Science.gov

Sample records for cognitively guided instruction

  1. A Cognitive Reading Guide: Equalizing Instruction for "Where the Red Fern Grows."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannuzzi, Michelle L.; Hudson, Floyd

    1998-01-01

    Provides a cognitive reading guide for the first four chapters of the novel, "Where the Red Fern Grows" (Rawls, 1961), that incorporates teacher-directed whole-class instruction with a student reading guide to equalize instruction for various levels of learners. Ideas for whole-class instruction are contained within the lesson plans. (CR)

  2. The Effects of Cognitively Guided Instruction on Mathematics Achievement of Second Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, 6% of students in the United States were performing at an advanced level in mathematics. During the previous year, the United States produced over 987,000 low math achievers. The theoretical foundations of this research project study were found in Cognitively Guided Instruction (CGI). The research problem addressed in this study is the…

  3. Cognitive task analysis for instruction in single-injection ultrasound guided-regional anesthesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gucev, Gligor V.

    Cognitive task analysis (CTA) is methodology for eliciting knowledge from subject matter experts. CTA has been used to capture the cognitive processes, decision-making, and judgments that underlie expert behaviors. A review of the literature revealed that CTA has not yet been used to capture the knowledge required to perform ultrasound guided regional anesthesia (UGRA). The purpose of this study was to utilize CTA to extract knowledge from UGRA experts and to determine whether instruction based on CTA of UGRA will produce results superior to the results of traditional training. This study adds to the knowledge base of CTA in being the first one to effectively capture the expert knowledge of UGRA. The derived protocol was used in a randomized, double blinded experiment involving UGRA instruction to 39 novice learners. The results of this study strongly support the hypothesis that CTA-based instruction in UGRA is more effective than conventional clinical instruction, as measured by conceptual pre- and post-tests, performance of a simulated UGRA procedure, and time necessary for the task performance. This study adds to the number of studies that have proven the superiority of CTA-informed instruction. Finally, it produced several validated instruments that can be used in instructing and evaluating UGRA.

  4. The Effect of Cognitively Guided Instruction on Primary Students' Math Achievement, Problem-Solving Abilities and Teacher Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medrano, Juan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to impact the teaching and learning of math of 2nd through 4th grade math students at Porfirio H. Gonzales Elementary School. The Cognitively Guided Instruction (CGI) model serves as the independent variable for this study. Its intent is to promote math instruction that emphasizes problem-solving to a greater degree…

  5. The Effect of Cognitively Guided Instruction on Primary Students' Math Achievement, Problem-Solving Abilities and Teacher Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medrano, Juan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to impact the teaching and learning of math of 2nd through 4th grade math students at Porfirio H. Gonzales Elementary School. The Cognitively Guided Instruction (CGI) model serves as the independent variable for this study. Its intent is to promote math instruction that emphasizes problem-solving to a greater degreeā€¦

  6. Cognitive Task Analysis for Instruction in Single-Injection Ultrasound Guided-Regional Anesthesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gucev, Gligor V.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive task analysis (CTA) is methodology for eliciting knowledge from subject matter experts. CTA has been used to capture the cognitive processes, decision-making, and judgments that underlie expert behaviors. A review of the literature revealed that CTA has not yet been used to capture the knowledge required to perform ultrasound guided…

  7. Instruction and cognition.

    PubMed

    Cromley, Jennifer G; Byrnes, James P

    2012-09-01

    When teachers provide instruction to students, they provide opportunities for students to learn information. To be maximally effective, these opportunities should present information in ways that are compatible with the way the mind works. Using a US Department of Education Practice Guide as a structure for our review, we review 'second wave' cognitive science research on spaced learning, worked examples, coordinating visual and verbal representations, coordinating and concrete representations, quizzing, delayed Judgment of Learning, and explanatory reasoning. We also contextualize these lines of research within the contemporary K-12 classroom environment and constraints on teachers and school administrators. We close by advocating that all stakeholders in the instructional process also remember 'first wave' cognitive science findings, and also recommend more research on how specific motivational constructs could be brought to bear to encourage students to use these proven but effortful learning principles. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012 doi: 10.1002/wcs.1192 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26302709

  8. Instructional Guide for Cosmetology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.

    Intended as a tool for cosmetology teachers in Virginia public and private schools, the document is an instructional guide which offers 12 units of study, arranged in a three year course. Materials covered help prepare students for licensure in the State of Virginia and the guide is designed to cover the 1,500 hours required to be spent in the…

  9. Apparel. Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambo, Patti

    This instructional guide for a one-half credit technological laboratory course for grades 10-12 focuses on apparel from the perspectives of personal decision making related to apparel, the apparel industry, and career preparation. Introductory materials are a course description; overview of course design; facilities, equipment, and resources; and…

  10. Management. Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutnyak, Dana

    This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year management programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductory…

  11. Cognitive Task Analysis for Instruction in Single-Injection Ultrasound Guided-Regional Anesthesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gucev, Gligor V.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive task analysis (CTA) is methodology for eliciting knowledge from subject matter experts. CTA has been used to capture the cognitive processes, decision-making, and judgments that underlie expert behaviors. A review of the literature revealed that CTA has not yet been used to capture the knowledge required to perform ultrasound guidedā€¦

  12. Secondary Physical Education Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Designed for use as a teaching aid only, this instructional guide provides secondary physical education teachers with a basis and direction for realizing those instructional objectives concerned with the development of motor skills and physical fitness. The content of the bulletin reflects an increased emphasis on individualization and student…

  13. Planning Guide for Instructional Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League for Innovation in the Community Coll., Laguna Hills, CA.

    Designed to assist academic administrators at community colleges in developing strategies for the application of computers to teaching and learning, this guide provides background information and recommendations for the design and implementation of an instructional computing plan. Chapter 1 examines computers as a topic of instruction, as a medium…

  14. An Instructional Guide for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carambio, Lisa; And Others

    Presented is an instructional guide for parents of severely and profoundly retarded and multiply handicapped children. Developed by 20 graduate students during a summer institute at Duquesne University, the guide suggests activities in communication, self-help and physical development. An introduction provides a definition of the severely involvedā€¦

  15. Instructional Guide for Autobody Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.

    The curriculum guide was developed to serve as a statewide model for Virginia auto body repair programs. The guide is designed to 1,080 hours of instruction in eleven blocks: orientation, introduction, welding and cutting, techniques of shaping metal, body filler and fiberglass repairs, body and frame, removing and replacing damaged parts, basicā€¦

  16. Interior Design: Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Tricia

    This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year interior design programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductoryā€¦

  17. Basic Instructional Technology Staff Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Debbie

    As part of the overall goal of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to help provide environmental professionals with the skills required to plan and deliver training programs, this staff guide, and its related participant reference manual have been developed for conducting a workshop in basic instructional technology. The workshop consists of…

  18. Child Development. Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Joyce

    This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year child development programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductory…

  19. Interior Design: Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Tricia

    This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year interior design programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductory…

  20. Cognitive Apprenticeships: An Instructional Design Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Brent; Cole, Peggy

    This discussion of the relationship between two related disciplines--cognitive psychology and instructional design (ID)--characterizes instructional design as a more applied discipline, which concerns itself more with prescriptions and models for designing instruction, while instructional psychologists conduct empirical research on learning andā€¦

  1. How cognitive theory guides neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Michael J.; Badre, David

    2015-01-01

    The field of cognitive science studies latent, unobservable cognitive processes that generate observable behaviors. Similarly, cognitive neuroscience attempts to link latent cognitive processes with the neural mechanisms that generate them. Although neural processes are partially observable (with imaging and electrophysiology), it would be a mistake to ‘skip’ the cognitive level and pursue a purely neuroscientific enterprise to studying behavior. In fact, virtually all of the major advances in understanding the neural basis of behavior over the last century have relied fundamentally on principles of cognition for guiding the appropriate measurements, manipulations, tasks, and interpretations. We provide several examples from the domains of episodic memory, working memory and cognitive control, and decision making in which cognitive theorizing and prior experimentation has been essential in guiding neuroscientific investigations and discoveries. PMID:25496988

  2. Family and Career Management. Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieson, Mary

    This instructional guide for a one-half credit course for grades 11-12 emphasizes preparation for family and career roles, effective management, and personal and career effectiveness. Introductory materials are a course description; overview of course design; facilities, equipment, and resources; and how to use the instructional guide. Texas…

  3. Assessment Strategies to Guide Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanton, Patricia

    2007-02-01

    The current emphasis on assessment in education may have you lamenting that you are being required to "teach to the test." In many schools, the demands of No Child Left Behind and state-mandated testing leave teachers and their students with the impression that testing is a punitive activity designed to reveal inadequate performance by schools and students. Add the fact that school effectiveness is evaluated by student performance on these high-stakes tests, that schools are threatened with closing if performance isn't deemed adequate, that teacher bonuses are often tied to the performance of the entire school, and that students cannot receive course credit unless they pass these tests, and it quickly becomes evident why assessment has become such a "hot button" issue. It's easy for a beginning teacher to lose sight of the fact that assessments should guide instruction and help students become more effective learners.

  4. Assessment of Cognitive Requirements of Instructional Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartford, Fred; Good, Ron

    1976-01-01

    Evaluates the CHEM study topics of kinetic theory of gases, phase changes, chemical bonds, and equilibrium as to the level of cognitive development required for an understanding of each subject. Advocates an assignment of topics within the range of a student's cognitive ability in an individual study format of instruction. (CP)

  5. Behavioristic and Cognitive Approaches in Programmed Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastain, Kenneth

    Implications of the behaviorist and cognitive theories in language instruction are discussed in this article. Some contributions of Skinner, Politzer, Valette, Morton, Lane, and Mueller and Niedzielski clarify the behaviorists' view of language as a myriad of conditioned responses. In turn, the cognitive viewpoint, seen as the acquisiton andā€¦

  6. Cognitively Guided Instruction & Systemic Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This issue contains an interview with Elizabeth Fennema in which she explains that decades of research on learning has had a minor impact on what goes on in the schools. She and other researchers decided to try to integrate the study of teaching along with the study of learning. Their desire was to effect real change in the classroom and toā€¦

  7. Instructional Guide for Vocational Welding. V & TECC Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Div. of Vocational-Technical Education.

    This trade and industrial curriculum guide for welding is designed for vocational welding programs that provide 960 hours of instruction. The introductory section provides a statement of welding philosophy, objectives, block time schedule, and recommended facilities and equipment. Following the introductory section, ten blocks of instruction areā€¦

  8. Instructional Guide for Vocational Welding. V & TECC Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Div. of Vocational-Technical Education.

    This trade and industrial curriculum guide for welding is designed for vocational welding programs that provide 960 hours of instruction. The introductory section provides a statement of welding philosophy, objectives, block time schedule, and recommended facilities and equipment. Following the introductory section, ten blocks of instruction are…

  9. Instructional Guide for Vocational Power Mechanics. V & TECC Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Div. of Vocational-Technical Education.

    This trade and industrial curriculum guide for power mechanics is designed for vocational power mechanics programs that provide 960 hours of instruction. The introductory section provides a statement of philosophy, block time schedule, and the objectives for power mechanics. Following the introductory section, fourteen blocks of instruction are…

  10. Instructional Guide for Vocational Power Mechanics. V & TECC Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Div. of Vocational-Technical Education.

    This trade and industrial curriculum guide for power mechanics is designed for vocational power mechanics programs that provide 960 hours of instruction. The introductory section provides a statement of philosophy, block time schedule, and the objectives for power mechanics. Following the introductory section, fourteen blocks of instruction areā€¦

  11. Optimizing Cognitive Rehabilitation: Effective Instructional Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Turkstra, Lyn S.

    2011-01-01

    Rehabilitation professionals face a key challenge when working with clients with acquired cognitive impairments: how to teach new skills to individuals who have difficulty learning. Unique in its focus, this book presents evidence-based instructional methods specifically designed to help this population learn more efficiently. The expert authorsā€¦

  12. Optimizing Cognitive Rehabilitation: Effective Instructional Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Turkstra, Lyn S.

    2011-01-01

    Rehabilitation professionals face a key challenge when working with clients with acquired cognitive impairments: how to teach new skills to individuals who have difficulty learning. Unique in its focus, this book presents evidence-based instructional methods specifically designed to help this population learn more efficiently. The expert authors…

  13. Teaching Shorthand and Transcription. An Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shell, Walter L.

    Written as a reference for teachers of shorthand and transcription, this instructional guide is organized into three sections. The first section discusses the administration of the stenographic program and focuses on the needs, objectives, and organization of the program. Characteristics of occupational preparation programs are also noted. Section…

  14. Tic Tac Toe Math. Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Richard

    This instructional guide and set of three companion workbooks are intended for use in an arithmetic course based on the Tic Tac Toe method of addition and multiplication, which is an alternative means of learning to add and multiply that was developed for students whose learning disabilities (including difficulty in distinguishing left from right…

  15. Idaho Driver Education Instructional Guide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise.

    This driver education instructional safety guide is organized in three sections: Driver Education; Motorcycle Education; and Driver Education for the Handicapped. The driver education section contains 10 units dealing with the following topics: parent orientation; student orientation; basic control skills; driver performance; driving regulations;…

  16. Consumer and Family Economics: Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Bobbye

    This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year consumer and family economics programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1)…

  17. Preparation for Parenting. Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This instructional guide for a one-half-credit technical laboratory course for grades 10-12 teaches parental responsibilities; child guidance techniques; positive role modeling and parenting practices that promote child development, health, safety, and well-being. Introductory materials consist of a course description; overview of course design;…

  18. Personal and Family Development. Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This instructional guide for a one-credit comprehensive laboratory course for grades 9-12 provides a broad range of knowledge and skills related to personal development and management, promotion of strong families, and preparation for adult roles. Introductory materials consist of a course description; overview of course design; facilities,…

  19. Individual and Family Life. Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This instructional guide for a one-half-credit technical course for grades 10-12 focuses on personal development, interpersonal relationships, effective individual and family functioning, and career preparation. Introductory materials consist of a course description; overview of course design; facilities, equipment, and resources; and a section on…

  20. Using Your Inner Voice to Guide Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Doris J.; Walcott, Crystal Y.; Kastberg, Signe E.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a tool teachers can use to analyze student work and provides activity suggestions to guide instruction based on their findings. By integrating the voice of the child and the voice of the discipline, teachers can use their inner voice to build a model of the child's understanding. (Contains 8 figures.)

  1. Health Concepts, Guides for Health Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    Concepts and supporting data pertaining to major health problems facing youth today as well as those anticipated in the next decade are enumerated in this resource. The material is designed as a reference for curriculum planners and classroom teachers in developing curriculum and teaching guides, units and instruction, and other curriculumā€¦

  2. Science. Grade 11. LEAP: Instructional Strategies Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    The Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) Grade 11 Test is designed to measure proficiency in four subject areas including English, mathematics, social studies, and science. This guide for science is intended to provide a description of the way in which specific skill areas are assessed on the LEAP test and instructional considerationsā€¦

  3. Work Experience Education Instructional Guide. Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Association of Work Experience Educators, Orange.

    This guide provides work experience education coordinators with a framework and a series of topical items that can be incorporated into the classroom-related instruction portion of the student's work experience education program. An introduction lists student outcomes, describes the curriculum framework, and outlines verification activities.…

  4. A GUIDE TO INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DIAMOND, ROBERT M., ED.

    THIS IS A GUIDE DESIGNED AS A SINGLE REFERENCE FOR ADMINISTRATORS, TEACHERS, STUDENTS, AND LAYMEN INTERESTED IN TELEVISION FOR A SPECIFIC SCHOOL OR SCHOOL SYSTEM. FOUR EXAMPLES OF SINGLE-ROOM TELEVISION ARE GIVEN AND SUCCESSFUL APPLICATIONS OF STUDIO TELEVISION ARE PRESENTED. ITS USE IN GUIDANCE AND IN ADMINISTRATION IS EXPLAINED. THE PROBLEMS…

  5. Cognitive Gains for Kindergartners Instructed in Seriation and Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malabonga, Valerie; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studied effectiveness of instruction in seriation and classification for kindergartners cognitively lagging behind their peers. Found that extensive classification and seriation instruction in a variety of formats was particularly helpful in facilitating cognitive gains for struggling kindergartners. Individualized instruction provided children…

  6. From Behaviourism to Cognitive Behaviourism to Cognitive Development: Steps in the Evolution of Instructional Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Robbie; Bereiter, Carl

    1984-01-01

    Traces history of instructional technology, including Skinner's work, Gagne's task analytic approach, and contemporary efforts associated with the cognitive revolution. It is suggested that an understanding of cognitive development improves earlier approaches by adapting them directly to students' cognitive development levels. Recent instructional…

  7. Cognitive Theory and the Design of Multimedia Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, William R.

    2004-01-01

    A research involving cognitive theory, and the pattern of multimedia information is discussed. The research has produced eight provisional rules for the multimedia approach, and indicates how cognitive science helps in generating information, while instructional research strengthens the concepts of cognitive science.

  8. Cognitive Navigation: Toward a Biological Basis for Instructional Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripp, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Discusses cognitive navigation, cognitive maps and online learning, and the role of the hippocampus in navigation. Topics include brain research in animal and human studies; types of memory; human navigation, including land navigation and information navigation; instructional strategies; tree maps of curriculum structure; cognitive complexity; and…

  9. Using "Instructional Routines" to Differentiate Instruction: A Guide for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosanovich, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated instruction means matching instruction to meet the different needs of learners. To deliver the wide range of instruction required to accommodate differing levels of learners in a classroom, teachers must use data-informed, small group instruction designed specifically to meet students' needs (Kosanovich, Ladinsky, Nelson, Torgesen,…

  10. Language Arts: Grade 7. Secondary Education Instructional Resource Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Anna, Comp.

    Produced in response to a school board's directive to develop a plan for implementing a standardized curriculum in the basic subjects on a district-wide basis, this guide contains instructional objectives for the area of seventh grade language arts. Included in the guide are (1) an instructional objectives checklist providing all objectives and…

  11. Web-Based Instruction: A Guide for Libraries, Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan Sharpless

    2010-01-01

    Expanding on the popular, practical how-to guide for public, academic, school, and special libraries, technology expert Susan Sharpless Smith offers library instructors the confidence to take Web-based instruction into their own hands. Smith has thoroughly updated "Web-Based Instruction: A Guide for Libraries" to include new tools and trends,…

  12. Web-Based Instruction: A Guide for Libraries, Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan Sharpless

    2010-01-01

    Expanding on the popular, practical how-to guide for public, academic, school, and special libraries, technology expert Susan Sharpless Smith offers library instructors the confidence to take Web-based instruction into their own hands. Smith has thoroughly updated "Web-Based Instruction: A Guide for Libraries" to include new tools and trends,ā€¦

  13. Cognitive Consequences of Programming: Augmentations to Basic Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalbey, John; Linn, Marcia C.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study of junior high students which investigated academic achievement and higher cognitive skill development outcomes of a computer programming course in which two augmentations to traditional BASIC instruction were compared. A model for understanding learning outcomes is presented, suggesting ways to augment instruction to focus on…

  14. Economic and Societal Factors Instructional Guide. Student Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Mary W.

    These student materials are designed to accompany the Economic and Societal Factors Instructional Guide. Page numbers are consistent with the numbering in that guide. The guide's nine units deal with the following topics: (1) job acquisition (sources of employment, job application, completing the application form, resume, job interview, follow-upā€¦

  15. Economic and Societal Factors Instructional Guide. Spanish Student Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Mary W.; And Others

    This document is the Spanish language version of the student materials component designed to accompany the Economic and Societal Factors Instructional Guide. Page numbers are consistent with the numbering in that guide. The guide's nine units deal with the following topics: (1) job acquisition (sources of employment, job application, completingā€¦

  16. Mnemonic Strategy Instruction for Beginning Readers with Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Rivka

    2013-01-01

    Many students with cognitive impairments are not afforded the opportunity to develop their potential as readers. A review of the literature reveals that few researchers have evaluated the effects of phonics instruction on the reading skills of students with cognitive impairments. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of aā€¦

  17. Mnemonic Strategy Instruction for Beginning Readers with Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Rivka

    2013-01-01

    Many students with cognitive impairments are not afforded the opportunity to develop their potential as readers. A review of the literature reveals that few researchers have evaluated the effects of phonics instruction on the reading skills of students with cognitive impairments. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a…

  18. The Influence of Instructional Processes on Student Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Susan K.; Edison, Marcia I.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    This study sought to determine the extent to which instructional processes characterized by cognitive complexity influence the development of general cognitive abilities during the first, second, and third years of college. The sample for the study consisted of incoming first-year students at 18 four-year and 5 two-year colleges and universitiesā€¦

  19. Cognitive Theory and the Design of Multimedia Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, William R.

    2004-01-01

    How should we design multimedia instructional messages in order to promote deep understanding in learners? This is the leading question from the research program described in Richard Mayer's article "Cognitive Theory and the Design of Multimedia Instruction: An Example of the Two-Way Street Between Cognition and Instruction" (Mayer, R. E.; New Directions for Teaching and Learning 2002, 89 [Spring] 55-71). Eight principles for the design of effective multimedia have been derived from that program and are described in the article.

  20. Neuroimaging of Cognitive Load in Instructional Multimedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews research literature on cognitive load measurement in learning and neuroimaging, and describes a mapping between the main elements of cognitive load theory and findings in functional neuroanatomy. It is argued that these findings may lead to the improved measurement of cognitive load using neuroimaging. The paper describes how…

  1. Intravenous Therapy Instruction for Licensed Practical Nurses. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Pam; Carey, Jean

    This Idaho instructor's guide lists tasks and enabling objectives, outlines instruction, and provides handout masters, overhead masters, and tests for intravenous therapy (IV) instruction for licensed practical nurses. Following an introduction and a list of criteria for successful completion of IV therapy courses, the document lists tasks and…

  2. PLANNING GUIDE FOR 2500 MEGACYCLE INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION SERVICE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micro-Link Systems, Copiague, NY.

    THIS BULLETIN IS A GUIDE FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS WHICH ARE PLANNING INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION STATIONS OR NETWORKS. STEPS ARE OUTLINED FOR PLANNING AND INSTALLING AN ITV SYSTEM. THREE EXAMPLES ARE GIVEN FOR SYSTEMS OF VARYING LEVELS OF COMPLEXITY. THIS IS NOT A DO-IT-YOURSELF GUIDE, BUT AN OUTLINE OF THE MAJOR ELEMENTS OF A SYSTEM IN TIME…

  3. Rethinking Strategy Instruction: Direct Reading Strategy Instruction versus Computer-Based Guided Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenhard, Wolfgang; Baier, Herbert; Endlich, Darius; Schneider, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    There are many established reading strategy training programmes, which explicitly teach strategic and meta-cognitive knowledge to improve reading comprehension. Although instruction in strategy knowledge leads to improvements in meta-cognitive skills, the effects do not always transfer to reading comprehension. Therefore, to investigateā€¦

  4. Rethinking Strategy Instruction: Direct Reading Strategy Instruction versus Computer-Based Guided Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenhard, Wolfgang; Baier, Herbert; Endlich, Darius; Schneider, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    There are many established reading strategy training programmes, which explicitly teach strategic and meta-cognitive knowledge to improve reading comprehension. Although instruction in strategy knowledge leads to improvements in meta-cognitive skills, the effects do not always transfer to reading comprehension. Therefore, to investigate…

  5. A Short Guide to Instructional Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubadeau, Duane O.; And Others

    Designed to provide a concise description of traditional instructional techniques, as well as more recent technology-based techniques, this 11-part guidebook includes the following sections: (1) "The Value of Planning"; (2) "Aids to Effective Instruction," reviewing the reasons for employing learning objectives, Bloom's taxonomy of objectives forā€¦

  6. Sequencing Instruction: A Cognitive Science Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brien, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Reviews concepts proposed by researchers in linguistics, psychology, philosophy, and artificial intelligence, who have applied their knowledge and skills to the study of human information processing--i.e., memory content, storage, encoding, and retrieval. Guidelines derived from theory for use by instructional designers and subject specialists in…

  7. Instructional Design and Directed Cognitive Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bovy, Ruth Colvin

    This paper argues that the information processing model provides a promising basis on which to build a comprehensive theory of instruction. Characteristics of the major information processing constructs are outlined including attention, encoding and rehearsal, working memory, long term memory, retrieval, and metacognitive processes, and a unifying…

  8. Instructional Design and Directed Cognitive Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bovy, Ruth Colvin

    This paper argues that the information processing model provides a promising basis on which to build a comprehensive theory of instruction. Characteristics of the major information processing constructs are outlined including attention, encoding and rehearsal, working memory, long term memory, retrieval, and metacognitive processes, and a unifyingā€¦

  9. Mathematical Cognition: A Volume in Current Perspectives on Cognition, Learning, and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, James M., Ed.

    This book deals addresses how the development of the human capacity for mathematical cognition occurs through educational experience. Chapters include: (1) "The Development of Math Competence in the Preschool and Early School Years: Cognitive Foundations and Instructional Strategies " (Sharon Griffin); (2) "Perspectives on Mathematics Strategy…

  10. Immediate and Delayed Effects of Meta-Cognitive Instruction on Regulation of Cognition and Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mevarech, Zemira R.; Amrany, Chagit

    2008-01-01

    The present study addressed two research questions: (a) the extent to which students who were exposed to meta-cognitive instruction are able to implement meta-cognitive processes in a delayed, stressful situation, in our case--being examined on the matriculation exam; and (b) whether students preparing themselves for the matriculation exam inā€¦

  11. Immediate and Delayed Effects of Meta-Cognitive Instruction on Regulation of Cognition and Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mevarech, Zemira R.; Amrany, Chagit

    2008-01-01

    The present study addressed two research questions: (a) the extent to which students who were exposed to meta-cognitive instruction are able to implement meta-cognitive processes in a delayed, stressful situation, in our case--being examined on the matriculation exam; and (b) whether students preparing themselves for the matriculation exam in…

  12. Cognitive Styles and Instructional Design in University Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Patrick R.; McKay, Jacinta B.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in conceptualization and measurement of the verbalizer-visualizer dimension led us to re-examine the hypothesis that students learn best when instructional material matches their cognitive style. First-year psychology university students (n = 41) studied information on three personality theories presented in text only, text+picture, orā€¦

  13. Educational Technology Research Journals: "Cognition and Instruction," 2003-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warr, Melissa C.; Nelson, Kari Ross; West, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the journal "Cognition and Instruction" to discover trends from the past decade (2003-2012). They looked at trends in article topics, research methods, authorship, and article citations by analyzing keyword frequencies, performing phrase counts of article abstracts, classifying studies according toā€¦

  14. Cognitive and Metacognitive Reading Strategies Revisited: Implications for Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Lisa Jean

    2007-01-01

    The following article discusses cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies and the use of them particularly among bilingual students. It distinguishes between the two types of strategies. Strategy use among monolingual and bilingual students are described and compared. The article focuses on the need for strategy instruction, particularly…

  15. Designing for User Cognition and Affect in Software Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Meij, Hans

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we examine how to design software instructions for user cognition and affect. A basic and co-user manual are compared. The first provides fundamental support for both; the latter includes a buddy to further optimize support for user affect. The basic manual was faster and judged as easier to process than the co-user manual. In…

  16. Learning from Web-Based Instructional Systems and Cognitive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Discusses assessment of Web-based instruction and reports results of a study that investigated whether segmentation of information and the provision of an overview of the Web system differentially facilitated learning performance, measured with recall questions and a short essay question, for individuals with different cognitive styles. (LRW)

  17. Cognitive Styles and Instructional Design in University Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Patrick R.; McKay, Jacinta B.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in conceptualization and measurement of the verbalizer-visualizer dimension led us to re-examine the hypothesis that students learn best when instructional material matches their cognitive style. First-year psychology university students (n = 41) studied information on three personality theories presented in text only, text+picture, or…

  18. Educational Technology Research Journals: "Cognition and Instruction," 2003-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warr, Melissa C.; Nelson, Kari Ross; West, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the journal "Cognition and Instruction" to discover trends from the past decade (2003-2012). They looked at trends in article topics, research methods, authorship, and article citations by analyzing keyword frequencies, performing phrase counts of article abstracts, classifying studies according to…

  19. Nutrition and Food Science. Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Tricia

    This teaching, guide for a high school nutrition and food science course, includes introductory information about the course, course design, facilities and equipment, Future Homemakers of America, and use of the guide. The course addresses nutrition and food science from the perspective of food habits and wellness; menu planning; special dietaryā€¦

  20. A Principal's Guide to Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Carol S.; Beers, James W.; Smith, Jeffrey O.

    2009-01-01

    This book explains how busy elementary school principals can support effective literacy instruction in their schools. Chapters outline the fundamental components of a successful literacy program and describe specific practices that can instill a culture of literacy in a school. Strategies are provided for initiating a professional developmentā€¦

  1. An overview and guide: planning instructional radio.

    PubMed

    Imhoof, M

    1984-03-01

    Successful instructional radio projects require both comprehensive and complex planning. The instructional radio planning team needs to have knowledge and capabilities in several technical, social, and educational areas. Among other skills, the team must understand radio, curriculum design, the subject matter being taught, research and evaluation, and the environment in which the project operates. Once a basic approach to educational planning has been selected and broad educational goals set, radio may be selected as a cost effective means of achieving some of the goals. Assuming radio is a wise choice, there are still several factors which must be analyzed by a team member who is a radio specialist. The most obvious consideration is the inventory and evaluation of the facilities: studios; broadcast, recording, and transmission equipment; classroom radios; and so on. Capabilities of broadcast personnel are another consideration. Initial radio lessons need to teach the learners how to listen to the radio if they have no previous experience with institutional radio broadcasts. A captive, inschool audience ready to listen to radio instructions requires a different use of the medium than a noncaptive audience. With the noncaptive audience, the educational broadcaster must compete with entertaining choices from other media and popular activities and pastimes of the community. The most complex knowledge and analysis required in planning instructional radio concerns the relationship of the content to the medium. Environmental factors are important in planning educational programs. The physical environment may present several constraints on the learning experience and the use of radio. The most obvious is the effect of climate and terrain on the quality of radio reception. The physical environment is easily studied through experience in the target area, but this knowledge plays a significant role in designing effective learning materials for specific learners. Social activities utilized in broadcasts which are contrary to the learners' experience will at best seem strange and at worst be incomprehensible. Curriculum development in an instructional radio project adds more complexity to the planner's task. The most important information needed is whether a new curriculum is to be developed or whether the existing curriculum is to be adapted for radio. Another major analysis task is relating the curriculum to the medium. The project planning team needs to understand the research aims and evaluation methods in instructional radio projects. Sometimes an outside evaluation specialist or team is employed, but in many projects the planning team is responsible for implementing the research design, carrying out the development activities, gathering data, and evaluating the project. Subject matter testing is another technical area of expertise needed by the project team. PMID:12312962

  2. Sequenced Instruction in Genetics and Piagetian Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Richard A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Based on the inference that a teaching strategy that facilitates students' cognitive development toward Piagetian formal operational thought patterns will also increase scholastic performance in introductory genetics, a self-study guide was developed, implemented and tested to facilitate a student's ability to apply formal operational thought…

  3. A Guide to Cooperative Appraisal: Improving Instruction Through Personnel Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Lyle

    This guide presents a cooperative appraisal plan for evaluating educators, and thereby improving instruction. The plan is based on identifying specific job targets as a way to meet the needs of the educators and their students. Educators on every level would work to describe their job responsibilities, pinpoint areas that need improvement, design…

  4. An Instructional System in Physical Science, Teacher's Guide and Keys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Univ., Pullman.

    This manual is a teacher's guide to a self-instructional program in basic physical science, designed for high school students who have not had a course in chemistry or physics. There are six units in the manual relating to these areas: problem solving and experimental procedures; universal standards, metric system and conversion; mechanics; the…

  5. General Metal Trades. Book II. Units of Instruction. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohhertz, Durwin

    This teacher's guide was developed to aid in presenting units on general metal trades to students in Texas. The units are intended to provide students with basic knowledge and skills for each area of instruction in the general metal trades, and with the basic entry-level skills they will need to have in order to enter industry as trained workers.…

  6. General Metal Trades Book I. Units of Instruction. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This teacher's guide provides instructional materials for a 10-unit course in the General Metal Trades program. Each unit includes most or all of these basic components: performance objectives (unit and specific objectives), suggested teaching activities (a sheet outlining steps to follow to accomplish specific objectives), information sheets,ā€¦

  7. Industrial Ecology Instructional Guide for the Industrial Arts Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Oswego. Coll. at Oswego. Dept. of Industrial Arts and Technology.

    The detailed guide was prepared to help industrial arts personnel direct their students in a unit on environmental education, specifically geared for the industrial arts laboratory, which employs the Maryland Plan for implementing the unit method of instruction. Guidelines for implementing the program are based on experience with pilot projectsā€¦

  8. Beginning English: An Instructional Guide for ESL Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brower, Lynne

    An instructional guide for English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers is presented in this volume. The 18-week program contains the following modules, each of which includes sections on civics and structure: human relations; general information; housing; consumer education (money, banking, and shopping modules); occupations; health (two modulesā€¦

  9. Health Occupations Education. Units of Instruction. Teacher's Guide. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This manual is the first part of a two-volume teacher's guide to a series of instructional units for use in health occupations education programs in Texas. Covered in the 10 units included in this volume are the following topics: taking and recording vital signs; job applications and interviews; grooming and personal hygiene; health careers;…

  10. Problem Solving with Guided Repeated Oral Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Strobel, Debra

    2006-01-01

    Many students with disabilities require specialized instructional interventions and frequent progress monitoring in reading. The guided repeated oral reading technique promotes oral reading fluency while providing a reliable data-based monitoring system. This article emphasizes the importance of problem-solving when using this reading approach.

  11. Health Occupations Education. Units of Instruction. Teacher's Guide. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Catherine

    This manual is the second part of a two-volume teacher's guide to a series of instructional units for use in health occupations education programs in Texas. Covered in the 10 units included in this volume are the following topics: special procedures (administering oxygen to patients; using elastic bandages; assisting with postural drainage; and…

  12. A Guide to Improving Instruction in Industrial Arts; A Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guide was developed by a national professional association for use by teachers of industrial arts for the improvement of instruction. Contents of this fourth revised edition suggest possibilities of an organized program of industrial arts structured to provide for teaching concepts that more realistically lead to a fuller comprehension of…

  13. School Bus Driver Instructional Program. Trainee Study Guide -- Advanced Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. National Highway Safety Bureau.

    A standardized and comprehensive school bus driver instructional program has been developed under contract with the Federal Government. The course has been organized to provide in one package a program for developing the minimum skills and knowledge which the proficient driver might require. This guide contains the materials presented in eight…

  14. General Metal Trades Book I. Units of Instruction. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This teacher's guide provides instructional materials for a 10-unit course in the General Metal Trades program. Each unit includes most or all of these basic components: performance objectives (unit and specific objectives), suggested teaching activities (a sheet outlining steps to follow to accomplish specific objectives), information sheets,…

  15. Food Science and Technology. Teacher's Instructional Guide [and] Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences.

    This reference book and teacher's instructional guide are intended for use in one- and two-year food science and technology programs for Texas high school students. The reference book provides information needed by employees in the food science and technology occupational area. Each chapter includes the following components: (1) a list of the…

  16. Project Basic Instructional Guide. Volume IV: World of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    This Project Basic instructional guide contains a series of learning activities designed to help students develop realistic expectations of the world of work and begin to identify and demonstrate those competencies which lead to salable skills and to employment upon graduation. The materials are organized according to competency. Each individual…

  17. Social Science Instructional Guides: High School (Grades 9-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Carl; And Others

    The guide, part of a social science learning continuum from first through twelfth grades, contains outlines for two-semester social studies courses for grades 9-12. Three components comprise each section: time allocations for units, instructional objectives, and a content outline. The Grade 9 course, Cultures of the Non-Western World, containsā€¦

  18. Emergency Management Instruction. Instructor's Guide for Grades 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Div. of Emergency Management, Raleigh.

    Emergency Management education seeks to give students basic information about natural and man-made disasters, preparedness procedures, and survival techniques. The intent of this guide is to aid teachers in presenting disaster survival instruction in the junior high school grades. The materials are designed to supplement existing curricula, whereā€¦

  19. Social Science Instructional Guides: High School (Grades 9-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Carl; And Others

    The guide, part of a social science learning continuum from first through twelfth grades, contains outlines for two-semester social studies courses for grades 9-12. Three components comprise each section: time allocations for units, instructional objectives, and a content outline. The Grade 9 course, Cultures of the Non-Western World, contains…

  20. Masonry. Teacher's Guide. Building Maintenance Units of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bill

    This teaching guide on masonry building maintenance, one in a series of six publications designed for building maintenance instructors in Texas, is designed to give students an understanding of masonry construction. Introductory material provides teachers with information on use of the units of instruction and personalization and localization of…

  1. Grade 8 Health Unit. Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Designed for eighth grade health classes, the guide serves to present early adolescents with information about drugs, relations between the sexes, difficulties and problems which are likely to arise in these areas, and probable consequences of various courses of action. The specific topics addressed in the unit are: (1) decision making; (2) family…

  2. Resident Outdoor Education Program. Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Jonathan; Deem, Robert

    An extensive list of outdoor education activities that can be integrated into the traditional curriculum is presented in this guide. Activities are arranged by grade (from kindergarten through sixth) and by subject areas taught at each grade level. Subjects covered in grades 1-6 are science, social studies, language arts, mathematics, art, music,…

  3. A Guide for Improving Visualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Francis M.

    A critical problem in education is the lack of evidence available to serve as a guide for educators, educational product developers, and media researchers in selecting or designing visual illustrations which will be most effective in facilitating student achievement of specific educational objectives. This book summarizes studies evaluating the…

  4. Auto Technician: An Instructional Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This guide is designed to help teachers in automotive technician programs for grades 11 and 12 teach the critical competencies of the program. The critical competencies covered are the Priority 1 competencies in Ohio Occupational Competency Assessment Profile (OCAP) for Automotive Technician. Teacher materials include program/instructor resources,ā€¦

  5. The Instructional Effects of Diagrams and Time-Compressed Instruction on Student Achievement and Learners' Perceptions of Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastore, Raymond S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of visual representations and time-compressed instruction on learning and learners' perceptions of cognitive load. Time-compressed instruction refers to instruction that has been increased in speed without sacrificing quality. It was anticipated that learners would be able to gain a conceptual…

  6. Effectiveness of Guided Co-Construction versus Direct Instruction for Beginning Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snel, M. J.; Terwel, J.; Aarnoutse, C. A. J.; van Leeuwe, J. F. J.

    2012-01-01

    In a field experiment with 178 first-grade pupils, the effects of an experimental beginning reading programme were investigated. Both an experimental and a control group worked with the most frequently used Dutch beginning reading programme, "Learning to Read Safely." The instructional approach implemented in the experimental group was guided…

  7. Reducing Resistance to Diversity through Cognitive Dissonance Instruction: Implications for Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFalls, Elisabeth L.; Cobb-Roberts, Deirdre

    2001-01-01

    Applied the principals of cognitive dissonance theory to an instructional strategy used to reduce resistance to the idea of white privilege, comparing groups of college students in diversity education courses that did and did not receive supplemental instruction on cognitive dissonance. Incorporating cognitive dissonance theory created an…

  8. Effects of Instructions, Biofeedback, and Cognitive Activities on Heart Rate Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Thomas W.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    In a factorial experiment, 90 male and 90 female subjects were given (a) either instructions to increase heart rate (HR), decrease HR, or no instructions to change their HR; (b) either true biofeedback, false biofeedback, or no biofeedback; and (c) either instructions concerning cognitions to help them change HR or no instructions concerning…

  9. Representing Instructional Material for Scenario-Based Guided-Discovery Courseware

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Merrill, M. DAVID.; Rice, Douglas M.; Curtis, Darren S.

    2004-12-06

    The focus of this paper is to discuss paradigms for learning that are based on sound principles of human learning and cognition, and to discuss technical challenges that must be overcome in achieving this research goal through instructional system design (ISD) approaches that are cost-effective as well as conformant with today's interactive multimedia instruction standards. Fundamental concepts are to: engage learners to solve real-world problems (progress from simple to complex); relate material to previous experience; demonstrate what is to be learned using interactive, problem-centered activities rather than passive exposure to material; require learners to use their new knowledge to solve problems that demonstrate their knowledge in a relevant applied setting; and guide the learner with feedback and coaching early, then gradually withdraw this support as learning progresses. Many of these principles have been put into practice by employing interactive learning objects as re-usable components of larger, more integrated exercises. A challenge is to make even more extensive use of interactive, scenario-based activities within a guided-discovery framework. Because the design and construction of interactive, scenario-based learning objects and more complex integrated exercises is labor-intensive, this paper explores the use of interactive learning objects and associated representation schema for instructional content to facilitate development of tools for creating scenario-based, guided-discovery courseware.

  10. Reducing cognitive load while teaching complex instruction to occupational therapy students.

    PubMed

    Pociask, Fredrick D; DiZazzo-Miller, Rosanne; Samuel, Preethy S

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive load theory is a field of research used to improve the learning of complex cognitive tasks by matching instruction to the learner's cognitive architecture. We used an experimental posttest control-group design to test the effectiveness of instruction designed to reduce cognitive load (CL) and improve instructional effectiveness in teaching complex instruction to 24 first-year master's students under authentic classroom conditions. We modified historically taught instruction using an isolated-to-interacting-elements sequencing approach intended to reduce high CL levels. We compared control and modified instructional formats using written assessment scores, subjective ratings of CL, and task completion times. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences for postinstruction, posttest CL ratings, and delayed written posttest scores (p < .05). No significant differences were identified for posttest completion times. Findings suggest that this approach can be used to improve instructional efficiency in teaching human locomotion to occupational therapy students. PMID:23968802

  11. Self-Instructional Cognitive Training to Reduce Impulsive Cognitive Style in Children with Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Flores, Gladys Wilma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Children with attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an impulsive, rigid and field-dependent cognitive style. This study examines whether self-instructional cognitive training reduces impulsive cognitive style in children diagnosed with this disorder. Method: The subjects were 10 children between the ages of 6 and…

  12. Self-Instructional Cognitive Training to Reduce Impulsive Cognitive Style in Children with Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Flores, Gladys Wilma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Children with attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an impulsive, rigid and field-dependent cognitive style. This study examines whether self-instructional cognitive training reduces impulsive cognitive style in children diagnosed with this disorder. Method: The subjects were 10 children between the ages of 6 andā€¦

  13. The Effects of Metaphorical Interface on Germane Cognitive Load in Web-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheon, Jongpil; Grant, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a metaphorical interface on germane cognitive load in Web-based instruction. Based on cognitive load theory, germane cognitive load is a cognitive investment for schema construction and automation. A new instrument developed in a previous study was used to measure students' mental activities…

  14. Guided Instruction Improves Elementary Student Learning and Self-Efficacy in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hushman, Carolyn J.; Marley, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the amount of instructional guidance affects science learning and self-efficacy. Sixty 9- and 10-year-old children were randomly assigned to one of the following three instructional conditions: (a) guided instruction consisting of examples and student-generated explanations, (b) direct instruction consisting of a…

  15. A Home for Pearl. A Videotape Series about Wildlife Habitat for Elementary Students. Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambeth, Ellen; Westervelt, Miriam O.

    This instructional guide (accompanied by a video) teaches children from ages 6 to 12 about wildlife habitats. The instructional guide is divided into four parts and consists of supplementary activities to enhance the video. Each section of the guide provides an overview, objectives, story summary, key words in the video, discussion questions,…

  16. The Long-Term Effects of Childhood Music Instruction on Intelligence and General Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effects of music instruction on general cognitive abilities. The review of more than 75 reports shows (1) the consistency in results pertaining to the short-term effects of music instruction on cognitive abilities and the lack of clear evidence on the long-term effects on intelligence; (2) the complex nature of…

  17. Effectiveness of Cognitive Skills-Based Computer-Assisted Instruction for Students with Disabilities: A Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Pei-Lin; Maeda, Yukiko; Bouck, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for students with disabilities can be categorized into the following categories: visual, auditory, mobile, and cognitive skills-based CAI. Cognitive-skills based CAI differs from other types of CAI largely in terms of an emphasis on instructional design features. We conducted both systematic review ofā€¦

  18. The Long-Term Effects of Childhood Music Instruction on Intelligence and General Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effects of music instruction on general cognitive abilities. The review of more than 75 reports shows (1) the consistency in results pertaining to the short-term effects of music instruction on cognitive abilities and the lack of clear evidence on the long-term effects on intelligence; (2) the complex nature ofā€¦

  19. Effectiveness of Cognitive Skills-Based Computer-Assisted Instruction for Students with Disabilities: A Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Pei-Lin; Maeda, Yukiko; Bouck, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for students with disabilities can be categorized into the following categories: visual, auditory, mobile, and cognitive skills-based CAI. Cognitive-skills based CAI differs from other types of CAI largely in terms of an emphasis on instructional design features. We conducted both systematic review of…

  20. What Cognitive Science May Learn from Instructional Design: A Case Study in Introductory Computer Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    The contributions of instructional design to cognitive science are discussed. It is argued that both sciences have their own object of study, but share a common interest in human cognition and performance as part of instructional systems. From a case study based on experience in teaching introductory computer programming, it is concluded that both…

  1. Conceptualizing Relations between Instructional Guidance Infrastructure (IGI) and Teachers' Beliefs about Mathematics Instruction: Regulative, Normative, and Cultural-Cognitive Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Megan; Spillane, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Scholars have become increasingly interested in what is often referred to as the instructional guidance infrastructure (IGI). Research has identified the characteristics of infrastructures that make them more or less influential in guiding teachers' instruction, such as alignment, authority, and prescriptiveness. Although these are important, a…

  2. Cognitive Aging and Computer-Based Instructional Design: Where Do We Go from Here?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Gerven, Pascal W. M.; Paas, Fred; Tabbers, Huib K.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the most relevant literature on cognitive aging and instructional design is merged to formulate recommendations for designing computer-based training material aimed at elderly learners. The core message is that researchers and instructional designers do not need to develop special computerized instruction for older adults. Rather,…

  3. Using Cognitive Load Theory to Tailor Instruction to Levels of Accounting Students' Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blayney, Paul; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2015-01-01

    Tailoring of instructional methods to learner levels of expertise may reduce extraneous cognitive load and improve learning. Contemporary technology-based learning environments have the potential to substantially enable learner-adapted instruction. This paper investigates the effects of adaptive instruction based on using the isolated-interactiveā€¦

  4. Two Approaches to Phonics Instruction: Comparison of Effects with Children with Significant Cognitive Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnegan, Elizabeth Grace

    2012-01-01

    The effects of two systematic methods of phonics instruction for children with significant cognitive disability were compared. Fifty-two participants, aged 5-12 years were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: (i) a synthetic phonics instruction, (ii) an analogy phonics instruction group, and (iii) a control group. Participants in…

  5. Using Cognitive Load Theory to Tailor Instruction to Levels of Accounting Students' Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blayney, Paul; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2015-01-01

    Tailoring of instructional methods to learner levels of expertise may reduce extraneous cognitive load and improve learning. Contemporary technology-based learning environments have the potential to substantially enable learner-adapted instruction. This paper investigates the effects of adaptive instruction based on using the isolated-interactive…

  6. The Relationships between Cognitive Style of Field Dependence and Learner Variables in E-Learning Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sozcu, Omer Faruk

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between cognitive styles of field dependent learners with their attitudes towards e-learning (distance education) and instructional behavior in e-learning instruction. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) and the attitude survey (for students' preferences) towards e-learning instruction as distanceā€¦

  7. Cognitive Load Theory, Educational Research, and Instructional Design: Some Food for Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Ton

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive load is a theoretical notion with an increasingly central role in the educational research literature. The basic idea of cognitive load theory is that cognitive capacity in working memory is limited, so that if a learning task requires too much capacity, learning will be hampered. The recommended remedy is to design instructional systemsā€¦

  8. A Combined Behavioral-Cognitive Orientation to an Instructional Design on Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, W. Michael

    To explain how writing is both cognitive and behavioral, this paper compares and contrasts behavioral and cognitive orientations within an instructional design. The first section addresses the weaknesses and strengths of a behavioral versus a cognitive orientation and relates them to Janet Emig's 1971 study, "The Composing Processes of Twelfth…

  9. Teacher-Coordinator's Guide for Related Instruction in Multi-Occupation Cooperative Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Kendrick, Ed.; Mutter, Marylouise, Ed.

    The product of two teacher-coordinator workshops, the guide represents the cooperative efforts of the teacher participants and provides supplementary instructional materials for secondary school multioccupational cooperative programs. The first section of the guide is intended for use in large group classroom instruction and deals with the goals,…

  10. Explore Elementary Teachers' Professional Knowledge of Guiding Science Fair Product by Using Different Instruction Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chow-Chin

    2013-01-01

    This research is about using two different instruction models, "theory course combined with sample introduction" and "theory course combined with case method teaching", to instruct elementary teachers on how to guide the science fair product in two courses (16 and 12 teachers in each class) and observe their guiding tactics after the instructedā€¦

  11. When Guided Reading Isn't Working: Strategies for Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Guided reading is widespread as a small group reading instructional approach, and yet in some cases the original intent of guided reading as a method for encouraging readers' independent strategic thinking has been lost. This article describes one group of teachers' discoveries as they searched for a way to improve their instruction byā€¦

  12. Responsive Guided Reading in Grades K-5: Simplifying Small-Group Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berne, Jennifer; Degener, Sophie C.

    2010-01-01

    Guided reading is a staple of elementary literacy instruction, yet planning and conducting reading groups can be time consuming and challenging. This hands-on book presents an innovative approach to guided reading that is manageable even for teachers who are new to small-group, differentiated reading instruction. Numerous classroom examples…

  13. Comparative Analysis Between Guided Self-Instruction and Conventional Lectures in Neuroanatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Carvalho, Claudio A. F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A study using 60 first-year medical students in the Santo Amaro Faculty of Medicine, San Paulo, Brazil, found that self-instructional methods such as guided self-instruction or discussion groups are not superior to conventional classes. Self-instruction does have the advantages of low cost and easy applicability. (LBH)

  14. Teacher's Guide to Accompany "Artes Latinae," the Encyclopaedia Britannica Latin Instructional System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph; And Others

    This guide, a supplement to the "Artes Latinae Level One Teacher's Manual," prepared for use in the School District of Philadelphia, focuses primarily on how to adapt this course, intended for individualized instruction, to group instruction. Discussion of the multisensory instructional system includes remarks concerning the use of films, studyā€¦

  15. Mathematics Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities or Difficulty Learning Mathematics: A Guide for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayanthi, Madhavi; Gersten, Russell; Baker, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This guide for teachers is a companion piece to the meta-analysis from the Center on Instruction, "Mathematics Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities or Difficulty Learning Mathematics: A Synthesis of the Intervention Research". Based on the findings of this report, seven effective instructional practices were identified for teachingā€¦

  16. Cognitive Aids for Guiding Graph Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mautone, Patricia D.; Mayer, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to improve students' comprehension of scientific graphs by adapting scaffolding techniques used to aid text comprehension. In 3 experiments involving 121 female and 88 male college students, some students were shown cognitive aids prior to viewing 4 geography graphs whereas others were not; all students were then asked to write a…

  17. Cognitive Aids for Guiding Graph Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mautone, Patricia D.; Mayer, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to improve students' comprehension of scientific graphs by adapting scaffolding techniques used to aid text comprehension. In 3 experiments involving 121 female and 88 male college students, some students were shown cognitive aids prior to viewing 4 geography graphs whereas others were not; all students were then asked to write aā€¦

  18. Cognitive Complexity of Mathematics Instructional Tasks in a Taiwanese Classroom: An Examination of Task Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Yu; Silver, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined geometric calculation with number tasks used within a unit of geometry instruction in a Taiwanese classroom, identifying the source of each task used in classroom instruction and analyzing the cognitive complexity of each task with respect to 2 distinct features: diagram complexity and problem-solving complexity. We found that…

  19. Mental Model Progression in Learning the Electron Transport Chain: Effects of Instructional Strategies and Cognitive Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darabi, Aubteen; Hemphill, Jennifer; Nelson, David W.; Boulware, Wilma; Liang, Xinya

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of two instructional strategies, segmented and holistic, on the progression over time of learners' mental models toward that of an expert with the moderator of cognitive flexibility. Sixty-four juniors and seniors in a college metabolism course were randomly assigned to one of the two strategies for instruction…

  20. Cognitive Apprenticeship as an Instructional Strategy for Solving Corporate Training Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Peter; Miller, Ronald; Monroe, Eula

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive apprenticeship is a teaching approach proponed by social constructivist educators that scaffolds upon students' "zones of proximal development" in authentic situations. It is an effective approach used by teachers of instructional technology when teaching student practitioners. Nevertheless, implementation of instructional design…

  1. Operationalizing Cognitive Constructs in the Design of Computer-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hettinger, Gary A.

    This study of the application of cognitive style theory to the development of computer-based instruction explored two questions, i.e., whether computer-based courseware can be designed to address specific learner characteristics, and, if so, which characteristics. Several factors involved in the optimization of instruction are described: learner…

  2. Cognitively Demanding Learning Materials with Texts and Instructional Pictures: Teachers' Diagnostic Skills, Pedagogical Beliefs and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElvany, Nele; Schroeder, Sascha; Baumert, Jurgen; Schnotz, Wolfgang; Horz, Holger; Ullrich, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Learning materials incorporating written texts as well as instructional pictures are the basis for learning in many subjects. However, text-picture integration makes high cognitive demands of learners, and it seems plausible that the development of this competence is influenced by teachers' instructional skills. The present studies investigatedā€¦

  3. Cognitive Learning Styles in "Traditional" Audio-Lingual and Suggestopedic Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayuk, Milla

    The need for cognitive style mapping and student grouping in order to enhance learning and retention in foreign language instruction is examined. The four components of classical audio-lingual language instruction, listening, speaking, reading, and writing, are discussed. Different learning modalities are considered, including visual, auditory,…

  4. The Use of Videos as a Cognitive Stimulator and Instructional Tool in Tertiary ESL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Dalwinder; Yong, Esther; Zin, Norhayati Mohd; DeWitt, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    Even though technology is known to have a transformative effect on teaching and learning, videos are not widely used as an instructional tool in the classrooms in Malaysia. This paper focuses on using videos a cognitive stimulator and an instructional tool especially in tertiary ESL classrooms. This paper the potential of using videos forā€¦

  5. Cognitive Behavior Modification, Direct Instruction and Holistic Approaches to the Education of Students with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarver, Sara G.

    1986-01-01

    Cognitive behavior modification (CBM), Direct Instruction (DI), and holistic approaches to the education of students with learning disabilities are compared for purposes of identifying similarities and differences in instructional practice. Comparative discussions are organized around four distinctions: specific vs. general, bottom-up vs.…

  6. Cognitive Strategy Instruction for Teaching Word Problems to Primary-Level Struggling Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfannenstiel, Kathleen Hughes; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R.; Porterfield, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Students with mathematics difficulties and learning disabilities (LD) typically struggle with solving word problems. These students often lack knowledge about efficient, cognitive strategies to utilize when solving word problems. Cognitive strategy instruction has been shown to be effective in teaching struggling students how to solve word…

  7. Cognitive Research and Elementary Science Instruction: From the Laboratory, to the Classroom, and Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klahr, David; Li, Junlei

    2005-01-01

    Can cognitive research generate usable knowledge for elementary science instruction? Can issues raised by classroom practice drive the agenda of laboratory cognitive research? Answering yes to both questions, we advocate building a reciprocal interface between basic and applied research. We discuss five studies of the teaching, learning, and…

  8. Using the Cognitive Apprenticeship Web-Based Argumentation System to Improve Argumentation Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chun-Yen; Jack, Brady Michael; Huang, Tai-Chu; Yang, Jin-Tan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how the instruction of argumentation skills could be promoted by using an online argumentation system. This system entitled "Cognitive Apprenticeship Web-based Argumentation" (CAWA) system was based on cognitive apprenticeship model. One hundred eighty-nine fifth grade students took part in this study. A quasi-experimentalā€¦

  9. Implications of Designing Instructional Video Using Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade, cognitive researchers identified three major challenges facing the use of multimedia materials in instruction. The first challenge is the inclusion of extraneous content that competes with the essential information for limited cognitive resources. Researchers found that including extraneous material in multimedia materialsā€¦

  10. Cognitive Learning Styles and Their Impact on Curriculum Development and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Michael; And Others

    This paper highlights extensive previous research on cognitive learning style and describes an investigation of correlated cognitive learning style testing of 107 United States Air Force cadets and officers. The investigation set out to determine whether a multidimensional construct for individuals could be identified, allowing instruction to be…

  11. Comparative Cognitive Task Analyses of Experimental Science and Instructional Laboratory Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, Carl

    2015-09-01

    Undergraduate instructional labs in physics generate intense opinions. Their advocates are passionate as to their importance for teaching physics as an experimental activity and providing "hands-on" learning experiences, while their detractors (often but not entirely students) offer harsh criticisms that they are pointless, confusing and unsatisfying, and "cookbook." Here, both to help understand the reason for such discrepant views and to aid in the design of instructional lab courses, I compare the mental tasks or types of thinking ("cognitive task analysis") associated with a physicist doing tabletop experimental research with the cognitive tasks of students in an introductory physics instructional lab involving traditional verification/confirmation exercises.

  12. Interactive orbital proximity operations planning system instruction and training guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1994-01-01

    This guide instructs users in the operation of a Proximity Operations Planning System. This system uses an interactive graphical method for planning fuel-efficient rendezvous trajectories in the multi-spacecraft environment of the space station and allows the operator to compose a multi-burn transfer trajectory between orbit initial chaser and target trajectories. The available task time (window) of the mission is predetermined and the maneuver is subject to various operational constraints, such as departure, arrival, spatial, plume impingement, and en route passage constraints. The maneuvers are described in terms of the relative motion experienced in a space station centered coordinate system. Both in-orbital plane as well as out-of-orbital plane maneuvering is considered. A number of visual optimization aids are used for assisting the operator in reaching fuel-efficient solutions. These optimization aids are based on the Primer Vector theory. The visual feedback of trajectory shapes, operational constraints, and optimization functions, provided by user-transparent and continuously active background computations, allows the operator to make fast, iterative design changes that rapidly converge to fuel-efficient solutions. The planning tool is an example of operator-assisted optimization of nonlinear cost functions.

  13. Some Instructional Implications from a Mathematical Model of Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mierkiewicz, Diane B.

    Cognitive development and various educational implications are discussed in terms of Donald Saari's model of the interaction of a learner and the enviroment and the constraints imposed by the inefficiency of the learner's cognitive system. Saari proposed a hierarchical system of cognitive structures such that the relationships between structures…

  14. A Guide to Swimming Instruction for Developmentally Disabled Children. Report Number 8168.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Susan

    The swimming instruction guide presents teaching techniques and skill progressions for developmentally disabled individuals and includes program development and administrative guidelines. Part 1 discusses swimming and developmentally disabled children, program planning and preparation elements (including pool, scheduling, staff, parents,…

  15. Using Psychological Type as a Guide for Successful Online Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Lise

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the instructor's role in moving courses to an online environment and uses the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a framework for describing instructional strategies and how to select them based on an instructor's MBTI preferences. Includes an instrument for determining your instructional type, suggestions for appropriate instructional…

  16. Guiding Distance Educators in Building Web-Based Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsiu-Mei; Liaw, Shu-Sheng

    2004-01-01

    The advent of Web-based instructions, which relies upon the Internet, emphasizes the need for a clear understanding of how learners process and encode information presented in Web sites for instructional purposes. Distance educators need and want assistance in their efforts to integrate information technology into their instructions. In this…

  17. An Instructional Media Selection Guide for Distance Learning. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Jolly T.; Westfall, Philip J.-L.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, educators and trainers are challenged within their respective organizations to provide for the efficient distribution of instructional content using instructional media. The appropriate selection of instructional media to support distance learning is not intuitive and does not occur as a matter of personal preference. On theā€¦

  18. An Embedded and Embodied Cognition Review of Instructional Manipulatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouw, Wim T. J. L.; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Recent literature on learning with instructional manipulatives seems to call for a moderate view on the effects of perceptual and interactive richness of instructional manipulatives on learning. This "moderate view" holds that manipulatives' perceptual and interactive richness may compromise learning in two ways: (1) by imposing aā€¦

  19. An Embedded and Embodied Cognition Review of Instructional Manipulatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouw, Wim T. J. L.; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Recent literature on learning with instructional manipulatives seems to call for a moderate view on the effects of perceptual and interactive richness of instructional manipulatives on learning. This "moderate view" holds that manipulatives' perceptual and interactive richness may compromise learning in two ways: (1) by imposing a…

  20. RTI with Differentiated Instruction, Grades 6-8: A Classroom Teacher's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, Jodi

    2011-01-01

    Collecting, processing, and using assessment data to form instruction for each student can be overwhelming--especially with so much diversity in the classroom. Help is here, with this hands-on guide that brings together the two leading approaches to teaching students of varying abilities: Response to Instruction and Intervention (RTI) and…

  1. Putting Students on the Path to Learning: The Case for Fully Guided Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Richard E.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Sweller, John

    2012-01-01

    Disputes about the impact of instructional guidance during teaching have been ongoing for more than a half century. On one side of this argument are those who believe that all people--novices and experts alike--learn best when provided with instruction that contains unguided or partly guided segments. On the other side are those who believe that…

  2. The Laboratory. Guides for the Improvement of Instruction in Higher Education, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Lawrence T.; And Others

    This guide for the improvement of instruction in higher education is designed to aid the educator in planning and conducting laboratory instruction. The examples used refer primarily to science laboratories. Topics discussed include: deciding whether or not to use the laboratory method (with a discussion of discovery learning or the processes of…

  3. Industrial Education. Electricity/Electronics Curriculum Guide, Phase II. Instructional Modules, Level I (9 Week).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillo, Robert E.; Soffiotto, Nicholas S.

    Designed for students in grades 7 and 8, this electricity/electronics curriculum guide contains instructional modules for ten units of instruction (nine-week class): (1) orientation; (2) understanding electricity; (3) safety; (4) methods to generate electricity; (5) wiring tools and wire; (6) soldering; (7) magnetism and electromagnetism; (8)…

  4. Industrial Education. Electricity/Electronics Curriculum Guide, Phase II. Instructional Modules, Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillo, Robert E.; Soffiotto, Nicholas S.

    Designed for students in the ninth grade, this electricity/electronics curriculum guide contains instructional modules for twenty-four units of instruction. Among the modules included are (1) introduction to the world of electricity, (2) electrical safety, (3) the electrical team, (4) resistance and resistors, (5) electric lamps and heating…

  5. Industrial Education. Electricity/Electronics Curriculum Guide, Phase II. Instructional Modules, Level I (18 Week).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillo, Robert E.; Soffiotto, Nicholas S.

    Designed for students in grades 7 and 8, this electricity/electronics curriculum guide contains instructional modules for twelve units of instruction: (1) orientation; (2) understanding electricity; (3) safety; (4) methods to generate electricity; (5) wiring tools and wire; (6) soldering; (7) magnetism and electromagnetism; (8) circuits, symbols,…

  6. The Principal's Guide to the First 100 Days of the School Year: Creating Instructional Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    For veteran principals, new principals, and aspiring principals, this book is a valuable resource for building instructional momentum during the beginning of the school year. Educational leadership expert Shawn Joseph guides administrators through five key areas: (1) Vision; (2) Instructional Leadership; (3) Politics; (4) Data; and (5) Planning.

  7. Industrial Education. Electricity/Electronics Curriculum Guide, Phase II. Instructional Modules, Level III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillo, Robert E.; Soffiotto, Nicholas S.

    Designed for students in the tenth grade, this electricity/electronics curriculum guide contains instructional modules for sixteen units of instruction: (1) orientation, (2) introduction to electricity/electronics, (3) electricity/electronics safety, (4) fundamental skills, (5) direct current circuits, (6) graphical illustrations, (7) circuit…

  8. Prevocational Instructional Materials. A Resource Guide. Vocational Special Needs Lending Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kok, Marilyn R., Ed.

    This resource guide, one of a series of annotated bibliographies describing the collection of the lending library of the Vocational Special Needs (VSN) Program at Texas A&M University, lists available prevocational instructional materials. Covered in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: self-awareness materials,ā€¦

  9. The Wired Professor: A Guide to Incorporating the World Wide Web in College Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Anne B.; Hargitai, Joseph

    This book provides a guide to college faculty with limited Internet experience on how to incorporate the World Wide Web (WWW) into college curriculum and instruction. The book begins with an informal history of computing and a guide to the geography of the Internet, and goes on to provide an analytical framework for thinking about networks,…

  10. NCSALL and Goodling Institute Study Circle Guide: Rethinking Instruction and Participation for Adult Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, R.

    2005-01-01

    This guide addresses issues around organizing learning services for students in ways that make sense for them, and what the research says about it. The focus is on the structure and organization of instruction and how practitioners can broaden the range of options that students have so that classes aren't the only option. This guide provides allā€¦

  11. Assessment and Instructional Guide for the Georgia High School Writing Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigman, Donna; Brooks, Gordon, Jr.; Kirkland, Cathy; Rawlston, Susan; Taylor, Dee

    The purpose of this guide is to improve high school writing and writing instruction. Teachers are encouraged to make transparencies and handouts of the information in this guide in order to make the information accessible to students. Using the scoring rubrics and model papers, students can be taught to recognize both strong and weak areas inā€¦

  12. Designing LibGuides as Instructional Tools for Critical Thinking and Effective Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ruth L.

    2014-01-01

    Did you ever wish for an easy-to-maintain tool to create course-level or assignment-level instruction for online or distance students? LibGuides can provide the solution! LibGuides provide a versatile and easy-to-maintain platform for delivering step-by-step, scaffolded tutorials that enhance learning outcomes through chunking, reduced strain on…

  13. Web-Based Instruction: A Practical Guide for Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Keuren, James

    2006-01-01

    This book details ways in which faculty members can design web-based and web-assisted instructional delivery approaches to provide students with the opportunity to learn anytime and anyplace. It stresses the paradigm shift in using technology as an alternative instructional delivery tool but at the same time recognizes that the course design andā€¦

  14. A Guide to the Literature on Audiovisual Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Edgar; Belland, John

    The philosophical overview which introduces this review of the literature on audiovisual instruction concentrates on the historical background of the field and its place within the broader fields of communication, education, and communication theory and research. A selected bibliography is provided for the major areas in instructional technology:ā€¦

  15. A Guide to Instructional Resources for Consumers' Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, William L.; Greenspan, Nancy B.

    This annotated bibliography lists 295 selected instructional references, resources, and teaching aids for consumer education. It includes a variety of both print and nonprint materials, such as films, filmstrips, multimedia kits, games and learning packages for classroom and group instruction, textbooks for all age levels, and references for both…

  16. Automated Instructional Management Systems (AIMS) Version III, Operator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    This manual gives the instructions necessary to understand and operate the Automated Instructional Management System (AIMS), utilizing IBM System 360, Model 30/Release 20 Disk Operating System, and the OpScan 100 System Reader and Tape Unit. It covers the AIMS III system initialization, system and operational input, requirements, master response…

  17. Electricity/Electronics Curriculum Guide. Instructional Modules Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merklein, Robert, Ed.; And Others

    The 12 competency-based instructional units in Level I of the four-level Electricity/Electronics Curriculum series are designed to help the instructor in planning, organizing, and presenting introductory electricity/electronics materials. Nine-week and 18-week unit outlines are provided for grades 7 and 8. The instructional units are generally…

  18. Instructional Materials Selection Guide. Bilingual/Bicultural ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    This guide describes bilingual, bicultural, and English as a Second Language (ESL) materials adopted for use in California. The guide is divided into three sections: (1) a list of publishers, including addresses and phone numbers; (2) an annotated index to the guide that includes basic information about each item; and (3) detailed information on…

  19. Can Music Instruction Affect Children's Cognitive Development? ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauscher, Frances H.

    Several studies have examined the effects of music instruction on children's abilities in other disciplines. Other studies have explored the effects of listening to music on adults' spatial abilities. Noting that these two sets of findings have been confused, leading to claims that listening to music can improve children's academic abilities, this…

  20. Instructional Design and Cognitive Styles of Teachers in Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahlios, Marc C.

    1981-01-01

    Twelve fifth- and sixth-grade field-dependent and field-independent teachers were observed for 96 hours in regular elementary classrooms. Statistically significant differences were obtained from 8 out of 10 instructional behaviors observed between field-dependent and field-independent teachers. (Author/SJL)

  1. Applying Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development to Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojose, Bobby

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on a presentation given at National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in 2005 in Anaheim, California. It explicates the developmental stages of the child as posited by Piaget. The author then ties each of the stages to developmentally appropriate mathematics instruction. The implications in terms of not imposingā€¦

  2. Measuring Knowledge to Optimize Cognitive Load Factors During Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2004-01-01

    The expertise reversal effect occurs when a learning procedure that is effective for novices becomes ineffective for more knowledgeable learners. The authors consider how to match instructional presentations to levels of learner knowledge. Experiments 1-2 were designed to develop a schema-based rapid method of measuring learners' knowledge in a…

  3. Cognitive Strategy Instruction for Adolescents: What We Know about the Promise, What We Don't Know about the Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    "Strategy instruction" is quickly becoming one of the most common--and perhaps the most commonly misunderstood--components of adolescent literacy research and practice. In this essay, veteran teacher educator Mark Conley argues that a particular type of strategy instruction known as cognitive strategy instruction holds great promise for improving…

  4. Individually Guided Education: Description of IGE. Evaluating Instructional Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Product Report, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Evaluates materials used for IGE, a program that calls for one-to-one and small group instruction plus much independent study. Emphasis on reading and motivation materials. Describes the program objectives and implementation features. (Author)

  5. Effects of Constructivist-Oriented Instruction on Elementary School Students' Cognitive Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was primarily to explore the effects of constructivist-oriented instruction on fifth graders' cognitive structures about biological reproduction. Furthermore, such effects on different science achievers were also investigated. The subjects of this study were 69 eleven year olds in Taiwan, who were assigned to either a…

  6. Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Instructed L2 Learning: The English Modals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Andrea; Mueller, Charles M.; Ho, Vu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a quasi-experimental effects-of-instruction study examining the efficacy of applying a Cognitive Linguistic (CL) approach to L2 learning of the semantics of English modals. In spite of their frequency in typical input, modal verbs present L2 learners with difficulties, party due to their inherentā€¦

  7. How the Instructional and Learning Environments of Liberal Arts Colleges Enhance Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascarella, Ernest T.; Wang, Jui-Sheng; Trolian, Teniell L.; Blaich, Charles

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes longitudinal data from 17 four-year institutions in the United States to determine how the distinctive instructional and learning environment of American liberal arts colleges accounts for the positive impact of liberal arts college attendance on four-year growth in critical thinking skills and need for cognition. We find that,…

  8. Cognitive Principles for Instructional Design. Final Report (August 1983-February 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reif, F.

    This final report summarizes work done to formulate and test some cognitively-based principles useful for designing instruction in scientific or engineering fields. These principles stress the coherence and interpretability of the knowledge acquired by students. The principles were specifically applied to: (1) analyze the underlying knowledge and…

  9. A Cognitive-Apprenticeship-Inspired Instructional Approach for Teaching Scientific Writing and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolikant, Yifat Ben-David; Gatchell, David W.; Hirsch, Penny L.; Linsenmeier, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach for integrating instruction of scientific writing and reading into undergraduate science courses, inspired by the pedagogical theory of cognitive apprenticeship. We demonstrate its implementation and describe a study of students' feedback that enabled us to elicit students' difficulties and fine-tune the next application…

  10. Effects of Cueing by a Pedagogical Agent in an Instructional Animation: A Cognitive Load Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yung, Hsin I.; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a pedagogical agent that cued relevant information in a story-based instructional animation on the cardiovascular system. Based on cognitive load theory, it was expected that the experimental condition with the pedagogical agent would facilitate students to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant…

  11. Instructional Benefits of Spoken Words: A Review of Cognitive Load Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyuga, Slava

    2012-01-01

    Spoken words have always been an important component of traditional instruction. With the development of modern educational technology tools, spoken text more often replaces or supplements written or on-screen textual representations. However, there could be a cognitive load cost involved in this trend, as spoken words can have both benefits and…

  12. Connecting Instructional and Cognitive Aspects of an LE: A Study of the Global Seminar Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savelyeva, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    My research problem is based on the lack of unifying conceptual cohesion between the discourses concerning cognitive and instructional aspects of learning environments (LE). I contrast that lack with practical developments of LE studies connected at the level of practical implementation and evaluation. Next, I briefly review the LE boundaries,…

  13. Instructional Efficiency of Changing Cognitive Load in an Out-of-School Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharfenberg, Franz-Josef; Bogner, Franz X.

    2010-01-01

    Our research objective focused on monitoring students' mental effort and cognitive achievement to unveil potential effects of an instructional change in an out-of-school laboratory offering gene technology modules. Altogether, 231 students (12th graders) attended our day-long hands-on module. Within a quasi-experimental design, a treatment groupā€¦

  14. Instructional Benefits of Spoken Words: A Review of Cognitive Load Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyuga, Slava

    2012-01-01

    Spoken words have always been an important component of traditional instruction. With the development of modern educational technology tools, spoken text more often replaces or supplements written or on-screen textual representations. However, there could be a cognitive load cost involved in this trend, as spoken words can have both benefits andā€¦

  15. Effects of Cueing by a Pedagogical Agent in an Instructional Animation: A Cognitive Load Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yung, Hsin I.; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a pedagogical agent that cued relevant information in a story-based instructional animation on the cardiovascular system. Based on cognitive load theory, it was expected that the experimental condition with the pedagogical agent would facilitate students to distinguish between relevant and irrelevantā€¦

  16. Does Cognitively Focused Instruction Improve the Academic Performance of Low-Achieving Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Devin M.; Fuchs, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Stakeholders are debating the value of cognitively focused instruction for students who have not benefited from a skills-based approach. Much of the discussion, however, is occurring without recognition of research that has been conducted in the past 2 decades. In this article, we reviewed the research. Electronic databases and hard copies of…

  17. The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on the Mathematical Problem Solving of Adolescents with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Judy; Montague, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive strategy instruction on the mathematical problem solving of three adolescents with spina bifida. Conditions of the multiple-baseline across-individuals design included baseline, two levels of treatment, posttesting, and maintenance. Treatment 1 focused on one-step math problems, and Treatment 2…

  18. Mining Students' Learning Patterns and Performance in Web-Based Instruction: A Cognitive Style Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sherry Y.; Liu, Xiaohui

    2011-01-01

    Personalization has been widely used in Web-based instruction (WBI). To deliver effective personalization, there is a need to understand different preferences of each student. Cognitive style has been identified as one of the most pertinent factors that affect students' learning preferences. Therefore, it is essential to investigate how learnersā€¦

  19. Applying Cognitive Theory to Chemistry Instruction: The Case for Worked Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent J.; Brooks, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The case for chemistry instruction based on worked examples is presented, using a contemporary model of human learning. We begin by detailing human cognitive architecture and outlining the Interactive Compensatory Model of Learning (ICML). Through the ICML, the role of motivation, deliberate practice and feedback are detailed as key variables in…

  20. How the Instructional and Learning Environments of Liberal Arts Colleges Enhance Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascarella, Ernest T.; Wang, Jui-Sheng; Trolian, Teniell L.; Blaich, Charles

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes longitudinal data from 17 four-year institutions in the United States to determine how the distinctive instructional and learning environment of American liberal arts colleges accounts for the positive impact of liberal arts college attendance on four-year growth in critical thinking skills and need for cognition. We find that,ā€¦

  1. Mental Model Progression in Learning the Electron Transport Chain: Effects of Instructional Strategies and Cognitive Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darabi, Aubteen; Hemphill, Jennifer; Nelson, David W.; Boulware, Wilma; Liang, Xinya

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of two instructional strategies, segmented and holistic, on the progression over time of learners' mental models toward that of an expert with the moderator of cognitive flexibility. Sixty-four juniors and seniors in a college metabolism course were randomly assigned to one of the two strategies for instructionā€¦

  2. Evaluating the Evidence Base for Cognitive Strategy Instruction and Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Marjorie; Dietz, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    This review considers both the content and methodologies of 5 single-subject and 2 group experimental design studies investigating the effects of cognitive strategy instruction on the mathematical problem solving of students with disabilities, using quality indicators proposed by Horner et al. (2005) and Gersten et al. (2005). Findings indicated…

  3. Cognitive Effects of Chess Instruction on Students at Risk for Academic Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Saahoon; Bart, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive effects of chess instruction on students at risk for academic failure was examined. Thirty-eight students, from three elementary schools, participated in this study. The experimental group received a ninety-minute chess lesson once per week over a three-month period; and the control group students regularly attended school activitiesā€¦

  4. Instructional Coaches and the Instructional Leadership Team: A Guide for School-Building Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Dean T.; Smith, Gail

    2012-01-01

    For instructional coaches, no two days are ever the same. This unique companion melds theory and practice to show how coaches can seamlessly integrate themselves into the fabric of the school and help teachers improve their practice from day one. Dean Spaulding and Gail Smith address common challenges of coaches and instructional leadership teams,ā€¦

  5. Instructional Coaches and the Instructional Leadership Team: A Guide for School-Building Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Dean T.; Smith, Gail

    2012-01-01

    For instructional coaches, no two days are ever the same. This unique companion melds theory and practice to show how coaches can seamlessly integrate themselves into the fabric of the school and help teachers improve their practice from day one. Dean Spaulding and Gail Smith address common challenges of coaches and instructional leadership teams,…

  6. Using the Cognitive Apprenticeship Web-based Argumentation System to Improve Argumentation Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chun-Yen; Jack, Brady Michael; Huang, Tai-Chu; Yang, Jin-Tan

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated how the instruction of argumentation skills could be promoted by using an online argumentation system. This system entitled `Cognitive Apprenticeship Web-based Argumentation' (CAWA) system was based on cognitive apprenticeship model. One hundred eighty-nine fifth grade students took part in this study. A quasi-experimental design was adopted and qualitative and quantitative analyses were used to evaluate the effectiveness of this online system in measuring students' progress in learning argumentation. The results of this study showed that different teaching strategies had effects on students' use of argumentation in the topics of daily life and the concept of `vision.' When the CAWA system was employed during the instruction and practice of argumentation on these two topics, the students' argumentation performance improved. Suggestions on how the CAWA system could be used to enhance the instruction of argumentation skills in science education were also discussed.

  7. Training the developing brain part II: cognitive considerations for youth instruction and feedback.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Adam M; Kiefer, Adam W; Lesnick, Samantha; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    Growing numbers of youth participating in competitive, organized physical activity have led to a concern for the risk of sports-related injuries during important periods of human development. Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of integrative neuromuscular training (INT) to enhance athletic performance and reduce the risk of sports-related injuries in youth. Successful implementation of INT necessitates instruction from knowledgeable and qualified instructors who understand the unique physical, cognitive, and psychosocial characteristics of the youth to provide appropriate training instruction and feedback. Principles of a classical theory of cognitive development provide a useful context for discussion of developmentally appropriate methods and strategies for INT instruction of youth. INT programs that consider these developmentally appropriate approaches will provide a controlled efficacious environment for youth to improve athletic performance and reduce risk of sports-related injury, thus promoting a healthy active lifestyle beyond an individual's formative years. PMID:25968858

  8. Cognition and Instruction: Reasoning about bias in sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Jane; Kelly, Ben

    2005-02-01

    Although sampling has been mentioned as part of the chance and data component of the mathematics curriculum since about 1990, little research attention has been aimed specifically at school students' understanding of this descriptive area. This study considers the initial understanding of bias in sampling by 639 students in grades 3, 5, 7, and 9. Three hundred and forty-one of these students then undertook a series of lessons on chance and data with an emphasis on chance, data handling, sampling, and variation. A post-test was administered to 285 of these students and two years later all available students from the original group (328) were again tested. This study considers the initial level of understanding of students, the nature of the lessons undertaken at each grade level, the post-instruction performance of those who undertook lessons, and the longitudinal performance after two years of all available students. Overall instruction was associated with improved performance, which was retained over two years but there was little difference between those who had or had not experienced instruction. Results for specific grades, some of which went against the overall trend are discussed, as well as educational implications for the teaching of sampling across the years of schooling based on the classroom observations and the changes observed.

  9. A Guide to Instructional Uses of Microform. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottenstette, James P.; And Others

    This guide describes the use of microforms (including microfilm and microfiche) in a training environment, provides basic background on microforms as a distinct communications medium, and illustrates the steps required to operationalize the use of microforms in a training sequence. The guide is based on information developed through studies of…

  10. Pre-Calculus Instructional Guide for Elementary Functions, Analytic Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    This is a guide for use in semester-long courses in Elementary Functions and Analytic Geometry. A list of entry-level skills and a list of approved textbooks is provided. Each of the 18 units consists of: (1) overview, suggestions for teachers, and suggested time; (2) list of objectives; (3) cross-references guide to approved textbooks; (4) sample…

  11. Economic Literacy: An Instructional Guide for Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Linda L.; And Others

    This instructor's guide consists of materials for use in helping vocational education students acquire basic economic literacy. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: worker productivity, the free enterprise system, components of the economy, the consumer as a decision maker, small business functions, economic…

  12. A Guide for Developing the Instructional Program in Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Vocational Education and Rehabilitation, Springfield. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    This bulletin contains materials suggested for use by agricultural teachers in the improvement of their agricultural mechanics programs. In its function as a guide to planning a teaching program in agricultural mechanics the document outlines the principles and procedures in course planning, 12 guiding concepts in the teaching of agricultural…

  13. A Planning Guide for Instructional Networks, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Kevin F.

    1994-01-01

    This second in a series of articles on planning for instructional computer networks focuses on site preparation, installation, service, and support. Highlights include an implementation schedule; classroom and computer lab layouts; electrical power needs; workstations; network cable; telephones; furniture; climate control; and security. (LRW)

  14. Culturally Proficient Instruction: A Guide for People Who Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Kikanza Nuri; Lindsey, Randall B.; Lindsey, Delores B.; Terrell, Raymond D.

    Cultural proficiency is the self awareness to recognize how a person--because of ethnicity and life experiences--may offend others and may yet offer others something unique and special. This book expands on that theme and addresses educators at all levels, offering an invitation to reflect on the practice and craft of instruction. The book's caseā€¦

  15. Resisting Technological Gravity: Using Guiding Principles for Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Jason K.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional designers face tremendous pressure to abandon the essential characteristics of educational approaches, and settle instead for routine practices that do not preserve the level of quality those approaches originally expressed. Because this pressure can be strong enough to affect designers almost as gravity affects objects in theā€¦

  16. Resisting Technological Gravity: Using Guiding Principles for Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Jason K.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional designers face tremendous pressure to abandon the essential characteristics of educational approaches, and settle instead for routine practices that do not preserve the level of quality those approaches originally expressed. Because this pressure can be strong enough to affect designers almost as gravity affects objects in the…

  17. School Bus Driver Instructional Program. Instructor's Guide--Advanced Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. National Highway Safety Bureau.

    Geared to behavioral objectives, the instruction is organized into programed units on emergency driving techniques, first aid, field trips, transporting exceptional students, detecting hazards, controlling the position of the bus, driving under special conditions, and preventive maintenance of the bus. Each unit is constructed around content…

  18. Designing a Blended Course: Using ADDIE to Guide Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibley, Ike; Amaral, Katie E.; Shank, John D.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2011-01-01

    The ADDIE (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) model was applied to help redesign a General Chemistry course to improve student success in the course. A team of six professionals spent 18 months and over 1,000 man-hours in the redesign. The resultant course is a blend of online and face-to-face instruction that utilizes…

  19. A Guide to Evaluating Self-Instructional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Paul I.; And Others

    Evaluation of self-instructional programs calls for a practical procedure which is consistent with the available information from scientific research studies and field reports. In order to aid teachers, principals, curriculum specialists, and other school administrators who may be unacquainted with the area, this book begins its development of aā€¦

  20. Instructional Media Center. Educational Facility Series. A Guide to Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Nicholas A., Ed.

    General recommendations are set forth regarding aesthetics, acoustics, lighting, temperature control, location, and layout of the instructional media center. Consideration is given to spatial relationships, equipment and furnishings, and suggestions are included regarding basic and advance facilities for primary, middle and secondary schools. (FS)

  1. Vestibular, optokinetic, and cognitive contribution to the guidance of passive self-rotation toward instructed targets.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, Reinhart; Nasios, Grigorios; Becker, Wolfgang

    2003-07-01

    We ask how vestibular and optokinetic information is combined ("fused") when human subjects who are being passively rotated while viewing a stationary optokinetic pattern try to tell when they have reached a previously instructed angular displacement ("targeting task"). Inevitably such a task entices subjects to also draw on cognitive mechanisms such as past experience and contextual expectations. Specifically, because we used rotations of constant angular velocity, we suspected that they would resort, consciously or unconsciously, to extrapolation strategies even though they had no explicit knowledge of this fact. To study these issues, we presented the following six conditions to subjects standing on a rotatable platform inside an optokinetic drum: V, pure vestibular (passive rotation in darkness); O, pure optokinetic (observer motionless, drum rotating); VO, combined (passive rotation while viewing stationary drum); Oe, optokinetic extrapolation (similar to O, but drum visible only during first 90 degrees of rotation; thereafter subjects extrapolate the further course in their minds); VOe, combined extrapolation (similar to VO, but drum visible only during first 90 degrees ); AI, auditory imagination (rotation presented only metaphorically; observers imagine a drum rotation using the rising pitch of a tone as cue). In all conditions, angular velocities ( v(C)) of 15, 30, or 60 degrees /s were used (randomized presentation), and observers were to indicate when angular displacement (of the self in space or relative to the drum) had reached the instructed magnitude ("desired displacement", D(D); range 90-900 degrees ). Performance was analyzed in terms of the targeting gain ( G(T) = physical displacement at time of subjects' indication / D(D)) and variability (% E(R) = percentage absolute deviation from a subject's mean gain). In all six conditions, the global mean of G(T) (across v(C) and D(D)) was remarkably close to veracity, ranging from 0.95 (V) to 1.06 (O). A more detailed analysis of the gain revealed a trend of G(T) to be larger with fast than with slow rotations, reflecting an underestimation of fast and an overestimation of slow rotation. This effect varied significantly between conditions: it was smallest in VO, had intermediate values with the monomodal conditions V and O, and also with VOe, and was largest in Oe and AI. Variability was similar for all velocities, but depended significantly on the condition: it was smallest in VO, of intermediate magnitude in O, VOe, Oe, and largest in V and AI. Additional experiments with conditions V, O, and VO in which subjects repetitively indicated displacement increments of 90 degrees, up to a subjective displacement of 1080 degrees, yielded similar results and suggest, in addition, that the displacement perceptions measured at the beginning and during later phases of the rotation are correlated. With respect to the displacement perception during optokinetic stimulation, they also show that the gain and its variability are similar whether subjects feel stationary and see a rotating pattern, or feel rotated and see a stationary pattern (circular vection). We conclude that the vestibular and optokinetic information guiding the subjects' navigation toward an instructed target is not fused by straightforward averaging. Rather the subjects' internal velocity representation (which ultimately determines G(T)) appears to be a weighted average of (1) whatever sensory information is available and of (2) a cognitive default value reflecting the subjects' experiences and expectations. The less secure the sensory information (only one source as in V or O, additional degrading as in Oe or AI), the larger the weight of the default value. Vice versa, the better the information (e.g., two independent sources as in VO), the more the actual velocity and not the default value determines displacement perception. Moreover, we suggest that subjects intuitively proceeded from the notion of a constant velocity rotation, and therefore tended to carry on the percepti

  2. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies with Youth: Guiding Theory, Current Status, and Emerging Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C.

    1993-01-01

    Describes guiding theory behind cognitive-behavioral interventions with youth, such as therapeutic posture, an important cognitive distinction, and specific treatment goal. On basis of review of literature, nature of cognitive functioning, treatments, and outcome of treatment studies are described and examined for aggression, anxiety, depression,…

  3. Explicit Instructions Increase Cognitive Costs of Deception in Predictable Social Context.

    PubMed

    Falkiewicz, Marcel; Sarzyńska, Justyna; Babula, Justyna; Szatkowska, Iwona; Grabowska, Anna; Nęcka, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Convincing participants to deceive remains one of the biggest and most important challenges of laboratory-based deception research. The simplest and most prevalent method involves explicitly instructing participants to lie or tell the truth before presenting each task item. The usual finding of such experiments is increased cognitive load associated with deceptive responses, explained by necessity to inhibit default and automatic honest responses. However, explicit instructions are usually coupled with the absence of social context in the experimental task. Context plays a key role in social cognition by activating prior knowledge, which facilitates behaviors consistent with the latter. We hypothesized that in the presence of social context, both honest and deceptive responses can be produced on the basis of prior knowledge, without reliance on truth and without additional cognitive load during deceptive responses. In order to test the hypothesis, we have developed Speed-Dating Task (SDT), which is based on a real-life social event. In SDT, participants respond both honestly and deceptively to questions in order to appear similar to each of the dates. The dates are predictable and represent well-known categories (i.e., atheist or conservative). In one condition participants rely on explicit instructions preceding each question (external cue). In the second condition no explicit instructions are present, so the participants need to adapt based on prior knowledge about the category the dates belong to (internal cue). With internal cues, reaction times (RTs) are similar for both honest and deceptive responses. However, in the presence of external cues (EC), RTs are longer for deceptive than honest responses, suggesting that deceptive responses are associated with increased cognitive load. Compared to internal cues, deception costs were higher when EC were present. However, the effect was limited to the first part of the experiment, only partially confirming our initial hypothesis. The results suggest that the presence of social context in deception tasks might have a significant influence on cognitive processes associated with deception. PMID:26696929

  4. Explicit Instructions Increase Cognitive Costs of Deception in Predictable Social Context

    PubMed Central

    Falkiewicz, Marcel; Sarzyńska, Justyna; Babula, Justyna; Szatkowska, Iwona; Grabowska, Anna; Nęcka, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Convincing participants to deceive remains one of the biggest and most important challenges of laboratory-based deception research. The simplest and most prevalent method involves explicitly instructing participants to lie or tell the truth before presenting each task item. The usual finding of such experiments is increased cognitive load associated with deceptive responses, explained by necessity to inhibit default and automatic honest responses. However, explicit instructions are usually coupled with the absence of social context in the experimental task. Context plays a key role in social cognition by activating prior knowledge, which facilitates behaviors consistent with the latter. We hypothesized that in the presence of social context, both honest and deceptive responses can be produced on the basis of prior knowledge, without reliance on truth and without additional cognitive load during deceptive responses. In order to test the hypothesis, we have developed Speed-Dating Task (SDT), which is based on a real-life social event. In SDT, participants respond both honestly and deceptively to questions in order to appear similar to each of the dates. The dates are predictable and represent well-known categories (i.e., atheist or conservative). In one condition participants rely on explicit instructions preceding each question (external cue). In the second condition no explicit instructions are present, so the participants need to adapt based on prior knowledge about the category the dates belong to (internal cue). With internal cues, reaction times (RTs) are similar for both honest and deceptive responses. However, in the presence of external cues (EC), RTs are longer for deceptive than honest responses, suggesting that deceptive responses are associated with increased cognitive load. Compared to internal cues, deception costs were higher when EC were present. However, the effect was limited to the first part of the experiment, only partially confirming our initial hypothesis. The results suggest that the presence of social context in deception tasks might have a significant influence on cognitive processes associated with deception. PMID:26696929

  5. Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Automotive Mechanics. Final Document. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, William Edward, Jr.

    Developed during a project designed to provide continuous, performance-based vocational training at the secondary and postsecondary levels, this instructional guide is intended to help teachers implement a laterally and vertically articulated secondary level automotive mechanics program. Introductory materials include descriptions of Automotiveā€¦

  6. Vocational Curriculum Resources for Handicapped Students. A Guide to Print and Non-Print Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangano, R. Michael; And Others

    This guide to vocational curriculum resources for handicapped students consists of instructional checklists for resources identified in the following areas: agriculture, auto body repair, automobile mechanics, basic math skills, basic reading skills, business education, career education, carpentry, cosmetology, custodial and maintenance, data…

  7. Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Machine Shop Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, William Edward, Jr., Ed.

    This articulation guide contains 21 units of instruction for two years of machine shop. The objectives of the program are to provide the student with the basic terminology and fundamental knowledge and skills in machining (year 1) and to teach him/her to set up and operate machine tools and make or repair metal parts, tools, and machines (year 2).ā€¦

  8. A Guide to Swimming Instruction for Developmentally Disabled Children. Report Number 8168.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Susan

    The swimming instruction guide presents teaching techniques and skill progressions for developmentally disabled individuals and includes program development and administrative guidelines. Part 1 discusses swimming and developmentally disabled children, program planning and preparation elements (including pool, scheduling, staff, parents,ā€¦

  9. Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Welding. Final Document. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, William Edward, Jr.

    Developed during a project designed to provide continuous, performance-based vocational training at the secondary and postsecondary levels, this instructional guide is intended to help teachers implement a laterally and vertically articulated secondary level welding program. Introductory materials include descriptions of Welding I and II,ā€¦

  10. The Effect of Guided Inquiry-Based Instruction on Middle School Students' Understanding of Lunar Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.; Sackes, Mesut

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of non-traditional guided inquiry instruction on middle school students' conceptual understandings of lunar concepts. Multiple data sources were used to describe participants' conceptions of lunar phases and their cause, including drawings, interviews, and a lunar shapes card sort. The data were analyzed via aā€¦

  11. Adult ESL Instruction: A Challenge and a Pleasure. An Orientation Guide for Adult ESL Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guglielmino, Lucy M.; Burrichter, Arthur W.

    This guide, written in narrative format by several adult English as a second language (ESL) experts, presents an overview of ESL instruction. The manual is organized in six sections. The first section, an introduction to ESL, contains definitions, describes adult ESL students, and provides tips for new ESL teachers. The second section sketches a…

  12. The Effects of Guided Inquiry Instruction on Student Achievement in High School Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vass, Laszlo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to measure the effect of a student-centered instructional method called guided inquiry on the achievement of students in a unit of study in high school biology. The study used a non-random sample of 109 students, the control group of 55 students enrolled in high school one, receivedā€¦

  13. Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objective Guide for Food Service/Food Service Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, William Edward, Jr.

    Developed during a project designed to provide continuous, performance-based vocational training at the secondary and postsecondary levels, this instructional guide is intended to help teachers implement a laterally and vertically articulated secondary level food service and food service management program. Introductory materials include…

  14. GATE-Way to Success: Hispanic Gifted Program. Identification Packet [and] Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange Unified School District, CA.

    The packet describes procedures for identifying Hispanic elementary students with high academic potential and presents an instructional guide for programing. Guidelines are presented for conducting a needs assessment on the extent of ethnic imbalance in current gifted programs, encouraging referrals from all staff, and describing the search of all…

  15. Using a Combined Approach of Guided Inquiry & Direct Instruction to Explore How Physiology Affects Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machtinger, Erika T.

    2014-01-01

    Hands-on activities with live organisms allow students to actively explore scientific investigation. Here, I present activities that combine guided inquiry with direct instruction and relate how nutrition affects the physiology and behavior of the common housefly. These experiments encourage student involvement in the formulation of experimental…

  16. INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE FOR THE TEACHING OF HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION. PRIMARY THROUGH SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROCKMEYER, W.

    AN INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE FOR THE TEACHING OF HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION, EMPHASIZING EDUCATION BY EXPERIENCE IN ACTIVITY, WAS PRESENTED. THE GOALS WERE TO DEVELOP GOOD HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS, GOOD SELF-REALIZATION, CIVIC RESPONSIBILITY, AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY. THE PROGRAM FOR BOYS, GRADES SEVEN THROUGH NINE, INCLUDED CALISTHENICS APPARATUS (SUCH AS…

  17. A Standard's Guide for the Authoring of Instructional Software. Reference Manual Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Stuart

    This guide gives step-by-step directions for authoring computer-assisted instruction materials as well as advice on planning, designing, coding, documenting, and evaluating computer assisted courseware. The importance of prospective courseware designers having a sound background in both educational theory and practice is also discussed, and…

  18. Agricultural Science and Mechanics I and II. An Instructional Guide for Agricultural Education. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Agricultural Education Program.

    This instructional guide contains guidelines and course outlines for a two- and three-year course in agricultural science and mechanics for students in grades 8, 9, and 10. Provided in the first 4 sections are course outlines for Agricultural Science and Mechanics I and II and references for use in each course. Each course outline contains an…

  19. The Effect of Guided Inquiry-Based Instruction on Middle School Students' Understanding of Lunar Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.; Sackes, Mesut

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of non-traditional guided inquiry instruction on middle school students' conceptual understandings of lunar concepts. Multiple data sources were used to describe participants' conceptions of lunar phases and their cause, including drawings, interviews, and a lunar shapes card sort. The data were analyzed via a…

  20. Vocational Curriculum Resources for Handicapped Students. A Guide to Print and Non-Print Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangano, R. Michael; And Others

    This guide to vocational curriculum resources for handicapped students consists of instructional checklists for resources identified in the following areas: agriculture, auto body repair, automobile mechanics, basic math skills, basic reading skills, business education, career education, carpentry, cosmetology, custodial and maintenance, dataā€¦

  1. Vocational Curriculum Resources for Bilingual Students. A Guide to Print and Non-Print Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangano, R. Michael; Kryszak, Sarah J.

    This guide to vocational curriculum resources for bilingual students consists of instructional checklists for resources identified in the following areas: auto mechanics, basic math skills, basic reading skills, business education, career education, carpentry, custodial and maintenance, distributive education, electricity/electronics, engineering,ā€¦

  2. Using "Student Center Activities" to Differentiate Reading Instruction: A Guide for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosanovich, Marcia; Weinstein, Connie; Goldman, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This guide was produced by the Center on Instruction for technical assistance providers and others who work with state education leaders to improve reading achievement among elementary school students. It describes a suite of "Student Center Activities" (SCAs) designed to offer K-5 classroom teachers a wide range of activities that can engage…

  3. A Practical Guide to Early Numeracy Instruction for General and Special Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Alida

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes recommendations from NCTM, NRC, CCSSM, NMAP, and IES to guide early numeracy instruction for elementary age students in general and special education classroom settings. We highlight common threads among general and special education research recommendations and provide a numeracy intervention curriculum model connecting…

  4. Does a Repeated Guided-Instruction Approach with Multiple Assessments Increase Student Learning of Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert; Peethambaran, Bela; Pontiggia, Laura; Blumberg, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Guided instruction is an approach that fully explains the concepts and procedures that students are required to learn. It seems intuitive that this approach should increase student learning; however, there is evidence in the literature that this may not always be the case. We wanted to assess the effectiveness of our own repeatedā€¦

  5. Does a Repeated Guided-Instruction Approach with Multiple Assessments Increase Student Learning of Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert; Peethambaran, Bela; Pontiggia, Laura; Blumberg, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Guided instruction is an approach that fully explains the concepts and procedures that students are required to learn. It seems intuitive that this approach should increase student learning; however, there is evidence in the literature that this may not always be the case. We wanted to assess the effectiveness of our own repeated…

  6. The Effects of Instructions on Dual-Task Walking and Cognitive Task Performance in People with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Valerie E.; Eusterbrock, Alexis J.; Shumway-Cook, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Gait impairments are prevalent among people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Instructions to focus on walking can improve walking in PD, but the use of such a cognitive strategy may be limited under dual-task walking conditions, when walking is performed simultaneously with concurrent cognitive or motor tasks. This study examined how dual-task performance of walking and a concurrent cognitive task was affected by instructions in people with PD compared to healthy young and older individuals. Dual-task walking and cognitive task performance was characterized under two sets of instructions as follows: (1) focus on walking and (2) focus on the cognitive task. People with PD and healthy adults walked faster when instructed to focus on walking. However, when focused on walking, people with PD and young adults demonstrated declines in the cognitive task. This suggests that dual-task performance is flexible and can be modified by instructions in people with PD, but walking improvements may come at a cost to cognitive task performance. The ability to modify dual-task performance in response to instructions or other task and environmental factors is critical to mobility in daily life. Future research should continue to examine factors that influence dual-task performance among people with PD. PMID:23326758

  7. Cognitive Dissonance as an Instructional Tool for Understanding Chemical Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, David; Clarebout, Geraldine; Elen, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Previous research on multiple external representations (MER) indicates that sequencing representations (compared with presenting them as a whole) can, in some cases, increase conceptual understanding if there is interference between internal and external representations. We tested this mechanism by sequencing different combinations of scientific and abstract chemical representations and presenting them to 133 learners with low prior knowledge of the represented domain. The results provide insight into three separate mechanisms of learning with MER. (1) A memory (number of ideas reproduced) and (2) an accuracy (correctness of these ideas) effects occur when two representations are presented in a sequence. An accuracy and a (3) redundancy (number of redundant ideas remembered) effects occur when three representations are presented in a sequence. A necessary precondition for these effects is that descriptive formats are placed before depictive formats. The identified effects are analyzed in terms of the concept of cognitive dissonance.

  8. Cognitive mechanisms underlying instructed choice exploration of small city maps

    PubMed Central

    Sakellaridi, Sofia; Christova, Peka; Christopoulos, Vassilios N.; Vialard, Alice; Peponis, John; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the cognitive mechanisms underlying the exploration and decision-making in realistic and novel environments. Twelve human subjects were shown small circular U.S. city maps with two locations highlighted on the circumference, as possible choices for a post office (ā€œtargetsā€). At the beginning of a trial, subjects fixated a spot at the center of the map and ultimately chose one of the two locations. A space syntax analysis of the map paths (from the center to each target) revealed that the chosen location was associated with the less convoluted path, as if subjects navigated mentally the paths in an ā€œant's way,ā€ i.e., by staying within street boundaries, and ultimately choosing the target that could be reached from the center in the shortest way, and the fewest turns and intersections. The subjects' strategy for map exploration and decision making was investigated by monitoring eye position during the task. This revealed a restricted exploration of the map delimited by the location of the two alternative options and the center of the map. Specifically, subjects explored the areas around the two target options by repeatedly looking at them before deciding which one to choose, presumably implementing an evaluation and decision-making process. The ultimate selection of a specific target was significantly associated with the time spent exploring the area around that target. Finally, an analysis of the sequence of eye fixations revealed that subjects tended to look systematically toward the target ultimately chosen even from the beginning of the trial. This finding indicates an early cognitive selection bias for the ensuing decision process. PMID:25852452

  9. Curriculum and Instruction: A 21st Century Skills Implementation Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

    2009-01-01

    To succeed in college, career and life in the 21st century, students must be supported in mastering both content and skills. This Implementation Guide presents state leaders, policymakers and/or district and school leaders with assessment tactics and examples to assist in statewide 21st century skills initiatives. The Partnership for 21st Century…

  10. Units of Instruction. Health Occupations Education. Volume II. [Teacher's Guide].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Ten units on health occupations are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: special procedures; assisting with diagnostic procedures (e.g., collecting specimens); transporting patients; charting; medical laboratory procedures; giving standard first aid treatment; metrics for health occupations; human relations; safety; and…

  11. Automotive Modules. Vocational Behavioral Objectives: A Guide for Individualizing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., New York, NY.

    The curriculum guide deals with automotive repair skills at the secondary level of vocational education and industrial arts. It addresses the subject in behavioral terms, as prominent components of the career education concept. Presenting four skill modules, auto body repair, gas engine repair, service, and diesel engine mechanics, the objectives…

  12. Commercial Art I and Commercial Art II: An Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    A teacher's guide for two sequential one-year commercial art courses for high school students is presented. Commercial Art I contains three units: visual communication, product design, and environmental design. Students study visual communication by analyzing advertising techniques, practicing fundamental drawing and layout techniques, creatingā€¦

  13. Business Services and Technology. Advanced Finance Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti.

    This guide contains 15 lesson plans on financial topics for high school students. The lessons cover the following: (1) securities in the U.S. economy; (2) careers in finance; (3) commercial banking interest rates; (4) understanding financial statements; (5) newspaper stock tables; (6) financial institution operations; (7) foundation…

  14. The Professional's Guide for Instruction in Secondary Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raschkow, William E.

    Presented is a general guide and syllabus for each of 14 secondary school mathematics courses offered by the Kent School District. Statements of the philosophy, organization, implementation, course sequences, requirements, guidance, and evaluation involved with the program are included. The courses for which a complete syllabus is offered include:…

  15. Manufacturing Math Classes: An Instructional Program Guide for Manufacturing Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Pamela G.; And Others

    This program guide documents a manufacturing job family curriculum that develops competence in generic work force education skills through three courses: Reading Rulers, Charts, and Gauges and Math for Manufacturing Workers I and II. An annotated table of contents lists a brief description of the questions answered in each section. An introduction…

  16. Units of Instruction. Health Occupations Education. Volume I. [Teacher's Guide].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Ten units on health occupations are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: recording vital signs; job application and interview; grooming and personal hygiene; health careers; medical careers; medical ethics; medical terminology and abbreviations; medical asepsis; basic patient care (e.g., measuring and recording fluid…

  17. Electrical. Teacher's Guide. Building Maintenance Units of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This teaching guide on electrical building maintenance, one in a series of six publications designed for building maintenance instructors in Texas, is designed to give students an understanding of electricity in order to know how to make basic repairs to the electrical systems in a building. Introductory material provides teachers with information…

  18. Instructional Telecommunications: A Resource and Planning Guide. Bulletin No. 95171.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Gordon P.

    The educational uses of familiar technologies such as telephones, computers, television sets, videocassette recorders, and radios as well as more sophisticated technologies like satellites, microwave television, and fiber optic systems are discussed. This guide explains how these telecommunication technologies operate, explores the possibilitiesā€¦

  19. Using Guided Notes to Enhance Instruction for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Moira; Joseph, Laurice M.; Itoi, Madoka

    2011-01-01

    Taking notes from lectures or reading material can be challenging, especially for those who have learning disabilities. An alternative to traditional note-taking is a method called "guided notes," which has been found to improve the accuracy of students' notes, increase the frequency of student responses, and improve students' quiz and test…

  20. Automotive Modules. Vocational Behavioral Objectives: A Guide for Individualizing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., New York, NY.

    The curriculum guide deals with automotive repair skills at the secondary level of vocational education and industrial arts. It addresses the subject in behavioral terms, as prominent components of the career education concept. Presenting four skill modules, auto body repair, gas engine repair, service, and diesel engine mechanics, the objectivesā€¦

  1. Guided Instruction: How to Develop Confident and Successful Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    In this book, the authors explain why telling students things over and over--and perhaps more slowly and more loudly--does not result in understanding. Instead, discover how to use a combination of questions, prompts, cues, direct explanations, and modeling to guide students' learning and build their understanding. Explore an approach toā€¦

  2. Course of Study for Electronic Music I. An Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD. Dept. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The booklet is a guide for music teachers and administrators who wish to incorporate electronic music into the junior or senior high curriculum. It defines program objectives and suggests goals, teaching strategies, materials, and equipment. Reasons for teaching electronic music include its popularity with the younger generation, its capability toā€¦

  3. Music--A Resource Guide for Standards-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This guide is designed to provide guidance to New York state school districts and teachers to help students achieve the music standards. Teachers throughout New York state met to compile these field-tested lesson plans, teaching strategies, assessments, and resources for teachers of students in pre-kindergarten through grade 12, in all areas ofā€¦

  4. The Litter Problem. Environmental Education Supplementary Instructional Guide, Elementary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Presented is a guide for helping elementary school students become aware of the litter problem, acquire litter control skills, and develop an anti-litter ethic. The manual contains a hierarchy of learning objectives, a pretest/posttest instrument, background information on litter, and 12 lessons designed to promote attainment of the learning…

  5. The Litter Problem. Environmental Education Supplementary Instructional Guide, Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Presented is a guide for helping secondary school students investigate the litter problem, acquire litter control skills, and develop an anti-litter ethic. The manual contains a hierarchy of learning objectives, a pretest/posttest, background information on litter, and activities keyed to the learning objectives. Each lesson includes brief…

  6. Course of Study for Electronic Music I. An Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD. Dept. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The booklet is a guide for music teachers and administrators who wish to incorporate electronic music into the junior or senior high curriculum. It defines program objectives and suggests goals, teaching strategies, materials, and equipment. Reasons for teaching electronic music include its popularity with the younger generation, its capability to…

  7. Cultures of the Western World. Grade Ten. Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Chester School District, PA.

    This curriculum guide presents nine units for the study of western cultures in the tenth grade. The units contain up to 13 lessons each and comprise a two-semester course. Content includes ancient Greece and Rome, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and Reformation, Great Britain, France as a case study of revolution, Russia, and nationalism and the…

  8. Implications of Cognitive Psychology for Authentic Assessment and Instruction. Technical Report No. 69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calfee, Robert

    Designed to develop a conceptual perspective, this paper focuses on three tensions: between cognitive and behavioral views of learning and thinking; between factory-model and information-age models of schooling; and between externally-mandated testing and internally-guided assessment. The paper first provides a brief sketch of developments in theā€¦

  9. Reducing cognitive load in the chemistry laboratory by using technology-driven guided inquiry experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubacz, Frank, Jr.

    The chemistry laboratory is an integral component of the learning experience for students enrolled in college-level general chemistry courses. Science education research has shown that guided inquiry investigations provide students with an optimum learning environment within the laboratory. These investigations reflect the basic tenets of constructivism by engaging students in a learning environment that allows them to experience what they learn and to then construct, in their own minds, a meaningful understanding of the ideas and concepts investigated. However, educational research also indicates that the physical plant of the laboratory environment combined with the procedural requirements of the investigation itself often produces a great demand upon a student's working memory. This demand, which is often superfluous to the chemical concept under investigation, creates a sensory overload or extraneous cognitive load within the working memory and becomes a significant obstacle to student learning. Extraneous cognitive load inhibits necessary schema formation within the learner's working memory thereby impeding the transfer of ideas to the learner's long-term memory. Cognitive Load Theory suggests that instructional material developed to reduce extraneous cognitive load leads to an improved learning environment for the student which better allows for schema formation. This study first compared the cognitive load demand, as measured by mental effort, experienced by 33 participants enrolled in a first-year general chemistry course in which the treatment group, using technology based investigations, and the non-treatment group, using traditional labware, investigated identical chemical concepts on five different exercises. Mental effort was measured via a mental effort survey, a statistical comparison of individual survey results to a procedural step count, and an analysis of fourteen post-treatment interviews. Next, a statistical analysis of achievement was completed by comparing lab grade averages, final exam averages, and final course grade averages between the two groups. Participant mental effort survey results showed significant positive effects of technology in reducing cognitive load for two laboratory investigations. One investigation revealed a significant difference in achievement measured by lab grade average comparisons. Although results of this study are inconclusive as to the usefulness of technology-driven investigations to affect learning, recommendations for further study are discussed.

  10. Learner Control of Computer-Based Instruction: A Comparison to Guided Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, George F.

    The effects of learner control in Computer Based Instruction (CBI) were compared to learner control with advice as to what content to see next, and to programmed control. Students in training at the Basic Electricity/Electronics School, Service Command, Naval Training Center, San Diego, served as subjects in this study. Materials used were four…

  11. Rapid instructed task learning: A new window into the human brain’s unique capacity for flexible cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Michael W.; Laurent, Patryk; Stocco, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The human ability to flexibly adapt to novel circumstances is extraordinary. Perhaps the most illustrative yet underappreciated form of this cognitive flexibility is rapid instructed task learning (RITL) – the ability to rapidly reconfigure our minds to perform new tasks from instruction. This ability is important for everyday life (e.g., learning to use new technologies), and is used to instruct participants in nearly every study of human cognition. We review the development of RITL as a circumscribed domain of cognitive neuroscience investigation, culminating in recent demonstrations that RITL is implemented via brain circuits centered on lateral prefrontal cortex. We then build on this and other insights to develop an integrative theory of cognitive flexibility and cognitive control, identifying theoretical principles and mechanisms that may make RITL possible in the human brain. Insights gained from this new theoretical account have important implications for further developments and applications of RITL research. PMID:23065743

  12. Use of Direct Instruction to Teach Reading to Students with Significant Cognitive Impairments: Student Outcomes and Teacher Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanfush, Philip Michael, III.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether students with significant cognitive impairments make measurable gains in reading skills as measured by the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests--Revised when taught using Direct Instruction reading programs. Additionally, the study explored teacher perceptions of the effectiveness of Direct Instruction…

  13. The Effects of Diagrams and Time-Compressed Instruction on Learning and Learners' Perceptions of Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastore, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of diagrams and time-compressed instruction on learning and learners' perceptions of cognitive load. The following design factors, visuals (visuals and non-visuals) and time-compressed instruction (0%-normal paced, 25, and 50%) were presented to 216 university students to analyze learning in aā€¦

  14. The Effects of Diagrams and Time-Compressed Instruction on Learning and Learners' Perceptions of Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastore, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of diagrams and time-compressed instruction on learning and learners' perceptions of cognitive load. The following design factors, visuals (visuals and non-visuals) and time-compressed instruction (0%-normal paced, 25, and 50%) were presented to 216 university students to analyze learning in a…

  15. The Effects of Time-Compressed Instruction and Redundancy on Learning and Learners' Perceptions of Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastore, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Can increasing the speed of audio narration in multimedia instruction decrease training time and still maintain learning? The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of time-compressed instruction and redundancy on learning and learners' perceptions of cognitive load. 154 university students were placed into conditions that consisted of…

  16. Using a guided inquiry and modeling instructional framework (EIMA) to support preservice K-8 science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Christina V.; Gwekwerere, Yovita N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study aimed at helping preservice elementary and middle school teachers incorporate model-centered scientific inquiry into their science teaching practices. Specifically, the authors studied the effect of using a guided inquiry and modeling instructional framework (EIMA) and accompanying science methods instruction on preservice elementary teachers' science lesson design skills, scientific model use, and teaching orientations. Analysis of preservice teachers' pre-posttests, classroom artifacts, peer interviews, and lesson plans throughout the semester indicates that the framework successfully built on preservice teachers' prior instructional ideas, and that the majority of preservice teachers learned and used the framework in their lesson plans and teaching. Additionally, analysis of pre-posttest differences indicates an increase in posttest lesson plans that focused on engaging students in scientific inquiry using several kinds of models. Most importantly, the framework and accompanying instruction enabled two thirds of the class to move their teaching orientations away from discovery or didactic approaches toward reform-based approaches such as conceptual change, inquiry, and guided inquiry. Results from this study show that using instructional frameworks such as EIMA can enable preservice teachers to socially construct, synthesize, and apply their knowledge for enacting reform-oriented science teaching approaches such as model-centered scientific inquiry.

  17. The effect of research-based instruction in introductory physics on a common cognitive bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Ross K.; Bates, Simon P.; Parker, Jonathan; Usoskina, Evguenia

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a paper at last year's PERC conference, in which Rebello [1] compared students' individual and cohort mean score estimations with their actual assessment scores, we present results of a study in which students in an introductory physics class were asked to predict their scores on two assessments, one delivered at the start of the course (pre-instruction) and one at the end of the course (post-instruction). Our results show that, pre-instruction, the academically strongest students tend to underestimate their score slightly, whereas the weakest overestimate their performance significantly, consistent with the findings of Rebello and demonstrating a well-known cognitive bias (the Dunning-Kruger effect). Post-instruction, we find that the ability of the original weakest quartile cohort to accurately predict their own assessment score has improved significantly, but a flux of students between quartiles from one assessment to the other reveals that the least able students continue to over-estimate their performance, but with a reduced mean discrepancy. We discuss the implications these results have for instruction and for development of enhanced metacognition amongst physics students.

  18. A la decouverte des familles canadiennes. Unite d'enseignement--Guide. 1re annee--Suject C (Discovering Canadian Families. Instructional Unit--Guide. First Year--Subject C). Families. Instructional Unit - Guide. First Year - Subject C).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    This guide, designed for teachers of francophone first graders in Alberta, outlines a social studies unit on the family and provides lessons, instructional materials, and notes on classroom techniques. An introductory section describes the general purposes of the curriculum, outlines specific objectives and the unit's organization, discusses the…

  19. Self-Instructional Module Based on Cognitive Load Theory: A Study on Information Retention among Trainee Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Chiek Pin; Tasir, Zaidatun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research is to study the information retention among trainee teachers using a self-instructional printed module based on Cognitive Load Theory for learning spreadsheet software. Effective pedagogical considerations integrating the theoretical concepts related to cognitive load are reflected in the design and development of theā€¦

  20. Self-Instructional Module Based on Cognitive Load Theory: A Study on Information Retention among Trainee Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Chiek Pin; Tasir, Zaidatun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research is to study the information retention among trainee teachers using a self-instructional printed module based on Cognitive Load Theory for learning spreadsheet software. Effective pedagogical considerations integrating the theoretical concepts related to cognitive load are reflected in the design and development of the…

  1. Science Cognitive and Activity Preferences and Their Relationship to Present Practices in Science Instruction in Secondary Schools in Penang, Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekkers, John; Allen, Leslie R.

    Described are science cognitive and activity preferences of a sample of secondary students in Georgetown, Malaysia whose perceptions of instructional practices in science were considered. Three instruments were used to collect data. The analysis considers the mean scores and F-test results for a Science Cognitive Preference Inventory, an Activity…

  2. An Evidence-Based Guide for Ethics Instruction†

    PubMed Central

    Bebeau, Muriel J.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from multiple sources of evidence, this paper updates previous descriptions (IOM, 2002) of measurement strategies and teaching techniques to promote four theoretically derived abilities thought to be necessary conditions for the responsible conduct of research. Data from three samples (exemplary professionals, professionals disciplined by a licensing board, and graduates who completed an ethics program designed to promote the four interrelated abilities) suggest that development of a moral identity that is consistent with the norms and values of a profession is the driving force that gives rise to ethical sensitivity, ethical reasoning, and ethical implementation. Evidence from the cited studies supports the usefulness of the theoretical model to (a) deconstruct summary judgments about character and see them as abilities that can be assessed and developed; (b) guide the design assessments that are sensitive to the effects of interventions; and (c) augment previous IOM recommendations for the development of meaningful learning activities. PMID:25574261

  3. Les contributions de la psychologie cognitive a l'enseignement strategique des langues secondes au niveau universitaire (The Contributions of Cognitive Psychology to Strategic Second Language Instruction at the University Level).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besnard, Christine

    1995-01-01

    Contributions of the field of cognitive psychology to second language instruction are reviewed. It is proposed that these concepts can contribute not only to classroom language instruction, but also to methodology of language teacher education. (MSE)

  4. Students' Attitudes and Perceptions toward Technology-Based Applications and Guided Notes Instruction in High School World History Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Richard T.; Fore, Cecil, III; Rasheed, Saleem

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine students' attitudes and perceptions toward the use of technology-based instruction (i.e., Inspiration 6.0 software) and a guided notes format as an instructional strategy in inclusive world history classrooms. Students' completed a six item 3 choice student satisfaction survey (agree, undecided, disagree)…

  5. The Experimental Research on E-Learning Instructional Design Model Based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xianzhong; Wang, Feng; Zheng, Zhongmei

    The paper reports an educational experiment on the e-Learning instructional design model based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory, the experiment were made to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of the model in promoting the learning quality in ill-structured domain. The study performed the experiment on two groups of students: one group learned through the system designed by the model and the other learned by the traditional method. The results of the experiment indicate that the e-Learning designed through the model is helpful to promote the intrinsic motivation, learning quality in ill-structured domains, ability to resolve ill-structured problem and creative thinking ability of the students.

  6. Training cognitive control in older adults with the space fortress game: the role of training instructions and basic motor ability.

    PubMed

    Blumen, Helena M; Gopher, Daniel; Steinerman, Joshua R; Stern, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    This study examined if and how cognitively healthy older adults can learn to play a complex computer-based action game called the Space Fortress (SF) as a function of training instructions [Standard vs. Emphasis Change (EC); e.g., Gopher et al., 1989] and basic motor ability. A total of 35 cognitively healthy older adults completed a 3-month SF training program with three SF sessions weekly. Twelve 3-min games were played during each session. Basic motor ability was assessed with an aiming task, which required rapidly rotating a spaceship to shoot targets. Older adults showed improved performance on the SF task over time, but did not perform at the same level as younger adults. Unlike studies of younger adults, overall SF performance in older adults was greater following standard instructions than following EC instructions. However, this advantage was primarily due to collecting more bonus points and not - the primary goal of the game - shooting and destroying the fortress, which in contrast benefited from EC instructions. Basic motor ability was low and influenced many different aspects of SF game learning, often interacted with learning rate, and influenced overall SF performance. These findings show that older adults can be trained to deal with the complexity of the SF task but that overall SF performance, and the ability to capitalize on EC instructions, differs when a basic ability such as motor control is low. Hence, the development of this training program as a cognitive intervention that can potentially compensate for age-related cognitive decline should consider that basic motor ability can interact with the efficiency of training instructions that promote the use of cognitive control (e.g., EC instructions) - and the confluence between such basic abilities and higher-level cognitive control abilities should be further examined. PMID:21120135

  7. Training Cognitive Control in Older Adults with the Space Fortress Game: The Role of Training Instructions and Basic Motor Ability

    PubMed Central

    Blumen, Helena M.; Gopher, Daniel; Steinerman, Joshua R.; Stern, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    This study examined if and how cognitively healthy older adults can learn to play a complex computer-based action game called the Space Fortress (SF) as a function of training instructions [Standard vs. Emphasis Change (EC); e.g., Gopher et al., 1989] and basic motor ability. A total of 35 cognitively healthy older adults completed a 3-month SF training program with three SF sessions weekly. Twelve 3-min games were played during each session. Basic motor ability was assessed with an aiming task, which required rapidly rotating a spaceship to shoot targets. Older adults showed improved performance on the SF task over time, but did not perform at the same level as younger adults. Unlike studies of younger adults, overall SF performance in older adults was greater following standard instructions than following EC instructions. However, this advantage was primarily due to collecting more bonus points and not ā€“ the primary goal of the game ā€“ shooting and destroying the fortress, which in contrast benefited from EC instructions. Basic motor ability was low and influenced many different aspects of SF game learning, often interacted with learning rate, and influenced overall SF performance. These findings show that older adults can be trained to deal with the complexity of the SF task but that overall SF performance, and the ability to capitalize on EC instructions, differs when a basic ability such as motor control is low. Hence, the development of this training program as a cognitive intervention that can potentially compensate for age-related cognitive decline should consider that basic motor ability can interact with the efficiency of training instructions that promote the use of cognitive control (e.g., EC instructions) ā€“ and the confluence between such basic abilities and higher-level cognitive control abilities should be further examined. PMID:21120135

  8. An Information-Processing Approach to Instructional System Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallini, Joan K.; Fisk, Arthur D.

    1986-01-01

    Proposes an instructional design model which bridges the gap between the cognitive psychology and instructional design field. The model predicts when learning of task components will occur and suggests which components of a task should receive training. The proposed decomposition model guides task analysis when designing instruction of…

  9. The effect of guided inquiry-based instruction in secondary science for students with learning disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliot, Michael H.

    Students with learning disabilities (SWLDs) need to attain academic rigor to graduate from high school and college, as well as achieve success in life. Constructivist theories suggest that guided inquiry may provide the impetus for their success, yet little research has been done to support this premise. This study was designed to fill that gap. This quasi-experimental study compared didactic and guided inquiry-based teaching of science concepts to secondary SWLDs in SDC science classes. The study examined 38 students in four classes at two diverse, urban high schools. Participants were taught two science concepts using both teaching methods and posttested after each using paper-and-pencil tests and performance tasks. Data were compared to determine increases in conceptual understanding by teaching method, order of teaching method, and exposure one or both teaching methods. A survey examined participants' perceived self-efficacy under each method. Also, qualitative comparison of the two test formats examined appropriate use with SWLDs. Results showed significantly higher scores after the guided inquiry method on concept of volume, suggesting that guided inquiry does improve conceptual understanding over didactic instruction in some cases. Didactic teaching followed by guided inquiry resulted in higher scores than the reverse order, indicating that SWLDs may require direct instruction in basic facts and procedures related to a topic prior to engaging in guided inquiry. Also application of both teaching methods resulted in significantly higher scores than a single method on the concept of density, suggesting that SWLDs may require more in depth instruction found using both methods. No differences in perceived self-efficacy were shown. Qualitative analysis both assessments and participants' behaviors during testing support the use of performance tasks over paper-and-pencil tests with SWLDs. Implications for education include the use of guided inquiry to increase SWLDs conceptual understanding and process skills, while improving motivation and participation through hands-on learning. In addition, teachers may use performance tasks to better assess students' thought process, problem solving skills, and conceptual understanding. However, constructivist teaching methods require extra training, pedagogical skills, subject matter knowledge, physical resources, and support from all stakeholders.

  10. Instructional Guide for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. V & TECC Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duenk, Lester G.; And Others

    This trade and industrial curriculum guide is intended for use in vocational programs that prepare students to enter the air conditioning/refrigeration field. The introductory section provides a statement of philosophy, objectives, block time schedule, and recommended facilities and equipment. Following the introductory section, eighteen blocks ofā€¦

  11. Instructional Guide for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. V & TECC Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duenk, Lester G.; And Others

    This trade and industrial curriculum guide is intended for use in vocational programs that prepare students to enter the air conditioning/refrigeration field. The introductory section provides a statement of philosophy, objectives, block time schedule, and recommended facilities and equipment. Following the introductory section, eighteen blocks of…

  12. Visual representations in science education: The influence of prior knowledge and cognitive load theory on instructional design principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Michelle Patrick

    2006-11-01

    Visual representations are essential for communicating ideas in the science classroom; however, the design of such representations is not always beneficial for learners. This paper presents instructional design considerations providing empirical evidence and integrating theoretical concepts related to cognitive load. Learners have a limited working memory, and instructional representations should be designed with the goal of reducing unnecessary cognitive load. However, cognitive architecture alone is not the only factor to be considered; individual differences, especially prior knowledge, are critical in determining what impact a visual representation will have on learners' cognitive structures and processes. Prior knowledge can determine the ease with which learners can perceive and interpret visual representations in working memory. Although a long tradition of research has compared experts and novices, more research is necessary to fully explore the expert-novice continuum and maximize the potential of visual representations.

  13. Automated, Quantitative Cognitive/Behavioral Screening of Mice: For Genetics, Pharmacology, Animal Cognition and Undergraduate Instruction

    PubMed Central

    Gallistel, C. R.; Balci, Fuat; Freestone, David; Kheifets, Aaron; King, Adam

    2014-01-01

    We describe a high-throughput, high-volume, fully automated, live-in 24/7 behavioral testing system for assessing the effects of genetic and pharmacological manipulations on basic mechanisms of cognition and learning in mice. A standard polypropylene mouse housing tub is connected through an acrylic tube to a standard commercial mouse test box. The test box has 3 hoppers, 2 of which are connected to pellet feeders. All are internally illuminable with an LED and monitored for head entries by infrared (IR) beams. Mice live in the environment, which eliminates handling during screening. They obtain their food during two or more daily feeding periods by performing in operant (instrumental) and Pavlovian (classical) protocols, for which we have written protocol-control software and quasi-real-time data analysis and graphing software. The data analysis and graphing routines are written in a MATLAB-based language created to simplify greatly the analysis of large time-stamped behavioral and physiological event records and to preserve a full data trail from raw data through all intermediate analyses to the published graphs and statistics within a single data structure. The data-analysis code harvests the data several times a day and subjects it to statistical and graphical analyses, which are automatically stored in the "cloud" and on in-lab computers. Thus, the progress of individual mice is visualized and quantified daily. The data-analysis code talks to the protocol-control code, permitting the automated advance from protocol to protocol of individual subjects. The behavioral protocols implemented are matching, autoshaping, timed hopper-switching, risk assessment in timed hopper-switching, impulsivity measurement, and the circadian anticipation of food availability. Open-source protocol-control and data-analysis code makes the addition of new protocols simple. Eight test environments fit in a 48 in x 24 in x 78 in cabinet; two such cabinets (16 environments) may be controlled by one computer. PMID:24637442

  14. A Guide to Computer Simulations of Three Adaptive Instructional Models for the Advanced Instructional System Phases II and III. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Duncan N.; And Others

    Computer simulations of three individualized adaptive instructional models (AIM) were undertaken to determine if these models function as prescribed in Air Force technical training programs. In addition, the project sought to develop a user's guide for effective understanding of adaptive models during field implementation. Successful simulations…

  15. A Comparison of Reading Growth and Outcomes of Kindergarten Students with Cognitive Impairments to Their Typical Peers: The Impact of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folsom, Jessica Sidler

    2012-01-01

    This research addressed the early reading instruction of students with cognitive impairments included in general education kindergarten classrooms. Research from 2002 to 2011 on early reading instruction for students with mental retardation were reviewed and current trends in measurement, typical instruction, intervention, and achievement were…

  16. Assessing cognitive function: a guide to neuropsychological testing.

    PubMed

    Bondy, K N

    1994-01-01

    Neuropsychology is a discipline that studies brain-behavior relations through laboratory testing of behavior. Neuropsychologists develop a comprehensive clinical description of the person's cognitive processes and their implications for everyday behavior. Nurses can use the results of neuropsychological assessments as an objective source of information when planning care for clients who are cognitively impaired. This article provides an introduction to neuropsychology as a discipline, to its tests, and to its methods of assessment and interpretation. Two standard test batteries, the Halstead-Reitan Battery and the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery, are described. Special tests for many cognitive functions--such as attention, executive functions, sensation and perception, motor performance, memory, language, and intelligence--also are described. PMID:8159861

  17. Why Minimal Guidance during Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Sweller, John; Clark, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence for the superiority of guided instruction is explained in the context of our knowledge of human cognitive architecture, expert-novice differences, and cognitive load. Although unguided or minimally guided instructional approaches are very popular and intuitively appealing, the point is made that these approaches ignore both the structures…

  18. Impact of Online Instructional Game Features on College Students' Perceived Motivational Support and Cognitive Investment: A Structural Equation Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Wenhao David; Johnson, Tristan E.; Han, Seung-Hyun Caleb

    2013-01-01

    Colleges and universities have begun to understand the instructional potential of digital game-based learning (DGBL) due to digital games' immersive features. These features, however, might overload learners as excessive motivational and cognitive stimuli thus impeding intended learning. Current research, however, lacks empirical evidences toā€¦

  19. The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Math Problem Solving of Middle-School Students of Varying Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Marjorie; Krawec, Jennifer; Enders, Craig; Dietz, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    The effects of a mathematical problem-solving intervention on students' problem-solving performance and math achievement were measured in a randomized control trial with 1,059 7th-grade students. The intervention, "Solve It!," is a research-based cognitive strategy instructional intervention that was shown to improve the problem-solving…

  20. VARIATIONS IN INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA, PROCESSES, CONTENT AND APTITUDE VARIABLES IN RELATION TO EFFICIENCY OF COGNITIVE GOAL ATTAINMENT, VOLUME 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FATTU, N. A.

    A SERIES OF STUDIES WAS UNDERTAKEN, DIRECTED TOWARD EXPLORATIONS OF INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG MEDIA, PROCESSES (INSTRUCTIONAL PREREQUISITES), CONTENT AND APTITUDE VARIABLES, AND ACHIEVEMENTS. EMPHASIS THROUGHOUT WAS ON (1) THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN AND (2) PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE TO A PRACTICAL TEACHING SITUATION. "THE TAXONOMY OFā€¦

  1. Cognitive Strategy Instruction for Improving Expository Text Comprehension of Students with Learning Disabilities: The Quality of Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Burgess, Clare; Gajria, Meenakshi

    2011-01-01

    Educators have widely used cognitive strategy instruction to address reading comprehension deficits evidenced by students with learning disabilities. However, no one has yet conducted a review of the quality of this literature. This review applies the quality indicators advocated by Gersten et al. (2005) and Horner et al. (2005) to evaluate theā€¦

  2. Visual Representations in Science Education: The Influence of Prior Knowledge and Cognitive Load Theory on Instructional Design Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Michelle Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Visual representations are essential for communicating ideas in the science classroom; however, the design of such representations is not always beneficial for learners. This paper presents instructional design considerations providing empirical evidence and integrating theoretical concepts related to cognitive load. Learners have a limited…

  3. Evaluation of Title I ESEA Projects, 1971-1972. Volume III, Instructional Practices and Student Cognitive Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prusso, Kenneth W.; And Others

    In this volume, ESEA Title I projects related to instructional practices and student cognitive performance, carried out in Philadelphia during 1971-1972, are evaluated. The six projects in this cluster are: Class for Mentally Retarded/Emotionally Distrubed Children; English as a Second Language; Improvement of Reading Skills (Reading Skillsā€¦

  4. Impact of Online Instructional Game Features on College Students' Perceived Motivational Support and Cognitive Investment: A Structural Equation Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Wenhao David; Johnson, Tristan E.; Han, Seung-Hyun Caleb

    2013-01-01

    Colleges and universities have begun to understand the instructional potential of digital game-based learning (DGBL) due to digital games' immersive features. These features, however, might overload learners as excessive motivational and cognitive stimuli thus impeding intended learning. Current research, however, lacks empirical evidences to…

  5. A Comparison of US and Korean Students' Mathematics Skills Using a Cognitive Diagnostic Testing Method: Linkage to Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im, Seongah; Park, Hye Jin

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were (a) to compare US and Korean 8th graders' mastery of knowledge and skills in the mathematics test of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 using a cognitive diagnostic testing method and (b) to find links between teachers' instruction and students' mastery of mathematics…

  6. The Effect of Strategy Instruction Based on the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach over Reading Comprehension and Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurses, Meral Ozkan; Adiguzel, Oktay Cem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of reading strategies instruction based on the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach over students' skill to comprehend what they read in French and their use of reading strategies. It has an action research design. Eighteen students studying at French Preparatory Program at Eskisehir Osmangaziā€¦

  7. Improving Learning Results and Reducing Cognitive Load through 3D Courseware on Color Management and Inspection Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Liang-Yuan; Lai, Mu-Hui

    2013-01-01

    This study intends to solve the problem that schools in Taiwan lack of the equipment for color management and inspection instruction and seek ways to improve learning results and reduce cognitive load. The researchers developed 3D courseware for color management and inspection through a research and development process. To further scrutinize the…

  8. The Cultures of Contemporary Instructional Design Scholarship, Part One: Developments Based on Behavioral and Cognitive Science Foundations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    This is the first in a series of two articles examining the current status of instructional design (ID) scholarship and theory in four different cultures or traditions. In this article, the focus is on, first, ID models based on traditional behavioral theories of learning and, second, on models based on cognitive science and the learning sciences.…

  9. The Effect of Instructing Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies on the Academic Progress of Ilam Medical University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdolhosseini, Amir; Keikhavani, Sattar; Hasel, Kourosh Mohammadi

    2011-01-01

    This study reviewed the effect of instructing cognitive and metacognitive strategies on the academic progress of Medical Sciences of Ilam University students. The research is quasi-experimental including a pre-test and a post-test. The population of the research includes the students of Medical Sciences of Ilam University. The sample includes 120…

  10. The Impact of Clickers Instruction on Cognitive Loads and Listening and Speaking Skills in College English Class

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhonggen; Chen, Wentao; Kong, Yong; Sun, Xiao Ling; Zheng, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Clickers might own a bright future in China if properly introduced although they have not been widely acknowledged as an effective tool to facilitate English learning and teaching in Chinese contexts. By randomly selecting participants from undergraduates in a university in China over four academic years, this study aims to identify the impact of clickers on college English listening and speaking skills, and differences in cognitive loads between clickers and traditional multimedia assisted instruction modes. It was concluded that in China's college English class, compared with multimedia assisted instruction, (1) clickers could improve college English listening skills; (2) clickers could improve college English speaking skills; and (3) clickers could reduce undergraduates' cognitive loads in College English Class. Reasons for the results and defects in this study were also explored and discussed, based on learning, teaching and cognitive load theories. Some Suggestions for future research were also raised. PMID:25192424

  11. South Carolina Guide for Introduction to Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Ellen C.; Elliott, Ronald T.

    This introduction to marketing guide addresses the three domains of learning: psychomotor, cognitive, and affective. The guide contains suggestions for specific classroom activities for each domain. Each unit or task in this guide contains a competency statement followed by performance objectives, job-relevant instructional activities,ā€¦

  12. Cognitive Load of Navigating without Vision when Guided by Virtual Sound versus Spatial Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klatzky, Roberta L.; Marston, James R.; Giudice, Nicholas A.; Golledge, Reginald G.; Loomis, Jack M.

    2006-01-01

    A vibrotactile N-back task was used to generate cognitive load while participants were guided along virtual paths without vision. As participants stepped in place, they moved along a virtual path of linear segments. Information was provided en route about the direction of the next turning point, by spatial language ("left," "right," or "straight")ā€¦

  13. Cognitive Behavioral Guided Self-Help for the Treatment of Recurrent Binge Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Wilson, G. Terence; DeBar, Lynn; Perrin, Nancy; Lynch, Frances; Rosselli, Francine; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite proven efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating eating disorders with binge eating as the core symptom, few patients receive CBT in clinical practice. Our blended efficacy-effectiveness study sought to evaluate whether a manual-based guided self-help form of CBT (CBT-GSH), delivered in 8 sessions in a healthā€¦

  14. Cognitive Load of Navigating without Vision when Guided by Virtual Sound versus Spatial Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klatzky, Roberta L.; Marston, James R.; Giudice, Nicholas A.; Golledge, Reginald G.; Loomis, Jack M.

    2006-01-01

    A vibrotactile N-back task was used to generate cognitive load while participants were guided along virtual paths without vision. As participants stepped in place, they moved along a virtual path of linear segments. Information was provided en route about the direction of the next turning point, by spatial language ("left," "right," or "straight")…

  15. Cognitive Behavioral Guided Self-Help for the Treatment of Recurrent Binge Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Wilson, G. Terence; DeBar, Lynn; Perrin, Nancy; Lynch, Frances; Rosselli, Francine; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite proven efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating eating disorders with binge eating as the core symptom, few patients receive CBT in clinical practice. Our blended efficacy-effectiveness study sought to evaluate whether a manual-based guided self-help form of CBT (CBT-GSH), delivered in 8 sessions in a health…

  16. Differentiation and Integration: Guiding Principles for Analyzing Cognitive Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.; Chen, Zhe

    2008-01-01

    Differentiation and integration played large roles within classic developmental theories but have been relegated to obscurity within contemporary theories. However, they may have a useful role to play in modern theories as well, if conceptualized as guiding principles for analyzing change rather than as real-time mechanisms. In the present study,ā€¦

  17. The Influence of Cognitive Coaching on the Planning and Use of Instructional Conversations, with a Focus on Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chen-Ju

    2012-01-01

    Instructional conversations are a teaching method in which teacher and students discuss academic topics with students' previous experience or knowledge (Tharp & Gallimore, 1988). In order to improve student learning, providing students more opportunities to engage in instructional conversations is often recommended. As research indicates…

  18. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, Instructional Design Principles, and Students with Learning Disabilities in Computer-Based and Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Diana L.; Crutchfield, Stephen A.; Woods, Kari L.

    2013-01-01

    Struggling learners and students with Learning Disabilities often exhibit unique cognitive processing and working memory characteristics that may not align with instructional design principles developed with typically developing learners. This paper explains the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning and underlying Cognitive Load Theory, andā€¦

  19. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, Instructional Design Principles, and Students with Learning Disabilities in Computer-Based and Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Diana L.; Crutchfield, Stephen A.; Woods, Kari L.

    2013-01-01

    Struggling learners and students with Learning Disabilities often exhibit unique cognitive processing and working memory characteristics that may not align with instructional design principles developed with typically developing learners. This paper explains the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning and underlying Cognitive Load Theory, and…

  20. Determining Goals, Objectives, and Strategies for the Domains of Learning and Instructional Intents. A Guide to Lesson and Unit Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Ulrich H.

    This paper is designed to provide basic information for writing behavioral objectives for teaching and testing instructional objectives in the psychomotor, affective, and cognitive domains. Procedures stress the stating of performance objectives as learning outcomes in terms of specific learner behavior. The paper discusses: (1) desired outcomes…

  1. Bonneville Purchasing Instructions. Appendix 14A, Contracting Officer`s Technical Representatives` Guide for Services Contracts.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-07-01

    This guide outlines the duties of BPA personnel designated as Contracting Officers Technical Representatives (COTRs). The BPA Administrator gives contracting officers (COs) in BPA responsibility and authority for awarding and administering contracts. COs are authorized to designate other BPA employees to act as their representatives for purposes of contract administration, from the time of contract award until final receipt and acceptance of the contracted services. COTRs are the individuals primarily relied upon to perform technical contract administration functions. Similar functions for supply and construction contracts are performed by engineering representatives, construction inspectors, and inspectors. Although this Guide is written primarily with the COTR in mind, the concept and operation of teamwork is essential throughout the entire process of contract administration. The CO administers the contract during performance, but rarely has expertise in all of the relevant technical areas. Therefore, CO decisions rely on input from a team. The COTR is an indispensable member of that team. The instructions in this Guide are designed to facilitate this essential CO-COTR cooperation. COTR duties are usually additional to those required of the COTR in his or her assigned line organization. The COTR is still accountable to the line supervisor for performance of regularly-assigned duties. These duties are to be reflected appropriately in performance appraisals and job descriptions. For contract administration duties, however, the COTR reports directly to, and is accountable only to, the CO. The COTR`s supervisor must allow sufficient time to ensure that the COTR can adequately monitor the contract for technical compliance. This Guide is designed for COTRs who are performing service contract (including intergovernmental contract) administration functions as an adjunct to their normal technical duties.

  2. Computer-Based Instruction: Effect of Cognitive Style, Instructional Format, and Subject-Matter Content on Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, Linda J. Buehner

    This report describes an experiment investigating the effects of cognitive style, presentation format, and task content on learning. Cognitive style was described in terms of hemisphericity (i.e., left- or right-brain influence on perception). Presentation format consisted of graphics, text, and a combination of the two. The tasks consisted ofā€¦

  3. Lasting Effects of Instruction Guided by the Conflict Map: Experimental Study of Learning about the Causes of the Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2005-01-01

    This study was based on the framework of the "conflict map" to facilitate student conceptual learning about causes of the seasons. Instruction guided by the conflict map emphasizes not only the use of discrepant events, but also the resolution of conflict between students' alternative conceptions and scientific conceptions, using critical eventsā€¦

  4. Vocational Curriculum Resources for Disadvantaged Students. A Guide to Print and Non-Print Instructional Materials. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangano, R. Michael; And Others

    Volume 2 of a three-volume guide to vocational curriculum resources for disadvantaged students consists of instructional checklists for resources identified in the following areas: agriculture, auto body repair, automobile mechanics, basic math skills, basic reading skills, business education, career education, carpentry, cosmetology, custodial…

  5. Vocational Curriculum Resources for Disadvantaged Students. A Guide to Print and Non-Print Instructional Materials. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangano, R. Michael; And Others

    Volume 1 of a three-volume guide to vocational curriculum resources for disadvantaged students consists of instructional checklists for resources identified in the following areas: agriculture, auto body repair, automobile mechanics, basic math skills, basic reading skills, business education, carpentry, cosmetology, custodial and maintenance,…

  6. Vocational Curriculum Resources for Disdvantaged Students. A Guide to Print and Non-Print Instructional Materials. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangano, R. Michael; And Others

    Volume 3 of a three-volume guide to vocational curriculum resources for disadvantaged students consists of instructional checklists for resources identified in the following areas: agriculture, auto body repair, automobile mechanics, basic math skills, basic reading skills, business education, career education, carpentry, cosmetology, custodial…

  7. Effects of Guided Inquiry versus Lecture Instruction on Final Grade Distribution in a One-Semester Organic and Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Colleen J.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive guided-inquiry approach was used in a combined organic and biochemistry course for prenursing and predietetics students rather than lecture. To assess its effectiveness, exam grades and final course grades of students in three instructional techniques were compared. The three groups were the following: (i) lecture only, (ii)ā€¦

  8. Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Air Conditioning, Refrigeration, and Heating. Volume II (Second Year).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, William Edward, Jr., Ed.

    This articulation guide contains 17 units of instruction for the second year of a two-year vocational program designed to prepare the high school graduate to install, maintain, and repair various types of residential and commercial heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration equipment. The units are designed to help the student to expand andā€¦

  9. Lasting Effects of Instruction Guided by the Conflict Map: Experimental Study of Learning about the Causes of the Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2005-01-01

    This study was based on the framework of the "conflict map" to facilitate student conceptual learning about causes of the seasons. Instruction guided by the conflict map emphasizes not only the use of discrepant events, but also the resolution of conflict between students' alternative conceptions and scientific conceptions, using critical events…

  10. The Digestive System [and] Instructor's Guide. Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This instructional modular unit wlth instructor's guide provides materials on important aspects of one of the major systems of the human body--the digestive system. Its purpose is to introduce the student to the structures and functions of the human digestive system--and the interrelationships of the two--and to familiarize the student with someā€¦

  11. Advanced Marketing. Marketing Education Teacher's Resource Guide. Expected Student Learning Outcomes and Cross-Referenced Instructional Materials by Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton L.

    This guide, developed by a project to revise the minimum core competencies for the advanced marketing course in secondary marketing education in Missouri, contains four sections. The first section explains competency-based marketing education, including its mission, nature, curriculum, and the fundamentals of competency-based instruction. The…

  12. Fundamentals of Marketing. Marketing Education Teacher's Resource Guide. Expected Student Learning Outcomes and Cross-Referenced Instructional Materials by Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton L.

    This guide, developed by a project to revise the minimum core competencies for the Fundamentals of Marketing course in secondary marketing education in Missouri, contains four sections. The first section explains competency-based marketing education, including its mission, nature, curriculum, and the fundamentals of competency-based instruction

  13. Genetic Conditions: A Resource Book and Instructional Guide to Human Heredity and Birth Defects for Kindergarten Through Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Designed for administrators, teachers, school nurses, and others involved in health education for kindergarten through adult education, the resource guide provides curriculum ideas for instruction in genetic conditions, heredity, and birth defects. Student learning objectives, content information, learning activities, and evaluation methods are…

  14. Vocational Curriculum Resources for Disadvantaged Students. A Guide to Print and Non-Print Instructional Materials. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangano, R. Michael; And Others

    Volume 1 of a three-volume guide to vocational curriculum resources for disadvantaged students consists of instructional checklists for resources identified in the following areas: agriculture, auto body repair, automobile mechanics, basic math skills, basic reading skills, business education, carpentry, cosmetology, custodial and maintenance,ā€¦

  15. Vocational Curriculum Resources for Disadvantaged Students. A Guide to Print and Non-Print Instructional Materials. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangano, R. Michael; And Others

    Volume 2 of a three-volume guide to vocational curriculum resources for disadvantaged students consists of instructional checklists for resources identified in the following areas: agriculture, auto body repair, automobile mechanics, basic math skills, basic reading skills, business education, career education, carpentry, cosmetology, custodialā€¦

  16. Vocational Curriculum Resources for Disdvantaged Students. A Guide to Print and Non-Print Instructional Materials. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangano, R. Michael; And Others

    Volume 3 of a three-volume guide to vocational curriculum resources for disadvantaged students consists of instructional checklists for resources identified in the following areas: agriculture, auto body repair, automobile mechanics, basic math skills, basic reading skills, business education, career education, carpentry, cosmetology, custodialā€¦

  17. PDQ: Planning and Development of Quality Services in the Schools, Instructional Guide, Student Manual and Reference Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sandra Raymore

    The instructional guide, student manual, and reference materials were developed by the PDQ Project, Planning and Development of Quality Services in the Schools, an effort by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association to provide public school personnel working with communication disordered children with information and training related toā€¦

  18. Effects of Guided Inquiry versus Lecture Instruction on Final Grade Distribution in a One-Semester Organic and Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Colleen J.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive guided-inquiry approach was used in a combined organic and biochemistry course for prenursing and predietetics students rather than lecture. To assess its effectiveness, exam grades and final course grades of students in three instructional techniques were compared. The three groups were the following: (i) lecture only, (ii)…

  19. Designing simulator-based training: an approach integrating cognitive task analysis and four-component instructional design.

    PubMed

    Tjiam, Irene M; Schout, Barbara M A; Hendrikx, Ad J M; Scherpbier, Albert J J M; Witjes, J Alfred; van Merriėnboer, Jeroen J G

    2012-01-01

    Most studies of simulator-based surgical skills training have focused on the acquisition of psychomotor skills, but surgical procedures are complex tasks requiring both psychomotor and cognitive skills. As skills training is modelled on expert performance consisting partly of unconscious automatic processes that experts are not always able to explicate, simulator developers should collaborate with educational experts and physicians in developing efficient and effective training programmes. This article presents an approach to designing simulator-based skill training comprising cognitive task analysis integrated with instructional design according to the four-component/instructional design model. This theory-driven approach is illustrated by a description of how it was used in the development of simulator-based training for the nephrostomy procedure. PMID:23088360

  20. The Effects of STS-Oriented Instruction on Female Tenth Graders' Cognitive Structure Outcomes and the Role of Student Scientific Epistemological Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effects of Science-Technology-Society instruction on a group of Taiwanese female 10th grade students' cognitive structure outcomes. Examines the role of student scientific epistemological beliefs on such effects. (Author/SAH)

  1. A Brief Guide for Teachers Towards the Utilization of the Concept of "Open Space" as an Aspect of Instructional Individualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frase, Larry

    This guide examines the elements of the open space concept and offers insight and suggestions as to how to employ this process in the classroom. These elements are outlined as follows: (a) objectives--primarily to develop self-respecting, self-directing, autonomous individuals; (b) knowledge and method--with emphasis on cognitive or thinkingā€¦

  2. Knowledge Elaboration: A Cognitive Load Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyuga, Slava

    2009-01-01

    The process of knowledge elaboration is considered from the perspective of cognitive load theory. This theory assumes that the available knowledge structures in long-term memory (LTM) are used to organize and guide cognitive processing in complex learning. Accordingly, the role of external instructional guidance in the process of knowledge…

  3. Knowledge Elaboration: A Cognitive Load Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyuga, Slava

    2009-01-01

    The process of knowledge elaboration is considered from the perspective of cognitive load theory. This theory assumes that the available knowledge structures in long-term memory (LTM) are used to organize and guide cognitive processing in complex learning. Accordingly, the role of external instructional guidance in the process of knowledgeā€¦

  4. Investigating the effects of cognitive apprenticeship-based instructional coaching on science teaching efficacy beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Teo O. H.

    The overall purpose of this collected papers dissertation was to examine the utility of a cognitive apprenticeship-based instructional coaching (CAIC) model for improving the science teaching efficacy beliefs (STEB) of preservice and inservice elementary teachers. Many of these teachers perceive science as a difficult subject and feel inadequately prepared to teach it. However, teacher efficacy beliefs have been noted as the strongest indicator of teacher quality, the variable most highly correlated with student achievement outcomes. The literature is scarce on strong, evidence-based theoretical models for improving STEB. This dissertation is comprised of two studies. STUDY #1 was a sequential explanatory mixed-methods study investigating the impact of a reformed CAIC elementary science methods course on the STEB of 26 preservice teachers. Data were collected using the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI-B) and from six post-course interviews. A statistically significant increase in STEB was observed in the quantitative strand. The qualitative data suggested that the preservice teachers perceived all of the CAIC methods as influential, but the significance of each method depended on their unique needs and abilities. STUDY #2 was a participatory action research case study exploring the utility of a CAIC professional development program for improving the STEB of five Bahamian inservice teachers and their competency in implementing an inquiry-based curriculum. Data were collected from pre- and post-interviews and two focus group interviews. Overall, the inservice teachers perceived the intervention as highly effective. The scaffolding and coaching were the CAIC methods portrayed as most influential in developing their STEB, highlighting the importance of interpersonal relationship aspects in successful instructional coaching programs. The teachers also described the CAIC approach as integral in supporting their learning to implement the new inquiry-based curriculum. The overall findings hold important implications for science education reform, including its potential to influence how preservice teacher training and inservice teacher professional development in science are perceived and implemented. Additionally, given the noteworthy results obtained over the relatively short durations, CAIC interventions may also provide an effective means of achieving improvements in preservice and inservice teachers' STEB more expeditiously than traditional approaches.

  5. Guided Cognitive Reframing of Adolescent-Father Conflict: Who Mexican American and European American Adolescents Seek and Why

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookston, Jeffrey T.; Olide, Andres F.; Adams, Michele A.; Fabricius, William V.; Parke, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents may seek to understand family conflict by seeking out confidants. However, little is known about whom adolescents seek, whether and how such support helps youth, and the factors that predict which sources are sought. This chapter offers a conceptual model of guided cognitive reframing that emphasizes the behavioral, cognitive, and…

  6. In Search for Instructional Techniques to Maximize the Use of Germane Cognitive Resources: A Case of Teaching Complex Tasks in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sliva, Yekaterina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce an instructional technique for teaching complex tasks in physics, test its effectiveness and efficiency, and understand cognitive processes taking place in learners' minds while they are exposed to this technique. The study was based primarily on cognitive load theory (CLT). CLT determines the amount of…

  7. Efficient Vocational Skills Training for People with Cognitive Disabilities: An Exploratory Study Comparing Computer-Assisted Instruction to One-on-One Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, James R., Jr.; Juszczak, Andrew; Engel, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study compared the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction to that of one-on-one tutoring for teaching people with mild and moderate cognitive disabilities when both training methods are designed to take account of the specific mental deficits most commonly found in cognitive disability populations. Method: Fifteenā€¦

  8. In Search for Instructional Techniques to Maximize the Use of Germane Cognitive Resources: A Case of Teaching Complex Tasks in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sliva, Yekaterina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce an instructional technique for teaching complex tasks in physics, test its effectiveness and efficiency, and understand cognitive processes taking place in learners' minds while they are exposed to this technique. The study was based primarily on cognitive load theory (CLT). CLT determines the amount ofā€¦

  9. WWC Review of the Report "The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Math Problem Solving of Middle School Students of Varying Ability." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    A recent study, "The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Math Problem Solving of Middle School Students of Varying Ability," examined the effectiveness of "Solve It!," a program intended to improve the problem-solving skills of seventh-grade math students. During the program, students are taught cognitive strategies of…

  10. Cognitive state monitoring and the design of adaptive instruction in digital environments: lessons learned from cognitive workload assessment using a passive brain-computer interface approach

    PubMed Central

    Gerjets, Peter; Walter, Carina; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Bogdan, Martin; Zander, Thorsten O.

    2014-01-01

    According to Cognitive Load Theory (CLT), one of the crucial factors for successful learning is the type and amount of working-memory load (WML) learners experience while studying instructional materials. Optimal learning conditions are characterized by providing challenges for learners without inducing cognitive over- or underload. Thus, presenting instruction in a way that WML is constantly held within an optimal range with regard to learners' working-memory capacity might be a good method to provide these optimal conditions. The current paper elaborates how digital learning environments, which achieve this goal can be developed by combining approaches from Cognitive Psychology, Neuroscience, and Computer Science. One of the biggest obstacles that needs to be overcome is the lack of an unobtrusive method of continuously assessing learners' WML in real-time. We propose to solve this problem by applying passive Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) approaches to realistic learning scenarios in digital environments. In this paper we discuss the methodological and theoretical prospects and pitfalls of this approach based on results from the literature and from our own research. We present a strategy on how several inherent challenges of applying BCIs to WML and learning can be met by refining the psychological constructs behind WML, by exploring their neural signatures, by using these insights for sophisticated task designs, and by optimizing algorithms for analyzing electroencephalography (EEG) data. Based on this strategy we applied machine-learning algorithms for cross-task classifications of different levels of WML to tasks that involve studying realistic instructional materials. We obtained very promising results that yield several recommendations for future work. PMID:25538544

  11. Cognitive state monitoring and the design of adaptive instruction in digital environments: lessons learned from cognitive workload assessment using a passive brain-computer interface approach.

    PubMed

    Gerjets, Peter; Walter, Carina; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Bogdan, Martin; Zander, Thorsten O

    2014-01-01

    According to Cognitive Load Theory (CLT), one of the crucial factors for successful learning is the type and amount of working-memory load (WML) learners experience while studying instructional materials. Optimal learning conditions are characterized by providing challenges for learners without inducing cognitive over- or underload. Thus, presenting instruction in a way that WML is constantly held within an optimal range with regard to learners' working-memory capacity might be a good method to provide these optimal conditions. The current paper elaborates how digital learning environments, which achieve this goal can be developed by combining approaches from Cognitive Psychology, Neuroscience, and Computer Science. One of the biggest obstacles that needs to be overcome is the lack of an unobtrusive method of continuously assessing learners' WML in real-time. We propose to solve this problem by applying passive Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) approaches to realistic learning scenarios in digital environments. In this paper we discuss the methodological and theoretical prospects and pitfalls of this approach based on results from the literature and from our own research. We present a strategy on how several inherent challenges of applying BCIs to WML and learning can be met by refining the psychological constructs behind WML, by exploring their neural signatures, by using these insights for sophisticated task designs, and by optimizing algorithms for analyzing electroencephalography (EEG) data. Based on this strategy we applied machine-learning algorithms for cross-task classifications of different levels of WML to tasks that involve studying realistic instructional materials. We obtained very promising results that yield several recommendations for future work. PMID:25538544

  12. State Articulated Instructional Objectives Guide for Occupational Education Programs. State Pilot Model for Automotive Mechanics (DCC V-003) and Automotive Mechanics (High School).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    This articulation instructional objective guide for automotive mechanics contains summary information on fifteen blocks (courses) of instruction. They are introduction to automotive technology; lubrication and vehicle operating maintenance; cooling system maintenance and repair; automobile heater maintenance and repair; braking system maintenanceā€¦

  13. Is Inquiry Possible in Light of Accountability?: A Quantitative Comparison of the Relative Effectiveness of Guided Inquiry and Verification Laboratory Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Margaret R.; Southerland, Sherry A.; Osborne, Jason W.; Sampson, Victor D.; Annetta, Leonard A.; Granger, Ellen M.

    2010-01-01

    In this quantitative study, we compare the efficacy of Level 2, guided inquiry-based instruction to more traditional, verification laboratory instruction in supporting student performance on a standardized measure of knowledge of content, procedure, and nature of science. Our sample included 1,700 students placed in the classrooms of 12 middle…

  14. Teacher mediation of student learning in an inclusive group during guided inquiry science instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutter, Jane Norton

    Students with learning disabilities are increasingly educated in the general classroom. However, many students identified with LD do poorly in school as measured by statewide assessments and high school graduation rates. One possible explanation for such students' challenges in the general education setting is that many general educators do not feel prepared to teach students with LD. In the context of the movement for standards-based subject instruction in the disciplines, educators need to better understand instructional practices that support the learning of students with LD in standards-based content area classes. This is a close study of interactions among an inclusive small group of 3rd and 4th grade students and their teacher during a Guided Inquiry program of study on Motion. The group included two students identified with Learning Disabilities. The discourse analysis focuses on the pedagogical discourse moves of the teacher, an exemplary inclusive general educator. Descriptive analyses include a content analysis for broad themes of Science, Literacy, Social Dynamics and Procedures, as well as a more detailed analysis of Science Concepts and Reasoning as expressed in the talk. Findings for these analyses represent themes and science concepts as proportions of the talk. The study also identifies relationships between teacher pedagogical discourse moves and talk about science concepts about Motion and reasoning. These relationships are illustrated and further analyzed with brief examples from the transcripts. A secondary level of analysis proposes links between teacher practices and student learning as measured by pre and post assessments and student interviews. To identify these possible links, instances of student learning were located by comparing pre and post assessments for each group member. Those learning themes were then tracked to the transcripts and analyzed for instances of student take up of new ideas. Teacher moves supporting the enactment of the investigation were also analyzed, even if such moves did not directly contribute to conceptual development. Examples of such moves were found in the themes of Literacy, Social Dynamics and Science Procedures. The case of one group member traces his development of the understanding that speed is a relationship between distance and time.

  15. The Effects of Integrated Social and Cognitive Strategy Instruction on the Mathematics Achievement in Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoek, Dirk; van den Eeden, Pieter; Terwel, Jan

    1999-01-01

    Studied general and differential effects of an experimental mathematics program on student achievement in secondary education. Participants were Dutch seventh graders, 222 in the experimental program and 222 in a control group. Results suggest that lower-achieving students can benefit from strategy instruction as long as the instruction is not too…

  16. Content and Instructional Analysis for Cognitive Transfer Tasks. Working Paper Number 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, M. David

    1972-01-01

    Five assumptions underlie task analysis procedures in instructional development in higher education. These are: 1) content and instructional strategy are independent; 2) most courses involve two types of content--concepts and operations; 3) two levels of abstraction are involved--generalities and instances; 4) four levels of behavior are most…

  17. Cognition and Instruction: Recent Theories of Human Competence and How It Is Acquired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Lauren B.

    This paper outlines the current state of knowledge about how intellectual competence is acquired. Implications resulting from recent changes in the psychology of learning and development are beginning to revitalize the science of learning and instruction. Four broad topics illustrate the links between instructional experiments, fundamental…

  18. Screen-Capture Instructional Technology: A Cognitive Tool for Designing a Blended Multimedia Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jeffrey G.; Smith, Rita L.

    2012-01-01

    Online instruction has been demonstrated to increase the academic achievement for post-secondary students; however, little empirical investigation has been conducted on high school students learning from online multimedia instruction in the traditional classroom. This study investigated the knowledge acquisition, transfer, and favorability of…

  19. Screen-Capture Instructional Technology: A Cognitive Tool for Designing a Blended Multimedia Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jeffrey G.; Smith, Rita L.

    2012-01-01

    Online instruction has been demonstrated to increase the academic achievement for post-secondary students; however, little empirical investigation has been conducted on high school students learning from online multimedia instruction in the traditional classroom. This study investigated the knowledge acquisition, transfer, and favorability ofā€¦

  20. Guided-inquiry based laboratory instruction: Investigation of critical thinking skills, problem solving skills, and implementing student roles in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Tanya

    Recent initiatives in the laboratory curriculum have encouraged an inquiry-based approach to learning and teaching in the laboratory. It has been argued that laboratory instruction should not just be hands-on, but it should portray the essence of inquiry through the process of experiential learning and reflective engagement in collaboration with peers and in facilitation by the instructor. A student-centered active learning approach may be an effective way to enhance student understanding of concepts in the laboratory. The dissertation research work explores the impact of laboratory instruction and its relevance for college-level chemistry. Each chapter is different from the preceding chapter in terms of the purpose of the study and the research questions asked. However, the overarching idea is to address the importance of guided-inquiry based laboratory instruction in chemistry and its relevance in helping students to make connections with the chemistry content and in imparting skills to students. Such skills include problem solving, collaborative group work and critical thinking. The first research study (Chapter 2) concerns the impact of first year co-requisite general chemistry laboratory instruction on the problem-solving skills of students. The second research study (Chapter 3) examines the impact of implementing student roles also known as Student-Led Instructor Facilitated Guided-Inquiry based Laboratories, SLIFGIL) by modifying the Science Writing Heuristic approach of laboratory instruction. In the third research study (Chapter 4), critical thinking skills of first semester general chemistry laboratory students were compared to advanced (third or fourth year) chemistry laboratory students based on the analysis of their laboratory reports.

  1. Guide d'enseignement: Art dramatique, Secondaire, Deuxieme cycle (Instructional Guide: Theater Arts, Secondary Schools, Second Cycle).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    Intended to aid teachers in charge of implementing drama programs, this guide (in French) is to be employed in conjunction with the "1992 Second Cycle Secondary Drama Program of Studies" (Alberta, Canada). The guide's sections are as follows: (1) Introduction; (2) L'Adolescent; (3) Securite (discussing both emotional and physical safety); (4)…

  2. New Instructional Materials on Africa South of the Sahara (1969-1970). A Supplement to Africa South of the Sahara: A Resource and Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Barry K.

    This guide cites instructional materials on Africa south of the Sahara which have become available since February 1969. Acknowledging the probability of inaccuracies in the majority of the materials cited, the guide neither evaluates nor promotes items, but simply presents annotations of readings, textbooks, fact sheets, atlases, African…

  3. Questions, Instructions, and Modes of Listening in the Joint Production of Guided Action: A Study of Student-Teacher Collaboration in Handicraft Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrom, Anna; Lindwall, Oskar; Saljo, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This article concerns a central issue in education as an institutional activity: instructions and their role in guiding student activities and understanding. In the study, we investigate the tensions between specifics and generalities in the joint production of guided action. This issue is explored in the context of handicraft education--or more…

  4. Questions, Instructions, and Modes of Listening in the Joint Production of Guided Action: A Study of Student-Teacher Collaboration in Handicraft Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrom, Anna; Lindwall, Oskar; Saljo, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This article concerns a central issue in education as an institutional activity: instructions and their role in guiding student activities and understanding. In the study, we investigate the tensions between specifics and generalities in the joint production of guided action. This issue is explored in the context of handicraft education--or moreā€¦

  5. Learning about Seasons in a Technologically Enhanced Environment: The Impact of Teacher-Guided and Student-Centered Instructional Approaches on the Process of Students' Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2008-01-01

    To explore the ways in which teacher-guided and student-centered instructional approaches influence students' conceptual understanding of seasonal change, we designed a technology-enhanced learning (TEL) course to compare, by means of concept maps, the learning outcome of students in two groups: a teacher-guided (TG) class (with whole-class…

  6. Problem-Based Learning Is Compatible with Human Cognitive Architecture: Commentary on Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Henk G.; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006) suggest that unguided or minimally guided instructional approaches are less effective and efficient for novices than guided instructional approaches because they ignore the structures that constitute human cognitive architecture. While we concur with the authors on this point, we do not agree to their equation…

  7. Evaluation of Multimedia Authoring Instruction Based in a Behaviorist-Cognitive-Constructivist Continuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Annette C.

    1998-01-01

    This evaluative case study examines the learning experiences of graduate students studying effective multimedia authoring. Continuum-based instructional design, behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, collaboration, the role of a matrix, transfer of training, and qualitative and quantitative results are discussed. (LRW)

  8. Designing Instruction and Learning for Cognitively Gifted Pupils in Preschool and Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooij, Ton

    2013-01-01

    Young gifted children perform in the top 10% in assessments of cognitive, social, expressive or other abilities. The study first considers why, and how, cognitively gifted pupils in particular may face enforced underachievement as early as in preschool. A longitudinal multilevel model is developed to represent various types of interaction between…

  9. Enhancing Instructional Efficiency of Interactive E-Learning Environments: A Cognitive Load Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyuga, Slava

    2007-01-01

    This concluding paper summarizes the main points and recommendations of the previous papers in this Special issue within a conceptual framework of cognitive load theory. Design of efficient interactive learning environments should take into account main features and limitations of our cognitive architecture. The paper provides a brief overview of…

  10. Cognitive Ability, Thinking Dispositions, and Instructional Set as Predictors of Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Robyn; Stanovich, Keith E.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the predictors of belief bias in a formal reasoning paradigm (a syllogistic reasoning task) and myside bias in two informal reasoning paradigms (an argument generation task and an experiment evaluation task). Neither cognitive ability nor thinking dispositions predicted myside bias, but both cognitive ability and thinking…

  11. The impact of cognitive strategy instruction on deaf learners: an international comparative study.

    PubMed

    Martin, D S; Craft, A; Sheng, Z N

    2001-10-01

    Teacher cohorts in England and China received special training in techniques for teaching higher-level critical and creative cognitive strategies to deaf learners. Both cohorts implemented the strategies in the classroom at least twice weekly for 6 months. Measures included Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (1959), a systematic observation checklist for cognitive behaviors (Martin & Craft, 1998), and critical and creative problem situations to which students had to respond. Results were compared with those from a study of similar learners in the United States (Martin & Jonas, 1985), and little difference was found. Students in all three countries improved in reasoning, devising real-world problem solutions involving critical thinking (but not creative thinking), using cognitive vocabulary in the classroom, and expressing others' viewpoints. Postintervention focus groups showed teachers in China used a more invariant sequence in teaching the cognitive strategies, but teachers in all three countries experienced similar expansion in cognitive terminology and self-perceptions as teachers of problem solving. PMID:11816861

  12. Reading Success for All Students: Using Formative Assessment to Guide Instruction and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunning, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    This vital resource offers classroom teachers and literacy coaches practical assessments that can be used to evaluate key areas in students' reading performance. These assessments will provide information that can be directly used for planning instruction. Specific instructional techniques and activities are linked to each of the assessments soā€¦

  13. The Landlord's and Tenant's Guide. Teachers Instructional Packet, TIP No. 10, Spring 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Real Estate Research Center.

    Part of a series of classroom aids designed for real estate instructors, this instructional packet was designed to give real estate students a balanced view of the landlord-tenant relationship in Texas. Following an evaluation form for the instructional packet, a summary presentation explores the topic, explains the rules that govern and the…

  14. The ABE/AMH Manual. An Instructional Guide for ABE Programs Serving Mentally Handicapped Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Scott C.; Edgar, S. Keith

    This handbook provides adult basic education teachers with instructional materials for working with adult mentally handicapped students. Section 1 examines planning programs for adult mentally retarded students (getting started, specific considerations, various kinds of program sites) and implementing instruction (staff selection and training).ā€¦

  15. Using Fluid Inclusions to Bring Phase Diagrams to Life in a Guided Inquiry Instructional Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farver, J. R.; Onasch, C.

    2011-12-01

    A fundamental concept in mineralogy, petrology, and geochemistry is the generation and interpretation of phase diagrams for various systems. We have developed an exercise to strengthen student's familiarity with and confidence in employing phase diagrams by using fluid inclusions. The activity follows the 5Es (Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Extension, Evaluation) guided inquiry instructional model in order to best facilitate student learning. The exercise follows an activity adapted from Brady (1992) wherein students collect data to generate the phase diagram for the Ice-Water-NaCl system. The engagement activity involves using a USGS-type fluid inclusion heating-cooling stage with a camera and projection system. We typically employ either a doubly-polished quartz sample or a cleaved section of fluorite and select a typical two phase (L + V) aqueous inclusion. Students first observe the inclusion at room temperature and pressure and are asked to predict what would happen if the sample is heated. Students then watch as the sample is heated to its homogenization temperature (Th) and are asked to explain what they see. The sample is then cooled until completely frozen and then slowly warmed until the first ice melting (at the eutectic, Te) and then until all ice melts (Tm). Again, students are asked to explain what they see and, if necessary, they are guided to remember the earlier phase diagram activity. The process is then repeated while students follow along the appropriate phase diagrams. In this fashion, students literally see the changes in phases present and their relative abundances as they move through the phase diagram. The engagement activity generates student interest in the exercise to insure minds-on as well as hands-on exploration. The exploration activities involve students observing and describing a wide range of fluid inclusion types (e.g., CO2, daughter crystals, multiple inclusion trails, etc) and hands-on collection of Th and Tm data for a selected sample. Using a fluorite sample (Denton Mine) yields excellent results and a meaningful extension activity. Each student collects Th and Tm data that are then combined and class histograms are generated and interpreted. At this point, a general explanation of fluid inclusions is provided to bring together the student's observations and to assess their understanding. The extension activity involves using the Th, Te, and Tm data obtained for primary inclusions to constrain the true trapping temperature (Tt). The isochore is calculated and plotted on a P-T plot. Using the geothermal gradient for the sample locale, students calculate the hydrostatic and lithostatic gradients for the region and plot these on the P-T diagram in order to constrain the possible range in Tt. Finally, based upon the salinity and Tt range, students determine what ore fluid type is represented (MVT). The evaluation includes observation of participation, answers to questions posed during the engagement activity, and a written report that includes answers to refining and open-ended questions as well as a reflection on their learning. This activity strengthens student's understanding of phase diagrams while introducing them to the importance of fluids in the crust.

  16. Instructing occupational therapy students in use of theory to guide practice.

    PubMed

    Ikiugu, Moses N; Smallfield, Stacy

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of instructing students in occupational therapy practice models to facilitate their competence in applying theory in clinical practice. Course evaluation data were gathered and analyzed retrospectively. We found that perceived understanding of theory and its application improved significantly after instruction. The students' perceived competence in theory use predicted their level of confidence in their assessment and intervention skills. We concluded that emphasis on instruction of students in the use of occupational therapy practice models could be a viable method of improving practice through consistent use of theoretical guidelines in clinical reasoning. PMID:25821888

  17. Components Analysis of Cognitive Strategy Instruction: Effects on Learning Disabled Students' Compositions and Self-Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Steve; Harris, Karen R.

    1989-01-01

    The viability of self-instructional strategy training was investigated in a study involving 22 learning disabled and 11 normal fifth and sixth graders. Training produced meaningful and lasting effects on composition skills and heightened the sense of self-efficacy of subjects. (TJH)

  18. Changes in the Cognitive Complexity of English Instruction: The Moderating Effects of School and Classroom Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polikoff, Morgan S.; Struthers, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: A central aim of standards-based reform is to close achievement gaps by raising academic standards for all students. Rigorous standards coupled with aligned assessments will purportedly improve student opportunity to learn through high-quality, aligned instruction. After 10 years of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), the impact of…

  19. Comparative Cognitive Task Analyses of Experimental Science and Instructional Laboratory Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieman, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate instructional labs in physics generate intense opinions. Their advocates are passionate as to their importance for teaching physics as an experimental activity and providing "hands-on" learning experiences, while their detractors (often but not entirely students) offer harsh criticisms that they are pointless, confusing andā€¦

  20. Mediating Complex Texts in the Upper Grades: Considering Motivation, Instructional Intensity, and Cognitive Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford-Connors, Evelyn; Dougherty, Susan; Robertson, Dana A.; Paratore, Jeanne R.

    2015-01-01

    Rising expectations for middle grade students to independently read and comprehend complex, discipline-specific texts have also raised expectations for the ways teachers will teach. Helping all students, despite assessed reading levels, to access grade level texts calls for instructional approaches that not only meet readers where they are, but…

  1. Comparative Cognitive Task Analyses of Experimental Science and Instructional Laboratory Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieman, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate instructional labs in physics generate intense opinions. Their advocates are passionate as to their importance for teaching physics as an experimental activity and providing "hands-on" learning experiences, while their detractors (often but not entirely students) offer harsh criticisms that they are pointless, confusing and…

  2. How Mathematicians Obtain Conviction: Implications for Mathematics Instruction and Research on Epistemic Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Inglis, Matthew; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The received view of mathematical practice is that mathematicians gain certainty in mathematical assertions by deductive evidence rather than empirical or authoritarian evidence. This assumption has influenced mathematics instruction where students are expected to justify assertions with deductive arguments rather than by checking the assertion…

  3. When Language of Instruction and Language of Application Differ: Cognitive Costs of Bilingual Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saalbach, Henrik; Eckstein, Doris; Andri, Nicoletta; Hobi, Reto; Grabner, Roland H.

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual education programs implicitly assume that the acquired knowledge is represented in a language-independent way. This assumption, however, stands in strong contrast to research findings showing that information may be represented in a way closely tied to the specific language of instruction and learning. The present study aims to examine…

  4. Self-Instructional Stragety Training: A Cognitive Prothesis for the Aged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meichenbaum, D.

    1974-01-01

    Proposes a self-instructional strategy training paradigm designed to explicitly teach that the use of heuristic processes and mediational devices can be employed to compensate for age-associated deficits, such as poor problem solving. Format for the procedure was derived from the developmental research of the Soviet psychologists Vygotsky andā€¦

  5. Digitized Speech as Feedback on Cognitive Aspects of Psychomotor Performance during Computer-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, James Chin-yun

    Computer-based instruction opens new avenues for increasing the variety of possible feedback strategies that a teacher may employ to optimize learner performance. Feedback effectiveness is influenced by the nature of learning task and student ability. This study investigates the effects of digitized feedback and ability on the achievement of…

  6. Learner's Guide: Water Quality Monitoring. An Instructional Guide for the Two-Year Water Quality Monitoring Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Richard B.; And Others

    This learner's guide is designed to meet the training needs for technicians involved in monitoring activities related to the Federal Water Pollution Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act. In addition it will assist technicians in learning how to perform process control laboratory procedures for drinking water and wastewater treatment plantā€¦

  7. Learner's Guide: Water Quality Monitoring. An Instructional Guide for the Two-Year Water Quality Monitoring Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Richard B.; And Others

    This learner's guide is designed to meet the training needs for technicians involved in monitoring activities related to the Federal Water Pollution Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act. In addition it will assist technicians in learning how to perform process control laboratory procedures for drinking water and wastewater treatment plant…

  8. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women with Binge Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation…

  9. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women with Binge Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptationā€¦

  10. Exploring the Impact of Prior Knowledge and Appropriate Feedback on Students' Perceived Cognitive Load and Learning Outcomes: Animation-Based Earthquakes Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Tseng, Kuan-Yun; Cho, Chung-Wen; Barufaldi, James P.; Lin, Mei-Shin; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an animation-based curriculum and to evaluate the effectiveness of animation-based instruction; the report involved the assessment of prior knowledge and the appropriate feedback approach, for the purpose of reducing perceived cognitive load and improving learning. The curriculum was comprised of five subunits…

  11. The Effects of Part-Task and Whole-Task Instructional Approaches on Acquisition and Transfer of a Complex Cognitive Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Jung; Reiser, Robert A.; Olina, Zane

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of two instructional approaches (whole-task versus part-task) and two levels of learner prior knowledge (lower versus higher) on learner acquisition and transfer of a complex cognitive skill. Participants were 51 undergraduate pre-service teachers. In the part-task condition, a complex skill…

  12. Content Analysis of Taiwanese 14 Year Olds' Information Processing Operations Shown in Cognitive Structures Following Physics Instruction, with Relations to Science Attainment and Scientific Epistemological Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    1999-01-01

    Describes a study of Taiwanese 14-year-olds' (n=48) cognitive structures derived from the instruction of basic atomic physics. Finds that even academically above-average students tended to use relatively lower-level modes of knowledge construction, focusing on reciting or describing specific factual knowledge in physics. (Contains 27 references.)…

  13. An Attempt towards Learner Autonomy in L2 (English) an L3 (Arabic) Reading through Cognitive and Metacognitive Reading Strategy Instruction (CMRSI) in L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talebi, Seyed Hassan

    2009-01-01

    This experimental study was intended to raise learner autonomy among Iranian native speakers of Persian in their L2 (English) and L3 (Arabic) reading comprehension through cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies instruction (CMRSI). The subjects of the study were divided into intermediate and advanced English language proficiency levels and…

  14. Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (Project CALLA), Community School District 2 Special Alternative Instruction Program. Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Joanne

    Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (Project CALLA) was a federally funded program serving 960 limited-English-proficient students in 10 Manhattan (New York) elementary schools in 1992-93 its third year of operation. The project provided instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), mathematics, science, and social studies in…

  15. Exploring the Impact of Prior Knowledge and Appropriate Feedback on Students' Perceived Cognitive Load and Learning Outcomes: Animation-Based Earthquakes Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Tseng, Kuan-Yun; Cho, Chung-Wen; Barufaldi, James P.; Lin, Mei-Shin; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an animation-based curriculum and to evaluate the effectiveness of animation-based instruction; the report involved the assessment of prior knowledge and the appropriate feedback approach, for the purpose of reducing perceived cognitive load and improving learning. The curriculum was comprised of five subunitsā€¦

  16. The Effect of Learners' Field Independence, Cognitive Strategy Instruction, and Inherent Word-List Organization on Free-Recall Memory and Strategy Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Bernard M.; Keene, Delane

    1993-01-01

    Free-recall memory performance of and spontaneous strategy use by 227 field-dependent and field-independent undergraduates were investigated by means of memorized word lists that were high or low in inherent organization and when cognitive strategy instruction was provided or withheld. Results are consistent with current views of field-dependence…

  17. The Impact of Modified Multi-Component Cognitive Strategy Instruction in the Acquisition of Metacognitive Strategy Knowledge in the Text Comprehension Process of Students with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doganay Bilgi, Arzu; Ozmen, E. Ruya

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of Modified Multi-component Cognitive Strategy Instruction on the metacognitive strategy knowledge used for the comprehension process of descriptive texts for students with mild mental retardation (MMR). Three students with MMR from inclusive classes participated in the study. The study was…

  18. The Guided Reading Kidstation Model: Making Instruction Meaningful for the Whole Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guastello, E. Francine; Lenz, Claire R.

    2007-01-01

    This book will help teachers address how to manage guided reading groups with the Guided Reading Kidstation Model, a model that focuses on meeting students' diverse needs and ensuring student accountability. Activities within the model are based on the Standards for the English Language Arts and are appropriate for use with the variety of students…

  19. Indian River County Environmental Education Instructional Guide. Language Arts and Social Studies, Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    The guide is one in a series for teachers, students, and community members to help them utilize community resources in developing and teaching environmental concepts, responsibility, and problem solving. This particular guide focuses on social studies and language arts aspects of environmental education for sixth graders. Background information…

  20. The mysterious atmosphere of the Earth. ATLAS: Instruction guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This teacher's guide presents lesson plans addressing various aspects of atmospheric physics and chemistry; the interactions between land, air, and sea; air pollution; and the mechanisms of climate change. The science concepts in this guide have been designed to complement the middle school curriculum. However, many activities can be used with younger or older students.

  1. Targeted Management Tips to Enhance the Effectiveness of Tier 2, Guided Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.; Martella, Ronald C.; Lambert, M. Charles

    2015-01-01

    Guided reading is a popular approach to teaching reading in today's schools. With the increase of schools and districts implementing response-to-intervention programs, guided reading can be easily enhanced to provide additional supports for students at risk for school failure who exhibit learning and behavioral challenges. This column offers…

  2. Consumer and Homemaking Education Instruction for Homeless Families: A Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Chui L.; Svabek, William H.; Abma, Deanna; Scanlan, Sonia S.

    This study guide contains lessons on consumer and homemaking skills for homeless families to aid their transition to more secure and traditional lifestyles. Prioritized and developed based on the needs assessment of homeless families at the Salvation Army Gateway Transitional Housing in San Francisco, the 20 lessons in the guide cover topics such…

  3. Consumer and Homemaking Education Instruction for Homeless Families: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Chui L.; Svabek, William H.; Abma, Deanna; Scanlan, Sonia S.

    This guide contains lesson plans for teaching consumer and homemaking skills to homeless families to support their transition to more secure and traditional lifestyles. Prioritized and developed based on the needs assessment of homeless families at the Salvation Army Gateway Transitional Housing in San Francisco, the 20 lessons in the guide cover…

  4. Targeted Management Tips to Enhance the Effectiveness of Tier 2, Guided Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.; Martella, Ronald C.; Lambert, M. Charles

    2015-01-01

    Guided reading is a popular approach to teaching reading in today's schools. With the increase of schools and districts implementing response-to-intervention programs, guided reading can be easily enhanced to provide additional supports for students at risk for school failure who exhibit learning and behavioral challenges. This column offersā€¦

  5. Cultures of the Non-Western World. Grade 9. Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Chester School District, PA.

    This curriculum guide presents nine units for the study of world cultures in the ninth grade. The guide has been designed as one component of an ongoing comprehensive social studies program. Among the social sciences concepts which the units develop are cultural diffusion, prejudice, task specialization, urbanization, nationalism, and ethics.ā€¦

  6. The Effects of Social and Cognitive Strategies Instruction on the Mathematics Achievement in Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoek, Dirk; And Others

    Studies show that training students in the use of social and cognitive strategies contributes to learning; however, low-achieving students seem unable to benefit from such interventions. This intervention study addressed the following question: In secondary mathematics, what are the general and differential effects of training students in social…

  7. Technology, Learning and Instruction: Distributed Cognition in the Secondary English Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Mary Louise; Schieble, Melissa; Curwood, Jen Scott; Hassett, Dawnene

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse interactions between secondary students and pre-service teachers in an online environment in order to understand how their meaning-making processes embody distributed cognition. We begin by providing a theoretical review of the ways in which literacy learning is distributed across learners, objects, tools, symbols,…

  8. Striving for Disciplinary Literacy Instruction: Cognitive Tools in a World History Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Brian; Harris, Lauren McArthur

    2012-01-01

    The authors present a case study of a world history teacher's mediation of her students' world historical thinking and writing through unit-level cognitive tools. They analyze both scaffolding and disciplinary tools that the teacher constructed for her students in order to improve their world historical thinking, and the degree to which theā€¦

  9. Cognitive Strategy Instruction for Functional Mathematical Skill: Effects for Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Youjia; Morgan, Benjamin S. T.; Kaldenberg, Erica R.; Goo, Minkowan

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a three-step cognitive strategy (TIP) for calculating tip and total bill for young adults with intellectual disability. In the context of pre- and post-test nonequivalent-groups design, 10 students from a postsecondary education program for individuals with disabilities participated in the study. A teacher…

  10. Assessment of Higher Order Thinking Skills. Current Perspectives on Cognition, Learning and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraw, Gregory, Ed.; Robinson, Daniel H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This volume examines the assessment of higher order thinking skills from the perspectives of applied cognitive psychology and measurement theory. The volume considers a variety of higher order thinking skills, including problem solving, critical thinking, argumentation, decision making, creativity, metacognition, and self-regulation. Fourteenā€¦

  11. Cognitive Style and Reading: Implications from Field Dependence Research for Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy

    Of all cognitive styles, field dependence/independence (FD/I) is by far the most researched and has the greatest application potential to educational problems. Briefly stated, the FD/I dimension refers to people's ability to experience and interpret their environment in terms of a global versus analytic continuum. Field dependents are likely to…

  12. Does Instructional Format Really Matter? Cognitive Load Theory, Multimedia and Teaching English Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a quasi-experimental study on the effects of multimedia teaching and learning in English Literature--a subject which places high cognitive load on students. A large-scale study was conducted in 4 high-achieving secondary schools to examine the differences made to students' learning and performance by the use of multimedia andā€¦

  13. Comparison of Classroom Instruction versus Use of Homework Assignments on Cognitive Knowledge Acquisition in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Skip M.; McGladrey, Brian W.; Silva, Andrea; Hannon, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Fitness for Life classes, in which a primary goal is for students to acquire health-related fitness knowledge, consist of a lecture session and an activity session. Unfortunately, devoting class time to a lecture reduces the time students are engaged in physical activity (PA). A potential solution to helping students develop cognitive skills…

  14. Combined Fluency and Cognitive Strategies Instruction Improves Mathematics Achievement in Early Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Martha; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Stroud, Rena; Royer, James M.

    2011-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-eight second grade students from two states (Georgia and Massachusetts) participated in an experiment in which they were randomly assigned to either (1) a computer program designed to increase fluency in addition and subtraction, (2) a program designed to improve cognitive strategy use for addition and subtraction, (3) a…

  15. Striving for Disciplinary Literacy Instruction: Cognitive Tools in a World History Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Brian; Harris, Lauren McArthur

    2012-01-01

    The authors present a case study of a world history teacher's mediation of her students' world historical thinking and writing through unit-level cognitive tools. They analyze both scaffolding and disciplinary tools that the teacher constructed for her students in order to improve their world historical thinking, and the degree to which the…

  16. The Influence of Visual Cognitive Style when Learning from Instructional Animations and Static Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffler, Tim N.; Prechtl, Helmut; Nerdel, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    In a 2 x 2 design, we examined the role of visual cognitive style in two multimedia-based learning environments (text plus static pictures/animations). A statistically significant interaction was obtained for deeper comprehension: Highly developed visualizers (HDV) who learned with static pictures performed better than HDV who learned with…

  17. Does Instructional Format Really Matter? Cognitive Load Theory, Multimedia and Teaching English Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a quasi-experimental study on the effects of multimedia teaching and learning in English Literature--a subject which places high cognitive load on students. A large-scale study was conducted in 4 high-achieving secondary schools to examine the differences made to students' learning and performance by the use of multimedia and…

  18. Middle School Teachers' Usage of Dynamic Mathematics Learning Environments as Cognitive Instructional Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escuder, Ana

    2013-01-01

    This study described, analyzed, and compared the internal and external factors that prevented or fostered the implementation of a cognitive tool, GeoGebra, in the mathematics practices of 12 middle school teachers who had completed a master's degree program in mathematics successfully. Through the application of a case study approach as a…

  19. The Influence of Visual Cognitive Style when Learning from Instructional Animations and Static Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffler, Tim N.; Prechtl, Helmut; Nerdel, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    In a 2 x 2 design, we examined the role of visual cognitive style in two multimedia-based learning environments (text plus static pictures/animations). A statistically significant interaction was obtained for deeper comprehension: Highly developed visualizers (HDV) who learned with static pictures performed better than HDV who learned withā€¦

  20. How an Understanding of Cognition and Metacognition Translates into More Effective Writing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien-Moran, Michael; Soiferman, L. Karen

    2010-01-01

    This discussion paper investigates the pedagogical implications of the cognitive process writing model proposed by Flower and Hayes (1981). The research of Flower and Hayes (1981) provides insights into how writers go about planning, generating, and revising during the process of writing. Flower and Hayes (1981) believed that this shift in focus,…

  1. Middle School Teachers' Usage of Dynamic Mathematics Learning Environments as Cognitive Instructional Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escuder, Ana

    2013-01-01

    This study described, analyzed, and compared the internal and external factors that prevented or fostered the implementation of a cognitive tool, GeoGebra, in the mathematics practices of 12 middle school teachers who had completed a master's degree program in mathematics successfully. Through the application of a case study approach as aā€¦

  2. Assessment of Higher Order Thinking Skills. Current Perspectives on Cognition, Learning and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraw, Gregory, Ed.; Robinson, Daniel H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This volume examines the assessment of higher order thinking skills from the perspectives of applied cognitive psychology and measurement theory. The volume considers a variety of higher order thinking skills, including problem solving, critical thinking, argumentation, decision making, creativity, metacognition, and self-regulation. Fourteen…

  3. Computerized Cognitive Diagnostic Adaptive Testing: Effect on Remedial Instruction as Empirical Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.; Tatsuoka, Maurice M.

    1997-01-01

    Results of studies involving 478 junior high school students in two years using cognitive diagnoses done through computerized adaptive testing indicate that knowing students' knowledge states before remediation is effective, and that the rule-space method can diagnose these knowledge states effectively. (SLD)

  4. Student Teachers' Cognition about L2 Pronunciation Instruction: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burri, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In view of the minimal attention pronunciation teacher preparation has received in second language (L2) teacher education, this study examined the cognition (i.e. beliefs, thoughts, attitudes and knowledge) development of 15 student teachers during a postgraduate subject on pronunciation pedagogy offered at an Australian tertiary institution.…

  5. A Comparison of the Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction versus Printed Instruction on Student Learning in the Cognitive Categories of Knowledge and Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettcher, Elaine G.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the learning outcomes of 83 nursing students randomly assigned to a computer assisted instruction (CAI) group or to a group taught with printed programmed instruction (PI). Findings suggest that CAI can be as effective as more traditional instruction in teaching both factual content and application of learned material. Fourteen…

  6. Learning strategy preferences, verbal-visual cognitive styles, and multimedia preferences for continuing engineering education instructional design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baukal, Charles Edward, Jr.

    A literature search revealed very little information on how to teach working engineers, which became the motivation for this research. Effective training is important for many reasons such as preventing accidents, maximizing fuel efficiency, minimizing pollution emissions, and reducing equipment downtime. The conceptual framework for this study included the development of a new instructional design framework called the Multimedia Cone of Abstraction (MCoA). This was developed by combining Dale's Cone of Experience and Mayer's Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. An anonymous survey of 118 engineers from a single Midwestern manufacturer was conducted to determine their demographics, learning strategy preferences, verbal-visual cognitive styles, and multimedia preferences. The learning strategy preference profile and verbal-visual cognitive styles of the sample were statistically significantly different than the general population. The working engineers included more Problem Solvers and were much more visually-oriented than the general population. To study multimedia preferences, five of the seven levels in the MCoA were used. Eight types of multimedia were compared in four categories (types in parantheses): text (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), non-interactive dynamic graphics (animation and video), and interactive dynamic graphics (simulated virtual reality and real virtual reality). The first phase of the study examined multimedia preferences within a category. Participants compared multimedia types in pairs on dual screens using relative preference, rating, and ranking. Surprisingly, the more abstract multimedia (text, drawing, animation, and simulated virtual reality) were preferred in every category to the more concrete multimedia (narration, photograph, video, and real virtual reality), despite the fact that most participants had relatively little prior subject knowledge. However, the more abstract graphics were only slightly preferred to the more concrete graphics. In the second phase, the more preferred multimedia types in each category from the first phase were compared against each other using relative preference, rating, and ranking and overall rating and ranking. Drawing was the most preferred multimedia type overall, although only slightly more than animation and simulated virtual reality. Text was a distant fourth. These results suggest that instructional content for continuing engineering education should include problem solving and should be highly visual.

  7. Student Perceptions of the Classroom Environment: Actionable Feedback to Guide Core Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Peter M.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Christ, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    The impact and feasibility of using student perceptions of the classroom teaching environment as an instructional feedback tool were explored. Thirty-one teachers serving 797 middle school students collected data twice across 3 weeks using the Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teaching (REACT). Researchers randomly assigned half ofā€¦

  8. INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FOR THE FIFTH GRADE. A TEACHER GUIDE, SEMESTER II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PELIKAN, ALFRED; AND OTHERS

    INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FOR FIFTH GRADE HAS BEEN DIVIDED INTO FIVE AREAS--ART, FOREIGN LANGUAGE, MUSIC, PHYSICAL EDUCATION, AND SCIENCE. A CALENDAR IS GIVEN TO CORRELATE DATES AND SUBJECT MATTER. A PREVIEW OF THE CONTENT OF EACH LESSON IS MADE AVAILABLE, AND FOLLOWUP ACTIVITIES ARE SUGGESTED TO REINFORCE THE LEARNING. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ART…

  9. Informed Choices for Struggling Adolescent Readers: A Research-Based Guide to Instructional Programs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshler, Donald D.; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan; Biancarosa, Gina; Nair, Marnie

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive resource arms classroom teachers and administrators with information to meet today's adolescent literacy challenges. In Part I, the authors highlight research on what works with adolescent learners and discuss how to implement instructional programs to fit the unique needs of specific schools or districts. Part II presents a…

  10. INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FOR THE MIDDLE PRIMARY. A TEACHER GUIDE, SEMESTER II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DELIKAN, ALFRED; AND OTHERS

    INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION PROGRAMS FOR THE MIDDLE PRIMARY GRADES WERE DIVIDED INTO THREE AREAS--ART, MUSIC, AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION. THE MAIN OBJECTIVE OF THE ART PROGRAM WAS TO ENCOURAGE INDIVIDUAL CREATIVITY. PUPIL PARTICIPATION WAS TO TAKE PLACE AS SOON AS POSSIBLE AFTER TELECAST VIEWING. ART LESSONS USED A WINTER THEME, STUFFED PAPER FORMS,…

  11. Laboratory Manual (For Concrete Instruction Course); Instructor's Guide, Pilot Program Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Cement Association, Cleveland, OH.

    This laboratory manual, prepared for a 2-year program in junior colleges and technical institutes, is designed to accompany the instructional materials to train persons for employment as technicians in the cement and concrete industries. Included are 16 laboratory assignments for each of the following: (1) Principles of Concrete, (2) Concrete in…

  12. Environmental Design: Instructional Guide and Resource for Elementary and Secondary School Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Instructional units with suggested resources and appropriate activities for teaching environmental design to students in grades 6-12 are presented. An overview of program goals and suggested environmental awareness exercises and projects is followed by six illustrative units. The first unit (grade 6) focuses on environmental awareness andā€¦

  13. INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FOR THE FIFTH GRADE. A TEACHER GUIDE, SEMESTER II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PELIKAN, ALFRED; AND OTHERS

    INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FOR FIFTH GRADE HAS BEEN DIVIDED INTO FIVE AREAS--ART, FOREIGN LANGUAGE, MUSIC, PHYSICAL EDUCATION, AND SCIENCE. A CALENDAR IS GIVEN TO CORRELATE DATES AND SUBJECT MATTER. A PREVIEW OF THE CONTENT OF EACH LESSON IS MADE AVAILABLE, AND FOLLOWUP ACTIVITIES ARE SUGGESTED TO REINFORCE THE LEARNING. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ARTā€¦

  14. Explicitly Teaching Social Skills Schoolwide: Using a Matrix to Guide Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonsen, Brandi; Myers, Diane; Everett, Susannah; Sugai, George; Spencer, Rebecca; LaBreck, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Socially skilled students are more successful in school. Just like academic skills, social skills need to be explicitly taught. Students, including students who display at-risk behavior, benefit when social skills instruction is delivered schoolwide as part of a comprehensive intervention approach. This article presents a seven-step action…

  15. Basic River Canoeing: Complete Instructional Guide to Whitewater Canoeing. The New Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Robert E.; And Others

    From its beginnings, river canoeing in the United States has grown enormously. New equipment, materials, and techniques have advanced the capabilities of boaters. This handbook explains the techniques of whitewater canoeing, with concise instructions and clear illustrations, for a safe introduction to the sport. Oriented to the open two-personā€¦

  16. Master Planning Guide for Instructional Objectives. Colorado State Plan for the Developmentally Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Marvin L.; And Others

    Presented by the Master Planning Committee of the Colorado Department of Institutions and the Division of Developmental Disabilities is a behavior inventory of sequential skills in four areas basic to the normalization of developmentally disabled persons. Instructional objectives are listed in the following areas: physical, including perceptual…

  17. Basic River Canoeing: Complete Instructional Guide to Whitewater Canoeing. The New Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Robert E.; And Others

    From its beginnings, river canoeing in the United States has grown enormously. New equipment, materials, and techniques have advanced the capabilities of boaters. This handbook explains the techniques of whitewater canoeing, with concise instructions and clear illustrations, for a safe introduction to the sport. Oriented to the open two-person…

  18. Copyright and Instructional Technologies. A Guide to Fair Use and Permissions Procedures. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talab, R. S.

    This document examines some of the questions concerning copyright law and the educational use of equipment that can easily duplicate, store, and transmit instructional materials. It is argued that a delicate balance must be achieved between protection for copyright holders and access for educational purposes to audiovisual works, music, computer…

  19. A GUIDE FOR PREPARING COURSES OF INSTRUCTION IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IN MICHIGAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Public Instruction, Lansing. Div. of Vocational Education.

    THE MAJOR OBJECTIVES OF THIS DOCUMENT ARE TO ASSIST VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS IN DEVELOPING COURSES OF INSTRUCTION DESIGNED TO MEET THE NEEDS OF PERSONS PREPARING FOR GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT IN AGRICULTURE, AND TO HELP THOSE CURRENTLY EMPLOYED IN AGRICULTURE WHO WISH TO IMPROVE AND ADVANCE IN THEIR OCCUPATION. A CHART SHOWING A FLEXIBLE 4-YEAR…

  20. Student Perceptions of the Classroom Environment: Actionable Feedback to Guide Core Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Peter M.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Christ, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    The impact and feasibility of using student perceptions of the classroom teaching environment as an instructional feedback tool were explored. Thirty-one teachers serving 797 middle school students collected data twice across 3 weeks using the Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teaching (REACT). Researchers randomly assigned half of…

  1. INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FOR THE MIDDLE PRIMARY. A TEACHER GUIDE, SEMESTER II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DELIKAN, ALFRED; AND OTHERS

    INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION PROGRAMS FOR THE MIDDLE PRIMARY GRADES WERE DIVIDED INTO THREE AREAS--ART, MUSIC, AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION. THE MAIN OBJECTIVE OF THE ART PROGRAM WAS TO ENCOURAGE INDIVIDUAL CREATIVITY. PUPIL PARTICIPATION WAS TO TAKE PLACE AS SOON AS POSSIBLE AFTER TELECAST VIEWING. ART LESSONS USED A WINTER THEME, STUFFED PAPER FORMS,ā€¦

  2. Laboratory Instructions and Study Guide for Human Anatomy. Part Two, Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrey, Kathleen

    During the process of studying the specific course content of human anatomy, students are being educated to expand their vocabulary, learn to deal successfully with complex tasks, and use a specific way of thinking. This is the second volume in a set of laboratory instructions and study notes which are designed to accompany a lecture series inā€¦

  3. An Instructional Model for Guiding Reflection and Research in the Classroom: The Educational Situation Quality Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenech-Betoret, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present an instructional model entitled the "Modelo de Calidad de Situacion Educativa" (MCSE) and how teachers can use it to reflect and investigate in a formal educational setting. It is a theoretical framework which treat to explain the functioning of an educational setting by organizing and relating the…

  4. Differentiated Instruction Using Technology: A Guide for Middle and High School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Amy

    2005-01-01

    Like Amy Benjamin's other books, this one is easy to read and simple to implement. It demonstrates that you can manage the complexities of differentiated instruction n and save time--by using technology as you teach. It showcases classroom-tested activities and strategies which are easy to apply in your own classroom.

  5. An Instructional Model for Guiding Reflection and Research in the Classroom: The Educational Situation Quality Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenech-Betoret, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present an instructional model entitled the "Modelo de Calidad de Situacion Educativa" (MCSE) and how teachers can use it to reflect and investigate in a formal educational setting. It is a theoretical framework which treat to explain the functioning of an educational setting by organizing and relating theā€¦

  6. Guiding Preservice Teachers through the Internet and Technology Media for Science Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moutray, Carol L.; Klenner-Moore, Jayne

    In a science methods course for elementary teachers, an education professor and technical instructor collaborated to provide preservice teachers with skills to expand their knowledge of the Internet and understand its use as an instructional tool. Students learned searching techniques and how to critically evaluate web resources. Educational…

  7. Guiding Students to Develop an Understanding of Scientific Inquiry: A Science Skills Approach to Instruction and Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Elisa M.

    2014-01-01

    New approaches for teaching and assessing scientific inquiry and practices are essential for guiding students to make the informed decisions required of an increasingly complex and global society. The Science Skills approach described here guides students to develop an understanding of the experimental skills required to perform a scientific investigation. An individual teacher's investigation of the strategies and tools she designed to promote scientific inquiry in her classroom is outlined. This teacher-driven action research in the high school biology classroom presents a simple study design that allowed for reciprocal testing of two simultaneous treatments, one that aimed to guide students to use vocabulary to identify and describe different scientific practices they were using in their investigationsā€”for example, hypothesizing, data analysis, or use of controlsā€”and another that focused on scientific collaboration. A knowledge integration (KI) rubric was designed to measure how students integrated their ideas about the skills and practices necessary for scientific inquiry. KI scores revealed that student understanding of scientific inquiry increased significantly after receiving instruction and using assessment tools aimed at promoting development of specific inquiry skills. General strategies for doing classroom-based action research in a straightforward and practical way are discussed, as are implications for teaching and evaluating introductory life sciences courses at the undergraduate level. PMID:24591508

  8. Guiding Visual Attention in Decision Making--Verbal Instructions versus Flicker Cueing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual-cognitive processes play an important role in open, fast-paced, interceptive sports such as tennis, basketball, and soccer. Visual information processing has been shown to distinguish skilled from less skilled athletes. Research on the perceptual demands of sports performance has raised questions regarding athletes' visual information…

  9. Guiding Visual Attention in Decision Making--Verbal Instructions versus Flicker Cueing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual-cognitive processes play an important role in open, fast-paced, interceptive sports such as tennis, basketball, and soccer. Visual information processing has been shown to distinguish skilled from less skilled athletes. Research on the perceptual demands of sports performance has raised questions regarding athletes' visual informationā€¦

  10. Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, Vol. II, Part B. An Instructor's Guide for Use of Instructional Material in Wastewater Technology Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoakes, K. C.; And Others

    This instructor's guide, designed for use with the curriculum, Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, represents a two-year wastewater technology instructional program based on performance objectives designed to prepare undergraduate students to enter occupations in water and wastewater treatment plant operations and maintenance. Thisā€¦

  11. Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, Vol. II, Part D. An Instructor's Guide for Use of Instructional Material in Wastewater Technology Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoakes, K. C.; And Others

    This instructor's guide, designed for use with the curriculum, Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, represents a two-year wastewater technology instructional program based on performance objectives designed to prepare undergraduate students to enter occupations in water and wastewater treatment plant operations and maintenance. Thisā€¦

  12. Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, Vol. II, Part A. An Instructor's Guide for Use of Instructional Material in Wastewater Technology Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoakes, K. C.; And Others

    This instructor's guide, designed for use with the curriculum, Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, represents a two-year wastewater technology instructional program based on performance objectives designed to prepare undergraduate students to enter occupations in water and wastewater treatment plant operations and maintenance. This…

  13. Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, Vol. II, Part E. An Instructor's Guide for Use of Instructional Material in Wastewater Technology Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoakes, K. C.; And Others

    This instructor's guide, designed for use with the curriculum, Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, represents a two-year wastewater technology instructional program based on performance objectives designed to prepare undergraduate students to enter occupations in water and wastewater treatment plant operations and maintenance. This…

  14. Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Air Conditioning, Refrigeration, and Heating (Environmental Control System Installer/Servicer). Edition I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, William Edward, Jr., Ed.

    This articulation guide contains 17 units of instruction for the first year of a two-year vocational program designed to prepare the high school graduate to install, maintain, and repair various types of residential and commercial heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration equipment. The units are to introduce the student to fundamental theoriesā€¦

  15. Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, Vol. II, Part C. An Instructor's Guide for Use of Instructional Material in Wastewater Technology Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoakes, K. C.; And Others

    This instructor's guide, designed for use with the curriculum, Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, represents a two-year wastewater technology instructional program based on performance objectives designed to prepare undergraduate students to enter occupations in water and wastewater treatment plant operations and maintenance. Thisā€¦

  16. The Effects of Guided Reading Instruction on the Reading Comprehension and Reading Attitudes of Fourth-Grade At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Laquanda T.

    2010-01-01

    America's public schools have faced challenges in educating students, particularly those identified as at risk. According to the No Child Left Behind Act, nearly 70% of 4th grade students are unable to perform on a basic level on national reading tests. The research problem in this study addressed the significance of guided reading instruction

  17. The Use of Cognitive Task Analysis to Capture Expertise for Tracheal Extubation Training in Anesthesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embrey, Karen K.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive task analysis (CTA) is a knowledge elicitation technique employed for acquiring expertise from domain specialists to support the effective instruction of novices. CTA guided instruction has proven effective in improving surgical skills training for medical students and surgical residents. The standard, current method of teaching clinicalā€¦

  18. The Use of Cognitive Task Analysis to Capture Expertise for Tracheal Extubation Training in Anesthesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embrey, Karen K.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive task analysis (CTA) is a knowledge elicitation technique employed for acquiring expertise from domain specialists to support the effective instruction of novices. CTA guided instruction has proven effective in improving surgical skills training for medical students and surgical residents. The standard, current method of teaching clinical…

  19. Instructional Objectives. Occasional Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babin, Patrick

    This monograph offers concise suggestions for drawing up instructional objectives. The essential elements of a well written instructional objective are outlined and a discussion is presented on writing instructional objectives in three major domains of learning: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. It is emphasized that an instructional…

  20. Assist Program 1: The Moderately/Severely Handicapped. Teacher's Guide. ASSIST: Associate Instructional Support for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantlinger, Ellen; And Others

    The second of two documents designed for training paraprofessionals to work with moderately and severely/profoundly handicapped students, the teacher's guide presents information on preservice and inservice education. Preservice information to be read by the paraprofessional touches on the following topics (sample subtopics in parentheses):…

  1. Cold Climate Gardening and Root Cellaring in Alaska: An Instructional Guide. Agricultural Education Publication No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Shann C.; Kirts, Carla A.

    This instructor's guide contains three units for teaching gardening and root cellaring in Alaska. The units are intended to be used in long-term gardening projects so students can learn fundamental principles and techniques and apply them to a gardening situation. Each unit contains an overview that provides a basic framework for understanding the…

  2. Indian River County Environmental Education Instructional Guide. Social Studies, Grade Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    The teaching guide presents social studies activities to help ninth graders learn about environmental concepts, problems, and responsibilities. Based on the Indian River County environment in Florida, it is part of a series for teachers, students, and community members. The introduction describes the county's geography, natural resources,…

  3. WAVAI Curriculum Guide for Instruction in Wisconsin High Schools. 1975 Revision. Bulletin No. 5011.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Bureau for Career and Manpower Development.

    This guide is designed to aid the development of vocational education programs in agriculture in local school districts. Major program objectives, good learning conditions, program evaluation, suggested teaching methods, and Wisconsin's philosophy and procedures in developing occupational experience programs in vocational agriculture/agribusiness…

  4. Metal Trades Modules. Vocational Behavioral Objectives: A Guide for Individualizing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., New York, NY.

    The curriculum guide focuses on the metal trades area at the secondary level of vocational education and industrial arts. It addresses the subject in behavioral terms, as prominent components of the career education concept. Presenting two skill modules, sheetmetal working and welding, the objectives presented are designed to be compatible withā€¦

  5. Indian River County Environmental Education Instructional Guide. Social Studies, Eighth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    The teaching guide presents social studies activities for eighth graders to learn about environmental concepts, problems, and responsibilities. Part of a series for teachers, students, and community members, it is based on the Indian River County environment in Florida. The introduction identifies the county's natural resources, wildlife, and…

  6. Home Economics Education Guide for Instruction Preparatory to Entering Food Service Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond. Div. of Vocational Education.

    The teacher directed home economics education guide is planned to prepare high school students for entrance into food service occupations upon completion of high school. Course length includes two periods daily from one to three years, with on-the-job training recommended. It is recommended that students complete one or two years of a homemaking…

  7. Metal Trades Modules. Vocational Behavioral Objectives: A Guide for Individualizing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., New York, NY.

    The curriculum guide focuses on the metal trades area at the secondary level of vocational education and industrial arts. It addresses the subject in behavioral terms, as prominent components of the career education concept. Presenting two skill modules, sheetmetal working and welding, the objectives presented are designed to be compatible with…

  8. WAVAI Curriculum Guide for Instruction in Wisconsin High Schools. 1975 Revision. Bulletin No. 5011.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Bureau for Career and Manpower Development.

    This guide is designed to aid the development of vocational education programs in agriculture in local school districts. Major program objectives, good learning conditions, program evaluation, suggested teaching methods, and Wisconsin's philosophy and procedures in developing occupational experience programs in vocational agriculture/agribusinessā€¦

  9. Indian River County Environmental Education Instructional Guide. Social Studies, Seventh Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    The guide is one in a series for teachers, students, and community members to help develop and teach environmental concepts, responsibility, and problem solving. It presents concepts and activities related to environmental education for seventh grade social studies classes. Background information is based on the Indian River County environment of…

  10. Units of Instruction for Office Duplication Practices. Volume II. [Teacher's Guide]. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Fifteen units on office duplication practices are presented in this teacher's guide. The unit topics include the following: consumer mathematics, stock record control, paper characteristics and classification, immovable carriage typewriter, using the manual typewriter, written communications, clerical recordkeeping, petty cash, supplementary…

  11. Comparison of Meaning and Graphophonemic Feedback Strategies for Guided Reading Instruction of Children with Language Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouri, Theresa A.; Selle, Carrie A.; Riley, Sarah A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Guided reading is a common practice recommended for children in the early stages of literacy development. While experts agree that oral reading facilitates literacy skills, controversy exists concerning which corrective feedback strategies are most effective. The purpose of this study was to compare feedback procedures stemming from 2…

  12. Curriculum Guide for Employability Skills Training: Instructional Materials for Opening Doors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Jane; And Others

    This guide contains 21 task sheets for use in helping students develop job-hunting skills. The following employability skills are addressed in the individual task sheets: compiling a list of personal attributes, identifying a list of areas of work that will provide personal job satisfaction, determining ways of reducing levels of stress, using…

  13. Cold Climate Gardening and Root Cellaring in Alaska: An Instructional Guide. Agricultural Education Publication No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Shann C.; Kirts, Carla A.

    This instructor's guide contains three units for teaching gardening and root cellaring in Alaska. The units are intended to be used in long-term gardening projects so students can learn fundamental principles and techniques and apply them to a gardening situation. Each unit contains an overview that provides a basic framework for understanding theā€¦

  14. Building Trades Modules. Vocational Behavioral Objectives: A Guide for Individualizing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., New York, NY.

    The curriculum guide focuses on the building trades at the secondary level of education and industrial arts. It addresses the subject in behavioral terms, as prominent components of the career education concept. Presenting five skill modules, painting, carpentry, brick/stonemasonry, electrical, and plumbing/pipefitting, the objectives presentedā€¦

  15. Assist Program 2: Mildly Handicapped/Mainstreaming. Teacher's Guide. ASSIST: Associate Instructional Support for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, E. C.; And Others

    The second of two documents designed to train paraprofessionals to work with mainstreamed mildly handicapped children presents a teacher's guide approach to inservice and preservice training. The following four topics are covered in the section on preservice training (sample subtopics in parentheses): the teacher (forming a good workingā€¦

  16. Comparison of Meaning and Graphophonemic Feedback Strategies for Guided Reading Instruction of Children with Language Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouri, Theresa A.; Selle, Carrie A.; Riley, Sarah A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Guided reading is a common practice recommended for children in the early stages of literacy development. While experts agree that oral reading facilitates literacy skills, controversy exists concerning which corrective feedback strategies are most effective. The purpose of this study was to compare feedback procedures stemming from 2ā€¦

  17. Office Systems. Curriculum Guide for BEOS 621, Improvement of Instruction in Business Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Melissa; Justice, Glenna; McCane, Greg

    This curriculum guide contains the information required to present a postsecondary-level 10-week office systems course for students who have already completed 3 quarters of course work toward an office assistant diploma. The document begins with a course rationale, list of 10 suggested teaching strategies, and list of 9 course objected that are…

  18. A Planning Guide for Gifted Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malley-Crist, Justine; And Others

    Contained in the curriculum planning guide developed by the Chapel Hill Gifted-Handicapped Project are a model, a training sequence, and 17 instructional units for use with preschool gifted children. The model is explained to be based on the hierarchy of cognitive tasks developed by B. Bloom. A worksheet for teachers suggests activities to helpā€¦

  19. Short-term improvement in oral self-care of adolescents with social-cognitive theory-guided intervention.

    PubMed

    Hall-Scullin, Emma P

    2015-12-01

    DesignCluster randomised controlled trial.InterventionClusters of adolescents (classrooms of 15- to 16-year-olds) in each school were allocated either into a control group or into an intervention group. The interventions consisted of peer cooperation (peer support) and peer interactive learning (observational learning) facilitated through feedback from a dentist (professional support). Three intervention sessions with preselected pairs of adolescents were delivered in the first three weeks. Gender, family socio-economic status (baseline) and different social-cognitive domain variables (baseline, six, and 12 months) were assessed using a questionnaire.Outcome measureDental plaque levels were the primary outcome measure and they were measured at baseline, after the intervention measured only in the social-cognitive theory-guided group, at six and 12 months.ResultsAt the six-month follow-up there was a statistically significant difference in means ± SD between the social-cognitive intervention group (27.4 ± 19.4) and the control group (35.1 ± 20.0). At the 12-month follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in means ± SD between the social-cognitive intervention group (27.4 ± 18.5) and the control group (31.9 ± 17.8). Variations in dental plaque levels at different time periods were explained by the following predictors: family's socio-economic status, social-cognitive domain variables, group affiliation and baseline plaque levels.ConclusionsSocial-cognitive theory-guided interventions improved oral self-care of adolescents in the short term. This improvement lasted only for five months after the intervention was discontinued. PMID:26680519

  20. Comprehension with Instructional Media for Middle School Science: Holistic Performative Design Strategy and Cognitive Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Matthew Owen

    This study identifies three distinct levels of text-image integration in page design in a linear relationship of lesser to greater integration: prose primary, prose subsumed, and fully integrated strategies. Science textbook pages were redesigned according to these holistic design strategies for 158 7th-grade students. There were three separate treatment tests, as well as a pre-test and post-test, and pilot tests with both undergraduate students and the subjects themselves. Subjects found the fully integrated strategy to produce the most visually interesting designs and the prose primary strategy to produce the least interesting, with prose subsumed definitively in between (according to 95% confidence intervals). The strategy employed significantly altered interest in science subject matter in one of three treatments (ANOVA, P=0.0446), where a Student's t-test revealed that the prose subsumed strategy produced higher interest in subject matter than prose primary. The strategy employed significantly altered comprehension of abstract relationships in one of three treatments (ANOVA, P=0.0202), where a Student's t-test revealed that the fully integrated strategy resulted in greater comprehension than prose primary. For the same treatment condition significant differences were found through ANOVA for factual-level knowledge (P=0.0289) but not conceptual-level knowledge ( P=0.0586). For factual-level knowledge prose primary resulted in lesser comprehension than both prose subsumed and fully integrated. Comprehension is defined according to cognitive load theory. No strategy impact on perception of task difficulty was found. This study was approved by North Carolina State University's Institutional Review Board and Wake County Public School System's Research Review Committee.

  1. Impact of Cognitive-Based Instructional Intervention on Learning Motivation: The Implementation of Student-Made Glossary in a Programming-Oriented Engineering Problem-Solving Course and Its Impact on Learning Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, David Wenhao; Aagard, Hans; Diefes-Dux, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the purpose, development, and implementation of a cognitive-based instructional intervention and its impact on learning motivation. The study was conducted in a programming-based problemsolving course for first-year engineering students. The results suggest that the instructional intervention developed based on the…

  2. Coming to see objects of knowledge: Guiding student conceptualization through teacher embodied instruction in a robotics programming class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwah, Helen

    This thesis explores the questions of how a teacher guides students to see concepts, and the role of gesture and gesture viewpoints in mediating the process of guidance. To examine these questions, two sociocultural theoretical frameworks--Radford's cultural-semiotic theory of knowledge objectification (e.g., 2003), and Goldman's Points of Viewing theory (e.g., 2007)--were applied to conduct a microanalytic, explanatory case study of the instructional activity of an exemplary teacher and his students in a middle school robotics programming class. According to Radford, students acquire concepts as they draw upon semiotic resources such as language and gesture to generalize and objectify initially concrete perceptions and actions. I applied Radford's framework to explain the mediations that a teacher might enact in guiding students to objectify and see concepts. Furthermore, I focused on gesture as semiotic means because of emergent research on gesture's role in communicating the visuospatial imagery that underlies math/ scientific concepts. I extended the view of gestures to the viewpoints constructed in gesture, and applied Goldman's theory to explain how perspectives might be actively constructed and shared in the process of guiding student conceptualization. Data was collected over a semester through participant observation, field notes, teacher and student interviews, and reviews of artifacts. Multimodal microanalyses were conducted on video data from eight class sessions. The findings provide confirmations and some disconfirmations about the applicability of Radford's and Goldman's theories for explaining a teacher's process of guiding student conceptualization. Notably, some of Radford's notions about de-contextualization and symbolic generalizations were not confirmed. Overall, the findings are summarized through three themes including, grounding, and perceptual organizers as two ways that gesture and other means served to both index and identify action-perception schemes for bridging to the symbolic level of programming concepts and conceptual structures. A third theme of iteration, shifting, and layering described the quality of the teacher's process, and the importance of constructing shifting and multiple viewpoints in gesture and speech, as Goldman's theory proposed. Finally, implications for designing educational applications that draw upon gesture as mediational means are discussed.

  3. Under What Conditions Are Embedded versus Generative Cognitive Strategy Activators Effective? Two Prescriptive Models for Designing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darwazeh, Afnan N.

    In an embedded cognitive-strategy system, learners are forced to use a given cognitive strategy prepared by the instructor, designer, or researcher. In a generative cognitive-strategy system, learners are directed to generate a certain cognitive strategy activator by themselves. This is a review of experimental and theoretical studies conducted on…

  4. LIM-G: Learner-Initiating Instruction Model Based on Cognitive Knowledge for Geometry Word Problem Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Wing-Kwong; Hsu, Sheng-Cheng; Wu, Shih-Hung; Lee, Cheng-Wei; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2007-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction systems have been broadly applied to help students solve math word problem. The majority of such systems, which are based on an instructor-initiating instruction strategy, provide pre-designed problems for the learners. When learners are asked to solve a word problem, the system will instruct the learners what to do.…

  5. In search for instructional techniques to maximize the use of germane cognitive resources: A case of teaching complex tasks in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliva, Yekaterina

    The purpose of this study was to introduce an instructional technique for teaching complex tasks in physics, test its effectiveness and efficiency, and understand cognitive processes taking place in learners' minds while they are exposed to this technique. The study was based primarily on cognitive load theory (CLT). CLT determines the amount of total cognitive load imposed on a learner by a learning task as combined intrinsic (invested in comprehending task complexity) and extraneous (wasteful) cognitive load. Working memory resources associated with intrinsic cognitive load are defined as germane resources caused by element interactivity that lead to learning, in contrast to extraneous working memory resources that are devoted to dealing with extraneous cognitive load. However, the amount of learner's working memory resources actually devoted to a task depends on how well the learner is engaged in the learning environment. Since total cognitive load has to stay within limits of working memory capacity, both extraneous and intrinsic cognitive load need to be reduced. In order for effective learning to occur, the use of germane cognitive resources should be maximized. In this study, the use of germane resources was maximized for two experimental groups by providing a learning environment that combined problem-solving procedure with prompts to self-explain with and without completion problems. The study tested three hypotheses and answered two research questions. The first hypothesis predicting that experimental treatments would reduce total cognitive load was not supported. The second hypothesis predicting that experimental treatments would increase performance was supported for the self-explanation group only. The third hypothesis that tested efficiency measure as adopted from Paas and van Merrienboer (1993) was not supported. As for the research question of whether the quality of self-explanations would change with time for the two experimental conditions, it was determined that time had a positive effect on such quality. The research question that investigated learners' attitudes towards the instructions revealed that experimental groups understood the main idea behind the suggested technique and positively reacted to it. The results of the study support the conclusions that (a) prompting learners to self-explain while independently solving problems can increase performance, especially on far transfer questions; (b) better performance is achieved in combination with increased mental effort; (c) self-explanations do not increase time on task; and (d) quality of self-explanations can be improved with time. Results based on the analyses of learners' attitudes further support that learners in the experimental groups understood the main idea behind the suggested techniques and positively reacted to them. The study also raised concern about application of efficiency formula for instructional conditions that increase both performance and mental effort in CLT. As a result, an alternative model was suggested to explain the relationship between performance and mental effort based on Yerkes-Dodson law (1908). Keywords: instructional design, cognitive load, complex tasks, problem-solving, self-explanation.

  6. On Conceptualizing and Assessing Social Cognitive Constructs in Career Research: A Measurement Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Robert W.; Brown, Steven D.

    2006-01-01

    Efforts to test hypotheses derived from social cognitive theory require sound measures of the theory's constructs. Because the theory is concerned with domain-specific aspects of human functioning, it raises special measurement challenges. For example, unlike traits, which can be indexed with general, all-purpose measures, social cognitive…

  7. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women With Binge Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2013-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American womenā€™s (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation process and highlighted the importance of balancing the fidelity and cultural relevance of evidence-based treatment when disseminating it across diverse racial/ethnic groups. PMID:23645969

  8. Examining the Relationships of Different Cognitive Load Types Related to User Interface in Web-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheon, Jongpil; Grant, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a new instrument to measure cognitive load types related to user interface and demonstrates theoretical assumptions about different load types. In reconsidering established cognitive load theory, the inadequacies of the theory are criticized in terms of the adaption of learning efficiency score and distinction of cognitive loadā€¦

  9. Examining the Relationships of Different Cognitive Load Types Related to User Interface in Web-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheon, Jongpil; Grant, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a new instrument to measure cognitive load types related to user interface and demonstrates theoretical assumptions about different load types. In reconsidering established cognitive load theory, the inadequacies of the theory are criticized in terms of the adaption of learning efficiency score and distinction of cognitive load…

  10. The effects of using screencasting as a multimedia pre-training tool to manage the intrinsic cognitive load of chemical equilibrium instruction for advanced high school chemistry students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musallam, Ramsey

    Chemistry is a complex knowledge domain. Specifically, research notes that Chemical Equilibrium presents greater cognitive challenges than other topics in chemistry. Cognitive Load Theory describes the impact a subject, and the learning environment, have on working memory. Intrinsic load is the facet of Cognitive Load Theory that explains the complexity innate to complex subjects. The purpose of this study was to build on the limited research into intrinsic cognitive load, by examining the effects of using multimedia screencasts as a pre-training technique to manage the intrinsic cognitive load of chemical equilibrium instruction for advanced high school chemistry students. A convenience sample of 62 fourth-year high school students enrolled in an advanced chemistry course from a co-ed high school in urban San Francisco were given a chemical equilibrium concept pre-test. Upon conclusion of the pre-test, students were randomly assigned to two groups: pre-training and no pre-training. The pre-training group received a 10 minute and 52 second pre-training screencast that provided definitions, concepts and an overview of chemical equilibrium. After pre-training both group received the same 50-minute instructional lecture. After instruction, all students were given a chemical equilibrium concept post-test. Independent sample t-tests were conducted to examine differences in performance and intrinsic load. No significant differences in performance or intrinsic load, as measured by ratings of mental effort, were observed on the pre-test. Significant differences in performance, t(60)=3.70, p=.0005, and intrinsic load, t(60)=5.34, p=.0001, were observed on the post-test. A significant correlation between total performance scores and total mental effort ratings was also observed, r(60)=-0.44, p=.0003. Because no significant differences in prior knowledge were observed, it can be concluded that pre-training was successful at reducing intrinsic load. Moreover, a significant correlation between performance and mental effort strengthens the argument that performance measures can be used to approximate intrinsic cognitive load.

  11. Using the MATRICS to guide development of a preclinical cognitive test battery for research in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    YOUNG, Jared W; POWELL, Susan; RISBROUGH, Victoria; MARSTON, Hugh M; GEYER, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are among the core symptoms of the disease, correlate with functional outcome, and are not well treated with current antipsychotic therapies. In order to bring together academic, industrial, and governmental bodies to address this great ā€˜unmet therapeutic needā€™, the NIMH sponsored the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) initiative. Through careful factor analysis and consensus of expert opinion, MATRICS identified seven domains of cognition that are deficient in schizophrenia (attention/vigilance, working memory, reasoning and problem solving, processing speed, visual learning and memory, verbal learning and memory, and social cognition) and recommended a specific neuropsychological test battery to probe these domains. In order to move the field forward and outline an approach for translational research, there is a need for a ā€œpreclinical MATRICSā€ to develop a rodent test battery that is appropriate for drug development. In this review, we outline such an approach and review current rodent tasks that target these seven domains of cognition. The rodent tasks are discussed in terms of their validity for probing each cognitive domain as well as a brief overview of the pharmacology and manipulations relevant to schizophrenia for each task. PMID:19269307

  12. Understanding Instructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Val

    This guide is intended to help adult basic education (ABE) teachers teach their students to understand instructions in their daily lives. The 25 learning activities included all develop students' skills in the area of following directions by using basic situations drawn from everyday life. The following activities are included: sequencing pictures…

  13. Understanding Instructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Val

    This guide is intended to help adult basic education (ABE) teachers teach their students to understand instructions in their daily lives. The 25 learning activities included all develop students' skills in the area of following directions by using basic situations drawn from everyday life. The following activities are included: sequencing picturesā€¦

  14. Therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: single blind randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Erik; Mataix-Cols, David; Lichtenstein, Linn; Alstrƶm, Katarina; Andersson, Gerhard; LjĆ³tsson, BrjĆ”nn; RĆ¼ck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    ObjectivesĀ To evaluate the efficacy of therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-NET) compared with online supportive therapy. DesignĀ A 12 week single blind parallel group randomised controlled trial. SettingĀ Academic medical centre. ParticipantsĀ 94 self referred adult outpatients with a diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder and a modified Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (BDD-YBOCS) score of ā‰„20. Concurrent psychotropic drug treatment was permitted if the dose had been stable for at least two months before enrolment and remained unchanged during the trial. InterventionsĀ Participants received either BDD-NET (n=47) or supportive therapy (n=47) delivered via the internet for 12 weeks. Main outcome measuresĀ The primary outcome was the BDD-YBOCS score after treatment and follow-up (three and six months from baseline) as evaluated by a masked assessor. Responder status was defined as a ā‰„30% reduction in symptoms on the scale. Secondary outcomes were measures of depression (MADRS-S), global functioning (GAF), clinical global improvement (CGI-I), and quality of life (EQ5D). The six month follow-up time and all outcomes other than BDD-YBOCS and MADRS-S at 3 months were not pre-specified in the registration at clinicaltrials.gov because of an administrative error but were included in the original trial protocol approved by the regional ethics committee before the start of the trial. ResultsĀ BDD-NET was superior to supportive therapy and was associated with significant improvements in severity of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-YBOCS group difference āˆ’7.1 points, 95% confidence interval āˆ’9.8 to āˆ’4.4), depression (MADRS-S group difference āˆ’4.5 points, āˆ’7.5 to āˆ’1.4), and other secondary measures. At follow-up, 56% of those receiving BDD-NET were classed as responders, compared with 13% receiving supportive therapy. The number needed to treat was 2.34 (1.71 to 4.35). Self reported satisfaction was high. ConclusionsĀ CBT can be delivered safely via the internet to patients with body dysmorphic disorder. BDD-NET has the potential to increase access to evidence based psychiatric care for this mental disorder, in line with NICE priority recommendations. It could be particularly useful in a stepped care approach, in which general practitioner or other mental health professionals can offer treatment to people with mild to moderate symptoms at low risk of suicide. Trial registrationĀ ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02010619. PMID:26837684

  15. Guides to Special Education in North Dakota. VII, Individual Instruction Programs for Children Who are Homebound or Hospitalized (Including Supplementary Instruction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaltz, Janet M.

    Information on individual instruction for children who are homebound or hospitalized and in need of supplementary programs is defined as applied in North Dakota. The organization of the program, eligibility of pupils served, referral procedures, the responsibility of the local school administrator, the responsibility of the department of public…

  16. Instructional Rounds in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, John E.

    2012-01-01

    "Instructional Rounds in Action" is an invaluable guide for those involved in implementing instructional rounds as the foundation and framework for systemic improvement in schools. Over the past few years, districts across the United States, Canada, and Australia have begun implementing "instructional rounds," a set of ideas and practices for…

  17. Questions in Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usova, George M.; Casteen, Dennis

    This guide for the instructional development team provides an understanding of the educational value of using questions in instructional training materials. It also shows examples and illustrations for incorporating questions into instructional materials (print and video) produced by the Shipyard Training Modernization Program. Background…

  18. Effects of Explicit Instruction in Cognitive and Metacognitive Reading Strategies on Iranian EFL Students' Reading Performance and Strategy Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghaie, Reza; Zhang, Lawrence Jun

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the impact of explicit teaching of reading strategies on English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students' reading performance in Iran. The study employed a questionnaire adapted from Chamot and O'Malley's (1994) cognitive and metacognitive strategies framework. To test the effects of explicit teaching of cognitive and…

  19. Distributed Cognition Minicourse: An Instructional Intervention to Improve the Effectiveness of One-Day Environmental Education Camps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broyles, Iris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a distributed cognition hybrid minicourse in increasing a 1-day camp's ability to effect long-term knowledge retention and pro-environment attitudes and behaviors in sixth graders. The preevent-postevent minicourse was designed to reduce cognitive overload generated by an intense immersion into the…

  20. Strategies for Affecting the Necessary Course of Cognitive Growth as an Integral Part of Curricular and Instructional Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Robert N.; Rowlands, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the public awareness that there presently exists a crisis in mathematics education and a "dumbing down" of the curriculum, examines the nature of this crisis and argues that there has been a lowering of cultural, pedagogical and cognitive expectations with respect to most learners. The notion of cognitive development in…