' strategy for map exploration and decision making was investigated by monitoring eye position during the task. This revealed a restricted exploration of the map delimited by the location of the two alternative options and the center of the map. Specifically, subjects explored the areas around the two target options by repeatedly looking at them before deciding which one to choose, presumably implementing an evaluation and decision-making process. The ultimate selection of a specific target was significantly associated with the time spent exploring the area around that target. Finally, an analysis of the sequence of eye fixations revealed that subjects tended to look systematically toward the target ultimately chosen even from the beginning of the trial. This finding indicates an early cognitive selection bias for the ensuing decision process.

Sakellaridi, Sofia; Christova, Peka; Christopoulos, Vassilios N.; Vialard, Alice; Peponis, John; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.

2015-01-01

157

Cognitive mechanisms underlying instructed choice exploration of small city maps.  

PubMed

We investigated the cognitive mechanisms underlying the exploration and decision-making in realistic and novel environments. Twelve human subjects were shown small circular U.S. city maps with two locations highlighted on the circumference, as possible choices for a post office ("targets"). At the beginning of a trial, subjects fixated a spot at the center of the map and ultimately chose one of the two locations. A space syntax analysis of the map paths (from the center to each target) revealed that the chosen location was associated with the less convoluted path, as if subjects navigated mentally the paths in an "ant's way," i.e., by staying within street boundaries, and ultimately choosing the target that could be reached from the center in the shortest way, and the fewest turns and intersections. The subjects' strategy for map exploration and decision making was investigated by monitoring eye position during the task. This revealed a restricted exploration of the map delimited by the location of the two alternative options and the center of the map. Specifically, subjects explored the areas around the two target options by repeatedly looking at them before deciding which one to choose, presumably implementing an evaluation and decision-making process. The ultimate selection of a specific target was significantly associated with the time spent exploring the area around that target. Finally, an analysis of the sequence of eye fixations revealed that subjects tended to look systematically toward the target ultimately chosen even from the beginning of the trial. This finding indicates an early cognitive selection bias for the ensuing decision process. PMID:25852452

Sakellaridi, Sofia; Christova, Peka; Christopoulos, Vassilios N; Vialard, Alice; Peponis, John; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

2015-01-01

158

Instructional Design for Advanced Learners: Establishing Connections between the Theoretical Frameworks of Cognitive Load and Deliberate Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive load theory (CLT) has been successful in identifying instructional formats that are more effective and efficient than conventional problem solving in the initial, novice phase of skill acquisition. However, recent findings regarding the "expertise reversal effect" have begun to stimulate cognitive load theorists to broaden their horizon…

van Gog, Tamara; Ericsson, K. Anders; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Paas, Fred

2005-01-01

159

Development principles for intelligent tutoring systems: Integrating cognitive theory into the development of computer-based instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a basic development model for an intelligent tutoring system (ITS): the interface, the student model, the expert model, and the pedagogical model. Because ITSs are a byproduct of research in cognitive science, we use this model to illustrate the possibilities for more extensive integration of cognitive learning theories into computer-based instruction (CBI). Two examples of CBI designed

Michael A. Orey; Wayne A. Nelson

1993-01-01

160

The effect of research-based instruction in introductory physics on a common cognitive bias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by a paper at last year's PERC conference, in which Rebello [1] compared students' individual and cohort mean score estimations with their actual assessment scores, we present results of a study in which students in an introductory physics class were asked to predict their scores on two assessments, one delivered at the start of the course (pre-instruction) and one at the end of the course (post-instruction). Our results show that, pre-instruction, the academically strongest students tend to underestimate their score slightly, whereas the weakest overestimate their performance significantly, consistent with the findings of Rebello and demonstrating a well-known cognitive bias (the Dunning-Kruger effect). Post-instruction, we find that the ability of the original weakest quartile cohort to accurately predict their own assessment score has improved significantly, but a flux of students between quartiles from one assessment to the other reveals that the least able students continue to over-estimate their performance, but with a reduced mean discrepancy. We discuss the implications these results have for instruction and for development of enhanced metacognition amongst physics students.

Galloway, Ross K.; Bates, Simon P.; Parker, Jonathan; Usoskina, Evguenia

2013-01-01

161

Commercial Art I and Commercial Art II: An Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teacher's guide for two sequential one-year commercial art courses for high school students is presented. Commercial Art I contains three units: visual communication, product design, and environmental design. Students study visual communication by analyzing advertising techniques, practicing fundamental drawing and layout techniques, creating…

Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

162

Cultures of the Western World. Grade Ten. Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide presents nine units for the study of western cultures in the tenth grade. The units contain up to 13 lessons each and comprise a two-semester course. Content includes ancient Greece and Rome, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and Reformation, Great Britain, France as a case study of revolution, Russia, and nationalism and the…

West Chester School District, PA.

163

Automotive Modules. Vocational Behavioral Objectives: A Guide for Individualizing Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum guide deals with automotive repair skills at the secondary level of vocational education and industrial arts. It addresses the subject in behavioral terms, as prominent components of the career education concept. Presenting four skill modules, auto body repair, gas engine repair, service, and diesel engine mechanics, the objectives…

Westinghouse Learning Corp., New York, NY.

164

Auto Collision Technician: An Instructional Guide for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to help teachers in auto collision technician programs for grades 11 and 12 teach the critical competencies of the program. The critical competencies covered are the High Priority-Individual (HP-I) competencies in Ohio's Occupational Competency Assessment Profile (OCAP) for Auto Collision Technician. HP-I competencies are…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

165

The Litter Problem. Environmental Education Supplementary Instructional Guide, Elementary Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a guide for helping elementary school students become aware of the litter problem, acquire litter control skills, and develop an anti-litter ethic. The manual contains a hierarchy of learning objectives, a pretest/posttest instrument, background information on litter, and 12 lessons designed to promote attainment of the learning…

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

166

The Litter Problem. Environmental Education Supplementary Instructional Guide, Secondary Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a guide for helping secondary school students investigate the litter problem, acquire litter control skills, and develop an anti-litter ethic. The manual contains a hierarchy of learning objectives, a pretest/posttest, background information on litter, and activities keyed to the learning objectives. Each lesson includes brief…

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

167

Instruction Guide Training and Organizational Development -Updated September 10, 2012  

E-print Network

described in this guide: The Originator security role UF_EPAF_Department Admin UF_HR View/Inquiry or The Level 1 Approver security role UF_EPAF_Level 1 Approver UF_HR View/Inquiry You must attend the PST920 documentation and/or certification to support the leave (see diagrams and explanatory notes below) Leave

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

168

Business Services and Technology. Advanced Finance Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains 15 lesson plans on financial topics for high school students. The lessons cover the following: (1) securities in the U.S. economy; (2) careers in finance; (3) commercial banking interest rates; (4) understanding financial statements; (5) newspaper stock tables; (6) financial institution operations; (7) foundation…

Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti.

169

Electrical. Teacher's Guide. Building Maintenance Units of Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching guide on electrical building maintenance, one in a series of six publications designed for building maintenance instructors in Texas, is designed to give students an understanding of electricity in order to know how to make basic repairs to the electrical systems in a building. Introductory material provides teachers with information…

East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

170

Enhancing Writing Instruction for Secondary Students. Professional Development Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this guide are strategies for helping struggling secondary readers and writers so that they will develop the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) necessary to write successfully and have greater access to the general curriculum. It focuses on the writing process because research supports the efficacy of the writing process as a…

Texas Univ., Austin. Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts.

171

Using instructional theory to facilitate communication in Web-based courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This articles examines the role of computer-mediated communication as well as broader interpretations of communication in Web-based instruction. Overviews of cognitive processing and cognitive constructivist paradigms are presented to illustrate their relevance for guiding development of Web-based courses. Instructional goals and communication strategies associated with these paradigms are identified. We conclude that developers should use instructional theories to guide choices

Susan M. Miller; Kenneth L. Miller

1999-01-01

172

Cognitive Tutoring based on Intelligent Decision Support in the PENTHA Instructional Design Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research finality of this paper is how to support Authors to develop rule driven—subject oriented, adaptable course content, meta-rules—representing the disciplinary epistemology, model of teaching, Learning Path structure, and assessment parameters—for intelligent Tutoring actions in a personalized, adaptive e-Learning environment. The focus is to instruct the student to be a decision manager for himself, able to recognize the elements of a problem, select the necessary information with the perspective of factual choices. In particular, our research intends to provide some fundamental guidelines for the definition of didactical rules and logical relations, that Authors should provide to a cognitive Tutoring system through the use of an Instructional Design method (PENTHA Model) which proposes an educational environment, able to: increase productivity and operability, create conditions for a cooperative dialogue, developing participatory research activities of knowledge, observations and discoveries, customizing the learning design in a complex and holistic vision of the learning / teaching processes.

dall'Acqua, Luisa

2010-06-01

173

Helping Students with Cognitive Disabilities Find and Keep a Job. Technical Assistance Guide 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide discusses the processes involved in helping students with cognitive disabilities such as mental retardation find and keep a job. Following an introduction, the guide discusses the types of employment available for these youth and young adults in competitive and supported employment settings. The following section looks at the roles of…

NICHCY Technical Assistance Guide, 1999

1999-01-01

174

Siena Alert System (SAS) Instruction Guide New User Sign Up Form for Siena Alert System (SAS): Go to  

E-print Network

Siena Alert System (SAS) Instruction Guide New User Sign Up Form for Siena Alert System (SAS): Go: If you are an employee and are also a Siena student, please register for the Siena Alert System one time

175

Surfing for Substance: A Professional Development Guide to Integrating the World Wide Web into Adult Literacy Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide is designed to assist adult literacy and English-as-a-Second-Language staff developers, teachers, and administrators in using the World Wide Web as an instructional resource and to construct meaningful Web-based instructional activities and projects. It is divided into six sections. The first gives an overview of the varied capabilities…

Hacker, Emily; Capehart, Mary Ann

176

An Evidence-Based Guide for Ethics Instruction  

PubMed Central

Drawing from multiple sources of evidence, this paper updates previous descriptions (IOM, 2002) of measurement strategies and teaching techniques to promote four theoretically derived abilities thought to be necessary conditions for the responsible conduct of research. Data from three samples (exemplary professionals, professionals disciplined by a licensing board, and graduates who completed an ethics program designed to promote the four interrelated abilities) suggest that development of a moral identity that is consistent with the norms and values of a profession is the driving force that gives rise to ethical sensitivity, ethical reasoning, and ethical implementation. Evidence from the cited studies supports the usefulness of the theoretical model to (a) deconstruct summary judgments about character and see them as abilities that can be assessed and developed; (b) guide the design assessments that are sensitive to the effects of interventions; and (c) augment previous IOM recommendations for the development of meaningful learning activities. PMID:25574261

Bebeau, Muriel J.

2014-01-01

177

Quality initiatives. Respiratory instructions for CT examinations of the lungs: a hands-on guide.  

PubMed

In computed tomographic (CT) examinations of the lung, accurate visualization of the natural contrast between the low attenuation of air and the relatively higher attenuation of vessels, airways, and interstitial structures requires cooperative and coordinated respiratory maneuvers by the patient. Inadequate respiratory maneuvers can influence differences in lung attenuation and lead to misinterpretation by (a) increasing attenuation to simulate disease in normal patients, (b) decreasing attenuation to simulate normal contrast in patients with disease, or (c) creating motion artifacts. For respiratory maneuvers to be effective, patients have to be instructed before the examination and coached during it. However, comprehensive descriptions of such instructions and coaching are lacking in the radiology literature. Therefore, respiratory instructions specifically for use in thoracic CT examinations have been devised. Along with patient coaching, use of these instructions can improve image quality. With this hands-on guide, both radiologists and technologists can optimize the respiratory instructions given to their patients and thereby improve the quality of thoracic CT examinations. PMID:18635620

Bankier, Alexander A; O'Donnell, Carl R; Boiselle, Phillip M

2008-01-01

178

Pick-a-Path Instructional Guide:Using Pick-a-Path in Grades 3-7.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This instructional guide (PDF) is for the mobile app Pick-a-Path (both iOS and Android platforms). The guide provides professional development by discussing the math in each level of the game, giving suggestions for classroom use, and recommending related resources from Illuminations. The Pick-a-Path app is cataloged separately and listed as a related resource.

Lisa Willman

2012-01-01

179

A Comparison of Reading Growth and Outcomes of Kindergarten Students with Cognitive Impairments to Their Typical Peers: The Impact of Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research addressed the early reading instruction of students with cognitive impairments included in general education kindergarten classrooms. Research from 2002 to 2011 on early reading instruction for students with mental retardation were reviewed and current trends in measurement, typical instruction, intervention, and achievement were…

Folsom, Jessica Sidler

2012-01-01

180

Cognitive, affective, and transfer of learning consequences of computer-assisted instruction.  

PubMed

The effect of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) versus lecture-discussion (LD) on cognitive learning, transfer of learning, and affective behaviors of nurse practitioner students was tested by the following hypotheses: The experimental (E) group will learn, transfer, and demonstrate affective behaviors significantly more than the control (C1 group. Subjects were 31 nurse practioner students at the graduate level. Content taught was the nursing and medical management of hypertensive patients. The 14 E group subjects were taught by means of CAI. The 17 C group subjects were taught by means of LD. Pre- and posttests were done to obtain meassures on cognitive learning and transfer of learning. Demographic data and affective measures were obtained only at the posttest. The hypotheses were tested by means of t test. Pearson's r and MCNemar's Test for Symmetry were done to test the relationship between the variables. Results showed no significant differences between the groups in congitive learning, transfer of learning, or affective behaviors. There were, however, significant differences between the groups in three posttest scores on cognitive learning and transfer of learning, with the E group scoring better. Both groups learned significantly, but only the E group transferred significantly. Implications were made for education of nurse practitioners and staff. PMID:377237

Huckabay, L M; Anderson, N; Holm, D M; Lee, J

1979-01-01

181

The effect of guided inquiry-based instruction in secondary science for students with learning disabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students with learning disabilities (SWLDs) need to attain academic rigor to graduate from high school and college, as well as achieve success in life. Constructivist theories suggest that guided inquiry may provide the impetus for their success, yet little research has been done to support this premise. This study was designed to fill that gap. This quasi-experimental study compared didactic and guided inquiry-based teaching of science concepts to secondary SWLDs in SDC science classes. The study examined 38 students in four classes at two diverse, urban high schools. Participants were taught two science concepts using both teaching methods and posttested after each using paper-and-pencil tests and performance tasks. Data were compared to determine increases in conceptual understanding by teaching method, order of teaching method, and exposure one or both teaching methods. A survey examined participants' perceived self-efficacy under each method. Also, qualitative comparison of the two test formats examined appropriate use with SWLDs. Results showed significantly higher scores after the guided inquiry method on concept of volume, suggesting that guided inquiry does improve conceptual understanding over didactic instruction in some cases. Didactic teaching followed by guided inquiry resulted in higher scores than the reverse order, indicating that SWLDs may require direct instruction in basic facts and procedures related to a topic prior to engaging in guided inquiry. Also application of both teaching methods resulted in significantly higher scores than a single method on the concept of density, suggesting that SWLDs may require more in depth instruction found using both methods. No differences in perceived self-efficacy were shown. Qualitative analysis both assessments and participants' behaviors during testing support the use of performance tasks over paper-and-pencil tests with SWLDs. Implications for education include the use of guided inquiry to increase SWLDs conceptual understanding and process skills, while improving motivation and participation through hands-on learning. In addition, teachers may use performance tasks to better assess students' thought process, problem solving skills, and conceptual understanding. However, constructivist teaching methods require extra training, pedagogical skills, subject matter knowledge, physical resources, and support from all stakeholders.

Eliot, Michael H.

182

Cognitive Strategy Instruction for Improving Expository Text Comprehension of Students with Learning Disabilities: The Quality of Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators have widely used cognitive strategy instruction to address reading comprehension deficits evidenced by students with learning disabilities. However, no one has yet conducted a review of the quality of this literature. This review applies the quality indicators advocated by Gersten et al. (2005) and Horner et al. (2005) to evaluate the…

Jitendra, Asha K.; Burgess, Clare; Gajria, Meenakshi

2011-01-01

183

VARIATIONS IN INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA, PROCESSES, CONTENT AND APTITUDE VARIABLES IN RELATION TO EFFICIENCY OF COGNITIVE GOAL ATTAINMENT, VOLUME 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A SERIES OF STUDIES WAS UNDERTAKEN, DIRECTED TOWARD EXPLORATIONS OF INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG MEDIA, PROCESSES (INSTRUCTIONAL PREREQUISITES), CONTENT AND APTITUDE VARIABLES, AND ACHIEVEMENTS. EMPHASIS THROUGHOUT WAS ON (1) THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN AND (2) PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE TO A PRACTICAL TEACHING SITUATION. "THE TAXONOMY OF…

FATTU, N. A.

184

The Effect of Instructing Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies on the Academic Progress of Ilam Medical University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reviewed the effect of instructing cognitive and metacognitive strategies on the academic progress of Medical Sciences of Ilam University students. The research is quasi-experimental including a pre-test and a post-test. The population of the research includes the students of Medical Sciences of Ilam University. The sample includes 120…

Abdolhosseini, Amir; Keikhavani, Sattar; Hasel, Kourosh Mohammadi

2011-01-01

185

The Cultures of Contemporary Instructional Design Scholarship, Part One: Developments Based on Behavioral and Cognitive Science Foundations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first in a series of two articles examining the current status of instructional design (ID) scholarship and theory in four different cultures or traditions. In this article, the focus is on, first, ID models based on traditional behavioral theories of learning and, second, on models based on cognitive science and the learning sciences.…

Willis, Jerry

2011-01-01

186

Evaluation of Title I ESEA Projects, 1971-1972. Volume III, Instructional Practices and Student Cognitive Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this volume, ESEA Title I projects related to instructional practices and student cognitive performance, carried out in Philadelphia during 1971-1972, are evaluated. The six projects in this cluster are: Class for Mentally Retarded/Emotionally Distrubed Children; English as a Second Language; Improvement of Reading Skills (Reading Skills…

Prusso, Kenneth W.; And Others

187

Development of Elementary School Students' Cognitive Structures and Information Processing Strategies under Long-Term Constructivist-Oriented Science Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study was to explore the effects of long-term constructivist-oriented science instruction on elementary school students' process of constructing cognitive structures. Furthermore, such effects on different science achievers were also investigated. The subjects of this study were 69 fifth graders in Taiwan, while they were…

Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2005-01-01

188

Improving Learning Results and Reducing Cognitive Load through 3D Courseware on Color Management and Inspection Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study intends to solve the problem that schools in Taiwan lack of the equipment for color management and inspection instruction and seek ways to improve learning results and reduce cognitive load. The researchers developed 3D courseware for color management and inspection through a research and development process. To further scrutinize the…

Hsiung, Liang-Yuan; Lai, Mu-Hui

2013-01-01

189

Impact of Online Instructional Game Features on College Students' Perceived Motivational Support and Cognitive Investment: A Structural Equation Modeling Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges and universities have begun to understand the instructional potential of digital game-based learning (DGBL) due to digital games' immersive features. These features, however, might overload learners as excessive motivational and cognitive stimuli thus impeding intended learning. Current research, however, lacks empirical evidences to…

Huang, Wenhao David; Johnson, Tristan E.; Han, Seung-Hyun Caleb

2013-01-01

190

Key Factors for College Student Achievement, Cognition, Affects, and Motivation: Student Locus of Control and Quality of Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of college students' actual, rather than manipulated, perception of control along with expressive instruction, as they relate to cognitive and emotional aspects of academic achievement. In a simulated college classroom study, 228 male and female introductory psychology students at the University of Manitoba…

Schonwetter, Dieter J.; And Others

191

Automated, quantitative cognitive/behavioral screening of mice: for genetics, pharmacology, animal cognition and undergraduate instruction.  

PubMed

We describe a high-throughput, high-volume, fully automated, live-in 24/7 behavioral testing system for assessing the effects of genetic and pharmacological manipulations on basic mechanisms of cognition and learning in mice. A standard polypropylene mouse housing tub is connected through an acrylic tube to a standard commercial mouse test box. The test box has 3 hoppers, 2 of which are connected to pellet feeders. All are internally illuminable with an LED and monitored for head entries by infrared (IR) beams. Mice live in the environment, which eliminates handling during screening. They obtain their food during two or more daily feeding periods by performing in operant (instrumental) and Pavlovian (classical) protocols, for which we have written protocol-control software and quasi-real-time data analysis and graphing software. The data analysis and graphing routines are written in a MATLAB-based language created to simplify greatly the analysis of large time-stamped behavioral and physiological event records and to preserve a full data trail from raw data through all intermediate analyses to the published graphs and statistics within a single data structure. The data-analysis code harvests the data several times a day and subjects it to statistical and graphical analyses, which are automatically stored in the "cloud" and on in-lab computers. Thus, the progress of individual mice is visualized and quantified daily. The data-analysis code talks to the protocol-control code, permitting the automated advance from protocol to protocol of individual subjects. The behavioral protocols implemented are matching, autoshaping, timed hopper-switching, risk assessment in timed hopper-switching, impulsivity measurement, and the circadian anticipation of food availability. Open-source protocol-control and data-analysis code makes the addition of new protocols simple. Eight test environments fit in a 48 in x 24 in x 78 in cabinet; two such cabinets (16 environments) may be controlled by one computer. PMID:24637442

Gallistel, C R; Balci, Fuat; Freestone, David; Kheifets, Aaron; King, Adam

2014-01-01

192

A Guide to Computer Simulations of Three Adaptive Instructional Models for the Advanced Instructional System Phases II and III. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer simulations of three individualized adaptive instructional models (AIM) were undertaken to determine if these models function as prescribed in Air Force technical training programs. In addition, the project sought to develop a user's guide for effective understanding of adaptive models during field implementation. Successful simulations…

Hansen, Duncan N.; And Others

193

The impact of clickers instruction on cognitive loads and listening and speaking skills in college English class.  

PubMed

Clickers might own a bright future in China if properly introduced although they have not been widely acknowledged as an effective tool to facilitate English learning and teaching in Chinese contexts. By randomly selecting participants from undergraduates in a university in China over four academic years, this study aims to identify the impact of clickers on college English listening and speaking skills, and differences in cognitive loads between clickers and traditional multimedia assisted instruction modes. It was concluded that in China's college English class, compared with multimedia assisted instruction, (1) clickers could improve college English listening skills; (2) clickers could improve college English speaking skills; and (3) clickers could reduce undergraduates' cognitive loads in College English Class. Reasons for the results and defects in this study were also explored and discussed, based on learning, teaching and cognitive load theories. Some Suggestions for future research were also raised. PMID:25192424

Yu, Zhonggen; Chen, Wentao; Kong, Yong; Sun, Xiao Ling; Zheng, Jing

2014-01-01

194

The Impact of Clickers Instruction on Cognitive Loads and Listening and Speaking Skills in College English Class  

PubMed Central

Clickers might own a bright future in China if properly introduced although they have not been widely acknowledged as an effective tool to facilitate English learning and teaching in Chinese contexts. By randomly selecting participants from undergraduates in a university in China over four academic years, this study aims to identify the impact of clickers on college English listening and speaking skills, and differences in cognitive loads between clickers and traditional multimedia assisted instruction modes. It was concluded that in China's college English class, compared with multimedia assisted instruction, (1) clickers could improve college English listening skills; (2) clickers could improve college English speaking skills; and (3) clickers could reduce undergraduates' cognitive loads in College English Class. Reasons for the results and defects in this study were also explored and discussed, based on learning, teaching and cognitive load theories. Some Suggestions for future research were also raised. PMID:25192424

Yu, Zhonggen; Chen, Wentao; Kong, Yong; Sun, Xiao Ling; Zheng, Jing

2014-01-01

195

Web-assisted instruction for changing social cognitive variables related to physical activity.  

PubMed

The authors examined the efficacy of Web-assisted instruction for promoting the use of social cognitive theory (SCT) strategies related to physical activity. They recruited college students attending health courses. The authors created 3 groups (Web-assisted, comparison, and control) based on the course structure. The Web-assisted group received information on exercise and fitness and a Web-based program (treatment, n = 127); 7 sections received the same exercise and fitness information as the treatment condition, but no Web-based program (comparison, n = 118); and 6 sections received information in unrelated areas (control, n = 178). The Web-based program consisted of 9 Web assignments (1 per week) that targeted key SCT variables. Satisfaction with the Web-based program was high. Use of self-regulation strategies was significantly higher at posttest in the treatment group than it was in the other groups. Knowledge concerning the skills taught by the Web assignments was significantly greater in the treatment group than it was in the comparison group. The results of this study demonstrate that a Web-based instructional program has a positive impact on knowledge and skills related to SCT strategies for changing physical activity behavior. PMID:16450846

Suminski, Richard R; Petosa, Rick

2006-01-01

196

Cognitive Behavioral Guided Self-Help for the Treatment of Recurrent Binge Eating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Despite proven efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating eating disorders with binge eating as the core symptom, few patients receive CBT in clinical practice. Our blended efficacy-effectiveness study sought to evaluate whether a manual-based guided self-help form of CBT (CBT-GSH), delivered in 8 sessions in a health…

Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Wilson, G. Terence; DeBar, Lynn; Perrin, Nancy; Lynch, Frances; Rosselli, Francine; Kraemer, Helena C.

2010-01-01

197

Knowledge Elaboration: A Cognitive Load Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of knowledge elaboration is considered from the perspective of cognitive load theory. This theory assumes that the available knowledge structures in long-term memory (LTM) are used to organize and guide cognitive processing in complex learning. Accordingly, the role of external instructional guidance in the process of knowledge…

Kalyuga, Slava

2009-01-01

198

The Effects of STS-Oriented Instruction on Female Tenth Graders' Cognitive Structure Outcomes and the Role of Student Scientific Epistemological Beliefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effects of Science-Technology-Society instruction on a group of Taiwanese female 10th grade students' cognitive structure outcomes. Examines the role of student scientific epistemological beliefs on such effects. (Author/SAH)

Tsai, Chin-Chung

2000-01-01

199

Differentiation and Integration: Guiding Principles for Analyzing Cognitive Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differentiation and integration played large roles within classic developmental theories but have been relegated to obscurity within contemporary theories. However, they may have a useful role to play in modern theories as well, if conceptualized as guiding principles for analyzing change rather than as real-time mechanisms. In the present study,…

Siegler, Robert S.; Chen, Zhe

2008-01-01

200

Identification and validation of cognitive design principles for automated generation of assembly instructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing effective instructions for everyday products is challenging. One reason is that designers lack a set of design principles for producing visually comprehensible and accessible instructions. We describe an approach for identifying such design principles through experiments investigating the production, preference, and comprehension of assembly instructions for furniture. We instantiate these principles into an algorithm that automatically generates assembly instructions.

Julie Heiser; Doantam Phan; Maneesh Agrawala; Barbara Tversky; Pat Hanrahan

2004-01-01

201

Toward a Synthesis of Cognitive Load Theory, Four-Component Instructional Design, and Self-Directed Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the opportunities to apply cognitive load theory and four-component instructional design to self-directed\\u000a learning. Learning tasks are defined as containing three elements: learners must (a) perform the tasks, (b) assess their task performance, and (c) select future tasks for improving their performance. Principles to manage intrinsic and extraneous load for performing learning\\u000a tasks, such as simple-to-complex ordering

Jeroen J. G. van Merriënboer; Dominique M. A. Sluijsmans

2009-01-01

202

The Digestive System [and] Instructor's Guide. Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional modular unit wlth instructor's guide provides materials on important aspects of one of the major systems of the human body--the digestive system. Its purpose is to introduce the student to the structures and functions of the human digestive system--and the interrelationships of the two--and to familiarize the student with some…

National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

203

Genetic Conditions: A Resource Book and Instructional Guide to Human Heredity and Birth Defects for Kindergarten Through Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for administrators, teachers, school nurses, and others involved in health education for kindergarten through adult education, the resource guide provides curriculum ideas for instruction in genetic conditions, heredity, and birth defects. Student learning objectives, content information, learning activities, and evaluation methods are…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

204

Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Air Conditioning, Refrigeration, and Heating. Volume II (Second Year).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This articulation guide contains 17 units of instruction for the second year of a two-year vocational program designed to prepare the high school graduate to install, maintain, and repair various types of residential and commercial heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration equipment. The units are designed to help the student to expand and…

Henderson, William Edward, Jr., Ed.

205

Bonneville Purchasing Instructions. Appendix 14A, Contracting Officer`s Technical Representatives` Guide for Services Contracts.  

SciTech Connect

This guide outlines the duties of BPA personnel designated as Contracting Officers Technical Representatives (COTRs). The BPA Administrator gives contracting officers (COs) in BPA responsibility and authority for awarding and administering contracts. COs are authorized to designate other BPA employees to act as their representatives for purposes of contract administration, from the time of contract award until final receipt and acceptance of the contracted services. COTRs are the individuals primarily relied upon to perform technical contract administration functions. Similar functions for supply and construction contracts are performed by engineering representatives, construction inspectors, and inspectors. Although this Guide is written primarily with the COTR in mind, the concept and operation of teamwork is essential throughout the entire process of contract administration. The CO administers the contract during performance, but rarely has expertise in all of the relevant technical areas. Therefore, CO decisions rely on input from a team. The COTR is an indispensable member of that team. The instructions in this Guide are designed to facilitate this essential CO-COTR cooperation. COTR duties are usually additional to those required of the COTR in his or her assigned line organization. The COTR is still accountable to the line supervisor for performance of regularly-assigned duties. These duties are to be reflected appropriately in performance appraisals and job descriptions. For contract administration duties, however, the COTR reports directly to, and is accountable only to, the CO. The COTR`s supervisor must allow sufficient time to ensure that the COTR can adequately monitor the contract for technical compliance. This Guide is designed for COTRs who are performing service contract (including intergovernmental contract) administration functions as an adjunct to their normal technical duties.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1993-07-01

206

WWC Review of the Report "The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Math Problem Solving of Middle School Students of Varying Ability." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent study, "The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Math Problem Solving of Middle School Students of Varying Ability," examined the effectiveness of "Solve It!," a program intended to improve the problem-solving skills of seventh-grade math students. During the program, students are taught cognitive strategies of…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

2014-01-01

207

Guided Cognitive Reframing of Adolescent-Father Conflict: Who Mexican American and European American Adolescents Seek and Why  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents may seek to understand family conflict by seeking out confidants. However, little is known about whom adolescents seek, whether and how such support helps youth, and the factors that predict which sources are sought. This chapter offers a conceptual model of guided cognitive reframing that emphasizes the behavioral, cognitive, and…

Cookston, Jeffrey T.; Olide, Andres F.; Adams, Michele A.; Fabricius, William V.; Parke, Ross D.

2012-01-01

208

Cognitive state monitoring and the design of adaptive instruction in digital environments: lessons learned from cognitive workload assessment using a passive brain-computer interface approach  

PubMed Central

According to Cognitive Load Theory (CLT), one of the crucial factors for successful learning is the type and amount of working-memory load (WML) learners experience while studying instructional materials. Optimal learning conditions are characterized by providing challenges for learners without inducing cognitive over- or underload. Thus, presenting instruction in a way that WML is constantly held within an optimal range with regard to learners' working-memory capacity might be a good method to provide these optimal conditions. The current paper elaborates how digital learning environments, which achieve this goal can be developed by combining approaches from Cognitive Psychology, Neuroscience, and Computer Science. One of the biggest obstacles that needs to be overcome is the lack of an unobtrusive method of continuously assessing learners' WML in real-time. We propose to solve this problem by applying passive Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) approaches to realistic learning scenarios in digital environments. In this paper we discuss the methodological and theoretical prospects and pitfalls of this approach based on results from the literature and from our own research. We present a strategy on how several inherent challenges of applying BCIs to WML and learning can be met by refining the psychological constructs behind WML, by exploring their neural signatures, by using these insights for sophisticated task designs, and by optimizing algorithms for analyzing electroencephalography (EEG) data. Based on this strategy we applied machine-learning algorithms for cross-task classifications of different levels of WML to tasks that involve studying realistic instructional materials. We obtained very promising results that yield several recommendations for future work. PMID:25538544

Gerjets, Peter; Walter, Carina; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Bogdan, Martin; Zander, Thorsten O.

2014-01-01

209

Should There Be a Three-Strikes Rule Against Pure Discovery Learning?: The Case for Guided Methods of Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author’s thesis is that there is sufficient research evidence to make any reasonable person skeptical about the benefits of discovery learning—practiced under the guise of cognitive constructivism or social constructivism—as a preferred instructional method. The author reviews research on discovery of problem-solving rules culminating in the 1960s, discovery of conservation strategies culminating in the 1970s, and discovery of LOGO

Richard E. Mayer

2004-01-01

210

Effectiveness of Cognitive Apprenticeship Instructional Methods in College Automotive Technology Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two automotive air-conditioning classes, an experimental group (n=12) conducted laboratory activities structured by cognitive apprenticeship principles; 14 controls attended lectures. Cognitive apprenticeship was significantly more effective in increasing information acquisition, troubleshooting knowledge, and diagnostic skills. (SK)

Cash, Joseph R.; And Others

1997-01-01

211

Is Inquiry Possible in Light of Accountability?: A Quantitative Comparison of the Relative Effectiveness of Guided Inquiry and Verification Laboratory Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this quantitative study, we compare the efficacy of Level 2, guided inquiry-based instruction to more traditional, verification laboratory instruction in supporting student performance on a standardized measure of knowledge of content, procedure, and nature of science. Our sample included 1,700 students placed in the classrooms of 12 middle…

Blanchard, Margaret R.; Southerland, Sherry A.; Osborne, Jason W.; Sampson, Victor D.; Annetta, Leonard A.; Granger, Ellen M.

2010-01-01

212

Doing Good Science in Middle School: A Practical Guide to Inquiry-Based Instruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just as middle schoolers are "wired" to learn in active, hands-on ways, this book is wired to help you spark a vital connection to these students to keep them tuned-in to science. Doing Good Science in Middle School combines practical insights about adolescent learners with what master teachers know about how to shift from passive, textbook-centered instruction to inquiry-based investigations. Chapters cover the psychology of the middle school learner; why inquiry and collaboration are the cornerstones of good science; integrating science, literacy, math, and technology; classroom management and safety; plus additional resources and sample forms. But at the book's core are 10 must-do activities. All are developmentally appropriate, inquiry- and Standards-based lessons of use to teachers at all experience levels (including preservice). Doing Good Science is a truly comprehensive practitioner's guide. It brings you ideas for presenting curriculum, strategies for reaching all students, and a research basis for justifying your practices in the classroom--all through a combination of humor and true stories from experienced educators who make a solid case for inquiry in real-world middle school.

Jackie Cleveland

2004-01-01

213

The Effect of Goal Instructions and Need for Cognition on Interactive Argumentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effect of goal instructions on students' reasoning and argumentation in an interactive context (discussing a topic on-line). Goal instructions specify the goal of a discussion. General goals (to persuade or explore) were crossed with specific goals (to generate reasons or counterarguments/rebuttals) in a 3x3 randomized…

Nussbaum, E.M.

2005-01-01

214

Screen-Capture Instructional Technology: A Cognitive Tool for Designing a Blended Multimedia Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online instruction has been demonstrated to increase the academic achievement for post-secondary students; however, little empirical investigation has been conducted on high school students learning from online multimedia instruction in the traditional classroom. This study investigated the knowledge acquisition, transfer, and favorability of…

Smith, Jeffrey G.; Smith, Rita L.

2012-01-01

215

Effects of Cognitive-Based Instruction on Mathematical Problem Solving by Learners with Mild Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examined the effects of different approaches to teaching learners with mild intellectual disabilities to solve mathematical word problems. Method: Thirty Chinese students with mild intellectual disabilities from a special school in Hong Kong were taught using conventional instruction, worked example instruction, and…

Chung, Kevin K. H.; Tam, Y. H.

2005-01-01

216

Teacher mediation of student learning in an inclusive group during guided inquiry science instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students with learning disabilities are increasingly educated in the general classroom. However, many students identified with LD do poorly in school as measured by statewide assessments and high school graduation rates. One possible explanation for such students' challenges in the general education setting is that many general educators do not feel prepared to teach students with LD. In the context of the movement for standards-based subject instruction in the disciplines, educators need to better understand instructional practices that support the learning of students with LD in standards-based content area classes. This is a close study of interactions among an inclusive small group of 3rd and 4th grade students and their teacher during a Guided Inquiry program of study on Motion. The group included two students identified with Learning Disabilities. The discourse analysis focuses on the pedagogical discourse moves of the teacher, an exemplary inclusive general educator. Descriptive analyses include a content analysis for broad themes of Science, Literacy, Social Dynamics and Procedures, as well as a more detailed analysis of Science Concepts and Reasoning as expressed in the talk. Findings for these analyses represent themes and science concepts as proportions of the talk. The study also identifies relationships between teacher pedagogical discourse moves and talk about science concepts about Motion and reasoning. These relationships are illustrated and further analyzed with brief examples from the transcripts. A secondary level of analysis proposes links between teacher practices and student learning as measured by pre and post assessments and student interviews. To identify these possible links, instances of student learning were located by comparing pre and post assessments for each group member. Those learning themes were then tracked to the transcripts and analyzed for instances of student take up of new ideas. Teacher moves supporting the enactment of the investigation were also analyzed, even if such moves did not directly contribute to conceptual development. Examples of such moves were found in the themes of Literacy, Social Dynamics and Science Procedures. The case of one group member traces his development of the understanding that speed is a relationship between distance and time.

Cutter, Jane Norton

217

The effects of the interaction between cognitive style and instructional strategy on the educational outcomes for a science exhibit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation examines factors which may affect the educational effectiveness of science exhibits. Exhibit effectiveness is the result of a complex interaction among exhibit features, cognitive characteristics of the museum visitor, and educational outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative proportions of field-dependent and field-independent visitors in the museum audience, and to ascertain if the cognitive style of visitors interacted with instructional strategies to affect the educational outcomes for a computer-based science exhibit. Cognitive style refers to the self-consistent modes of selecting and processing information that an individual employs throughout his or her perceptual and intellectual activities. It has a broad influence on many aspects of personality and behavior, including perception, memory, problem solving, interest, and even social behaviors and self-concept. As such, it constitutes essential dimensions of individual differences among museum visitors and has important implications for instructional design in the museum. The study was conducted in the spring of 1998 at the Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum in Chicago. Two experimental treatments of a computer-based exhibit were tested in the study. The first experimental treatment utilized strategies designed for field-dependent visitors that limited the text and provided more structure and cueing than the baseline treatment of the computer program. The other experimental treatment utilized strategies designed for field-independent visitors that provided hypothesis-testing and more contextual information. Approximately two-thirds of the visitors were field-independent. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicated that there was a significant interaction between cognitive style and instructional strategy that affected visitors' posttest scores on a multiple-choice test of the content. Field-independent visitors out- performed the field-dependent visitors in the control, baseline, and both experimental treatments. Both field-dependent and field-independent visitor posttest scores increased in the field-dependent experimental treatment and in the field-independent treatment. The most effective treatment for all visitors was the field-independent treatment. Criteria for designing a computer-based exhibit to meet the needs of all visitors were recommended. These included organized, concise text; a structured, rather than exploratory design; and cueing in the form of questions, bold fonts, underlining of important words and concepts, and captioned images.

Knappenberger, Naomi

218

New Instructional Materials on Africa South of the Sahara (1969-1970). A Supplement to Africa South of the Sahara: A Resource and Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide cites instructional materials on Africa south of the Sahara which have become available since February 1969. Acknowledging the probability of inaccuracies in the majority of the materials cited, the guide neither evaluates nor promotes items, but simply presents annotations of readings, textbooks, fact sheets, atlases, African…

Beyer, Barry K.

219

The Impact of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Deaf Learners: An International Comparative Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher cohorts in England and China received special training in techniques for teaching higher-level critical and creative cognitive strategies to deaf learners. Evaluation after 6 months of classroom implementation found students improved in reasoning and critical (but not creative) thinking and teachers developed cognitive terminology and…

Martin, David S.; Craft, Anna; Sheng, Zhang Ning

2001-01-01

220

The impact of cognitive strategy instruction on deaf learners: an international comparative study.  

PubMed

Teacher cohorts in England and China received special training in techniques for teaching higher-level critical and creative cognitive strategies to deaf learners. Both cohorts implemented the strategies in the classroom at least twice weekly for 6 months. Measures included Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (1959), a systematic observation checklist for cognitive behaviors (Martin & Craft, 1998), and critical and creative problem situations to which students had to respond. Results were compared with those from a study of similar learners in the United States (Martin & Jonas, 1985), and little difference was found. Students in all three countries improved in reasoning, devising real-world problem solutions involving critical thinking (but not creative thinking), using cognitive vocabulary in the classroom, and expressing others' viewpoints. Postintervention focus groups showed teachers in China used a more invariant sequence in teaching the cognitive strategies, but teachers in all three countries experienced similar expansion in cognitive terminology and self-perceptions as teachers of problem solving. PMID:11816861

Martin, D S; Craft, A; Sheng, Z N

2001-10-01

221

The effect of goal instructions and need for cognition on interactive argumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effect of goal instructions on students’ reasoning and argumentation in an interactive context (discussing a topic on-line). Goal instructions specify the goal of a discussion. General goals (to persuade or explore) were crossed with specific goals (to generate reasons or counterarguments\\/rebuttals) in a 3×3 randomized design using 224 undergraduates. The design also controlled for need for

E. Michael Nussbaum

2005-01-01

222

Exploring the Impact of Prior Knowledge and Appropriate Feedback on Students' Perceived Cognitive Load and Learning Outcomes: Animation-Based Earthquakes Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to develop an animation-based curriculum and to evaluate the effectiveness of animation-based instruction; the report involved the assessment of prior knowledge and the appropriate feedback approach, for the purpose of reducing perceived cognitive load and improving learning. The curriculum was comprised of five subunits…

Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Tseng, Kuan-Yun; Cho, Chung-Wen; Barufaldi, James P.; Lin, Mei-Shin; Chang, Chun-Yen

2012-01-01

223

The Impact of Modified Multi-Component Cognitive Strategy Instruction in the Acquisition of Metacognitive Strategy Knowledge in the Text Comprehension Process of Students with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of Modified Multi-component Cognitive Strategy Instruction on the metacognitive strategy knowledge used for the comprehension process of descriptive texts for students with mild mental retardation (MMR). Three students with MMR from inclusive classes participated in the study. The study was…

Doganay Bilgi, Arzu; Ozmen, E. Ruya

2014-01-01

224

The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Knowledge of Math Problem-Solving Processes of Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of "Solve It!" instruction on students' knowledge of math problem-solving strategies. "Solve It!" is a cognitive strategy intervention designed to improve the math problem solving of middle school students with learning disabilities (LD). Participants included seventh- and eighth-grade students with LD (n…

Krawec, Jennifer; Huang, Jia; Montague, Marjorie; Kressler, Benikia; de Alba, Amanda Melia

2013-01-01

225

Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (Project CALLA), Community School District 2 Special Alternative Instruction Program. Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OREA Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (Project CALLA) was a federally funded program serving 960 limited-English-proficient students in 10 Manhattan (New York) elementary schools in 1992-93 its third year of operation. The project provided instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), mathematics, science, and social studies in…

Lynch, Joanne

226

The Effect of Sequence of Instruction on Students' Cognitive Preferences and Recall in the Context of a Problem-Oriented Method of Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of two sequences of instruction--theory-to-application and application-to-theory--on medical students' cognitive preferences in preclinical science teaching. Results indicate that presenting an example of the clinical application of biochemical theory before presenting the theory itself increased students'…

Boreham, N. C.; And Others

1985-01-01

227

The Use of Cognitive Task Analysis to Capture Expertise for Tracheal Extubation Training in Anesthesiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive task analysis (CTA) is a knowledge elicitation technique employed for acquiring expertise from domain specialists to support the effective instruction of novices. CTA guided instruction has proven effective in improving surgical skills training for medical students and surgical residents. The standard, current method of teaching clinical…

Embrey, Karen K.

2012-01-01

228

Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women with Binge Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation…

Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

2012-01-01

229

Cognitive Models of Students' Language Structure: The View from Intelligent Computer Assisted Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods and approaches used at the U.S. Army Research Institute to investigate intelligent computer-assisted foreign language instruction are discussed. The research described explores the use of hypertext and natural language processing for improving language training by articulating student knowledge structures and for providing, incidentally, a…

Psotka, Joseph; And Others

230

Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Math Problem Solving of Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to improve mathematical problem solving for middle school students with learning disabilities by implementing a research-based instructional program in inclusive general education math classes. A total of 40 middle schools in a large urban district were matched on state assessment performance level (low, medium, and…

Montague, Marjorie; Enders, Craig; Dietz, Samantha

2011-01-01

231

When Language of Instruction and Language of Application Differ: Cognitive Costs of Bilingual Mathematics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bilingual education programs implicitly assume that the acquired knowledge is represented in a language-independent way. This assumption, however, stands in strong contrast to research findings showing that information may be represented in a way closely tied to the specific language of instruction and learning. The present study aims to examine…

Saalbach, Henrik; Eckstein, Doris; Andri, Nicoletta; Hobi, Reto; Grabner, Roland H.

2013-01-01

232

The Influence of Visual Cognitive Style when Learning from Instructional Animations and Static Pictures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a 2 x 2 design, we examined the role of visual cognitive style in two multimedia-based learning environments (text plus static pictures/animations). A statistically significant interaction was obtained for deeper comprehension: Highly developed visualizers (HDV) who learned with static pictures performed better than HDV who learned with…

Hoffler, Tim N.; Prechtl, Helmut; Nerdel, Claudia

2010-01-01

233

Cognitive Style and Reading: Implications from Field Dependence Research for Reading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of all cognitive styles, field dependence/independence (FD/I) is by far the most researched and has the greatest application potential to educational problems. Briefly stated, the FD/I dimension refers to people's ability to experience and interpret their environment in terms of a global versus analytic continuum. Field dependents are likely to…

Rasinski, Timothy

234

Technology, Learning and Instruction: Distributed Cognition in the Secondary English Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we analyse interactions between secondary students and pre-service teachers in an online environment in order to understand how their meaning-making processes embody distributed cognition. We begin by providing a theoretical review of the ways in which literacy learning is distributed across learners, objects, tools, symbols,…

Gomez, Mary Louise; Schieble, Melissa; Curwood, Jen Scott; Hassett, Dawnene

2010-01-01

235

Instructional Design Consequences of an Analogy between Evolution by Natural Selection and Human Cognitive Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolution by natural selection may becharacterized as a system in which a largestore of genetic information will persistindefinitely while it remains coordinated withits environment but will continuously producesmall random variations that are tested forenvironmental effectiveness. In anyenvironment, effective variations will persistwhile ineffective variations will disappear.Similarly, human cognitive architectureincludes a large store of information held inlong-term memory that coordinates our cognitiveactivities.

John Sweller

2004-01-01

236

Striving for Disciplinary Literacy Instruction: Cognitive Tools in a World History Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors present a case study of a world history teacher's mediation of her students' world historical thinking and writing through unit-level cognitive tools. They analyze both scaffolding and disciplinary tools that the teacher constructed for her students in order to improve their world historical thinking, and the degree to which the…

Girard, Brian; Harris, Lauren McArthur

2012-01-01

237

Assessment of Higher Order Thinking Skills. Current Perspectives on Cognition, Learning and Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume examines the assessment of higher order thinking skills from the perspectives of applied cognitive psychology and measurement theory. The volume considers a variety of higher order thinking skills, including problem solving, critical thinking, argumentation, decision making, creativity, metacognition, and self-regulation. Fourteen…

Schraw, Gregory, Ed.; Robinson, Daniel H., Ed.

2011-01-01

238

Professional Development that Supports the Teaching of Cognitive Reading Strategy Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we describe and report on the results of a study in Texas that tested 2 models of professional development for classroom teachers as a way of improving their practices and increasing the reading achievement of their students. To meet this goal, 44 participating teachers in grades 2-8 learned to teach their students cognitive

Sailors, Misty; Price, Larry R.

2010-01-01

239

How an Understanding of Cognition and Metacognition Translates into More Effective Writing Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion paper investigates the pedagogical implications of the cognitive process writing model proposed by Flower and Hayes (1981). The research of Flower and Hayes (1981) provides insights into how writers go about planning, generating, and revising during the process of writing. Flower and Hayes (1981) believed that this shift in focus,…

O'Brien-Moran, Michael; Soiferman, L. Karen

2010-01-01

240

Does Instructional Format Really Matter? Cognitive Load Theory, Multimedia and Teaching English Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a quasi-experimental study on the effects of multimedia teaching and learning in English Literature--a subject which places high cognitive load on students. A large-scale study was conducted in 4 high-achieving secondary schools to examine the differences made to students' learning and performance by the use of multimedia and…

Martin, Stewart

2012-01-01

241

Testing and Measurement Potentials of Microcomputers for Cognitive Style Research and Individualized Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Microcomputer versions of three commonly used cognitive style measurement instruments are described and demonstrated: the Leveling-Sharpening House Test (LSHT) (Santostefano, 1964); Lowenfeld's Successive Impressions Test I (SIT-I) (1945); and the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (Witkin, Oltman, Ruskin, and Karp, 1971). At present, many…

Burroway, Robert L.

242

Learning strategy preferences, verbal-visual cognitive styles, and multimedia preferences for continuing engineering education instructional design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A literature search revealed very little information on how to teach working engineers, which became the motivation for this research. Effective training is important for many reasons such as preventing accidents, maximizing fuel efficiency, minimizing pollution emissions, and reducing equipment downtime. The conceptual framework for this study included the development of a new instructional design framework called the Multimedia Cone of Abstraction (MCoA). This was developed by combining Dale's Cone of Experience and Mayer's Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. An anonymous survey of 118 engineers from a single Midwestern manufacturer was conducted to determine their demographics, learning strategy preferences, verbal-visual cognitive styles, and multimedia preferences. The learning strategy preference profile and verbal-visual cognitive styles of the sample were statistically significantly different than the general population. The working engineers included more Problem Solvers and were much more visually-oriented than the general population. To study multimedia preferences, five of the seven levels in the MCoA were used. Eight types of multimedia were compared in four categories (types in parantheses): text (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), non-interactive dynamic graphics (animation and video), and interactive dynamic graphics (simulated virtual reality and real virtual reality). The first phase of the study examined multimedia preferences within a category. Participants compared multimedia types in pairs on dual screens using relative preference, rating, and ranking. Surprisingly, the more abstract multimedia (text, drawing, animation, and simulated virtual reality) were preferred in every category to the more concrete multimedia (narration, photograph, video, and real virtual reality), despite the fact that most participants had relatively little prior subject knowledge. However, the more abstract graphics were only slightly preferred to the more concrete graphics. In the second phase, the more preferred multimedia types in each category from the first phase were compared against each other using relative preference, rating, and ranking and overall rating and ranking. Drawing was the most preferred multimedia type overall, although only slightly more than animation and simulated virtual reality. Text was a distant fourth. These results suggest that instructional content for continuing engineering education should include problem solving and should be highly visual.

Baukal, Charles Edward, Jr.

243

Cognitive, demographic, and motivational factors as indicators of help-seeking in supplemental instruction  

E-print Network

Understanding of Help-seeking? Academic Help-seeking??????????. Characteristics of Help-seekers??????... Supplemental Instruction?????????... Summary of the Review of the Literature??... III METHODOLOGY??????????????? Population...-seeking is embarrassment although, as noted by Shapiro (1983), seeking help does not always lead to embarrassment. The mitigating factor is how the help-seeker interprets his or her need for help. Other lines of inquiry have looked into self- esteem (Nadler & Mayseless...

McGee, Joel Vick

2005-08-29

244

The influence of visual cognitive style when learning from instructional animations and static pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a 2×2 design, we examined the role of visual cognitive style in two multimedia-based learning environments (text plus static pictures\\/animations). A statistically significant interaction was obtained for deeper comprehension: Highly developed visualizers (HDV) who learned with static pictures performed better than HDV who learned with animations, and less developed visualizers (LDV) performed the same with static pictures or animations.For

Tim N. Höffler; Helmut Prechtl; Claudia Nerdel

2010-01-01

245

The mysterious atmosphere of the Earth. ATLAS: Instruction guide with activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This teacher's guide presents lesson plans addressing various aspects of atmospheric physics and chemistry; the interactions between land, air, and sea; air pollution; and the mechanisms of climate change. The science concepts in this guide have been designed to complement the middle school curriculum. However, many activities can be used with younger or older students.

1993-01-01

246

From Incarceration to Productive Lifestyle. Making the Transition: An Instructional Guide for Incarcerated Youth Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, which is intended for instructors of incarcerated youth, contains materials for use in helping incarcerated youth make the transition from incarceration to a productive life. Presented first are an overview of the project during which the guide was developed and a brief history of educational programming for incarcerated youth in New…

Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

247

Guiding students to develop an understanding of scientific inquiry: a science skills approach to instruction and assessment.  

PubMed

New approaches for teaching and assessing scientific inquiry and practices are essential for guiding students to make the informed decisions required of an increasingly complex and global society. The Science Skills approach described here guides students to develop an understanding of the experimental skills required to perform a scientific investigation. An individual teacher's investigation of the strategies and tools she designed to promote scientific inquiry in her classroom is outlined. This teacher-driven action research in the high school biology classroom presents a simple study design that allowed for reciprocal testing of two simultaneous treatments, one that aimed to guide students to use vocabulary to identify and describe different scientific practices they were using in their investigations-for example, hypothesizing, data analysis, or use of controls-and another that focused on scientific collaboration. A knowledge integration (KI) rubric was designed to measure how students integrated their ideas about the skills and practices necessary for scientific inquiry. KI scores revealed that student understanding of scientific inquiry increased significantly after receiving instruction and using assessment tools aimed at promoting development of specific inquiry skills. General strategies for doing classroom-based action research in a straightforward and practical way are discussed, as are implications for teaching and evaluating introductory life sciences courses at the undergraduate level. PMID:24591508

Stone, Elisa M

2014-01-01

248

Guiding Students to Develop an Understanding of Scientific Inquiry: A Science Skills Approach to Instruction and Assessment  

PubMed Central

New approaches for teaching and assessing scientific inquiry and practices are essential for guiding students to make the informed decisions required of an increasingly complex and global society. The Science Skills approach described here guides students to develop an understanding of the experimental skills required to perform a scientific investigation. An individual teacher's investigation of the strategies and tools she designed to promote scientific inquiry in her classroom is outlined. This teacher-driven action research in the high school biology classroom presents a simple study design that allowed for reciprocal testing of two simultaneous treatments, one that aimed to guide students to use vocabulary to identify and describe different scientific practices they were using in their investigations—for example, hypothesizing, data analysis, or use of controls—and another that focused on scientific collaboration. A knowledge integration (KI) rubric was designed to measure how students integrated their ideas about the skills and practices necessary for scientific inquiry. KI scores revealed that student understanding of scientific inquiry increased significantly after receiving instruction and using assessment tools aimed at promoting development of specific inquiry skills. General strategies for doing classroom-based action research in a straightforward and practical way are discussed, as are implications for teaching and evaluating introductory life sciences courses at the undergraduate level. PMID:24591508

Stone, Elisa M.

2014-01-01

249

Guided Cognitive Reframing of Adolescent-Father Conflict: Who Mexican American and European Adolescents Seek and Why  

PubMed Central

Adolescents may seek to understand family conflict by seeking out confidants. However, little is known about whom adolescents seek, whether and how such support helps youth, and the factors that predict which sources are sought. This chapter offers a conceptual model of guided cognitive reframing that emphasizes the behavioral, cognitive, and affective implications of confidant support as well as individual, family, and cultural factors linked to support seeking. We present empirical data from 392 families of 7th graders of Mexican and European ancestry to predict whether adolescents seek mothers, co-resident fathers, and other sources and provide directions for subsequent research. PMID:22407883

Cookston, Jeffrey T; Olide, Andres F.; Adams, Michele; Fabricius, William V.; Braver, Sanford L.; Parke, Ross D.

2013-01-01

250

Mathematics Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities or Difficulty Learning Mathematics: A Guide for Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 16-page report summarizes the findings of meta-research on effective practices for students with learning disabilities or difficulties learning mathematics. The work was conducted by the Center on Instruction and compiled in the report "Mathematics Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities or Difficulty Learning Mathematics: A Synthesis of the Intervention Research". This summary highlights the seven most effective strategies as determined by the research report. Each strategy is detailed, a discussion of how it is to be utilized is provided, and evidence from the report is given.

Madhavi Jayanthi

2008-01-01

251

Cognitive style and the effects of two instructional treatments on the acquisition and transfer of the ability to control variables: A longitudinal study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term retention effects of two methods of instruction used one year earlier to teach field-dependent (FD) and field-independent (FI) sixth-grade students to control variables and to transfer this ability to novel tasks were investigated. The study also examined whether or not uninstructed seventh-grade students had acquired this ability on their own. Results indicated that Treatment I produced better retention over time for both FD and FI students than did Treatment II. Treatment II was more effective for FI students than for FD students. Significant main effects for treatment and cognitive style were found on each controlling variables task when the abilities of instructed and uninstructed seventh-grade students were compared. Field-dependent students who had received Treatment I significantly outperformed FD students who had received Treatment II and FD students who had received no instruction on how to control variables. Field-dependent students who had received Treatment II performed about as well as their counterparts who had received no instruction. Field-independent students who had received Treatment I significantly outperformed FI students who had received Treatment II on two of three measures and FI students who had received no instruction on all measures. Field-independent student who had received Treatment II significantly outperformed FI students who had received no instruction on two of three measures.

Strawitz, Barbara M.

252

dear educator, The instructional resources in National Geographic's Sea Monsters: A Prehistoric Adventure Educator's Guide  

E-print Network

dear educator, The instructional resources in National Geographic's Sea Monsters: A Prehistoric, 5 #12;T he film Sea Monsters: A Prehistoric Adventure transports students 82 million years back, revealing fossil evidence of this extraordinary--yet little known--time. In Sea Monsters: A Prehistoric

Mathis, Wayne N.

253

Discrimination and Instructional Comprehension: Guided Discretion, Racial Bias, and the Death Penalty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study links two previously unrelated lines of research: the lack of comprehension of capital penalty-phase jury instructions and discriminatory death sentencing. Jury-eligible subjects were randomly assigned to view one of four versions of a simulated capital penalty trial in which the race of defendant (Black or White) and the race of victim (Black or White) were varied orthogonally. Dependent

Mona Lynch; Craig Haney

2000-01-01

254

Discrimination and instructional comprehension: guided discretion, racial bias, and the death penalty.  

PubMed

This study links two previously unrelated lines of research: the lack of comprehension of capital penalty-phase jury instructions and discriminatory death sentencing. Jury-eligible subjects were randomly assigned to view one of four versions of a simulated capital penalty trial in which the race of defendant (Black or White) and the race of victim (Black or White) were varied orthogonally. Dependent measures included a sentencing verdict (life without the possibility of parole or the death penalty), ratings of penalty phase evidence, and a test of instructional comprehension. Results indicated that instructional comprehension was poor overall and that, although Black defendants were treated only slightly more punitively than White defendants in general, discriminatory effects were concentrated among participants whose comprehension was poorest. In addition, the use of penalty phase evidence differed as a function of race of defendant and whether the participant sentenced the defendant to life or death. The study suggest that racially biased and capricious death sentencing may be in part caused or exacerbated by the inability to comprehend penalty phase instructions. PMID:10846376

Lynch, M; Haney, C

2000-06-01

255

Laboratory Manual (For Concrete Instruction Course); Instructor's Guide, Pilot Program Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This laboratory manual, prepared for a 2-year program in junior colleges and technical institutes, is designed to accompany the instructional materials to train persons for employment as technicians in the cement and concrete industries. Included are 16 laboratory assignments for each of the following: (1) Principles of Concrete, (2) Concrete in…

Portland Cement Association, Cleveland, OH.

256

Effects of Advance Organizer and Guided-Self-Discovery Instruction on Preschool Children's Understanding of Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of advance organizer instruction on the acquisition of number, mass, area, quantity, and length conservation concepts in 3- and 4-year-old children are examined. Participating in the experiment were 28 children, a total of 14 in respective experimental and control groups. All children were pretested and determined to be nonconservers.…

Lawton, J. T.; Reddy, P.

257

Explicitly Teaching Social Skills Schoolwide: Using a Matrix to Guide Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Socially skilled students are more successful in school. Just like academic skills, social skills need to be explicitly taught. Students, including students who display at-risk behavior, benefit when social skills instruction is delivered schoolwide as part of a comprehensive intervention approach. This article presents a seven-step action…

Simonsen, Brandi; Myers, Diane; Everett, Susannah; Sugai, George; Spencer, Rebecca; LaBreck, Chris

2012-01-01

258

INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FOR THE FIFTH GRADE. A TEACHER GUIDE, SEMESTER II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FOR FIFTH GRADE HAS BEEN DIVIDED INTO FIVE AREAS--ART, FOREIGN LANGUAGE, MUSIC, PHYSICAL EDUCATION, AND SCIENCE. A CALENDAR IS GIVEN TO CORRELATE DATES AND SUBJECT MATTER. A PREVIEW OF THE CONTENT OF EACH LESSON IS MADE AVAILABLE, AND FOLLOWUP ACTIVITIES ARE SUGGESTED TO REINFORCE THE LEARNING. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ART…

PELIKAN, ALFRED; AND OTHERS

259

Informed Choices for Struggling Adolescent Readers: A Research-Based Guide to Instructional Programs and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comprehensive resource arms classroom teachers and administrators with information to meet today's adolescent literacy challenges. In Part I, the authors highlight research on what works with adolescent learners and discuss how to implement instructional programs to fit the unique needs of specific schools or districts. Part II presents a…

Deshler, Donald D.; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan; Biancarosa, Gina; Nair, Marnie

2007-01-01

260

Laboratory Instructions and Study Guide for Human Anatomy. Part Two, Fourth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the process of studying the specific course content of human anatomy, students are being educated to expand their vocabulary, learn to deal successfully with complex tasks, and use a specific way of thinking. This is the second volume in a set of laboratory instructions and study notes which are designed to accompany a lecture series in…

Conrey, Kathleen

261

Use of Cultural Styles or Repertoires of Experience to Guide Instruction: What Difference Does It Make?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators are seeking to meet student needs in increasingly diverse university classrooms. Two contrasting ways of responding to cultural difference are planning instruction on the basis of cultural styles or repertoires of culturally-based experiences (Gutierrez & Rogoff, 2003). Use of learning styles to address individual differences in learning…

Maccleave, Anne; Eghan, Felicia

2010-01-01

262

Environmental Design: Instructional Guide and Resource for Elementary and Secondary School Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional units with suggested resources and appropriate activities for teaching environmental design to students in grades 6-12 are presented. An overview of program goals and suggested environmental awareness exercises and projects is followed by six illustrative units. The first unit (grade 6) focuses on environmental awareness and…

Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

263

The Systematic Development of Instruction: An Overview and Basic Guide to the Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The systems approach in education is a management tool that allows individuals to examine all aspects of a problem, to interrelate the effects of one set of decisions to another, and to optimally use the resources at hand to solve the problem. Five systems approaches which have been used in the successful development of instruction at the…

Twelker, Paul A.; And Others

264

Copyright and Instructional Technologies. A Guide to Fair Use and Permissions Procedures. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document examines some of the questions concerning copyright law and the educational use of equipment that can easily duplicate, store, and transmit instructional materials. It is argued that a delicate balance must be achieved between protection for copyright holders and access for educational purposes to audiovisual works, music, computer…

Talab, R. S.

265

Utah College Guide Advising Corps Application Information and Instructions The Utah College Advising Corps (UCAC) is a new state-wide initiative funded by the Jack Kent Cooke  

E-print Network

Utah College Guide Advising Corps Application Information and Instructions The Utah College, the University of Utah and the State of Utah. College Advisors will work in high schools around the state and community members to gain support for the Utah College Advising Corps program. AmeriCorps VISTA is also

Capecchi, Mario R.

266

Competency Profile Development for the (Supervisory) Management Curriculum. Marketing Education Teacher's Resource Guide. Competency Listing, Expected Student Learning Outcomes and Cross-Referenced Instructional Materials by Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide for the marketing education teacher provides a competency listing, expected student learning outcomes, and cross-referenced instructional materials by competencies for supervisory management. The first section discusses 1991 revisions to the Missouri marketing education core curriculum for supervisory management. The processes…

Smith, Clifton L.

267

SDSUF PR -28-0479-0 RATER Before marking this report, read your "Guide to Performance Evaluation" and the instructions on page 2.  

E-print Network

SDSUF ­PR -28-0479-0 RATER ­ Before marking this report, read your "Guide to Performance Evaluation Date SUMMARY EVALUATION Supervisory Performance PROCESSED ON SM BY NEW MERIT DATE: #12;#12;" and the instructions on page 2. REPORT OF PERFORMANCE SAN DIEGO STATE UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION An EEO/AA Employer

Ponce, V. Miguel

268

Transfer Course Petition Instructions We use the criteria described in the Transfer Course Petition Guide when reviewing all coursework for transfer  

E-print Network

Guide when reviewing all coursework for transfer credit approval and for Liberal Education and Writing follow the instructions below: 1. Complete the Transfer Credit Petition Form if you are petitioning, transfer credit, and religious studies petitions Maggie Gardner 612-625-4303 m-gard@umn.edu Military credit

Amin, S. Massoud

269

Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, Vol. II, Part D. An Instructor's Guide for Use of Instructional Material in Wastewater Technology Training Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's guide, designed for use with the curriculum, Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, represents a two-year wastewater technology instructional program based on performance objectives designed to prepare undergraduate students to enter occupations in water and wastewater treatment plant operations and maintenance. This…

Stoakes, K. C.; And Others

270

An Instructional Guide Concerning the Highly Successful Teaching & Motivating Practices of Jaime Escalante for the Escalante Math Project at East Los Angeles College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional guide, one product of a large-scale research project on Jaime Escalante and his Mathematics and Science Program, describes the teaching and motivating strategies that he uses to bring about high academic achievement among poor minority urban youth in Los Angeles (California). The first part of five describes a pilot test in…

Kester, Donald

271

The Effects of Guided Reading Instruction on the Reading Comprehension and Reading Attitudes of Fourth-Grade At-Risk Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

America's public schools have faced challenges in educating students, particularly those identified as at risk. According to the No Child Left Behind Act, nearly 70% of 4th grade students are unable to perform on a basic level on national reading tests. The research problem in this study addressed the significance of guided reading instruction,…

Bruce, Laquanda T.

2010-01-01

272

Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Air Conditioning, Refrigeration, and Heating (Environmental Control System Installer/Servicer). Edition I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This articulation guide contains 17 units of instruction for the first year of a two-year vocational program designed to prepare the high school graduate to install, maintain, and repair various types of residential and commercial heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration equipment. The units are to introduce the student to fundamental theories…

Henderson, William Edward, Jr., Ed.

273

Guide the Development and Improvement of Instruction. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series. Leadership and Training Series No. 58B-8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide pre- and inservice vocational education administrators with the skills necessary to guide the development and improvement of instruction, this competency-based learning module consists of an introduction and three sequential learning experiences. Each learning experience contains an overview, required and optional learning…

Quinn, Karen M.; And Others

274

Guiding Visual Attention in Decision Making--Verbal Instructions versus Flicker Cueing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceptual-cognitive processes play an important role in open, fast-paced, interceptive sports such as tennis, basketball, and soccer. Visual information processing has been shown to distinguish skilled from less skilled athletes. Research on the perceptual demands of sports performance has raised questions regarding athletes' visual information…

Canal-Bruland, Rouwen

2009-01-01

275

A Note on Language of Instruction, Teaching and Cognitive Outcomes of Science Instruction in Primary Schools in Kisii and Kwale Districts, Kenya.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questions Kenyan language instructional policy, arguing exclusive use of English for science instruction confuses students and impedes learning. Offers examples the authors observed in elementary classrooms in Kisii and Kwale districts when teacher use of English synonyms rather than Kiswahili words led to confusion, misunderstanding, and…

Eisemon, Thomas Owen; And Others

1989-01-01

276

Metal Trades Modules. Vocational Behavioral Objectives: A Guide for Individualizing Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum guide focuses on the metal trades area at the secondary level of vocational education and industrial arts. It addresses the subject in behavioral terms, as prominent components of the career education concept. Presenting two skill modules, sheetmetal working and welding, the objectives presented are designed to be compatible with…

Westinghouse Learning Corp., New York, NY.

277

WAVAI Curriculum Guide for Instruction in Wisconsin High Schools. 1975 Revision. Bulletin No. 5011.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to aid the development of vocational education programs in agriculture in local school districts. Major program objectives, good learning conditions, program evaluation, suggested teaching methods, and Wisconsin's philosophy and procedures in developing occupational experience programs in vocational agriculture/agribusiness…

Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Bureau for Career and Manpower Development.

278

Indian River County Environmental Education Instructional Guide. Social Studies, Eighth Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching guide presents social studies activities for eighth graders to learn about environmental concepts, problems, and responsibilities. Part of a series for teachers, students, and community members, it is based on the Indian River County environment in Florida. The introduction identifies the county's natural resources, wildlife, and…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

279

Developing Professionalism in the Child Care Industry. An Instructional Program Guide for Child Care Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program guide documents a child care job family curriculum that develops competence in generic work force education skills through two minicourses: Basic Issues in Child Care and Child Development Associate. An annotated table of contents lists a brief description of the questions answered in each section. An introduction presents a program…

Johnson, Ann; And Others

280

Guide to Basic Citizenship Competencies: Recommendations to Compare Curriculum Materials, Assess Classroom Instruction, and Set Goals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of the Basic Citizenship Competencies Project, this guide is intended for teachers, supervisors, and curriculum committees. It provides diagnostic guidelines which aid in assessing needs, setting goals, and making systematic judgments about citizenship education programs and materials. The objective of the entire project is to assist in…

Turner, Mary Jane

281

Assist Program 1: The Moderately/Severely Handicapped. Teacher's Guide. ASSIST: Associate Instructional Support for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second of two documents designed for training paraprofessionals to work with moderately and severely/profoundly handicapped students, the teacher's guide presents information on preservice and inservice education. Preservice information to be read by the paraprofessional touches on the following topics (sample subtopics in parentheses):…

Brantlinger, Ellen; And Others

282

Indian River County Environmental Education Instructional Guide. Social Studies, Grade Nine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching guide presents social studies activities to help ninth graders learn about environmental concepts, problems, and responsibilities. Based on the Indian River County environment in Florida, it is part of a series for teachers, students, and community members. The introduction describes the county's geography, natural resources,…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

283

Instructional Support for Teachers and Guided Feedback for Students in an Adaptive eLearning Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive Tutorials are Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) in which students typically interact with a simulation towards a task-goal while being guided and remediated. Adaptive Tutorials can exhibit different kinds of feedback: students are given guidance based on their interaction, and teachers can also receive feedback on their own authoring choices to drive reflection and content adaptation. This paper will discuss

Nadine Marcus; Dror Ben-Naim; Michael Bain

2011-01-01

284

Individual Differences, Computers, and Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a conceptual foundation for the development of hypermedia as an instructional tool for addressing individual differences in learning styles. Highlights include a literature review; computers and instruction; individual differences, computers, and instruction; cognitive controls; cognitive styles and learning; personality types; and future…

Ayersman, David J.; Minden, Avril von

1995-01-01

285

Coming to see objects of knowledge: Guiding student conceptualization through teacher embodied instruction in a robotics programming class  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis explores the questions of how a teacher guides students to see concepts, and the role of gesture and gesture viewpoints in mediating the process of guidance. To examine these questions, two sociocultural theoretical frameworks--Radford's cultural-semiotic theory of knowledge objectification (e.g., 2003), and Goldman's Points of Viewing theory (e.g., 2007)--were applied to conduct a microanalytic, explanatory case study of the instructional activity of an exemplary teacher and his students in a middle school robotics programming class. According to Radford, students acquire concepts as they draw upon semiotic resources such as language and gesture to generalize and objectify initially concrete perceptions and actions. I applied Radford's framework to explain the mediations that a teacher might enact in guiding students to objectify and see concepts. Furthermore, I focused on gesture as semiotic means because of emergent research on gesture's role in communicating the visuospatial imagery that underlies math/ scientific concepts. I extended the view of gestures to the viewpoints constructed in gesture, and applied Goldman's theory to explain how perspectives might be actively constructed and shared in the process of guiding student conceptualization. Data was collected over a semester through participant observation, field notes, teacher and student interviews, and reviews of artifacts. Multimodal microanalyses were conducted on video data from eight class sessions. The findings provide confirmations and some disconfirmations about the applicability of Radford's and Goldman's theories for explaining a teacher's process of guiding student conceptualization. Notably, some of Radford's notions about de-contextualization and symbolic generalizations were not confirmed. Overall, the findings are summarized through three themes including, grounding, and perceptual organizers as two ways that gesture and other means served to both index and identify action-perception schemes for bridging to the symbolic level of programming concepts and conceptual structures. A third theme of iteration, shifting, and layering described the quality of the teacher's process, and the importance of constructing shifting and multiple viewpoints in gesture and speech, as Goldman's theory proposed. Finally, implications for designing educational applications that draw upon gesture as mediational means are discussed.

Kwah, Helen

286

The effects of using screencasting as a multimedia pre-training tool to manage the intrinsic cognitive load of chemical equilibrium instruction for advanced high school chemistry students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemistry is a complex knowledge domain. Specifically, research notes that Chemical Equilibrium presents greater cognitive challenges than other topics in chemistry. Cognitive Load Theory describes the impact a subject, and the learning environment, have on working memory. Intrinsic load is the facet of Cognitive Load Theory that explains the complexity innate to complex subjects. The purpose of this study was to build on the limited research into intrinsic cognitive load, by examining the effects of using multimedia screencasts as a pre-training technique to manage the intrinsic cognitive load of chemical equilibrium instruction for advanced high school chemistry students. A convenience sample of 62 fourth-year high school students enrolled in an advanced chemistry course from a co-ed high school in urban San Francisco were given a chemical equilibrium concept pre-test. Upon conclusion of the pre-test, students were randomly assigned to two groups: pre-training and no pre-training. The pre-training group received a 10 minute and 52 second pre-training screencast that provided definitions, concepts and an overview of chemical equilibrium. After pre-training both group received the same 50-minute instructional lecture. After instruction, all students were given a chemical equilibrium concept post-test. Independent sample t-tests were conducted to examine differences in performance and intrinsic load. No significant differences in performance or intrinsic load, as measured by ratings of mental effort, were observed on the pre-test. Significant differences in performance, t(60)=3.70, p=.0005, and intrinsic load, t(60)=5.34, p=.0001, were observed on the post-test. A significant correlation between total performance scores and total mental effort ratings was also observed, r(60)=-0.44, p=.0003. Because no significant differences in prior knowledge were observed, it can be concluded that pre-training was successful at reducing intrinsic load. Moreover, a significant correlation between performance and mental effort strengthens the argument that performance measures can be used to approximate intrinsic cognitive load.

Musallam, Ramsey

287

Optimizing the orchestration of resemiotization with teacher "talk moves": A model of guided-inquiry instruction in middle school science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current conceptualization of science set forth by the National Research Council (2008) is one of science as a social activity, rather than a view of science as a fixed body of knowledge. This requires teachers to consider how communication, processing, and meaning-making contribute to science learning. It also requires teachers to think deeply about what constitutes knowledge and understanding in science, and what types of instruction are most conducive to preparing students to participate meaningfully in the society of tomorrow. Because argumentation is the prominent form of productive talk leading to the building of new scientific knowledge, one indicator of successful inquiry lies in students' abilities to communicate their scientific understandings in scientific argumentation structures. The overarching goal of this study is to identify factors that promote effective inquiry-based instruction in middle school science classrooms, as evidenced in students' abilities to engage in quality argumentation with their peers. Three specific research questions were investigated: (1) What factors do teachers identify in their practice as significant to the teaching and learning of science? (2) What factors do students identify as significant to their learning of science? and (3) What factors affect students' opportunities and abilities to achieve sophisticated levels of argumentation in the classroom? Two teachers and forty students participated in this study. Four principle sources of data were collected over a three-month period of time. These included individual teacher interviews, student focus group interviews, fieldnotes, and approximately 85 hours of classroom videotape. From this sample, four pathways for guided-inquiry instruction are identified. Opportunities for student talk were influenced by a combination of factors located in the domains of "teacher practice," "classroom systems," and "physical structures." Combinations of elements from these three dimensions also affected the quality of student argumentation, as measured on a five-point rubric developed for analysis. Of the four pathways, one in particular is identified as a model of "best practice," leading to the highest levels of argumentation resulting from opportunities for student resemiotization mediated by teacher "talk moves."

Millstone, Rachel Diana

288

Examining the Relationships of Different Cognitive Load Types Related to User Interface in Web-Based Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study proposes a new instrument to measure cognitive load types related to user interface and demonstrates theoretical assumptions about different load types. In reconsidering established cognitive load theory, the inadequacies of the theory are criticized in terms of the adaption of learning efficiency score and distinction of cognitive load…

Cheon, Jongpil; Grant, Michael

2012-01-01

289

Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women With Binge Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women’s (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation process and highlighted the importance of balancing the fidelity and cultural relevance of evidence-based treatment when disseminating it across diverse racial/ethnic groups. PMID:23645969

Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

2013-01-01

290

Instructional Rounds in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Instructional Rounds in Action" is an invaluable guide for those involved in implementing instructional rounds as the foundation and framework for systemic improvement in schools. Over the past few years, districts across the United States, Canada, and Australia have begun implementing "instructional rounds," a set of ideas and practices for…

Roberts, John E.

2012-01-01

291

Investigating the Use of Integrated Instructions to Reduce the Cognitive Load Associated with Doing Practical Work in Secondary School Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of integrated illustrations on understanding instructions for practical work in science. Ninety-six secondary school students who were unfamiliar with the target content knowledge and practical equipment took part. The students were divided into two conditions: (1) modified instructions containing integrated…

Haslam, Carolyn Yvonne; Hamilton, Richard Joseph

2010-01-01

292

Understanding Instructions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to help adult basic education (ABE) teachers teach their students to understand instructions in their daily lives. The 25 learning activities included all develop students' skills in the area of following directions by using basic situations drawn from everyday life. The following activities are included: sequencing pictures…

Milburn, Val

293

Using the MATRICS to guide development of a preclinical cognitive test battery for research in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are among the core symptoms of the disease, correlate with functional outcome, and are not well treated with current antipsychotic therapies. In order to bring together academic, industrial, and governmental bodies to address this great ‘unmet therapeutic need’, the NIMH sponsored the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) initiative. Through careful factor analysis and consensus of expert opinion, MATRICS identified seven domains of cognition that are deficient in schizophrenia (attention/vigilance, working memory, reasoning and problem solving, processing speed, visual learning and memory, verbal learning and memory, and social cognition) and recommended a specific neuropsychological test battery to probe these domains. In order to move the field forward and outline an approach for translational research, there is a need for a “preclinical MATRICS” to develop a rodent test battery that is appropriate for drug development. In this review, we outline such an approach and review current rodent tasks that target these seven domains of cognition. The rodent tasks are discussed in terms of their validity for probing each cognitive domain as well as a brief overview of the pharmacology and manipulations relevant to schizophrenia for each task. PMID:19269307

YOUNG, Jared W; POWELL, Susan; RISBROUGH, Victoria; MARSTON, Hugh M; GEYER, Mark A

2009-01-01

294

Strategies for Affecting the Necessary Course of Cognitive Growth as an Integral Part of Curricular and Instructional Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the public awareness that there presently exists a crisis in mathematics education and a "dumbing down" of the curriculum, examines the nature of this crisis and argues that there has been a lowering of cultural, pedagogical and cognitive expectations with respect to most learners. The notion of cognitive development in…

Carson, Robert N.; Rowlands, Stuart

2007-01-01

295

Effects of Explicit Instruction in Cognitive and Metacognitive Reading Strategies on Iranian EFL Students' Reading Performance and Strategy Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the impact of explicit teaching of reading strategies on English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students' reading performance in Iran. The study employed a questionnaire adapted from Chamot and O'Malley's (1994) cognitive and metacognitive strategies framework. To test the effects of explicit teaching of cognitive and…

Aghaie, Reza; Zhang, Lawrence Jun

2012-01-01

296

"Cognitive Mapping,""Learning Styles," and "Sensory Modality Preferences" as Factors in Individualized Instruction: A Position Paper on the As Yet Largely Untapped Research Potential of Integrated Information Systems when Combined with Educational Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the factors least likely to be given due consideration, especially in computer assisted instruction, are student variables. Some reasons which might have hindered research activities involving student, and possibly teacher, cognitive mapping behaviors, learning styles, and media preferences as variables in experimentation are summarized: a…

Goodman, H. J. A.

297

Evaluation of a multi-component approach to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) using guided visualizations, cranial electrotherapy stimulation, and vibroacoustic sound.  

PubMed

This pilot study examines the use of guided visualizations that incorporate both cognitive and behavioral techniques with vibroacoustic therapy and cranial electrotherapy stimulation to form a multi-component therapeutic approach. This multi-component approach to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) was used to treat patients presenting with a range of symptoms including anxiety, depression, and relationship difficulties. Clients completed a pre- and post-session symptom severity scale and CBT skills practice survey. The program consisted of 16 guided visualizations incorporating CBT techniques that were accompanied by vibroacoustic therapy and cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Significant reduction in symptom severity was observed in pre- and post-session scores for anxiety symptoms, relationship difficulties, and depressive symptoms. The majority of the clients (88%) reported use of CBT techniques learned in the guided visualizations at least once per week outside of the sessions. PMID:17400144

Rogers, Donna R B; Ei, Sue; Rogers, Kim R; Cross, Chad L

2007-05-01

298

Effective Literacy and English Language Instruction for English Learners in the Elementary Grades. IES Practice Guide. NCEE 2007-4011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Practice Guide is the first in a series of the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) guides in education that are developed by a panel of experts. The guides are intended to bring the best available evidence and expertise to bear on the types of systemic challenges that cannot currently be addressed by single intervention or programs. This…

Gersten, Russell; Baker, Scott K.; Shanahan, Timothy; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Collins, Penny; Scarcella, Robin

2007-01-01

299

An Analysis of Instructional Design Conditions Using E-Books for E-Learning: Community College Students' Cognitive Load Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Universities are trending towards displacing traditional printed textbooks (p-books) with electronic textbooks (e-books), even though an incomplete body of knowledge exists about the learning value of using e-books as instructional materials. As a result, this dissertation study was conducted to determine if digital textbooks are as…

Taylor, Sharon A.

2011-01-01

300

VARIATIONS IN INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA, PROCESSES, CONTENT AND APTITUDE VARIABLES IN RELATION TO EFFICIENCY OF COGNITIVE GOAL ATTAINMENT, VOLUME 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE REPORT, THE SECOND OF A SERIES (ACCESSION NUMBERS ED 003 239 THROUGH ED 003 241), INCLUDES SEVEN APPENDIXES TO AN EARLIER STUDY. THE APPENDIXES ARE TITLED, (1) PROBLEMS OF MEANING AND REFERENCE IN BLOOM'S TAXONOMY, (2) SCALE FOR APPRAISING A MODEL, (3) EXPLORATION OF INTERACTIONS AMONG INSTRUCTIONAL CONTENT AND APTITUDE VARIABLES, (4) AN…

FATTU, N.A.

301

Trainee Teachers' Mental Effort in Learning Spreadsheet through Self-Instructional Module Based on Cognitive Load Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A printed module should consist of media elements, namely text and pictures, which are self-instructional and could cater to the needs of the user. However, the typical platform of such visualization frequently overloads the limited working memory causing split attention and redundancy effects. The purpose of this study is to design and develop a…

Tasir, Zaidatun; Pin, Ong Chiek

2012-01-01

302

The Effects of Spatial Visualization Ability and Graphical Navigational Aids on Cognitive Load and Learning from Web-Based Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study contributes to research investigating the effects of individual differences and online instructional design on learning. Learning performance was compared across three hypertext formats incorporating different navigational aids. The hierarchical map represented the physical structure of the hypertext in one condition, while the network…

Morozov, Andrew

2009-01-01

303

Semantics in Philosophy and Cognitive Neuroscience: The Open Instruction Theory of Attitude Report Sentences, Descriptions, and the Necker Cube  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dissertation presents a theory of semantics and pragmatics for both language and vision. I focus on sentences including proper names, descriptions, and attitude report verbs, and on the Necker cube. I propose the Open Instruction Theory (OIT), according to which the linguistic meaning of a sentence and the semantic contribution of visual…

Koralus, Philipp Elias

2010-01-01

304

Instruction Guide Health Assessments  

E-print Network

the health assessment status of individuals having specific job duties in the Occupational Medicine Program Exam Report: UF_EPAF_Department Admin UF_EPAF_Level 1 Approver UF_HR_OCCUPATIONAL_MED_INQUIRY Report

Slatton, Clint

305

Comparison of Six- and Eight-Session Cognitive Guided Self-Help for Bulimia Nervosa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A previous case-series evaluation of a six-session guided self-help (GSH) approach with 15 people with bulimia nervosa (BN) showed significant reductions across all measures, including binge eating, self-induced vomiting, weight concern, shape concern and dietary restraint. However, the reduction of binge eating and self-induced vomiting was…

Furber, Gareth; Steele, Anna; Wade, Tracey D.

2004-01-01

306

Imaginative instruction: what master storytellers can teach instructional designers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good instructional storytelling engages students’ attention and cognitive abilities to the end of more effective learning, and instructional researchers have discussed whether the principles of storytelling could lead to the same or similar results if applied to educational situations beyond only telling traditional stories. But despite this potential, the principles of storytelling are seemingly underutilized by today’s instructional designers. This

Jason K. McDonald

2009-01-01

307

Cognitive Neuroscience and Moral Decision-making: Guide or Set Aside?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is by now a well-supported hypothesis in cognitive neuroscience that there exists a functional network for the moral appraisal\\u000a of situations. However, there is a surprising disagreement amongst researchers about the significance of this network for\\u000a moral actions, decisions, and behavior. Some researchers suggest that we should “uncover those ethics [that are “built into\\u000a our brains”], identify them, and

Derek Leben

2011-01-01

308

Feasibility of guided cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) self?help for childhood anxiety disorders in primary care  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders in childhood are common, disabling and run a chronic course. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is effective but expensive and trained therapists are scarce. Guided self?help treatments may be a means of widening access to treatment. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of guided CBT self?help in primary care for childhood anxiety disorders, specifically in terms of therapist adherence, patient and therapist satisfaction and clinical gain. Participants were children aged between five and 12 years referred to two primary child and adolescent mental health services (PCAMHSs) in Oxfordshire, UK, who met diagnostic criteria for a primary anxiety disorder. Of the 52 eligible children, 41 anxious children were assessed for anxiety severity and interference before and after receiving CBT self?help delivered via a parent (total therapy time = five hours) by primary mental health workers (PMHWs). Therapy sessions were rated for treatment adherence and parents and PMHWs completed satisfaction questionnaires after treatment completion. Over 80% of therapy sessions were rated at a high level of treatment adherence. Parents and PMHWs reported high satisfaction with the treatment. Sixty?one percent of the children assessed no longer met the criteria for their primary anxiety disorder diagnosis following treatment, and 76% were rated as ‘much’/‘very much’ improved on the Clinical Global Impression–Improvement (CGI–I) scale. There were significant reductions on parent and child report measures of anxiety symptoms, interference and depression. Preliminary exploration indicated that parental anxiety was associated with child treatment outcome. The findings suggest that guided CBT self?help represents a promising treatment for childhood anxiety in primary care. PMID:22477922

2010-01-01

309

Affective Consequences of Mathematics Instruction for Students with Special Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Affective consequences of two types of mathematics instruction, guiding instruction and directing instruction, were studied for two types of students with special needs: mildly mentally retarded students and students with specific learning disabilities. Seventy students were instructed in small groups in either a guiding or a directing instruction

Milo, Bauke F.; Seegers, Gerard; Ruijssenaars, Wied A. J. J. M.; Vermeer, Harriet J.

2004-01-01

310

THE COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF URBAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN. MANUAL OF INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING AND SCORING TOY SORTING TASK.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MANUAL DESCRIBES MEASURES USED IN "THE COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF URBAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN" PROJECT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. THE SAMPLE FOR THE STUDY CONSISTED OF 163 NEGRO MOTHER-CHILD PAIRS SELECTED FROM 3 SOCIOECONOMIC CLASSES BASED ON THE FATHER'S OCCUPATION AND THE PARENTS' EDUCATION. A FOURTH GROUP INCLUDED FATHER-ABSENT FAMILIES.…

HESS, ROBERT D.; AND OTHERS

311

THE COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF URBAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN. MANUAL OF INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING AND SCORING "SCHOOLS" QUESTION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MANUAL DESCRIBES MEASURES USED IN "THE COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF URBAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN" PROJECT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. THE SAMPLE FOR THE STUDY CONSISTED OF 163 NEGRO MOTHER-CHILD PAIRS SELECTED FROM 3 SOCIOECONOMIC CLASSES BASED ON THE FATHER'S OCCUPATION AND THE PARENTS' EDUCATION. A FOURTH GROUP INCLUDED FATHER-ABSENT FAMILIES.…

HESS, ROBERT D.; AND OTHERS

312

THE COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF URBAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN. MANUAL OF INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING AND SCORING HOME RESOURCES PATTERNS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MANUAL DESCRIBES MEASURES USED IN "THE COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF URBAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN" PROJECT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. THE SAMPLE FOR THE STUDY CONSISTED OF 163 NEGRO MOTHER-CHILD PAIRS SELECTED FROM 3 SOCIOECONOMIC CLASSES BASED ON THE FATHER'S OCCUPATION AND THE PARENTS' EDUCATION. A FOURTH GROUP INCLUDED FATHER-ABSENT FAMILIES.…

HESS, ROBERT D.; AND OTHERS

313

THE COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF URBAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN. MANUAL OF INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING AND SCORING EDUCATIONAL ATTITUDE SURVEY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MANUAL DESCRIBES MEASURES USED IN "THE COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF URBAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN" PROJECT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. THE SAMPLE FOR THE STUDY CONSISTED OF 163 NEGRO MOTHER-CHILD PAIRS SELECTED FROM 3 SOCIOECONOMIC CLASSES BASED ON THE FATHER'S OCCUPATION AND THE PARENTS' EDUCATION. A FOURTH GROUP INCLUDED FATHER-ABSENT FAMILIES.…

HESS, ROBERT D.; AND OTHERS

314

THE COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF URBAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN. MANUAL OF INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING AND SCORING THE HOME INTERVIEW.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MANUAL DESCRIBES MEASURES USED IN "THE COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF URBAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN" PROJECT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. THE SAMPLE FOR THE STUDY CONSISTED OF 163 NEGRO MOTHER-CHILD PAIRS SELECTED FROM 3 SOCIOECONOMIC CLASSES BASED ON THE FATHER'S OCCUPATION AND THE PARENTS' EDUCATION. A FOURTH GROUP INCLUDED FATHER-ABSENT FAMILIES.…

HESS, ROBERT D.; AND OTHERS

315

THE COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF URBAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN. MANUAL OF INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING AND SCORING FIRST DAY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MANUAL DESCRIBES MEASURES USED IN "THE COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF URBAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN" PROJECT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. THE SAMPLE FOR THE STUDY CONSISTED OF 163 NEGRO MOTHER-CHILD PAIRS SELECTED FROM 3 SOCIOECONOMIC CLASSES BASED ON THE FATHER'S OCCUPATION AND THE PARENTS' EDUCATION. A FOURTH GROUP INCLUDED FATHER-ABSENT FAMILIES.…

HESS, ROBERT D.; AND OTHERS

316

Switching cognitive gears : Problem-based learning and success-based learning as instructional frameworks in leadership education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This article aims to reinterpret principal preparatory programs to also include the collective learning-from-success process (success-based learning), thus providing a complementary instructional framework on how to prepare principals for today's public school reality. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The discussion reviews the core leadership capacities for today's and tomorrow's principalship and the need to rethink principal preparatory programs accordingly. The interrelationship

Chen Schechter

2011-01-01

317

Modeling Instruction Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by David Hestenes of Arizona State University's modeling instruction and software development research, this site is an approach to reform of curriculum design and teaching methodology has been guided by a Modeling Theory of Physics Instruction. In addition, the site also provides modeling instructions for biology, chemistry and physical science. External links are provided under the heading "Opportunities for Professional Growth." These allow teachers the opportunity for explore workshops and other programs which can help enhance their teaching/curriculum.

Hestenes, David

318

Cognitive interviews guide design of a new CAM patient expectations questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Background No consistent relationship exists between pre-treatment expectations and therapeutic benefit from various complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies in clinical trials. However, many different expectancy measures have been used in those studies, with no validated questionnaires clearly focused on CAM and pain. We undertook cognitive interviews as part of a process to develop and validate such a questionnaire. Methods We reviewed questions about expectations of benefits of acupuncture, chiropractic, massage, or yoga for pain. Components of the questions – verbs, nouns, response options, terms and phrases describing back pain – were identified. Using seven different cognitive interview scripts, we conducted 39 interviews to evaluate how individuals with chronic low back pain understood these individual components in the context of expectancy questions for a therapy they had not yet received. Chosen items were those with the greatest agreement and least confusion among participants, and were closest to the meanings intended by the investigators. Results The questionnaire drafted for psychometric evaluation had 18 items covering various domains of expectancy. “Back pain” was the most consistently interpreted descriptor for this condition. The most understandable response options were 0-10 scales, a structure used throughout the questionnaire, with 0 always indicating no change, and 10 anchored with an absolute descriptor such as “complete relief”. The use of words to describe midpoints was found to be confusing. The word “expect” held different and shifting meanings for participants. Thus paired items comparing “hope” and “realistically expect” were chosen to evaluate 5 different aspects of treatment expectations (back pain; back dysfunction and global effects; impact of back pain on specific areas of life; sleep, mood, and energy; coping). “Impact of back pain” on various areas of life was found to be a consistently meaningful concept, and more global than “interference”. Conclusions Cognitive interviews identified wordings with considerable agreement among both participants and investigators. Some items widely used in clinical studies had different meanings to participants than investigators, or were confusing to participants. The final 18-item questionnaire is undergoing psychometric evaluation with goals of streamlining as well as identifying best items for use when questionnaire length is constrained. PMID:24460709

2014-01-01

319

Early improvement during manual-guided cognitive and dynamic psychotherapies predicts 16-week remission status.  

PubMed

This study examined the extent to which improvement from baseline to weeks 2, 3, and 4 on the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory predict week 16 clinical remission for patients with major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and/or obsessive-compulsive or avoidant personality disorders who were receiving manual-based psychotherapies. Logistic regression and receiver-operator characteristic analyses revealed relatively accurate identification of remitters and nonremitters based on improvement from baseline to sessions 2 to 4 in both original and cross-validation samples. Predictive success did not vary as a function of diagnosis, treatment type (cognitive or dynamic), or treatment status (short-term or long-term). The clinical implications of the results are discussed. PMID:11402077

Crits-Christoph, P; Connolly, M B; Gallop, R; Barber, J P; Tu, X; Gladis, M; Siqueland, L

2001-01-01

320

Early Improvement During Manual-Guided Cognitive and Dynamic Psychotherapies Predicts 16-Week Remission Status  

PubMed Central

This study examined the extent to which improvement from baseline to weeks 2, 3, and 4 on the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory predict week 16 clinical remission for patients with major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and/or obsessive-compulsive or avoidant personality disorders who were receiving manual-based psychotherapies. Logistic regression and receiver-operator characteristic analyses revealed relatively accurate identification of remitters and nonremitters based on improvement from baseline to sessions 2 to 4 in both original and cross-validation samples. Predictive success did not vary as a function of diagnosis, treatment type (cognitive or dynamic), or treatment status (short-term or long-term). The clinical implications of the results are discussed. PMID:11402077

Crits-Christoph, Paul; Connolly, Mary Beth; Gallop, Robert; Barber, Jacques P.; Tu, Xin; Gladis, Madeline; Siqueland, Lynne

2001-01-01

321

Academic Resilience and Achievement: Self-Motivational Resources That Guide Faculty Participation in Instructional Technology Training at a Mexican University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses narrative analysis to understand the ways in which Mexican university faculty members used their self-motivational resources to persist in an instructional technology training program within adverse work conditions. The methodology included interviews and participant observation. Findings suggest that faculty's academic…

Montero-Hernandez, Virginia; Levin, John; Diaz-Castillo, Maribel

2014-01-01

322

A Case Study of Principal Leadership in Guiding School and Classroom Instructional Practices in an Urban School of Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study seeks to explore the leadership practices of the principal in a high performing urban school of diversity. Generally speaking, instructional leader effectiveness is often dependent upon the school leader's ability to create an environment where strong professional collaboration, frequent dialogue, and shared norms exist for improving…

Flamini, Richard V.

2010-01-01

323

Task Descriptions and Task Analyses: Guides for the Improvement of Instruction in Higher Education--No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What task descriptions and task analyses are, how to write task descriptions, and the relationship of task descriptions to instructional objectives are demonstrated in educational settings. A task description is a systematic method of listing the salient features of a task, and identifies the steps or actions that must be taken to perform a task.…

Davis, Robert H.; Alexander, Lawrence T.

324

Anesthesiologists' Nontechnical and Cognitive Skills Evaluation Tool  

E-print Network

concepts of cognitive errors to the assessment of decisionbehavior as a cognitive error. This assessment tool can beCognitive Skills Evaluation Tool Faculty Instructions: Place a checkmark in the box that represents your assessment

Stiegler, Marjorie A

2010-01-01

325

Marketing and Society. Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course entitled "Marketing and Society." The study guide is intended for use by students in conjunction with a related textbook, a workbook, a review guide, and a series of instructional tape casettes. The study guide contains a brief introductory section…

Welsh, Robert S.; Blake, Rowland S.

326

Client experiences of guided internet cognitive behavior therapy for postpartum depression: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Postpartum depression (PPD) afflicts up to 15 % of women following childbirth and negatively impacts both mother and child. Therapist-assisted internet cognitive behavior therapy (TAICBT) is a promising intervention for the treatment of PPD; however, women's perceptions of TAICBT have not been examined. Responses to 10 open-ended questions from 24 women who received TAICBT for PPD were thematically analyzed. The majority of women expressed that the TAICBT program afforded flexibility, accessibility, and convenience, as well as anonymity and privacy. Some participants described the program as helping them take a step in the right direction and enhance their self-awareness and parenting skills. Participants also described having the internet therapist individualize their treatment. Challenges related to the TAICBT program were also identified by a minority of participants including managing time to log onto the program, the fast pace, completion of homework around childcare duties, and challenges of not having a face-to-face therapist. Participants also made suggestions for future programming. The large majority of participants consistently described their internet therapist favorably; however, challenges related to the internet therapy were also identified. Results should be integrated in the development of future programming. PMID:25109484

Pugh, Nicole E; Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D; Hampton, Amy J D; Bowen, Angela; Williams, Jaime

2015-04-01

327

Family and Career Transitions Resource Guide (FACT). A Resource Guide for Use in Adult Job Readiness and Single Parent Homemaker Instructional Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide introduces a curriculum designed to help instructors meet the needs of special adult audiences--displaced homemakers, single parents, dislocated workers, and economically depressed families. It is organized according to four practical problems: (1) personal development; (2) career exploration; (3) employability; and (4)…

Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational and Career Education.

328

Motivational Measure of the Instruction Compared: Instruction Based on the ARCS Motivation Theory vs Traditional Instruction in Blended Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ARCS Motivation Theory was proposed to guide instructional designers and teachers who develop their own instruction to integrate motivational design strategies into the instruction. There is a lack of literature supporting the idea that instruction for blended courses if designed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides different…

Colakoglu, Ozgur M.; Akdemir, Omur

2012-01-01

329

Cognitive Architectures for Multimedia Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a tutorial overview of cognitive architectures that can form a theoretical foundation for designing multimedia instruction. Cognitive architectures include a description of memory stores, memory codes, and cognitive operations. Architectures that are relevant to multimedia learning include Paivio's dual coding theory, Baddeley's working memory model, Engelkamp's multimodal theory, Sweller's cognitive load theory, Mayer's multimedia learning theory, and

Stephen K. Reed

2006-01-01

330

Dynamic Instructional Leadership to Support Student Learning and Development: The Field Guide to Comer Schools in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools are the only universally accessible institutions where there are enough adults to provide continuous support for children's growth, development, and success in life. Using the process pioneered by renowned child psychiatrist Dr. James P. Comer and his colleagues at the Yale School Development Program (SDP), this unique field guide offers…

Joyner, Edward T., Ed.; Ben-Avie, Michael, Ed.; Comer, James P., Ed.

2004-01-01

331

Developing Effective Fractions Instruction for Kindergarten through 8th Grade. IES Practice Guide. NCEE 2010-4039  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practice guide presents five recommendations intended to help educators improve students' understanding of, and problem-solving success with, fractions. Recommendations progress from proposals for how to build rudimentary understanding of fractions in young children; to ideas for helping older children understand the meaning of fractions and…

Siegler, Robert; Carpenter, Thomas; Fennell, Francis; Geary, David; Lewis, James; Okamoto, Yukari; Thompson, Laurie; Wray, Jonathan

2010-01-01

332

Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Auto Body Repair. Development Period, July, 1983--June, 1984. Edition I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed to assist vocational educators in presenting an articulated, performance-based course in auto body repair. Addressed in the individual units of the course (included in 14 modules) are the following topics: safety; leadership and job communication; career preparation; shielded metal arc welding; gas metal arc…

Henderson, Wm. Edward, Jr., Ed.

333

Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Masonry (Bricklaying). Developing Period, July, 1983--June, 1984. Edition I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed to assist vocational educators in presenting an articulated, performance-based course in masonry and bricklaying. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: safety, leadership, job communications, career preparation, desirable learning and work habits and attitudes, basic math…

Henderson, Wm. Edward, Jr., Ed.

334

Energy Use and the Environment. Concepts & Activities for the Classroom: Mathematics Module. Environmental Education Supplementary Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a comprehensive, interdisciplinary environmental education program for elementary and secondary education in Hawaii, this teaching guide provides a variety of energy education activities for secondary school mathematics. An extensive introduction outlines the total program and how it fits into the general education program and explains…

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

335

Safe passage through the engineering curriculum: guiding subject experts toward integration of communication instruction and outcomes assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industry demands, crowded curricula, tight budgets, new educational technologies, and accreditation directives are relentlessly pushing engineering educators into unfamiliar - sometimes threatening - new frontiers. Frequently, the guide most qualified to guarantee safe passage across this daunting terrain is the technical communication professional. Experienced technical communicators accustomed to thriving on the chaotic borders between subject experts and users, engineering departments

Pneena Sageev; Kathy Bernard; Floreal Prieto; Carol Romanowski

2004-01-01

336

Hypertext as instructional design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, hypertext is compared with instructional design principles and processes. Contrary to initial perceptions,\\u000a hypertext can be considered to be theoretically and operationally consistent with instructional design in that both share\\u000a theoretical foundations in cognitive and systems theory and practical elements of learning environment design. The ability\\u000a to tailor and extend the functionality of hypertext systems makes them

David H. Jonassen

1991-01-01

337

Guided Internet-based vs. face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychiatric and somatic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in many research trials, but to a lesser extent directly compared to face-to-face delivered cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of trials in which guided ICBT was directly compared to face-to-face CBT. Studies on psychiatric and somatic conditions were included. Systematic searches resulted in 13 studies (total N=1053) that met all criteria and were included in the review. There were three studies on social anxiety disorder, three on panic disorder, two on depressive symptoms, two on body dissatisfaction, one on tinnitus, one on male sexual dysfunction, and one on spider phobia. Face-to-face CBT was either in the individual format (n=6) or in the group format (n=7). We also assessed quality and risk of bias. Results showed a pooled effect size (Hedges' g) at post-treatment of ?0.01 (95% CI: ?0.13 to 0.12), indicating that guided ICBT and face-to-face treatment produce equivalent overall effects. Study quality did not affect outcomes. While the overall results indicate equivalence, there are still few studies for each psychiatric and somatic condition and many conditions for which guided ICBT has not been compared to face-to-face treatment. Thus, more research is needed to establish equivalence of the two treatment formats. PMID:25273302

Andersson, Gerhard; Cuijpers, Pim; Carlbring, Per; Riper, Heleen; Hedman, Erik

2014-01-01

338

Military Obligation and the Invididual, With a Focus on Conscription in the U.S. Teacher's Guide and Student Workbook. Third Draft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for high school seniors, this unit, consisting of a teaching guide and instructional materials for students, focuses on the nature and meaning of the obligation of an American to his country and himself in regard to military service. Cognitive objectives are to provide students with an understanding of conscription, of the Selective…

Bischoff, Steve; And Others

339

The effects of computer game elements in physics instruction software for middle schools: A study of cognitive and affective gains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can the educational effectiveness of physics instruction software for middle schoolers be improved by employing "game elements" commonly found in recreational computer games? This study utilized a selected set of game elements to contextualize and embellish physics word problems with the aim of making such problems more engaging. Game elements used included: (1) a fantasy-story context with developed characters; and (2) high-end graphics and visual effects. The primary purpose of the study was to find out if the added production cost of using such game elements was justified by proportionate gains in physics learning. The theoretical framework for the study was a modified version of Lepper and Malone's "intrinsically-motivating game elements" model. A key design issue in this model is the concept of "endogeneity", or the degree to which the game elements used in educational software are integrated with its learning content. Two competing courseware treatments were custom-designed and produced for the study; both dealt with Newton's first law. The first treatment (T1) was a 45 minute interactive tutorial that featured cartoon characters, color animations, hypertext, audio narration, and realistic motion simulations using the Interactive PhysicsspTM software. The second treatment (T2) was similar to the first except for the addition of approximately three minutes of cinema-like sequences where characters, game objectives, and a science-fiction story premise were described and portrayed with high-end graphics and visual effects. The sample of 47 middle school students was evenly divided between eighth and ninth graders and between boys and girls. Using a pretest/posttest experimental design, the independent variables for the study were: (1) two levels of treatment; (2) gender; and (3) two schools. The dependent variables were scores on a written posttest for both: (1) physics learning, and (2) attitude toward physics learning. Findings indicated that, although substantial physics learning took place within both treatments (learning-gain effect sizes exceeded 1.5 sigma), there were no statistically significant differences between the two treatments. The primary conclusion drawn from this finding was that the ratio of "story" to physics-learning content (3 minutes/45 minutes) in T2 was too small to make an educational difference and should be experimentally increased.

Vasquez, David Alan

340

Cognitive epidemiology  

PubMed Central

This glossary provides a guide to some concepts, findings and issues of discussion in the new field of research in which intelligence test scores are associated with mortality and morbidity. Intelligence tests are devised and studied by differential psychologists. Some of the major concepts in differential psychology are explained, especially those regarding cognitive ability testing. Some aspects of IQ (intelligence) tests are described and some of the major tests are outlined. A short guide is given to the main statistical techniques used by differential psychologists in the study of human mental abilities. There is a discussion of common epidemiological concepts in the context of cognitive epidemiology. PMID:17435201

Deary, Ian J; Batty, G David

2007-01-01

341

cial Mathematics Instruction Special Mathematics Instruction Special Mathematics Instruction S hematics Instruction Special Mathematics Instruction Special Mathematics Instruction Special M  

E-print Network

SMI cial Mathematics Instruction Special Mathematics Instruction Special Mathematics Instruction S hematics Instruction Special Mathematics Instruction Special Mathematics Instruction Special M ruction Special Mathematics Instruction Special Mathematics Instruction Special Mathematics In cial Mathematics

Vaswani, Namrata

342

Imaginative Instruction: What Master Storytellers Can Teach Instructional Designers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Good instructional storytelling engages students' attention and cognitive abilities to the end of more effective learning, and instructional researchers have discussed whether the principles of storytelling could lead to the same or similar results if applied to educational situations beyond only telling traditional stories. But despite this…

McDonald, Jason K.

2009-01-01

343

COATING ALTERNATIVES GUIDE (CAGE) USER'S GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The guide provides instructions for using the Coating Alternatives GuidE (CAGE) software program, version 1.0. It assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating an IBM-compatible personal computer (PC) under the Microsoft disk operating system (MS-DOS). CAGE...

344

Managerial Finance. Unit Study Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course in managerial finance. The study guide is intended for use by students in conjunction with a separate student manual and a series of instructional tape casettes. The study guide contains seven major units that focus in turn on the goal of financial…

Billingham, Carol J.

345

Where to find the mind: Identifying the scale of cognitive dynamics Luke Conlin, Department of Curriculum & Instruction,Benjamin Building, College Park, MD 20742 USA,  

E-print Network

Where to find the mind: Identifying the scale of cognitive dynamics Luke Conlin, Department continuous with distributed and situated cognition. On this view, the difference is a matter of the scale for empirically determining the scale of the relevant cognitive dynamics. We illustrate these heuristics in two

Hammer, David

346

Learner Control in Animated Multimedia Instructions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "interactivity principle" in multimedia learning states that giving learners control over pace and order of instructions decreases cognitive load and increases transfer performance. We tested this guideline by comparing a learner-paced instruction with a system-paced instruction. Time-on-task and interactive behavior were logged, and were also…

Tabbers, Huib K.; de Koeijer, Bastiaan

2010-01-01

347

Library Instruction--LSC 524. Fall, 1993.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the syllabus for Library Instruction at the University of Rhode Island. The course is designed to introduce students to the fundamentals of bibliographic instruction and concentrates in the following areas: the history, philosophy, and structure of library education; cognitive aspects of library instruction; forms of library…

Gilton, Donna L.

348

Using ecology to guide the study of cognitive and neural mechanisms of different aspects of spatial memory in food-hoarding animals  

PubMed Central

Understanding the survival value of behaviour does not tell us how the mechanisms that control this behaviour work. Nevertheless, understanding survival value can guide the study of these mechanisms. In this paper, we apply this principle to understanding the cognitive mechanisms that support cache retrieval in scatter-hoarding animals. We believe it is too simplistic to predict that all scatter-hoarding animals will outperform non-hoarding animals on all tests of spatial memory. Instead, we argue that we should look at the detailed ecology and natural history of each species. This understanding of natural history then allows us to make predictions about which aspects of spatial memory should be better in which species. We use the natural hoarding behaviour of the three best-studied groups of scatter-hoarding animals to make predictions about three aspects of their spatial memory: duration, capacity and spatial resolution, and we test these predictions against the existing literature. Having laid out how ecology and natural history can be used to predict detailed cognitive abilities, we then suggest using this approach to guide the study of the neural basis of these abilities. We believe that this complementary approach will reveal aspects of memory processing that would otherwise be difficult to discover. PMID:20156814

Smulders, Tom V.; Gould, Kristy L.; Leaver, Lisa A.

2010-01-01

349

Making Bio-Diesel Instructions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These lab instructions provide teachers with the information needed to set up a lab session to make a diesel fuel alternative from a biologically-based oil. Extensive instructions are provided. The guide may be downloaded in PDF file format. Users must create a free login to access the presentation.

Brown, Matthew

350

Cognitive Architectures for Multimedia Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a tutorial overview of cognitive architectures that can form a theoretical foundation for designing multimedia instruction. Cognitive architectures include a description of memory stores, memory codes, and cognitive operations. Architectures that are relevant to multimedia learning include Paivio's dual coding theory,…

Reed, Stephen K.

2006-01-01

351

Explicit Instruction Elements in Core Reading Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP…

Child, Angela R.

2012-01-01

352

Managerial Accounting. Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course in managerial accounting. The study guide is intended for use by students in conjuction with a separate textbook, Horngren's "Accounting for Management Control: An Introduction," and a workbook, Curry's "Student Guide to Accounting for Management…

Plachta, Leonard E.

353

Multimodal cognitive interface for robot navigation.  

PubMed

To build effective interactions between humans and robots, they should have common ground of understanding that creates realistic expectations and forms the basis communications. An emerging approach to doing this is to create cognitive models of human reasoning and behavior selection. We have developed a robot navigation system that uses both spatial language and graphical representation to describe route-based navigation tasks for a mobile robot. Our proposed route instruction language (RIL) is intended as a semi-formal language for instructing the robot to execute a route in an indoor environment. We implemented an instruction interpreter to process the route description and generate its equivalent symbolic and topological map representations. A topological map is generated to describe relationships among features of the environment in a more abstract form without any absolute reference system to treat the ambiguity which can occur when the robot cannot recognize the current landmark. The symbolic and topological map representations are supplied to other system components as an initial path estimation to guide the robot while it plans its navigation task. We conducted some experiments to evaluate the routes which are written by using the RIL instructions. PMID:21203798

Elmogy, Mohammed; Habel, Christopher; Zhang, Jianwei

2011-02-01

354

Computer Applications in Individually Guided Education: A Computer-Based System for Instructional Management (WIS-SIM). Needs and Specifications. Working Paper No. 125.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model of computer managed instruction is reported which emphasizes the use of the Wisconsin System for Instructional Management (WIS-SIM) in classroom level decision making. Two major decision areas, specifying performance expectations and selecting appropriate educational experiences, were identified, and five major processes involved in…

Belt, Sidney L.; Spuck, Dennis W.

355

A Competency-Based Instructional Program for Plant Process Operations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program guide provides materials to prepare learners for employment as Process Plant Operators through classroom instruction and practical shop experience. Contents include instructional goal and subgoals, an instructional analysis that describes development of the materials and instructional equipment and supplies and facilities…

McDaniel, Joy; Mills, Steven

356

The Pain Course: a randomised controlled trial of a clinician-guided Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy program for managing chronic pain and emotional well-being.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the efficacy of a clinician-guided Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT) program, the Pain Course, to reduce disability, anxiety, and depression associated with chronic pain. Sixty-three adults with chronic pain were randomised to either a Treatment Group or waitlist Control Group. Treatment consisted of 5 iCBT-based lessons, homework tasks, additional resources, weekly e-mail or telephone contact from a Clinical Psychologist, and automated e-mails. Twenty-nine of 31 Treatment Group participants completed the 5 lessons during the 8-week program, and posttreatment and 3-month follow-up data were collected from 30/31 and 29/31 participants, respectively. Treatment Group participants obtained significantly greater improvements than Control Group participants in levels of disability, anxiety, depression, and average pain levels at posttreatment. These improvements corresponded to small to large between-groups effect sizes (Cohen's d) at posttreatment for disability (d = .88), anxiety (d = .38), depression (d = .66), and average pain (d = .64), respectively. These outcomes were sustained at follow-up and participants rated the program as highly acceptable. Overall, the clinician spent a total mean time of 81.54 minutes (SD 30.91 minutes) contacting participants during the program. The results appear better than those reported in iCBT studies to date and provide support for the potential of clinician-guided iCBT in the treatment of disability, anxiety, and depression for people with chronic pain. PMID:23688830

Dear, Blake F; Titov, Nick; Perry, Kathryn Nicholson; Johnston, Luke; Wootton, Bethany M; Terides, Matthew D; Rapee, Ron M; Hudson, Jennifer L

2013-06-01

357

Seven practical principles for improving patient education: Evidence-based ideas from cognition science  

PubMed Central

An important role of the paediatrician is that of a teacher – every clinician is an educator to patients and their families. This education, however, often occurs under difficult or time-pressured learning conditions. The authors present principles derived from three basic theories of human cognition that may help to guide clinicians’ instruction of parents and patients. Cognitive load theory holds that an individual’s capacity to process information is finite. By controlling information flow rate, decreasing reliance on working memory and removing extraneous cognitive load, learning is improved. Dual code theory suggests that humans have separate cognitive ‘channels’ for text/audio information versus visual information. By constructing educational messages that take advantage of both channels simultaneously, information uptake may be improved. Multimedia theory is based on the notion that there is an optimal blend of media to accomplish a given learning objective. The authors suggest seven practical strategies that clinicians may use to improve patient education. PMID:24665218

Pusic, Martin V; Ching, Kevin; Yin, Hsiang Shonna; Kessler, David

2014-01-01

358

Cognitive structures, cognitive processes, and cognitive-behavior modification: I. client issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental research on cognitive structures and cognitive processes has important implications for the practice of cognitive-behavior modification. The concept of schemata, knowledge structures that guide cognitive processing, is introduced. Self-schemata, particularly important in the maintenance of maladaptive behavior patterns, are described and related to the construct of self-efficacy. Following this discussion, various cognitive processes, particularly shortcomings in human judgment arising

Dennis C. Turk; Peter Salovey

1985-01-01

359

Adaptive Human-Machine Interfaces in Cognitive Production Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This article presents an integrated framework,for multi-modal adap- tive cognitive technical systems to guide, assist and observe hu- man,workers in complex,manual,assembly,environments. The de- mand,for highly flexible construction facilities obviously contradicts longer training and preparation phases of human,workers. By giving context-aware building instructions over retina dis- plays, text-to-speech commands or acoustical signals, a non-spe- cialized industrial stand-by men,in a production

Frank Wallhoff; Markus Ablaßmeier; Alexander Bannat; Stephan Buchta; A. Rauschert; Gerhard Rigoll; Mathey Wiesbeck

2007-01-01

360

Instruction Guide Time Reporting Codes  

E-print Network

Hire (H) NRA18- Teach OPNTMP9 OPN Temp Hire NRA 19 TH9 Temporary Hire (H) NRA19- St/T PDA Post Doc - Exempt - 9/10/12 PDA 120-Regular PDA PDA8 PDA Exempt NRA - 18 PD8 Post Doc NRA 18-Teach PDA9 PDA Exempt NRA - 19 PD9 Post Doc NRA 19- Study/Train PDR Post Doc Research Exempt 12 Mo PDA 120-Regular PDA PDR8

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

361

Instruction Guide Recruitment Compliance Reports  

E-print Network

or Other Pacific Islander ­ All persons having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam of the original peoples of North America who maintain cultural identification through tribal affiliations or community recognition. Asian ­ All persons having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

362

Parents Guide to "Prekindergarten" Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) is committed to providing the highest quality of education to its students. One way to provide a quality education is with an effective curriculum that reflects high standards and expectations. Thus, DoDEA has developed rigorous content standards aligned with national guidelines and standards.…

Department of Defense Education Activity, 2012

2012-01-01

363

Matching students' cognitive responses to teaching skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes a model of learning from instruction in which students perceive and cognitively respond to instructional stimuli before engaging learning processes per se. 302 university students were trained to recognize only (structural schema) or to recognize and cognitively respond to (functional schema) discrete teacher skills in lectures. Exp I produced no differences in learning due to overloading working memory and

Philip H. Winne; Ronald W. Marx

1980-01-01

364

Biotechnology Education: A Multiple Instructional Strategies Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a rationale for inclusion of biotechnology in technology education. Describes an instructional strategy that uses behaviorist, cognitive, and constructivist learning theories in two activities involving photobioreactors and bovine somatotropin (growth hormone). (Contains 39 references.) (SK)

Dunham, Trey; Wells, John; White, Karissa

2002-01-01

365

Self-Instructional Training: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses self-instructional training used as a cognitive restructuring strategy which has been a successful intervention strategy with elementary school-aged children. Provides case illustration of the strategy used with a withdrawn 14-year-old-girl. (ABL)

Groenewold, G. Frank; Der, Du-Fay

1987-01-01

366

Increasing High School Students' Chemistry Performance and Reducing Cognitive Load through an Instructional Strategy Based on the Interaction of Multiple Levels of Knowledge Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central goal of this study was to examine the extent to which a teaching approach focused on the interaction between macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic levels of chemistry representations could affect high school students' performance in the field of inorganic reactions, as well as to examine how the applied instruction influences…

Milenkovic´, Dus?ica D.; Segedinac, Mirjana D.; Hrin, Tamara N.

2014-01-01

367

The Effects of Meta-Cognitive Instruction on Students' Reading Comprehension in Computerized Reading Contexts: A Quantitative Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehension is the essence of reading. Finding appropriate and effective reading strategies to support students' reading comprehension has always been a critical issue for educators. This article presents findings from a meta-analysis of 17 studies of metacognitive strategy instruction on students' reading comprehension in computerized…

Lan, Yi-Chin; Lo, Yu-Ling; Hsu, Ying-Shao

2014-01-01

368

The Impact of the Pre-Instructional Cognitive Profile on Learning Gain and Final Exam of Physics Courses: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The case study described in this paper investigates the relationship among some pre-instructional knowledge, the learning gain and the final physics performance of computing engineering students in the introductory physics course. The results of the entrance engineering test (EET) have been used as a measurement of reading comprehension, logic and…

Capizzo, Maria Concetta; Nuzzo, Silvana; Zarcone, Michelangelo

2006-01-01

369

Fashion Merchandising Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed to address the needs of the apparel industry, this fashion merchandising curriculum guide is designed to assist marketing educators in effective instructional delivery. Introductory materials include the following: a course blueprint that illustrates units of instruction, core competencies in each unit, and specific objectives for each…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education Services.

370

Reading Comprehension Improvement with Individualized Cognitive Profiles and Metacognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study models improving classroom reading instruction through valid assessment and individualized metacomprehension. Individualized cognitive profiles of Woodcock-Johnson III cognitive abilities correlated with reading comprehension were used during classroom independent reading for judgments of learning, feedback, self-reflection, and comprehension questions. This systematic metacognitive inquiry treatment was based on findings in cognition, metacomprehension, and effective reading instruction. The research was conducted

Kathleen D. Allen; Thomas E. Hancock

2008-01-01

371

Cognitive Systems Cognitive Modeling  

E-print Network

1 Cognitive Systems Cognitive Modeling Foundations of Information Processing in Natural Barkowsky, Christian Freksa 2 Cognitive Systems: Topics · Introduction · Perception · Memory and Reasoning · Learning and Action · Communication · Empirical Methods 3 Cognitive Modeling: Topics · Cognitive

Bremen, Universität

372

Process Interaction for Wastewater Facilities, Wastewater Technology: A Two-Year Post High School Instructional Program. An Instructor's Guide for Use of Instructional Material in Wastewater Technology Training Programs. Volume V.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is one in a series which outlines performance objectives and instructional modules for a course of study which explains the relationships and functions of the process units in a wastewater treatment plant. The modules are arranged in an order appropriate for teaching students with no experience. The modules can also be rearranged and…

Gearheart, Robert A.; And Others

373

Advanced Waste Treatment, Wastewater Technology: A Two-Year Post High School Instructional Program. An Instructor's Guide for Use of Instructional Material in Wastewater Technology Training Programs. Volume VI.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is one in a series which outlines performance objectives and instructional modules for a course of study which explains the relationship and functions of the process units in a wastewater treatment plant. The modules are arranged in order appropriate for teaching students with no experience. The modules can also be rearranged and…

Gearheart, Robert A.; And Others

374

Animal Memory: The Role of “Instructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal memory research has largely ignored the ambiguity of test conditions resulting from the absence of, what for humans would be called, adequate instructions. A number of examples, from both the animal learning and animal cognition literatures, are provided which suggest that the apparent memory loss that has been reported may be attributable to such “instructional artifacts.” In general, little

Thomas R. Zentall

1997-01-01

375

Instructional Technology Research in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Description of research activities in the field of instructional technology in Latin America highlights distance education, microcomputers, educational radio, learning strategies and study habits, and instructional development models and design of textbooks. Problem areas discussed include students' role, cognitive styles, and effectiveness, and…

Chadwick, Clifton B.

1986-01-01

376

THE COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF URBAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN. MANUAL OF INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING AND SCORING MOTHER'S ROLE IN TEACHER/CHILD AND CHILD/PEER SCHOOL SITUATIONS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MANUAL DESCRIBES MEASURES USED IN "THE COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF URBAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN" PROJECT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. THE SAMPLE FOR THE STUDY CONSISTED OF 163 NEGRO MOTHER-CHILD PAIRS SELECTED FROM 3 SOCIOECONOMIC CLASSES BASED ON THE FATHER'S OCCUPATION AND THE PARENTS' EDUCATION. A FOURTH GROUP INCLUDED FATHER-ABSENT FAMILIES.…

HESS, ROBERT D.; AND OTHERS

377

THE COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF URBAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN. MANUAL OF INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING AND SCORING THE EIGHT-BLOCK SORTING TASK.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MANUAL DESCRIBES MEASURES USED IN "THE COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF URBAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN" PROJECT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. THE SAMPLE FOR THE STUDY CONSISTED OF 163 NEGRO MOTHER-CHILD PAIRS SELECTED FROM 3 SOCIOECONOMIC CLASSES BASED ON THE FATHER'S OCCUPATION AND THE PARENTS' EDUCATION. A FOURTH GROUP INCLUDED FATHER-ABSENT FAMILIES.…

HESS, ROBERT D.; AND OTHERS

378

THE COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF URBAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN. MANUAL OF INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING AND SCORING SIGEL CONCEPTUAL STYLE SORTING TASKS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MANUAL DESCRIBES MEASURES USED IN "THE COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF URBAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN" PROJECT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. THE SAMPLE FOR THE STUDY CONSISTED OF 163 NEGRO MOTHER-CHILD PAIRS SELECTED FROM 3 SOCIOECONOMIC CLASSES BASED ON THE FATHER'S OCCUPATION AND THE PARENTS' EDUCATION. A FOURTH GROUP INCLUDED FATHER-ABSENT FAMILIES.…

HESS, ROBERT D.; AND OTHERS

379

THE COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF URBAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN. MANUAL OF INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING AND SCORING MOTHER'S ATTITUDES TOWARD CHILD'S BEHAVIOR LEADING TO MASTERY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MANUAL DESCRIBES MEASURES USED IN "THE COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF URBAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN" PROJECT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. THE SAMPLE FOR THE STUDY CONSISTED OF 163 NEGRO MOTHER-CHILD PAIRS SELECTED FROM 3 SOCIOECONOMIC CLASSES BASED ON THE FATHER'S OCCUPATION AND THE PARENTS' EDUCATION. A FOURTH GROUP INCLUDED FATHER-ABSENT FAMILIES.…

HESS, ROBERT D.; AND OTHERS

380

Self-Regulated Learning in Web-Based Environments: Instructional Tools Designed to Facilitate Cognitive Strategy Use, Metacognitive Processing, and Motivational Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated strategies teachers can use to improve students' use of self-regulated learning strategies in a Web-based setting. SRL is defined as a learner's intentional efforts to manage and direct complex learning activities and is composed of three primary components including cognitive strategy use, metacognitive processing, and…

Kauffman, Douglas F.

2004-01-01

381

A Model for Designing Library Instruction for Distance Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing library instruction in distance learning environments presents a unique set of challenges for instructional librarians. Innovations in computer-mediated communication and advances in cognitive science research provide the opportunity for designing library instruction that meets a variety of student information seeking needs. Using a…

Rand, Angela Doucet

2013-01-01

382

Controlling Split Attention and Redundancy in Physical Therapy Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined the effectiveness of instructional materials designed to control redundancy and split attention in the teaching of complex orthopedic physical therapy skills. Participants included 41 first-year physical therapy students. The modified instruction group received a modified unit of instruction designed to reduce cognitive

Pociask, Fredrick D.; Morrison, Gary R.

2008-01-01

383

Livestock. Student Learning Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These 25 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 25 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in livestock production. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-4 enabling objectives. For each enabling objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps (outline…

Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

384

Latin Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide delineates the scope and sequence of Latin instruction in levels 1-3 in terms of behavioral objectives. Following a review of the Bloomington, Minnesota, school philosophy and a discussion of the design of foreign language behavioral objectives on which the guide is based, the manual discusses expected terminal behavior in the level 1…

Lee, Agnes; Stevens, Patrick

385

Therapist-guided, Internet-based cognitive–behavioural therapy for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-NET): a feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). However, most sufferers do not have access to this treatment. One way to increase access to CBT is to administer treatment remotely via the Internet. This study piloted a novel therapist-supported, Internet-based CBT program for BDD (BDD-NET). Design Uncontrolled clinical trial. Participants Patients (N=23) were recruited through self-referral and assessed face to face at a clinic specialising in obsessive–compulsive and related disorders. Suitable patients were offered secure access to BDD-NET. Intervention BDD-NET is a 12-week treatment program based on current psychological models of BDD that includes psychoeducation, functional analysis, cognitive restructuring, exposure and response prevention, and relapse prevention modules. A dedicated therapist provides active guidance and feedback throughout the entire process. Main outcome measure The clinician-administered Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for BDD (BDD-YBOCS). Symptom severity was assessed pretreatment, post-treatment and at the 3-month follow-up. Results BDD-NET was deemed highly acceptable by patients and led to significant improvements on the BDD-YBOCS (p=<0.001) with a large within-group effect size (Cohen's d=2.01, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.97). At post-treatment, 82% of the patients were classified as responders (defined as?30% improvement on the BDD-YBOCS). These gains were maintained at the 3-month follow-up. Secondary outcome measures of depression, global functioning and quality of life also showed significant improvements with moderate to large effect sizes. On average, therapists spent 10?min per patient per week providing support. Conclusions The results suggest that BDD-NET has the potential to greatly increase access to CBT, at least for low-risk individuals with moderately severe BDD symptoms and reasonably good insight. A randomised controlled trial of BDD-NET is warranted. Trial registration number Clinicaltrials.gov registration ID NCT01850433. PMID:25256187

Enander, Jesper; Ivanov, Volen Z; Andersson, Erik; Mataix-Cols, David; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Rück, Christian

2014-01-01

386

Instructional Instructional Programs at  

E-print Network

) Monday 4:15 - 5:15 PM $15 GF2 Meditation Sept. 26 (Guided Meditation) Friday 11:15 - 12:00 PM $10 GF3 Oct. 31 (Breath Focused) Friday 11:15 - 12:00 PM $10 GF3 Nov. 21 (Silent Meditation) Friday 11:15 - 12:00 PM $10 GF3 Massage and Meditation HFC - Hosaeus Fitness Center RSF - Rec Sports Office Romney

Maxwell, Bruce D.

387

Instructional Design for Situated Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the design of situated learning and the ecological psychology of situated cognition. Topics addressed include the teacher's role; teacher training; anchored instruction; transfer skills; the meaning of learning; apprenticeships; and the Jasper Series, a macrocontext designed to investigate the issues of situated learning. (46 references)…

Young, Michael F.

1993-01-01

388

Absence of widespread psychosocial and cognitive effects of school-based music instruction in 10–13-year-old students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies demonstrate that private music training has benefits which may transfer to other domains, including verbal memory, intelligence and self-esteem. The current paper reports on the impact of an increase in school-based music training on a range of cognitive and psychosocial measures for 10–13-year-olds in two independent studies. In the first study, the benefits of increased frequency of classroom-based

Nikki S. Rickard; Caroline J. Bambrick; Anneliese Gill

2012-01-01

389

SAGE 2.1 - SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE - USER'S GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The guide provides instruction for using the SAGE (Solvent Alternatives GuidE) software system, version 2.1. AGE recommends solvent replacements in cleaning and degreasing operations. t leads the user through a question- and- answer session. he user's responses allow the system t...

390

SAGE 2.1: SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE: USER'S GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The guide provides instruction for using the SAGE (Solvent Alternatives GuidE) software system, version 2.1. SAGE recommends solvent replacements in cleaning and degreasing operations. It leads the user through a question-and-answer session. The user's responses allow the system ...

391

Cognition in Counseling: Integrating Two Theoretical Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning and attitude change are two cognitive processes essential to therapeutic change in counseling. Recently two cognitive models that reflect current research and theory, one focusing on learning and the other on attitude change, have each been applied to counseling with promising results. Martin's cognitive instructional counseling (CIC) is…

Harris, Jeff E.; Heesacker, Martin

392

Cognitive Linguistics and the Second Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive Linguistics (CL) makes the functional assumption that form is motivated by meaning. CL also analyses form-meaning pairings as products of how cognition structures perception. CL thus helps teachers to fit language to the nature of the cognition that learns whilst devising modes of instruction that are better attuned to the nature of the…

Holme, Randal

2012-01-01

393

The Musculoskeletal System [and] Instructor's Guide: The Musculoskeletal System. Health Occupations Education Module: Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on the musculoskeletal system is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. It is part of an eight-unit miniseries on anatomy and physiology within the series of 17 modules. Following a preface which explains to the student how to…

National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

394

The Reproductive System [and] Instructor's Guide: The Reproductive System. Health Occupations Education Module. Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on the reproductive system is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. It is part of an eight-unit miniseries on anatomy and physiology within the series of 17 modules. Following a preface which explains to the student how to use…

National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

395

The Genitourinary System [and] Instructor's Guide: The Genitourinary System. Health Occupations Education Module: Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on the genitourinary system is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. It is part of an eight-unit miniseries on anatomy and physiology within the series of 17 modules. Following a preface which explains to the student how to use…

National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

396

The Circulatory System [and] Instructor's Guide: The Circulatory System. Health Occupations Education Module: Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on the circulatory system is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. It is part of an eight-unit subset on anatomy and physiology within the set of 17 modules. Following a preface which explains to the student how to use the…

National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

397

The Endocrine System [and] Instructor's Guide: The Endocrine System. Health Occupations Education Module: Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on the endocrine system is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. It is part of an eight-unit miniseries on anatomy and physiology within the series of 17 modules. Following a preface which explains to the student how to use the…

National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

398

The Respiratory System [and] Instructor's Guide: The Respiratory System. Health Occupations Education Module: Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on the respiratory system is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. It is part of an eight-unit miniseries on anatomy and physiology within the series of 17 modules. Following a preface which explains to the student how to use…

National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

399

Library Study Guide for Business.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This library study guide was designed for business marketing students at the University of Wisconsin, Stout. The guide, and its accompanying exercises, were developed as an alternative to providing library instruction to approximately 150 business marketing students each semester. The guide introduces students to basic business reference sources…

Steidinger, Jana Reeg; Trzebiatowski, Elaine

400

Guiding functional connectivity estimation by structural connectivity in MEG: an application to discrimination of conditions of mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Whole brain resting state connectivity is a promising biomarker that might help to obtain an early diagnosis in many neurological diseases, such as dementia. Inferring resting-state connectivity is often based on correlations, which are sensitive to indirect connections, leading to an inaccurate representation of the real backbone of the network. The precision matrix is a better representation for whole brain connectivity, as it considers only direct connections. The network structure can be estimated using the graphical lasso (GL), which achieves sparsity through l1-regularization on the precision matrix. In this paper, we propose a structural connectivity adaptive version of the GL, where weaker anatomical connections are represented as stronger penalties on the corresponding functional connections. We applied beamformer source reconstruction to the resting state MEG recordings of 81 subjects, where 29 were healthy controls, 22 were single-domain amnestic Mild Cognitive Impaired (MCI), and 30 were multiple-domain amnestic MCI. An atlas-based anatomical parcellation of 66 regions was obtained for each subject, and time series were assigned to each of the regions. The fiber densities between the regions, obtained with deterministic tractography from diffusion-weighted MRI, were used to define the anatomical connectivity. Precision matrices were obtained with the region specific time series in five different frequency bands. We compared our method with the traditional GL and a functional adaptive version of the GL, in terms of log-likelihood and classification accuracies between the three groups. We conclude that introducing an anatomical prior improves the expressivity of the model and, in most cases, leads to a better classification between groups. PMID:25111472

Pineda-Pardo, José Angel; Bruña, Ricardo; Woolrich, Mark; Marcos, Alberto; Nobre, Anna C.; Maestú, Fernando; Vidaurre, Diego

2014-01-01

401

Comparing Worked Examples to Problem Solving in a Mathematics Anchored Instruction Context with African-American Fifth Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kirschner, Sweller and Clark (2006) suggest that minimally guided instructional methods are not as successful or efficient as guided instructional approaches. The goal of the current study was to address both the issue of learner performance and knowledge transfer when problem solving in anchored instruction was used for mathematical instruction

Miller, Tiffany Leigh

2010-01-01

402

Instructional Patterns for Consumer and Homemaking Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide presents consumer concepts and generalizations related to five instructional areas of the home economics program: clothing and textiles, foods and nutrition, housing and home furnishing, human development and family relations, and management of finances, resources, and services. Each of the five instructional areas includes: (1)…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

403

Whitewater Kayaking Instruction: Skills and Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper briefly presents ideas and techniques that can facilitate effective whitewater kayaking instruction. Instructors often focus so much on the mechanics of specific skills that they overlook less obvious, but equally important, aspects of instruction. These aspects include the underlying purposes and guiding principles of kayaking…

Poff, Raymond; Stuessy, Tom

404

Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This highly regarded work brings together prominent authorities on vocabulary teaching and learning to provide a comprehensive yet concise guide to effective instruction. The book showcases practical ways to teach specific vocabulary words and word-learning strategies and create engaging, word-rich classrooms. Instructional activities and games…

Kame'enui, Edward J., Ed.; Baumann, James F., Ed.

2012-01-01

405

Sonoma Developmental Curriculum: Instructional Programs. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide presents instructional materials for teaching developmentally delayed children from birth to 6 years old. The following five instructional areas are covered (with sample activities in parentheses): gross motor (demonstrates a tonic-neck reflex, demonstrates ability to bear almost full weight, and crawls backward down three steps); fine…

Adams, Patrick, Ed.; And Others

406

Basketball: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of coaching guides for Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Programs, this booklet focuses on basketball instruction for mentally retarded persons. An initial section introduces the sport and discusses general coaching ideas. Goals, objectives, and benefits are listed along with information on clothing and court…

Special Olympics, Inc., Washington, DC.

407

Learning to Pull the Thread: Application of Guided Discovery Principles to the Inquiry Process  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of direct causes is a fundamental component of inquiry and analysis tasks that require skilled observations, logical thinking, and a persistent search for a complete understanding of the events. The need to cultivate such skills and persistence is a major challenge for diverse disciplines from accident investigation to forensics to intelligence analysis. In this context, persistence means to keep pulling the threads of evidence until a sufficient understanding of cause-effect relationships has emerged. The training challenge is rooted in fundamental questions about performance measurement and instruction: Can we effectively instill the required skills and persistence by merely informing learners through traditional classroom instruction? Or would such cognitive skills and persistence be better developed and refined through carefully crafted experience-based training? In instructional systems design terminology, this question may be phrased as a choice between receptive/directive instructional architectures that focus on ASK and TELL approaches versus approaches that emphasize SHOW and DO. The latter, more interactive instructional approaches emphasize active learning and performance assessment. We suggest that active, performance-based paradigms such as scenario-based and guided-discovery learning approaches may provide more effective solutions. By immersing the learner in appropriate interactive scenarios, we can ascertain through actual performance the extent to which the learner demonstrates the objective knowledge or skills. We have previously reported on an application of guided-discovery principles to develop Web-based awareness training for security inquiry officials. The purpose of this paper is to report on subsequent research that employs guided-discovery scenarios to enhance the learner's evidential reasoning process through practice in following threads to identify direct causes. Implications for inquiry/analysis and cognitive skills training are discussed.

Greitzer, Frank L.; Rice, Douglas M.; Eaton, Sharon L.; Perkins, Michael C.

2005-11-28

408

SPELT (Strategies Program for Effective Learning/Thinking): A Description and Analysis of Instructional Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an instructional model, Strategies Program for Effective Learning/Thinking (SPELT), that was developed to translate cognitive psychological theory and research into a practical instructional program. The extent to which SPELT conforms to current instructional design principles is examined, and macro versus micro instructional sequencing…

Peat, D.; And Others

1989-01-01

409

CNC Turning Technician. A Competency-Based Instructional System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This competency-based curriculum guide for instructing students in using computer numerically controlled (CNC) turning machines is one of a series of instructional guides for the machinist field developed in Oklahoma. Although developed jointly with Baxter Technologies Corporation and oriented toward the Baxter Vo-Tec 2000 Future Builder CNC…

Sloan, Kelly; Hilley, Robert

410

Practically Speaking: A Sourcebook for Instructional Consultants in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The selections in this sourcebook offer a blend of research-based principles and practical advice to the instructional consultant. The first section, Skills and Techniques of Instructional Consultation, contains: (1) The Interactions of Teaching Improvement (Kathleen T. Brink); (2) Instructional Consulting: A Guide for Developing Professional…

Brinko, Kathleen T., Ed.; Menges, Robert J., Ed.

411

Fundamentals of Concrete and Cement Masonry. Instructional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a course of instruction designed for training concrete masons who will make their careers in construction. It contains 4 sections and 18 instructional units in a standard format. Eight basic components that form a unit of instruction are performance objectives, suggested activities for the teacher,…

Hendrix, Laborn J.

412

Engine Fundamentals: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in engine fundamentals at the secondary and postsecondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each lesson…

O'Brien, Ralph D.

413

Correlating Computer Database Programs with Social Studies Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit emphasizes the integration of software in a focus on the classroom instruction process. Student activities are based on plans and ideas for instructional units presented by a teacher who describes and demonstrates the activities. Integration has occurred when computer applications are included in an instructional activity. This guide

Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

414

Automotive Electricity: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in automotive electricity at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

O'Brien, Ralph D.

415

Cement Mason's Curriculum. Instructional Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assist cement mason instructors in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the skills and information necessary for cement masons in commercial and industrial construction. Ten sections are included, as follow: related information, covering orientation, safety, the history of cement, and applying…

Hendirx, Laborn J.; Patton, Bob

416

International Relations: Library Instruction Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In support of the United States Naval Academy's program in international relations, library reference staff developed an instruction unit featuring appropriate research guides and a videotape produced at the Naval Academy Educational Resource Center. The videotape illustrates a sample search strategy and then highlights the use of four basic…

Hall, Cathie

417

Literacy Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine literacy instruction in light of recent research and practice, this journal issue presents five articles focusing on the creation of a literate society where people appreciate literature and can use reading and writing to enrich their lives. The first article, "Literacy Instruction: An Alternative" (A. S. Bayer), presents an alternative…

Pickens, Alex L., Ed.; Kali, Alex P., Ed.

1986-01-01

418

Systematic instruction for individuals with acquired brain injury: Results of a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to evaluate experimentally systematic instruction compared with trial-and-error learning (conventional instruction) applied to assistive technology for cognition (ATC), in a double-blind, pre-test–post-test, randomised controlled trial. Twenty-nine persons with moderate–severe cognitive impairments due to acquired brain injury (15 in systematic instruction group; 14 in conventional instruction) completed the study. Both groups received 12, 45-minute individual

Laurie Ehlhardt Powell; Ann Glang; Deborah Ettel; Bonnie Todis; McKay Moore Sohlberg; Richard Albin

2012-01-01

419

Art Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by Cognitive Applications Limited, Art Guide is a comprehensive guide to the art collections of Great Britain and Ireland. The site is divided into three main sections, allowing users to browse for exhibits by artist, museum, or geographic location. The Art Guide database currently contains over 1,900 artists, more than 650 museums, and over 4,500 individual listings. Each artist listing features a list of works on display and their location; each museum listing describes the highlights of its collection, and provides an address and phone number, a link to its website (where available) and links to other museums in that region. Additional site features include a separate listing of museums with web sites and kid-friendly destinations, a comprehensive exhibition listing, and a visitors discussion forum.

420

The Relationship Between a Silent Reading Fluency Instructional Protocol on Students’ Reading Comprehension and Achievement in an Urban School Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reading fluency has been identified as a key component in effective literacy instruction (National Reading Panel, 2000). Instruction in reading fluency has been shown to lead to improvements in reading achievement. Reading fluency instruction is most commonly associated with guided repeated oral reading instruction. In the present retrospective study we examine the effects of a computer-based silent reading fluency instructional

Timothy Rasinski; S. Jay Samuels; Elfrieda Hiebert; Yaacov Petscher; Karen Feller

2011-01-01

421

Articulated Instruction Objectives Guide for Typewriting (Module 1.0--Typewriting I) (Module 2.0--Typewriting II). Project Period, March 1981-February 1982 (Pilot Model). Edition I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed during the course of a project designed to provide a continuous, competency-based line of vocational training in business and office education programs at the secondary and postsecondary levels, this package consists of an instructor's guide and learning modules for use in Typewriting I and Typewriting II. Various aspects of implementing…

Reid, Barbara; And Others

422

Articulated Instruction Objectives Guide for Office Procedures (Module 7.0). Project Period, March 1981-February 1982 (Pilot Model). Edition I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed during a project designed to provide a continuous, competency-based line of vocational training in business and office education programs at the secondary and postsecondary levels, this package consists of an instructor's guide and learning module for a course on office procedures. Various aspects of implementing and articulating…

Perrin, Gladys; Campbell, Creola

423

Technology, cognitive remediation, and nursing: directions for successful cognitive aging.  

PubMed

Many older adults experience cognitive difficulties and declines as a part of normal aging. Nurses and other health care professionals will require assistance in technologies that can help older patients maintain or improve cognition. Cognitive remediation represents a well-established laboratory approach that augments cognitive functioning in older adults. Emerging technologies allow such cognitive remediation to be self-administered through gaming software, making it convenient, fun, and inexpensive to deliver. As such, guiding older patients, as well as some facilities, in this direction may be a way to help. However, certain caveats and suggestions are warranted. PMID:19263921

Vance, David E; McNees, Patrick; Meneses, Karen

2009-02-01

424

Guided Reading in Inclusive Middle Years Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers in inclusive classrooms are challenged to provide reading instruction for students with a wide range of instructional levels. This article reports on the implementation of guided reading in four middle years inclusive classrooms, the impact on student engagement and reading progress, and teacher perspectives on the guided reading approach.

Wanda Lyons; Scott Anthony Thompson

2012-01-01

425

Instructional Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers who successfully use diverse learning modes in their instructional approaches accomplish several remarkable things. First, they create a climate where the ways of knowing central to the different modalities are all seen as legitimate, acceptable,

Bob Samples

2000-01-01

426

Cognitive and Situated Learning Perspectives in Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expands the debate over the conflicts between cognitive theory and situated learning from theoretical considerations, to include concerns of educators engaged in classroom-based research and instructional design in collaboration with teachers. Considers the treatments of meaning and instructional goals from the perspectives of cognitive theory and…

Cobb, Paul; Bowers, Janet

1999-01-01

427

Electrical Mechanical Maintenance. Instructor's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's guide describes the development of a sixteen-week postsecondary course in electrical mechanical maintenance. Following introductory sections that provide background information and a course summary, the third section describes the instructional model used in the course. Section 4 presents an overview of instructional media used…

Santa Clara County Superintendent of Schools, San Jose, CA.

428

Rethinking biology instruction: The application of DNR-based instruction to the learning and teaching of biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Educational studies report that secondary and college level students have developed only limited understandings of the most basic biological processes and their interrelationships from typical classroom experiences. Furthermore, students have developed undesirable reasoning schemes and beliefs that directly affect how they make sense of and account for biological phenomena. For these reasons, there exists a need to rethink instructional practices in biology. This dissertation discusses how the principles of Harel's (1998, 2001) DNR-based instruction in mathematics could be applied to the teaching and learning of biology. DNR is an acronym for the three foundational principles of the system: Duality, Necessity, and Repeated-reasoning. This study examines the application of these three principles to ecology instruction. Through clinical and teaching interviews, I developed models of students' existing ways of understanding in ecology and inferred their ways of thinking. From these models a hypothetical learning trajectory was developed for 16 college level freshmen enrolled in a 10-week ecology teaching experiment. Through cyclical, interpretive analysis I documented and analyzed the evolution of the participants' progress. The results provide empirical evidence to support the claim that the DNR principles are applicable to ecology instruction. With respect to the Duality Principle, helping students develop specific ways of understanding led to the development of model-based reasoning---a way of thinking and the cognitive objective guiding instruction. Through carefully structured problem solving tasks, the students developed a biological understanding of the relationship between matter cycling, energy flow, and cellular processes such as photosynthesis and respiration, and used this understanding to account for observable phenomena in nature. In the case of intellectual necessity, the results illuminate how problem situations can be developed for biology learners that create cognitive disequilibrium-equilibrium phases and thus lead to modification or refinement of existing schemes. Elements that contributed to creating intellectual need include (a) problem tasks that built on students' existing knowledge; (b) problem tasks that challenged students; (c) a routine in which students presented their group's solution to the class; and (d) the didactical contract (Brousseau, 1997) established in the classroom.

Maskiewicz, April Lee

429

Implicit Cognitive Distortions and Sexual Offending  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work develops and tests the semantic-motivation hypothesis of sexual offend- ers' implicit cognitions. This hypothesis posits that sexual offenders' cognitive distortions emerge at the interface between implicit motivation and cognition. The semantic-motivation hypothesis is used to guide the development of 3 im- plicit association tests (IATs). These IATs were used to test for the existence of 3 expected child

Stephen Mihailides; Grant J. Devilly; Tony Ward

2004-01-01

430

Implicit Cognitive Distortions and Sexual Offending  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work develops and tests the semantic-motivation hypothesis of sexual offenders' implicit cognitions. This hypothesis posits that sexual offenders' cognitive distortions emerge at the interface between implicit motivation and cognition. The semantic-motivation hypothesis is used to guide the development of 3 implicit association tests (IATs). These IATs were used to test for the existence of 3 expected child sexual offender

Stephen Mihailides; Grant J. Devilly; Tony Ward

2004-01-01

431

A Comparison of Embedded Total Task Instruction in Teaching Behavioral Chains to Massed One-on-One Instruction for Students with Intellectual Disabilities: Accessing General Education Settings and Core Academic Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is a comparison of the embedded instruction of behavioral chains with more traditional (one-on-one massed trials in special education setting) instructional procedures for teaching behavioral chains to students with significant cognitive disabilities. Although embedded instruction has emerged as a promising potential instructional

Jameson, J. Matt; Walker, Ryan; Utley, Kristen; Maughan, Ryan

2012-01-01

432

Theories of Learning and Computer-Mediated Instructional Technologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes four major models of learning: behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and social constructivism. Discusses situated cognition; differences between learning theories and instructional approaches; and how computer-mediated technologies can be integrated with learning theories. (LRW)

Hung, David

2001-01-01

433

Pre-Alignment Checks. Automotive Mechanics. Steering & Suspension. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automotive steering and suspension, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with prealignment checks. Covered in the module are the following steps in a prealignment check: checking the ride height of a vehicle, checking the ball joints and the…

Spignesi, B.

434

Air Conditioner Charging. Automotive Mechanics. Air Conditioning. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automobile air conditioning, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with air conditioning charging. Covered in the module are checking the air conditioning system for leaks, checking and adding refrigerant oil as needed, evacuating the system,…

Spignesi, B.

435

Teacher Self-Efficacy in Understanding Standards-Based Curriculum: Finding the Gap between Curriculum and Instructional Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In standards-based education the importance of interpreting standards and effectively embedding them into instructional design is critical in connecting curriculum and instruction. Finding the link between standards and instruction while striving to engage students has proven difficult. Too often instructional design does not meet the cognitive

James, Richard A.

2013-01-01

436

Cognitive tutors: Lessons learned  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper review the 10-year history of tutor development based on the ACT theory (Anderson, 1993, 1993). We developed production system models in ACT of how students solved problems in LISP geometry, and algebra. Computer tutors were developed around these cognitive models. Construction of these tutors was guided by a set of eight principles loosely based on the ACT theory.

Albert T. Corbett; Kenneth R. Koedinger; Ray Pelletier

1995-01-01

437

SAGE 2.0 - SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDES - USER'S GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The guide provides instruction for using the SAGE (Solvent Alternatives Guide) software system, version 2.O. It assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating a personal computer under the Microsoft disk operating system (MS-DOS). AGE recommends solvent repl...

438

SAGE 2.0 SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE - USER'S GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The guide provides instruction for using the SAGE (Solvent Alternatives Guide) software system, version 2.O. It assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating a personal computer under the Microsoft disk operating system (MS-DOS). AGE recommends solvent repl...

439

Teacher's Guide to "Artes Latinae".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this guide is to assist teachers in the classroom utilization of "Artes Latinae", the Encyclopaedia Britannica Latin instructional system. This guide is intended as a supplement to the publisher's teacher's manual and presupposes familiarity with it. Stress has been placed on the early units of the textbook, since the inexperienced…

Masciantonio, Rudolph; And Others

440

Secretarial & Office Administration Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As one of a series of curriculum guides for office education programs in Texas, this guide contains 11 units of instruction on secretarial and office administration. Each of the units contains these components: unit outline, performance chart for rating students, notes to the instructor, unit overview (content of unit with illustrations as…

East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

441

Clothing Production. Student Learning Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These 59 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 59 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in clothing production. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 2-5 enabling objectives. For each enabling objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps (outline…

Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

442

Introduction to Hydraulics. Instructor's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's guide on hydraulics is part of a series of individualized instructional materials. The guide is provided to help the instructor make certain that each student gets the most benefit possible from both the student's manual and what he/she does on the job. Notes for the instructor contain suggestions on how the student should use…

Texas Univ., Austin. Extension Instruction and Materials Center.

443

Automotive Mechanics. Student Learning Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These 33 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 33 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in automotive mechanics. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-9 enabling objectives. For each enabliing objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps…

Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

444

Solar Heating Systems: Instructor's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Instructor's Guide for a Solar Heating System Curriculum is designed to accompany the Student Manual and the Progress Checks and Test Manual for the course (see note), in order to facilitate the instruction of classes on solar heating systems. The Instructor's Guide contains a variety of materials used in teaching the courses, including…

Green, Joanne; And Others

445

Profile of laboratory instruction in secondary school level chemistry and indication for reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a profile of the laboratory component of instruction in secondary school level chemistry. As one of several companion studies, the purpose of the study is to investigate present practices related to instruction as a means of producing reform that improve cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes. Five hundred-forty students, from 18 chemistry classes taught by 12 teachers in

Mei Wang

1997-01-01

446

An Investigation of Development toward Instructional Design Expertise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated expertise development among instructional designers by tracking novice designers' unfolding perceptions of instructional design (ID), design-related self-perceptions, and other individual differences. It examined development toward ID expertise from multiple aspects: processes, product, and cognition, through a case…

Hardre, Patricia L.; Ge, Xun; Thomas, Michael K.

2006-01-01

447

Effective Reading and Writing Instruction: A Focus on Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When providing effective reading and writing instruction, teachers need to provide explicit modeling. Modeling is particularly important when teaching students to use cognitive learning strategies. Examples of how teachers can provide specific, explicit, and flexible instructional modeling is presented in the context of two evidence-based…

Regan, Kelley; Berkeley, Sheri

2012-01-01

448

Instructional Efficiency of Tutoring in an Outreach Gene Technology Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our research objective focused on examining the instructional efficiency of tutoring as a form of instructional change as opposed to a non-tutoring approach in an outreach laboratory. We designed our laboratory based on cognitive load (CL) theory. Altogether, 269 twelfth-graders participated in our day-long module "Genetic Fingerprinting." In a…

Scharfenberg, Franz-Josef; Bogner, Franz X.

2013-01-01

449

A Comparison of Demonstration and Tutorials in Photo Editing Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout this study, tutorial and demonstration methods in photo editing instruction were compared. The instruction method was the independent variable of the study while cognitive load, state anxiety level, student performance, student achievement, and task duration were dependent variables. The research was conducted with 62 undergraduate…

Akbiyik, Cenk

2012-01-01

450

Writing Technical Instructions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students walk through the process of creating technical instructions by first analyzing existing instructions. They then select an item and an audience for which they will write technical instructions. After writing their own instructions, students conduct usability tests of each other’s instructions, providing user feedback. Finally, students use this user feedback to revise their instructions before publishing them.

2012-05-24

451

Vocabulary Instruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the web site Doing What Works, this section describes research-based practices to promote vocabulary development in middle and high school. It includes a multimedia overview of the importance of providing explicit vocabulary instruction, video clips, links to research, and other resources. Content area teachers and strategies for use in content areas like science are specifically addressed in the recommendations.

2008-01-01

452

LATIN--COURSE GUIDE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SECONDARY SCHOOL LATIN TEACHERS IN PRINCE GEORGE'S COUNTY, MARYLAND, COLLABORATED WITH THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE SUPERVISOR IN DEVELOPING THIS LATIN COURSE GUIDE DESIGNED TO ESTABLISH CLEARER PROGRAM OBJECTIVES, TO PRESENT BASIC CURRICULUM GUIDELINES FOR THREE LEVELS OF INSTRUCTION, AND TO ACT AS A SOURCE BOOK OF MATERIALS AND ACTIVITIES FOR PROGRAM…

KENNEDY, DORA F.; AND OTHERS

453

SOCMATICAS Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructions for use of Socmaticas, a bilingual (Spanish-English), multicultural, multidisciplinary sports learning program are given in this teacher's guide. The program is based on the use of World Soccer team rosters (which include lists of players' names, ages, heights, weights, etc.) to teach English as a second language or Spanish. Students…

Frame, Laurence

454

Automotive Technology Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Idaho state curriculum guide provides lists of tasks, performance objectives, and enabling objectives for instruction in automotive technology. The document begins with a list of all tasks covered by the curriculum, a short course outline, and a curriculum framework that explains major content, laboratory activities, and intended outcomes.…

Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

455

Horticultural Practices. Activity Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 88 activity guides in this document are intended to supplement the initial or organized instruction of the agricultural teacher at the secondary educational level. Some of the activities require one student to complete, others may need two or more students working in a team. Some activities also require followup checking within a few days to…

Bania, Kent; Cummings, John, Ed.

456

HAPPIER: Health Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on findings of Project HAPPIER surveys and intended as a resource for health care providers and educators who serve the migrant community, this guide describes over 375 instructional materials in the areas of dental health, disease control, fitness, health promotion, human growth and development, hypertension, maternal and child care, mental…

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

457

Autobody Technology Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Idaho state curriculum guide provides lists of tasks, performance objectives, and enabling objectives for instruction in auto body technology. Following a curriculum framework that explains major content, laboratory activities, and intended outcomes, the document lists all tasks covered in the curriculum. The bulk of the document consists of…

Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

458

Plant Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appropriate for secondary school botany instruction, this study guide focuses on the important roles of plants in human lives. Following a rationale for learning the basic skills of a botanist, separate sections discuss the process sunlight undergoes during photosynthesis, the flow of energy in the food chain, alternative plant lifestyles, plant…

Brynildson, Inga

459

Pharmacy Technician Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Idaho state curriculum guide provides lists of tasks, performance objectives, and enabling objectives for instruction designed to prepare entry-level pharmacy technicians or help already employed pharmacy technicians retain their jobs or advance in their field. Following a list of tasks and an introduction, the bulk of the document consists…

Maddox, Ray R.

460

EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION PROJECT GUIDE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE TELEVISION GUIDE FOR THE ANAHEIM PLAN IS PRESENTED. INSTRUCTION IS PROVIDED BY MEANS OF CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEVISION IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SUBJECTS OF SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, CONVERSATIONAL SPANISH, AND ARITHMETIC. REGULAR CLASSROOM TEACHERS AND AUDIOVISUAL RESOURCE TEACHERS PRESENT CAREFULLY PLANNED AND THOROUGH PREPARATORY AND FOLLOWUP…

Anaheim City School District, CA.

461

New Jersey Industrial Arts Education Safety Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide was developed to assist the teacher in planning, implementing, revising, or improving safety instruction in industrial arts classes in New Jersey, and has as its theme, "Safety Is Everyone's Responsibility." The guide is organized in seven major sections. The first section explains the purpose of the guide, outlines the contents of a…

Kobylarz, Joseph D.; Olender, Francis B.

462

Instructional Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents six social studies teaching materials comprised of filmstrips with accompanying cassettes and teacher's guides. Content and activities focus on life in the universe, ocean rights, the environment, foreign cultures, social problems, and listening and research skills. (AV)

Pulliam, William E., Ed.; Rich, Lynne O'Brien, Ed.

1978-01-01

463

Incorporating Cognitive Developmental Concepts into Student Evaluation of College Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although student evaluation of instruction forms are used by colleges to provide information to instructors and administrators, personality and cognitive style variables of the student raters are rarely considered. A cognitive developmental measure, the Paragraph Completion Test (PCT), two cognitive style measures, Bieri's Modified Rep Test and…

Trabin, Tom E.; Doyle, Kenneth

464

PEER ASSESSMENT AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING: A COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE  

E-print Network

1 PEER ASSESSMENT AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING: A COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE This is a post assessment as collaborative learning: a cognitive perspective. Learning and Instruction, 20(4), 344-348. hal, are presented. Keywords: Peer assessment; Collaborative learning; Cognitive processes; Discursive processes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

465

Cognitive Load Theory and the Use of Educational Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human cognitive architecture is a constant in a continually advancing educational technology environment. That architecture should be central in determining which technologies should be adopted and how they should be used. In this article, cognitive load theory is used to indicate aspects of human cognition relevant to instructional design, with…

Sweller, John

2008-01-01

466

A student's guide to United States patent applications  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a comprehensive guide to patent applications in the United States derived from the information provided by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). This guide gives indepth instructions ...

Hammond, Jennifer N. (Jennifer Nicole)

2012-01-01

467

Mining Learning Preferences in Web-Based Instruction: Holists vs. Serialists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Web-based instruction programs are used by learners with diverse knowledge, skills and needs. These differences determine their preferences for the design of Web-based instruction programs and ultimately influence learners' success in using them. Cognitive style has been found to significantly affect learners' preferences of web-based instruction

Clewley, Natalie; Chen, Sherry Y.; Liu, Xiaohui

2011-01-01

468

Translating Research into Practice for Instruction of Students with Moderate Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the results of research studies on instructional practices that significantly affect the cognitive, language, or mental abilities of students with disabilities. The investigation reviewed current research on instruction of students with moderate disabilities and sought to identify effective instructional practices. The steps…

Houston, Debby; Thomas, Jan

469

Contributions of Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction to Knowledge About Interventions for Motivations in Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a theoretical and empirical explication of the intervention of Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) that is designed to increase students' reading comprehension and motivation for reading. The framework specifies a set of five motivational constructs that represent goals for the instructional intervention. Necessary cognitive goals in reading are also presented. For this intervention, the five instructional practices of relevance,

JOHN T. GUTHRIE; ANGELA MCRAE; SUSAN LUTZ KLAUDA

2007-01-01

470

Shifts in Thinking: A Primer on the Foundations of Instructional Technology Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses instructional technology in the context of the whole learning environment instead of just in terms of computers and software. Considers assessment of instructional technology, including the role of the student, identifying the learning theory behind a specific instructional application, behaviorism, cognitive development, and faculty…

Cohen, Steve; McMullen, Barbara

2000-01-01

471

Learning Experience as Transaction: A Framework for Instructional Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a framework for understanding learning experience as an object for instructional design--as an object for design as well as research and understanding. Compared to traditional behavioral objectives or discrete cognitive skills, the object of experience is more holistic, requiring simultaneous attention to cognition, behavior,…

Parrish, Patrick E.; Wilson, Brent G.; Dunlap, Joanna C.

2011-01-01

472

An Investigation Of The Effects Of Model-Centered Instruction In Individual And Collaborative Contexts: The Case Of Acquiring Instructional Design Expertise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of model-centered instruction (MCI) in both individual and collaborative contexts. The study focuses on learning effectiveness in acquiring instructional design knowledge, developing mental model of instructional design, and acquiring instructional design skill by making lesson plans when an expert model is presented and a cognitive apprenticeship model is applied within a collaborative context.\\u000aThe main

Hyewon Kim

2008-01-01

473

The Expertise Reversal Effect Concerning Instructional Explanations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The expertise reversal effect occurs when learner's expertise moderates design principles derived from cognitive load theory. Although this effect is supported by numerous empirical studies, indicating an overall large effect size, the effect was never tested by inducing expertise experimentally and using instructional explanations in a…

Rey, Gunter Daniel; Fischer, Andreas

2013-01-01

474

Adult Learner Characteristics and Instructional Objectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using 40 male and 40 female part time learners with an average age of 36.6, this program planning study explored relationships between selected learner characteristics and behaviorally stated cognitive instructional objectives (IOs). Variables included age, sex, socioeconomic status, verbal ability, and a measure of learners' goals or learning…

Etter, David Campbell George

475

Fractions Instruction: Linking Concepts and Procedures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is not surprising, as research has shown, that fractions are one of the most difficult of the elementary school math topics to teach and learn in ways that are meaningful. The authors reference a work by James Hiebert, "Mathematical, Cognitive, and Instructional Analyses of Decimal Fractions" (1992), that mathematical concepts should…

Pitsolantis, Nicole; Osana, Helena P.

2013-01-01

476

Some Thoughts about Constructivism and Instructional Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt addresses concerns related to constructivism and instructional design that were raised in an earlier issue. Relationship of ecological psychology and constructivist theory is described, constraints on constructed knowledge are discussed, and the complexity of the Jasper series of math problems that…

Educational Technology, 1991

1991-01-01

477

Instructional Design in Education: New Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main goal of the new instructional design model is to organize long term and full learning activities. The new model is based on the theoretical foundation of behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism. During teaching and learning activities, learners are active and use cognitive, constructivist, or behaviorist learning to construct new…

Isman, Aytekin

2011-01-01

478

Cognitive development in introductory physics: A research-based approach to curriculum reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project describes the research on a classification of physics problems in the context of introductory physics courses. This classification, called the Taxonomy of Introductory Physics Problems (TIPP), relates physics problems to the cognitive processes required to solve them. TIPP was created for designing and clarifying educational objectives, for developing assessments that can evaluate individual component processes of the problem-solving process, and for guiding curriculum design in introductory physics courses, specifically within the context of a "thinking-skills" curriculum. TIPP relies on the following resources: (1) cognitive research findings adopted by physics education research, (2) expert-novice research discoveries acknowledged by physics education research, (3) an educational psychology taxonomy for educational objectives, and (4) various collections of physics problems created by physics education researchers or developed by textbook authors. TIPP was used in the years 2006--2008 to reform the first semester of the introductory algebra-based physics course (called Phys 11) at The George Washington University. The reform sought to transform our curriculum into a "thinking-skills" curriculum that trades "breadth for depth" by focusing on fewer topics while targeting the students' cognitive development. We employed existing research on the physics problem-solving expert-novice behavior, cognitive science and behavioral science findings, and educational psychology recommendations. Our pedagogy relies on didactic constructs such as the GW-ACCESS problem-solving protocol, learning progressions and concept maps that we have developed and implemented in our introductory physics course. These tools were designed based on TIPP. Their purpose is: (1) to help students build local and global coherent knowledge structures, (2) to develop more context-independent problem-solving abilities, (3) to gain confidence in problem solving, and (4) to establish connections between everyday phenomena and underlying physics concepts. We organize traditional and research-based physics problems such that students experience a gradual increase in complexity related to problem context, problem features and cognitive processes needed to solve the problem. The instructional environment that we designed allows for explicit monitoring, control and measurement of the cognitive processes exercised during the instruction period. It is easily adaptable to any kind of curriculum and can be readily adjusted throughout the semester. To assess the development of students' problem-solving abilities, we created rubrics that measure specific aspects of the thinking involved in physics problem solving. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) was administered pre- and post-instruction to determine students' shift in dispositions towards learning physics. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was administered pre- and post-instruction to determine students' level of conceptual understanding. The results feature improvements in students' problem-solving abilities and in their attitudes towards learning physics.

Teodorescu, Raluca Elena

479

The Answer Is in the Question: A Guide for Describing and Investigating the Conceptual Foundations and Statistical Properties of Cognitive Psychometric Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most revolutionary advances in psychometric research during the last decades has been the systematic development of statistical models that allow for cognitive psychometric research (CPR) to be conducted. Many of the models currently available for such purposes are extensions of basic latent variable models in item response theory…

Rupp, Andre A.

2007-01-01

480

Advancing Lie Detection by Inducing Cognitive Load on Liars: A Review of Relevant Theories and Techniques Guided by Lessons from Polygraph-Based Approaches  

PubMed Central

This article critically reviews techniques and theories relevant to the emerging field of “lie detection by inducing cognitive load selectively on liars.” To help these techniques benefit from past mistakes, we start with a summary of the polygraph-based Controlled Question Technique (CQT) and the major criticisms of it made by the National Research Council (2003), including that it not based on a validated theory and administration procedures have not been standardized. Lessons from the more successful Guilty Knowledge Test are also considered. The critical review that follows starts with the presentation of models and theories offering insights for cognitive lie detection that can undergird theoretically load-inducing approaches. This is followed by evaluation of specific research-based, load-inducing proposals, especially for their susceptibility to rehearsal and other countermeasures. To help organize these proposals and suggest new direction for innovation and refinement, a theoretical taxonomy is presented based on the type of cognitive load induced in examinees (intrinsic or extraneous) and how open-ended the responses to test items are. Finally, four recommendations are proffered that can help researchers and practitioners to avert the corresponding mistakes with the CQT and yield new, valid cognitive lie detection technologies. PMID:23378840

Walczyk, Jeffrey J.; Igou, Frank P.; Dixon, Alexa P.; Tcholakian, Talar

2013-01-01

481

Manual-Guided Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy Training: A Promising Method for Disseminating Empirically Supported Substance Abuse Treatments to the Practice Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gap exists between empirically supported substance abuse treatments and those used in community settings. This study examined the feasibility of training substance abuse counselors to deliver cognitive–behavioral treatment (CBT) using treatment manuals. Participants were 29 counselors. Counselors were randomly assigned to receive CBT training or to a control group. Counselor attitudes were assessed pre- and posttraining. In addition, CBT

Jon Morgenstern; Thomas J. Morgan; Barbara S. McCrady; Daniel S. Keller; Kathleen M. Carroll

2001-01-01

482

Nebraska Secondary Bicycle Program Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided is a secondary education bicycle program guide designed for use in a general bicycle awareness course or as part of a driver education course. Chapter 1 of the guide contains the course objectives (psychomotor, cognitive, and affective) and a course outline organized into eight lessons. Each lesson lists lesson objectives, student…

Tichenor, Fred E.

483

Enhancing Mechanics Learning through Cognitively Appropriate Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The unquestionably central role of physics in the development of scientific literacy is undermined by its perceived difficulty. An investigation of high school students' use of the concepts of momentum and force suggests that, in the case of mechanics, the reason for physics' unpopularity and image as a "hard" subject is largely due to an…

Espinoza, Fernando

2004-01-01

484

Outcome-Based Instructional Management: A Sociological Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is the thesis of this discussion that outcome-based instructional systems (such as mastery learning, individually guided education, and competency-based education) represent a workable alternative to traditional approaches to instruction and are particularly suited to children in Head Start and Follow Through programs. This thesis is expanded…

Spady, William G.

485

Task Analysis for the Development of Audiovisual Programed Instruction Modules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The task analysis presented in this article was developed for use in a project designed to create programed instruction units for Navy hospital corpsmen. The procedures followed are presented in detail in a process chart which could serve as a guide for others attempting to develop such instructional units. (Author)

Brodt, Dagmar E.

1973-01-01

486

Blended Instruction: Integrating the Curriculum through Projects and Curriculum Alignment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Blended instruction" is an approach to integrating high school curriculum around broad career clusters or areas of student interest and study. Blended instruction is intended to engage students in more challenging assignments, increase attendance, and increase student academic and technical achievement. This Maryland guide contains materials to…

Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore. Div. of Career Technology and Adult Learning.

487

Creating Shared Instructional Products: An Alternative Approach to Improving Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To solve two enduring problems in education--unacceptably large variation in learning opportunities for students across classrooms and little continuing improvement in the quality of instruction--the authors propose a system that centers on the creation of shared instructional products that guide classroom teaching. By examining systems outside…

Morris, Anne K.; Hiebert, James

2011-01-01

488

Metacomprehension during basal reader instruction: Do teachers promote it?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the research and instructional development on metacomprehension has been based on the premise that students are in need of such instruction because teachers do little to foster students’ metacomprehension ability. However, this assertion has not been tested empirically; therefore, it was the purpose of this study to analyze elementary teachers’ interactions with their students during the guided reading

Maribeth Cassidy Schmitt; James F. Baumann

1990-01-01

489

Webquest 2.0: An Instructional Model for Digital Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching and learning tools such as Moodle and Web 2.0 tools are appearing in K-12 classrooms; however, there is a lack of scholarly research to guide the implementation of these tools. The WebQuest model, a widely adopted inquiry-based model for online instruction, has instructional inadequacies and does not make the most of emerging…

Dell, Diana F. Abernathy

2012-01-01

490

TMS320C55x DSP Mnemonic Instruction Set  

E-print Network

TMS320C55x DSP Mnemonic Instruction Set Reference Guide Literature Number: SPRU374E April 2001 Incorporated #12;iii Preface Read This First About This Manual The TMS320C55xTM DSP is a fixed-point digital signal processor (DSP) in the TMS320TM family, and it can use either of two forms of the instruction set

Reisslein, Martin

491

SAGE FOR MACINTOSH (MSAGE) VERSION 1.0 SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE - USER'S GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The guide provides instructions for using the Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE) for Macintosh, version 1.0. The guide assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating a Macintosh personal computer under the System 7.0 (or higher) operating system. SAGE for ...

492

SAGE FOR WINDOWS (WSAGE) VERSION 1.0 SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE - USER'S GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The guide provides instructions for using the Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE) for Windows, version 1.0. The guide assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating Windows 3.1 (or higher) on a personal computer under the DOS 5.0 (or higher) operating system. ...

493

COATING ALTERNATIVES GUIDE (CAGE) USER'S GUIDE (EPA/600/R-01/030)  

EPA Science Inventory

The guide provides instructions for using the Coating Alternatives GuidE (CAGE) software program, version 1.0. It assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating an IBM-compatible personal computer (PC) under the Microsoft disk operating system (MS-DOS). CAGE...

494

Integrating e-learning into the Direct-instruction Model to enhance the effectiveness of critical-thinking instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Direct-instruction Model favors the use of teacher explanations and modeling combined with student practice and feedback to teach thinking skills.\\u000a Using this paradigm, this study incorporates e-learning during an 18-week experimental instruction period that includes 48\\u000a preservice teachers. The instructional design in this study emphasizes scaffolding, observational learning, mastery of critical-thinking\\u000a skills, guided practices, cooperative learning, providing feedback, self-reflection,

Yu-Chu Yeh

2009-01-01

495

Strategic Cognitive Sequencing: A Computational Cognitive Neuroscience Approach  

PubMed Central

We address strategic cognitive sequencing, the “outer loop” of human cognition: how the brain decides what cognitive process to apply at a given moment to solve complex, multistep cognitive tasks. We argue that this topic has been neglected relative to its importance for systematic reasons but that recent work on how individual brain systems accomplish their computations has set the stage for productively addressing how brain regions coordinate over time to accomplish our most impressive thinking. We present four preliminary neural network models. The first addresses how the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basal ganglia (BG) cooperate to perform trial-and-error learning of short sequences; the next, how several areas of PFC learn to make predictions of likely reward, and how this contributes to the BG making decisions at the level of strategies. The third models address how PFC, BG, parietal cortex, and hippocampus can work together to memorize sequences of cognitive actions from instruction (or “self-instruction”). The last shows how a constraint satisfaction process can find useful plans. The PFC maintains current and goal states and associates from both of these to find a “bridging” state, an abstract plan. We discuss how these processes could work together to produce strategic cognitive sequencing and discuss future directions in this area. PMID:23935605

Herd, Seth A.; Krueger, Kai A.; Kriete, Trenton E.; Huang, Tsung-Ren; Hazy, Thomas E.; O'Reilly, Randall C.

2013-01-01

496

Treating cognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed Central

Cognitive dysfunction is a common, chronically disabling component of schizophrenia. It has been proposed that many of the symptoms of schizophrenia can be understood as a result of disruption of fundamental cognitive processes. This paper reviews treatment strategies aimed at improving cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. Nonpharmacologic interventions include instruction in the performance of tasks such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Mixed results have been achieved, but it appears that instruction methods involving reinforcement of information held in working memory are more successful. Computer-aided remediation has also been used with variable success. Novel antipsychotic drugs appear to have an advantage over conventional antipsychotic drugs in terms of their effect on cognitive function. The development of more precisely tailored methods of remedial teaching, along with optimal pharmacologic treatment, may lead to more effective treatment of cognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:10740985

Galletly, C A; Clark, C R; MacFarlane, A C

2000-01-01

497

The New Instructional Leadership: Creating Data-Driven Instructional Systems in Schools. WCER Working Paper No. 2005-9  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent demand for schools to respond to external accountability measures challenges school leaders to create school instructional systems that use data to guide the practices of teaching and learning. This paper considers how local school leaders build data-driven instructional systems (DDIS) by developing new programs and using existing…

Halverson, Richard; Prichett, Reid; Grigg, Jeffrey; Thomas, Chris

2005-01-01

498

Industrial Sewing. V-TECS Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This industrial sewing guide is a compilation of duties, tasks, performance objectives, and performance guides that deals with the psychomotor aspect of an occupation. The guide addresses the three domains of learning: psychomotor, cognitive, and affective. Each unit provides job-relevant tasks, standards of performance, source of standard,…

Moore, Charles G.; And Others

499

South Carolina Guide for Small Business Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide for small business management in South Carolina addresses the three domains of learning: psychomotor, cognitive, and affective. The guide contains suggestions for specific classroom activities for each domain. Each of the 11 units or tasks in the guide contains a competency statement followed by performance objectives, job-relevant…

Vaughan, Ellen C.; Elliott, Ronald T.

500

Computer Assisted Drafting (CNC) Drawings. Drafting Module 6. Instructor's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Missouri Vocational Instruction Management System instructor's drafting guide has been keyed to the drafting competency profile developed by state industry and education professionals. This unit contains information on computer-assisted drafting drawings. The guide contains a cross-reference table of instructional materials and 20 worksheets.…

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.