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Sample records for coherent co2 dial

  1. 2-Micron Laser Transmitter for Coherent CO2 DIAL Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been recognized as one of the most important greenhouse gases. It is essential for the study of global warming to accurately measure the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and continuously record its variation. A high repetition rate, highly efficient, Q-switched 2-micron laser system as the transmitter of a coherent differential absorption lidar for CO2 measurement has been developed in NASA Langley Research Center. This laser system is capable of making a vertical profiling of CO2 from ground and column measurement of CO2 from air and space-borne platform. The transmitter is a master-slave laser system. The master laser operates in a single frequency, either on-line or off-line of a selected CO2 absorption line. The slave laser is a Q-switched ring-cavity Ho:YLF laser which is pumped by a Tm:fiber laser. The repetition rate can be adjusted from a few hundred Hz to 10 kHz. The injection seeding success rate is from 99.4% to 99.95%. For 1 kHz operation, the output pulse energy is 5.5mJ with the pulse length of 50 ns. The optical-to-optical efficiency is 39% when the pump power is 14.5W. A Ho:YLF laser operating in the range of 2.05 micrometers can be tuned over several characteristic lines of CO2 absorption. Experimentally, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser has been successfully used as the transmitter of coherent differential absorption lidar for the measurement of CO2 with a repetition rate of 5 Hz and pulse energy of 75 mJ. For coherent detection, high repetition rate is required for speckle averaging to obtain highly precise measurements. However, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser can not operate in high repetition rate due to the large heat loading and up-conversion. A Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF laser with low heat loading can operate in high repetition rate. A theoretical model has been established to simulate the performance of Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF lasers. For continuous wave (CW) operation, high pump intensity with small beam

  2. Comparison of performance capabilities of spread spectrum coherent and direct detection CO2 DIAL systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, Victor H.; Kovacs, Mark A.

    2002-02-01

    This paper compares the performance of a conventional direct detection CO2 Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system with the coherent spread spectrum approach developed and patented by Textron. The analysis shows that the coherent approach is far superior in terms of maximum attainable standoff range at a specified transmitter average power and substantially reduced system power and associated size and weight at a predetermined range. The requirements on local oscillator stability are fairly relaxed and the spread spectrum/coherent DIAL concept is fairly easy to implement. Some comparative validation data are provided.

  3. A pulsed, high repetition rate 2-micron laser transmitter for coherent CO2 DIAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Bai, Y.; Petzar, P.; Petros, M.; Chen, S.; Trieu, B.; Koch, G. J.; Kavaya, M. J.; Singh, U. N.

    2009-12-01

    A Holmium solid-state 2-µm pulsed laser, end-pumped by a Thulium fiber laser, is being developed for coherent CO2 Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL). It combines the advantages of high efficient fiber laser technology with the mature high energy solid state laser technology to produce desired energy levels at a high repetition rate. To obtain high beam quality that is required by coherent detection technique, the effect of “spatial hole burning” in the laser gain medium must be prevented. This is achieved by the use of ring cavity configuration in which the laser light is forced to travel in one direction, so that no standing waves are formed. The pump beam and laser beam are mode-matched in the laser crystals to improve the laser efficiency. At the pumping power of 13.25W, optical-to-optical efficiency of 52% was obtained with the pulse repetition rate of 1.25 kHz, which gives the energy per pulse of ~5.5mJ. The pulse energy can be scaled by increasing the pump power or by reducing the pulse repetition rate. The pulse length of this laser is at ~50ns. The wavelengths of the Ho pulse laser are tunable over several characteristic absorption lines of CO2. The exact wavelengths of the Ho pulse laser are controlled by well-controlled continuous wave (CW) seed lasers to provide the required sequential, on-and-off line wavelength pulses for DIAL applications. Three CW lasers were used to provide the accurate on-and-off wavelengths. The first CW laser is locked to the center of a characteristic CO2 absorption line through a CO2 cell by the frequency modulation technique. The frequency of the second CW laser was shifted related to the first CW laser by a few GHz to the wing of the CO2 absorption line, and used as the on-line frequency of the CO2 DIAL. This frequency shift is necessary to obtain a better weighting function for the CO2 measurement. The standard deviation of the CW on-line frequency can be controlled within 250 KHz. The third CW laser provides the off

  4. 2-μm Ho emitter-based coherent DIAL for CO(2) profiling in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Gibert, F; Edouart, D; Cénac, C; Le Mounier, F; Dumas, A

    2015-07-01

    We report on the use of a thulium-fiber-pumped holmium-based emitter in a coherent differential absorption lidar (CDIAL) experiment for high time and space resolution of CO(2) absorption field in the atmosphere. The 2-μm high-power dual-wavelength single-mode Q-switched Ho:YLF oscillator delivers 10-mJ pulses with a duration of 40 ns at 2 kHz. Both short pulse duration and high repetition rate were chosen to increase the DIAL precision and time and space resolution in coherent detection. The CDIAL provides 150-m range and 15-min time-resolved CO(2) absorption coefficient with a calculated instrumental error of 0.5% at 500 m and less than 2% at 1 km. Dry-air CO(2) mixing ratio estimates from the DIAL system are compared with simultaneous in situ gas analyzer measurements during a 20-h-long experiment. PMID:26125375

  5. Comparison of performance capabilities of spread spectrum coherent and direct detection CO2 DIAL systems and associated hardware fielding implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, Victor H.; Dryden, Gordon L.

    2002-07-01

    This paper reviews the performance of a conventional direct detection CO2 Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system with the coherent spread spectrum approach developed, validated and patented by Textron. The analysis shows that the coherent approach is far superior in terms of maximum attainable standoff range at a specified transmitter average power and substantially reduced system power and associated size and weight at a predetermined range. The requirements on local oscillator stability are fairly relaxed and the spread spectrum/coherent DIAL concept is fairly easy to implement. Performance parameter maps are presented for ground-based, low-altitude and high-altitude airborne systems with a range of aperture sizes and pulse formats.

  6. High Repetition Rate Pulsed 2-Micron Laser Transmitter for Coherent CO2 DIAL Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Uprendra N.; Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Petzar, Paul J.; Trieu, Bo C.; Lee, Hyung

    2009-01-01

    A high repetition rate, highly efficient, Q-switched 2-micron laser system as the transmitter of a coherent differential absorption lidar for CO2 measurement has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. Such a laser transmitter is a master-slave laser system. The master laser operates in a single frequency, either on-line or off-line of a selected CO2 absorption line. The slave laser is a Q-switched ring-cavity Ho:YLF laser which is pumped by a Tm:fiber laser. The repetition rate can be adjusted from a few hundred Hz to 10 kHz. The injection seeding success rate is from 99.4% to 99.95%. For 1 kHz operation, the output pulse energy is 5.5mJ with the pulse length of approximately 50 ns. The optical-to-optical efficiency is 39% when the pump power is 14.5W. The measured standard deviation of the laser frequency jitter is about 3 MHz.

  7. Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) via atmospheric aerosol (cloud) backscattering: recent results of coherent CO2 lidar measurements conducted at the Maui Space Surveillance Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willman, Benjamin C.; Kovacs, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Textron Systems, under the US Army Space and Missile Defense Command's Field Ladar Tactical Transition Demonstration program, has been evaluating coherently detected, atmospheric aerosol backscattering as a method to extend the utility of the DIAL technique. This paper present recently obtained long range, multi-wavelength DIAL measurements utilizing cloud formations and a laboratory positioned absorption test cell. Good agreement between cloud and continuous wave laboratory measurements of the absorption spectra of ammonia have been obtained.

  8. 2-μm Coherent DIAL for CO2, H2O and Wind Field Profiling in the Lower Atmosphere: Instrumentation and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibert, Fabien; Edouart, Dimitri; Cénac, Claire; Pellegrino, Jessica; Le Mounier, Florian; Dumas, Arnaud

    2016-06-01

    We report on 2-μm coherent differential absorption lidar (CDIAL) measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapour (H2O) absorption and wind field profiling in the atmospheric boundary layer. The CDIAL uses a Tm:fiber pumped, single longitudinal mode Q-switched seeded Ho:YLF laser and a fibercoupled coherent detection. The laser operates at a pulse repetition frequency of 2 kHz and emits an output energy of 10 mJ with a pulse width of 40 ns (FWHM). Experimental horizontal and vertical range-resolved measurements were made in the atmospheric boundary layer and compared to colocated in-situ sensor data.

  9. CO2 DIAL measurements of water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.; Margolis, Jack S.; Brothers, Alan M.; Tratt, David M.

    1987-01-01

    CO2 lidars have heretofore been used to measure water vapor concentrations primarily using the 10R(20) line at 10.247 microns, which has a strong overlap with a water vapor absorption line. This paper discusses the use of that line as well as other CO2 laser lines for which the absorption coefficients are weaker. The literature on measurement of water vapor absorption coefficients using CO2 lasers is reviewed, and the results from four laboratories are shown to be generally consistent with each other after they are normalized to the same partial pressure, temperature, and ethylene absorption coefficent for the 10P(14) CO2 laser line; however, the agreement with the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory's HITRAN and FASCOD 2 spectral data tapes is not good either for the water vapor absorption lines or for the water vapor continuum. Demonstration measurements of atmospheric water vapor have been conducted using the Mobile Atmospheric Pollutant Mapping System, a dual CO2 lidar system using heterodyne detection. Results are discussed for measurements using three sets of laser line pairs covering a wide range of water vapor partial pressures.

  10. III-V Compound Detectors for CO2 DIAL Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Abedin, M. Nurul; Sulima, Oleg V.; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.

    2005-01-01

    Profiling of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is important for understanding the natural carbon cycle on Earth and its influence on global warming and climate change. Differential absorption lidar is a powerful remote sensing technique used for profiling and monitoring atmospheric constituents. Recently there has been an interest to apply this technique, at the 2 m wavelength, for investigating atmospheric CO2. This drives the need for high quality detectors at this wavelength. Although 2 m detectors are commercially available, the quest for a better detector is still on. The detector performance, regarding quantum efficiency, gain and associated noise, affects the DIAL signal-to-noise ratio and background signal, thereby influencing the instrument sensitivity and dynamic range. Detectors based on the III-V based compound materials shows a strong potential for such application. In this paper the detector requirements for a long range CO2 DIAL profiles will be discussed. These requirements were compared to newly developed III-V compound infrared detectors. The performance of ternary InGaSb pn junction devices will be presented using different substrates, as well as quaternary InGaAsSb npn structure. The performance study was based on experimental characterization of the devices dark current, spectral response, gain and noise. The final results are compared to the current state-of-the-art InGaAs technology. Npn phototransistor structure showed the best performance, regarding the internal gain and therefore the device signal-to-noise ratio. 2-micrometers detectivity as high as 3.9 x 10(exp 11) cmHz(sup 1/2)/W was obtained at a temperature of -20 C and 4 V bias voltage. This corresponds to a responsivity of 2650 A/W with about 60% quantum efficiency.

  11. Characteristics of direct detection 1.6μm CO2 DIAL with OPG transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, C.; Shibata, Y.; Abo, M.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, there have been significant advances in a QPM nonlinear optical frequency conversion efficienfy. The QPM condition is produced to use periodically poled ferroelectric crystals. An optical parametric oscillator (OPO), amplifier (OPA), and generator (OPG) devices are widely recognized as versatile coherent tunable spectroscopic sources. Many applications of PPLN-parametric radiation sources, such as laser remote sensing and molecular spectroscopy, require broadly tunable and narrow linewidth operation in the infrared region. We developed an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) transmitter for the first 1.6 μm CO2 DIAL. In order to improve the measurement accuracy of CO2 profiles, development of high power and wavelength stabilized laser system has been conducted. We have developed a new high-power 1.6 μm laser transmitter based on a parametric master oscillator-power amplifier (MOPA) system pumped by a LD-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser which has the injection seed laser locked to the iodine absorption line. The master oscillator is the OPG transmitter and the amplifier is the OPA transmitter. Since the OPO transmitter has a cavity mirror, running the system without mode hopping requires complex control of cavity length. By contrast, the OPG transmitter has no cavity mirror, so there is no need to control cavity length. We report detail characteristics of the direct detection 1.6 μm CO2 DIAL with the OPG transmitter. Moreover, we report the technique of the simultaneously measurement temperature profiles with the CO2 concentration profiles using a CO2 absorption profile because of improvement of measurement accuracy of the CO2 concentration. This work was financially supported by the System Development Program for Advanced Measurement and Analysis of the Japan Science and Technology Agency.

  12. A compact high repetition rate CO2 coherent Doppler lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alejandro, S.; Frelin, R.; Dix, B.; Mcnicholl, P.

    1992-01-01

    As part of its program to develop coherent heterodyne detection lidar technology for space, airborne, and ground based applications, the Optical Environment Division of the USAF's Phillips Laboratory developed a compact coherent CO2 TEA lidar system. Although originally conceived as a high altitude balloon borne system, the lidar is presently integrated into a trailer for ground based field measurements of aerosols and wind fields. In this role, it will also serve as a testbed for signal acquisition and processing development for planned future airborne and space based solid state lidar systems. The system has also found significance in new areas of interest to the Air Force such as cloud studies and coherent Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) systems.

  13. Development and Evaluation of a High Sensitivity DIAL System for Profiling Atmospheric CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ismail, Syed; Koch, Grady J.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Abedin, M. N.; Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.

    2008-01-01

    A ground-based 2-micron Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) CO2 profiling system for atmospheric boundary layer studies and validation of space-based CO2 sensors is being developed and tested at NASA Langley Research Center as part of the NASA Instrument Incubator Program. To capture the variability of CO2 in the lower troposphere a precision of 1-2 ppm of CO2 (less than 0.5%) with 0.5 to 1 km vertical resolution from near surface to free troposphere (4-5 km) is one of the goals of this program. In addition, a 1% (3 ppm) absolute accuracy with a 1 km resolution over 0.5 km to free troposphere (4-5 km) is also a goal of the program. This DIAL system leverages 2-micron laser technology developed under NASA's Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) and other NASA programs to develop new solid-state laser technology that provides high pulse energy, tunable, wavelength-stabilized, and double-pulsed lasers that are operable over pre-selected temperature insensitive strong CO2 absorption lines suitable for profiling of lower tropospheric CO2. It also incorporates new high quantum efficiency, high gain, and relatively low noise phototransistors, and a new receiver/signal processor system to achieve high precision DIAL measurements. This presentation describes the capabilities of this system for atmospheric CO2 and aerosol profiling. Examples of atmospheric measurements in the lidar and DIAL mode will be presented.

  14. Measurement of Lower-Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Distribution Using a Compact 1.6 μm DIAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Yasukuni; Nagasawa, Chikao; Abo, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of present carbon sources and sinks including their spatial distribution and their variation in time is one of the essential information for predicting future CO2 atmospheric concentration levels. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) is expected to measure atmospheric CO2 profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer and lower troposphere from a ground platform. We have succeeded to develop a compact 1.6 μm DIAL system for measuring CO2 concentration profiles in the lower atmosphere. This 1.6 μm DIAL system consists of the optical parametric generator (OPG) transmitter that excited by the LD pumped Nd:YAG laser with high repetition rate and the receiving optics that included the near-infrared photomultiplier tube operating at the analog mode and a 25 cm telescope. CO2 concentration profiles were obtained up to 2.5 km altitude.

  15. DIAL with heterodyne detection including speckle noise: Aircraft/shuttle measurements of O3, H2O, and NH3 with pulsed tunable CO2 lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockman, P.; Hess, R. V.; Staton, L. D.; Bair, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    Atmospheric trace constituent measurements with higher vertical resolution than attainable with passive radiometers are discussed. Infrared differential absorption lidar (DIAL), which depends on Mie scattering from aerosols, has special advantages for tropospheric and lower stratospheric applications and has great potential importance for measurements from shuttle and aircraft. Differential absorption lidar data reduction involves comparing large amplitude signals which have small differences. The accuracy of the trace constituent concentration inferred from DIAL measurements depends strongly on the errors in determining the amplitude of the signals. Thus, the commonly used SNR expression (signal divided by noise in the absence of signal) is not adequate to describe DIAL measurement accuracy and must be replaced by an expression which includes the random coherent (speckle) noise within the signal. A comprehensive DIAL computer algorithm is modified to include heterodyne detection and speckle noise. Examples for monitoring vertical distributions of O3, H2O, and NH3 using a ground-, aircraft-, or shuttle-based pulsed tunable CO2 laser DIAL system are given.

  16. InGaAsSb Detectors' Characterization for 2-Micron CO2 Lidar/DIAL Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Abedin, M. Nurul; Koch, Grady J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2003-01-01

    Recent interest in monitoring atmospheric CO2 focuses attention on infrared remote sensing using the 2-micron lidar/differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique. Quantum detectors are critical components in this technique, and many research efforts concentrate on developing such devices for the 2-micron wavelength. Characterization results of InGaAsSb quantum detectors for the 2-micron wavelength range are presented, including experimental setup and procedure. Detectors are prototype devices manufactured by using separate absorption and multiplication (SAM) structures. Characterization experiments include V-I measurements, spectral response and its variation with bias voltage and temperature, noise measurements, noise-equivalent-power (NEP) and detectivity calculations, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) estimation. A slight increase in the output signal occurred with increased bias voltage and was associated with a noise level increase. Cooling down the detectors reduces noise and shifts the cutoff wavelength to shorter values. Further improvement in the design and manufacturing process, by increasing the device gain and lowering its noise level, is necessary to meet the required CO2 lidar/DIAL specifications.

  17. On-line wavelength calibration of pulsed laser for CO2 DIAL sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ge; Gong, Wei; Lin, Hong; Ma, Xin; Xiang, Chengzhi

    2014-12-01

    Accurate on-line wavelength calibration is a crucial procedure for sensing atmospheric CO2 using the DIAL technique. Drastic fluctuations in the intensity of a pulsed laser pose a great challenge for accurate on-line wavelength determination and stabilization, resulting in CO2 retrievals lacking the desired accuracy for global climate change and carbon cycle research. To tackle this problem, a two-stage wavelength calibration method based on Voigt fitting was proposed in this work. Simulation analysis demonstrated that the proposed method is superior to the conventional method and provides wavelength calibration results with an accuracy of 0.1 pm when the noise level does not exceed than 5 %. This conclusion was confirmed through experiments with real signals. Furthermore, simulation analysis revealed that the proposed method could yield results with an accuracy of 0.1 pm by increasing the number of sample points, even for signals with noise levels of up to 20 %. This is a promising feature that could facilitate the development of DIAL systems without gas cells.

  18. A Direct Detection 1.6μm DIAL with Three Wavelengths for Measurements of Vertical CO2 Concentration and Temperature Profiles in the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, C.; Abo, M.; Shibata, Y.; Nagai, T.; Tsukamoto, M.

    2012-12-01

    We report the new 1.6 μm DIAL system that can measure the temperature profiles with the CO2 concentration profiles in the atmosphere because of improvement of measurement accuracy of the CO2 density and mixing ratio (ppm). We have developed a direct detection 1.6 μm differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique to perform range-resolved measurements of vertical CO2 concentration profiles in the atmosphere [Sakaizawa et al. 2009]. Our 1.6 μm DIAL system consists of the Optical Parametric Generator (OPG) transmitter that excited by the LD pumped Nd:YAG laser with high repetition rate (500 Hz) and the receiving optics that included the near-infrared photomultiplier tube with high quantum efficiency operating at the photon counting mode and the telescope with larger aperture than that of the coherent detection method. Laser beams of three wavelengths around a CO2 absorption line is transmitted alternately to the atmosphere for measurements of CO2 concentration and temperature profiles. Moreover, a few retrieval algorithms of CO2-DIAL are also performed for improvement of measurement accuracy. The accurate vertical CO2 profiles in the troposphere are highly desirable in the inverse techniques to improve quantification and understanding of the global budget of CO2 and also global climate changes [Stephens et al. 2007]. In comparison with the ground-based monitoring network, CO2 measurements for vertical profiles in the troposphere have been limited to campaign-style aircraft and commercial airline observations with the limited spatial and temporal coverage. This work was financially supported by the System Development Program for Advanced Measurement and Analysis of the Japan Science and Technology Agency. References Sakaizawa, D., C. Nagasawa, T. Nagai, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, H. Nagai, M. Nakazato, and T. Sakai, Development of a 1.6μm differential absorption lidar with a quasi-phase-matching optical parametric oscillator and photon-counting detector for the vertical

  19. Development of a Coherent Differential Absorption Lidar for Range Resolved Atmospheric CO2 Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulgueta; Chen, Songsheng; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Trieu, Bo. C.; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffery J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2010-01-01

    A pulsed, 2-m coherent Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) / Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) transceiver, developed under the Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) at NASA, is integrated into a fully functional lidar instrument. This instrument will measure atmospheric CO2 profiles (by DIAL) initially from a ground platform, and then be prepared for aircraft installation to measure the atmospheric CO2 column densities in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and lower troposphere. The airborne prototype CO2 lidar can measure atmospheric CO2 column density in a range bin of 1km with better than 1.5% precision at horizontal resolution of less than 50km. It can provide the image of the pooling of CO2 in lowlying areas and performs nighttime mass balance measurements at landscape scale. This sensor is unique in its capability to study the vertical ABL-free troposphere exchange of CO2 directly. It will allow the investigators to pursue subsequent in science-driven deployments, and provides a unique tool for Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Night, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) validation that was strongly advocated in the recent ASCENDS Workshop.

  20. Stabilized 1.6μm OPG/OPA system for CO2 DIAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo, M.; Nagasawa, C.; Shibata, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Wavelength accuracy and stability are key requirements for CO2 differential absorption lidar (DIAL). We developed a high-power 1.6μm laser transmitter based on a parametric master oscillator-power amplifier (MOPA) system pumped by a LD-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser which has the injection seed laser locked to the iodine absorption line. The master oscillator is an optical parametric generator (OPG), based on an MgO-doped periodically poled LiTaO3 (PPMgLT) crystal. The OPGs do not require a cavity and instead rely on sufficient conversion efficiency to be obtained with a single pass through the crystal. The single-frequency oscillation of the OPG was achieved by injection seeding. The 1.6μm emission of the OPG is amplified by two-stage optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs). The each PPMgLT crystal was mounted on the copper holder, and the temperature control of the each holder was carried out within 0.01 K. The wavelength feedback system of the Nd:YAG seed laser is performed with the side locking of the iodine absorption spectrum (line No.1107) and the frequency stability is realized within 10 MHz rms. The on-line 1.6μm DFB seed laser is locked to the center of a CO2 absorption line with the Pound-Drever-Hall technique using a fiber coupled multipass CO2 gas cell. The off-line seed laser is locked using a thermally stabilized fiber coupled Fabry-Perot interferometer. For temperature measurement, we use offset locked seed laser using heterodyne technique. The beam quality of OPA was TEM00 mode, the pulse energy was 12 mJ at 500 Hz repetition rate and the frequency stability was less than 10MHz rms. The unique performances of this optical parametric system make a relevant transmitter for CO2 DIAL. This work was financially supported by the System Development Program for Advanced Measurement and Analysis of the Japan Science and Technology Agency. Reference D. Sakaisawa, C. Nagasawa, T. Nagai, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, H. Nagai, M. Nakazato, and T. Sakai, Development of a

  1. Development of 1.6 micron CW modulation ground-based DIAL system for CO2 monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameyama, Shumpei; Imaki, Masaharu; Hirano, Yoshihito; Ueno, Shinichi; Kawakami, Shuji; Nakajima, Masakatsu

    2008-12-01

    We have demonstrated the 1.6 micron CW modulation hard-target DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for CO2 sensing. In this system, ON and OFF wavelength laser lights are intensity modulated with CW modulation signal. Received lights of the two wavelengths from the hard-target are discriminated by modulation frequencies in electrical signal domain. Since the optical circuit is fiber-based, the system is compact, flexible, and reliable. It is shown that stable CO2 concentration measurement corresponding to 4 ppm(rms) can be realized in the measurement time of 32s. This measurement stability is better than those obtained by the conventional CO2 sensing DIAL systems in the same measurement time. And the diurnal change of the measured results is in good agreement with the ones measured by an in-situ CO2 meter.

  2. 1.6μm DIAL System for Measurements of CO2 Concentration Profiles in the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, C.; Abo, M.; Shibata, Y.

    2013-12-01

    We have developed a direct detection 1.6 μm differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique to perform range-resolved measurements of vertical CO2 concentration profiles in the atmosphere. Our 1.6 μm DIAL system has a 60 cm telescope for vertical measurement and a 25 cm scanning telescope for horizontal measurement. This 1.6 μm DIAL system is also available to measure CO2 concentration profiles for daytime by using narrow-band interference filters. The 1.6 μm DIAL measurement was achieved successfully the vertical CO2 profile up to 7 km altitude with an error less than 1.0 % by integration time of 30 minutes and vertical resolution of 300 - 600 m. The CO2 DIAL was also operated with the range-height indicator (RHI) mode, and the 2-D measurement provided inhomogeneity in the boundary layer. The vertical distribution of CO2 concentration from 2 km to 7 km altitude has been observed using two telescopes with different apertures. We hope to get the data of the CO2 concentration from lower altitude to 7 km at the same time. Since the change of signal intensity is larger near the ground, it is also important to the install the photon counter with the faster count rate to expand the dynamic range. The high speed counter and the telescope system make the dynamic range expand more than 10 times and the vertical distribution observation of CO2 concentration from 0.5 km to 7 km altitude is performed. This work was financially supported by the System Development Program for Advanced Measurement and Analysis of the Japan Science and Technology Agency. References Sakaizawa, D., C. Nagasawa, T. Nagai, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, H. Nagai, M. Nakazato, and T. Sakai, Development of a 1.6μm differential absorption lidar with a quasi-phase-matching optical parametric oscillator and photon-counting detector for the vertical CO2 profile, Applied Optics, Vol.48, No.4, pp. 748-757, 2009. Stephens, B. B. et al., Weak Northern and Strong Tropical Land Carbon Uptake from Vertical Profiles of

  3. Direct Detection 1.6?m DIAL / Doppler Lidar for Measurements of CO2 Concentration and Wind Profiles (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Y.; Nagasawa, C.; Abo, M.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of present carbon sources and sinks including their spatial distribution and their variation in time is one of the essential information for predicting future CO2 atmospheric concentration levels. Moreover, wind information is an important parameter for transport simulations and inverse estimation of surface CO2 flux. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and the Doppler wind lidar with the range resolution is expected to measure atmospheric CO2 profiles and wind profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer and lower troposphere from a ground platform. We have succeeded to develop a scanning 1.6 μm DIAL and incoherent Doppler lidar system for simultaneously measuring CO2 concentration and wind speed profiles. Our 1.6 μm DIAL system consists of the Optical Parametric Generator (OPG) transmitter that excited by the LD pumped Nd: YAG laser with high repetition rate (500 Hz) and the receiving optics that included the near-infrared photomultiplier tube with high quantum efficiency operating at the photon counting mode, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) filter to detect a Doppler shift, and a 25 cm telescope [1] [2]. We had developed an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) system for 1.6 μm CO2 DIAL[3]. To achieve continuous tuning of the resonant OPO output without mode hopping, it is necessary to vary the OPO cavity length synchronously with the seed-frequency. On the other hand, the OPG does not require a cavity and instead rely on sufficient conversion efficiency to be obtained with a single pass through the crystal. The single-frequency oscillation of the OPG was achieved by injection seeding. The CO2-DIAL was operated with the range-height indicator (RHI) mode, and the 2-D measurement provided inhomogeneity in the boundary layer. Vertical CO2 concentration profiles and wind profiles were also measured simultaneously. The elevation angle was fixed at 52 deg and CO2 concentration profiles were obtained up to 1 km altitude with 200 m height resolution. Vertical

  4. Effect of spectral time-lag correlation coefficient and signal averaging on airborne CO2 DIAL measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-David, Avishai; Vanderbeek, Richard G.; Gotoff, Steven W.; D'Amico, Francis M.

    1997-10-01

    The effects of flight geometry, signal averaging and time- lag correlation coefficient on airborne CO2 dial lidar measurements are shown in simulations and field measurements. These factors have implications for multi- vapor measurements and also for measuring a shingle vapor with a wide absorption spectra for which one would like to make DIAL measurements at many wavelengths across the absorption spectra of the gas. Thus it is of interest to know how many wavelengths and how many groups of wavelengths can be used effectively in DIAL measurements. Our data indicate that for our lidar about 80 wavelengths can be used for DIAL measurements of a stationary vapor. The lidar signal is composed of fluctuations with three time scales: a very short time scale due to system noise which is faster than the data acquisition sampling rate of the receiver, a medium time scale due to atmospheric turbulence, and a long time scale due to slow atmospheric transmission drift from aerosol in homogeneities. The decorrelation time scale of fluctuations for airborne lidar measurements depends on the flight geometry.

  5. Wave optics simulation of atmospheric turbulence and reflective speckle effects in CO2 differential absorption lidar (DIAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Douglas H.; Petrin, Roger R.; MacKerrow, Edward P.; Schmitt, Mark J.; Quick, Charles R., Jr.; Zardecki, Andrew; Porch, William M.; Whitehead, Michael C.; Walters, Donald L.

    1998-09-01

    The measurement sensitivity of CO2 differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL) can be affected by a number of different processes. We will address the interaction of two of these processes: effects due to beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence and effects due to reflective speckle. Atmospheric turbulence affects the beam distribution of energy and phase on target. These effects include beam spreading, beam wander and scintillation which can result in increased shot-to-shot signal noise. In addition, reflective speckle alone has a major impact on the sensitivity of CO2 DIAL. The interaction of atmospheric turbulence and reflective speckle is of great importance in the performance of a DIAL system. A Huygens-Fresnel wave optics propagation code has previously been developed at the Naval Postgraduate School that models the effects of atmospheric turbulence as propagation through a series of phase screens with appropriate atmospheric statistical characteristics. This code has been modified to include the effects of reflective speckle. The performance of this modified code with respect to the combined effects of atmospheric turbulence and reflective speckle is examined. Results are compared with a combination of experimental data and analytical models.

  6. A Ground-Based 2-Micron DIAL System to Profile Tropospheric CO2 and Aerosol Distributions for Atmospheric Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ismail, Syed; Koch, Grady; Abedin, Nurul; Refaat, Tamer; Rubio, Manuel; Davis, Kenneth; Miller, Charles; Singh, Upendra

    2006-01-01

    System will operate at a temperature insensitive CO2 line (2050.967 nm) with side-line tuning and off-set locking. Demonstrated an order of magnitude improvement in laser line locking needed for high precision measurements, side-line operation, and simultaneously double pulsing and line locking. Detector testing of phototransistor has demonstrated sensitivity to aerosol features over long distances in the atmosphere and resolve features approx. 100m. Optical systems that collect light onto small area detectors work well. Receiver optical designs are being optimized and data acquisition systems developed. CO2 line parameter characterization in progress In situ sensor calibration in progress for validation of DIAL CO2 system.

  7. Development of Compact 1.6 μm DIAL System for Measurement of Lower-Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, C.; Shibata, Y.; Abo, M.

    2014-12-01

    For the detailed analysis of forest carbon dynamics and CO2 fluxes of urban area, the CO2 concentration measurement techniques with high spatial and temporal resolution are required in the lower atmosphere. We had developed the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system to achieve high accurate measurements of vertical CO2 profiles and the vertical distribution of CO2 concentration from 2 km to 7 km altitude has been observed1. In order to measure the CO2 concentration distribution in the lower altitude, the dynamic range of the photon counter and the output power of transmitter of the CO2 DIAL have improved. We develope the compact 1.6 μm CO2 DIAL with the high-speed photon counter (10 GHz) and the small power transmitter to perform high-precision measurements of CO2 concentration profiles in the lower atmosphere. This compact mobile DIAL system has a 2 mJ OPG transmitter and a 25 cm coaxial telescope for measurements of limitted range. As the transmitter beam of this DIAL system is able to scan from -4 degree to 52 degree with elevation angle, the vertical distribution of lower CO2 concentration as well as the horizontal distribution from short range can be measured with high precision. The compact DIAL was conducted test observations and achieved successfully measurements of CO2 concentration profiles for the range from 0.25 to 3 km with integration time of 30 minutes and range resolution of 300 m. This work was financially supported by the System Development Program for Advanced Measurement and Analysis of the Japan Science and Technology Agency. REFERENCES Y. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Proc. SPIE 8894, 889406 (2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2029359

  8. Observation of vertcal CO2 concentration profiles in the lower-atmosphere using a compact direct detection 1.6 μm DIAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, C.; Shibata, Y.; Abo, M.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of present carbon sources and sinks including their spatial profile and their variation in time is one of the essential informations for predicting future CO2 atmospheric concentration levels. Moewover, for the detailed analysis of forest carbon dynamics and CO2 fluxes of urban area, the CO2 concentration measurement techniques with high spatial and temporal resolution are required in the lower atmosphere. A differential absorption lidar (DIAL) is expected to measure atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer from a ground platform. We have succeeded to develop a compact direct detection 1.6 μm DIAL system for measuring CO2 concentration profiles in the lower atmosphere. This DIAL system consists of the optical parametric generator (OPG) transmitter that excited by the LD pumped Nd:YAG laser with high repetition rate and the receiving optics that included the near-infrared photomultiplier tube operating at the analog mode and the 25 cm telescope. We have succeeded in observing the daytime temporal change of vertical CO2 concentration profiles for the range from 0.25 to 2.5 km with integration time of 30 minutes and range resolution of 300 m. This compact direct detection CO2 DIAL is usefull for the estimation of CO2 flux. This work was financially supported by the System Development Program for Advanced Measurement and Analysis of the Japan Science and Technology Agency.

  9. Measurements of CO2 Concentration and Wind Profiles with A Scanning 1.6μm DIAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo, M.; Shibata, Y.; Nagasawa, C.; Nagai, T.; Sakai, T.; Tsukamoto, M.

    2012-12-01

    Horizontal carbon dioxide (CO2) distribution and wind profiles are important information for understanding of the regional sink and source of CO2. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and the Doppler lidar with the range resolution is expected to bring several advantages over passive measurements. We have developed a new scanning 1.6μm DIAL and incoherent Doppler lidar system to perform simultaniously measurements of CO2 concentration and wind speed profiles in the atmosphere. The 1.6μm DIAL and Doppler lidar system consists of the Optical Parametric Generator (OPG) transmitter that excited by the LD pumped Nd:YAG laser with high repetition rate (500 Hz). The receiving optics include the near-infrared photomultiplier tube with high quantum efficiency operating at the photon counting mode, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) filter to detct Doppler shift, and a 25 cm telescope[1][2]. Laser beam is transmitted coaxially and motorized scanning mirror system can scan the laser beam and field of view 0-360deg horizontally and 0-52deg vertically. We report the results of vertical CO2 scanning measurenents and vertical wind profiles. The scanning elevation angles were from 12deg to 24deg with angular step of 4deg and CO2 concentration profiles were obtained up to 1 km altitude with 200 m altitude resolution. We also obtained vertical wind vector profiles by measuring line-of-sight wind profiles at two azimuth angles with a fixed elevation angle 52deg. Vertical wind vector profiles were obtained up to 5 km altitude with 1 km altitude rasolution. This work was financially supported by the System Development Program for Advanced Measurement and Analysis of the Japan Science and Technology Agency. References [1] L. B. Vann, et al., "Narrowband fiber-optic phase-shifted Fabry-Perot Bragg grating filters for atmospheric water vapor lidar measurements", Appl. Opt., 44, pp. 7371-7377 (2005). [2] Y. Shibata, et al., "1.5μm incoherent Doppler lidar using a FBG filter", Proceedings

  10. Coherent CO2 lidar systems for remote atmospheric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilbro, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Several examples of applications of coherent CO2 Doppler lidar systems are summarized to illustrate the potential of these systems. The applications discussed include the use of continuous-wave systems for detecting and tracking aircraft wake vortices, transverse velocity measurements, and measurements of mass flow rates of high stack emissions. The use of pulsed coherent lidars is illustrated by applications involving the measurement of thunderstorm gust fronts, the measurement of wind profiles, and clear air turbulence detection. Following a summary of previous efforts, some current programs are reviewed. These include investigations into two-dimensional wind field measurements, atmospheric backscatter measurements, transverse velocity measurements, and the feasibility of space operations.

  11. CO2 DIAL sensitivity studies for measurements of atmospheric trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockman, P.; Hess, R. V.; Bair, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the accuracy of infrared differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements of trace constituents in the atmosphere. Expressions are derived for the signal-to-noise ratios applicable in the detection of a signal from a scattering cell for the cases of single-detection heterodyne detection and direct detection. Results of computer simulations of the expectation value of the measured return for various measurement conditions are presented which illustrate the sensitivities of plume measurements for horizontal range-resolved and vertical content measurements of NH3 in heterodyne and direct detection. Advantages for long-range measurements of the use of rare isotope laser frequencies, tuning by collision broadening, and closely spaced on and off frequencies are pointed out.

  12. Operation range evaluation of TEA CO2-laser-based DIAL system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherstov, Igor V.; Ivashchenko, Maxim V.

    2000-12-01

    The outcomes of numerical simulation of echo-location and ethylene sounding ranges in the atmosphere by differential absorption lidar based on TEA CO2 lasers are submitted. Is established, that the lidar echo-location range has close to logarithmic function of energy and peak power of sounding pulses. The echo-location range of IR lidar based on TEA CO2 lasers differs insignificantly on strong and weak emission lines of the laser, that allows to produce the effective sounding of the atmosphere in all range of wavelength tuning of TEA CO2 laser radiation without correction of pulse energy on various emission lines. Is shown, that the application of narrow-band spectral filters is justified at use of low-noise detectors and receiver FOV angles more than 5 mrad. The evaluations of a relative errors of ethylene concentration measurement in the atmosphere in various modes of registration are conducted.

  13. Development of a Ground-based 2-Micron DIAL System to Profile Tropospheric CO2 and Aerosol Distributions for Atmospheric Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, S.; Koch, G. J.; Abedin, N.; Refaat, T.; Rubio, M.; Davis, K.; Miller, C.; Singh, U.

    2006-12-01

    NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) has funded a 3 year Instrument Incubator Program to develop a ground-based 2-micron Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) CO2 profiling system. This is a collaborative program between NASA Langley, Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Development of this field deployable instrument is an initial step towards the eventual development of a space-based DIAL system and involves the design, development, evaluation, and fielding of a ground-based CO2 profiling system. This system will be capable of providing high resolution measurements of CO2 and aerosol profiles and will be used in a number of atmospheric studies involving the atmospheric boundary layer where the sources and sinks of CO2 are located; and in the studies of dynamical, transport, pollution, and biogenic activity in the atmosphere. After a successful development of this system, it can be used as a validation tool of the OCO (Orbiting Carbon Observatory). This instrument leverages 2-micron laser technology developed under a number of NASA programs to develop new solid-state YLF laser technology that provides high pulse energy, tunable, wavelength-stabilized, and double-pulsed lasers that are operable over pre-selected temperature insensitive strong CO2 absorption lines suitable for profiling of lower tropospheric CO2. It also incorporates high quantum efficiency, high gain, and relatively low noise AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb phototransistors, and a new receiver/signal processor system to cover a large signal dynamic range with minimum signal distortions to achieve high precision DIAL measurements. High sensitivity in situ LI-COR 7000 sensors are being calibrated at PSU for the validation of DIAL measurements and high resolution spectroscopic measurements are being conducted at JPL to characterize the CO2 line parameters for DIAL application. This paper will review the need for and the advantage of a CO2 DIAL profiling system, provide

  14. Solid-state Raman frequency converters for CO2-DIAL systems at 1.6 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Hanjo; Lisinetskii, Victor; Kaminskii, Alexander A.; Eichler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-09-01

    Measurement of the three-dimensional distribution of atmospheric trace gases, especially CO2, is an important factor to improve the accuracy of climate models and to understand the global effects of the greenhouse effect. This can be achieved by differential absorption Lidar (DIAL). The absorption spectrum of CO2 features several suitable absorption lines for a ground-based or air-borne DIAL system working at wavelengths between 1.57 μm and 1.61 μm. An appropriate laser transmitter must emit laser pulses with pulse energies of more than 10 mJ and pulse duration in the nanosecond range. For high spectral purity the bandwidth is required to be less than 60 MHz. OPOs and Er-doped solid-state lasers emit around 1.6 μm, but we describe here alternatively Nd:YAG and Nd:glass laser systems with Raman converters. The use of stimulated Raman scattering in crystalline and ceramic materials is a possibility to shift the wavelength of existing lasers depending on the size of the Raman shift. After the investigation of a large number of Raman-active materials some of them could be identified as promising candidates for the conversion of typical Nd:YAG emission wavelengths, including LiNH2C6H4SO3•H2O, Ba(NO3)2, Li2SO4•H2O, Y(HCOO)3•2H2O, β-BBO and diamond. Our experiments with Ba(NO3)2 showed that the choice of the material should not be restricted to those with an adequate first order Stokes Raman line position, but also second or third order Raman shift should be considered. Development of Raman frequency converters for high pulse energies concentrates on linear and folded resonator designs and seeded Raman amplifiers using the Raman material as a direct amplifier. With Ba(NO3)2 pulse energy up to 116 mJ and 42 % quantum efficiency at the third Stokes wavelength with 1599 nm has been demonstrated. High power operation at 5 W with compensation of thermal lensing was achieved.

  15. Characteristics of the OPG System USIG Quasiphase-Matched Nonlinear Crystals for 1.6 μm CO2 Dial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Yasukuni; Nagasawa, Chikao; Abo, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    We have developed a direct detection 1.6 μm differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique to perform range-resolved measurements of vertical CO2 concentration profiles in the atmosphere. Our 1.6 μm DIAL system consists of the optical parametric generator (OPG) and amplifier (OPA) transmitter that excited by the LD pumped Nd:YAG laser with high repetition rate (500 Hz). The OPG system consists of a quasi-phase-matched (QPM) crystal and does not need a cavity. The output power of the OPA system is 6 mJ, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the spectrum is about 280 MHz and spectrum purity is 91.0 +- 0.2 ~ 0.5%. CO2 concentration error from fluctuation of the spectrum purity is 0.3% at 6 km altitude and 0.4 % at 10 km altitude.

  16. In-cell measurements of smoke backscattering coefficients using a CO2 laser system for application to lidar-dial forest fire detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellecci, Carlo; Gaudio, Pasquale; Gelfusa, Michela; Lo Feudo, Teresa; Murari, Andrea; Richetta, Maria; de Leo, Leonerdo

    2010-12-01

    In the lidar-dial method, the amount of the water vapor present in the smoke of the vegetable fuel is detected to reduce the number of false alarms. We report the measurements of the smoke backscattering coefficients for the CO2 laser lines 10R20 and 10R18 as determined in an absorption cell for two different vegetable fuels (eucalyptus and conifer). These experimental backscattering coefficients enable us to determine the error to be associated to the water vapor measurements when the traditional first-order approximation is assumed. We find that this first-order approximation is valid for combustion rates as low as 100 g/s.

  17. Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) in Alberta: A New Remote Sensing Tool for Wide Area Measurement of Particulates, CO2, and CH4 Emissions from Energy Extraction and Production Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, M.; Lemon, R.; Crowther, B. G.; Valupadas, P.; Fu, L.; Yang, Z.; Huda, Q.; Leung, B.; Chambers, A.

    2014-12-01

    Alberta Environmental Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting Agency (AEMERA) in cooperation with the Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) of Utah State University, have developed a mobile DIAL sensor designed specifically for particle, CO2 and CH4 emissions measurement. Rapid expansion of the oil and gas industry in Alberta, including the oil sands, has challenged the Alberta Government to keep pace in its efforts to monitor and mitigate the environmental impacts of development. The limitations of current monitoring systems has pushed the provincial government to seek out advanced sensing technologies such as differential absorption lidar (DIAL) to help assess the impact of energy development and industrial operations. This instrument is housed inside a 36' trailer and can be quickly staged and used to characterize source emissions and to locate fugitive leaks. DIAL is capable of measuring concentrations for carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) at ranges of up to 3 km with a spatial resolution of 1.5 m. DIAL can map both CO2 and CH4, as well as particulate matter (PM) in a linear fashion; by scanning the laser beam in both azimuth and elevation, DIAL can create images of emissions concentrations and ultimately can be used to determine emission factors, locate fugitive leaks, assess plume dispersion and confirm air dispersion modeling. The DIAL system has been deployed at a landfill, a coal-fired power plant, and an oil sands production area. A system overview of the DIAL instrument and recent results will be discussed.

  18. 315mJ, 2-micrometers Double-Pulsed Coherent Differential Absorption Lidar Transmitter for Atmospheric CO2 Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo; Bai, Yingxin; Koch, Grady; Chen, Songsheng; Petzar, Paul; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Beyon, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The design of a double pulsed, injection seeded, 2-micrometer compact coherent Differential absorption Lidar (DIAL) transmitter for CO2 sensing is presented. This system is hardened for ground and airborne applications. The design architecture includes three continuous wave lasers which provide controlled on and off line seeding, injection seeded power oscillator and a single amplifier operating in double pass configuration. As the derivative a coherent Doppler wind lidar, this instrument has the added benefit of providing wind information. The active laser material used for this application is a Ho: Tm:YLF crystal operates at the eye-safe wavelength. The 3-meter long folded ring resonator produces energy of 130-mJ (90/40) with a temporal pulse length around 220 nanoseconds and 530 nanosecond pulses for on and off lines respectively. The separation between the two pulses is on the order of 200 microseconds. The line width is in the order of 2.5MHz and the beam quality has an M(sup 2) of 1.1 times diffraction limited beam. A final output energy for a pair of both on and off pulses as high as 315 mJ (190/125) at a repetition rate of 10 Hz is achieved. The operating temperature is set around 20 C for the pump diode lasers and 10 C for the rod. Since the laser design has to meet high-energy as well as high beam quality requirements, close attention is paid to the laser head design to avoid thermal distortion in the rod. A side-pumped configuration is used and heat is removed uniformly by passing coolant through a tube slightly larger than the rod to reduce thermal gradient. This paper also discusses the advantage of using a long upper laser level life time laser crystal for DIAL application. In addition issues related to injection seeding with two different frequencies to achieve a transform limited line width will be presented.

  19. Development of the 1.6μm OPG/OPA system wavelength-controlled precisely for CO2 DIAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo, M.; Shibata, Y.; Nagasawa, C.

    2010-12-01

    We developed an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser system for 1.6μm CO2 DIAL1). In order to improve the measurement accuracy of CO2 profiles, development of high power and wavelength stabilized laser system has been conducted. We report a new high-power 1.6μm laser transmitter based on a parametric master oscillator-power amplifier (MOPA) system pumped by a LD-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser which has the injection seed laser locked to the iodine absorption line. The master oscillator is an optical parametric generator (OPG), based on an MgO-doped periodically poled LiTaO3 (PPMgLT) crystal. The OPOs require either active control of the cavity length or slight misalignment of the cavity. On the other hand, the OPGs do not require a cavity and instead rely on sufficient conversion efficiency to be obtained with a single pass through the crystal. The single-frequency oscillation of the OPG was achieved by injection seeding. The 1.6μm emission of the OPG is amplified by two-stage optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs). The each PPMgLT crystal was mounted on the copper holder, and the temperature control of the each holder was carried out within 0.01 K. The wavelength feedback system of the Nd:YAG seed laser is performed with the side locking of the iodine absorption spectrum (line No.1107) and the frequency stability is realized within 10 MHz rms. Stabilization of the 1.6μm DFB seed laser is estimated to within 4 MHz rms at the CO2 absorption line center and within 1.8 MHz rms at the CO2 absorption line slope using the wavelength control unit. We demonstrated single-longitudinal-mode emission with the OPG and two OPAs. The beam quality was TEM00 mode, the pulse energy was 12 mJ at 500 Hz repetition rate and the frequency stability was less than 10MHz rms. The unique performances of this optical parametric system make a relevant transmitter for CO2 DIAL. This work was financially supported by the System Development Program for Advanced Measurement and Analysis

  20. CO2-TEA mid-infrared laser-based DIAL system: featuring urban atmosphere ozone dynamics during a vehicle-free day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasmi, Taieb

    2002-09-01

    Long-path ozone integrated measurements with a CO2-laser DIAL system were performed in Madrid City during the 'vehicle-free' day. The results showed a strong correlation between human activity and ozone photochemical generation. The ozone concentration follows, even quantitatively, the same trend of the overall traffic intensity as long as both the UVB radiation and NO2 are present. An average decrease of 12.3 +/- 1.2 % of the intensity of vehicle traffic during the 'free-vehicle' day resulted in a lowering the ozone burden by almost 14.4 +/- 1.4 % . This new type of information can stimulate the development of local models to understand the dynamic underlying urban pollution. The results indeed show the effectiveness of such a measure as to reduce the ozone burden on human and plants health.

  1. High power CO2 coherent ladar haven't quit the stage of military affairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Heyong

    2015-05-01

    The invention of the laser in 1960 created the possibility of using a source of coherent light as a transmitter for a laser radar (ladar). Coherent ladar shares many of the basic features of more common microwave radars. However, it is the extremely short operating wavelength of lasers that introduces new military applications, especially in the area of missile identification, space target tracking, remote rang finding, camouflage discrimination and toxic agent detection. Therefore, the most popular application field such as laser imaging and ranging were focused on CO2 laser in the last few decades. But during the development of solid state and fiber laser, some people said that the CO2 laser will be disappeared and will be replaced by the solid and fiber laser in the field of military and industry. The coherent CO2 laser radar will have the same destiny in the field of military affairs. However, to my opinion, the high power CO2 laser will be the most important laser source for laser radar and countermeasure in the future.

  2. Atmospheric aerosol backscatter measurements using a tunable coherent CO2 lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, R. T.; Kavaya, M. J.; Flamant, P. H.; Haner, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of atmospheric aerosol backscatter coefficients, using a coherent CO2 lidar at 9.25- and 10.6-micron wavelengths, are described. Vertical profiles of the volume backscatter coefficient beta have been measured to a 10-km altitude over the Pasadena, CA, region. These measurements indicate a wide range of variability in beta both in and above the local boundary layer. Certain profiles also indicate a significant enhancement in beta at the 9.25-micron wavelength compared with beta at the 10.6-micron wavelength, which possibly indicates a major contribution to the volume backscatter from ammonium sulfate aerosol particles.

  3. Dual-Pump Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Temperature and CO2 Concentration Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucht, Robert P.; Velur-Natarajan, Viswanathan; Carter, Campbell D.; Grinstead, Keith D., Jr.; Gord, James R.; Danehy, Paul M.; Fiechtner, G. J.; Farrow, Roger L.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of temperature and CO2 concentration using dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, (CARS) are described. The measurements were performed in laboratory flames,in a room-temperature gas cell, and on an engine test stand at the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. A modeless dye laser, a single-mode Nd:YAG laser, and an unintensified back-illuminated charge-coupled device digital camera were used for these measurements. The CARS measurements were performed on a single-laser-shot basis. The standard deviations of the temperatures and CO2 mole fractions determined from single-shot dual-pump CARS spectra in steady laminar propane/air flames were approximately 2 and 10% of the mean values of approximately 2000 K and 0.10, respectively. The precision and accuracy of single-shot temperature measurements obtained from the nitrogen part of the dual-pump CARS system were investigated in detail in near-adiabatic hydrogen/air/CO2 flames. The precision of the CARS temperature measurements was found to be comparable to the best results reported in the literature for conventional two-laser, single-pump CARS. The application of dual-pump CARS for single-shot measurements in a swirl-stabilized combustor fueled with JP-8 was also demonstrated.

  4. Diagnostics of a capillary discharge of a CO2 waveguide laser by coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakhterov, A. A.; Iliukhin, A. A.; Konev, Iu. B.; Lipatov, N. I.; Pashinin, P. P.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental results are reported from coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) diagnostic studies of capillary discharge in the CO2:N2:He = 1:1:8 working mixture of a CO2 waveguide laser. The CARS scans were used to characterize the translational temperature of the gas and the vibrational temperatures of the discharge plasma components. The data are vital for identifying anharmonic states which reduce the laser power and working mixture lifetime. Data are furnished on the translational temperature and vibrational temperature as functions of the capillary radius. CARS is concluded to be a valid technique for studying the distribution of pump power among the degrees of freedom of the working mixture components, even when dissociation is occurring.

  5. Design of Control Software for a High-Speed Coherent Doppler Lidar System for CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanvalkenburg, Randal L.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.; Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The design of the software for a 2-micron coherent high-speed Doppler lidar system for CO2 measurement at NASA Langley Research Center is discussed in this paper. The specific strategy and design topology to meet the requirements of the system are reviewed. In order to attain the high-speed digitization of the different types of signals to be sampled on multiple channels, a carefully planned design of the control software is imperative. Samples of digitized data from each channel and their roles in data analysis post processing are also presented. Several challenges of extremely-fast, high volume data acquisition are discussed. The software must check the validity of each lidar return as well as other monitoring channel data in real-time. For such high-speed data acquisition systems, the software is a key component that enables the entire scope of CO2 measurement studies using commercially available system components.

  6. Energy Measurement Studies for CO2 Measurement with a Coherent Doppler Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.; Vanvalkenburg, Randal L.; Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The accurate measurement of energy in the application of lidar system for CO2 measurement is critical. Different techniques of energy estimation in the online and offline pulses are investigated for post processing of lidar returns. The cornerstone of the techniques is the accurate estimation of the spectrum of lidar signal and background noise. Since the background noise is not the ideal white Gaussian noise, simple average level estimation of noise level is not well fit in the energy estimation of lidar signal and noise. A brief review of the methods is presented in this paper.

  7. In situ backscatter measurements over Pacific Ocean using two coherent focused CO2 lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Jones, William D.; Srivastava, Vandana; Jarzembski, Maurice; Hampton, Diana

    Preliminary results of CS lidar measurements over the Pacific Ocean using two CO2 Doppler lidars operating at 9.1 and 10.6 microns are presented. SNR calculations during real-time and postprocessing were performed using a multistep signal search and signal power estimation algorithm optimized for weak signal conditions. Typical aersol structure observed in the troposphere was found to consist of a boundary layer, a cloud-pumped layer, and a clean background layer; backscatter from cloud-free air was found to vary over three to four orders of magnitude or more.

  8. Simultaneous and time-resolved temperature and relative CO2-N2 and O2-CO2-N2 concentration measurements with pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for pressures as great as 5 MPa

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, Martin; Seeger, Thomas; Leipertz, Alfred

    2005-09-10

    Pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman-scattering (CARS) measurements have been performed in binary CO2-N2 and ternary CO2-O2-N2 mixtures in a temperature range between 300 and 773 K and pressures from 0.1 to 5 MPa to prove its potential for simultaneous single-shot thermometry and multispecies concentration measurements. In pressurized systems the CO2 component has a strong spectral influence on the pure rotational CARS spectra. Because of this dominance, pure rotational CARS proves to be a sensitive tool to measure in high-pressure combustion systems and the relative CO2-N2 concentration in the lower temperature range simultaneously with the temperature and the relative O2-N2 concentration. The evaluation of the spectra utilized a least-sum-squared differences fit of the spectral shape, weighted either constantly or inversely with respect to the normalized signal intensity. The results of the simultaneous temperature and relative CO2-N2 and O2-CO2-N2 concentration measurements provided a good accuracy and precision both in temperature and in concentrations. Because of the strong increase in the relative spectral contribution of CO2 with rising pressure, the precision of the CO2 concentration determination is in general significantly improved toward higher pressures, thus also clearly enhancing the CO2 detectability. The influence of temperature, O2 and CO2 concentration, pressure, and the evaluation techniques employed on both the accuracy and the precision is explained as well as their cross dependencies. The influence and limitations of the approximations used to model the CO2 molecule are discussed.

  9. Can CO2 Turbulent Flux Be Measured by Lidar? A Preliminary Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Fabien; Koch, Grady; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Hilton, Timothy W.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Andrews, Arlyn; Flamant, Pierre H.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2011-01-01

    The vertical profiling ofCO2 turbulent fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is investigated using a coherent differential absorption lidar (CDIAL) operated nearby a tall tower in Wisconsin during June 2007. A CDIAL can perform simultaneous range-resolved CO2 DIAL and velocity measurements. The lidar eddy covariance technique is presented. The aims of the study are (i) an assessment of performance and current limitation of available CDIAL for CO2 turbulent fluxes and (ii) the derivation of instrument specifications to build a future CDIAL to perform accurate range-resolved CO2 fluxes. Experimental lidar CO2 mixing ratio and vertical velocity profiles are successfully compared with in situ sensors measurements. Time and space integral scales of turbulence in the ABL are addressed that result in limitation for time averaging and range accumulation. A first attempt to infer CO2 fluxes using an eddy covariance technique with currently available 2-mm CDIAL dataset is reported.

  10. A Two Micron Coherent Differential Absorption Lidar Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Chen, Songsheng; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Trieu, Bo C.; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2010-01-01

    A pulsed, 2-micron coherent Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL)/Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) transceiver, developed under the Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) at NASA, is integrated into a fully functional lidar instrument. This instrument measures atmospheric CO2 profiles (by DIAL) from a ground platform. It allows the investigators to pursue subsequent in science-driven deployments, and provides a unique tool for Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Night, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) validation that was strongly advocated in the recent ASCENDS Workshop. Keywords: Differential Absorption Lidar, Near Infrared Laser,

  11. Atmospheric CO2 measurements with a 2 μm airborne laser absorption spectrometer employing coherent detection.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Gary D; Menzies, Robert T; Jacob, Joseph; Christensen, Lance E; Phillips, Mark W; Choi, Yonghoon; Browell, Edward V

    2011-05-10

    We report airborne measurements of CO(2) column abundance conducted during two 2009 campaigns using a 2.05 μm laser absorption spectrometer. The two flight campaigns took place in the California Mojave desert and in Oklahoma. The integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) method is used for the CO(2) column mixing ratio retrievals. This instrument and the data analysis methodology provide insight into the capabilities of the IPDA method for both airborne measurements and future global-scale CO(2) measurements from low Earth orbit pertinent to the NASA Active Sensing of CO(2) Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons mission. The use of a favorable absorption line in the CO(2) 2 μm band allows the on-line frequency to be displaced two (surface pressure) half-widths from line center, providing high sensitivity to the lower tropospheric CO(2). The measurement repeatability and measurement precision are in good agreement with predicted estimates. We also report comparisons with airborne in situ measurements conducted during the Oklahoma campaign. PMID:21556111

  12. Tunable Single-Frequency Near IR Lasers for DIAL Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Sammy W.; Marquardt, John H.; Carrig, Timothy J.; Gatt, Phil; Smith, Duane D.; Hale, Charley P.

    2000-01-01

    Tunable single-frequency sources in the 2-4 micron wavelength region are useful for remote DIAL measurements of chemicals and pollutants. We are developing tunable single-frequency transmitters and receivers for both direct and coherent detection lidar measurement applications. We have demonstrated a direct-diode-pumped PPLN-based OPO that operates single frequency, produces greater than 10 mW cw and is tunable over the 2.5 - 3.9 micron wavelength region. This laser has been used to injection seed a pulsed PPLN OPO, pumped by a 1.064 micron Nd:YAG laser, producing 50-100 microJoule single-frequency pulses at 100 Hz PRF near 3.6 micron wavelength. In addition, we have demonstrated a cw Cr:ZnSe laser that is tunable over the 2.1 - 2.8 micron wavelength region. This laser is pumped by a cw diode-pumped Tm:YALO laser and has produced over 1.8 W cw. Tm- and Tm, Ho-doped single-frequency solid-state lasers that produce over 50 mW cw and are tunable over approximately 10 nm in the 2 -2.1 micron band with fast PZT tuning have also been demonstrated. A fast PZT-tunable Tm, Ho:YLF laser was used for a direct-detection column content DIAL measurement of atmospheric CO2. Modeling shows that that all these cw and pulsed sources are useful for column-content coherent DIAL measurements at several km range using topographic targets.

  13. Rock formation characterization for CO2-EOR and carbon geosequestration; 3D seismic amplitude and coherency anomalies, Wellington Field, Kansas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohl, D.; Raef, A.; Watnef, L.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a workflow for a Mississipian carbonates characterization case-study integrating post-stack seismic attributes, well-logs porosities, and seismic modeling to explore relating changes in small-scale "lithofacies" properties and/or sub-seismic resolution faulting to key amplitude and coherency 3D seismic attributes. The main objective of this study is to put emphasis on reservoir characterization that is both optimized for and subsequently benefiting from pilot tertiary CO2-EOR in preparation for future carbon geosequestration in a depleting reservoir and a deep saline aquifer. The extracted 3D seismic coherency attribute indicated anomalous features that can be interpreted as a lithofacies change or a sub-seismic resolution faulting. A 2D finite difference modeling has been undertaken to understand and potentially build discriminant attributes to map structural and/or lithofacies anomalies of interest especially when embarking upon CO2-EOR and/or carbon sequestration monitoring and management projects. ?? 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  14. Time-resolved CO2 thermometry for pressures as great as 5 MPa by use of pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, Martin; Seeger, Thomas; Leipertz, Alfred

    2005-11-01

    Pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements of pure CO2 have been performed in a temperature range from 300 to 773 K and for pressure from 0.1 to 5 MPa for the purpose of time-resolved CO2 thermometry. Particular emphasis was put on the comparison of several linewidth approximations to model the experimental spectra. Generally good agreement of the temperature mean values with the thermocouple reference has been found for all models over almost the whole pressure and temperature range investigated. The standard deviations, which increased with temperature, were comparable with or better than the results gained for single-shot measurements of pure N2 or O2-N2 mixtures. Yet for high particle densities close to the critical point of CO2 the limitation of the models became obvious, owing to the strongly increased influence of motional narrowing effects. The characteristics of these effects have been demonstrated by measurements even closer to the critical conditions.

  15. Differential Absorption Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor with a Coherent Lidar at 2050.532 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Dharamsi, Amin; Davis, Richard E.; Petros, Mulugeta; McCarthy, John C.

    1999-01-01

    Wind and water vapor are two major factors driving the Earth's atmospheric circulation, and direct measurement of these factors is needed for better understanding of basic atmospheric science, weather forecasting, and climate studies. Coherent lidar has proved to be a valuable tool for Doppler profiling of wind fields, and differential absorption lidar (DIAL) has shown its effectiveness in profiling water vapor. These two lidar techniques are generally considered distinctly different, but this paper explores an experimental combination of the Doppler and DIAL techniques for measuring both wind and water vapor with an eye-safe wavelength based on a solid-state laser material. Researchers have analyzed and demonstrated coherent DIAL water vapor measurements at 10 micrometers wavelength based on CO2 lasers. The hope of the research presented here is that the 2 gm wavelength in a holmium or thulium-based laser may offer smaller packaging and more rugged operation that the CO2-based approach. Researchers have extensively modeled 2 um coherent lasers for water vapor profiling, but no published demonstration is known. Studies have also been made, and results published on the Doppler portion, of a Nd:YAG-based coherent DIAL operating at 1.12 micrometers. Eye-safety of the 1.12 micrometer wavelength may be a concern, whereas the longer 2 micrometer and 10 micrometer systems allow a high level of eyesafety.

  16. FY05 FM Dial Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Warren W.; Strasburg, Jana D.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, Jason S.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Batdorf, Michael T.

    2005-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Infrared Sensors team is focused on developing methods for standoff detection of nuclear proliferation. In FY05, PNNL continued the development of the FM DIAL (frequency-modulated differential absorption LIDAR) experiment. Additional improvements to the FM DIAL trailer provided greater stability during field campaigns which made it easier to explore new locations for field campaigns. In addition to the Hanford Townsite, successful experiments were conducted at the Marine Science Laboratory in Sequim, WA and the Nevada Test Site located outside Las Vegas, NV. The range of chemicals that can be detected by FM DIAL has also increased. Prior to FY05, distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers (DFB-QCL) were used in the FM DIAL experiments. With these lasers, only simple chemicals with narrow (1-2 cm-1) absorption spectra, such as CO2 and N2O, could be detected. Fabry-Perot (FP) QC lasers have much broader spectra (20-40 cm-1) which allows for the detection of larger chemicals and a wider array of chemicals that can be detected. A FP-QCL has been characterized and used during initial studies detecting DMMP (dimethyl methylphosphonate).

  17. IR DIAL performance modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sharlemann, E.T.

    1994-07-01

    We are developing a DIAL performance model for CALIOPE at LLNL. The intent of the model is to provide quick and interactive parameter sensitivity calculations with immediate graphical output. A brief overview of the features of the performance model is given, along with an example of performance calculations for a non-CALIOPE application.

  18. CO2 laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D.; Callan, R.; Constant, G.; Davies, P. H.; Foord, R.

    CO2 laser-based radars operating at 10 microns are both highly energy-efficient and eye-safe, as well as compact and rugged; they also furnish covertness-enhancing fine pointing accuracy, and are difficult to jam or otherwise confuse. Two modes of operation are generally employed: incoherent, in which the laser is simply used as a high power illumination source, and in the presently elaborated coherent or heterodyne mode. Applications encompass terrain-following and obstacle avoidance, Doppler discrimination of missile and aircraft targets, pollutant gas detection, wind measurement for weapons-aiming, and global wind field monitoring.

  19. Computer Simulation of Global Profiles of Carbon Dioxide Using a Pulsed, 2-Micron, Coherent-Detection, Column-Content DIAL System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady J.; Yu, Jirong; Frehlich, Rod G.

    2009-01-01

    We present preliminary results of computer simulations of the error in measuring carbon dioxide mixing ratio profiles from earth orbit. The simulated sensor is a pulsed, 2-micron, coherent-detection lidar alternately operating on at least two wavelengths. The simulated geometry is a nadir viewing lidar measuring the column content signal. Atmospheric absorption is modeled using FASCODE3P software with the HITRAN 2004 absorption line data base. Lidar shot accumulation is employed up to the horizontal resolution limit. Horizontal resolutions of 50, 100, and 200 km are shown. Assuming a 400 km spacecraft orbit, the horizontal resolutions correspond to measurement times of about 7, 14, and 28 s. We simulate laser pulse-pair repetition frequencies from 1 Hz to 100 kHz. The range of shot accumulation is 7 to 2.8 million pulse-pairs. The resultant error is shown as a function of horizontal resolution, laser pulse-pair repetition frequency, and laser pulse energy. The effect of different on and off pulse energies is explored. The results are compared to simulation results of others and to demonstrated 2-micron operating points at NASA Langley.

  20. Preliminary DIAL model

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, S.; Taylor, J.; Stephenson, D.

    1994-06-01

    A unique end-to-end LIDAR sensor model has been developed supporting the concept development stage of the CALIOPE UV DIAL and UV laser-induced-fluorescence (LIF) efforts. The model focuses on preserving the temporal and spectral nature of signals as they pass through the atmosphere, are collected by the optics, detected by the sensor, and processed by the sensor electronics and algorithms. This is done by developing accurate component sub-models with realistic inputs and outputs, as well as internal noise sources and operating parameters. These sub-models are then configured using data-flow diagrams to operate together to reflect the performance of the entire DIAL system. This modeling philosophy allows the developer to have a realistic indication of the nature of signals throughout the system and to design components and processing in a realistic environment. Current component models include atmospheric absorption and scattering losses, plume absorption and scattering losses, background, telescope and optical filter models, PMT (photomultiplier tube) with realistic noise sources, amplifier operation and noise, A/D converter operation, noise and distortion, pulse averaging, and DIAL computation. Preliminary results of the model will be presented indicating the expected model operation depicting the October field test at the NTS spill test facility. Indications will be given concerning near-term upgrades to the model.

  1. Radium dial workers

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, R.E.; Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The population of radium dial workers who were exposed to radium 30 to 50 years ago are currently being followed by the Center for Human Radiobiology at the Argonne National Laboratory. It is not clear that radium has induced additional malignancies in this population, other than the well-known bone sarcomas and head carcinomas, but elevated incidence rates for multiple myeloma and cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and breast suggest that radium might be involved. Continued follow-up of this population may resolve these questions. Finally, the question of the effect of fetal irradiation on the offspring of these women remains to be resolved. No evidence exists to suggest that any effects have occurred, but there is no question that a chronic irradiation of the developing fetus did take place. No formal follow-up of these children has yet been initiated.

  2. Development of a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Carbon Sequestration Site Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W.; Bares, A.; Nehrir, A. R.; Repasky, K. S.; Carlsten, J.

    2010-12-01

    Rising levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Earth’s atmosphere have been identified as a major contributor to climate change. Geologic carbon sequestration has the potential for mitigating CO2 emission into the atmosphere by capturing CO2 at power generation facilities and storing the CO2 in geologic formations. Several technological challenges need to be overcome for successful geologic sequestration of CO2 including surface monitoring tools and techniques for monitoring CO2 sequestration sites to ensure site integrity and public safety. Researchers at Montana State University are developing an eye-safe scanning differential absorption lidar (DIAL) capable of spatially mapping above-ground CO2 number densities for carbon sequestration site monitoring. The eye-safe scanning CO2 DIAL utilizes a temperature tunable fiber pigtailed distributed feedback (DFB) laser operating wavelength of 1.573 μm to access CO2 absorption features. The output of the DFB laser is split using an inline fiber splitter with part of the light sent to an optical wavemeter to monitor the operating wavelength of the laser transmitter. The remaining light is modulated using an inline acousto-optic modulator producing a pulse train with a 20 kHz pulse repetition frequency and a 2 μs duration. This pulse train is amplified in a commercial fiber amplifier producing up to 80 μJ per pulse energy. The output from the fiber amplifier is sent horizontally through the atmosphere and the scattered light is collected using a 28 cm diameter commercial Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope. The light collected by the telescope is collimated and focused into a multimode optical fiber. A fiber coupled photomultiplier (PMT) tube is then used to monitor the light collected by the DIAL receiver. Data is collected in the following manner. The DFB laser is tuned to the online wavelength of the CO2 absorption feature and data is collected for a user defined time. A feedback loop utilizing the optical wavemeter is used

  3. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, Adelbert; van de Sanden, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy efficiency.

  4. Advances in High Energy Solid-State 2-micron Laser Transmitter Development for Ground and Airborne Wind and CO2 Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Chen, Songsheng; Kavaya, Michael J.; Trieu, Bo; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul; Modlin, Edward A.; Koch, Grady; Beyon, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Sustained research efforts at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) during last fifteen years have resulted in a significant advancement in 2-micron diode-pumped, solid-state laser transmitter for wind and carbon dioxide measurement from ground, air and space-borne platform. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a compact, flight capable, high energy, injection seeded, 2-micron laser transmitter for ground and airborne wind and carbon dioxide measurements. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser transmitter was integrated into a mobile trailer based coherent Doppler wind and CO2 DIAL system and was deployed during field measurement campaigns. This paper will give an overview of 2-micron solid-state laser technology development and discuss results from recent ground-based field measurements.

  5. Development of a 2-micron Pulsed Differential Absorption Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Measurement by Direct Detection Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Singh, U. N.; Petros, M.; Bai, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center are developing a 2-micron Pulsed Differential Absorption Lidar instrument for ground and airborne measurements via direct detection method. This instrument will provide an alternate approach to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. A high energy pulsed approach provides high-precision measurement capbility by having high signal-to-noise level and unambiguously eliminates the contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement. A key component of the CO2 DIAL system, transceiver, is an existing, airborne ready, robust hardware which can provide 250mJ at 10Hz with double pulse format specifically designed for DIAL instrument. The exact wavelengths of the transceiver are controlled by well defined CW seed laser source to provide the required injection source for generating on-and-off line wavelength pulses sequentially. The compact, rugged, highly reliable transceiver is based on the unique Ho:Tm:YLF high-energy 2-micron pulsed laser technology. All the optical mounts are custom designed and have space heritage. They are designed to be adjustable and lockable and hardened to withstand vibrations that can occur in airborne operation. For the direct detection lidar application, a large primary mirror size is preferred. A 14 inch diameter telescope will be developed for this program. The CO2 DIAL/IPDA system requires many electronic functions to operate. These include diode, RF, seed laser, and PZT drivers; injection seeding detection and control; detector power supplies; and analog inputs to sample various sensors. Under NASA Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP), a control unit Compact Laser Electronics (CLE), is developed for the controlling the coherent wind lidar transceiver. Significant modifications and additions are needed to update it for CO2 lidar controls. The data acquisition system was built for ground CO2 measurement demonstration. The software will be updated for

  6. CO2 laser modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Barry

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: (1) CO2 laser kinetics modeling; (2) gas lifetimes in pulsed CO2 lasers; (3) frequency chirp and laser pulse spectral analysis; (4) LAWS A' Design Study; and (5) discharge circuit components for LAWS. The appendices include LAWS Memos, computer modeling of pulsed CO2 lasers for lidar applications, discharge circuit considerations for pulsed CO2 lidars, and presentation made at the Code RC Review.

  7. Dial Access Libraries; Their Use and Utility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Karl M.; Bloch, Alice D.

    1974-01-01

    Medical dial access libraries (DALs) are an innovative information service for health professionals. This report is an evaluation of the general value, effectiveness, and efficiency of the dial access services. (Author/PG)

  8. Field Testing of a Two-Micron DIAL System for Profiling Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Ismail, Syed; Koch, Grady J.; Diaz, Liza; Davis, Ken; Rubio, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    A 2-m DIAL system has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center through the NASA Instrument Incubator Program. The system utilizes a tunable 2-m pulsed laser and an IR phototransistor for the transmitter and the receiver, respectively. The system targets the CO2 absorption line R22 in the 2.05-m band. Field experiments were conducted at West Branch, Iowa, for evaluating the system for CO2 measurement by comparison with in-situ sensors. The CO2 in-situ sensors were located on the NOAA's WBI tower at 31, 99 and 379 m altitudes, besides the NOAA s aircraft was sampling at higher altitudes. Preliminary results demonstrated the capabilities of the DIAL system in profiling atmospheric CO2 using the 2-m wavelength. Results of these experiments will be presented and discussed.

  9. Design of a near-IR coherent lidar for high spatial and velocity resolution wind measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grund, Christian J.; Post, Madison J.

    1992-01-01

    A coherent Doppler lidar based on a CW diode-pumped, injection seeded, Th:YAG laser operating at approx. 2.02 microns is currently under development. This system is optimized for measurements of boundary layer winds with high spatial, temporal, and velocity resolution. Initially, the system will run alongside a new high repetition rate (5-10 kHz) CO2 mini-Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (mini-MOPA) Doppler lidar, which will provide simultaneous range-resolved Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) water vapor measurements. Water vapor DIAL operation of the 2 micron system is being considered as a future option. The anticipated specifications and the preliminary design are discussed.

  10. Proposal to Simultaneously Profile Wind and CO2 on Earth and Mars With 2-micron Pulsed Lidar Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Ismail, Syed; Emmitt, David

    2005-01-01

    2-micron lidar technology has been in use and under continued improvement for many years toward wind measurements. But the 2-micron wavelength region is also rich in absorption lines of CO2 (and H2O to a lesser extent) that can be exploited with the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique to make species concentration measurements. A coherent detection receiver offers the possibility of making combined wind and DIAL measurements with wind derived from frequency shift of the backscatter spectrum and species concentration derived from power of the backscatter spectrum. A combined wind and CO2 measurement capability is of interest for applications on both Earth and Mars. CO2 measurements in the Earth atmosphere are of importance to studies of the global carbon cycle. Data on vertically-resolved CO2 profiles over large geographical observations areas are of particular interest that could potentially be made by deploying a lidar on an aircraft or satellite. By combining CO2 concentration with wind measurements an even more useful data product could be obtained in the calculation of CO2 flux. A challenge to lidar in this application is that CO2 concentration measurements must be made with a high level of precision and accuracy to better than 1%. The Martian atmosphere also presents wind and CO2 measurement problems that could be met with a combined DIAL/Doppler lidar. CO2 concentration in this scenario would be used to calculate atmospheric density since the Martian atmosphere is composed of 95% CO2. The lack of measurements of Mars atmospheric density in the 30-60 km range, dust storm formation and movements, and horizontal wind patterns in the 0-20 km range pose significant risks to aerocapture, and entry, descent, and landing of future robotic and human Mars missions. Systematic measurement of the Mars atmospheric density and winds will be required over several Mars years, supplemented with day-of-entry operational measurements. To date, there have been 5

  11. Development and Field Testing of a Continuously Operating CO2 Lidar Profiling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, S.; Refaat, T.; Koch, G. J.; Davis, K.; Abedin, N. M.; Rubio, M. A.; Singh, U. N.

    2009-05-01

    A ground-based 2-micron DIAL system for profiling atmospheric CO2 was developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program. This system leverages 2-micron laser technology developed under a number of NASA programs to develop new solid-state YLF laser technology that provides high pulse energy, tunable, wavelength-stabilized, and double-pulsed lasers that are operable over pre-selected temperature insensitive strong CO2 absorption lines suitable for profiling of lower tropospheric CO2. It also incorporates new high quantum efficiency, high gain, and relatively low noise phototransistors, and a new receiver/signal processor system to achieve high precision DIAL measurements. The DIAL system was integrated and tested at LaRC, and then incorporated in a field experiment for evaluation. The field experiment was conducted during June-July 2008, at West Branch, Iowa, which is located at the center of a domain rich in complementary CO2 measurements. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the system and its ability to distinguish contents between boundary layer and free troposphere. Therefore, the experiment was co-located with other CO2 measurement setups that aid the evaluation. These setups include NOAA WBI tower with in-situ CO2 sampling sensors at 31, 99 and 379 m altitudes; NOAA airborne CO2 profiling; and radiosondes for atmospheric temperature, pressure and relative humidity profiling at the site. The lidar operations included daytime CO2 measurements to sense the well-mixed atmospheric boundary layer and overlying troposphere; day-to-night and night-to-day transitions; and night observations to capture CO2 mixing ratio differences within the boundary layer. Measurements included atmospheric CO2 spatial and temporal profiles as well as column measurements using high altitude clouds. Examples of CO2 DIAL system capability and measurements from the field experiment will be presented.

  12. CO2 blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  13. Synthetic Array Heterodyne Detection: Developments within the Caliope CO{sub 2} DIAL Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rehse, S.J.; Strauss, E.M.

    1995-09-01

    A new technique, Synthetic Array Heterodyne Detection, offers a wider field of view and improved signal to noise for coherent DIAL systems by reducing speckle interference. We have implemented a synthetic multi-pixel array using a CO{sub 2} laser on a single element HgCdTe photodiode.

  14. Development of Double and Triple-Pulsed 2-micron IPDA Lidars for Column CO2 Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Remus, Ruben G.; Reithmaier, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important greenhouse gas that significantly contributes to the carbon cycle and globalradiation budget on Earth. CO2 role on Earth’s climate is complicated due to different interactions with various climatecomponents that include the atmosphere, the biosphere and the hydrosphere. Although extensive worldwide efforts formonitoring atmospheric CO2 through various techniques, including in-situ and passive sensors, are taking place highuncertainties exist in quantifying CO2 sources and sinks. These uncertainties are mainly due to insufficient spatial andtemporal mapping of the gas. Therefore it is required to have more rapid and accurate CO2 monitoring with higheruniform coverage and higher resolution. CO2 DIAL operating in the 2-µm band offer better near-surface CO2measurement sensitivity due to the intrinsically stronger absorption lines. For more than 15 years, NASA LangleyResearch Center (LaRC) contributed in developing several 2-?m CO2 DIAL systems and technologies. This paperfocuses on the current development of the airborne double-pulsed and triple-pulsed 2-?m CO2 integrated pathdifferential absorption (IPDA) lidar system at NASA LaRC. This includes the IPDA system development andintegration. Results from ground and airborne CO2 IPDA testing will be presented. The potential of scaling suchtechnology to a space mission will be addressed.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) Aircraft Measurements of CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Lance E.; Spiers, Gary D.; Menzies, Robert T.; Jacob, Joseph C.; Hyon, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) utilizes Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) at 2.05 microns to obtain CO2 column mixing ratios weighted heavily in the boundary layer. CO2LAS employs a coherent detection receiver and continuous-wave Th:Ho:YLF laser transmitters with output powers around 100 milliwatts. An offset frequency-locking scheme coupled to an absolute frequency reference enables the frequencies of the online and offline lasers to be held to within 200 kHz of desired values. We describe results from 2009 field campaigns when CO2LAS flew on the Twin Otter. We also describe spectroscopic studies aimed at uncovering potential biases in lidar CO2 retrievals at 2.05 microns.

  16. Capnography: monitoring CO2.

    PubMed

    Casey, Georgina

    2015-10-01

    MONITORING RESPIRATORY and metabolic function by using capnography to measure end tidal carbon dioxide is standard practice in anaesthesia. It is also becoming more common in intensive care units and during procedural sedation. End tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) monitoring may also be used to assess effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Capnography is now emerging in general medical and surgical wards to monitor respiratory depression in patients using opioid analgesics. Using EtCO2 to monitor respiratory function offers many benefits over pulse oximetry. It is important to understand the differences between these two monitoring methods, and why capnography is increasingly favoured in many situations. An understanding of the physiological processes involved in CO2 excretion allows nurses to use capnography in a safe and meaningful way, while monitoring at-risk patients in acute care. PMID:26638570

  17. Data and Information Access Link (DIAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, R.; Di, L.; McDonald, K.

    2001-05-01

    The Data and Information Access Link (DIAL) is a web based package of software tools for geospatial data storage, visualization and distribution. The DIAL software provides a web based easy to use software solution to small data producers to organize and distribute remote sensing data and metadata. DIAL system can handle heterogeneous types of remote sensing and field campaign data for Earth science applications. DIAL works with image data, grid, swath, and tabular, multidimensional array and point data. The DIAL system supports NASA's Earth Observing System and Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data standards HDF- EOS, Hierarchical Data Format (HDF), and network Common Data Format (netCDF). Data format translators are also available between HDF-EOS and Arc-Info, Geo-tiff, and shape formats. DIAL software works with data from the EOS Terra, LANDSAT 7, TRMM, SeaWiFS missions and many other types of legacy data from NASA. DIAL software is freely available for users. DIAL features: Catalog services: Spatial, temporal, and parameter-based search; Catalog search at inventory and directory levels; Automatic creation of metadata catalog; Supports ODBC/JDBC compatible databases for storing metadata/catalog; User-friendly Java search interface with query preview. Data services: On-line access to data and metadata; Single- and multi-granule subsetting and sub sampling based on array coordinates or record numbers; Single- and multi-granule sub setting and sub sampling based on geographic/map coordinates and physical parameters; Browse and dynamic/interactive visualization of data; Animation of time series or multi dimensional data; Interactive color composites of multi-spectral data; Overlay of coastal and political boundaries; On-line downloading of data in multiple formats; X-Y plotting for non-image data. DIAL can work as a standalone application or in a distributed environment. DIAL is integrated with NASA's Earth Science Data Gateway (EDG) providing support for the

  18. Comparison of lower tropospheric ozone columns observed by DIAL and GOSAT TANSO-FTS TIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, O.; Sakai, T.; Nagai, T.; Morino, I.; Ohyama, H.; Kawakami, S.; Shiomi, K.; Kawasaki, T.; Akaho, T.; Okumura, H.; Arai, K.; Matsunaga, T.; Yokota, T.

    2013-12-01

    Ozone plays important roles in climate change and air quality. We have been improving the ozone DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) installed at Saga (33.24N, 130.29E), Japan in March 2011. Current DIAL consists of four Stimulated Raman Scattering lines (276, 287, 299, and 312 nm) which are generated by the fourth harmonic (266 nm) of a Nd:YAG laser and a 2-m Raman cell filled with 8-atm CO2 gas, and 10-cm and 50-cm dia. receiving telescopes. With this DIAL, ozone profiles could be measured from ~ 300 m to 6 km~10 km altitude. Total and tropospheric ozone columns have been retrieved from the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer, measuring in the Thermal InfraRed (TANSO-FTS TIR) onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) launched on 23, January 2009. Lower tropospheric ozone columns between 1 km and 6 km retrieved from GOSAT TANSO-FTS TIR (9.6 μm band) within ×1 degree longitude/latitude centered at DIAL were compared with those of DIAL data in 2012 which were applied with GOSAT TANSO-FTS TIR averaging kernels. Although GOSAT TANSO-FTS TIR data were lower than DIAL data by 10×11%, they were in reasonable agreement with a correlation coefficient of 0.79. Seasonal variations of lower tropospheric ozone columns are clearly seen, and high ozone mixing ratio events around 2 km altitude observed by DIAL are reported.

  19. CO2-neutral fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, A. P. H.

    2015-08-01

    The need for storage of renewable energy (RE) generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G) scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel cycle is

  20. Combined 2-micron Dial and Doppler Lidar: Application to the Atmosphere of Earth or Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady J.; Ismail, Syed; Kavaya, Michael; Yu, Jirong; Wood, Sidney A.; Emmitt, G. David

    2006-01-01

    A concept is explored for combining the Doppler and DIAL techniques into a single, multifunctional instrument. Wind, CO2 concentration, and aerosol density can all be measured. Technology to build this instrument is described, including the demonstration of a prototype lidar. Applications are described for use in the Earth science. The atmosphere of Mars can also be studied, and results from a recently-developed simulation model of performance in the Martian atmosphere are presented.

  1. Advanced 2-micron Solid-state Laser for Wind and CO2 Lidar Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Koch, Grady J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Significant advancements in the 2-micron laser development have been made recently. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. The world record 2-micron laser energy is demonstrated with an oscillator and two amplifiers system. It generates more than one joule per pulse energy with excellent beam quality. Based on the successful demonstration of a fully conductive cooled oscillator by using heat pipe technology, an improved fully conductively cooled 2-micron amplifier was designed, manufactured and integrated. It virtually eliminates the running coolant to increase the overall system efficiency and reliability. In addition to technology development and demonstration, a compact and engineering hardened 2-micron laser is under development. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser is expected to be integrated to a lidar system and take field measurements. The recent achievements push forward the readiness of such a laser system for space lidar applications. This paper will review the developments of the state-of-the-art solid-state 2-micron laser.

  2. On-Line Wavelength Calibration of Pulsed Laser for CO2 Differential Absorption LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Chengzhi; Ma, Xin; Han, Ge; Liang, Ailin; Gong, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) remote sensing is a promising technology for atmospheric CO2 detection. However, stringent wavelength accuracy and stability are required in DIAL system. Accurate on-line wavelength calibration is a crucial procedure for retrieving atmospheric CO2 concentration using the DIAL, particularly when pulsed lasers are adopted in the system. Large fluctuations in the intensities of a pulsed laser pose a great challenge for accurate on-line wavelength calibration. In this paper, a wavelength calibration strategy based on multi-wavelength scanning (MWS) was proposed for accurate on-line wavelength calibration of a pulsed laser for CO2 detection. The MWS conducted segmented sampling across the CO2 absorption line with appropriate number of points and range of widths by using a tunable laser. Complete absorption line of CO2 can be obtained through a curve fitting. Then, the on-line wavelength can be easily found at the peak of the absorption line. Furthermore, another algorithm called the energy matching was introduced in the MWS to eliminate the backlash error of tunable lasers during the process of on-line wavelength calibration. Finally, a series of tests was conducted to elevate the calibration precision of MWS. Analysis of tests demonstrated that the MWS proposed in this paper could calibrate the on-line wavelength of pulsed laser accurately and steadily.

  3. Direct measurements of collisionally broadened Raman linewidths of CO2 S-branch transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sukesh; Hsu, Paul S.; Jiang, Naibo; Gord, Joseph R.; Kulatilaka, Waruna D.; Stauffer, Hans U.; Gord, James R.

    2013-01-01

    We report direct measurements of S-branch Raman-coherence lifetimes of CO2 resulting from CO2-CO2 and CO2-N2 collisions by employing time-resolved picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy. The S-branch (ΔJ = +2) transitions of CO2 with rotational quantum number J = 0-52 were simultaneously excited using a broadband (˜5 nm) laser pulse with a full-width-at-half-maximum duration of ˜115 ps. The coherence lifetimes of CO2 for a pressure range of 0.05-1 atm were measured directly by probing the rotational coherence with a nearly transform-limited, 90-ps-long laser pulse. These directly measured Raman-coherence lifetimes, when converted to collisional linewidth broadening coefficients, differ from the previously reported broadening coefficients extracted from frequency-domain rotational Raman and infrared-absorption spectra and from theoretical calculations by 7%-25%.

  4. Development of a Pulsed 2-micron Laser Transmitter for CO2 Sensing from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingxin; Petros, Mulugeta; Menzies, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), in collaboration with NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is engaged in the development and demonstration of a highly efficient, versatile, 2-micron pulsed laser that can be used in a pulsed Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL)/Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) instrument to make precise, high-resolution CO2 measurements to investigate sources, sinks, and fluxes of CO2. This laser transmitter will feature performance characteristics needed for an ASCENDS system that will be capable of delivering the CO2 measurement precision required by the Earth Science Decadal Survey (DS).

  5. CO2 laser preionisation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiers, Gary D.

    1991-01-01

    The final report for work done during the reporting period of January 25, 1990 to January 24, 1991 is presented. A literature survey was conducted to identify the required parameters for effective preionization in TEA CO2 lasers and the methods and techniques for characterizing preionizers are reviewed. A numerical model of the LP-140 cavity was used to determine the cause of the transverse mode stability improvement obtained when the cavity was lengthened. The measurement of the voltage and current discharge pulses on the LP-140 were obtained and their subsequent analysis resulted in an explanation for the low efficiency of the laser. An assortment of items relating to the development of high-voltage power supplies is also provided. A program for analyzing the frequency chirp data files obtained with the HP time and frequency analyzer is included. A program to calculate the theoretical LIMP chirp is also included and a comparison between experiment and theory is made. A program for calculating the CO2 linewidth and its dependence on gas composition and pressure is presented. The program also calculates the number of axial modes under the FWHM of the line for a given resonator length. A graphical plot of the results is plotted.

  6. CO2 Laser Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsson, Samuel

    1989-03-01

    It gives me a great deal of pleasure to introduce our final speaker of this morning's session for two reasons: First of all, his company has been very much in the news not only in our own community but in the pages of Wall Street Journal and in the world economic press. And, secondly, we would like to welcome him to our shores. He is a temporary resident of the United States, for a few months, forsaking his home in Germany to come here and help with the start up of a new company which we believe, probably, ranks #1 as the world supplier of CO2 lasers now, through the combination of former Spectra Physics Industrial Laser Division and Rofin-Sinar GMBH. Samuel Simonsson is the Chairman of the Board of Rofin-Sinar, Inc., here in the U.S. and managing director of Rofin-Sinar GMBH. It is a pleasure to welcome him.

  7. Optimization of A 2-Micron Laser Frequency Stabilization System for a Double-Pulse CO2 Differential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Songsheng; Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingsin; Koch, Grady; Petros, Mulugeta; Trieu, Bo; Petzar, Paul; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Beyon, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    A carbon dioxide (CO2) Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for accurate CO2 concentration measurement requires a frequency locking system to achieve high frequency locking precision and stability. We describe the frequency locking system utilizing Frequency Modulation (FM), Phase Sensitive Detection (PSD), and Proportional Integration Derivative (PID) feedback servo loop, and report the optimization of the sensitivity of the system for the feed back loop based on the characteristics of a variable path-length CO2 gas cell. The CO2 gas cell is characterized with HITRAN database (2004). The method can be applied for any other frequency locking systems referring to gas absorption line.

  8. Advanced Airborne CO2 LAS System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobler, J. T.; Braun, M. G.; McGregor, D. P.; Erxleben, W. H.; Browell, E. V.; Harrison, F. W.

    2009-12-01

    A unique airborne Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (LAS) system has been developed by ITT Space Systems, LLC to address the needs of the National Research Council Decadal Survey Tier 2 mission for Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons (ASCENDS). This instrument has undergone multiple airborne field tests in cooperation with our partners at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The instrument was built largely with off-the-shelf components and uses high reliability telecom components, including lasers, modulators and fiber amplifiers as the transmitter. Multiple wavelengths are transmitted simultaneously from a single collimator and the return signal is collected by a simple 8” telescope that is fiber coupled to a HgCdTe APD. The analog signal is sampled with a high resolution scope card housed in a National Instruments PXI chassis and the digitized signal is then passed through our custom-built software-based lock-in processing system which allows separation of the signals from the individual wavelengths. The separated signals are then used in the standard Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) relations to determine the integrated column differential optical depth. This presentation will give a detailed overview of this multi-frequency, single-beam, synchronous lock-in LAS instrument including the basic methodology of the measurement. Recent improvements in the lock-in methodology designed to eliminate the effects of multi- path fading and frequency dependence of the electronic components will also be discussed.

  9. Ar + CO2 and He + CO2 Plasmas in ASTRAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, R. F.; Gardner, A.; Munoz, J.; Kamar, O.; Loch, S.

    2007-11-01

    Spectroscopy study of the ASTRAL helicon plasma source running Ar + CO2 and He + CO2 gas mixes is presented. ASTRAL produces plasmas with the following parameters: ne = 10^10 - 10^13 cm-3, Te = 2 - 10 eV and Ti = 0.03 - 0.5 eV, B-field <= 1.3 kGauss, rf power <= 2 kWatt. A 0.33 m scanning monochromator is used for this study. Using Ar + CO2 gas mixes, very different plasmas are observed as the concentration of CO2 is changed. At low CO2 concentration, the bluish plasma is essentially atomic and argon transitions dominate the spectra. Weak C I and O I lines are present in the 750 - 1000 nm range. At higher CO2 concentration, the plasma becomes essentially molecular and is characterized by intense, white plasma columns. Here, spectra are filled with molecular bands (CO2, CO2^+, CO and CO^+). Limited molecular dissociative excitation processes associated with the production of C I and O I emission are also observed. On the other hand, He + CO2 plasmas are different. Here, rf matches are only possible at low CO2 concentration. Under these conditions, the spectra are characterized by strong C I and O I transitions with little or no molecular bands. Strong dissociative processes observed in these plasmas can be link to the high Te associated with He plasmas. An analysis of the spectra with possible scientific and industrial applications will be presented.

  10. Advanced Atmospheric Water Vapor DIAL Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.; DeYoung, Russell J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of atmospheric water vapor is very important for understanding the Earth's climate and water cycle. The remote sensing Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique is a powerful method to perform such measurement from aircraft and space. This thesis describes a new advanced detection system, which incorporates major improvements regarding sensitivity and size. These improvements include a low noise advanced avalanche photodiode detector, a custom analog circuit, a 14-bit digitizer, a microcontroller for on board averaging and finally a fast computer interface. This thesis describes the design and validation of this new water vapor DIAL detection system which was integrated onto a small Printed Circuit Board (PCB) with minimal weight and power consumption. Comparing its measurements to an existing DIAL system for aerosol and water vapor profiling validated the detection system.

  11. Development of an Eye-Safe Micro-Pulse Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Carbon Dioxide Profilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W.; Repasky, K. S.; Nehrir, A. R.; Carlsten, J.

    2011-12-01

    A differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) is under development at Montana State University using commercially available parts. Two distributed feedback (DFB) lasers, one at the on-line wavelength and one at the off-line wavelength are used to injection seed a fiber amplifier. The DIAL operates in the 1.57 micron carbon dioxide absorption band at an on-line wavelength of 1.5714060 microns. The laser transmitter produces 40 μJ pulses with a pulse duration of 1 μs and a pulse repetition frequency of 20 kHz. The scattered light from the laser transmitter is collected using a 28 cm diameter Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope. The light collected by the telescope is collimated and then filtered using a 0.8 nm FWHM narrowband interference filter. After the optical filter, the light is coupled into a multimode optical fiber with a 1000 μm core diameter. The output from the optical fiber is coupled into a photomultiplier tube (PMT) used to monitor the return signal. The analog output from the PMT is next incident on a discriminator producing TTL logic pulses for photon counting. The output from the PMT and discriminator is monitored using a multichannel scalar card allowing the counting of the TTL pulses as a function of range. Data from the DIAL instrument is collected in the following manner. The fiber amplifier is injection seeded first with the on-line DFB laser. The return signal as a function of range is integrated using the multichannel scalar for a user defined time, typically set at 6 s. The off-line DFB laser is then used to injection seed the fiber amplifier and the process is repeated. This process is repeated for a user defined period. The CO2 concentration as a function of range is calculated using the on-line and off-line return signals with the DIAL equation. A comparison of the CO2 concentration measured using the DIAL instrument at 1.5 km and a Li-Cor LI-820 in situ sensor located at 1.5 km from the DIAL over a 2.5 hour period

  12. A Preliminary Study of CO2 Flux Measurements by Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibert, Fabien; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Hilton, T.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Andrews, Arlyn; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.

    2008-01-01

    A mechanistic understanding of the global carbon cycle requires quantification of terrestrial ecosystem CO2 fluxes at regional scales. In this paper, we analyze the potential of a Doppler DIAL system to make flux measurements of atmospheric CO2 using the eddy-covariance and boundary layer budget methods and present results from a ground based experiment. The goal of this study is to put CO2 flux point measurements in a mesoscale context. In June 2007, a field experiment combining a 2-m Doppler Heterodyne Differential Absorption Lidar (HDIAL) and in-situ sensors of a 447-m tall tower (WLEF) took place in Wisconsin. The HDIAL measures simultaneously: 1) CO2 mixing ratio, 2) atmosphere structure via aerosol backscatter and 3) radial velocity. We demonstrate how to synthesize these data into regional flux estimates. Lidar-inferred fluxes are compared with eddy-covariance fluxes obtained in-situ at 396m AGL from the tower. In cases where the lidar was not yet able to measure the fluxes with acceptable precision, we discuss possible modifications to improve system performance.

  13. 47 CFR 51.213 - Toll dialing parity implementation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Toll dialing parity implementation plans. 51... parity implementation plans. (a) A LEC must file a plan for providing intraLATA toll dialing parity... dialing parity within a state until the implementation plan has been approved by the appropriate...

  14. 47 CFR 51.209 - Toll dialing parity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Toll dialing parity. 51.209 Section 51.209... Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.209 Toll dialing parity. (a) A LEC shall implement throughout each state in which it offers telephone exchange service intraLATA and interLATA toll dialing...

  15. 47 CFR 51.205 - Dialing parity: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dialing parity: General. 51.205 Section 51.205... Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.205 Dialing parity: General. A local exchange carrier (LEC) shall provide local and toll dialing parity to competing providers of telephone exchange service...

  16. 47 CFR 51.213 - Toll dialing parity implementation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Toll dialing parity implementation plans. 51... parity implementation plans. (a) A LEC must file a plan for providing intraLATA toll dialing parity... dialing parity within a state until the implementation plan has been approved by the appropriate...

  17. 47 CFR 51.209 - Toll dialing parity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Toll dialing parity. 51.209 Section 51.209... Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.209 Toll dialing parity. (a) A LEC shall implement throughout each state in which it offers telephone exchange service intraLATA and interLATA toll dialing...

  18. 47 CFR 51.205 - Dialing parity: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dialing parity: General. 51.205 Section 51.205... Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.205 Dialing parity: General. A local exchange carrier (LEC) shall provide local and toll dialing parity to competing providers of telephone exchange service...

  19. 47 CFR 51.213 - Toll dialing parity implementation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Toll dialing parity implementation plans. 51... parity implementation plans. (a) A LEC must file a plan for providing intraLATA toll dialing parity... dialing parity within a state until the implementation plan has been approved by the appropriate...

  20. 47 CFR 51.205 - Dialing parity: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dialing parity: General. 51.205 Section 51.205... Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.205 Dialing parity: General. A local exchange carrier (LEC) shall provide local and toll dialing parity to competing providers of telephone exchange service...

  1. 47 CFR 51.215 - Dialing parity: Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dialing parity: Cost recovery. 51.215 Section... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.215 Dialing parity: Cost recovery. (a) A LEC may recover the incremental costs necessary for the implementation of toll dialing...

  2. 47 CFR 51.215 - Dialing parity: Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dialing parity: Cost recovery. 51.215 Section... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.215 Dialing parity: Cost recovery. (a) A LEC may recover the incremental costs necessary for the implementation of toll dialing...

  3. 47 CFR 51.209 - Toll dialing parity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Toll dialing parity. 51.209 Section 51.209... Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.209 Toll dialing parity. (a) A LEC shall implement throughout each state in which it offers telephone exchange service intraLATA and interLATA toll dialing...

  4. 47 CFR 51.205 - Dialing parity: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dialing parity: General. 51.205 Section 51.205... Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.205 Dialing parity: General. A local exchange carrier (LEC) shall provide local and toll dialing parity to competing providers of telephone exchange service...

  5. 47 CFR 51.209 - Toll dialing parity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Toll dialing parity. 51.209 Section 51.209... Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.209 Toll dialing parity. (a) A LEC shall implement throughout each state in which it offers telephone exchange service intraLATA and interLATA toll dialing...

  6. 47 CFR 51.213 - Toll dialing parity implementation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Toll dialing parity implementation plans. 51... parity implementation plans. (a) A LEC must file a plan for providing intraLATA toll dialing parity... dialing parity within a state until the implementation plan has been approved by the appropriate...

  7. 47 CFR 51.209 - Toll dialing parity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Toll dialing parity. 51.209 Section 51.209... Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.209 Toll dialing parity. (a) A LEC shall implement throughout each state in which it offers telephone exchange service intraLATA and interLATA toll dialing...

  8. 47 CFR 51.215 - Dialing parity: Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dialing parity: Cost recovery. 51.215 Section... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.215 Dialing parity: Cost recovery. (a) A LEC may recover the incremental costs necessary for the implementation of toll dialing...

  9. 47 CFR 51.205 - Dialing parity: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dialing parity: General. 51.205 Section 51.205... Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.205 Dialing parity: General. A local exchange carrier (LEC) shall provide local and toll dialing parity to competing providers of telephone exchange service...

  10. 47 CFR 51.215 - Dialing parity: Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dialing parity: Cost recovery. 51.215 Section... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.215 Dialing parity: Cost recovery. (a) A LEC may recover the incremental costs necessary for the implementation of toll dialing...

  11. 47 CFR 51.207 - Local dialing parity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Local dialing parity. 51.207 Section 51.207... Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.207 Local dialing parity. A LEC shall permit telephone exchange service customers within a local calling area to dial the same number of digits to make a...

  12. Co2 geological sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu

    2004-11-18

    Human activities are increasingly altering the Earth's climate. A particular concern is that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) may be rising fast because of increased industrialization. CO{sub 2} is a so-called ''greenhouse gas'' that traps infrared radiation and may contribute to global warming. Scientists project that greenhouse gases such as CO{sub 2} will make the arctic warmer, which would melt glaciers and raise sea levels. Evidence suggests that climate change may already have begun to affect ecosystems and wildlife around the world. Some animal species are moving from one habitat to another to adapt to warmer temperatures. Future warming is likely to exceed the ability of many species to migrate or adjust. Human production of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels (such as at coal-fired power plants) is not likely to slow down soon. It is urgent to find somewhere besides the atmosphere to put these increased levels of CO{sub 2}. Sequestration in the ocean and in soils and forests are possibilities, but another option, sequestration in geological formations, may also be an important solution. Such formations could include depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers. In many cases, injection of CO2 into a geological formation can enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons, providing value-added byproducts that can offset the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Before CO{sub 2} gas can be sequestered from power plants and other point sources, it must be captured. CO{sub 2} is also routinely separated and captured as a by-product from industrial processes such as synthetic ammonia production, H{sub 2} production, and limestone calcination. Then CO{sub 2} must be compressed into liquid form and transported to the geological sequestration site. Many power plants and other large emitters of CO{sub 2} are located near geological formations that are amenable to CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  13. Development of tunable high pressure CO2 laser for lidar measurements of pollutants and wind velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, J. S.; Guerra, M.; Javan, A.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of laser energy extraction at a tunable monochromatic frequency from an energetic high pressure CO2 pulsed laser plasma, for application to remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants by Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) and of wind velocities by Doppler Lidar, was investigated. The energy extraction principle analyzed is based on transient injection locking (TIL) at a tunable frequency. Several critical experiments for high gain power amplification by TIL are presented.

  14. Development of Laser, Detector, and Receiver Systems for an Atmospheric CO2 Lidar Profiling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ismail, Syed; Koch, Grady; Abedin, Nurul; Refaat, Tamer; Rubio, Manuel; Singh, Upendra

    2008-01-01

    A ground-based Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) is being developed with the capability to measure range-resolved and column amounts of atmospheric CO2. This system is also capable of providing high-resolution aerosol profiles and cloud distributions. It is being developed as part of the NASA Earth Science Technology Office s Instrument Incubator Program. This three year program involves the design, development, evaluation, and fielding of a ground-based CO2 profiling system. At the end of a three-year development this instrument is expected to be capable of making measurements in the lower troposphere and boundary layer where the sources and sinks of CO2 are located. It will be a valuable tool in the validation of NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) measurements of column CO2 and suitable for deployment in the North American Carbon Program (NACP) regional intensive field campaigns. The system can also be used as a test-bed for the evaluation of lidar technologies for space-application. This DIAL system leverages 2-micron laser technology developed under a number of NASA programs to develop new solid-state laser technology that provides high pulse energy, tunable, wavelength-stabilized, and double-pulsed lasers that are operable over pre-selected temperature insensitive strong CO2 absorption lines suitable for profiling of lower tropospheric CO2. It also incorporates new high quantum efficiency, high gain, and relatively low noise phototransistors, and a new receiver/signal processor system to achieve high precision DIAL measurements.

  15. CO2 interaction with geomaterials.

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, George D.; Al-Saidi, Wissam A.; Jordan, Kenneth D.; Voora, Vamsee, K.; Romanov, Vyacheslav N.; Lopano, Christina L; Myshakin, Eugene M.; Hur, Tae Bong; Warzinski, Robert P.; Lynn, Ronald J.; Howard, Bret H.; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2010-09-01

    This work compares the sorption and swelling processes associated with CO2-coal and CO2-clay interactions. We investigated the mechanisms of interaction related to CO2 adsortion in micropores, intercalation into sub-micropores, dissolution in solid matrix, the role of water, and the associated changes in reservoir permeability, for applications in CO2 sequestration and enhanced coal bed methane recovery. The structural changes caused by CO2 have been investigated. A high-pressure micro-dilatometer was equipped to investigate the effect of CO2 pressure on the thermoplastic properties of coal. Using an identical dilatometer, Rashid Khan (1985) performed experiments with CO2 that revealed a dramatic reduction in the softening temperature of coal when exposed to high-pressure CO2. A set of experiments was designed for -20+45-mesh samples of Argonne Premium Pocahontas No.3 coal, which is similar in proximate and ultimate analysis to the Lower Kittanning seam coal that Khan used in his experiments. No dramatic decrease in coal softening temperature has been observed in high-pressure CO2 that would corroborate the prior work of Khan. Thus, conventional polymer (or 'geopolymer') theories may not be directly applicable to CO2 interaction with coals. Clays are similar to coals in that they represent abundant geomaterials with well-developed microporous structure. We evaluated the CO2 sequestration potential of clays relative to coals and investigated the factors that affect the sorption capacity, rates, and permanence of CO2 trapping. For the geomaterials comparison studies, we used source clay samples from The Clay Minerals Society. Preliminary results showed that expandable clays have CO2 sorption capacities comparable to those of coal. We analyzed sorption isotherms, XRD, DRIFTS (infrared reflectance spectra at non-ambient conditions), and TGA-MS (thermal gravimetric analysis) data to compare the effects of various factors on CO2 trapping. In montmorillonite, CO2

  16. Correlating the DIAL and the BTBC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarachan-Deily, Ann Beth; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The degree of correlation of the "concept" subtest of the Developmental Indicators of the Assessment of Learning (DIAL) with the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts (BTBC) was studied with 95 beginning kindergarten children. Both measures were highly correlated, indicating the evaluation of similar abilities. (Author/SEW)

  17. Leaves: Elevated CO2 levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Burning fossil fuels and land use changes such as deforestation and urbanization have led to a dramatic rise in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere since the onset of the Industrial Revolution. The highly dilute CO2 from the atmosphere enters plant leaves where it is concentr...

  18. Turbulent CO2 Flux Measurements by Lidar: Length Scales, Results and Comparison with In-Situ Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Fabien; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Hilton, Timothy W.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Andrews, Arlyn; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.

    2009-01-01

    The vertical CO2 flux in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is investigated with a Doppler differential absorption lidar (DIAL). The instrument was operated next to the WLEF instrumented tall tower in Park Falls, Wisconsin during three days and nights in June 2007. Profiles of turbulent CO2 mixing ratio and vertical velocity fluctuations are measured by in-situ sensors and Doppler DIAL. Time and space scales of turbulence are precisely defined in the ABL. The eddy-covariance method is applied to calculate turbulent CO2 flux both by lidar and in-situ sensors. We show preliminary mean lidar CO2 flux measurements in the ABL with a time and space resolution of 6 h and 1500 m respectively. The flux instrumental errors decrease linearly with the standard deviation of the CO2 data, as expected. Although turbulent fluctuations of CO2 are negligible with respect to the mean (0.1 %), we show that the eddy-covariance method can provide 2-h, 150-m range resolved CO2 flux estimates as long as the CO2 mixing ratio instrumental error is no greater than 10 ppm and the vertical velocity error is lower than the natural fluctuations over a time resolution of 10 s.

  19. CO2 Sequestration short course

    SciTech Connect

    DePaolo, Donald J.; Cole, David R; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Bourg, Ian C

    2014-12-08

    Given the public’s interest and concern over the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) on global warming and related climate change patterns, the course is a timely discussion of the underlying geochemical and mineralogical processes associated with gas-water-mineral-interactions encountered during geological sequestration of CO2. The geochemical and mineralogical processes encountered in the subsurface during storage of CO2 will play an important role in facilitating the isolation of anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface for thousands of years, thus moderating rapid increases in concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and mitigating global warming. Successful implementation of a variety of geological sequestration scenarios will be dependent on our ability to accurately predict, monitor and verify the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The course was proposed to and accepted by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) and The Geochemical Society (GS).

  20. New ground-based lidar enables volcanic CO2 flux measurements

    PubMed Central

    Aiuppa, Alessandro; Fiorani, Luca; Santoro, Simone; Parracino, Stefano; Nuvoli, Marcello; Chiodini, Giovanni; Minopoli, Carmine; Tamburello, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    There have been substantial advances in the ability to monitor the activity of hazardous volcanoes in recent decades. However, obtaining early warning of eruptions remains challenging, because the patterns and consequences of volcanic unrests are both complex and nonlinear. Measuring volcanic gases has long been a key aspect of volcano monitoring since these mobile fluids should reach the surface long before the magma. There has been considerable progress in methods for remote and in-situ gas sensing, but measuring the flux of volcanic CO2—the most reliable gas precursor to an eruption—has remained a challenge. Here we report on the first direct quantitative measurements of the volcanic CO2 flux using a newly designed differential absorption lidar (DIAL), which were performed at the restless Campi Flegrei volcano. We show that DIAL makes it possible to remotely obtain volcanic CO2 flux time series with a high temporal resolution (tens of minutes) and accuracy (<30%). The ability of this lidar to remotely sense volcanic CO2 represents a major step forward in volcano monitoring, and will contribute improved volcanic CO2 flux inventories. Our results also demonstrate the unusually strong degassing behavior of Campi Flegrei fumaroles in the current ongoing state of unrest. PMID:26324399

  1. New ground-based lidar enables volcanic CO2 flux measurements.

    PubMed

    Aiuppa, Alessandro; Fiorani, Luca; Santoro, Simone; Parracino, Stefano; Nuvoli, Marcello; Chiodini, Giovanni; Minopoli, Carmine; Tamburello, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    There have been substantial advances in the ability to monitor the activity of hazardous volcanoes in recent decades. However, obtaining early warning of eruptions remains challenging, because the patterns and consequences of volcanic unrests are both complex and nonlinear. Measuring volcanic gases has long been a key aspect of volcano monitoring since these mobile fluids should reach the surface long before the magma. There has been considerable progress in methods for remote and in-situ gas sensing, but measuring the flux of volcanic CO2-the most reliable gas precursor to an eruption-has remained a challenge. Here we report on the first direct quantitative measurements of the volcanic CO2 flux using a newly designed differential absorption lidar (DIAL), which were performed at the restless Campi Flegrei volcano. We show that DIAL makes it possible to remotely obtain volcanic CO2 flux time series with a high temporal resolution (tens of minutes) and accuracy (<30%). The ability of this lidar to remotely sense volcanic CO2 represents a major step forward in volcano monitoring, and will contribute improved volcanic CO2 flux inventories. Our results also demonstrate the unusually strong degassing behavior of Campi Flegrei fumaroles in the current ongoing state of unrest. PMID:26324399

  2. Tuning the dials of Synthetic Biology

    PubMed Central

    Arpino, James A. J.; Hancock, Edward J.; Anderson, James; Barahona, Mauricio; Stan, Guy-Bart V.; Polizzi, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is the ‘Engineering of Biology’ – it aims to use a forward-engineering design cycle based on specifications, modelling, analysis, experimental implementation, testing and validation to modify natural or design new, synthetic biology systems so that they behave in a predictable fashion. Motivated by the need for truly plug-and-play synthetic biological components, we present a comprehensive review of ways in which the various parts of a biological system can be modified systematically. In particular, we review the list of ‘dials’ that are available to the designer and discuss how they can be modelled, tuned and implemented. The dials are categorized according to whether they operate at the global, transcriptional, translational or post-translational level and the resolution that they operate at. We end this review with a discussion on the relative advantages and disadvantages of some dials over others. PMID:23704788

  3. Airborne water vapor DIAL system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higdon, Noah S.; Browell, Edward V.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Grossmann, Benoist E.

    1990-01-01

    A differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system developed at NASA Langley Research Center for the remote measurement of atmospheric H2O and aerosols from an aircraft is briefly discussed. This DIAL system utilizes a Nd:YAG laser-pumped dye laser as the off-line transmitter and a narrowband, tunable Alexandrite laser as the on-line transmitter. A 1-m monochromator and a multipass absorption cell are used to position the on-line laser to the center of the H2O line. The receiver system has a 14-in. diameter, f/7 Celestron telescope to collect the backscattered laser light and focus in into the detector optics. Return signals are converted to electrical signals by the optical detector and are digitalized and stored on magnetic tape. The results of fligh tests of the system are shown.

  4. Correlation of DIAL Ozone Observations with Lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Harold S.; Kuang, Shi; Koshak, William J.; Newchurch, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to see whether ozone maxima measured by the DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) instrument in Huntsville, AL may be traced back to lightning events occurring 24-48 hours beforehand. The methodology is to start with lidar measurements of ozone from DIAL. The HYbrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model is then used to determine the origin of these ozone maxima 24-48 hours prior. Data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) are used to examine the presence/absence of lightning along the trajectory. This type of analysis suggests that lightning-produced NOx may be responsible for some of the ozone maxima over Huntsville.

  5. Correlation of DIAL Ozone Observations with Lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Harold S.; Kuang, Shi; Koshak, William J.; Newchurch, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to see whether ozone maxima measured by the DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) instrument in Huntsville, AL may be traced back to lightning events occurring 24- 48 hours beforehand. The methodology is to start with lidar measurements of ozone from DIAL as well as ozonesonde measurements. The HYbrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model is then used to determine the origin of these ozone maxima 24-48 hours prior. Data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) are used to examine the presence/absence of lightning along the trajectory. This type of analysis suggests that lightning-produced NOx may be responsible for some of the ozone maxima over Huntsville.

  6. Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) Measurements from Air and Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.; Ismail, S.; Grant, W. B.

    1998-01-01

    Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems have been used for the measurement of ozone, water vapor, and aerosols from aircraft platforms for over 18 years, yielding new insights into atmospheric chemistry, composition, and dynamics in large-scale field experiments conducted all over the world. The successful deployment of the lidar in-space technology experiment (LITE) in September 1994 demonstrated that space-based lidars can also collect valuable information on the global atmosphere. This paper reviews some of the contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center's airborne ozone and water vapor DIAL systems and space-based LITE system to the understanding of the atmosphere and discusses the feasibility and advantages of putting DIAL systems in space for routine atmospheric measurements of ozone and/or water vapor and aerosols and clouds. The technology and applications of the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique have progressed significantly since the first DIAL measurements of Schotland, and airborne DIAL measurements of ozone and water vapor are frequently being made in a wide range of field experiments. In addition, plans are underway to develop DIAL systems for use on satellites for continuous global measurements. This paper will highlight the history of airborne lidar and DIAL systems, summarize the major accomplishments of the NASA Langley DIAL program, and discuss specifications and goals for DIAL systems in space.

  7. Lidar/DIAL detection of bomb factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorani, Luca; Puiu, Adriana; Rosa, Olga; Palucci, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    One of the aims of the project BONAS (BOmb factory detection by Networks of Advanced Sensors) is to develop a lidar/DIAL (differential absorption lidar) to detect precursors employed in the manufacturing of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). At first, a spectroscopic study has been carried out: the infrared (IR) gas phase spectrum of acetone, one of the more important IED precursors, has been procured from available databases and checked with cell measurements. Then, the feasibility of a lidar/DIAL for the detection of acetone vapors has been shown in laboratory, simulating the experimental conditions of a field campaign. Eventually, having in mind measurements in a real scenario, an interferent study has been performed, looking for all known compounds that share with acetone IR absorption in the spectral band selected for its detection. Possible interfering species were investigated, simulating both urban and industrial atmospheres and limits of acetone detection in both environments were identified. This study confirmed that a lidar/DIAL can detect low concentration of acetone at considerable distances.

  8. Potential of satellite CO2 data to infer CO2 fluxes, using atmospheric inversion: influence of data uncertainty correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montandon, V.; Peylin, P.; Bousquet, P.; Ciais, P.; Breon, F.-M.

    2003-04-01

    Knowledge of present surface sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 is crucial to quantify the future man-induced green-house effect. Measurements of radiation from space potentially offer denser samplings of CO2 column amount, both in time and space than in situ measurements. This could allow in turn to decrease the uncertainties of CO2 flux estimates, depending on the achievable precision of CO2 retrievals from space, and on the removal of any spatially coherent bias. In the framework of the COCO project, shaped to take advantage of the sooncoming or present satellite missions, we enriched some investigations about the satellite observations potential to improve the atmospheric CO2 sinks and sources knowledge. Our particular study dealt with the introduction of spatial correlations between the individual measurement errors of CO2 column amount, to inverstigate possible coherent biases between satellite data. One year of pseudo-data was generated according to the CARBOSAT project instrumental and orbital characteristics. These individual data were then grouped month by month onto the grid of the LMDZ transport model. The classical independance assumption made in all priors study about the measurement errors lead to a large decrease of the final satellite data uncertainty. However, spatially coherent bias would bring correlated data uncertainties, a feature that would largely affect the results. We quantified here the influence of these correlations on the retrieved CO2 flux uncertainties. Several transport model grids (regular / non regular) were used to aggregate the individual measurements, and their influence is also discussed. Such results could also be applied to other reactive chemical species like CH4, CO, ...

  9. Decadal predictions of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongmei; Ilyina, Tatiana; Müller, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is critical for predicting and projecting climate and ocean acidification. The North Atlantic Ocean plays a crucial role in modulating global carbon cycle as a major CO2 sink region, and the subpolar gyre (SPG) region contributes the most to the variation of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake. Previous studies revealed abrupt warming/cooling events in the SPG region, with sea surface temperature (SST) increasing/decreasing by 1°C in only a few years. The abrupt SPG warming/cooling events can be predicted several years in advance by initialization of the earth system models. The CO2 uptake in the North Atlantic is largely driven by ocean mixing variations and SST anomalies. In this study, we investigate the response of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake to observed SST variations and explore the decadal predictability of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake during the period of 1961-2013 with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). Our results suggest significant inter-annual and decadal variability of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake which is closely related to the evolution of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and corresponding oceanic mixing strength, and this coherence is confined to the western SPG region. We show that the potential predictability of CO2 uptake in the western SPG region is up to 4 years, which is similar to the prediction skill of SPG SST. Direct comparison of initialized simulations with observations implies prediction skill of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake. The predictability of both CO2 uptake and SST in the North Atlantic is assured by initialization of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC).

  10. An obsession with CO2.

    PubMed

    Jones, Norman L

    2008-08-01

    The concept that underlies this paper is that carbon dioxide (CO2) removal is at least as important as the delivery of oxygen for maximum performance during exercise. Increases in CO2 pressure and reductions in the pH of muscle influence muscle contractile properties and muscle metabolism (via effects on rate-limiting enzymes), and contribute to limiting symptoms. The approach of Barcroft exemplified the importance of integrative physiology, in describing the adaptive responses of the circulatory and respiratory systems to the demands of CO2 production during exercise. The extent to which failure in the response of one system may be countered by adaptation in another is also explained by this approach. A key factor in these linked systems is the transport of CO2 in the circulation. CO2 is mainly (90%) transported as bicarbonate ions--as such, transport of CO2 is critically related to acid-base homeostasis. Understanding in this field has been facilitated by the approach of Peter Stewart. Rooted in classical physico-chemical relationships, the approach identifies the independent variables contributing to homeostasis--the strong ion difference ([SID]), ionization of weak acids (buffers, Atot) and CO2 pressure (PCO2). The independent variables may be reliably measured or estimated in muscle, plasma, and whole blood. Equilibrium conditions are calculated to derive the dependent variables--the most important being the concentrations of bicarbonate and hydrogen ions. During heavy exercise, muscle [H+] can exceed 300 nEq.L-1 (pH 6.5), mainly due to a greatly elevated PCO2 and fall in [SID] as a result of increased lactate (La-) production. As blood flows through active muscle, [La-] increase in plasma is reduced by uptake of La- and Cl- by red blood cells, with a resultant increase in plasma [HCO3-]. Inactive muscle contributes to homeostasis through transfer of La- and Cl- into the muscle from both plasma and red blood cells; this results in a large increase in [HCO3

  11. Design and development of a compact lidar/DIAL system for aerial surveillance of urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Malizia, A.; Richetta, M.; Antonucci, A.; Ventura, P.; Murari, A.; Vega, J.

    2013-10-01

    Recently surveying large areas in an automatic way, for early detection of harmful chemical agents, has become a strategic objective of defence and public health organisations. The Lidar-Dial techniques are widely recognized as a cost-effective alternative to monitor large portions of the atmosphere but, up to now, they have been mainly deployed as ground based stations. The design reported in this paper concerns the development of a Lidar-Dial system compact enough to be carried by a small airplane and capable of detecting sudden releases in air of harmful and/or polluting substances. The proposed approach consists of continuous monitoring of the area under surveillance with a Lidar type measurement. Once a significant increase in the density of backscattering substances is revealed, it is intended to switch to the Dial technique to identify the released chemicals and to determine its concentration. In this paper, the design of the proposed system is described and the simulations carried out to determine its performances are reported. For the Lidar measurements, commercially available Nd- YAG laser sources have already been tested and their performances, in combination with avalanche photodiodes, have been experimentally verified to meet the required specifications. With regard to the DIAL measurements, new compact CO2 laser sources are being investigated. The most promising candidate presents an energy per pulse of about 50 mJ typical, sufficient for a range of at least 500m. The laser also provides the so called "agile tuning" option that allows to quickly tune the wavelength. To guarantee continuous, automatic surveying of large areas, innovative solutions are required for the data acquisition, self monitoring of the system and data analysis. The results of the design, the simulations and some preliminary tests illustrate the potential of the chosen, integrated approach.

  12. Airborne 2-Micron Double-Pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar for Column CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Remus, Ruben G.; Fay, James J.; Reithmaier, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Double-pulse 2-micron lasers have been demonstrated with energy as high as 600 millijouls and up to 10 Hz repetition rate. The two laser pulses are separated by 200 microseconds and can be tuned and locked separately. Applying double-pulse laser in DIAL system enhances the CO2 measurement capability by increasing the overlap of the sampled volume between the on-line and off-line. To avoid detection complicity, integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar provides higher signal-to-noise ratio measurement compared to conventional range-resolved DIAL. Rather than weak atmospheric scattering returns, IPDA rely on the much stronger hard target returns that is best suited for airborne platforms. In addition, the IPDA technique measures the total integrated column content from the instrument to the hard target but with weighting that can be tuned by the transmitter. Therefore, the transmitter could be tuned to weight the column measurement to the surface for optimum CO2 interaction studies or up to the free troposphere for optimum transport studies. Currently, NASA LaRC is developing and integrating a double-Pulsed 2-micron direct detection IPDA lidar for CO2 column measurement from an airborne platform. The presentation will describe the development of the 2-micron IPDA lidar system and present the airborne measurement of column CO2 and will compare to in-situ measurement for various ground target of different reflectivity.

  13. ACCURACY OF CO2 SENSORS

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2008-10-01

    Are the carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors in your demand controlled ventilation systems sufficiently accurate? The data from these sensors are used to automatically modulate minimum rates of outdoor air ventilation. The goal is to keep ventilation rates at or above design requirements while adjusting the ventilation rate with changes in occupancy in order to save energy. Studies of energy savings from demand controlled ventilation and of the relationship of indoor CO2 concentrations with health and work performance provide a strong rationale for use of indoor CO2 data to control minimum ventilation rates1-7. However, this strategy will only be effective if, in practice, the CO2 sensors have a reasonable accuracy. The objective of this study was; therefore, to determine if CO2 sensor performance, in practice, is generally acceptable or problematic. This article provides a summary of study methods and findings ? additional details are available in a paper in the proceedings of the ASHRAE IAQ?2007 Conference8.

  14. CO2 Sequestration Crosswell Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morency, C.; Luo, Y.; Tromp, J.

    2010-12-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2, a green house gas, represents an effort to reduce the large amount of CO2 generated as a by-product of fossil fuels combustion and emitted into the atmosphere. This process of sequestration involves CO2 storage deep underground into highly permeable porous media sealed by caprock. "4D seismics" is a natural non-intrusive monitoring technique which involves 3D time-lapse seismic surveys. The success of monitoring CO2 movement relies upon a proper description of the physics of the problem. We realize time-lapse migrations comparing acoustic, elastic (with or without Gassmann's formulae), and poroelastic simulations of 4D seismic imaging. This approach highlights the influence of using different physical theories on interpreting seismic data, and, more importantly, on extracting the CO2 signature from the seismic wave field. We investigate various types of inversions using (1) P-wave traveltimes, (2) P- & S-wave traveltimes and (3) P- & S-wave traveltimes and amplitudes. Simulations are performed using a spectral-element method, and finite-frequency sensitivity kernels, used in the non-linear iterative inversions, are calculated based on an adjoint method. Biot's equations are implemented in the forward and adjoint simulations to account for poroelastic effects.

  15. Update on CO2 emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Friedingstein, P.; Houghton, R.A.; Marland, Gregg; Hackler, J.; Boden, Thomas A; Conway, T.J.; Canadell, J.G.; Raupach, Mike; Ciais, Philippe; Le Quere, Corrine

    2010-12-01

    Emissions of CO2 are the main contributor to anthropogenic climate change. Here we present updated information on their present and near-future estimates. We calculate that global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning decreased by 1.3% in 2009 owing to the global financial and economic crisis that started in 2008; this is half the decrease anticipated a year ago1. If economic growth proceeds as expected2, emissions are projected to increase by more than 3% in 2010, approaching the high emissions growth rates that were observed from 2000 to 20081, 3, 4. We estimate that recent CO2 emissions from deforestation and other land-use changes (LUCs) have declined compared with the 1990s, primarily because of reduced rates of deforestation in the tropics5 and a smaller contribution owing to forest regrowth elsewhere.

  16. The CO2nnect activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugenia, Marcu

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges we face today. A first step is the understanding the problem, more exactly what is the challenge and the differences people can make. Pupils need a wide competencies to meet the challenges of sustainable development - including climate change. The CO2nnect activities are designed to support learning which can provide pupils the abilities, skills, attitudes and awareness as well as knowledge and understanding of the issues. The project "Together for a clean and healthy world" is part of "The Global Educational Campaign CO2nnect- CO2 on the way to school" and it was held in our school in the period between February and October 2009. It contained a variety of curricular and extra-curricular activities, adapted to students aged from 11 to 15. These activities aimed to develop in students the necessary skills to understanding man's active role in improving the quality of the environment, putting an end to its degrading process and to reducing the effects of climate changes caused by the human intervention in nature, including transport- a source of CO2 pollution. The activity which I propose can be easily adapted to a wide range of age groups and linked to the curricula of many subjects: - Investigate CO2 emissions from travel to school -Share the findings using an international database -Compare and discuss CO2 emissions -Submit questions to a climate- and transport expert -Partner with other schools -Meet with people in your community to discuss emissions from transport Intended learning outcomes for pupils who participate in the CO2nnect campaign are: Understanding of the interconnected mobility- and climate change issue climate change, its causes and consequences greenhouse-gas emissions from transport and mobility the interlinking of social, environmental, cultural and economic aspects of the local transport system how individual choices and participation can contribute to creating a more sustainable development

  17. Development of a laser remote sensing instrument to measure sub-aerial volcanic CO2 fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queisser, Manuel; Burton, Mike

    2016-04-01

    A thorough quantification of volcanic CO2 fluxes would lead to an enhanced understanding of the role of volcanoes in the geological carbon cycle. This would enable a more subtle understanding of human impact on that cycle. Furthermore, variations in volcanic CO2 emissions are a key to understanding volcanic processes such as eruption phenomenology. However, measuring fluxes of volcanic CO2 is challenging as volcanic CO2 concentrations are modest compared with the ambient CO2 concentration (~400 ppm) . Volcanic CO2 quickly dilutes with the background air. For Mt. Etna (Italy), for instance, 1000 m downwind from the crater, dispersion modelling yields a signal of ~4 ppm only. It is for this reason that many magmatic CO2 concentration measurements focus on in situ techniques, such as direct sampling Giggenbach bottles, chemical sensors, IR absorption spectrometers or mass spectrometers. However, emission rates are highly variable in time and space. Point measurements fail to account for this variability. Inferring 1-D or 2-D gas concentration profiles, necessary to estimate gas fluxes, from point measurements may thus lead to erroneous flux estimations. Moreover, in situ probing is time consuming and, since many volcanoes emit toxic gases and are dangerous as mountains, may raise safety concerns. In addition, degassing is often diffuse and spatially extended, which makes a measurement approach with spatial coverage desirable. There are techniques that allow to indirectly retrieve CO2 fluxes from correlated SO2 concentrations and fluxes. However, they still rely on point measurements of CO2 and are prone to errors of SO2 fluxes due to light dilution and depend on blue sky conditions. Here, we present a new remote sensing instrument, developed with the ERC project CO2Volc, which measures 1-D column amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere with sufficient sensitivity to reveal the contribution of magmatic CO2. Based on differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL) the instrument measures

  18. Automated alexandrite transmitter for airborne DIAL experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the performance characteristics and development status of an automated dual alexandrite laser transmitter that is to be carried aloft by NASA's ER-2 research aircraft for water vapor DIAL experiments; these efforts are part of NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE). The LASE transmitter encompasses control unit, thermal unit, and two lamp driver unit subsystems. Major reductions in system size and weight relative to commercially available alexandrite lasers were necessary; a total weight of only 330 lbs has been achieved. Attention is given to subsystem flight test results.

  19. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  20. High pulse repetition frequency, multiple wavelength, pulsed CO(2) lidar system for atmospheric transmission and target reflectance measurements.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, A; Emery, S L; Gotoff, S W; D'Amico, F M

    1992-07-20

    A multiple wavelength, pulsed CO(2) lidar system operating at a pulse repetition frequency of 200 Hz and permitting the random selection of CO(2) laser wavelengths for each laser pulse is presented. This system was employed to measure target reflectance and atmospheric transmission by using laser pulse bursts consisting of groups with as many as 16 different wavelengths at a repetition rate of 12 Hz. The wavelength tuning mechanism of the transversely excited atmospheric laser consists of a stationary grating and a flat mirror controlled by a galvanometer. Multiple wavelength, differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements reduce the effects of differential target reflectance and molecular absorption interference. Examples of multiwavelength DIAL detection for ammonia and water vapor show the dynamic interaction between these two trace gases. Target reflectance measurements for maple trees in winter and autumn are presented. PMID:20725406

  1. Method for wavelength stabilization of pulsed difference frequency laser at 1572 nm for CO(2) detection lidar.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wei; Ma, Xin; Han, Ge; Xiang, Chengzhi; Liang, Ailin; Fu, Weidong

    2015-03-01

    High-accuracy on-line wavelength stabilization is required for differential absorption lidar (DIAL), which is ideal for precisely measuring atmospheric CO(2) concentration. Using a difference-frequency laser, we developed a ground-based 1.57-μm pulsed DIAL for performing atmospheric CO(2) measurements. Owing to the system complexity, lacking phase, and intensity instability, the stabilization method was divided into two parts-wavelength calibration and locking-based on saturated absorption. After obtaining the on-line laser position, accuracy verification using statistical theory and locking stabilization using a one-dimensional template matching method, namely least-squares matching (LSM), were adopted to achieve wavelength locking. The resulting system is capable of generating a stable wavelength. PMID:25836838

  2. 47 CFR 51.207 - Local dialing parity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Local dialing parity. 51.207 Section 51.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.207 Local dialing parity. A LEC shall permit...

  3. 47 CFR 51.207 - Local dialing parity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Local dialing parity. 51.207 Section 51.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.207 Local dialing parity. A LEC shall permit...

  4. 47 CFR 51.207 - Local dialing parity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Local dialing parity. 51.207 Section 51.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.207 Local dialing parity. A LEC shall permit...

  5. 47 CFR 51.207 - Local dialing parity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Local dialing parity. 51.207 Section 51.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.207 Local dialing parity. A LEC shall permit...

  6. 47 CFR 51.215 - Dialing parity: Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dialing parity: Cost recovery. 51.215 Section 51.215 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.215 Dialing parity: Cost...

  7. 47 CFR 51.213 - Toll dialing parity implementation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... parity implementation plans. (a) A LEC must file a plan for providing intraLATA toll dialing parity... dialing parity within a state until the implementation plan has been approved by the appropriate state commission or the Commission. (b) A LEC's implementation plan must include: (1) A proposal that explains...

  8. Wavelet analysis of airborne CO 2 measurements and related meteorological parameters over heterogeneous landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Choi, Yonghoon

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we focus on the spatial variations in CO 2 and related meteorological parameters quantified in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) from airborne measurements over Illinois, Ohio and Nebraska, USA during the INTEX-NA campaign, July 8th, 2004. The airborne measurements were conducted during morning hours (8:47 a.m) in Nebraska whereas mostly during afternoon hours (1:00 pm and 1:50 pm) in Illinois and Ohio respectively. We perform wavelet analysis using a continuous wavelet transform and wavelet coherence functions for the CO 2 data and underlying meteorological variables to interpret the airborne observations. In addition, we also used LANDSAT derived land use/cover information to relate to CO 2 variations observed in the PBL. Maximum CO 2 mixing ratios were observed over Nebraska and the lowest CO 2 mixing ratios over Illinois followed by Ohio. Spectral decomposition of the CO 2 data using scalograms revealed lower frequency signals of shorter duration over Illinois compared to Ohio and Nebraska. Further, the high frequency CO 2 data for Illinois showed good cyclicity. The high frequency data in Illinois corresponded to low CO 2 values of less than 354 ppm, and the time localization of these frequencies closely matched with corn/soybeans mixed agricultural land use suggesting significant CO 2 uptake. Results from the wavelet coherence analysis between the CO 2 time series and meteorological parameters (potential temperature, relative humidity, water vapor partial pressure, water vapor mixing ratio, wind speed and infrared surface temperature) revealed significant differences in coherences as a function of sampling time. The scale and time dependent wavelet coherence variations observed for CO 2 and meteorological data over three different states were attributed to mesoscale variability including variations in the type of vegetation, topography, land-vegetation contrast, cloud cover, and overall landscape heterogeneity.

  9. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.; Way, J. Douglas; Vlasse, Marcus

    2003-01-01

    The objective of CAM is to develop, test, and analyze thin film membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The membranes are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications that will operate in extraterrestrial environments and support future unmanned and human space missions. A primary application is the Sabatier Electrolysis process that uses Mars atmosphere CO2 as raw material for producing water, oxygen, and methane for rocket fuel and habitat support. Other applications include use as an inlet filter to collect and concentrate Mars atmospheric argon and nitrogen gases for habitat pressurization, and to remove CO2 from breathing gases in Closed Environment Life Support Systems (CELSS). CAM membrane materials include crystalline faujasite (FAU) zeolite and rubbery polymers such as silicone rubber (PDMS) that have been shown in the literature and via molecular simulation to favor adsorption and permeation of CO2 over nitrogen and argon. Pure gas permeation tests using commercial PDMS membranes have shown that both CO2 permeance and the separation factor relative to other gases increase as the temperature decreases, and low (Delta)P(Sub CO2) favors higher separation factors. The ideal CO2/N2 separation factor increases from 7.5 to 17.5 as temperature decreases from 22 C to -30 C. For gas mixtures containing CO2, N2, and Ar, plasticization decreased the separation factors from 4.5 to 6 over the same temperature range. We currently synthesize and test our own Na(+) FAU zeolite membranes using standard formulations and secondary growth methods on porous alumina. Preliminary tests with a Na(+) FAU membrane at 22 C show a He/SF6 ideal separation factor of 62, exceeding the Knudsen diffusion selectivity by an order of magnitude. This shows that the membrane is relatively free from large defects and associated non-selective (viscous flow) transport

  10. Estimation of continuous anthropogenic CO2 using CO2, CO, δ13C(CO2) and Δ14C(CO2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardag, S. N.; Gerbig, C.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Levin, I.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate different methods for estimating anthropogenic CO2 using modelled continuous atmospheric concentrations of CO2 alone, as well as CO2 in combination with the surrogate tracers CO, δ13C(CO2) and Δ14C(CO2). These methods are applied at three hypothetical stations representing rural, urban and polluted conditions. We find that independent of the tracer used, an observation-based estimate of continuous anthropogenic CO2 is not feasible at rural measurement sites due to the low signal to noise ratio of anthropogenic CO2 estimates at such settings. At urban and polluted sites, potential future continuous Δ14C(CO2) measurements with a precision of 5 ‰ or better are most promising for anthropogenic CO2 determination (precision ca. 10-20%), but the insensitivity against CO2 contributions from biofuel emissions may reduce its accuracy in the future. Other tracers, such as δ13C(CO2) and CO could provide an accurate and already available alternative if all CO2 sources in the catchment area are well characterized with respect to their isotopic signature and CO to anthropogenic CO2 ratio. We suggest a strategy for calibrating these source characteristics on an annual basis using precise Δ14C(CO2) measurements on grab samples. The precision of anthropogenic CO2 determination using δ13C(CO2) is largely determined by the measurement precision of δ13C(CO2) and CO2. The precision when using the CO-method is mainly limited by the variation of natural CO sources and CO sinks. At present, continuous anthropogenic CO2 could be determined using the tracers δ13C(CO2) and/or CO with a precision of about 30 %, a mean bias of about 10 % and without significant diurnal discrepancies. This allows significant improvement, validation and bias reduction of highly resolved emission inventories using atmospheric observation and regional modelling.

  11. Surface Condensation of CO2 onto Kaolinite

    SciTech Connect

    Schaef, Herbert T.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Owen, Antionette T.; Ramprasad, Sudhir; Martin, Paul F.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-02-11

    The fundamental adsorption behavior of gaseous and supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) onto poorly crystalline kaolinite (KGa-2) at conditions relevant to geologic sequestration has been investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and density functional theory (DFT) methods. The QCM data indicated linear adsorption of CO2 (0-0.3 mmol CO2/g KGa-2) onto the kaolinite surface up through the gaseous state (0.186 g/cm3). However in the supercritical region, CO2 adsorption increases dramatically, reaching a peak (0.9-1.0 mmol CO2/g KGa-2) near 0.43 g/cm3, before declining rapidly to surface adsorption values equivalent or below gaseous CO2. This adsorption profile was not observed with He or N2. Comparative density functional studies of CO2 interactions with kaolinite surface models rule out CO2 intercalation and confirm that surface adsorption is favored up to approximately 0.35 g/cm3 of CO2, showing distorted T-shaped CO2-CO2 clustering, typical of supercritical CO2 aggregation over the surface as the density increases. Beyond this point, the adsorption energy gain for any additional CO2 becomes less than the CO2 interaction energy (~0.2 eV) in the supercritical medium resulting in overall desorption of CO2 from the kaolinite surface.

  12. Outsourcing CO2 within China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J.; Sun, Laixiang; Li, Xin; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Hubacek, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the high standard of living enjoyed by people in the richest countries often comes at the expense of CO2 emissions produced with technologies of low efficiency in less affluent, developing countries. Less apparent is that this relationship between developed and developing can exist within a single country’s borders, with rich regions consuming and exporting high-value goods and services that depend upon production of low-cost and emission-intensive goods and services from poorer regions in the same country. As the world’s largest emitter of CO2, China is a prominent and important example, struggling to balance rapid economic growth and environmental sustainability across provinces that are in very different stages of development. In this study, we track CO2 emissions embodied in products traded among Chinese provinces and internationally. We find that 57% of China’s emissions are related to goods that are consumed outside of the province where they are produced. For instance, up to 80% of the emissions related to goods consumed in the highly developed coastal provinces are imported from less developed provinces in central and western China where many low–value-added but high–carbon-intensive goods are produced. Without policy attention to this sort of interprovincial carbon leakage, the less developed provinces will struggle to meet their emissions intensity targets, whereas the more developed provinces might achieve their own targets by further outsourcing. Consumption-based accounting of emissions can thus inform effective and equitable climate policy within China. PMID:23754377

  13. Intelligent CO 2 beam guiding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, Christian; Stimpfl, Joffrey; Emonts, Michael

    The Fraunhofer IPT has recently developed a self-diagnosing laser system technology which can monitor the process parameters of all laser system components and supports the adjustment of the beam guidance of CO2 laser production systems with large ranges of travel. The intelligent system furthermore interprets the correlated laser beam parameter responses and proposes appropriate measures for preventive maintenance. The new assisted beam guidance adjustment bases upon active reflector modules adjusting with a large angular range of average ±0.8∘ at maximum resolution and a position-sensitive detector for the position of the pilot laser.

  14. Preliminary results of a lidar-dial integrated system for the automatic detection of atmospheric pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Richetta, M.

    2012-11-01

    In the last decades, atmospheric pollution in urban and industrial areas has become a major concern of both developed and developing countries. In this context, surveying relative large areas in an automatic way is an increasing common objective of public health organisations. The Lidar-Dial techniques are widely recognized as a cost-effective approach to monitor large portions of the atmosphere and, for example, they have been successful applied to the early detection of forest fire. The studies and preliminary results reported in this paper concern the development of an integrated Lidar-Dial system able to detect sudden releases in air of harmful and polluting substances. The propose approach consists of continuous monitoring of the area under surveillance with a Lidar type measurement (by means of a low cost system). Once a significant increase in the density of a pollutant is revealed, the Dial technique is used to identify the released chemicals. In this paper, the specifications of the proposed station are discussed. The most stringent requirement is the need for a very compact system with a range of at least 600-700 m. Of course, the optical wavelengths must be in an absolute eye-safe range for humans. A conceptual design of the entire system is described and the most important characteristic of the main elements are provided. In particular the capability of the envisaged laser sources, Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers, to provide the necessary quality of the measurements is carefully assessed. Since the detection of dangerous substances must be performed in an automatic way, the monitoring station will be equipped with an adequate set of control and communication devices for independent autonomous operation. The results of the first preliminary tests illustrate the potential of the chosen approach.

  15. Fire hazards and CO2 laser resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Wald, D; Michelow, B J; Guyuron, B; Gibb, A A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fire risk of laser resurfacing in the presence of supplemental oxygen. This study aims at defining safety parameters of variables such as laser energy level, oxygen flow rate, and "oxygen to laser target distance" when oxygen is delivered through a nasal cannula or nasopharyngeal tube. The typical operating room environment was simulated in the laboratory using the Yucatan minipig animal model. The energy source was a Coherent Ultrapulse CO2 laser. It was found that combustion did not occur at laser settings of 500 mJ, 50 W, 100 kHz, and a density of 5, used in conjunction with an oxygen flow rate of 6 liter/minute with the target area as close as 0.5 cm to the oxygen delivery. A total of 400 computer pattern generator treatments were delivered using this energy setting without observation of any combustion (p < 0.001). This provides evidence that while using even somewhat high laser settings and oxygen flow rate, laser induced fires can be avoided. We conclude that use of the laser in the presence of oxygen is safe, provided the target area is free of combustible fuels. Despite this assurance, laser mishaps are serious because they lead to both morbidity and mortality. It is our recommendation that close attention be constantly paid to all details, thus reducing the hazard potential of laser energy on local factors in an oxygen-rich environment. PMID:9427936

  16. Selection of an averaging technique by simulation study of a DIAL system for toxic agents monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudeja, Jai Paul; Jindal, Mukesh Kumar; Veerabuthiran, S.

    2007-10-01

    Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) is a very effective technique for standoff detection of various toxic agents in the atmosphere. The Lidar backscattered signal received usually has poor signal to noise (SNR) ratio. In order to improve the SNR, statistical averaging over a number of laser pulses is employed. The aim of the present work is to select a particular statistical averaging technique, which is most suitable in removing the noise in Lidar return signals. The DIAL system considered here uses laser transmitters based on OPO based (2-5 μm) and TEA CO2 (9-11μm) lasers. Eight commonly used chemical warfare agents including five nerve agents and three blister agents have been considered here as examples of toxic agents. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) software has been developed in LabVIEW to simulate return signals mixed with the expected noise levels. A toxic agent cloud with a given thickness and concentration has been assumed to be detected in the ambient atmospheric conditions at various ranges up to 5 Km. Data for 200 pulses per agent was stored in the computer memory. Various known statistical averaging techniques were used and number concentrations of particular agent have been computed and compared with ideal Lidar return signal values. This exercise was repeated for all the eight agents and based on the results obtained; the most suitable averaging technique has been selected.

  17. Passive CO2 concentration in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Sage, Rowan F; Khoshravesh, Roxana

    2016-06-01

    Photorespiratory limitations on C3 photosynthesis are substantial in warm, low CO2 conditions. To compensate, certain plants evolved mechanisms to actively concentrate CO2 around Rubisco using ATP-supported CO2 pumps such as C4 photosynthesis. Plants can also passively accumulate CO2 without additional ATP expenditure by localizing the release of photorespired and respired CO2 around Rubisco that is diffusively isolated from peripheral air spaces. Passive accumulation of photorespired CO2 occurs when glycine decarboxylase is localized to vascular sheath cells in what is termed C2 photosynthesis, and through forming sheaths of chloroplasts around the periphery of mesophyll cells. The peripheral sheaths require photorespired CO2 to re-enter chloroplasts where it can be refixed. Passive accumulation of respiratory CO2 is common in organs such as stems, fruits and flowers, due to abundant heterotrophic tissues and high diffusive resistance along the organ periphery. Chloroplasts within these organs are able to exploit this high CO2 to reduce photorespiration. CO2 concentration can also be enhanced passively by channeling respired CO2 from roots and rhizomes into photosynthetic cells of stems and leaves via lacunae, aerenchyma and the xylem stream. Through passive CO2 concentration, C3 species likely improved their carbon economy and maintained fitness during episodes of low atmospheric CO2. PMID:27058940

  18. Frequency agile OPO-based transmitters for multiwavelength DIAL

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S.P.; Ruggiero, A.; Herman, M.

    1996-09-01

    We describe a first generation mid-infrared transmitter with pulse to pulse frequency agility and both wide and narrow band capability. This transmitter was used to make multicomponent Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) measurements in the field.

  19. Educational Materials Development in Primary Science: Dial Thermometer Instructional Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Frank L.; Huff, Roger

    1976-01-01

    Described in the fourth of a series of articles dealing with primary science instructional materials for visually handicapped students, is a field test (with 61 Ss in grades 2 to 4) of a dial thermometer instructional unit. (IM)

  20. 11. EASTERN END OF ZEOLITE BUILDING. NOTE DIAL TO LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. EASTERN END OF ZEOLITE BUILDING. NOTE DIAL TO LEFT OF CLOCK GAUGING TOTAL ZEOLITE INFLUENT IN MILLIONS OF GALLONS PER DAY. - F. E. Weymouth Filtration Plant, 700 North Moreno Avenue, La Verne, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Optical properties of heusler alloys Co2FeSi, Co2FeAl, Co2CrAl, and Co2CrGa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shreder, E. I.; Svyazhin, A. D.; Belozerova, K. A.

    2013-11-01

    The results of an investigation of optical properties and the calculations of the electronic structure of Co2FeSi, Co2FeAl, Co2CrAl, and Co2CrGa Heusler alloys are presented. The main focus of our attention is the study of the spectral dependence of the real part (ɛ1) and imaginary part (ɛ2) of the dielectric constant in the range of wavelengths λ = 0.3-13 μm using the ellipsometric method. An anomalous behavior of the optical conductivity σ(ω) has been found in the infrared range in the Co2CrAl and Co2CrGa alloys, which differs substantially from that in the Co2FeSi and Co2FeAl alloys. The results obtained are discussed based on the calculations of the electronic structure.

  2. CO2 laser frequency multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The duration of the mode-locked CO(2) laser pulses was measured to be 0.9 + or - nsec by the technique of (second harmonic) autocorrelation. Knowing the pulse duration, the spot size, and the harmonic conversion efficiency, a detailed fit of experiment to theory gave an estimate of the nonlinear coefficient of AgGaSe(2). d36 = 31 + or - V(1), in agreement with the most accurate literature values. A number of experiments were made with longer pulse trains in which the highest harmonic energy conversion reached 78%. The damage threshold was measured and it turned out to be related much more strongly to fluence than intensity. The shorter pulse trains had peak intensities of close to 300 MW 1/cm squared whereas the longer trains (3 usec) had intensities up to 40 MW 1/cm squared.

  3. Setting up a mobile Lidar (DIAL) system for detecting chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavosh Tehrani, M.; Mohammad, M. Malek; Jaafari, E.; Mobashery, A.

    2015-03-01

    The mobile light detection and ranging DIAL system of Malek Ashtar University of Technology has been developed for the detection of chemical warfare agents whose absorption wavelengths are in the range of 9.2-10.8 μm tunable CO2 lasers of the system. In this paper, this system is first described and then ammonia detection is analyzed experimentally. Also, experimental results of detecting a sarin agent simulant, dimethyl-methyl phosphonate (DMMP), are presented. The power levels received from different ranges to detect specific concentrations of NH3 and DMMP have been measured and debated. The primary test results with a 150 ns clipped pulse width by passive pinhole plasma shutter indicate that the system is capable of monitoring several species of pollutants in the range of about 1 km, with a 20 m spatial and 2 min temporal resolution.

  4. Sequestration of CO2 by halotolerant algae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The potential of halotolerant algae isolated from natural resources was used to study CO2 fixation and algal lipid production. Biological fixation of CO2 in photobioreactor in presence of salinity is exploited. The CO2 concentration 1060 ppm gave the highest biomass yield (700 mg dry wt/l), the highest total lipid content (10.33%) with 80% of CO2 removal. PMID:24847439

  5. Comparison of 2 micron Ho and 10 micron CO2 lidar for atmospheric backscatter and Doppler windshear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killinger, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    The development of eye-safe, solid-state Lidar systems is discussed, with an emphasis on Coherent Doppler Lidar for Atmospheric Wind Measurements. The following subject areas are covered: tunable Ho DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar)/lidar atmospheric measurements; atmospheric turbulence measurements and detector arrays; diurnal measurements of C(sub n)(sup 2) for KSC lidar measurements; and development of single-frequency Ho laser/lidar.

  6. Advanced Detector and Waveform Digitizer for Water Vapor DIAL Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Luck, William S., Jr.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement of atmospheric water vapor has become a major requirement for understanding moist-air processes. Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) is a technique best suited for the measurement of atmospheric water vapor. NASA Langley Research Center is continually developing improved DIAL systems. One aspect of current development is focused on the enhancement of a DIAL receiver by applying state-of-the-art technology in building a new compact detection system that will be placed directly on the DIAL receiver telescope. The newly developed detection system has the capability of being digitally interfaced with a simple personal computer, using a discrete input/output interface. This has the potential of transmitting digital data over relatively long distances instead of analog signals, which greatly reduces measurement noise. In this paper, we discuss some results from the new compact water vapor DIAL detection system which includes a silicon based avalanche photodiode (APD) detector, a 14-bit, 10-MHz waveform digitizer, a microcontroller and other auxiliary electronics. All of which are contained on a small printed-circuit-board. This will significantly reduce the weight and volume over the current CAMAC system and eventually will be used in a water vapor DIAL system on an unpiloted atmospheric vehicle (UAV) aircraft, or alternatively on an orbiting spacecraft.

  7. CO2 mitigation via accelerated limestone weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rau, G.H.; Knauss, K.G.; Langer, W.H.; Caldeira, K.

    2004-01-01

    The climate and environmental impacts of the current, carbon-intensive energy usage demands that effective and practical energy alternatives and CO2 mitigation strategies be found. A discussion on CO2 mitigation via accelerated limestone weathering covers limestone and seawater availability and cost; reaction rates and densities; effectiveness in CO2 sequestration; and environmental impacts and benefits.

  8. Recent Trends in Atmospheric 14CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Rayner, P.; Bousquet, P.; Cozic, A.; Miller, J. B.; Lehman, S. J.; Peters, W.; Tans, P. P.; Ciais, P.

    2007-12-01

    The radiocarbon content of atmospheric CO2 (14CO2) varies due to a number of factors. After the near-doubling of the 14CO2 loading in the early 1960s (due to atmospheric nuclear weapons testing), many studies examined the fate of this 'bomb 14C' to understand exchange processes of CO2 with the surface reservoirs. Today, however, the atmosphere and surface reservoirs are close to equilibrium with respect to bomb 14C, and instead, changes in 14CO2 more strongly reflect the response to the addition of 14C-free fossil fuel CO2 to the atmosphere. We use an atmospheric transport model to simulate recent atmospheric 14CO2, and compare this to observations at several sites over the Northern Hemisphere continents. We show that, in the Northern Hemisphere, 14CO2 variability is dominated by the effect of fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The model simulates the time trends quite well, including both the overall secular trend and the seasonal cycle. A seasonal cycle in 14CO2 is observed at the high altitude sites of Niwot Ridge, Colorado, and Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, but the magnitude varies from year to year. Our modeling studies demonstrate that this inter-annual variability can be explained by differences in atmospheric transport. This is in contrast to CO2 concentration seasonal cycles, which are dominated by seasonal changes in CO2 source strengths.

  9. Photosynthesis in a CO2 rich atmosphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentration of CO2 ([CO2]) in the atmosphere is projected to reach ~550 ppm by 2050. C3 plants respond directly to growth at elevated [CO2] via stimulated photosynthesis and reduced stomatal conductance. The enhancement of photosynthesis is the result of increased velocity of carboxylation of ...

  10. Regional Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange Via Atmospheric Budgets

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K J; Richardson, S J; Miles, N L

    2007-03-07

    Inversions of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurements to determine CO2 sources and sinks are typically limited to coarse spatial and temporal resolution. This limits our ability to evaluate efforts to upscale chamber- and stand-level CO2 flux measurements to regional scales, where coherent climate and ecosystem mechanisms govern the carbon cycle. As a step towards the goal of implementing atmospheric budget or inversion methodology on a regional scale, a network of five relatively inexpensive CO2 mixing ratio measurement systems was deployed on towers in northern Wisconsin. Four systems were distributed on a circle of roughly 150-km radius, surrounding one centrally located system at the WLEF tower near Park Falls, WI. All measurements were taken at a height of 76 m AGL. The systems used single-cell infrared CO2 analyzers (Licor, model LI-820) rather than the siginificantly more costly two-cell models, and were calibrated every two hours using four samples known to within ± 0.2 ppm CO2. Tests prior to deployment in which the systems sampled the same air indicate the precision of the systems to be better than ± 0.3 ppm and the accuracy, based on the difference between the daily mean of one system and a co-located NOAA-ESRL system, is consistently better than ± 0.3 ppm. We demonstrate the utility of the network in two ways. We interpret regional CO2 differences using a Lagrangian parcel approach. The difference in the CO2 mixing ratios across the network is at least 2-3 ppm, which is large compared to the accuracy and precision of the systems. Fluxes estimated assuming Lagrangian parcel transport are of the same sign and magnitude as eddy-covariance flux measurements at the centrally-located WLEF tower. These results indicate that the network will be useful in a full inversion model. Second, we present a case study involving a frontal passage through the region. The progression of a front across the network is evident; changes as large as four ppm in one minute

  11. Isotopic CO2 Instrumentation for UAV Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, A.; Silver, J.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon dioxide is the largest component of anthroprogenic green house gas emissions. Knowing atmospheric 13CO2/12CO2 ratios precisely is important for understanding biogenic and anthroprogenic sources and sinks for carbon. Instrumentation mounted on UAV aircraft would enable important spatial isotopic CO2 information. However, current isotopic CO2 instrumentation have unfavorable attributes for UAV use, such as high power requirements, high cost, high weight, and large size. Here we present the early development of a compact isotopic CO2 instrument that is designed to nullify effects of pressure, temperature and moisture, and will ultimately be suitable for UAV deployment.

  12. Forest succession at elevated CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, James S.; Schlesinger, William H.

    2002-02-01

    We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response.

  13. Selecting CO2 Sources for CO2 Utilization by Environmental-Merit-Order Curves.

    PubMed

    von der Assen, Niklas; Müller, Leonard J; Steingrube, Annette; Voll, Philip; Bardow, André

    2016-02-01

    Capture and utilization of CO2 as alternative carbon feedstock for fuels, chemicals, and materials aims at reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fossil resource use. For capture of CO2, a large variety of CO2 sources exists. Since they emit much more CO2 than the expected demand for CO2 utilization, the environmentally most favorable CO2 sources should be selected. For this purpose, we introduce the environmental-merit-order (EMO) curve to rank CO2 sources according to their environmental impacts over the available CO2 supply. To determine the environmental impacts of CO2 capture, compression and transport, we conducted a comprehensive literature study for the energy demands of CO2 supply, and constructed a database for CO2 sources in Europe. Mapping these CO2 sources reveals that CO2 transport distances are usually small. Thus, neglecting transport in a first step, we find that environmental impacts are minimized by capturing CO2 first from chemical plants and natural gas processing, then from paper mills, power plants, and iron and steel plants. In a second step, we computed regional EMO curves considering transport and country-specific impacts for energy supply. Building upon regional EMO curves, we identify favorable locations for CO2 utilization with lowest environmental impacts of CO2 supply, so-called CO2 oases. PMID:26752014

  14. Microbial Growth under Supercritical CO2

    PubMed Central

    Peet, Kyle C.; Freedman, Adam J. E.; Hernandez, Hector H.; Britto, Vanya; Boreham, Chris; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.

    2015-01-01

    Growth of microorganisms in environments containing CO2 above its critical point is unexpected due to a combination of deleterious effects, including cytoplasmic acidification and membrane destabilization. Thus, supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is generally regarded as a sterilizing agent. We report isolation of bacteria from three sites targeted for geologic carbon dioxide sequestration (GCS) that are capable of growth in pressurized bioreactors containing scCO2. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes from scCO2 enrichment cultures revealed microbial assemblages of varied complexity, including representatives of the genus Bacillus. Propagation of enrichment cultures under scCO2 headspace led to isolation of six strains corresponding to Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subterraneus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus safensis, and Bacillus megaterium. Isolates are spore-forming, facultative anaerobes and capable of germination and growth under an scCO2 headspace. In addition to these isolates, several Bacillus type strains grew under scCO2, suggesting that this may be a shared feature of spore-forming Bacillus spp. Our results provide direct evidence of microbial activity at the interface between scCO2 and an aqueous phase. Since microbial activity can influence the key mechanisms for permanent storage of sequestered CO2 (i.e., structural, residual, solubility, and mineral trapping), our work suggests that during GCS microorganisms may grow and catalyze biological reactions that influence the fate and transport of CO2 in the deep subsurface. PMID:25681188

  15. Residual CO2 trapping in Indiana limestone.

    PubMed

    El-Maghraby, Rehab M; Blunt, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    We performed core flooding experiments on Indiana limestone using the porous plate method to measure the amount of trapped CO(2) at a temperature of 50 °C and two pressures: 4.2 and 9 MPa. Brine was mixed with CO(2) for equilibration, then the mixture was circulated through a sacrificial core. Porosity and permeability tests conducted before and after 884 h of continuous core flooding confirmed negligible dissolution. A trapping curve for supercritical (sc)CO(2) in Indiana showing the relationship between the initial and residual CO(2) saturations was measured and compared with that of gaseous CO(2). The results were also compared with scCO(2) trapping in Berea sandstone at the same conditions. A scCO(2) residual trapping end point of 23.7% was observed, indicating slightly less trapping of scCO(2) in Indiana carbonates than in Berea sandstone. There is less trapping for gaseous CO(2) (end point of 18.8%). The system appears to be more water-wet under scCO(2) conditions, which is different from the trend observed in Berea; we hypothesize that this is due to the greater concentration of Ca(2+) in brine at higher pressure. Our work indicates that capillary trapping could contribute to the immobilization of CO(2) in carbonate aquifers. PMID:23167314

  16. Fourier Transform Microwave Spectra of CO{2}-ETHYLENE Sulfide, CO{2}-ETHYLENE Oxide and CO{2}-PROPYLENE Oxide Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orita, Yukari; Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Hirota, Eizi

    2010-06-01

    We have previously examined the difference in roles of O and S in structure and dynamics of the CO-ethylene oxide (EO) and CO-ethylene sulfide (ES) complexes. We have extended the investigation to CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES for comparison. We have also observed the CO{2}-propylene oxide (PO) complex, which is an important intermediate in the reaction of PO with CO{2} leading to polycarbonate. Both a-type and b-type transitions were observed for the CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES, but no c-type transitions were observed at all. We also detected the {34}S and {13}C isotopic species in natural abundance and the species containing {18}OCO and C{18}O% {2}, which were synthesized by burning paper in an {18}O{2} and{% 16}O{2} mixture. By analyzing the observed spectra we concluded the CO{2} moiety of CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES located in a plane % prependicular to the three-membered ring and bisecting the COC or CSC angle of EO or ES, respectively, as in the case of CO-EO and CO-ES complexes. An % ab initio MO calculation at the level of MP2/6-311G(d, p) yielded an optimized structure in good agreement with the experimental result. We have derived from the observed spectra the distance, the stretching force constant, and the binding energy of the bonds between the constituents of the CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES complexes and have found that the distances of the two complexes were shorter by 0.2Å than those in CO-EO and CO-ES, respectively, and that the intermolecular bonds were two times stronger in the CO{2} complexes than in the corresponding CO complexes. We have concluded from the observed spectra that the CO{2} moiety in CO{2}-PO is located on the PO three-membered ring plane opposite to the methyl group. The constituents in CO{2}-PO were more weakly bound than those in CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES. S. Sato, Y. Kawashima, Y. Tatamitani, and E. Hirota, 63rd International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, WF05 (2008).

  17. Energyless CO2 Absorption, Generation, and Fixation Using Atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Okada, Yasuhiko; Matsumoto, Chiaki; Yamada, Masayuki; Nakazawa, Kenta; Mukai, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    From an economic and ecological perspective, the efficient utilization of atmospheric CO2 as a carbon resource should be a much more important goal than reducing CO2 emissions. However, no strategy to harvest CO2 using atmospheric CO2 at room temperature currently exists, which is presumably due to the extremely low concentration of CO2 in ambient air (approximately 400 ppm=0.04 vol%). We discovered that monoethanolamine (MEA) and its derivatives efficiently absorbed atmospheric CO2 without requiring an energy source. We also found that the absorbed CO2 could be easily liberated with acid. Furthermore, a novel CO2 generator enabled us to synthesize a high value-added material (i.e., 2-oxazolidinone derivatives based on the metal catalyzed CO2-fixation at room temperature) from atmospheric CO2. PMID:26596773

  18. Exogenously produced CO2 doubles the CO2 efflux from three north temperate lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Grace M.; Buelo, Cal D.; Cole, Jonathan J.; Pace, Michael L.

    2016-03-01

    It is well established that lakes are typically sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. However, it remains unclear what portion of CO2 efflux is from endogenously processed organic carbon or from exogenously produced CO2 transported into lakes. We estimated high-frequency CO2 and O2 efflux from three north temperate lakes in summer to determine the proportion of the total CO2 efflux that was exogenously produced. Two of the lakes were amended with nutrients to experimentally enhance endogenous CO2 uptake. In the unfertilized lake, 50% of CO2 efflux was from exogenous sources and hydrology had a large influence on efflux. In the fertilized lakes, endogenous CO2 efflux was negative (into the lake) yet exogenous CO2 made the lakes net sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. Shifts in hydrologic regimes and nutrient loading have the potential to change whether small lakes act primarily as reactors or vents in the watershed.

  19. CO2 transport over complex terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Burns, Sean P.; Delany, A.C.; Oncley, S.P.; Turnipseed, A.A.; Stephens, B.B.; Lenschow, D.H.; LeMone, M.A.; Monson, Russell K.; Anderson, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    CO2 transport processes relevant for estimating net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site in the front range of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA, were investigated during a pilot experiment. We found that cold, moist, and CO2-rich air was transported downslope at night and upslope in the early morning at this forest site situated on a ???5% east-facing slope. We found that CO2 advection dominated the total CO2 transport in the NEE estimate at night although there are large uncertainties because of partial cancellation of horizontal and vertical advection. The horizontal CO2 advection captured not only the CO2 loss at night, but also the CO2 uptake during daytime. We found that horizontal CO2 advection was significant even during daytime especially when turbulent mixing was not significant, such as in early morning and evening transition periods and within the canopy. Similar processes can occur anywhere regardless of whether flow is generated by orography, synoptic pressure gradients, or surface heterogeneity as long as CO2 concentration is not well mixed by turbulence. The long-term net effect of all the CO2 budget terms on estimates of NEE needs to be investigated. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Covalent Organic Frameworks for CO2 Capture.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yongfei; Zou, Ruqiang; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-04-01

    As an emerging class of porous crystalline materials, covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are excellent candidates for various applications. In particular, they can serve as ideal platforms for capturing CO2 to mitigate the dilemma caused by the greenhouse effect. Recent research achievements using COFs for CO2 capture are highlighted. A background overview is provided, consisting of a brief statement on the current CO2 issue, a summary of representative materials utilized for CO2 capture, and an introduction to COFs. Research progresses on: i) experimental CO2 capture using different COFs synthesized based on different covalent bond formations, and ii) computational simulation results of such porous materials on CO2 capture are summarized. Based on these experimental and theoretical studies, careful analyses and discussions in terms of the COF stability, low- and high-pressure CO2 uptake, CO2 selectivity, breakthrough performance, and CO2 capture conditions are provided. Finally, a perspective and conclusion section of COFs for CO2 capture is presented. Recent advancements in the field are highlighted and the strategies and principals involved are discussed. PMID:26924720

  1. Radiocarbon in Tree STEM CO2 Efflux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhr, J.; Czimczik, C. I.; Angert, A.; Trumbore, S.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide efflux from tree stems can be a significant component of the stand-level carbon balance. Recent studies have demonstrated that tree stem CO2 efflux may reflect more than just in-situ respiration but also transport from other locations and it has been suggested that it may also include C originally respired in roots or even uptake of soil CO2. We report measurements of the radiocarbon signature of carbon emitted from a range of mature tree stems in tropical and temperate forest ecosystems. Comparison of the radiocarbon signature of respired CO2 with the observed rate of decline in atmsopheric 14C-CO2 provides a measure of the time elapsed between C fixation by the plant and its return to the atmosphere as stem CO2 efflux. In all investigated trees, we observed that stem CO2 efflux had higher radiocarbon signatures than the contemporary atmospheric 14C-CO2, and therefore was derived from C fixed one to several years earlier. In tropical forest trees, we found that the 14C signature of CO2 within the stem (~4-5 cm depth) had even higher radiocarbon signatures than the stem CO2 efflux. In one of the investigated tree species, the in-stem CO2 was derived from C sources fixed on average ~20 years previously. These results confirm observations of root-respired CO2 that also have shown contributions of C substrates older than recent photosynthetic products, and the presence of extracable C reserves in wood that reflect the presence of older C sources. Our results imply that stem CO2 efflux is not only derived from respiration of recent photosynthetic products but includes contributions from older, stored C pools. Ongoing investigations will enable us to compare CO2 efflux for trees subjected to experimental drought, and using different life strategies (deciduous versus evergreen oaks) to determine if the use of these older C stores varies with stress.

  2. 2.5 MHz Line-Width High-energy, 2 Micrometer Coherent Wind Lidar Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petros, Mulugeta; Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul; Singh, Upendra N.; Reithmaier, Karl

    2007-01-01

    2 micron solid-state lasers are the primary choice for coherent Doppler wind detection. As wind lidars, they are used for wake vortex and clear air turbulence detection providing air transport safety. In addition, 2 micron lasers are one of the candidates for CO2 detection lidars. The rich CO2 absorption line around 2 micron, combined with the long upper state life of time, has made Ho based 2 micron lasers a viable candidate for CO2 sensing DIAL instrument. The design and fabrication of a compact coherent laser radar transmitter for Troposphere wind sensing is under way. This system is hardened for ground as well as airborne applications. As a transmitter for a coherent wind lidar, this laser has stringent spectral line width and beam quality requirements. Although the absolute wavelength does not have to be fixed for wind detection, to maximize return signal, the output wavelength should avoid atmospheric CO2 and H2O absorption lines. The base line laser material is Ho:Tm:LuLF which is an isomorph of Ho:Tm:YLF. LuLF produces 20% more output power than Ho:Tm:YLF. In these materials the Tm absorption cross-section, the Ho emission cross-section, the Tm to Ho energy transfer parameters and the Ho (sup 5) I (sub 7) radiative life time are all identical. However, the improved performance of the LuLF is attributed to the lower thermal population in the (sup 5) I (sub 8) manifold. It also provides higher normal mode to Q-switch conversion than YLF at high pump energy indicating a lower up-conversion. The laser architecture is composed of a seed laser, a ring oscillator, and a double pass amplifier. The seed laser is a single longitudinal mode with a line width of 13 KHz. The 100mJ class oscillator is stretched to 3 meters to accommodate the line-width requirement without compromising the range resolution of the instrument. The amplifier is double passed to produce greater than 300mJ energy.

  3. Global CO2 Emission from Volcanic Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, N.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Padilla, G.; Melian Rodriguez, G.; Padron, E.; Barrancos, J.; Calvo, D.; Kusukabe, M.; Mori, T.; Nolasco, D.

    2009-12-01

    During the last two decades, scientists have paid attention to CO2 volcanic emissions and its contribution to the global C budget. Excluding MORBs as a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere, the global CO2 discharge from subaerial volcanism has been estimated about 300 Mt y-1 and this rate accounts for both visible (plume & fumaroles) and non-visible (diffuse) volcanic gas emanations (Mörner & Etíope, 2002). However, CO2 emissions from volcanic lakes have not been considered to estimate the global CO2 discharge from subaerial volcanoes. In order to improve this global CO2 emission rate and estimate the global CO2 emission from volcanic lakes, an extensive research on CO2 emission of volcanic lakes from Phillipines, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Mexico, Indonesia, Germany, France, Cameroon, Costa Rica, El Salvador and Ecuador had been recently carried out. In-situ measurements of CO2 efflux from the surface environment of volcanic lakes were performed by means of a modified floating device of the accumulation chamber method. To quantify the total CO2 emission from each volcanic lake, CO2 efflux maps were constructed using sequential Gaussian simulations (sGs). CO2 emission rates were normalized by the lake area (km2), and volcanic lakes were grouped following classification in acid, alkaline and neutral lakes. The observed average normalized CO2 emission rate values increase from alkaline (5.5 t km-2 d-1), neutral (210.0 t km-2 d-1), to acid (676.8 t km-2 d-1) volcanic lakes. Taking into account (i) these normalized CO2 emission rates from 31 volcanic lakes, (ii) the number of volcanic lakes in the world (~ 1100), (iii) the fraction of the investigated alkaline (45%), neutral (39%), and acid (16%) volcanic lakes, and (iv) the average areas of the investigated alkaline (36,8 km2), neutral (3,7 km2), and acid (0,5 km2) volcanic lakes; the global CO2 emission from volcanic lakes is about ~ 182 Mt year-1. This estimated value is about ~ 50% of the actual estimated global CO2

  4. Soft Approaches to CO2 Activation.

    PubMed

    Das, Shoubhik; Bobbink, Felix D; Gopakumar, Aswin; Dyson, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of CO(2) as a C1 synthon is becoming increasingly important as a feedstock derived from carbon capture and storage technologies. Herein, we describe some of our recent research on carbon dioxide valorization, notably, using organocatalysts to convert CO(2) into carboxylic acid, ester, formyl and methyl groups on various organic molecules. We describe these studies within the broader context of CO(2) capture and valorization and suggest approaches for future research. PMID:26842327

  5. CO2 sequestration: Storage capacity guideline needed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.; Hickman, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Petroleum reserves are classified for the assessment of available supplies by governmental agencies, management of business processes for achieving exploration and production efficiency, and documentation of the value of reserves and resources in financial statements. Up to the present however, the storage capacity determinations made by some organizations in the initial CO2 resource assessment are incorrect technically. New publications should thus cover differences in mineral adsorption of CO2 and dissolution of CO2 in various brine waters.

  6. Global Mapping of CO2 on Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, T. B.; Combe, J. P.; Matson, D.; Johnson, T. V.

    2014-12-01

    We present the first global map of CO2 on Enceladus. The purpose is to determine whether CO2 is associated to fractures and eruptions, and if it formed recently. Cassini observed tectonic features and plumes on Enceladus, which could be caused by a warm subsurface ocean containing dissolved gases. CO2 should be one of these gases (Postberg F. et al., Nature, 2009), and some of it should be erupted and condensed onto the surface (Matson et al., Icarus, 2012). Validation of this hypothesis could be done by determining the amount, location and molecular state of the CO2. Free CO2 ice and complexed CO2 were reported on Enceladus (Brown et al., Science, 2006; Hansen, LPSC, 2010) from analysis of Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) data, and on other Saturn icy satellites (Cruikshank et al., Icarus, 2010 ; Filacchione et al., Icarus, 2010). Complexed CO2 has also been found from Galileo Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) spectra on the icy Galilean satellites (McCord et al., Science, 1997 and JGR, 1998), apparently due to both interior outgassing and radiation processing. CO2 has an asymmetric stretching mode that creates an absorption band, the wavelength position of which is sensitive to the nature of molecular associations between CO2 and their neighbors. Free CO2 ice absorbs at 4.268 μm for (Sandford and Allamandola, 1990) and CO2 complexed with other molecules absorbs at shorter wavelengths, around 4.25 μm or shorter (Chaban et al., Icarus, 2007). In VIMS spectra of Enceladus, this stretching mode absorption band is near the instrument detection limit. We utilized all VIMS data sets available that had significant spatial resolution to increase the statistics of the observations for any given location and improve the signal to noise. CO2 has also a smaller absorption at 2.7 μm, although it occurs in a range of wavelength that has higher signal-to-noise ratio by several magnitudes, because the surface of Enceladus (mostly H2O ice) has

  7. CO2 MITIGATION VIA ACCELERATED LIMESTONE WEATHERING

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, G H; Knauss, K G; Langer, W H; Caldeira, K G

    2004-02-27

    The climate and environmental impacts of our current, carbon-intensive energy usage demands that effective and practical energy alternatives and CO2 mitigation strategies be found. As part of this effort, various means of capturing and storing CO2 generated from fossil-fuel-based energy production are being investigated. One of the proposed methods involves a geochemistry-based capture and sequestration process that hydrates point-source, waste CO2 with water to produce a carbonic acid solution. This in turn is reacted and neutralized with limestone, thus converting the original CO2 gas to calcium bicarbonate in solution, the overall reaction being:

  8. R&D100: CO2 Memzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, Susan; Brinker, Jeff; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Vanegas, Juan

    2015-11-19

    By combining a water droplet loaded with CO2 enzymes in an ultrathin nanopore on a flexible substrate, researchers at Sandia National Laboratories realized the first technology that meets and exceeds DOE targets for cost-effective CO2 capture. When compared with the nearest membrane competitor, this technology delivers a three times permeation rate, twenty times higher selectivity, and ten time lower fabrication cost. The CO2 Memzyme has the potential to remove 90% of CO2 emissions and is forecasted to save the U.S. coal industry $90 billion a year compared to conventional technology.

  9. Experimental Ion Mobility measurements in Ne-CO2 and CO2-N2 mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encarnação, P. M. C. C.; Cortez, A. F. V.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P. N. B.; Santos, F. P.; Trindade, A. M. F.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Conde, C. A. N.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we present the experimental results for the mobility, K0, of ions in neon-carbon dioxide (Ne-CO2) and carbon dioxide-nitrogen (CO2-N2) gaseous mixtures for total pressures ranging from 8–12 Torr, reduced electric fields in the 10–25 Td range, at room temperature. Regarding the Ne-CO2 mixture only one peak was observed for CO2 concentrations above 25%, which has been identified as an ion originated in CO2, while below 25% of CO2 a second-small peak appears at the left side of the main peak, which has been attributed to impurities. The mobility values for the main peak range between 3.51 ± 0.05 and 1.07 ± 0.01 cm2V‑1s‑1 in the 10%-99% interval of CO2, and from 4.61 ± 0.19 to 3.00 ± 0.09 cm2V‑1s‑1 for the second peak observed (10%–25% of CO2). For the CO2-N2, the time-of-arrival spectra displayed only one peak for CO2 concentrations above 10%, which was attributed to ions originated in CO2, namely CO2+(CO2), with a second peak appearing for CO2 concentrations below 10%. This second peak, with higher mobility, was attributed to CO2+ ions. The mobility values of the main peak range between 2.11 ± 0.04 and 1.10 ± 0.03 cm2V‑1s‑1 in the 1%–99% interval of CO2, while the second peak's from 2.26 ± 0.02 and 1.95 ± 0.04 cm2V‑1s‑1 (1%–10% of CO2). The inverse of the mobility displays an aproximately linear dependence on the CO2 concentration in the mixture.

  10. Photolytically Generated CO2 on Iapetus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Eric; Brown, R. H.

    2007-10-01

    The leading edge of Iapetus is covered with a dark material that is carbon rich, suggested to be either a carbonaceous layer (Smith el al 1982), CH4 and NH3 embedded in water ice (Squyres et al 1983), or nitrogen-rich tholin and amorphous carbon (Buratti et al 2005). Laboratory experiments have shown that CO2 can be generated from such material both by photolysis (Allamandola, Sandford & Valero 1988) and radiolysis (Strazzulla & Palumbo 1998). We consider the accumulation of CO2 that could be photolytically generated and sequestered in the polar regions of Iapetus. The polar regions provide only a temporary cold trap for CO2, and any polar cap is expected to be seasonal in nature. Using a numerical model to track the movement of CO2, we find that as CO2 moves between poles, 10% of it would reach escape velocity and be lost from the system every solar orbit (29.46 years). CO2 would accumulate until its loss rate equaled its production rate; thus, the quantity of CO2 in a polar cap would be 10 times the amount produced in a single solar orbit. Provided that the generation of CO2 is large enough, Cassini VIMS would be able to detect a seasonal CO2 polar cap. Since the polar regions are comprised of water ice and do not have the same coating of carbon rich dark material as the dark side, any 4.26 micron band absorption would be CO2 frost rather than complexed CO2.

  11. CALIOPE airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system design

    SciTech Connect

    Mietz, D.; Archuleta, B.; Archuleta, J.

    1997-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently developing an airborne CO{sub 2} Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system based on second generation technology demonstrated last summer at NTS. The CALIOPE Airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system requirements have been compiled based on the mission objectives and SONDIAL model trade studies. Subsystem designs have been developed based on flow down from these system requirements, as well as experience gained from second generation ground tests and N-ABLE (Non-proliferation AirBorne Lidar Experiments) airborne experiments. This paper presents the CACDI mission objectives, system requirements, the current subsystem design, and provides an overview of the airborne experimental plan.

  12. Airborne water vapor DIAL research: System development and field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higdon, Noah S.; Browell, Edward V.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Chyba, Thomas H.; Grossmann, Benoist E.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Fenn, Marta A.; Mayor, Shane D.; Ismail, Syed; Grant, William B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurement of water vapor (H2O) and aerosols in the lower atmosphere. The airborne H2O DIAL system was flight tested aboard the NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) Electra aircraft in three separate field deployments between 1989 and 1991. Atmospheric measurements were made under a variety of atmospheric conditions during the flight tests, and several modifications were implemented during this development period to improve system operation. A brief description of the system and major modifications will be presented, and the most significant atmospheric observations will be described.

  13. Capturing CO2 via reactions in nanopores.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Kevin; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Tang, Z; Dong, J. H.

    2008-10-01

    This one-year exploratory LDRD aims to provide fundamental understanding of the mechanism of CO2 scrubbing platforms that will reduce green house gas emission and mitigate the effect of climate change. The project builds on the team member's expertise developed in previous LDRD projects to study the capture or preferential retention of CO2 in nanoporous membranes and on metal oxide surfaces. We apply Density Functional Theory and ab initio molecular dynamics techniques to model the binding of CO2 on MgO and CaO (100) surfaces and inside water-filled, amine group functionalized silica nanopores. The results elucidate the mechanisms of CO2 trapping and clarify some confusion in the literature. Our work identifies key future calculations that will have the greatest impact on CO2 capture technologies, and provides guidance to science-based design of platforms that can separate the green house gas CO2 from power plant exhaust or even from the atmosphere. Experimentally, we modify commercial MFI zeolite membranes and find that they preferentially transmit H2 over CO2 by a factor of 34. Since zeolite has potential catalytic capability to crack hydrocarbons into CO2 and H2, this finding paves the way for zeolite membranes that can convert biofuel into H2 and separate the products all in one step.

  14. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-11-08

    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  15. Mars South Pole CO2 Paleoatmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneck, T.

    2004-03-01

    Seasonal asymmetry in the CO mixing ratio is explained by condensation of CO_2. High levels of deuteration can be obtained if the gas phase is depleted of CO. UV limbs measurements found intense Cameron band emissions of CO from 1900-2700 A produced by dissociative excitation of CO_2.

  16. CAPTURING CO2 WITH MGO AEROGELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CO2 capture from flue gas requires that the adsorbent be active at relatively low CO2 concentrations (3 – 13 vol%), high temperatures (~ 250ºC), and in the presence of many other gas species. These conditions will be simulated in the student designed reactor. The...

  17. CO2 ice on Mars: Theoretical simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Bernhard Lee

    1992-01-01

    A theoretical model of the energy budget of the polar caps of Mars has been created which is used to study the hemispherical asymmetry in CO2 ice. The observations which show survival of seasonal CO2 ice in the Southern Hemisphere in summer and not in the Northern Hemisphere in summer have been reproduced.

  18. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-03-01

    Project overview provides background on carbonic anhydrase transport mechanism for CO2 in the human body and proposed approach for ARPA-E project to create a synthetic enzyme analogue and utilize it in a membrane for CO2 capture from flue gas.

  19. Aqueous ethylenediamine for CO(2) capture.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shan; Chen, Xi; Nguyen, Thu; Voice, Alexander K; Rochelle, Gary T

    2010-08-23

    Aqueous ethylenediamine (EDA) has been investigated as a solvent for CO(2) capture from flue gas. EDA can be used at 12 M (mol kg(-1) H(2)O) with an acceptable viscosity of 16 cP (1 cP=10(-3) Pa s) with 0.48 mol CO(2) per equivalent of EDA. Similar to monoethanolamine (MEA), EDA can be used up to 120 degrees C in a stripper without significant thermal degradation. Inhibitor A will effectively eliminate oxidative degradation. Above 120 degrees C, loaded EDA degrades with the production of its cyclic urea and other related compounds. Unlike piperazine, when exposed to oxidative degradation, EDA does not result in excessive foaming. Over much of the loading range, the CO(2) absorption rate with 12 M EDA is comparable to 7 M MEA. However, at typical rich loading, 12 M EDA absorbs CO(2) 2 times slower than 7 M MEA. The capacity of 12 M EDA is 0.72 mol CO(2)/(kg H(2)O+EDA) (for P(CO(2) )=0.5 to 5 kPa at 40 degrees C), which is about double that of MEA. The apparent heat of CO(2) desorption in EDA solution is 84 kJ mol(-1) CO(2); greater than most other amine systems. PMID:20677204

  20. Improved Criteria for Increasing CO2 Storage Potential with CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, J.; Pawar, R.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years it has been found that deployment of CO2 capture and storage technology at large scales will be difficult without significant incentives. One of the technologies that has been a focus in recent years is CO2 enhanced oil/gas recovery, where additional hydrocarbon recovery provides an economic incentive for deployment. The way CO2 EOR is currently deployed, maximization of additional oil production does not necessarily lead to maximization of stored CO2, though significant amounts of CO2 are stored regardless of the objective. To determine the potential of large-scale CO2 storage through CO2 EOR, it is necessary to determine the feasibility of deploying this technology over a wide range of oil/gas field characteristics. In addition it is also necessary to accurately estimate the ultimate CO2 storage potential and develop approaches that optimize oil recovery along with long-term CO2 storage. This study uses compositional reservoir simulations to further develop technical screening criteria that not only improve oil recovery, but maximize CO2 storage during enhanced oil recovery operations. Minimum miscibility pressure, maximum oil/ CO2 contact without the need of significant waterflooding, and CO2 breakthrough prevention are a few key parameters specific to the technical aspects of CO2 enhanced oil recovery that maximize CO2 storage. We have developed reduced order models based on simulation results to determine the ultimate oil recovery and CO2 storage potential in these formations. Our goal is to develop and demonstrate a methodology that can be used to determine feasibility and long-term CO2 storage potential of CO2 EOR technology.

  1. Venting of CO2 at Enceladus’ Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Dennis L.; Davies, Ashley G.; Johnson, Torrence V.; Combe, Jean-Philippe; McCord, Tom B.; Radebaugh, Jani

    2015-11-01

    Enceladus has CO2 surface deposits in its South Polar Region that have been recently mapped by J.-P. Combe et al. (2015 AGU Fall Meeting). Assuming that these are CO2 frost, we show how they can be formed. We use an ocean-water circulation model [1] that specifies pressure gradients that drive water to the surface from a relatively gas-rich, subsurface ocean. We now examine the movement of CO2 to the surface; formation of shallow CO2 gas pockets in the ice; and the venting of CO2, when at least some of the gas freezes to form frost. If the local heat flow is known (cf. [2]), then the depths of the corresponding gas pockets can be calculated. References: [1] Matson et al. (2012) Icarus, 221, 53-62. [2] Howett et al. (2011) J. Geophys. Res. 116, E03003. Acknowledgements: AGD thanks the NASA OPR Program for support.

  2. Zinc depolarized electrochemical CO2 concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, R. R.; Marshall, R. D.; Schubert, F. H.

    1975-01-01

    Two zinc depolarized electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrator concepts were analytically and experimentally evaluated for portable life support system carbon dioxide (CO2) removal application. The first concept, referred to as the zinc hydrogen generator electrochemical depolarized CO2 concentrator, uses a ZHG to generate hydrogen for direct use in an EDC. The second concept, referred to as the zinc/electrochemical depolarized concentrator, uses a standard EDC cell construction modified for use with the Zn anode. The Zn anode is consumed and subsequently regenerated, thereby eliminating the need to supply H2 to the EDC for the CO2 removal process. The evaluation was based primarily on an analytical evaluation of the two ZnDCs at projected end item performance and hardware design levels. Both ZnDC concepts for PLSS CO2 removal application were found to be noncompetitive in both total equivalent launch weight and individual extravehicular activity mission volume when compared to other candidate regenerable PLSS CO2 scrubbers.

  3. Geophysical monitoring technology for CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jin-Feng; Li, Lin; Wang, Hao-Fan; Tan, Ming-You; Cui, Shi-Ling; Zhang, Yun-Yin; Qu, Zhi-Peng; Jia, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Shu-Hai

    2016-06-01

    Geophysical techniques play key roles in the measuring, monitoring, and verifying the safety of CO2 sequestration and in identifying the efficiency of CO2-enhanced oil recovery. Although geophysical monitoring techniques for CO2 sequestration have grown out of conventional oil and gas geophysical exploration techniques, it takes a long time to conduct geophysical monitoring, and there are many barriers and challenges. In this paper, with the initial objective of performing CO2 sequestration, we studied the geophysical tasks associated with evaluating geological storage sites and monitoring CO2 sequestration. Based on our review of the scope of geophysical monitoring techniques and our experience in domestic and international carbon capture and sequestration projects, we analyzed the inherent difficulties and our experiences in geophysical monitoring techniques, especially, with respect to 4D seismic acquisition, processing, and interpretation.

  4. The ins and outs of CO2.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Beardall, John

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish influx and efflux of inorganic C in photosynthesizing tissues; this article examines what is known and where there are gaps in knowledge. Irreversible decarboxylases produce CO2, and CO2 is the substrate/product of enzymes that act as carboxylases and decarboxylases. Some irreversible carboxylases use CO2; others use HCO3(-). The relative role of permeation through the lipid bilayer versus movement through CO2-selective membrane proteins in the downhill, non-energized, movement of CO2 is not clear. Passive permeation explains most CO2 entry, including terrestrial and aquatic organisms with C3 physiology and biochemistry, terrestrial C4 plants and all crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, as well as being part of some mechanisms of HCO3(-) use in CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) function, although further work is needed to test the mechanism in some cases. However, there is some evidence of active CO2 influx at the plasmalemma of algae. HCO3(-) active influx at the plasmalemma underlies all cyanobacterial and some algal CCMs. HCO3(-) can also enter some algal chloroplasts, probably as part of a CCM. The high intracellular CO2 and HCO3(-) pools consequent upon CCMs result in leakage involving CO2, and occasionally HCO3(-). Leakage from cyanobacterial and microalgal CCMs involves up to half, but sometimes more, of the gross inorganic C entering in the CCM; leakage from terrestrial C4 plants is lower in most environments. Little is known of leakage from other organisms with CCMs, though given the leakage better-examined organisms, leakage occurs and increases the energetic cost of net carbon assimilation. PMID:26466660

  5. The ins and outs of CO2

    PubMed Central

    Raven, John A.; Beardall, John

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish influx and efflux of inorganic C in photosynthesizing tissues; this article examines what is known and where there are gaps in knowledge. Irreversible decarboxylases produce CO2, and CO2 is the substrate/product of enzymes that act as carboxylases and decarboxylases. Some irreversible carboxylases use CO2; others use HCO3 –. The relative role of permeation through the lipid bilayer versus movement through CO2-selective membrane proteins in the downhill, non-energized, movement of CO2 is not clear. Passive permeation explains most CO2 entry, including terrestrial and aquatic organisms with C3 physiology and biochemistry, terrestrial C4 plants and all crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, as well as being part of some mechanisms of HCO3 – use in CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) function, although further work is needed to test the mechanism in some cases. However, there is some evidence of active CO2 influx at the plasmalemma of algae. HCO3 – active influx at the plasmalemma underlies all cyanobacterial and some algal CCMs. HCO3 – can also enter some algal chloroplasts, probably as part of a CCM. The high intracellular CO2 and HCO3 – pools consequent upon CCMs result in leakage involving CO2, and occasionally HCO3 –. Leakage from cyanobacterial and microalgal CCMs involves up to half, but sometimes more, of the gross inorganic C entering in the CCM; leakage from terrestrial C4 plants is lower in most environments. Little is known of leakage from other organisms with CCMs, though given the leakage better-examined organisms, leakage occurs and increases the energetic cost of net carbon assimilation. PMID:26466660

  6. Dynamics of CO2 fluxes and concentrations during a shallow subsurface CO2 release

    SciTech Connect

    Lewicki, J.L.; Hilley, G.E.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.

    2009-09-01

    A field facility located in Bozeman, Montana provides the opportunity to test methods to detect, locate, and quantify potential CO2 leakage from geologic storage sites. From 9 July to 7 August 2008, 0.3 t CO2 d{sup -1} were injected from a 100-m long, {approx}2.5 m deep horizontal well. Repeated measurements of soil CO2 fluxes on a grid characterized the spatio-temporal evolution of the surface leakage signal and quantified the surface leakage rate. Infrared CO2 concentration sensors installed in the soil at 30 cm depth at 0 to 10 m from the well and at 4 cm above the ground at 0 and 5 m from the well recorded surface breakthrough of CO2 leakage and migration of CO2 leakage through the soil. Temporal variations in CO2 concentrations were correlated with atmospheric and soil temperature, wind speed, atmospheric pressure, rainfall, and CO2 injection rate.

  7. Effects of CO2 leakage on soil bacterial communities from simulated CO2-EOR areas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fu; Yang, Yongjun; Ma, Yanjun; Hou, Huping; Zhang, Shaoliang; Ma, Jing

    2016-05-18

    CO2-EOR (enhanced oil recovery) has been proposed as a viable option for flooding oil and reducing anthropogenic CO2 contribution to the atmospheric pool. However, the potential risk of CO2 leakage from the process poses a threat to the ecological system. High-throughput sequencing was used to investigate the effects of CO2 emission on the composition and structure of soil bacterial communities. The diversity of bacterial communities notably decreased with increasing CO2 flux. The composition of bacterial communities varied along the CO2 flux, with increasing CO2 flux accompanied by increases in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla, but decreases in the relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi phyla. Within the Firmicutes phylum, the genus Lactobacillus increased sharply when the CO2 flux was at its highest point. Alpha and beta diversity analysis revealed that differences in bacterial communities were best explained by CO2 flux. The redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that differences in bacterial communities were best explained by soil pH values which related to CO2 flux. These results could be useful for evaluating the risk of potential CO2 leakages on the ecosystems associated with CO2-EOR processes. PMID:27056285

  8. CO2 deserts: implications of existing CO2 supply limitations for carbon management.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Richard S; Clarens, Andres F; Liu, Xiaowei; Bielicki, Jeffrey M; Levine, Jonathan S

    2014-10-01

    Efforts to mitigate the impacts of climate change will require deep reductions in anthropogenic CO2 emissions on the scale of gigatonnes per year. CO2 capture and utilization and/or storage technologies are a class of approaches that can substantially reduce CO2 emissions. Even though examples of this approach, such as CO2-enhanced oil recovery, are already being practiced on a scale >0.05 Gt/year, little attention has been focused on the supply of CO2 for these projects. Here, facility-scale data newly collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was processed to produce the first comprehensive map of CO2 sources from industrial sectors currently supplying CO2 in the United States. Collectively these sources produce 0.16 Gt/year, but the data reveal the presence of large areas without access to CO2 at an industrially relevant scale (>25 kt/year). Even though some facilities with the capability to capture CO2 are not doing so and in some regions pipeline networks are being built to link CO2 sources and sinks, much of the country exists in "CO2 deserts". A life cycle analysis of the sources reveals that the predominant source of CO2, dedicated wells, has the largest carbon footprint further confounding prospects for rational carbon management strategies. PMID:25137398

  9. CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis for CO2 Sequestration at Enhanced Oil Recovery Sites.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhenxue; Viswanathan, Hari; Middleton, Richard; Pan, Feng; Ampomah, William; Yang, Changbing; Jia, Wei; Xiao, Ting; Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian; Balch, Robert; Grigg, Reid; White, Mark

    2016-07-19

    Using CO2 in enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is a promising technology for emissions management because CO2-EOR can dramatically reduce sequestration costs in the absence of emissions policies that include incentives for carbon capture and storage. This study develops a multiscale statistical framework to perform CO2 accounting and risk analysis in an EOR environment at the Farnsworth Unit (FWU), Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil/gas-water flow and transport in the Morrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major risk metrics: CO2/water injection/production rates, cumulative net CO2 storage, cumulative oil/gas productions, and CO2 breakthrough time. The median and confidence intervals are estimated for quantifying uncertainty ranges of the risk metrics. A response-surface-based economic model has been derived to calculate the CO2-EOR profitability for the FWU site with a current oil price, which suggests that approximately 31% of the 1000 realizations can be profitable. If government carbon-tax credits are available, or the oil price goes up or CO2 capture and operating expenses reduce, more realizations would be profitable. The results from this study provide valuable insights for understanding CO2 storage potential and the corresponding environmental and economic risks of commercial-scale CO2-sequestration in depleted reservoirs. PMID:27362472

  10. Airborne Dial Remote Sensing of the Arctic Ozone Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirth, Martin; Renger, Wolfgang; Ehret, Gerhard

    1992-01-01

    A combined ozone and aerosol LIDAR was developed at the Institute of Physics of the Atmosphere at the DLR in Oberpfaffenhofen. It is an airborne version, that, based on the DIAL-principle, permits the recording of two-dimensional ozone profiles. This presentation will focus on the ozone-part; the aerosol subsection will be treated later.

  11. Engineered yeast for enhanced CO2 mineralization†

    PubMed Central

    Barbero, Roberto; Carnelli, Lino; Simon, Anna; Kao, Albert; Monforte, Alessandra d’Arminio; Riccò, Moreno; Bianchi, Daniele; Belcher, Angela

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a biologically catalyzed CO2 mineralization process for the capture of CO2 from point sources was designed, constructed at a laboratory scale, and, using standard chemical process scale-up protocols, was modeled and evaluated at an industrial scale. A yeast display system in Saccharomyces cerevisae was used to screen several carbonic anhydrase isoforms and mineralization peptides for their impact on CO2 hydration, CaCO3 mineralization, and particle settling rate. Enhanced rates for each of these steps in the CaCO3 mineralization process were confirmed using quantitative techniques in lab-scale measurements. The effect of these enhanced rates on the CO2 capture cost in an industrial scale CO2 mineralization process using coal fly ash as the CaO source was evaluated. The model predicts a process using bCA2- yeast and fly ash is ~10% more cost effective per ton of CO2 captured than a process with no biological molecules, a savings not realized by wild-type yeast and high-temperature stable recombinant CA2 alone or in combination. The levelized cost of electricity for a power plant using this process was calculated and scenarios in which this process compares favorably to CO2 capture by MEA absorption process are presented. PMID:25289021

  12. Glacial CO2 Cycles: A Composite Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broecker, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    There are three main contributors to the glacial drawdown of atmospheric CO2 content: starvation of the supply of carbon to the ocean-atmosphere reservoir, excess CO2 storage in the deep sea, and surface-ocean cooling. In this talk, I explore a scenario in which all three play significant roles. Key to this scenario is the assumption that deep ocean storage is related to the extent of nutrient stratification of the deep Atlantic. The stronger this stratification, the larger the storage of respiration CO2. Further, it is my contention that the link between Milankovitch insolation cycles and climate is reorganizations of the ocean's thermohaline circulation leading to changes in the deep ocean's CO2 storage. If this is the case, the deep Atlantic d13C record kept in benthic foraminifera shells tells us that deep ocean CO2 storage follows Northern Hemisphere summer insolation cycles and thus lacks the downward ramp so prominent in the records of sea level, benthic 18O and CO2. Rather, the ramp is created by the damping of planetary CO2 emissions during glacial time intervals. As it is premature to present a specific scenario, I provide an example as to how these three contributors might be combined. As their magnitudes and shapes remain largely unconstrained, the intent of this exercise is to provoke creative thinking.

  13. Regenerable Sorbent for CO2 Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambal

    2013-01-01

    A durable, high-capacity regenerable sorbent can remove CO2 from the breathing loop under a Martian atmosphere. The system design allows near-ambient temperature operation, needs only a small temperature swing, and sorbent regeneration takes place at or above 8 torr, eliminating the potential for Martian atmosphere to leak into the regeneration bed and into the breathing loop. The physical adsorbent can be used in a metabolic, heat-driven TSA system to remove CO2 from the breathing loop of the astronaut and reject it to the Martian atmosphere. Two (or more) alternating sorbent beds continuously scrub and reject CO2 from the spacesuit ventilation loop. The sorbent beds are cycled, alternately absorbing CO2 from the vent loop and rejecting the adsorbed material into the environment at a high CO2 partial pressure (above 8 torr). The system does not need to run the adsorber at cryogenic temperatures, and uses a much smaller temperature swing. The sorbent removes CO2 via a weak chemical interaction. The interaction is strong enough to enable CO2 adsorption even at 3 to 7.6 torr. However, because the interaction between the surface adsorption sites and the CO2 is relatively weak, the heat input needed to regenerate the sorbent is much lower than that for chemical absorbents. The sorbent developed in this project could potentially find use in a large commercial market in the removal of CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants, if regulations are put in place to curb carbon emissions from power plants.

  14. Estimating lake-atmosphere CO2 exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.E.; Striegl, R.G.; Stannard, D.I.; Michmerhuizen, C.M.; McConnaughey, T.A.; LaBaugh, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Lake-atmosphere CO2 flux was directly measured above a small, woodland lake using the eddy covariance technique and compared with fluxes deduced from changes in measured lake-water CO2 storage and with flux predictions from boundary-layer and surface-renewal models. Over a 3-yr period, lake-atmosphere exchanges of CO2 were measured over 5 weeks in spring, summer, and fall. Observed springtime CO2 efflux was large (2.3-2.7 ??mol m-2 s-1) immediately after lake-thaw. That efflux decreased exponentially with time to less than 0.2 ??mol m-2 s-1 within 2 weeks. Substantial interannual variability was found in the magnitudes of springtime efflux, surface water CO2 concentrations, lake CO2 storage, and meteorological conditions. Summertime measurements show a weak diurnal trend with a small average downward flux (-0.17 ??mol m-2 s-1) to the lake's surface, while late fall flux was trendless and smaller (-0.0021 ??mol m-2 s-1). Large springtime efflux afforded an opportunity to make direct measurement of lake-atmosphere fluxes well above the detection limits of eddy covariance instruments, facilitating the testing of different gas flux methodologies and air-water gas-transfer models. Although there was an overall agreement in fluxes determined by eddy covariance and those calculated from lake-water storage change in CO2, agreement was inconsistent between eddy covariance flux measurements and fluxes predicted by boundary-layer and surface-renewal models. Comparison of measured and modeled transfer velocities for CO2, along with measured and modeled cumulative CO2 flux, indicates that in most instances the surface-renewal model underpredicts actual flux. Greater underestimates were found with comparisons involving homogeneous boundary-layer models. No physical mechanism responsible for the inconsistencies was identified by analyzing coincidentally measured environmental variables.

  15. Geological factors affecting CO2 plume distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frailey, S.M.; Leetaru, H.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the lateral extent of a CO2 plume has important implications with regards to buying/leasing pore volume rights, defining the area of review for an injection permit, determining the extent of an MMV plan, and managing basin-scale sequestration from multiple injection sites. The vertical and lateral distribution of CO2 has implications with regards to estimating CO2 storage volume at a specific site and the pore pressure below the caprock. Geologic and flow characteristics such as effective permeability and porosity, capillary pressure, lateral and vertical permeability anisotropy, geologic structure, and thickness all influence and affect the plume distribution to varying degrees. Depending on the variations in these parameters one may dominate the shape and size of the plume. Additionally, these parameters do not necessarily act independently. A comparison of viscous and gravity forces will determine the degree of vertical and lateral flow. However, this is dependent on formation thickness. For example in a thick zone with injection near the base, the CO2 moves radially from the well but will slow at greater radii and vertical movement will dominate. Generally the CO2 plume will not appreciably move laterally until the caprock or a relatively low permeability interval is contacted by the CO2. Conversely, in a relatively thin zone with the injection interval over nearly the entire zone, near the wellbore the CO2 will be distributed over the entire vertical component and will move laterally much further with minimal vertical movement. Assuming no geologic structure, injecting into a thin zone or into a thick zone immediately under a caprock will result in a larger plume size. With a geologic structure such as an anticline, CO2 plume size may be restricted and injection immediately below the caprock may have less lateral plume growth because the structure will induce downward vertical movement of the CO2 until the outer edge of the plume reaches a spill

  16. Natural Analog for Geologic Storage of CO2: CO2 accumulation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Xu, T.; Liu, N.; Zhou, B.

    2012-12-01

    Natural accumulations of CO2 are potential analogues of CO2 geological storage that can provide useful information on the behaviour of supercritical CO2 in reservoirs. Natural CO2 accumulations are common across Northeast China, and, although they occur in a wide variety of geological settings, their distribution is principally controlled by the Mesozoic-Cenozoic rift basins and associated Quaternary volcanism. High CO2 concentrations (>60 CO2%) in natural gas reservoirs are usually related to volcanism and magmatism, and possesses mantle-genetic origin. CO2 reservoirs consist of sandstone, volcanic rocks and carbonate rocks with the buried depth from 2000-3000 m. Dawsonite is recognized in almost all of the CO2-bearing basin, which has been proved to share the same carbon source with CO2 in the reservoirs in Songliao basin, Hailaer basin and Donghai basin. Petrographic data show that dawsonite is abundant in feldspar- rich sandstone, volcanic rock fragment-rich sandstones and tuff. In some cases, high percentage of dawsonite cement constitutes a diagenetic seal, which occurs in the reservoir-mudstone caprock and prevents upward leakage of CO2. Besides dawsonite, mantle-genetic CO2 flux leads to the formation of calcite, ankerite and siderite. The statistics of porosity and permeability measured from the dawsonite-bearing sandstone and dawsonite-absent sandstone with the almost same burial depth in Songliao basin show that the mantle-genetic CO2 flux result in lower reservoir quality, suggesting that mineral trapping for CO2 is significant. Chemical analyses of formation water in Songliao basin and Hailaer basin indicate that the concentrations of TDS, HCO3-,CO32-, Mg2+,Ca2+ and Na+ + K+ in dawsonite-bearing sandstone are higher than that in dawsonite-absent sandstone. Distribution of CO2 and dawsonite is constrainted by the regional caprocks in the Songliao basin. The charging time of the mantle-genetic CO2 in China dates from 50 to 25 Ma.

  17. The Oceanic Sink for Anthropogenic CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine, Chris; Feely, R. A.; Gruber, N.; Key, Robert; Lee, K.; Bullister, J.L.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wong, C. S.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Tilbrook, B.; Millero, F. J.; Peng, T.-H.; Kozyr, Alexander; Ono, Tsueno

    2004-01-01

    Using inorganic carbon measurements from an international survey effort in the 1990s and a tracer-based separation technique, we estimate a global oceanic anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) sink for the period from 1800 to 1994 of 118 19 petagrams of carbon. The oceanic sink accounts for ~48% of the total fossil-fuel and cement-manufacturing emissions, implying that the terrestrial biosphere was a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere of about 39 28 petagrams of carbon for this period. The current fraction of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions stored in the ocean appears to be about one-third of the long-term potential.

  18. Atmospheric CO2 Removal by Enhancing Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster van Groos, A. F.; Schuiling, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    The increase of the CO2 content in the atmosphere by the release of anthropogenic CO2 may be addressed by the enhancement of weathering at the surface of the earth. The average emission of mantle-derived CO2 through volcanism is ~0.3 Gt/year (109 ton/year). Considering the ~3.000 Gt of CO2 present in the atmosphere, the residence time of CO2 in the earth's atmosphere is ~10,000 years. Because the vast proportion of carbon in biomass is recycled through the atmosphere, CO2 is continuously removed by a series of weathering reactions of silicate minerals and stored in calcium and magnesium carbonates. The addition of anthropogenic CO2 from fossil fuel and cement production, which currently exceeds 35 Gt/year and dwarfs the natural production 100-fold, cannot be compensated by current rates of weathering, and atmospheric CO2 levels are rising rapidly. To address this increase in CO2 levels, weathering rates would have to be accelerated on a commensurate scale. Olivine ((Mg,Fe)2SiO4) is the most reactive silicate mineral in the weathering process. This mineral is the major constituent in relatively common ultramafic rocks such as dunites (olivine content > 90%). To consume the current total annual anthropogenic release of CO2, using a simplified weathering reaction (Mg2SiO4 + 4CO2 + 4H2O --> 2 Mg2+ + 4HCO3- + H4SiO4) would require ~30 Gt/year or ~8-9 km3/year of dunite. This is a large volume; it is about double the total amount of ore and gravel currently mined (~ 17 Gt/year). To mine and crush these rocks to <100 μm costs ~ 8/ton. The transport and distribution over the earth's surface involves additional costs, that may reach 2-5/ton. Thus, the cost of remediation for the release of anthropogenic CO2 is 300-400 billion/year. This compares to a 2014 global GDP of ~80 trillion. Because weathering reactions require the presence of water and proceed more rapidly at higher temperatures, the preferred environments to enhance weathering are the wet tropics. From a socio

  19. 2-μm high-power multiple-frequency single-mode Q-switched Ho:YLF laser for DIAL application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibert, Fabien; Edouart, Dimitri; Cénac, Claire; Le Mounier, Florian

    2014-09-01

    We report on the development and the demonstration of a two-wavelength single-frequency laser oscillator based on Ho:YLF crystal. This laser is especially suitable for application as a transmitter in differential absorption lidar (DIAL)/integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) using the R30 CO2 absorption line at 2,050.967 nm. The oscillator consists in a fiber-coupled and free-space solid-state hybrid system and can be used in high-energy middle-rate or moderate-energy high-rate configurations. The latter produced On and Off sequentially single-frequency laser pulses with 13 mJ of energy at a repetition rate of 2 kHz and pulse duration of 42 ns. The pulse energy and frequency stabilities are specially documented in free-running, single-frequency and two-frequency seeding single-mode operations. Standard deviation is 7.7 % for pulse energy and 2 MHz for frequency stability for the two-wavelength seeding operation. Allan variance plot shows that frequency fluctuations are reduced below 70 kHz for 10 s of averaging which is suitable for accurate CO2 DIAL or IPDA measurements.

  20. CO2 Sensing and CO2 Regulation of Stomatal Conductance: Advances and Open Questions.

    PubMed

    Engineer, Cawas B; Hashimoto-Sugimoto, Mimi; Negi, Juntaro; Israelsson-Nordström, Maria; Azoulay-Shemer, Tamar; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Iba, Koh; Schroeder, Julian I

    2016-01-01

    Guard cells form epidermal stomatal gas-exchange valves in plants and regulate the aperture of stomatal pores in response to changes in the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration ([CO2]) in leaves. Moreover, the development of stomata is repressed by elevated CO2 in diverse plant species. Evidence suggests that plants can sense [CO2] changes via guard cells and via mesophyll tissues in mediating stomatal movements. We review new discoveries and open questions on mechanisms mediating CO2-regulated stomatal movements and CO2 modulation of stomatal development, which together function in the CO2 regulation of stomatal conductance and gas exchange in plants. Research in this area is timely in light of the necessity of selecting and developing crop cultivars that perform better in a shifting climate. PMID:26482956

  1. Partitioning of the Leaf CO2 Exchange into Components Using CO2 Exchange and Fluorescence Measurements.

    PubMed

    Laisk, A.; Sumberg, A.

    1994-10-01

    Photorespiration was calculated from chlorophyll fluorescence and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) kinetics and compared with CO2 evolution rate in the light, measured by three gas-exchange methods in mature sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaves. The gas-exchange methods were (a) postillumination CO2 burst at unchanged CO2 concentration, (b) postillumination CO2 burst with simultaneous transfer into CO2-free air, and (c) extrapolation of the CO2 uptake to zero CO2 concentration at Rubisco active sites. The steady-state CO2 compensation point was proportional to O2 concentration, revealing the Rubisco specificity coefficient (Ksp) of 86. Electron transport rate (ETR) was calculated from fluorescence, and photorespiration rate was calculated from ETR using CO2 and O2 concentrations, Ksp, and diffusion resistances. The values of the best-fit mesophyll diffusion resistance for CO2 ranged between 0.3 and 0.8 s cm-1. Comparison of the gas-exchange and fluorescence data showed that only ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation and photorespiratory CO2 evolution were present at limiting CO2 concentrations. Carboxylation of a substrate other than RuBP, in addition to RuBP carboxylation, was detected at high CO2 concentrations. A simultaneous decarboxylation process not related to RuBP oxygenation was also detected at high CO2 concentrations in the light. We propose that these processes reflect carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate, formed from phosphoglyceric acid and the subsequent decarboxylation of malate. PMID:12232361

  2. How secure is subsurface CO2 storage? Controls on leakage in natural CO2 reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miocic, Johannes; Gilfillan, Stuart; McDermott, Christopher; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is the only industrial scale technology available to directly reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuelled power plants and large industrial point sources to the atmosphere. The technology includes the capture of CO2 at the source and transport to subsurface storage sites, such as depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs or saline aquifers, where it is injected and stored for long periods of time. To have an impact on the greenhouse gas emissions it is crucial that there is no or only a very low amount of leakage of CO2 from the storage sites to shallow aquifers or the surface. CO2 occurs naturally in reservoirs in the subsurface and has often been stored for millions of years without any leakage incidents. However, in some cases CO2 migrates from the reservoir to the surface. Both leaking and non-leaking natural CO2 reservoirs offer insights into the long-term behaviour of CO2 in the subsurface and on the mechanisms that lead to either leakage or retention of CO2. Here we present the results of a study on leakage mechanisms of natural CO2 reservoirs worldwide. We compiled a global dataset of 49 well described natural CO2 reservoirs of which six are leaking CO2 to the surface, 40 retain CO2 in the subsurface and for three reservoirs the evidence is inconclusive. Likelihood of leakage of CO2 from a reservoir to the surface is governed by the state of CO2 (supercritical vs. gaseous) and the pressure in the reservoir and the direct overburden. Reservoirs with gaseous CO2 is more prone to leak CO2 than reservoirs with dense supercritical CO2. If the reservoir pressure is close to or higher than the least principal stress leakage is likely to occur while reservoirs with pressures close to hydrostatic pressure and below 1200 m depth do not leak. Additionally, a positive pressure gradient from the reservoir into the caprock averts leakage of CO2 into the caprock. Leakage of CO2 occurs in all cases along a fault zone, indicating that

  3. Study on CO2 global recycling system.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, M; Sakamoto, Y; Niwa, S

    2001-09-28

    In order to assist in finding ways to mitigate CO2 emission and to slow the depletion of fossil fuels we have established and evaluated a representative system, which consists of three technologies developed in our laboratory. These technologies were in CO2 recovery, hydrogen production and methanol synthesis and in addition we established the necessary supporting systems. Analysis of outline designs of the large scale renewable energy power generation system and this system and energy input for building plant, energy input for running plant has been conducted based on a case using this system for a 1000-MW coal fired power plant, followed by an evaluation of the material balance and energy balance. The results are as follows. Energy efficiency is 34%, the CO2 reduction rate is 41%, the balance ratio of the energy and CO2 of the system is 2.2 and 1.8, respectively, on the assumption that the primary renewable energy is solar thermal power generation, the stationary CO2 emission source is a coal-fired power plant and the generation efficiency of the methanol power plant is 60%. By adopting the system, 3.7 million tons of CO2 can be recovered, approximately 2.7 million tons of methanol can be produced, and 15.4 billion kWh of electricity can be generated per year. Compared to generating all electrical power using only coal, approximately 2.6 million tons of coal per year can be saved and approximately 2.15 million tons of CO2 emission can be reduced. Therefore, it is clearly revealed that this system would be effective to reduce CO2 emissions and to utilize renewable energy. PMID:11589395

  4. Mechanisms of CO2 Interaction with Montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, V.; Myshakin, E. M.; Howard, B.; Guthrie, G.

    2013-12-01

    Improved understanding of basic fluid-rock interactions can lead to more accurate models of the coupled fluid-flow and geomechanics in engineered geological systems. We studied carbon dioxide (CO2) interaction with source clay samples from The Clay Minerals Society. The manometric, infrared (IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) data indicated that montmorillonite can permanently trap CO2 molecules in its interlayer, after dynamic exposure to supercritical CO2. Such trapping is quite secure and appears to result in partial carbonate formation. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate CO2 intercalation into the interlayer and its interaction with interlayer species. Previously reported results of simulations using simplified smectite models suggested that the experimentally observed red shift of the asymmetric-stretch vibrational mode for the trapped carbon dioxide can be attributed to induced polarization of the CO2 molecule by the interlayer water molecules. Modified smectite models were designed to account for the naturally occurring structural disorder that allows guest molecules to occupy localized interlamellar voids. In such models, energy dependences and structural rearrangements of the interlayer species are governed by rotational misalignment in turbostratically disordered clay. CO2 invasion in the interlayer disrupts the long-range ordering of water molecules and cations thus forcing the system to adopt energetically unfavorable configurations. New findings indicate that interaction between intercalated CO2 and H2O is limited and, with the increasing interlayer hydration, CO2 preferentially accumulates in interlamellar voids. The vibrational spectra produced by the new model, assuming that clay systems can exist in fractional hydration states, show either a combination of undisturbed and red-shifted asymmetric-stretch modes or a broad peak consistent with the multiple smeared peaks, which explain the multi-mode features that have appeared

  5. The overlooked tropical oceanic CO2 sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibánhez, J. Severino P.; Araujo, Moacyr; Lefèvre, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    The intense rainfall in the tropical Atlantic spatially overlaps with the spread of the Amazon plume. Based on remote-sensed sea surface salinity and rainfall, we removed the contribution of rainfall to the apparent Amazon plume area, thus refining the quantification of its extension (0.84 ± 0.06 × 106 km2 to 0.89 ± 0.06 × 106 km2). Despite the previous overestimation of the Amazon plume area due to the influence of rainfall (>16%), our calculated annual CO2 flux based on rainfall-corrected sea surface CO2 fugacity confirms that the Amazon River plume is an atmospheric CO2 sink of global importance (-7.61 ± 1.01 to -7.85 ± 1.02 Tg C yr-1). Yet we show that current sea-air CO2 flux assessments for the tropical Atlantic could be overestimated in about 10% by neglecting the CO2 sink associated to the Amazon plume. Thus, including the Amazon plume, the sea-air CO2 exchange for the tropical Atlantic is estimated to be 81.1 ± 1.1 to 81.5 ± 1.1 Tg C yr-1.

  6. CO2 As An Inverse Greenhouse Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idso, Sherwood B.

    1984-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that mankind's burning of fossil fuels such as coal, gas and oil has significantly increased the CO2 content of Earth's atmosphere, from something less than 300 ppm (parts per million by volume) in the pre-Industrial Revolution era to a con-centration which is currently somewhat over 340 ppm. It is also fairly well established that a concentration of 600 ppm will be reached sometime in the next century. Atmospheric scientists using complex computer models of the atmosphere have predicted that such a concentration doubling will lead to a calamatous climatic warming, due to the thermal infra-red "greenhouse" properties of CO2. However, my investigation of a large body of empirical evidence suggests just the opposite. Indeed, long-term records of surface air temperature and snow cover data indicate that increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 may actually tend to cool the Earth and not warm it. These and other observations of the real world lead to the conclusion that, for the present composition of the Earth's atmosphere, CO2 appears to behave as an inverse greenhouse gas. A mechanism for this phenomenon is suggested; and it is then indicated how enhanced concentrations of atmospheric CO2 may be beneficial for the planet, particularly with respect to the ability of enhanced CO2 concentrations to stimulate plant growth and reduce water requirements.

  7. CO2 cooling in terrestrial planet thermospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougher, S. W.; Hunten, D. M.; Roble, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    We examine the recent progress in the debate on the CO2-O relaxation rate, its temperature dependence, and its corresponding impact on the thermospheric heat budgets of Venus, Earth, and Mars. This comparative approach provides the broadest range of conditions under which a common CO2-O relaxation rate should provide consistent results. New global mean calculations are presented for the heat budgets of these three planets using large CO2-O relaxation rates that have been inferred recently from Earth CO2 radiance measurements and laboratory studies. Results indicate that available Venus and Mars data constrain the CO2-O relaxation rate to be 2-4 x 10(exp -12)/cu cm/s at 300 K. For Venus, this strong cooling serves as an effective thermostat that gives rise to a small variation of thermospheric temperatures over the solar cycle, just as observed. Conversely, CO2 cooling does not appear to be dominant in the dayside heat budget of the Mars thermosphere over most of the solar cycle. For the Earth, this strong cooling implies that the lower thermosphere does not typically require significant eddy diffusion or heat conduction. However, global-scale dynamics or an additional heating mechanism may be needed to restore calculated temperatures to observed values when relaxation rates exceeding 2 x 10(exp -12)/cu cm/s are employed.

  8. CO2 Absorption Spectroscopy and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Daniel; Mlawer, Eli; Mlynczak, Martin; Gero, Jon; Collins, William; Torn, Margaret

    2014-03-01

    Most of the absorption, and therefore radiative forcing, due to increased atmospheric CO2 occurs in line wings, so utilizing an accurate line shape is necessary for climate science. Recent advances in CO2 absorption spectroscopy have been incorporated into benchmark line-by-line radiative transfer models. These updates include the Energy Corrected Sudden Approximation to represent isolated line profiles, line mixing, and line clusters. The CO2 line profiles are sub-Lorentzian and are explicitly modeled up to 25 cm-1 from each line's center. Consistent continuum absorption is implemented over the remainder of the profile except for modest empirical adjustments based on observations. Thus, line-by-line models calculate the absorption effects of CO2 that agree with theory and measurements. This is validated with long-term spectroscopic measurements from the ARM program's AERI instrument. This spectroscopy trains computationally-efficient correlated-k methods for climate model radiative transfer, but they overpredict instantaneous radiative forcing from doubled CO2 by approximately 7% in part because they have larger errors handling the impact of increased CO2 in the stratosphere than the troposphere. The implications of this can be tested with supercomputers. This work was supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Biol. & Env. Res., Clim. & Env. Sci. Div., of the U.S. D.O.E., Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 as part of the Atmos. Sys. Res.

  9. CO2 Efflux from Cleared Mangrove Peat

    PubMed Central

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Ruess, Roger W.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2011-01-01

    Background CO2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured CO2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO2 efflux. CO2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ∼10 600 tonnes km−2 year−1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km2 year−1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO2 efflux (27 umol m−2 s−1), but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days. Conclusions/Significance Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks. PMID:21738628

  10. Density of aqueous solutions of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Julio E.

    2001-10-10

    In this report, we present a numerical representation for the partial molar volume of CO2 in water and the calculation of the corresponding aqueous solution density. The motivation behind this work is related to the importance of having accurate representations for aqueous phase properties in the numerical simulation of carbon dioxide disposal into aquifers as well as in geothermal applications. According to reported experimental data the density of aqueous solutions of CO2 can be as much as 2-3% higher than pure water density. This density variation might produce an influence on the groundwater flow regime. For instance, in geologic sequestration of CO2, convective transport mixing might occur when, several years after injection of carbon dioxide has stopped, the CO2-rich gas phase is concentrated at the top of the formation, just below an overlaying caprock. In this particular case the heavier CO2 saturated water will flow downward and will be replaced by water with a lesser CO2 content.

  11. Advanced CO2 Removal and Reduction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alptekin, Gokhan; Dubovik, Margarita; Copeland, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    An advanced system for removing CO2 and H2O from cabin air, reducing the CO2, and returning the resulting O2 to the air is less massive than is a prior system that includes two assemblies . one for removal and one for reduction. Also, in this system, unlike in the prior system, there is no need to compress and temporarily store CO2. In this present system, removal and reduction take place within a single assembly, wherein removal is effected by use of an alkali sorbent and reduction is effected using a supply of H2 and Ru catalyst, by means of the Sabatier reaction, which is CO2 + 4H2 CH4 + O2. The assembly contains two fixed-bed reactors operating in alternation: At first, air is blown through the first bed, which absorbs CO2 and H2O. Once the first bed is saturated with CO2 and H2O, the flow of air is diverted through the second bed and the first bed is regenerated by supplying it with H2 for the Sabatier reaction. Initially, the H2 is heated to provide heat for the regeneration reaction, which is endothermic. In the later stages of regeneration, the Sabatier reaction, which is exothermic, supplies the heat for regeneration.

  12. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    2003-01-01

    The CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) project was performed to develop, test, and analyze thin film membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The membranes developed in this project are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications, such as In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) and In Situ Consumables Production (ISCP). These membrane materials may be used in a variety of ISRU systems, for example as the atmospheric inlet filter for an ISPP process to enhance the concentration of CO2 for use as a reactant gas, to passively separate argon and nitrogen trace gases from CO2 for habitat pressurization, to provide a system for removal of CO2 from breathing gases in a closed environment, or within a process stream to selectively separate CO2 from other gaseous components. The membranes identified and developed for CAM were evaluated for use in candidate ISRU processes and other gas separation applications, and will help to lay the foundation for future unmanned sample return and human space missions. CAM is a cooperative project split among three institutions: Lockheed Martin Astronautics (LMA), the Colorado School of Mines (CSM), and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  13. Global CO2 simulation using GOSAT-based surface CO2 flux estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, H.; Oda, T.; Saito, M.; Valsala, V.; Belikov, D.; Saeki, T.; Saito, R.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.; Yoshida, Y.; Yokota, Y.; Bril, A.; Oshchepkov, S.; Andres, R. J.; Maksyutov, S.

    2012-04-01

    Investigating the distribution and temporal variability of surface CO2 fluxes is an active research topic in the field of contemporary carbon cycle dynamics. The technique central to this effort is atmospheric inverse modeling with which surface CO2 fluxes are estimated by making corrections to a priori flux estimates such that mismatches between model-predicted and observed CO2 concentrations are minimized. Past investigations were carried out by utilizing CO2 measurements collected in global networks of surface-based monitoring sites. Now, datasets of column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction (XCO2) retrieved from spectral soundings collected by GOSAT are available for complementing the surface-based CO2 observations. These space-based XCO2 data are expected to enhance the spatiotemporal coverage of the existing surface observation network and thus reduce uncertainty associated with the surface flux estimates. We estimated monthly CO2 fluxes in 64 sub-continental regions from a subset of the surface-based GLOBALVIEW CO2 data and the GOSAT FTS SWIR Level 2 XCO2 retrievals. We further simulated CO2 concentrations in 3-D model space using the surface flux estimates obtained. In this presentation, we report the result of a comparison between the simulated CO2 concentrations and independent surface observations. As part of an effort in inter-comparing GOSAT-based surface CO2 flux estimates, we also look at results yielded with XCO2 data retrieved with the PPDF-DOAS algorithm and those made available by the NASA Atmospheric CO2 Observations from Space team. For this study, we used version 08.1 of the National Institute for Environmental Studies atmospheric transport model, which was driven by the Japan Meteorological Agency's JCDAS wind analysis data. The CO2 forward simulations were performed on 2.5° × 2.5° horizontal grids at 32 vertical levels between the surface and the top of the atmosphere. The a priori flux dataset used was comprised of the sum of four

  14. Modeling CO2 Gas Migration of Shallow Subsurface CO2 Leakage Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, M. L.; Plampin, M. R.; Pawar, R.; Illangasekare, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Leakage of injected CO2 into shallow subsurface aquifers or back into the atmosphere at geologic carbon sequestration sites is a risk that must be minimized. One potential CO2 leakage pathway involves the transport of dissolved CO2 into a shallow aquifer where the CO2 exsolves, forming a free CO2 gas phase that subsequently migrates through the aquifer. In order to reduce the negative effects of CO2 exsolution, it is important to fully understand each of the processes controlling the movement CO2, as well as the effects of aquifer heterogeneity on the overall fate and transport of CO2. In this work, we present multiphase flow simulations of intermediate scale CO2 exsolution experiments. The multiphase flow simulations were carried out using the Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer code (FEHM) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Simulations were first designed to model experiments conducted in two different homogeneous packed sands. PEST (Parameter Estimation and Uncertainty Analysis) was used to optimize multiphase flow parameters (i.e., porosity, permeability, relative permeability, and capillary pressure) within FEHM. The optimized parameters were subsequently used to model heterogeneous experiments consisting of various packing configurations using the same sands. Comparisons of CO2 saturation between experiments and simulations will be presented and analyzed.

  15. Progress in coherent laser radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable progress with coherent laser radar has been made over the last few years, most notably perhaps in the available range of high performance devices and components and the confidence with which systems may now be taken into the field for prolonged periods of operation. Some of this increasing maturity was evident at the 3rd Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications. Topics included in discussions were: mesoscale wind fields, nocturnal valley drainage and clear air down bursts; airborne Doppler lidar studies and comparison of ground and airborne wind measurement; wind measurement over the sea for comparison with satellite borne microwave sensors; transport of wake vortices at airfield; coherent DIAL methods; a newly assembled Nd-YAG coherent lidar system; backscatter profiles in the atmosphere and wavelength dependence over the 9 to 11 micrometer region; beam propagation; rock and soil classification with an airborne 4-laser system; technology of a global wind profiling system; target calibration; ranging and imaging with coherent pulsed and CW system; signal fluctuations and speckle. Some of these activities are briefly reviewed.

  16. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy on 2.05 μm for the CO2 concentration measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranovich, Alina; Divoky, Martin; Prochazka, Ivan; Mocek, Tomas

    2015-05-01

    An experimental setup for the CO2 concentration measurement operating at 2.05 μm in pulsed mode and its characterization are presented. The system consists of a light source, which is a tunable laser diode operating in pulse mode. The initial radiation from the diode laser is divided into two parts: the first part of the beam is directed to a retro reflector, and the second part is used for diode output power monitoring. The receiving system consists of a focusing optic and a photodiode. The absorption is determined by comparing the intensities of the detected light on wavelengths absorbed and not absorbed by CO2 molecules. The prospects of the system change to a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) with a parametric generator as a light source that increases precision and range of generated wavelengths up to 10 μm are outlined.

  17. Fingerprinting captured CO2 using natural tracers: Determining CO2 fate and proving ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flude, Stephanie; Gilfillan, Stuart; Johnston, Gareth; Stuart, Finlay; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    In the long term, captured CO2 will most likely be stored in large saline formations and it is highly likely that CO2 from multiple operators will be injected into a single saline formation. Understanding CO2 behavior within the reservoir is vital for making operational decisions and often uses geochemical techniques. Furthermore, in the event of a CO2 leak, being able to identify the owner of the CO2 is of vital importance in terms of liability and remediation. Addition of geochemical tracers to the CO2 stream is an effective way of tagging the CO2 from different power stations, but may become prohibitively expensive at large scale storage sites. Here we present results from a project assessing whether the natural isotopic composition (C, O and noble gas isotopes) of captured CO2 is sufficient to distinguish CO2 captured using different technologies and from different fuel sources, from likely baseline conditions. Results include analytical measurements of CO2 captured from a number of different CO2 capture plants and a comprehensive literature review of the known and hypothetical isotopic compositions of captured CO2 and baseline conditions. Key findings from the literature review suggest that the carbon isotope composition will be most strongly controlled by that of the feedstock, but significant fractionation is possible during the capture process; oxygen isotopes are likely to be controlled by the isotopic composition of any water used in either the industrial process or the capture technology; and noble gases concentrations will likely be controlled by the capture technique employed. Preliminary analytical results are in agreement with these predictions. Comparison with summaries of likely storage reservoir baseline and shallow or surface leakage reservoir baseline data suggests that C-isotopes are likely to be valuable tracers of CO2 in the storage reservoir, while noble gases may be particularly valuable as tracers of potential leakage.

  18. Leaf cavity CO2 concentrations and CO2 exchange in onion, Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Byrd, G T; Loboda, T; Black, C C; Brown, R H

    1995-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) plants were examined to determine the photosynthetic role of CO2 that accumulates within their leaf cavities. Leaf cavity CO2 concentrations ranged from 2250 μL L(-1) near the leaf base to below atmospheric (<350 μL L(-1)) near the leaf tip at midday. There was a daily fluctuation in the leaf cavity CO2 concentrations with minimum values near midday and maximum values at night. Conductance to CO2 from the leaf cavity ranged from 24 to 202 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and was even lower for membranes of bulb scales. The capacity for onion leaves to recycle leaf cavity CO2 was poor, only 0.2 to 2.2% of leaf photosynthesis based either on measured CO2 concentrations and conductance values or as measured directly by (14)CO2 labeling experiments. The photosynthetic responses to CO2 and O2 were measured to determine whether onion leaves exhibited a typical C3-type response. A linear increase in CO2 uptake was observed in intact leaves up to 315 μL L(-1) of external CO2 and, at this external CO2 concentration, uptake was inhibited 35.4±0.9% by 210 mL L(-1) O2 compared to 20 mL L(-1) O2. Scanning electron micrographs of the leaf cavity wall revealed degenerated tissue covered by a membrane. Onion leaf cavity membranes apparently are highly impermeable to CO2 and greatly restrict the refixation of leaf cavity CO2 by photosynthetic tissue. PMID:24307095

  19. Precursory volcanic CO2 signals from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Carn, Simon A.; Kataoka, Fumie; Kuze, Akihiko; Shiomi, Kei; Goto, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    Identification of earliest signals heralding volcanic unrest benefits from the unambiguous detection of precursors that reflect deviation of magmatic systems from metastable background activity. Ascent and emplacement of new basaltic magma at depth may precede eruptions by weeks to months. Transient localized carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions stemming from exsolution from depressurized magma are expected, and have been observed weeks to months ahead of magmatic surface activity. Detecting such CO2 precursors by continuous ground-based monitoring operations is unfortunately not a widely implemented method yet, save a handful of volcanoes. Detecting CO2 emissions from space offers obvious advantages - however it is technologically challenging, not the least due to the increasing atmospheric burden of CO2, against which a surface emission signal is hard to discern. In a multi-year project, we have investigated the feasibility of space-borne detection of pre-eruptive volcanic CO2 passive degassing signals using observations from the Greenhouse Gas Observing SATellite (GOSAT). Since 2010, we have observed over 40 active volcanoes from space using GOSAT's special target mode. Over 72% of targets experienced at least one eruption over that time period, demonstrating the potential utility of space-borne CO2 observations in non-imaging target-mode (point source monitoring mode). While many eruption precursors don't produce large enough CO2 signals to exceed space-borne detection thresholds of current satellite sensors, some of our observations have nevertheless already shown significant positive anomalies preceding eruptions at basaltic volcanoes. In 2014, NASA launched its first satellite dedicated to atmospheric CO2 observation, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2). Its observation strategy differs from the single-shot GOSAT instrument. At the expense of GOSAT's fast time series capability (3-day repeat cycle, vs. 16 for OCO-2), its 8-footprint continuous swath can slice

  20. Advanced CO2 Removal Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, John E.; Verma, Sunita; Forrest, Kindall; LeVan, M. Douglas

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced CO2 Removal Technical Task Agreement covers three active areas of research and development. These include a study of the economic viability of a hybrid membrane/adsorption CO2 removal system, sorbent materials development, and construction of a database of adsorption properties of important fixed gases on several adsorbent material that may be used in CO2 removal systems. The membrane/adsorption CO2 removal system was proposed as a possible way to reduce the energy consumption of the four-bed molecular sieve system now in use. Much of the energy used by the 4BMS is used to desorb water removed in the device s desiccant beds. These beds might be replaced by a desiccating membrane that moves the water from [he incoming stream directly into the outlet stream. The approach may allow the CO2 removal beds to operate at a lower temperature. A comparison between models of the 4BMS and hybrid systems is underway at Vanderbilt University. NASA Ames Research Center has been investigating a Ag-exchanged zeolites as a possible improvement over currently used Ca and Na zeolites for CO2 removal. Silver ions will complex with n:-bonds in hydrocarbons such as ethylene, giving remarkably improved selectivity for adsorption of those materials. Bonds with n: character are also present in carbon oxides. NASA Ames is also continuing to build a database for adsorption isotherms of CO2, N2, O2, CH4, and Ar on a variety of sorbents. This information is useful for analysis of existing hardware and design of new processes.

  1. NaSrCo2F7, a Co(2+) pyrochlore antiferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Krizan, J W; Cava, R J

    2015-07-29

    We report the crystal growth, by the Bridgeman-Stockbarger method, and the basic magnetic properties of a new cobalt-based pyrochlore, NaSrCo2F7. Single-crystal structure determination shows that Na and Sr are completely disordered on the non-magnetic large atom A sites, while magnetic [Formula: see text] Co(2+) fully occupies the pyrochlore lattice B sites. NaSrCo2F7 displays strong antiferromagnetic interactions ([Formula: see text]), a large effective moment ([Formula: see text]), and no spin freezing until 3 K. Thus, NaSrCo2F7 is a geometrically frustrated antiferromagnet with a frustration index [Formula: see text]. Ac susceptibility, dc susceptibility, and heat capacity are utilized to characterize the spin freezing. We argue that NaSrCo2F7 and the related material NaCaCo2F7 are examples of frustrated pyrochlore antiferromagnets with weak bond disorder. PMID:26154596

  2. CO2 and CO Simulations and Their Source Signature Indicated by CO/CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, Randy; Huisheng, Bian

    2004-01-01

    Three years (2000-2002) atmospheric CO2 and CO fields are simulated by a Chemistry Transport Model driven by the assimilated meteorological fields from GEOS-4. The simulated CO2 and CO are evaluated by measurements from surface (CMDL), satellite (MOPITT/CO), and aircraft. The model-observation comparisons indicate reasonable agreement in both source and remote regions, and in the lower and upper troposphere. The simulation also captures the seasonality of CO2 and CO variations. The ratios of CO/CO2 are analyzed over different representative regions to identify the source signature, since the anthropogenic CO comes fiom the same combustion processes as CO2. This work enables us to improve satellite inversion estimates of CO2 sources and sinks by simultaneously using satellite CO measurement.

  3. Monitoring of near surface CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, E.; Möller, I.; Teschner, M.; Poggenburg, J.; Spickenbom, K.; Schulz, H. J.

    2009-04-01

    Monitoring of near surface CO2 ECKHARD FABER1, INGO MÖLLER1, MANFRED TESCHNER1, JÜRGEN POGGENBURG1, KAI SPICKENBOM1, HANS-MARTIN SCHULZ1,2 1Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover, e.faber@bgr.de 2present adress: GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam Underground gas storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide is one of the methods to reduce the input of antropogenic CO2 into the atmosphere and its greenhouse effect. Storage of CO2 is planned in depleted reservoirs, in aquifers and in salt caverns. Storage sites must have very small leakage rates to safely store the CO2 for centuries. Thus, a careful investigation and site selection is crucial. However, any leakage of CO2 to the surface is potentially dangerous for humans and environment. Therefore, instruments and systems for the detection of any CO2 escaping the storage sites and reaching the atmosphere have to be developed. Systems to monitor gases in deep wells, groundwater and surface sediments for leaking CO2 are developed, tested and are contnuously improved. Our group is mainly analysing CO2 in shallow (down to 3 m) soil samples using automatically operating monitoring systems. The systems are equipped with sensors to measure CO2 (and other gases) concentrations and other environmental parameters (atmospheric pressure, ambient and soil temperatures, etc.). Data are measured in short intervals (minute to subminute), are stored locally and are transferred by telemetrical systems into the BGR laboratory (Weinlich et al., 2006). In addition to soil gases monitoring systems technical equipment is available for continuous underwater gas flow measurements. Several of those monitoring systems are installed in different areas like Czech Republic, Austria, Italy and Germany. To detect any leaking gas from a sequestration site after CO2 injection, the naturally existing CO2 concentration (before injection) must be known. Thus, the natural

  4. Validation of Airborne CO2 Laser Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browell, E. V.; Dobler, J. T.; Kooi, S.; Fenn, M. A.; Choi, Y.; Vay, S. A.; Harrison, F. W.; Moore, B.; Zaccheo, T. S.

    2010-12-01

    This paper discusses the flight test validation of a unique, multi-frequency, intensity-modulated, single-beam laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) that operates near 1.57 μm for remote column CO2 measurements. This laser system is under development for a future space-based mission to determine the global distribution of regional-scale CO2 sources and sinks, which is the objective of the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions during Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. A prototype of this LAS system, called the Multi-frequency Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL), was developed by ITT, and it has been flight tested in nine airborne campaigns since May 2005. This paper focuses on the most recent results obtained over the last two years of flight-testing where the MFLL remote CO2 column measurements were evaluated against airborne in situ CO2 profile measurements traceable to World Meteorological Organization standards. A comprehensive multiple-aircraft flight test program was conducted over Oklahoma and Virginia in July-August 2009. The MFLL obtained surface reflectance and average CO2 column variations along the 50-km flight legs over the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Central Facility (CF) in Lamont, Oklahoma; over rural Virginia and North Carolina; and over the Chesapeake Bay. For a flight altitude of 4.6 km, the average signal to noise ratio (SNR) for a 1-s CO2 column measurement was found to be 760, which is the equivalent of a CO2 mixing ratio precision of 0.60 ppmv, and for a 10-s average the SNR was found to be 2002 or 0.20 ppmv. Absolute comparisons of MFLL-derived and in situ-derived CO2 column measurements were made for all daytime flights conducted over Oklahoma and Virginia with an average agreement to within 0.32 ppmv. A major ASCENDS flight test campaign was conducted using the NASA DC-8 during 6-18 July 2010. The MFLL system and associated in situ CO2 instrumentation were operated on DC-8 flights over the Central Valley

  5. Decarboxylation, CO2 and the reversion problem.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Ronald

    2015-11-17

    Decarboxylation reactions occur rapidly in enzymes but usually are many orders of magnitude slower in solution, if the reaction occurs at all. Where the reaction produces a carbanion and CO2, we would expect that the high energy of the carbanion causes the transition state for C-C bond cleavage also to be high in energy. Since the energy of the carbanion is a thermodynamic property, an enzyme obviously cannot change that property. Yet, enzymes overcome the barrier to forming the carbanion. In thinking about decarboxylation, we had assumed that CO2 is well behaved and forms without its own barriers. However, we analyzed reactions in solution of compounds that resemble intermediates in enzymic reaction and found some of them to be subject to unexpected forms of catalysis. Those results caused us to discard the usual assumptions about CO2 and carbanions. We learned that CO2 can be a very reactive electrophile. In decarboxylation reactions, where CO2 forms in the same step as a carbanion, separation of the products might be the main problem preventing the forward reaction because the carbanion can add readily to CO2 in competition with their separation and solvation. The basicity of the carbanion also might be overestimated because when we see that the decarboxylation is slow, we assume that it is because the carbanion is high in energy. We found reactions where the carbanion is protonated internally; CO2 appears to be able to depart without reversion more rapidly. We tested these ideas using kinetic analysis of catalytic reactions, carbon kinetic isotope effects, and synthesis of predecarboxylation intermediates. In another case, we observed that the decarboxylation is subject to general base catalysis while producing a significant carbon kinetic isotope effect. This requires both a proton transfer from an intermediate and C-C bond-breaking in the rate-determining step. This would occur if the route involves the surprising initial addition of water to the carboxyl

  6. Direct Copolymerization of CO2 and Diols

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Masazumi; Ito, Kazuki; Honda, Masayoshi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Direct polymerization of CO2 and diols is promising as a simple and environmental-benign method in place of conventional processes using high-cost and/or hazardous reagents such as phosgene, carbon monoxide and epoxides, however, there are no reports on the direct method due to the inertness of CO2 and severe equilibrium limitation of the reaction. Herein, we firstly substantiate the direct copolymerization of CO2 and diols using CeO2 catalyst and 2-cyanopyridine promotor, providing the alternating cooligomers in high diol-based yield (up to 99%) and selectivity (up to >99%). This catalyst system is applicable to various diols including linear C4-C10 α,ω-diols to provide high yields of the corresponding cooligomers, which cannot be obtained by well-known methods such as copolymerization of CO2 and cyclic ethers and ring-opening polymerization of cyclic carbonates. This process provides us a facile synthesis method for versatile polycarbonates from various diols and CO2 owing to simplicity of diols modification. PMID:27075987

  7. Direct CO2-Methanation of flue gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Klaus; Fleige, Michael; Rachow, Fabian; Israel, Johannes; Schmeißer, Dieter

    2013-04-01

    Already discovered by Paul Sabatier in 1902 the Hydrogenation according to CO2 + 4H2 ->CH4 + 2H2O nowadays is discussed in the course of the "Power-to-Gas" approach to utilize excess energy from renewable electricity generation in times of oversupply of electricity. We investigate the behavior of this process in a simulated flue gas atmosphere of conventional base load power plants, which could be used as constant sources of the reactant CO2. In relation to an approach related to carbon capture and cycling, the conversion of CO2 directly from the flue gas of a conventional power plant is a new aspect and has several advantages: The conversion of CO2 into methane could be integrated directly into the combustion process. Even older power plants could be upgraded and used as a possible source for CO2, in the same sense as the amine cleaning of flue gas, as a post combustion process. Further, waste heat of the power plant could be used as process energy for the catalytic reaction. Therefore the influence of different flue gas compositions such as varying contents of nitrogen and residual oxygen are tested in a laboratory scale. The heterogeneous catalysis process is investigated with regard to conversion rates, yield and selectivity and long-term stability of the Ni-catalyst. Also the influence of typical contaminations like SO2 is investigated and will be presented.

  8. The supply chain of CO2 emissions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Steven J.; Peters, Glen P.; Caldeira, Ken

    2011-01-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are conventionally attributed to the country where the emissions are produced (i.e., where the fuels are burned). However, these production-based accounts represent a single point in the value chain of fossil fuels, which may have been extracted elsewhere and may be used to provide goods or services to consumers elsewhere. We present a consistent set of carbon inventories that spans the full supply chain of global CO2 emissions, finding that 10.2 billion tons CO2 or 37% of global emissions are from fossil fuels traded internationally and an additional 6.4 billion tons CO2 or 23% of global emissions are embodied in traded goods. Our results reveal vulnerabilities and benefits related to current patterns of energy use that are relevant to climate and energy policy. In particular, if a consistent and unavoidable price were imposed on CO2 emissions somewhere along the supply chain, then all of the parties along the supply chain would seek to impose that price to generate revenue from taxes collected or permits sold. The geographical concentration of carbon-based fuels and relatively small number of parties involved in extracting and refining those fuels suggest that regulation at the wellhead, mine mouth, or refinery might minimize transaction costs as well as opportunities for leakage. PMID:22006314

  9. Direct Copolymerization of CO2 and Diols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Masazumi; Ito, Kazuki; Honda, Masayoshi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2016-04-01

    Direct polymerization of CO2 and diols is promising as a simple and environmental-benign method in place of conventional processes using high-cost and/or hazardous reagents such as phosgene, carbon monoxide and epoxides, however, there are no reports on the direct method due to the inertness of CO2 and severe equilibrium limitation of the reaction. Herein, we firstly substantiate the direct copolymerization of CO2 and diols using CeO2 catalyst and 2-cyanopyridine promotor, providing the alternating cooligomers in high diol-based yield (up to 99%) and selectivity (up to >99%). This catalyst system is applicable to various diols including linear C4-C10 α,ω-diols to provide high yields of the corresponding cooligomers, which cannot be obtained by well-known methods such as copolymerization of CO2 and cyclic ethers and ring-opening polymerization of cyclic carbonates. This process provides us a facile synthesis method for versatile polycarbonates from various diols and CO2 owing to simplicity of diols modification.

  10. Direct Copolymerization of CO2 and Diols.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Masazumi; Ito, Kazuki; Honda, Masayoshi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Direct polymerization of CO2 and diols is promising as a simple and environmental-benign method in place of conventional processes using high-cost and/or hazardous reagents such as phosgene, carbon monoxide and epoxides, however, there are no reports on the direct method due to the inertness of CO2 and severe equilibrium limitation of the reaction. Herein, we firstly substantiate the direct copolymerization of CO2 and diols using CeO2 catalyst and 2-cyanopyridine promotor, providing the alternating cooligomers in high diol-based yield (up to 99%) and selectivity (up to >99%). This catalyst system is applicable to various diols including linear C4-C10 α,ω-diols to provide high yields of the corresponding cooligomers, which cannot be obtained by well-known methods such as copolymerization of CO2 and cyclic ethers and ring-opening polymerization of cyclic carbonates. This process provides us a facile synthesis method for versatile polycarbonates from various diols and CO2 owing to simplicity of diols modification. PMID:27075987

  11. CO2-Binding-Organic-Liquids-Enhanced CO2 Capture using Polarity-Swing-Assisted Regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Kutnyakov, Igor; Koech, Phillip K.; Zwoster, Andy; Howard, Chris; Zheng, Feng; Freeman, Charles J.; Heldebrant, David J.

    2013-01-01

    A new solvent-based CO2 capture process couples the unique attributes of non-aqueous, CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) with the newly discovered polarity-swing-assisted regeneration (PSAR) process that is unique to switchable ionic liquids. Laboratory measurements with PSAR indicate the ability to achieve a regeneration effect at 75°C comparable to that at 120°C using thermal regeneration only. Initial measurements also indicate that the kinetic behavior of CO2 release is also improved with PSAR. Abstract cleared PNWD-SA-9743

  12. Light-duty vehicle CO2 targets consistent with 450 ppm CO2 stabilization.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Sandra L; Wallington, Timothy J; Maas, Heiko; Hass, Heinz

    2014-06-01

    We present a global analysis of CO2 emission reductions from the light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet consistent with stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentration at 450 ppm. The CO2 emission reductions are described by g CO2/km emission targets for average new light-duty vehicles on a tank-to-wheel basis between 2010 and 2050 that we call CO2 glide paths. The analysis accounts for growth of the vehicle fleet, changing patterns in driving distance, regional availability of biofuels, and the changing composition of fossil fuels. New light-duty vehicle fuel economy and CO2 regulations in the U.S. through 2025 and in the EU through 2020 are broadly consistent with the CO2 glide paths. The glide path is at the upper end of the discussed 2025 EU range of 68-78 g CO2/km. The proposed China regulation for 2020 is more stringent than the glide path, while the 2017 Brazil regulation is less stringent. Existing regulations through 2025 are broadly consistent with the light-duty vehicle sector contributing to stabilizing CO2 at approximately 450 ppm. The glide paths provide long-term guidance for LDV powertrain/fuel development. PMID:24798684

  13. Surface CO2 leakage during the first shallow subsurface CO2release experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lewicki, J.L.; Oldenburg, C.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.

    2007-09-15

    A new field facility was used to study CO2 migrationprocesses and test techniques to detect and quantify potential CO2leakage from geologic storage sites. For 10 days starting 9 July 2007,and for seven days starting 5 August 2007, 0.1 and 0.3 t CO2 d-1,respectively, were released from a ~;100-m long, sub-water table (~;2.5-mdepth) horizontal well. The spatio-temporal evolution of leakage wasmapped through repeated grid measurements of soil CO2 flux (FCO2). Thesurface leakage onset, approach to steady state, and post-release declinematched model predictions closely. Modeling suggested that minimal CO2was taken up by groundwater through dissolution, and CO2 spread out ontop of the water table. FCO2 spatial patterns were related to well designand soil physical properties. Estimates of total CO2 discharge along withsoil respiration and leakage discharge highlight the influence ofbackground CO2 flux variations on detection of CO2 leakagesignals.

  14. Efficient 1.6 Micron Laser Source for Methane DIAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuman, Timothy; Burnham, Ralph; Nehrir, Amin R.; Ismail, Syed; Hair, Johnathan W.

    2013-01-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas and on a per molecule basis has a warming influence 72 times that of carbon dioxide over a 20 year horizon. Therefore, it is important to look at near term radiative effects due to methane to develop mitigation strategies to counteract global warming trends via ground and airborne based measurements systems. These systems require the development of a time-resolved DIAL capability using a narrow-line laser source allowing observation of atmospheric methane on local, regional and global scales. In this work, a demonstrated and efficient nonlinear conversion scheme meeting the performance requirements of a deployable methane DIAL system is presented. By combining a single frequency 1064 nm pump source and a seeded KTP OPO more than 5 mJ of 1.6 µm pulse energy is generated with conversion efficiencies in excess of 20%. Even without active cavity control instrument limited linewidths (50 pm) were achieved with an estimated spectral purity of 95%. Tunable operation over 400 pm (limited by the tuning range of the seed laser) was also demonstrated. This source demonstrated the critical needs for a methane DIAL system motivating additional development of the technology.

  15. Indoor radon and lung cancer in the radium dial workers

    SciTech Connect

    Neuberger, J.S.; Rundo, J.

    1996-12-31

    Internally deposited radium has long been known to have tumorigenic effects in the form of sarcomas of the bone and carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells. However, the radium dial workers were also exposed to radiation hazards other than that occurring from ingestion of the radium paint, viz., external gamma radiation and elevated concentrations of airborne radon. The uranium miners were also exposed to high concentrations of radon in the 1950s and later, and numerous cases of lung cancer have occurred in that population. However, unlike the atmosphere in the uranium mines, the air in the dial painting plants was probably rather clean and perhaps not much different from the air in many houses. In view of the current concern over the possibility of lung cancer fin the general population being caused by radon (progeny) in houses, it is important to examine the mortality due to this usually fatal disease in the dial workers and to attempt to relate it to their exposure to radon, to the extent that this is possible.

  16. Oxygen isotope fractionation in stratospheric CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiemens, M. H.; Jackson, T.; Mauersberger, K.; Schueler, B.; Morton, J.

    1991-01-01

    A new cryogenic collection system has been flown on board a balloon gondola to obtain separate samples of ozone and carbon dioxide without entrapping major atmospheric gases. Precision laboratory isotopic analysis of CO2 samples collected between 26 and 35.5 km show a mass-independent enrichment in both O-17 and O-18 of about 11 per mil above tropospheric values. Ozone enrichment in its heavy isotopes was 9 to 16 percent in O3-50 and 8 to 11 percent in O3-49, respectively (Schueler et al., 1990). A mechanism to explain the isotope enrichment in CO2 has been recently proposed by Yung et al. (1991). The model is based on the isotope exchange between CO2 and O3 via O(1D), resulting in a transfer of the ozone isotope enrichment to carbon dioxide. Predicted enrichment and measured values agree well.

  17. CW CO2 Laser Induced Chemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pola, Joseph

    1989-05-01

    CW CO2 laser driven reactions between sulfur hexafluoride and carbon oxide, carbon suboxide, carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide proceed at subatmospheric pressures and yield fluorinated carbon compounds and sulfur tetrafluoride. CW CO2 laser driven reactions of organic compounds in the presence of energy-conveying sulfur hexafluoride show reaction course different from that normally observed due to elimination of reactor hot surface effects. The examples concern the decomposition of polychlorohydrocarbons, 2-nitropropane, tert.-butylamine, allyl chloride, spirohexane, isobornyl acetate and the oxidation of haloolefins. CW CO2 laser induced fragmentation of 1-methyl-l-silacyclobutanes and 4-silaspiro(3.4)octane in the presence of sulfur hexafluoride is an effective way for preparation and deposition of stable organosilicon polymers.

  18. The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2.

    PubMed

    Sabine, Christopher L; Feely, Richard A; Gruber, Nicolas; Key, Robert M; Lee, Kitack; Bullister, John L; Wanninkhof, Rik; Wong, C S; Wallace, Douglas W R; Tilbrook, Bronte; Millero, Frank J; Peng, Tsung-Hung; Kozyr, Alexander; Ono, Tsueno; Rios, Aida F

    2004-07-16

    Using inorganic carbon measurements from an international survey effort in the 1990s and a tracer-based separation technique, we estimate a global oceanic anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) sink for the period from 1800 to 1994 of 118 +/- 19 petagrams of carbon. The oceanic sink accounts for approximately 48% of the total fossil-fuel and cement-manufacturing emissions, implying that the terrestrial biosphere was a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere of about 39 +/- 28 petagrams of carbon for this period. The current fraction of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions stored in the ocean appears to be about one-third of the long-term potential. PMID:15256665

  19. Sequestration of CO2 by concrete carbonation.

    PubMed

    Galan, Isabel; Andrade, Carmen; Mora, Pedro; Sanjuan, Miguel A

    2010-04-15

    Carbonation of reinforced concrete is one of the causes of corrosion, but it is also a way to sequester CO2. The characteristics of the concrete cover should ensure alkaline protection for the steel bars but should also be able to combine CO2 to a certain depth. This work attempts to advance the knowledge of the carbon footprint of cement. As it is one of the most commonly used materials worldwide, it is very important to assess its impact on the environment. In order to quantify the capacity of cement based materials to combine CO2 by means of the reaction with hydrated phases to produce calcium carbonate, Thermogravimetry and the phenolphthalein indicator have been used to characterize several cement pastes and concretes exposed to different environments. The combined effect of the main variables involved in this process is discussed. The moisture content of the concrete seems to be the most influential parameter. PMID:20225850

  20. CO2 mitigation via accelerated limestone weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rau, G.H.; Knauss, K.G.; Langer, W.H.; Caldeira, K.

    2004-01-01

    Accelerated weathering of limestone (AWL: CO22+ + CaCO3 + H2O ??? Ca2+ + 2HCO3- as a low-tech, inexpensive, high-capacity, environmentally-friendly CO2 capture and sequestration technology was evaluated. With access to seawater and limestone being essential to this approach, significant limestone resources were close to most CO2-emitting power plants along the coastal US. Waste fines, representing > 20% of current US crushed limestone production (> 109 tons/yr), could be used as an inexpensive source of AWL carbonate. AWL end-solution disposal in the ocean would significantly reduce effects on ocean pH and carbonate chemistry relative to those caused by direct atmospheric or ocean CO2 disposal. Indeed, the increase in ocean Ca2+ and bicarbonate offered by AWL should enhance growth of corals and other calcifying marine organisms.

  1. High Power and Frequency-Agile Optical Parametric Oscillators for Airborne DIAL Measurements of CH4 and H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehrir, A. R.; Shuman, T.; Chuang, T.; Hair, J. W.; Refaat, T. F.; Ismail, S.; Kooi, S. A.; Notari, A.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH4) has the second largest radiative forcing of the long-lived greenhouse gasses (GHG) after carbon dioxide. However, methane's much shorter atmospheric lifetime and much stronger warming potential make its radiative forcing equivalent to that for CO2 over a 20-year time horizon which makes CH4 a particularly attractive target for mitigation strategies. Similar to CH4, water vapor (H2O) is the most dominant of the short-lived GHG in the atmosphere and plays a key role in many atmospheric processes. Atmospheric H2O concentrations span over four orders of magnitude from the planetary boundary layer where high impact weather initiates to lower levels in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) where water vapor has significant and long term impacts on the Earth's radiation budget. NASA Langley has fostered the technology development with Fibertek, Inc. to develop frequency agile and high power (> 3 W) pulsed lasers using similar architectures in the 1645 nm and 935 nm spectral bands for DIAL measurements of CH4 and H2O, respectively. Both systems utilize high power 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency Nd:YAG lasers to generate high power laser emission at the desired wavelength via optical parametric oscillators (OPO). The CH4 OPO, currently in its final build stage in a SBIR Phase II program has demonstrated >2 W average power with injection seeding from a distributed feedback (DFB) laser during risk reduction experiments. The H2O OPO has demonstrated high power operation (>2 W) during the SBIR Phase I program while being injection seeded with a DFB laser, and is currently funded via an SBIR Phase II to build a robust system for future integration into an airborne water vapor DIAL system capable of profiling from the boundary layer up to the UTLS. Both systems have demonstrated operation with active OPO wavelength control to allow for optimization of the DIAL measurements for operation at different altitudes and geographic regions. An

  2. Geophysical monitoring of near surface CO2 injection at Svelvik - Learnings from the CO2FieldLab experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querendez, Etor; Romdhane, Anouar; Jordan, Michael; Eliasson, Peder; Grimstad, Alv-Arne

    2014-05-01

    A CO2 migration field laboratory for testing monitoring methods and tools has been established in the glaciofluvial-glaciomarine Holocene deposits of the Svelvik ridge, near Oslo (Norway). At the site, feasibility, sensitivity, acquisition geometry and usefulness of various surface and subsurface monitoring tools are investigated during controlled CO2 injection experiments. In a first stage, a shallow CO2 injection experiment was conducted in September 2011. Approximately 1700 kg of CO2 was injected at 18 m depth below surface in an unconsolidated sand formation. The objectives of this experiment were to (i) detect and, where possible, quantify migrated CO2 concentrations at the surface and very shallow subsurface, (ii) evaluate the sensitivity of the monitoring tools and (iii) study the impact of the vadose zone on observed measurements. Results showed that all deployed monitoring tools (for surface and near-surface gas monitoring, subsurface water monitoring and subsurface geophysical monitoring) where able to detect the presence of CO2 even though the CO2 plume did not migrate vertically as expected in what was thought to be an homogeneous unconsolidated sand structure. The upper part of the site revealed to be more heterogeneous than expected, mainly due to the highly variable lamination and channelling of the morainic sediments and to the presence of pebble and cobble beds sporadically showing throughout the deposits. Building on the learnings from the 18m depth injection experiment, a second experiment is being planned for a deeper injection, at a depth of 65m. Re-processing of the appraisal 2D multi-channel seismic with state-of-the-art processing techniques, like Linear Radon coherent and random noise attenuation and Full Waveform Inversion followed by pre-stack depth migration, corroborate the presence of heterogeneities at the near surface. Based on the re-interpreted seismic sections, a more realistic 3D geomodel, where the complex topography of the site

  3. CO2 sequestration in basalts: laboratory measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otheim, L. T.; Adam, L.; van Wijk, K.; McLing, T. L.; Podgorney, R. K.

    2010-12-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is proposed as the only promising large-scale method to help reduce CO2 gas emission by its capture at large point sources and subsequent long-term storage in deep geologic formations. Reliable and cost-effective monitoring will be important aspect of ensuring geological sequestration is a safe, effective, and acceptable method for CO2 emissions mitigation. Once CO2 injection starts, seismic methods can be used to monitor the migration of the carbon dioxide plume. To calibrate changes in rock properties from field observations, we propose to first analyze changes in elastic properties on basalt cores. Carbon dioxide sequestration in basalt rocks results in fluid substitution and mixing of CO2 with water and rock mineralizations. Carbon dioxide sequestration in mafic rocks creates reactions such as Mg2SiO 4 + CaMgSi2O 6 + 4CO2 = Mg 3Ca(CO 3) 4 + 3SiO2 whereby primary silicate minerals within the basalt react with carbonic acid laden water to creating secondary carbonate minerals and silicates. Using time-lapse laboratory scale experiments, such as laser generated ultrasonic wave propagation; it is possible to observe small changes in the physical properties of a rock. We will show velocity and modulus measurements on three basalt core samples for different saturation. The ultimate goal of the project is to track seismic changes due to fluid substitution and mineralization. The porosity of our basalts ranges from 8% to 12%, and the P-wave velocity increases by 20% to 40% from dry to water saturated conditions. Petrographic analysis (CT-scans, thin sections, XRF, XRf) will aid in the characterization of the mineral structure in these basalts and its correlation to seismic properties changes resulting from fluid substitution and mineralization.

  4. CO2 Orbital Trends in Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Michael; Bodewits, Dennis; Feaga, Lori; Knight, Matthew; McKay, Adam; Snodgrass, Colin; Wooden, Diane

    2016-08-01

    Carbon dioxide is a primary volatile in comet nuclei, and potentially a major contributor to comet activity (i.e., the process of mass loss). However, CO2 cannot be observed directly from the ground, and past surveys of this molecule in comets were limited to space-borne snapshot observations. This situation limits our understanding of the behavior of CO2 in comets, and its role in driving comet mass loss. To address this deficiency, we were awarded a Cy11 Spitzer program designed to quantify the production rate of CO2 on >month-long timescales for 21 comets. We request an additional 269~hr in Cy13 to complete the Spitzer portion of our survey, and to add three more comets (46P/Wirtanen and 2 Target of Opportunity Oort cloud comets). Our survey is designed to probe the orbital trends of CO2 production in the comet population. We aim to: 1) examine the role of CO2 in the persistent post-perihelion activity observed in Jupiter-family comets; 2) measure the seasonal variations of CO2/H2O as a proxy for nucleus heterogeneity, when possible; 3) search for orbital trends sensitive to cumulative insolation as a proxy for nucleus layering; and 4) examine how Oort cloud comets evolve by comparing dynamically new and old targets. The final data set will allow us to investigate the effects of heating on the evolution of comets, if nucleus structures can be inferred through activity, and set the stage for JWST investigations into comet activity and composition.

  5. 10 MW Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, Craig

    2014-01-29

    The Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test project was to demonstrate the inherent efficiencies of a supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) power turbine and associated turbomachinery under conditions and at a scale relevant to commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) projects, thereby accelerating the commercial deployment of this new power generation technology. The project involved eight partnering organizations: NREL, Sandia National Laboratories, Echogen Power Systems, Abengoa Solar, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Electric Power Research Institute, Barber-Nichols, and the CSP Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The multi-year project planned to design, fabricate, and validate an s-CO2 power turbine of nominally 10 MWe that is capable of operation at up to 700°C and operates in a dry-cooled test loop. The project plan consisted of three phases: (1) system design and modeling, (2) fabrication, and (3) testing. The major accomplishments of Phase 1 included: Design of a multistage, axial-flow, s-CO2 power turbine; Design modifications to an existing turbocompressor to provide s-CO2 flow for the test system; Updated equipment and installation costs for the turbomachinery and associated support infrastructure; Development of simulation tools for the test loop itself and for more efficient cycle designs that are of greater commercial interest; Simulation of s-CO2 power cycle integration into molten-nitrate-salt CSP systems indicating a cost benefit of up to 8% in levelized cost of energy; Identification of recuperator cost as a key economic parameter; Corrosion data for multiple alloys at temperatures up to 650ºC in high-pressure CO2 and recommendations for materials-of-construction; and Revised test plan and preliminary operating conditions based on the ongoing tests of related equipment. Phase 1 established that the cost of the facility needed to test the power turbine at its full power and temperature would exceed the planned funding for Phases 2 and 3. Late

  6. Selective Oxytrifluoromethylation of Allylamines with CO2.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jian-Heng; Song, Lei; Zhou, Wen-Jun; Ju, Tao; Yin, Zhu-Bao; Yan, Si-Shun; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Jing; Yu, Da-Gang

    2016-08-16

    Reported is the first oxy-trifluoromethylation of allylamines with carbon dioxide (CO2 ) using copper catalysis, thus leading to important CF3 -containing 2-oxazolidones. It is also the first time CO2 , a nontoxic and easily available greenhouse gas, has been used to tune the difunctionalization of alkenes from amino- to oxy-trifluoromethylation. Of particular note, this multicomponent reaction is highly chemo-, regio-, and diastereoselective under redox-neutral and mild reaction conditions. Moreover, these reactions feature good functional-group tolerance, broad substrate scope, easy scalability and facile product diversification. The important products could also be formed with either spirocycles or two adjacent tetrasubstituted carbon centers. PMID:27411560

  7. Leak Path Development in CO2 Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsater, M.; Todorovic, J.; Opedal, N.; Lavrov, A.

    2014-12-01

    Wells have in numerous scientific works been denoted the "weak link" of safe and cost-efficient CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS). Whether they are active or abandoned, all wells are man-made intrusions into the storage reservoir with sealing abilities depending on degradable materials like steel and cement. If dense CO2 is allowed to expand (e.g. due to leakage) it will cool down its surroundings and cause strong thermal and mechanical loading on the wellbore. In addition, CO2 reacts chemically with rock, cement and steel. To ensure long-term underground containment, it is therefore necessary to study how, why, where and when leakage occurs along CO2wells. If cement bonding to rock or casing is poor, leak paths can form already during drilling and completion of the well. In the present work, we have mapped the bonding quality of cement-rock and cement-steel interfaces - and measured their resistance towards CO2 flow. This involved a large experimental matrix including different rocks, steels, cement types and well fluids. The bonding qualities were measured on composite cores using micro computed tomography (µ-CT), and CO2 was flooded through the samples to determine leakage rates. These were further compared to numerical simulations of leakage through the digitalized µ-CT core data, and CO2chemical interactions with the materials were mapped using electron microscopy. We also present a new laboratory set-up for measuring how well integrity is affected by downhole temperature variations - and we showcase some initial results. Our work concludes that leak path development in CO2 wells depends critically on the drilling fluids and presflushes/spacers chosen already during drilling and completion of a well. Fluid films residing on rock and casing surfaces strongly degrade the quality of cement bonding. The operation of the well is also important, as even slight thermal cycling (between 10°C and 95°C on casing) leads to significant de-bonding of the annular cement.

  8. CO2 laser cutting of natural granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveiro, A.; Mejías, A.; Soto, R.; Quintero, F.; del Val, J.; Boutinguiza, M.; Lusquiños, F.; Pardo, J.; Pou, J.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial black granite boards (trade name: "Zimbabwe black granite") 10 mm thick, were successfully cut by a 3.5 kW CO2 laser source. Cutting quality, in terms of kerf width and roughness of the cut wall, was assessed by means of statistically planned experiments. No chemical modification of the material in the cutting walls was detected by the laser beam action. Costs associated to the process were calculated, and the main factors affecting them were identified. Results reported here demonstrate that cutting granite boards could be a new application of CO2 laser cutting machines provided a supersonic nozzle is used.

  9. CO2 chemosensing in rat oesophagus

    PubMed Central

    Akiba, Y; Mizumori, M; Kuo, M; Ham, M; Guth, P H; Engel, E; Kaunitz, J D

    2016-01-01

    Background Acid in the oesophageal lumen is often sensed as heartburn. It was hypothesised that luminal CO2, a permeant gas, rather than H+, permeates through the epithelium, and is converted to H+, producing an afferent neural signal by activating chemosensors. Methods The rat lower oesophageal mucosa was superfused with pH 7.0 buffer, and pH 1.0 or pH 6.4 high CO2 (PCO2 = 260 Torr) solutions with or without the cell-permeant carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor methazolamide (MTZ, 1 mM), the cell-impermeant CA inhibitor benzolamide (BNZ, 0.1 mM), the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonist capsazepine (CPZ, 0.5 mM) or the acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) inhibitor amiloride (0.1 mM). Interstitial pH (pHint) was measured with 5′,6′-carboxyfluorescein (5 mg/kg intravenously) loaded into the interstitial space, and blood flow was measured with laser-Doppler. Results Perfusion of a high CO2 solution induced hyperaemia without changing pHint, mimicking the effect of pH 1.0 perfusion. Perfused MTZ, BNZ, CPZ and amiloride all inhibited CO2-induced hyperaemia. CA XIV was expressed in the prickle cells, with CA XII in the basal cells. TRPV1 was expressed in the stratum granulosum and in the muscularis mucosa, whereas all ASICs were expressed in the prickle cells, with ASIC3 additionally in the muscularis mucosa. Conclusions The response to CO2 perfusion suggests that CO2 diffuses through the stratum epithelium, interacting with TRPV1 and ASICs in the epithelium or in the submucosa. Inhibition of the hyperaemic response to luminal CO2 by CA, TRPV1 and ASIC inhibitors implicates CA and these chemosensors in transduction of the luminal acid signal. Transepithelial CO2 permeation may explain how luminal H+ equivalents can rapidly be transduced into hyperaemia, and the sensation of heartburn. PMID:18682519

  10. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, L. W.; Way, J. D.; Vlasse, M.

    2001-01-01

    The CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) project will develop, test, and analyze membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The CAM technology will enable passive separation of these gases, allow energy efficient acquisition and purification of these important resources, and lay the foundation for future unmanned sample return and human space missions. The CAM membranes are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications, such as In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) and In Situ Consumables Production (ISCP).

  11. Crystallization of CO2 ice and the absence of amorphous CO2 ice in space

    PubMed Central

    Escribano, Rafael M.; Muñoz Caro, Guillermo M.; Cruz-Diaz, Gustavo A.; Rodríguez-Lazcano, Yamilet; Maté, Belén

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the most relevant and abundant species in astrophysical and atmospheric media. In particular, CO2 ice is present in several solar system bodies, as well as in interstellar and circumstellar ice mantles. The amount of CO2 in ice mantles and the presence of pure CO2 ice are significant indicators of the temperature history of dust in protostars. It is therefore important to know if CO2 is mixed with other molecules in the ice matrix or segregated and whether it is present in an amorphous or crystalline form. We apply a multidisciplinary approach involving IR spectroscopy in the laboratory, theoretical modeling of solid structures, and comparison with astronomical observations. We generate an unprecedented highly amorphous CO2 ice and study its crystallization both by thermal annealing and by slow accumulation of monolayers from the gas phase under an ultrahigh vacuum. Structural changes are followed by IR spectroscopy. We also devise theoretical models to reproduce different CO2 ice structures. We detect a preferential in-plane orientation of some vibrational modes of crystalline CO2. We identify the IR features of amorphous CO2 ice, and, in particular, we provide a theoretical explanation for a band at 2,328 cm−1 that dominates the spectrum of the amorphous phase and disappears when the crystallization is complete. Our results allow us to rule out the presence of pure and amorphous CO2 ice in space based on the observations available so far, supporting our current view of the evolution of CO2 ice. PMID:23858474

  12. 2-micron Pulsed Direct Detection IPDA Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Singh, U.; Petros, M.

    2012-12-01

    A 2-micron high energy, pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar is being developed for atmospheric CO2 measurements. Development of this lidar heavily leverages the 2-micron laser technologies developed in LaRC over the last decade. The high pulse energy, direct detection lidar operating at CO2 2-micron absorption band provides an alternate approach to measure CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. It is expected to provide high-precision measurement capability by unambiguously eliminating contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement. Our objective is to integrate an existing high energy double-pulsed 2-micron laser transmitter with a direct detection receiver and telescope to enable an airborne capability to perform a first proof of principle demonstration of airborne direct detection CO2 measurements. The 2-micron transmitter provides 100mJ at 10Hz with double pulse format specifically designed for DIAL/IPDA instrument. The compact, rugged, highly reliable transceiver is based on unique Ho:Tm:YLF high-energy 2-micron pulsed laser technology. All the optical mounts are custom designed and have space heritage. A 16-inch diameter telescope has been designed and being manufactured for the direct detection lidar. The detector is an InGaAs Positive-Intrinsic-Negative (PIN) photodiode manufactured by Hamamatsu Corporation. The performance of the detector is characterized at various operating temperatures and bias voltages for spectral response, NEP, response time, dynamic range, and linearity. A collinear lidar structure is designed to be integrated to NASA UC12 or B200 research aircrafts. This paper will describe the design of the airborne 2-micron pulsed IPDA lidar system; the lidar operation parameters; the wavelength pair selection; laser transmitter energy, pulse rate, beam divergence, double pulse generation and accurate frequency control; detector characterization; telescope design; lidar structure design

  13. Greenland CO2 and δ13C of CO2 - assigning the contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenk, T.; Rubino, M.; Etheridge, D.; Bigler, M.; Blunier, T.

    2012-04-01

    Analysis of air extracted from bubbles of Greenland ice results in considerably higher CO2 concentrations compared to records from Antarctic sites. This can not be explained by the inter-hemispheric gradient expected for past climatic conditions. Instead, it is attributed to chemical reactions between impurities in the ice, contributing excess CO2 to the atmospheric signal which was initially trapped in the bubbles. This is consistent with the fact that Greenland ice contains a significantly higher amount of impurities compared to Antarctic ice. Different candidates of CO2 producing chemical reactions were suggested by previous studies: (i) the acidification of carbonates, (ii) the oxidation of hydrocarbons and (iii) the photodecarboxilation of humic like substances. However, there is no agreement on how much each of the above reactions contributes. This study aims to identify the contribution from organic and inorganic sources to the Greenland CO2 excess. Compared to previous studies we base our analysis on an increased set of parameters and data points. We discuss data of CO2 and δ13C-CO2, both in high (2.5 cm) and low resolution (55 to 110 cm) along with parallel records of chemical impurities from three different sites in Greenland. The samples for the presented high resolution CO2 and δ13C of CO2 records were measured on a new set-up at the Centre for Ice and Climate (needle cracker, GC-IRMS).

  14. CO2 Virtual Science Data Environment: Providing Streamlined Access to CO2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, H.; Cinquini, L.; Davidoff, S.; Duran, B.; Eldering, A.; Granat, R. A.; Gunson, M. R.; Hofman, J.; Knosp, B.; Murphy, E.; Osterman, G. B.; Zimdars, P.

    2014-12-01

    CO2 is an important greenhouse gas and therefore characterizing and understanding its global distribution is crucial for the study of Earth's changing climate. Currently, satellite remote sensing measurements of CO2 are available from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS), Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2), and Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES). Traditionally, data from these different missions are distributed separately from one another and they each possess different data formats, making it cumbersome for researchers to access, analyze, and perform inter-comparison. We present an effort at JPL to design a web-based science data environment (co2.jpl.nasa.gov) that allows users to access and utilize CO2 data from GOSAT, AIRS, OCO-2, TES, and the ground-based Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) in a single user-friendly interface. The features of the data environment include the ability to download full mission-specific CO2-related Level 2 data files or to customize them based on location, time, data variable, version, and format. An important feature of the JPL CO2 data environment is that it allows generation of customized Level 3 products and provides detailed documentation on the mission specifications along with technical data information. These tools are designed to allow users streamlined access to relevant remote sensing and ground-based CO2 datasets in order to facilitate research on atmospheric CO2.

  15. TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2N)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-01-30

    TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2N) News:  TES News ... L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide Spatial Coverage:  5.2 x 8.5 km nadir ... Subset Data: TES Order Tool Parameters:  Carbon Dioxide Order Data:  Reverb:   Order Data ...

  16. TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2NS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-01-30

    TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2NS) News:  TES News ... L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide Spatial Coverage:  5.3 x 8.5 km nadir ... Subset Data: TES Order Tool Parameters:  Carbon Dioxide Order Data:  Reverb:   Order Data ...

  17. Correction of Doppler-broadened Rayleigh backscattering effects in H2O dial measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansmann, A.; Bosenberg, J.

    1986-01-01

    A general method of solutions for treating effects of Doppler-broadened Rayleigh backscattering in H2O Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements are described and discussed. Errors in vertical DIAL measuremtns caused by this laser line broadening effect can be very large and, therfore, this effect has to be accounted for accurately. To analyze and correct effects of Doppler-broadened Rayleigh backscattering in DIAL experiments, a generalized DIAL approximation was derived starting from a lidar equation, which includes Doppler broadening. To evaluate the accuracy of H2O DIAL measurements, computer simulations were performed. It was concluded that correction of Doppler broadened Rayleigh backscattering is possible with good accuracy in most cases of tropospheric H2O DIAL measurements, but great care has to be taken when layers with steep gradients of Mie backscattering like clouds or inversion layers are present.

  18. Laser Sounder for Measuring Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations: Progress Toward Ascends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Kawa, S. R.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Sun, X.; Stephen, M. A.; Wilson, E.; Burris, J. F.; Mao, J.

    2008-01-01

    the on and off-line singnals via the DIAL technique. We used pulsed laser signals, photon counting detectors, and time gating to isolate the laser returns from the surface, and to reject photons scattered from thin clouds and aerosols. High signal-to-noise ratios are required and the CO2 estimates can be sensitive to small drifts or other errors in the instrument, so the absorption estimates need to be quite stable for hours. We have constructed a breadboard version of the CO2 sensor that uses a low power fiber laser and a 20 cm diameter telescope. We have used it to make measurements of CO2 absorption in the laboratory and over 200-m to 2-km long open horizontal paths. These have been done in several sessions extending over multiple days, which allows us to assess the measurement stability and to compare absorption variations to readings from an external in situ CO2 sensor. We have also calculated characteristics of the technique for space including its expected measurement performance for different modulation types, and have performed an initial space mission accommodation study. We sill describe these results in the presentation.

  19. CO2 adsorption isotherm on clay minerals and the CO2 accessibility into the clay interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gensterblum, Yves; Bertier, Pieter; Busch, Andreas; Rother, Gernot; Krooß, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale CO2 storage in porous rock formations at 1-3 km depth is seen as a global warming mitigation strategy. In this process, CO2 is separated from the flue gas of coal or gas power plants, compressed, and pumped into porous subsurface reservoirs with overlying caprocks (seals). Good seals are mechanically and chemically stable caprocks with low porosity and permeability. They prevent leakage of buoyant CO2 from the reservoir. Caprocks are generally comprised of thick layers of shale, and thus mainly consist of clay minerals. These clays can be affected by CO2-induced processes, such as swelling or dissolution. The interactions of CO2 with clay minerals in shales are at present poorly understood. Sorption measurements in combination scattering techniques could provide fundamental insight into the mechanisms governing CO2-clay interaction. Volumetric sorption techniques have assessed the sorption of supercritical CO2 onto coal (Gensterblum et al., 2010; Gensterblum et al., 2009), porous silica (Rother et al., 2012a) and clays as a means of exploring the potential of large-scale storage of anthropogenic CO2 in geological reservoirs (Busch et al., 2008). On different clay minerals and shales, positive values of excess sorption were measured at gas pressures up to 6 MPa, where the interfacial fluid is assumed to be denser than the bulk fluid. However, zero and negative values were obtained at higher densities, which suggests the adsorbed fluid becomes equal to and eventually less dense than the corresponding bulk fluid, or that the clay minerals expand on CO2 charging. Using a combination of neutron diffraction and excess sorption measurements, we recently deduced the interlayer density of scCO2 in Na-montmorillonite clay in its single-layer hydration state (Rother et al., 2012b), and confirmed its low density, as well as the expansion of the basal spacings. We performed neutron diffraction experiments at the FRMII diffractometer on smectite, kaolinite and illite

  20. Effects of dissolved CO2 on Shallow Freshwater Microbial Communities simulating a CO2 Leakage Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulliver, D. M.; Lowry, G. V.; Gregory, K.

    2013-12-01

    Geological carbon sequestration is likely to be part of a comprehensive strategy to minimize the atmospheric release of greenhouse gasses, establishing a concern of sequestered CO2 leakage into overlying potable aquifers. Leaking CO2 may affect existing biogeochemical processes and therefore water quality. There is a critical need to understand the evolution of CO2 exposed microbial communities that influence the biogeochemistry in these freshwater aquifers. The evolution of microbial ecology for different CO2 exposure concentrations was investigated using fluid-slurry samples obtained from a shallow freshwater aquifer (55 m depth, 0.5 MPa, 22 °C, Escatawpa, MS). The microbial community of well samples upstream and downstream of CO2 injection was characterized. In addition, batch vessel experiments were conducted with the upstream aquifer samples exposed to varying pCO2 from 0% to 100% under reservoir temperature and pressure for up to 56 days. The microbial community of the in situ experiment and the batch reactor experiment were analyzed with 16S rRNA clone libraries and qPCR. In both the in situ experiment and the batch reactor experiment, DNA concentration did not correlate with CO2 exposure. Both the in situ experiment and the batch reactors displayed a changing microbial community with increased CO2 exposure. The well water isolate, Curvibacter, appeared to be the most tolerant genus to high CO2 concentrations in the in situ experiments and to mid-CO2 concentrations in the batch reactors. In batch reactors with pCO2 concentrations higher than experienced in situ (pCO2 = 0.5 MPa), Pseudomonas appeared to be the most tolerant genus. Findings provide insight into a dynamic biogeochemical system that will alter with CO2 exposure. Adapted microbial populations will eventually give rise to the community that will impact the metal mobility and water quality. Knowledge of the surviving microbial populations will enable improved models for predicting the fate of CO2

  1. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Fauth, D.J.; Filburn, T.P.; Gray, M.L.; Hedges, S.W.; Hoffman, J.; Pennline, H.W.; Filburn, T.

    2007-06-01

    Capturing CO2 emissions generated from fossil fuel-based power plants has received widespread attention and is considered a vital course of action for CO2 emission abatement. Efforts are underway at the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop viable energy technologies enabling the CO2 capture from large stationary point sources. Solid, immobilized amine sorbents (IAS) formulated by impregnation of liquid amines within porous substrates are reactive towards CO2 and offer an alternative means for cyclic capture of CO2 eliminating, to some degree, inadequacies related to chemical absorption by aqueous alkanolamine solutions. This paper describes synthesis, characterization, and CO2 adsorption properties for IAS materials previously tested to bind and release CO2 and water vapor in a closed loop life support system. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), acrylonitrile-modified tetraethylenepentamine (TEPAN), and a single formulation consisting of TEPAN and N, N’-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (BED) were individually supported on a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate and examined. CO2 adsorption profiles leading to reversible CO2 adsorption capacities were obtained using thermogravimetry. Under 10% CO2 in nitrogen at 25°C and 1 atm, TEPA supported on PMMA over 60 minutes adsorbed ~3.2 mmol/g{sorbent} whereas, TEPAN supported on PMMA along with TEPAN and BED supported on PMMA adsorbed ~1.7 mmol/g{sorbent} and ~2.3 mmol/g{sorbent} respectively. Cyclic experiments with a 1:1 weight ratio of TEPAN and BED supported on poly (methyl methacrylate) beads utilizing a fixed-bed flow system with 9% CO2, 3.5% O2, nitrogen balance with trace gas constituents were studied. CO2 adsorption capacity was ~ 3 mmols CO2/g{sorbent} at 40°C and 1.4 atm. No beneficial effect on IAS performance was found using a moisture-laden flue gas mixture. Tests with 750 ppmv NO in a humidified gas stream revealed negligible NO sorption onto the IAS. A high SO2

  2. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lac, C.; Donnelly, R. P.; Masson, V.; Pal, S.; Donier, S.; Queguiner, S.; Tanguy, G.; Ammoura, L.; Xueref-Remy, I.

    2012-10-01

    Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is challenging, but essential in order to utilize CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration, during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town-Energy Balance (TEB) urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs) surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) and urban-rural contrasts. Boundary layer heights (BLH) at urban, sub-urban and rural sites are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, that are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. Only nocturnal BLH at sub-urban sites are slightly underestimated a few nights, with a bias less than 50 m. At Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) growth reaches the measurement height. The timing of the CO2 cycle is well captured by the model, with only small biases on CO2 concentrations, mainly linked to the misrepresentation of anthropogenic emissions, as the Eiffel site is at the heart of trafic emission sources. At sub-urban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a very strong spatio-temporal variability. The CO2 cycle at these sites is generally well reproduced by the model, even if some biases on the nocturnal maxima appear in the Paris plume parly due to small errors on the vertical transport, or in

  3. Flash scanning the CO2 laser: a revival of the CO2 laser in plastic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, Elliot

    1994-09-01

    The CO2 laser has broad clinical application yet also presents a number of practical disadvantages. These drawbacks have limited the success and utilization of this laser in plastic surgery. Flashscanner technology has recently been used for char-free CO2 laser surgery of the oropharynx, the external female genital tract, and perirectal mucosa. A commercially available optomechanical flashscanner unit `Swiftlase,' was adapted to a CO2 laser and used for treatment in numerous plastic surgical applications. Conditions and situations that were treated in this study included generalized neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, rhinophyma, viral warts, breast reconstruction, and deepithelialization prior to microsurgery or local flap transfer and/or skin graft placement. There were no significant wound healing complications. Some patients previously sustained undue scarring from conventional CO2 laser surgery. Conservative, primarily ablative CO2 laser surgery with the Swiftlase has usefulness for treatment of patients in plastic surgery including those that were previously unsuccessfully treated.

  4. CO2 laser used in cosmetology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chenglie

    1993-03-01

    Cases of various kinds of warts, nevi, papillomas, skin angiomas, ephilises, skin vegetation, scars and brandy noses were vaporized and solidified with a 2.5 - 8 W low power CO2 laser with an overall satisfaction rate up to 99.8% and the satisfaction rate for one time 92%.

  5. Agriculture waste and rising CO2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, there are many uncertainties concerning agriculture’s role in global environmental change including the effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. A viable and stable world food supply depends on productive agricultural systems, but environmental concerns within agriculture have to...

  6. Bosch CO2 Reduction System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. F.; King, C. D.; Keller, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    Development of a Bosch process CO2 reduction unit was continued, and, by means of hardware modifications, the performance was substantially improved. Benefits of the hardware upgrading were demonstrated by extensive unit operation and data acquisition in the laboratory. This work was accomplished on a cold seal configuration of the Bosch unit.

  7. Porous Hexacyanometalates for CO2 capture applications

    SciTech Connect

    Motkuri, Radha K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2013-07-30

    Prussian blue analogues of M3[Fe(CN)6]2 x H2O (where M=Fe, Mn and Ni) were synthesized, characterized and tested for their gas sorption capabilities. The sorption studies reveal that, these Prussian blue materials preferentially sorb CO2 over N2 and CH4 at low pressure (1bar).

  8. Blackbody-pumped CO2 laser experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, W. H.; Insuik, R. J.

    1983-07-01

    Thermal radiation from a high temperature oven was used as an optical pump to achieve lasing from CO2 mixtures. Laser output as a function of blackbody temperature and gas conditions is described. This achievement represents the first blackbody cavity pumped laser and has potential for solar pumping. Previously announced in STAR as N83-10420

  9. 76 FR 43489 - Deferral for CO2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... dioxide CO 2 e carbon dioxide equivalents EO Executive Order EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency FR... the national inventory, see 74 FR 55351, under the definition for ``carbon dioxide equivalent.'' We... Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Title V permitting requirements to biogenic carbon...

  10. Artificial photosynthesis - CO2 towards methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazimek, D.; Czech, B.

    2011-03-01

    The new insight into the problem of carbon dioxide utilization into valuable compound - methanol and then its transformation into fuel is presented. Because the highly endothermic requirements of the reaction of CO2 hydrogenation a photocatalytic route is applied. Combining of the two reactions: water splitting and CO2 hydrogenation using H2O as a source of hydrogen at the same time and place are proposed. The studies over modified TiO2 catalysts supported on Al2O3 were conducted in a self-designed circulated photocatalytic reaction system under at room temperature and constant pressure. Experimental results indicated that the highest yield of the photoreduction of CO2 with H2O were obtained using TiO2 with the active anatase phase modified by Ru and WO3 addition. The conversion was very high - almost 97% of CO2 was transformed mainly into methanol (14%vol.) and into small amount of formic and acetic acid and ester.

  11. Nuclear-pumped CO2 laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, M.

    1979-01-01

    The He-3 (n,p)T reaction was examined as an energy source for a CO2 laser. For this purpose He-3 was added to a functioning CO2 electrically excited laser. Initially the laser was run electrically with 12 torr total pressure. The gas mixture was 1:1:8, CO2:N2:He. At zero reactor power, the laser was tested in place next to the core of the Georgia Tech. Research Reactor. After verification of laser action He-3 was added to the system. The He-3 partial pressures of 10 torr, 50 torr, and 300 torr were added in three separate reactor runs. Reactor power ranged from zero to 5 million watts, which corresponds to a peak flux of 10 to the 14th power/sq cm. At reactor powers greater than 10 kW, gain of up to 30 percent was shown. However, indications are this may be due to gamma excitation rather than caused by the He-3 (n,p)T reaction. These results do agree with the data of past CO2 nuclear pumped laser experiments.

  12. Detection of CO2 leakage by the surface-soil CO2-concentration monitoring (SCM) system in a small scale CO2 release test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Gitak; Yu, Soonyoung; Sung, Ki-Sung; Choi, Byoung-Young; Park, Jinyoung; Han, Raehee; Kim, Jeong-Chan; Park, Kwon Gyu

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring of CO2 release through the ground surface is essential to testify the safety of CO2 storage projects. We conducted a feasibility study of the multi-channel surface-soil CO2-concentration monitoring (SCM) system as a soil CO2 monitoring tool with a small scale injection. In the system, chambers are attached onto the ground surface, and NDIR sensors installed in each chamber detect CO2 in soil gas released through the soil surface. Before injection, the background CO2 concentrations were measured. They showed the distinct diurnal variation, and were positively related with relative humidity, but negatively with temperature. The negative relation of CO2 measurements with temperature and the low CO2 concentrations during the day imply that CO2 depends on respiration. The daily variation of CO2 concentrations was damped with precipitation, which can be explained by dissolution of CO2 and gas release out of pores through the ground surface with recharge. For the injection test, 4.2 kg of CO2 was injected 1 m below the ground for about 30 minutes. In result, CO2 concentrations increased in all five chambers, which were located less than 2.5 m of distance from an injection point. The Chamber 1, which is closest to the injection point, showed the largest increase of CO2 concentrations; while Chamber 2, 3, and 4 showed the peak which is 2 times higher than the average of background CO2. The CO2 concentrations increased back after decreasing from the peak around 4 hours after the injection ended in Chamber 2, 4, and 5, which indicated that CO2 concentrations seem to be recovered to the background around 4 hours after the injection ended. To determine the leakage, the data in Chamber 2 and 5, which had low increase rates in the CO2 injection test, were used for statistical analysis. The result shows that the coefficient of variation (CV) of CO2 measurements for 30 minutes is efficient to determine a leakage signal, with reflecting the abnormal change in CO2

  13. Isolation of microorganisms from CO2 sequestration sites through enrichments under high pCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peet, K. C.; Freedman, A. J.; Boreham, C.; Thompson, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in geologic formations has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel processing and combustion. However, little is known about the effects that CO2 may have on biological activity in deep earth environments. To understand microorganisms associated with these environments, we have developed a simple high-pressure enrichment methodology to cultivate organisms capable of growth under supercritical CO2 (scCO2). Growth media targeting different subsurface functional metabolic groups is added to sterilized 316 stainless steel tubing sealed with quarter turn plug valves values and pressurized to 120-136 atm using a helium-padded CO2 tank, followed by incubation at 37 °C to achieve the scCO2 state. Repeated passages of crushed subsurface rock samples and growth media under supercritical CO2 headspaces are assessed for growth via microscopic enumeration. We have utilized this method to survey sandstone cores for microbes capable of growth under scCO2 from two different geologic sites targeted for carbon sequestration activities. Reproducible growth of microbial biomass under high pCO2 has been sustained from each site. Cell morphologies consist of primarily 1-2 μm rods and oval spores, with densities from 1E5-1E7 cells per ml of culture. We have purified and characterized a bacterial strain most closely related to Bacillus subterraneus (99% 16S rRNA identity) capable of growth under scCO2. Preliminary physiological characterization of this strain indicates it is a spore-forming facultative anaerobe able to grow in 0.5 to 50 ppt salinity. Genome sequencing and analysis currently in progress will help reveal genetic mechanisms of acclimation to high pCO2 conditions associated with geologic carbon sequestration.

  14. Sustained effects of atmospheric [CO2] and nitrogen availability on forest soil CO2 efflux.

    PubMed

    Oishi, A Christopher; Palmroth, Sari; Johnsen, Kurt H; McCarthy, Heather R; Oren, Ram

    2014-04-01

    Soil CO2 efflux (Fsoil ) is the largest source of carbon from forests and reflects primary productivity as well as how carbon is allocated within forest ecosystems. Through early stages of stand development, both elevated [CO2] and availability of soil nitrogen (N; sum of mineralization, deposition, and fixation) have been shown to increase gross primary productivity, but the long-term effects of these factors on Fsoil are less clear. Expanding on previous studies at the Duke Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site, we quantified the effects of elevated [CO2] and N fertilization on Fsoil using daily measurements from automated chambers over 10 years. Consistent with previous results, compared to ambient unfertilized plots, annual Fsoil increased under elevated [CO2] (ca. 17%) and decreased with N (ca. 21%). N fertilization under elevated [CO2] reduced Fsoil to values similar to untreated plots. Over the study period, base respiration rates increased with leaf productivity, but declined after productivity saturated. Despite treatment-induced differences in aboveground biomass, soil temperature and water content were similar among treatments. Interannually, low soil water content decreased annual Fsoil from potential values - estimated based on temperature alone assuming nonlimiting soil water content - by ca. 0.7% per 1.0% reduction in relative extractable water. This effect was only slightly ameliorated by elevated [CO2]. Variability in soil N availability among plots accounted for the spatial variability in Fsoil , showing a decrease of ca. 114 g C m(-2) yr(-1) per 1 g m(-2) increase in soil N availability, with consistently higher Fsoil in elevated [CO2] plots ca. 127 g C per 100 ppm [CO2] over the +200 ppm enrichment. Altogether, reflecting increased belowground carbon partitioning in response to greater plant nutritional needs, the effects of elevated [CO2] and N fertilization on Fsoil in this stand are sustained beyond the early stages of stand development and

  15. The Role of the CO2 Laser and Fractional CO2 Laser in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Omi, Tokuya; Numano, Kayoko

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tremendous advances have been made in the medical application of the laser in the past few decades. Many diseases in the dermatological field are now indications for laser treatment that qualify for reimbursement by many national health insurance systems. Among laser types, the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser remains an important system for the dermatologist. Rationale: The lasers used in photosurgery have wavelengths that differ according to their intended use and are of various types, but the CO2 laser is one of the most widely used lasers in the dermatology field. With its wavelength in the mid-infrared at 10,600 nm, CO2 laser energy is wellabsorbed in water. As skin contains a very high water percentage, this makes the CO2 laser ideal for precise, safe ablation with good hemostasis. In addition to its efficacy in ablating benign raised lesions, the CO2 laser has been reported to be effective in the field of esthetic dermatology in the revision of acne scars as well as in photorejuvenation. With the addition of fractionation of the beam of energy into myriad microbeams, the fractional CO2 laser has offered a bridge between the frankly full ablative indications and the nonablative skin rejuvenation systems of the 2000s in the rejuvenation of photoaged skin on and off the face. Conclusions: The CO2 laser remains an efficient, precise and safe system for the dermatologist. Technological advances in CO2 laser construction have meant smaller spot sizes and greater precision for laser surgery, and more flexibility in tip sizes and protocols for fractional CO2 laser treatment. The range of dermatological applications of the CO2 laser is expected to continue to increase in the future. PMID:24771971

  16. Vadose Zone Remediation of CO2 Leakage from Geologic CO2 Storage Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Benson, Sally M.

    2004-03-03

    In the unlikely event that CO2 leakage from deep geologic CO2 sequestration sites reaches the vadose zone, remediation measures for removing the CO2 gas plume may have to be undertaken. Carbon dioxide leakage plumes are similar in many ways to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapor plumes, and the same remediation approaches are applicable. We present here numerical simulation results of passive and active remediation strategies for CO2 leakage plumes in the vadose zone. The starting time for the remediation scenarios is assumed to be after a steady-state CO2 leakage plume is established in the vadose zone, and the source of this plume has been cut off. We consider first passive remediation, both with and without barometric pumping. Next, we consider active methods involving extraction wells in both vertical and horizontal configurations. To compare the effectiveness of the various remediation strategies, we define a half-life of the CO2 plume as a convenient measure of the CO2 removal rate. For CO2 removal by passive remediation approaches such as barometric pumping, thicker vadose zones generally require longer remediation times. However, for the case of a thin vadose zone where a significant fraction of the CO2 plume mass resides within the high liquid saturation region near the water table, the half-life of the CO2 plume without barometric pumping is longer than for somewhat thicker vadose zones. As for active strategies, results show that a combination of horizontal and vertical wells is the most effective among the strategies investigated, as the performance of commonly used multiple vertical wells was not investigated.

  17. Modelling the Martian CO2 Ice Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Listowski, Constantino; Määttänen, A.; Montmessin, F.; Lefèvre, F.

    2012-10-01

    Martian CO2 ice cloud formation represents a rare phenomenon in the Solar System: the condensation of the main component of the atmosphere. Moreover, on Mars, condensation occurs in a rarefied atmosphere (large Knudsen numbers, Kn) that limits the growth efficiency. These clouds form in the polar winter troposphere and in the mesosphere near the equator. CO2 ice cloud modeling has turned out to be challenging: recent efforts (e.g. [1]) fail in explaining typical small sizes (80 nm-130 nm) observed for mesospheric clouds [2]. Supercold pockets (T<< Tcond), which appear to be common in the mesosphere [3],might be exclusively responsible of the formation of such clouds, as a consequence of gravity waves propagating throughout the atmosphere [4]. In order to understand by modeling the effect CO2 clouds could have on the Martian climate, one needs to properly predict the crystal sizes, and so the growth rates involved. We will show that Earth microphysical crystal growth models, which deal with the condensation of trace gases, are misleading when transposed for CO2 cloud formation: they overestimate the growth rates at high saturation ratios. On the other hand, an approach based on the continuum regime (small Kn), corrected to account for the free molecular regime (high Kn) remains efficient. We present our new approach for modelling the growth of Martian CO2 cloud crystals, investigated with a 1D-microphysical model. [1] Colaprete, A., et al., (2008) PSS, 56, 150C [2] Montmessin, F., et al., (2006) Icarus, 183, 403-410 [3] Montmessin at al., (2011) mamo, 404-405 [4] Spiga, A., et al., (2012), GRL, 39, L02201 [5] Wood, S. E., (1999), Ph.D. thesis, UCLA [6] Young, J. B., J. Geophys. Res., 36, 294-2956, 1993

  18. CO2 Orbital Trends in Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Michael; Feaga, Lori; Bodewits, Dennis; McKay, Adam; Snodgrass, Colin; Wooden, Diane

    2014-12-01

    Spacecraft missions to comets return a treasure trove of details of their targets, e.g., the Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the Deep Impact experiment at comet 9P/Tempel 1, or even the flyby of C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) at Mars. Yet, missions are rare, the diversity of comets is large, few comets are easily accessible, and comet flybys essentially return snapshots of their target nuclei. Thus, telescopic observations are necessary to place the mission data within the context of each comet's long-term behavior, and to further connect mission results to the comet population as a whole. We propose a large Cycle 11 project to study the long-term activity of past and potential future mission targets, and select bright Oort cloud comets to infer comet nucleus properties, which would otherwise require flyby missions. In the classical comet model, cometary mass loss is driven by the sublimation of water ice. However, recent discoveries suggest that the more volatile CO and CO2 ices are the likely drivers of some comet active regions. Surprisingly, CO2 drove most of the activity of comet Hartley 2 at only 1 AU from the Sun where vigorous water ice sublimation would be expected to dominate. Currently, little is known about the role of CO2 in comet activity because telluric absorptions prohibit monitoring from the ground. In our Cycle 11 project, we will study the CO2 activity of our targets through IRAC photometry. In conjunction with prior observations of CO2 and CO, as well as future data sets (JWST) and ongoing Earth-based projects led by members of our team, we will investigate both long-term activity trends in our target comets, with a particular goal to ascertain the connections between each comet's coma and nucleus.

  19. CO2 monitoring at the pilot-scale CO2 injection site in Nagaoka, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanase, D.; Xue, Z.; Watanabe, J.; Saito, H.

    2005-12-01

    A pilot-scale CO2 sequestration project supported by the Japanese Government (METI) has been conducted by Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) in co-operation with Engineering Advancement Association of Japan (ENAA). The test site is located at the South Nagaoka gas field operated by Teikoku Oil Co., Ltd. in Nagaoka city, Niigata Prefecture, 200 km north of Tokyo. The targeted layer for the CO2 injection is a thin permeable zone intercalated in a 60 m thick sandstone bed of early Pleistocene age, which lies about 1,100 m below the ground surface. One injection well (IW-1) and three observation wells (OB-2, -3, -4) were drilled at the site. The CO2 injection started on 7 July 2003 and ended on 11 January 2005 with the total injected amount of 10,400 tonnes within eighteen months. Purchased CO2 of 99.9 % pure was injected in the supercritical state at the rate of 20-40 tonnes per day. A series of time-lapse CO2 monitoring consisted of geophysical well logging and cross-well seismic tomography has been performed at the injection site and the results provide valuable insight into the CO2 movement in the sandstone reservoir. Time-lapse well loggings of induction, gamma ray, neutron and sonic were performed almost once a month to monitor CO2 breakthrough at the three observation wells. On 10 March 2004, a breakthrough was first detected at OB-2, 40 m apart from the injection well, after the cumulative injection of 4,000 tonnes. As an evidence of CO2 breakthrough changes appeared in results of sonic, induction and neutron logs. The sonic P-wave velocity decreased significantly up to 23% after the breakthrough, and then results of sonic logging showed the CO2-bearing zone getting wider during the injection of CO2. Differences appeared also in widths of CO2-bearing zone of induction and neutron logs. On 16 July 2004, another breakthrough of CO2 was detected at OB-4 of 60 m away from the injection well as changes in sonic and neutron logs. No sign

  20. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lac, C.; Donnelly, R. P.; Masson, V.; Pal, S.; Riette, S.; Donier, S.; Queguiner, S.; Tanguy, G.; Ammoura, L.; Xueref-Remy, I.

    2013-05-01

    Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is a challenging and interesting task needed to be performed in order to utilise CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework and to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town Energy Balance (TEB) urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs) surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 modelling between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the urban heat island (UHI) with stronger urban-rural contrasts on temperature at night than during the day by up to 7 °C. Boundary layer heights (BLH) have been evaluated on urban, suburban and rural sites during the campaign, and also on a suburban site over 1 yr. The diurnal cycles of the BLH are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, which are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. The main discrepancy is a small negative bias over urban and suburban sites during nighttime (respectively 45 m and 5 m), leading to a few overestimations of nocturnal CO2 mixing ratios at suburban sites and a bias of +5 ppm. The diurnal CO2 cycle is generally well captured for all the sites. At the Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) growth reaches the measurement height. At suburban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a strong spatio-temporal variability. A sensitivity test without

  1. Range Resolved CO2 Atmospheric Backscattering Measurements Using Fiber Lasers and RZPN Code Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burris, J.; Sun, X.

    2011-12-01

    We report the use of a return-to- zero (RZPN) pseudo noise modulation technique for making range resolved measurements of CO2 within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) using commercial, off-the-shelf, components. Conventional, range resolved, DIAL measurements require laser pulse widths that are significantly shorter than the desired spatial resolution and necessitate using pulses whose temporal spacing is such that scattered returns from only a single pulse are observed by the receiver at any one time (for the PBL pulse separations must be >~20 microseconds). This imposes significant operational limitations when using currently available fiber lasers because of the resulting low duty cycle (<~0.0005) and consequent low average laser output power. The RZPN modulation technique enables a fiber laser to operate at much higher duty cycles (approaching 0.04) thereby more effectively utilizing the amplifier's output. This increases the counts received by approximately two orders of magnitude. Our approach involves employing two distributed feedback lasers (DFB), each modulated by a different RPZN code, whose outputs are then amplified by a CW fiber amplifier. One laser is tuned to a CO2 absorption line; the other operates offline thereby permitting the simultaneous acquisition of both on and offline signals using independent RZPN codes. This minimizes the impact of atmospheric turbulence on the measurement. The on and offline signals are retrieved by deconvolving the return signal using the appropriate kernels. An assessment of the technique, discussions of measurement precision and error sources as well as preliminary data will be presented.

  2. Range Resolved CO2 Atmospheric Backscattering Measurements Using Fiber Lasers and RZPN Code Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burris, John

    2011-01-01

    We report the use of a return-to- zero (RZPN) pseudo noise modulation technique for making range resolved measurements of CO2 within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) using commercial, off-the-shelf, components. Conventional, range resolved, DIAL measurements require laser pulse widths that are significantly shorter than the desired spatial resolution and necessitate using pulses whose temporal spacing is such that scattered returns from only a single pulse are observed by the receiver at any one time (for the PBL pulse separations must be greater than approximately 20 microseconds). This imposes significant operational limitations when using currently available fiber lasers because of the resulting low duty cycle (less than approximately 0.0005) and consequent low average laser output power. The RZPN modulation technique enables a fiber laser to operate at much higher duty cycles (approaching 0.04) thereby more effectively utilizing the amplifier's output. This increases the counts received by approximately two orders of magnitude. Our approach involves employing two distributed feedback lasers (DFB), each modulated by a different RPZN code, whose outputs are then amplified by a CW fiber amplifier. One laser is tuned to a CO2 absorption line; the other operates offline thereby permitting the simultaneous acquisition of both on and offline signals using independent RZPN codes. This minimizes the impact of atmospheric turbulence on the measurement. The on and offline signals are retrieved by deconvolving the return signal using the appropriate kernels.

  3. Molecular Behavior CO2 and CO2-H2O Mixtures at Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, D. R.; Chialvo, A.; Rother, G.; Vlcek, L.

    2010-12-01

    Injection of CO2 into subsurface geologic formations has been identified as a key strategy for mitigating the impact of anthropogenic emissions of CO2. Regardless of the formation type, the CO2 will encounter a complex heterogeneous porous matrix with widely varying pore size and pore distribution, interconnectivity, and surface composition. A small but non-trivial percentage of the pore space is comprised of voids that range from 100 nm down to a few nm in size. These nanoporous environments are more dominant in the cap or seal rocks, such as shale or clay-rich mudstones that act as confining barriers to leakage of CO2 out of the storage reservoir. A concern is the prevention of leakage from the host formation by an effective cap or seal rock which has low porosity and permeability characteristics. Shales comprise the majority of cap rocks encountered in subsurface injection sites with pore sizes typically less than 100 nm and whose surface chemistries are dominated by quartz (SiO2) and clays. We investigated the behavior of pure CO2 and CO2-H2O mixtures interacting with simple substrates, e.g. SiO2 and muscovite, that act as proxies for more complex mineralogical systems. SANS results were described for sorption properties of supercritical CO2 inside mesoporous silica aerogel (95% porosity; 5-40 nm pores), a proxy for the quartz sub-system. The Adsorbed Phase Model (APM) allows, for the first time, a means to quantify the physical properties (e.g. excess, absolute and total adsorption) of the adsorbed phase formed by fluids inside porous media in terms of the mean density and volume of the sorption phase. The results show clear evidence for fluid depletion for conditions above the critical density. Classical molecular dynamics (CMD) modeling of CO2-silica aerogel interactions also indicates the presence of fluid depletion for conditions above the critical density consistent with SANS results. CMD was also used to assess the microscopic behavior of CO2-H2O mixture

  4. Root-derived CO2 efflux via xylem stream rivals soil CO2 efflux.

    SciTech Connect

    Aubrey, Doug, P.; Teskey, Robert, O.

    2009-07-01

    • Respiration consumes a large portion of annual gross primary productivity in forest ecosystems and is dominated by belowground metabolism. Here, we present evidence of a previously unaccounted for internal CO2 flux of large magnitude from tree roots through stems. If this pattern is shown to persist over time and in other forests, it suggests that belowground respiration has been grossly underestimated. • Using an experimental Populus deltoides plantation as a model system, we tested the hypothesis that a substantial portion of the CO2 released from belowground autotrophic respiration remains within tree root systems and is transported aboveground through the xylem stream rather than diffusing into the soil atmosphere. • On a daily basis, the amount of CO2 that moved upward from the root system into the stem via the xylem stream (0.26 mol CO2 m-2 d-1) rivalled that which diffused from the soil surface to the atmosphere (0.27 mol CO2 m-2 d-1). We estimated that twice the amount of CO2 derived from belowground autotrophic respiration entered the xylem stream as diffused into the soil environment. • Our observations indicate that belowground autotrophic respiration consumes substantially more carbohydrates than previously recognized and challenge the paradigm that all root-respired CO2 diffuses into the soil atmosphere.

  5. CO2-helium and CO2-neon mixtures at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Mallick, B; Ninet, S; Le Marchand, G; Munsch, P; Datchi, F

    2013-01-28

    The properties of mixtures of carbon dioxide with helium or neon have been investigated as a function of CO(2) concentration and pressure up to 30 GPa at room temperature. The binary phase diagrams of these mixtures are determined over the full range of CO(2) concentrations using visual observations and Raman scattering measurements. Both diagrams are of eutectic type, with a fluid-fluid miscibility gap for CO(2) concentrations in the range [5, 75] mol. % for He and [8, 55] mol. % for Ne, and a complete separation between the two components in the solid phase. The absence of alloys or stoichiometric compounds for these two binary systems is consistent with the Hume-Rothery rules of hard sphere mixtures. The Raman spectra and x-ray diffraction patterns of solid CO(2) embedded in He or Ne for various initial concentrations have been measured up to 30 GPa and 12 GPa, respectively. The frequencies of the Raman modes and the volume of solid phase I are identical, within error bars, to those reported for 100% CO(2) samples, thus confirming the total immiscibility of CO(2) with He and Ne in the solid phase. These results demonstrate the possibility to perform high-pressure experiments on solid CO(2) under (quasi-)hydrostatic conditions using He or Ne as pressure transmitting medium. PMID:23387603

  6. Photosynthetic CO2 uptake in seedlings of two tropical tree species exposed to oscillating elevated concentrations of CO2.

    PubMed

    Holtum, Joseph A M; Winter, Klaus

    2003-11-01

    Do short-term fluctuations in CO2 concentrations at elevated CO2 levels affect net CO2 uptake rates of plants? When exposed to 600 microl CO2 l(-1), net CO2 uptake rates in shoots or leaves of seedlings of two tropical C3 tree species, teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) and barrigon [Pseudobombax septenatum (Jacq.) Dug.], increased by 28 and 52% respectively. In the presence of oscillations with half-cycles of 20 s, amplitude of ca. 170 microl CO2 l(-1) and mean of 600 microl CO2 l(-1), the stimulation in net CO2 uptake by the two species was reduced to 19 and 36%, respectively, i.e. the CO2 stimulation in photosynthesis associated with a change in exposure from 370 to 600 microl CO2 l(-1) was reduced by a third in both species. Similar reductions in CO2-stimulated net CO2 uptake were observed in T. grandis exposed to 40-s oscillations. Rates of CO2 efflux in the dark by whole shoots of T. grandis decreased by 4.8% upon exposure of plants grown at 370 microl CO2 l(-1) to 600 microl CO2 l(-1). The potential implications of the observations on CO2 oscillations and dark respiration are discussed in the context of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) systems in which short-term fluctuations of CO2 concentration are a common feature. PMID:12905026

  7. Geochemical Interaction of Middle Bakken Reservoir Rock and CO2 during CO2-Based Fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicot, J. P.; Lu, J.; Mickler, P. J.; Ribeiro, L. H.; Darvari, R.

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of geochemical interactions when CO2 is used to create the fractures necessary to produce hydrocarbons from low-permeability Middle Bakken sandstone. The primary objectives are to: (1) identify and understand the geochemical reactions related to CO2-based fracturing, and (2) assess potential changes of reservoir property. Three autoclave experiments were conducted at reservoir conditions exposing middle Bakken core fragments to supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) only and to CO2-saturated synthetic brine. Ion-milled core samples were examined before and after the reaction experiments using scanning electron microscope, which enabled us to image the reaction surface in extreme details and unambiguously identify mineral dissolution and precipitation. The most significant changes in the reacted rock samples exposed to the CO2-saturated brine is dissolution of the carbonate minerals, particularly calcite which displays severely corrosion. Dolomite grains were corroded to a lesser degree. Quartz and feldspars remained intact and some pyrite framboids underwent slight dissolution. Additionally, small amount of calcite precipitation took place as indicated by numerous small calcite crystals formed at the reaction surface and in the pores. The aqueous solution composition changes confirm these petrographic observations with increase in Ca and Mg and associated minor elements and very slight increase in Fe and sulfate. When exposed to sc-CO2 only, changes observed include etching of calcite grain surface and precipitation of salt crystals (halite and anhydrite) due to evaporation of residual pore water into the sc-CO2 phase. Dolomite and feldspars remained intact and pyrite grains were slightly altered. Mercury intrusion capillary pressure tests on reacted and unreacted samples shows an increase in porosity when an aqueous phase is present but no overall porosity change caused by sc-CO2. It also suggests an increase in permeability

  8. The Relationship Between CO2 Levels and CO2 Related Symptoms Reported on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanBaalen, M.; Law, J.; Foy, M.; Wear, M. L.; Mason, S.; Mendez, C.; Meyers, V.

    2014-01-01

    Medical Operations, Toxicology, and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health collaborated to assess the association of CO2 levels on board the International Space Station and USOS crew reported symptoms inflight, i.e. headache and vision changes. Private Medical Conference (PMC) documents and the weekly Space Medicine Operations Team (SMOT) Notes were used to provide a robust data set of inflight medical events. All events and non-events were documented independent of CO2 levels and other potential contributors. Average (arithmetic mean) and single point maximum ppCO2 was calculated for the 24 hours and 7 days prior to the PMC or SMOT date and time provided by LSAH. Observations falling within the first 7 days of flight (147) were removed from the datasets analyzed to avoid confounding with Space Adaptation Syndrome. The final analysis was based on 1716 observations. For headache, 46 headaches were observed. CO2 level, age at launch, time inflight, and data source were all significantly associated with headache. In particular, for each 1 mmHg increase in CO2, the odds of a crewmember reporting a headache doubled. For vision changes, 29 reports of vision changes were observed. These observations were not found to be statistically associated with CO2 levels as analyzed. While the incidence of headache has was not high (3%), headaches may be an indicator of underlying increases in intracranial pressure, which may result likely from the synergy between CO2-induced cerebral vasodilatation and decreased venous drainage in microgravity. Vision changes were inconsistently reported and as a result did not align appropriately with the CO2 levels. Further analysis is needed. Our results support ongoing efforts to lower the CO2 exposure limits in spacecraft.

  9. Signal to Noise Ratio Analysis of the Data from the Pulsed Airborne CO2 Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X.; Abshire, J. B.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.

    2009-12-01

    We are developing a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for measuring the CO2 column concentrations from space for the ASCENDS mission. Our technique uses two pulsed laser transmitters to simultaneously measure the total column absorption by CO2 in 1570 nm band and O2 extinction in the Oxygen A-band by periodically stepping the laser wavelength at predetermined wavelengths across the absorption lines. The reflected laser signals from the surface and clouds are collected by the receiver telescope and detected by a set of single photon counting detectors. We used pulsed lasers and time resolved photon detection to distinguish the surface echoes from cloud and aerosol backscattering and to measure the column height. . The total column absorption at a given wavelength is determined from the ratio of the received laser pulse energy to the transmitted energy. The column gas concentrations and the spectral line shape are determined from curve fitting of the column absorptions as a function of the wavelength. We have built an airborne lidar to demonstrate the CO2 column measurement technique from the NASA Lear-25 aircraft. The airborne lidar scans the laser wavelength across the CO2 absorption line in 20 steps. The line scan rate is 450 Hz, the laser pulse energy is 25 uJ, and laser pulse widths are 1 usec. The backscatter photons are collected by a 20 cm telescope and detected by a near infrared photomultiplier tube. The detected photons are binned according to their arrival times with the use of a multichannel scaler. Several airborne measurements were conducted during October and December 2008, and August 2009 with many hours of CO2 column measurement data at the 1571.4, 1572.02 and 1572.33 nm CO2 absorption lines. The measurements were made over a variety of land and water surfaces and some through thin clouds. We also made several improvements to the instrument for the later flights. Measurements from early flights showed the receiver signal and noise levels were

  10. CO2 mineralization-bridge between storage and utilization of CO2.

    PubMed

    Geerlings, Hans; Zevenhoven, Ron

    2013-01-01

    CO2 mineralization comprises a chemical reaction between suitable minerals and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. The CO2 is effectively sequestered as a carbonate, which is stable on geological timescales. In addition, the variety of materials that can be produced through mineralization could find applications in the marketplace, which makes implementation of the technology more attractive. In this article, we review recent developments and assess the current status of the CO2 mineralization field. In an outlook, we briefly describe a few mineralization routes, which upon further development have the potential to be implemented on a large scale. PMID:23452171

  11. Effects of CO2 on stomatal conductance: do stomata open at very high CO2 concentrations?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Yorio, N. C.; Sager, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    Potato and wheat plants were grown for 50 d at 400, 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 carbon dioxide (CO2). and sweetpotato and soybean were grown at 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2 in controlled environment chambers to study stomatal conductance and plant water use. Lighting was provided with fluorescent lamps as a 12 h photoperiod with 300 micromoles m-2 s-1 PAR. Mid-day stomatal conductances for potato were greatest at 400 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 and least at 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Mid-day conductances for wheat were greatest at 400 micromoles mol-1 and least at 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Mid-dark period conductances for potato were significantly greater at 10000 micromoles mol-1 than at 400 or 1000 micromoles mol-1, whereas dark conductance for wheat was similar in all CO2 treatments. Temporarily changing the CO2 concentration from the native 1000 micromoles mol-1 to 400 micromoles mol-1 increased mid-day conductance for all species, while temporarily changing from 1000 to 10000 micromoles mol-1 also increased conductance for potato and sweetpotato. Temporarily changing the dark period CO2 from 1000 to 10000 micromoles mol-1 increased conductance for potato, soybean and sweetpotato. In all cases, the stomatal responses were reversible, i.e. conductances returned to original rates following temporary changes in CO2 concentration. Canopy water use for potato was greatest at 10000, intermediate at 400, and least at 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2, whereas canopy water use for wheat was greatest at 400 and similar at 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Elevated CO2 treatments (i.e. 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1) resulted in increased plant biomass for both wheat and potato relative to 400 micromoles mol-1, and no injurious effects were apparent from the 10000 micromoles mol-1 treatment. Results indicate that super-elevated CO2 (i.e. 10000 micromoles mol-1) can increase stomatal conductance in some species, particularly during the dark period, resulting in

  12. Global CO2 rise leads to reduced maximum stomatal conductance in Florida vegetation.

    PubMed

    Lammertsma, Emmy I; de Boer, Hugo Jan; Dekker, Stefan C; Dilcher, David L; Lotter, André F; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike

    2011-03-01

    A principle response of C3 plants to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO(2) (CO(2)) is to reduce transpirational water loss by decreasing stomatal conductance (g(s)) and simultaneously increase assimilation rates. Via this adaptation, vegetation has the ability to alter hydrology and climate. Therefore, it is important to determine the adaptation of vegetation to the expected anthropogenic rise in CO(2). Short-term stomatal opening-closing responses of vegetation to increasing CO(2) are described by free-air carbon enrichments growth experiments, and evolutionary adaptations are known from the geological record. However, to date the effects of decadal to centennial CO(2) perturbations on stomatal conductance are still largely unknown. Here we reconstruct a 34% (±12%) reduction in maximum stomatal conductance (g(smax)) per 100 ppm CO(2) increase as a result of the adaptation in stomatal density (D) and pore size at maximal stomatal opening (a(max)) of nine common species from Florida over the past 150 y. The species-specific g(smax) values are determined by different evolutionary development, whereby the angiosperms sampled generally have numerous small stomata and high g(smax), and the conifers and fern have few large stomata and lower g(smax). Although angiosperms and conifers use different D and a(max) adaptation strategies, our data show a coherent response in g(smax) to CO(2) rise of the past century. Understanding these adaptations of C3 plants to rising CO(2) after decadal to centennial environmental changes is essential for quantification of plant physiological forcing at timescales relevant for global warming, and they are likely to continue until the limits of their phenotypic plasticity are reached. PMID:21330552

  13. CO2 permeability of fractured cap rocks - experiments and numerical simulations (CO2Seals)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (Draeger), Ines Rick; Clauser, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    In CO2 sequestration and underground gas storage the sealing capacity of a cap rock is of paramount importance. The main question is therefore how the leakage of CO2 through fissures and faults within the cap rock may affect the CO2 sealing efficiency of low-permeable seal lithotypes. In many cases, these structures provide the main pathways for leakage of CO2. Here, we provide an overview of one part of the joint research project CO2Seals, which deals with the effect of structural features - such as tectonic faults and fissures in the overburden - on the migration of CO2 in addition to mineralogical, petrophysical, and geochemical properties of different lithotypes. The primary contribution of the entire project consists of an improvement of the present quantitative understanding of CO2 transport and retention processes and associated interactions in cap rocks between rock and CO2 or brine. To this end, we are adapting different numerical tools for simulating the relevant petrophysical and geochemical processes of CO2 in cap rocks, in close operation with: (1) large-scale CO2-percolation experiments on fractured cap rock samples; (2) permeability, gas breakthrough, and diffusion experiments; (3) measurements of the mechanical stability of cap rocks and the geochemical alterations of fault zone rock. The observed resulting changes in petrophysical properties, such as porosity, relative rock permeability (CO2 and brine), and fault permeability provide basics for the following numerical simulations. For example, first permeability tests of a marl and clay cap rock out of Cretaceous and Jurassic formations revealed gas permeability of 10-18 m2 down to 10-22 m2. In addition, first percolation experiments indicated that the influence of fault zones on the measured CO2 permeability of clays is very low. Furthermore, numerical bench-scale models are performed to provide confidence for the subsequent transfer to reservoir systems. Large-scale numerical models were created

  14. Airborne & Ground-based measurements of atmospheric CO2 using the 1.57-μm laser absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaizawa, D.; Kawakami, S.; Nakajima, M.; Tanaka, T.; Miyamoto, Y.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.; Asai, K.

    2009-12-01

    Greenhouse gases observing satellite (GOSAT) started the measurement of global CO2 abundances to reveal its continental inventory using two passive remote sensors. The goal that the sensor needs to be done is to achieve an 1% relative accuracy in order to reduce uncertainties of CO2 budget. Nevertheless, in the future global CO2 monitoring, more accurate measurement of global tropospheric CO2 abundances with the monthly regional scale are required to improve the knowledge of CO2 exchanges among the land, ocean, and atmosphere. In order to fulfill demands, a laser remote sensor, such as DIAL or laser absorption spectrometer (LAS), is a potential candidate of future space-based missions. Nowadays, those technologies are required to demonstrate an accuracy of the few-ppm level through airborne & ground-based measurements. We developed the prototype of the 1.57um LAS for a step of the next missions and perform it at the ground-based and airborne platform to show the properly validated performance in the framework of GOSAT validation. Our CO2 LAS is consisted of all optical fiber circuits & compact receiving /transmitting optics to achieve the portable, flexible and rigid system. The optical sources of on- and off-line are distributed feedback lasers, which are tuned at the strong and weak position of the R12 line in the (30012<-00001) absorption band. Their fiber coupled outputs are sinusoidal amplitude modulated by each EO devices with kHz rate and combined and amplified using an erbium doped fiber amplifier. Scattered signals from the hard target are collected by the 11cm receiving telescope and detected and stored into the laptop computer. After that, we evaluated the atmospheric CO2 density using the meteorological parameters and ratio between the on- and off-line signals. The resultant of the ground-based measurement of 3km optical length indicated that the statistical error of the path averaged atmospheric CO2 density is less than 2.8ppm with 25 minutes averaging

  15. Innovative Energy Strategies for CO2 Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Robert G.

    2002-08-01

    Many of the world's climate scientists believe that the build-up of heat-trapping CO2 in the atmosphere will lead to global warming unless we burn less fossil fuels. At the same time, energy must be supplied in increasing amounts for the developing world to continue its growth. This work discusses the feasibility of increasingly efficient energy use and the potential for supplying energy from sources that do not introduce CO2. The book analyzes the prospects for Earth-based renewables: solar, wind, biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal and ocean energy. It then discusses nuclear fission and fusion, and the relatively new idea of harvesting solar energy on satellites or lunar bases. It will be essential reading for all those interested in energy issues.

  16. Effects of contaminants in CO2 lasers.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, N. S.

    1973-01-01

    A theoretical model which includes the effects of contaminants is developed for the high flow electric discharge CO2-N2-He laser. The model couples the excitation and relaxation processes, CO2 dissociation, and negative ion formation with the flow processes. An analysis of the effects of CO, O2, NO, and N2O impurities on the average small signal gain is presented. CO decreases the gain by collisional depopulation of the upper laser level, and O2, NO, and N2O reduce the gain by decreasing the electron density by forming stable negative ions. In particular, N2O exhibits a strong quenching effect because of its large dissociation cross section for the formation of O(-).

  17. Ultraviolet photoionization in CO2 TEA lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, S. J.; Smith, A. L. S.

    1988-07-01

    The effects of gas composition and spark parameters on the UV emission in CO2 TEA laser gas mixtures were investigated together with the nature of photoionization process and the photoelectron-loss mechanism. A linear relationship was found between N2 concentration and photoionization (with no such dependence on C concentration, from CO and CO2), but the increases in photoionization that could be effected by optimizing the spark discharge circuit parameters were much higher than those produced by changes in gas composition. UV emission was directly proportional to the amount of stored electrical energy in the spark-discharge circuit and to the cube of the peak current produced in the spark by the discharge of this energy. Photoionization was also found to be proportional to the spark electrode gap. It was found that free-space sparks gave a considerably broader emission pattern than a surface-guided notched spark.

  18. CO2 Impacts on the Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Michael; Bauer, James; Bodewits, Dennis; Farnham, Tony; Stevenson, Rachel; Yelle, Roger

    2014-09-01

    The dynamically new comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will pass Mars at the extremely close distance of 140,000 km on 2014 Oct 19. This encounter is unique---a record close approach to a planet with spacecraft that can observe its passage---and currently, all 5 Mars orbiters have plans to observe the comet and/or its effects on the planet. Gas from the comet's coma is expected to collide with the Martian atmosphere, altering the abundances of some species and producing significant heating, inflating the upper atmosphere. We propose DDT observations with Spitzer/IRAC to measure the comet's CO2+CO coma (observing window Oct 30 - Nov 20), to use these measurements to derive the coma's CO2 density at Mars during the closest approach, and to aid the interpretation of any observed effects or changes in the Martian atmosphere.

  19. Increasing CO2 threatens human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Myers, Samuel S; Zanobetti, Antonella; Kloog, Itai; Huybers, Peter; Leakey, Andrew D B; Bloom, Arnold J; Carlisle, Eli; Dietterich, Lee H; Fitzgerald, Glenn; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Holbrook, N Michele; Nelson, Randall L; Ottman, Michael J; Raboy, Victor; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Sartor, Karla A; Schwartz, Joel; Seneweera, Saman; Tausz, Michael; Usui, Yasuhiro

    2014-06-01

    Dietary deficiencies of zinc and iron are a substantial global public health problem. An estimated two billion people suffer these deficiencies, causing a loss of 63 million life-years annually. Most of these people depend on C3 grains and legumes as their primary dietary source of zinc and iron. Here we report that C3 grains and legumes have lower concentrations of zinc and iron when grown under field conditions at the elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration predicted for the middle of this century. C3 crops other than legumes also have lower concentrations of protein, whereas C4 crops seem to be less affected. Differences between cultivars of a single crop suggest that breeding for decreased sensitivity to atmospheric CO2 concentration could partly address these new challenges to global health. PMID:24805231

  20. Development of a Coherent Lidar for Aiding Precision Soft Landing on Planetary Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierrottet, Diego; Tolson, Robert H.; Powell, Richard W.; Davidson, John B.; Peri, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Coherent lidar can play a critical role in future planetary exploration missions by providing key guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) data necessary for navigating planetary landers to the pre-selected site and achieving autonomous safe soft-landing. Although the landing accuracy has steadily improved over time to approximately 35 km for the recent Mars Exploration Rovers due to better approach navigation, a drastically different guidance, navigation and control concept is required to meet future mission requirements. For example, future rovers will require better than 6 km landing accuracy for Mars and better than 1 km for the Moon plus maneuvering capability to avoid hazardous terrain features. For this purpose, an all-fiber coherent lidar is being developed to address the call for advancement of entry, descent, and landing technologies. This lidar will be capable of providing precision range to the ground and approach velocity data, and in the case of landing on Mars, it will also measure the atmospheric wind and density. The lidar obtains high resolution range information from a frequency modulated-continuous wave (FM-CW) laser beam whose instantaneous frequency varies linearly with time, and the ground vector velocity is directly extracted from the Doppler frequency shift. Utilizing the high concentration of aerosols in the Mars atmosphere (approx. two order of magnitude higher than the Earth), the lidar can measure wind velocity with a few watts of optical power. Operating in 1.57 micron wavelength regime, the lidar can use the differential absorption (DIAL) technique to measure the average CO2 concentration along the laser beam using, that is directly proportional to the Martian atmospheric density. Employing fiber optics components allows for the lidar multi-functional operation while facilitating a highly efficient, compact and reliable design suitable for integration into a spacecraft with limited mass, size, and power resources.

  1. Aerosol extinction measurements with CO2-lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagard, Arne; Persson, Rolf

    1992-01-01

    With the aim to develop a model for infrared extinction due to aerosols in slant paths in the lower atmosphere we perform measurements with a CO2-lidar. Earlier measurements with a transmissometer along horizontal paths have been used to develop relations between aerosol extinction and meteorological parameters. With the lidar measurements we hope to develop corresponding relations for altitude profiles of the aerosol extinction in the infrared. An important application is prediction of detection range for infrared imaging systems.

  2. Controls on the CO2 seasonal cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.; Forget, F.; Haberle, Robert M.; Schaeffer, J.; Lee, H.

    1993-01-01

    Surface pressure measurement performed by the Viking landers show substantial variations in pressure on seasonal timescales that are characterized by two local minima and two local maxima. These variations have widely been attributed to the seasonal condensation and sublimation of CO2 in the two polar regions. It has been somewhat of a surprise that the amplitude of the minimum and maximum that is dominated by the CO2 cycle in the north was much weaker than the corresponding amplitude of the south-dominated extrema. Another surprise was that the seasonal pressure cycle during years 2 and 3 of the Viking mission was so similar to that for year 1, despite the occurrence of two global dust storms during year 1 and none during years 2 and 3. An energy balance model that incorporates dynamical factors from general circulation model (GCM) runs in which the atmospheric dust opacity and seasonal date were systematically varied was used to model the observed seasonal pressure variations. The energy balance takes account of the following processes in determining the rates of CO2 condensation and sublimation at each longitudinal and latitudinal grid point: solar radiation, infrared radiation from the atmosphere and surface, subsurface heat conduction, and atmospheric heat advection. Condensation rates are calculated both at the surface and in the atmosphere. In addition, the energy balance model also incorporates information from the GCM runs on seasonal redistribution of surface pressure across the globe. Estimates of surface temperature of the seasonal CO2 caps were used to define the infrared radiative losses from the seasonal polar caps. The seasonal pressure variations measured at the Viking lander sites were closely reproduced.

  3. [Voice quality following CO2 laser cordectomy].

    PubMed

    Höfler, H; Bigenzahn, W

    1986-11-01

    The voice of patients after CO2 laser cordectomy was evaluated by subjective assessment, registration of voice parameters and sonegraphic classification. The results proved to be closely concordant, the main result being a slight or medium degree of dysphonia. Severe dysphonia or aphonia occurred in about one fifth of patients. This result is somewhat inferior to radiotherapy, but superior to standard translaryngeal cordectomy. Yanagihara's sonegraphic classification of dysphonia is recommendable for future comparative studies. PMID:3807602

  4. Continuous CO2 extractor and methods

    SciTech Connect

    None listed

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this CRADA was to assist in technology transfer from Russia to the US and assist in development of the technology improvements and applications for use in the U.S. and worldwide. Over the period of this work, ORNL has facilitated design, development and demonstration of a low-pressure liquid extractor and development of initial design for high-pressure supercritical CO2 fluid extractor.

  5. CO2 laser cold cathode research results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochuli, U.

    1973-01-01

    The construction and processing of four test lasers are discussed, and the test results are assessed. Tests show that the best performance was obtained from cathodes made from internally oxidized Ag-Cu alloys or pure Cu. Due to the cold cathode technology developments, sealed-off 1 w CO2 lasers with gas volumes of only 50 cu cm were duplicated, and have performed satisfactorily for more than 6000 hours.

  6. Pulpotomies with CO2 laser in dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Jose A. P.; Chavantes, Maria C.; Gioso, Marco A.; Pesce, Hildeberto F.; Jatene, Adib D.

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical aspects of dental pulps submitted to shallow pulpotomy followed by CO2 laser radiation at five different procedures. For this purpose, initially 66 dogs' teeth were opened and about 2 or 3 mm of coronal dental pulp was removed. Continuous irrigation with saline solution was implemented. The teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups of 11 each. After cessation of bleeding, in group I, CO2 laser (Xanar-20, USA) was irradiated for 1 second at a power of 5 watts; in group II, 2 seconds at 3 watts; in Group III, 2 seconds at 5 watts; in Group IV, 1 second at 3 watts; in Group V, a continuous mode at 3 watts; Group VI served as a control, with no laser irradiation. The results showed no clinical differences between the 3 W and 5 W powers. Time period of irradiation exposition influenced definitively the clinical appearance of the dental pulps. Groups I and IV (1 second) were unable to stop the bleeding, which persisted over 15 minutes for all teeth. This may be due to the intense heat generated by CO2 laser, causing vasodilatation. Groups II and III displayed a similar appearance, but bleeding stopped in about 10 minutes. Group V (continuous mode) had no bleeding after irradiation, but a plasma-like liquid would come out for almost 2 minutes. When comparing to the control (Group VI), all the pulps would assume a jelly-like aspect, with black granulated tissue on the surface, covering totally the pulps of Group V and partially the other groups. The histological results will be discussed in a further study. From the data obtained, it seems that CO2 laser irradiation for pulpotomies should be done in a continuous mode, for clinical convenience in terms of time taken and effective irradiation.

  7. Aridity under conditions of increased CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, Peter; Roderick, Micheal L.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-04-01

    A string of recent of studies led to the wide-held assumption that aridity will increase under conditions of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and associated global warming. Such results generally build upon analyses of changes in the 'aridity index' (the ratio of potential evaporation to precipitation) and can be described as a direct thermodynamic effect on atmospheric water demand due to increasing temperatures. However, there is widespread evidence that contradicts the 'warmer is more arid' interpretation, leading to the 'global aridity paradox' (Roderick et al. 2015, WRR). Here we provide a comprehensive assessment of modeled changes in a broad set of dryness metrics (primarily based on a range of measures of water availability) over a large range of realistic atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We use an ensemble of simulations from of state-of-the-art climate models to analyse both equilibrium climate experiments and transient historical simulations and future projections. Our results show that dryness is, under conditions of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and related global warming, generally decreasing at global scales. At regional scales we do, however, identify areas that undergo changes towards drier conditions, located primarily in subtropical climate regions and the Amazon Basin. Nonetheless, the majority of regions, especially in tropical and mid- to northern high latitudes areas, display wetting conditions in a warming world. Our results contradict previous findings and highlight the need to comprehensively assess all aspects of changes in hydroclimatological conditions at the land surface. Roderick, M. L., P. Greve, and G. D. Farquhar (2015), On the assessment of aridity with changes in atmospheric CO2, Water Resour. Res., 51, 5450-5463

  8. Measurements of fugitive hydrocarbon emissions with a tunable infrared DIAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milton, M. J. T.; Woods, P. T.; Jolliffe, B. W.; Swann, N. R. W.; Robinson, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    A tunable infrared differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been designed and developed at the National Physics Lab (NPL) which is capable of making measurements throughout the spectral region 3.0 to 4.2 micro-m. It is ideally suited to measuring a range of organic and inorganic species including methane, propane, and butane. The system also has an ultraviolet channel that is capable of making simultaneous measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons such as Toluene and benzene. This paper describes the source and detection system, together with some measurements of fugitive hydrocarbon emissions performed at various petrochemical plants.

  9. Raman-shifted dye laser for water vapor DIAL measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossmann, B. E.; Singh, U. N.; Cotnoir, L. J.; Wilkerson, T. D.; Higdon, N. S.; Browell, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    For improved DIAL measurements of water vapor in the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere, narrowband (about 0.03/cm) laser radiation at 720- and 940-nm wavelengths was generated by stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), using the narrow linewidth (about 0.02/cm) output of a Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser. For a hydrogen pressure of 350 psi, the first Stokes conversion efficiencies to 940 nm were 20 percent and 35 percent, when using a conventional and waveguide Raman cell, respectively. The linewidth of the first Stokes line at high cell pressures, and the inferred collisional broadening coefficients, agree well with those previously measured in spontaneous Raman scattering.

  10. Towards Overhauser DNP in supercritical CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Meerten, S. G. J.; Tayler, M. C. D.; Kentgens, A. P. M.; van Bentum, P. J. M.

    2016-06-01

    Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (ODNP) is a well known technique to improve NMR sensitivity in the liquid state, where the large polarization of an electron spin is transferred to a nucleus of interest by cross-relaxation. The efficiency of the Overhauser mechanism for dipolar interactions depends critically on fast local translational dynamics at the timescale of the inverse electron Larmor frequency. The maximum polarization enhancement that can be achieved for 1H at high magnetic fields benefits from a low viscosity solvent. In this paper we investigate the option to use supercritical CO2 as a solvent for Overhauser DNP. We have investigated the diffusion constants and longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates of toluene in high pressure CO2. The change in 1H T1 by addition of TEMPO radical was analyzed to determine the Overhauser cross-relaxation in such a mixture, and is compared with calculations based on the Force Free Hard Sphere (FFHS) model. By analyzing the relaxation data within this model we find translational correlation times in the range of 2-4 ps, depending on temperature, pressure and toluene concentration. Such short correlation times may be instrumental for future Overhauser DNP applications at high magnetic fields, as are commonly used in NMR. Preliminary DNP experiments have been performed at 3.4 T on high pressure superheated water and model systems such as toluene in high pressure CO2.

  11. Breadboard CO2 and humidity control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A regenerable CO2 and humidity control system is being developed for potential use on shuttle as an alternate to the baseline lithium hydroxide (LiOH)/condensing heat exchanger system. The system utilizes a sorbent material, designated HS-C, to adsorb CO2 and water vapor from the cabin atmosphere. The material is regenerated by exposing it to space vacuum. A half-size breadboard system, utilizing a flight representative HS-C canister, was designed, built, and performance tested to shuttle requirements for total CO2 and total humidity removal. The use of a new chemical matrix material allowed significant optimization of the system design by packing the HS-C chemical into the core of a heat exchanger which is manifolded to form two separate and distinct beds. Breadboard system performance was proven by parametric testing and simulated mission testing over the full range of shuttle crew sizes and metabolic loadings. Vacuum desorption testing demonstrated considerable savings in previously projected shuttle vacuum duct sizing.

  12. Towards Overhauser DNP in supercritical CO2.

    PubMed

    van Meerten, S G J; Tayler, M C D; Kentgens, A P M; van Bentum, P J M

    2016-06-01

    Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (ODNP) is a well known technique to improve NMR sensitivity in the liquid state, where the large polarization of an electron spin is transferred to a nucleus of interest by cross-relaxation. The efficiency of the Overhauser mechanism for dipolar interactions depends critically on fast local translational dynamics at the timescale of the inverse electron Larmor frequency. The maximum polarization enhancement that can be achieved for (1)H at high magnetic fields benefits from a low viscosity solvent. In this paper we investigate the option to use supercritical CO2 as a solvent for Overhauser DNP. We have investigated the diffusion constants and longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates of toluene in high pressure CO2. The change in (1)H T1 by addition of TEMPO radical was analyzed to determine the Overhauser cross-relaxation in such a mixture, and is compared with calculations based on the Force Free Hard Sphere (FFHS) model. By analyzing the relaxation data within this model we find translational correlation times in the range of 2-4ps, depending on temperature, pressure and toluene concentration. Such short correlation times may be instrumental for future Overhauser DNP applications at high magnetic fields, as are commonly used in NMR. Preliminary DNP experiments have been performed at 3.4T on high pressure superheated water and model systems such as toluene in high pressure CO2. PMID:27082277

  13. 40 CFR 98.443 - Calculating CO2 geologic sequestration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Calculating CO2 geologic sequestration. You must calculate the mass of CO2 received using CO2 received... your approved MRV plan. (a) You must calculate and report the annual mass of CO2 received by pipeline...)(3) of this section, if applicable. (1) For a mass flow meter, you must calculate the total...

  14. 40 CFR 98.443 - Calculating CO2 geologic sequestration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Calculating CO2 geologic sequestration. You must calculate the mass of CO2 received using CO2 received... your approved MRV plan. (a) You must calculate and report the annual mass of CO2 received by pipeline...)(3) of this section, if applicable. (1) For a mass flow meter, you must calculate the total...

  15. Integration of the electrochemical depolorized CO2 concentrator with the Bosch CO2 reduction subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.; Hallick, T. M.

    1976-01-01

    Regenerative processes for the revitalization of spacecraft atmospheres require an Oxygen Reclamation System (ORS) for the collection of carbon dioxide and water vapor and the recovery of oxygen from these metabolic products. Three life support subsystems uniquely qualified to form such an ORS are an Electrochemical CO2 Depolarized Concentrator (EDC), a CO2 Reduction Subsystem (BRS) and a Water Electrolysis Subsystem (WES). A program to develop and test the interface hardware and control concepts necessary for integrated operation of a four man capacity EDC with a four man capacity BRS was successfully completed. The control concept implemented proved successful in operating the EDC with the BRS for both constant CO2 loading as well as variable CO2 loading, based on a repetitive mission profile of the Space Station Prototype (SSP).

  16. Biosequestration of atmospheric CO2 and flue gas-containing CO2 by microalgae.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Wai Yan; Show, Pau Loke; Chang, Jo-Shu; Ling, Tau Chuan; Juan, Joon Ching

    2015-05-01

    The unceasing rise of greenhouse gas emission has led to global warming and climate change. Global concern on this phenomenon has put forward the microalgal-based CO2 sequestration aiming to sequester carbon back to the biosphere, ultimately reducing greenhouse effects. Microalgae have recently gained enormous attention worldwide, to be the valuable feedstock for renewable energy production, due to their high growth rates, high lipid productivities and the ability to sequester carbon. The photosynthetic process of microalgae uses atmospheric CO2 and CO2 from flue gases, to synthesize nutrients for their growth. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the efficiency of CO2 biosequestration by microalgae species, factors influencing microalgal biomass productions, microalgal cultivation systems, the potential and limitations of using flue gas for microalgal cultivation as well as the bio-refinery approach of microalgal biomass. PMID:25497054

  17. Impact of CO2 Impure stream on a CO2 Storage Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segev, R.; Bear, J.; Bensabat, J.

    2013-12-01

    In a CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology, a stream of CO2, extracted from the gas stream emitted from an industrial plant, is transported to a storage site where it is injected into a deep brine-containing geological reservoir for storage for very long time periods. The injected CO2 may contain various compositions of residual O2, SOx , NOx, and inert gases. In this work, we focus on the impact of the SO2 and its potential to acidify the reservoir brine. The amount of dissolved SO2 is determined by adjusting the Henry coefficient and fugacity coefficient for the mixture that contains CO2 as a major component and SO2. The models show the spreading of the pH level over time in the entire reservoir when different CO2-SO2 mixture compositions are injected. The minimum pH level achieved is 0.35 when 4% SO2 is injected, 1.8 when 2% SO2 is injected and 3.8 when a pure CO2 stream is injected. The model may serve as a tool to predict the influence of SO2 on the initial brine composition and on the initial rock properties. For example, a model result for the pH spreading in the reservoir, in the case of 2%SO2-CO2 injected mixture, is shown below. Fig.1. The pH level at the reservoir bedrock and caprock after 5 years for a 2%SO2-CO2 stream.

  18. TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Lite Nadir (TL2CO2LN)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-06-24

    TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Lite Nadir (TL2CO2LN) News:  TES ... Level:  L2 Instrument:  TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide Spatial Coverage:  5.3 km nadir ... OPeNDAP Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  Carbon Dioxide Order Data:  Reverb:   Order Data ...

  19. Process-dependent residual trapping of CO2 in sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Lin; Benson, Sally M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper demonstrates that the nature and extent of residual CO2 trapping depend on the process by which the CO2 phase is introduced into the rock. We compare residual trapping of CO2 in Berea Sandstone by imbibing water into a core containing either exsolved CO2 or CO2 introduced by drainage. X-ray computed tomography measurements are used to map the spatial distribution of CO2 preimbibition and postimbibition. Unlike during drainage where the CO2 distribution is strongly influenced by the heterogeneity of the rock, the distribution of exsolved CO2 is comparatively uniform. Postimbibition, the CO2 distribution retained the essential features for both the exsolved and drainage cases, but twice as much residual trapping is observed for exsolved CO2 even with similar preimbibition gas saturations. Residually trapped exsolved gas also disproportionately reduced water relative permeability. Development of process-dependent parameterization will help better manage subsurface flow processes and unlock benefits from gas exsolution.

  20. Uncertainty analyses of CO2 plume expansion subsequent to wellbore CO2 leakage into aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Zhangshuan; Bacon, Diana H.; Engel, David W.; Lin, Guang; Fang, Yilin; Ren, Huiying; Fang, Zhufeng

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we apply an uncertainty quantification (UQ) framework to CO2 sequestration problems. In one scenario, we look at the risk of wellbore leakage of CO2 into a shallow unconfined aquifer in an urban area; in another scenario, we study the effects of reservoir heterogeneity on CO2 migration. We combine various sampling approaches (quasi-Monte Carlo, probabilistic collocation, and adaptive sampling) in order to reduce the number of forward calculations while trying to fully explore the input parameter space and quantify the input uncertainty. The CO2 migration is simulated using the PNNL-developed simulator STOMP-CO2e (the water-salt-CO2 module). For computationally demanding simulations with 3D heterogeneity fields, we combined the framework with a scalable version module, eSTOMP, as the forward modeling simulator. We built response curves and response surfaces of model outputs with respect to input parameters, to look at the individual and combined effects, and identify and rank the significance of the input parameters.

  1. Low pCO2 Air-Polarized CO2 Concentrator Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Franz H.

    1997-01-01

    Life Systems completed a Ground-based Space Station Experiment Development Study Program which verifies through testing the performance and applicability of the electrochemical Air-Polarized Carbon Dioxide Concentrator (APC) process technology for space missions requiring low (i.e., less than 3 mm Hg) CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) in the cabin atmosphere. Required test hardware was developed and testing was accomplished at an approximate one-person capacity CO2 removal level. Initially, two five-cell electrochemical modules using flight-like 0.5 sq ft cell hardware were tested individually, following by their testing at the integrated APC system level. Testing verified previously projected performance and established a database for sizing of APC systems. A four person capacity APC system was sized and compared with four candidate CO2 removal systems. At its weight of 252 lb, a volume of 7 cu ft and a power consumption of 566 W while operating at 2.2 mm Hg pCO2, the APC was surpassed only by an Electrochemical Depolarized CO2 Concentrator (EDC) (operating with H2), when compared on a total equivalent basis.

  2. CO2-Responsive Polymer-Functionalized Au Nanoparticles for CO2 Sensor.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Promthaveepong, Kittithat; Li, Nan

    2016-08-16

    Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) coated with stimuli-responsive polymers (SRPs) exhibit tunable optical properties responding to external stimuli and show promising sensing applications. We present a new CO2-responsive polymer, poly(N-(3-amidino)-aniline) (PNAAN), coated gold NPs (AuNPs) synthesized by directly reducing HAuCl4 with a CO2-responsive monomer N-(3-amidino)-aniline (NAAN). The amidine group of PNAAN can be protonated into a hydrophilic amidinium group by dissolved CO2 (dCO2). This induces the PNAAN to swell and detach from the AuNP surface, resulting in AuNP aggregation and color change. By monitoring the UV absorbance change of AuNPs, a sensitive dCO2 sensor with a linear range of 0.0132 to 0.1584 hPa and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.0024 hPa is developed. This method shows dramatic improvement in sensitivity and convenience of sample preparation compared with the previously reported dCO2 sensor. PMID:27459645

  3. CO2 Sequestration within Spent Oil Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, H.; Worrall, F.; Gluyas, J.; Morgan, C.; Fraser, J.

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide deposits of oil shales are thought to represent ~3 trillion barrels of oil. Jordanian oil shale deposits are extensive and of high quality, and could represent 100 billion barrels of oil, leading to much interest and activity in the development of these deposits. The exploitation of oil shales has raised a number of environmental concerns including: land use, waste disposal, water consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. The dry retorting of oil shales can overcome a number of the environmental impacts, but this leaves concerns over management of spent oil shale and CO2 production. In this study we propose that the spent oil shale can be used to sequester CO2 from the retorting process. Here we show that by conducting experiments using high pressure reaction facilities, we can achieve successful carbonation of spent oil shale. High pressure reactor facilities in the Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, are capable of reacting solids with a range of fluids up to 15 MPa and 350°C, being specially designed for research with supercritical fluids. Jordanian spent oil shale was reacted with high pressure CO2 in order to assess whether there is potential for sequestration. Fresh and reacted materials were then examined by: Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) methods. Jordanian spent oil shale was found to sequester up to 5.8 wt % CO2, on reacting under supercritical conditions, which is 90% of the theoretical carbonation. Jordanian spent oil shale is composed of a large proportion of CaCO3, which on retorting decomposes, forming CaSO4 and Ca-oxides which are the focus of carbonation reactions. A factorially designed experiment was used to test different factors on the extent of carbonation, including: pressure; temperature; duration; and the water content. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques were then used to determine the significance of

  4. Effective Use of Natural CO2-RICH Systems for Stakeholder Communication: CO2FACTS.ORG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, H. C.; Romanak, K.; Osborne, V.; Hovorka, S. D.; Clift, S.; Castner, A.

    2011-12-01

    The impact of using natural analogues as an avenue for communicating about CO2 injection and storage technology with stakeholders has been addressed by previous researchers, e.g., Romanak et al (2011), Dixon et al (2011). Analogies between natural CO2-rich systems and engineered CO2 storage are not necessarily straightforward, and stakeholder opinion is often based on factors other than technical accuracy of information (e.g., lack of trust, confidence, and fear). In order to enhance this communication pathway, STORE (Sequestration Training, Outreach, Research and Education), the outreach arm of the Gulf Coast Carbon Center at The University of Texas at Austin, has created an online resource (www.co2facts.org) to help stakeholders better understand the injection and storage of CO2 underground. The online resource includes frequently asked questions (FAQs) for a variety of CO2-storage-related issues, including those related to natural analogues, and uses examples of natural systems of CO2 release for communication. The content targets various levels of technical education and understanding. A unique feature of the online resource is its approach to verification of information. Each FAQ and example is "fact-checked" by an actual expert in the field. Part of this verification process is to provide an online link to background, credentials, scientific research and images of actual experts in the field at natural release sites. This approach helps put a face to, and potentially builds a relationship of trust with, the scientist behind the technical information. Videos of experts discussing natural systems and their similarities and differences with CO2 injection and storage sites are also part of the resource. Stakeholders commonly draw incorrect parallels between natural disasters that gain attention in the media (e.g., Lake Nyos) and CO2 injection and storage technology. The video images available at www.co2facts.org are a useful tool for assuaging environmental fears

  5. Alexandrite laser characterization and airborne lidar developments for water vapor DIAL measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponsardin, P.; Higdon, N. S.; Grossmann, B. E.; Browell, E. V.

    1991-01-01

    The spectral characteristics of an Alexandrite laser used for making water vapor DIAL measurements have been evaluated. The optical servo-system used to lock the laser wavelength on a water vapor absorption line is described. A brief description of the DIAL system is given and the data obtained with this lidar during flight tests in March 1990 are also presented.

  6. 75 FR 33821 - Section 8 Random Digit Dialing Fair Market Rent Surveys

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Section 8 Random Digit Dialing Fair Market Rent Surveys AGENCY: Office of the Chief... provides HUD with a fast, inexpensive way to estimate Section 8 Fair Market Rents (FMRs) in areas not... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Section 8 Random Digit Dialing Fair Market...

  7. Calculus, Radio Dials and the Straight-Line Frequency Variable Capacitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyadzhiev, Khristo N.

    2010-01-01

    Most often radio dials of analogue radios are not uniformly graded; the frequencies are cramped on the left side or on the right side. This makes tuning more difficult. Why are dials made this way? We shall see here that simple calculus can help understand this problem and solve it. (Contains 7 figures.)

  8. Occupational exposure to dial painters and assemblers of radioluminous timepieces.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R E; Shuman, F G; Moghissi, A A; Blackburn, J A; Bailey, E D

    1983-05-01

    An evaluation of available personnel monitoring data and radium body burden records of dial painters handling an annual average of 1.5 Ci of radium indicates that they received an average of about 2 rem/person whole body exposure, 3 rem to the lungs from radon inhalation and 0.2 rad to the bone from radium body burdens. Among groups of similar workers handling tritium in Texas plants, the highest occupational exposures were about 160 mrem annually per person received by refinishers of tritium dial timepieces and back-lit watch assemblers. Based upon scenarios of exposures to 147Pm, repairers of timepieces containing 147Pm receive about 4.4 X 10(-4) mrem/person/yr whole body dose equivalent. The amounts that they process are in the microcurie range. Although the trend is away from the use of radium as a luminizing activator, there are indications that it is still used in timepieces even as tritium and 147Pm are increasingly being used for this purpose. PMID:6853170

  9. The Werkendam natural CO2 accumulation: An analogue for CO2 storage in depleted oil reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertier, Pieter; Busch, Andreas; Hangx, Suzanne; Kampman, Niko; Nover, Georg; Stanjek, Helge; Weniger, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    The Werkendam natural CO2 accumulation is hosted in the Röt (Early Triassic) sandstone of the West Netherlands Basin, at a depth of 2.8 km, about 20 km south-east of Rotterdam (NL). This reservoir, in a fault-bound structure, was oil-filled prior to charging with magmatic CO2 in the early Cretaceous. It therefore offers a unique opportunity to study long-term CO2-water-rock interactions in the presence of oil. This contribution will present the results of a detailed mineralogical and geochemical characterisation of core sections from the Werkendam CO2 reservoir and an adjacent, stratigraphically equivalent aquifer. X-ray diffraction combined with X-ray fluorescence spectrometry revealed that the reservoir samples contain substantially more feldspar and more barite and siderite than those from the aquifer, while the latter have higher hematite contents. These differences are attributed to the effects hydrocarbons and related fluids on diagenesis in the closed system of the CO2 reservoir versus the open-system of the aquifer. Petrophysical analyses yielded overall higher and more anisotropic permeability for the reservoir samples, while the porosity is overall not significantly different from that of their aquifer equivalents. The differences are most pronounced in coarse-grained sandstones. These have low anhydrite contents and contain traces of calcite, while all other analyzed samples contain abundant anhydrite, dolomite/ankerite and siderite, but no calcite. Detailed petrography revealed mm-sized zones of excessive primary porosity. These are attributed to CO2-induced dissolution of precompactional, grain-replacive anhydrite cement. Diagenetic dolomite/ankerite crystals are covered by anhedral, epitaxial ankerite, separated from the crystals by bitumen coats. Since these carbonates were oil-wet before CO2-charging, the overgrowths are interpreted to have grown after CO2-charging. Their anhedral habit suggests growth in a 2-phase water-CO2 system. Isotopic

  10. Pulsed Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption and Line Shapes from 3-13 km Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham; Weaver, Clark; Mao, Jianping; Sun, Xiaoli; Hasselbrack, William

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a pulsed lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's planned ASCENDS space mission. Our technique uses two pulsed laser transmitters allowing simultaneous measurement of a CO2 absorption line in the 1570 nm band, O2 extinction in the Oxygen A-band and surface height and backscatter. The lidar measures the energy and time of flight of the laser echoes reflected from the atmosphere and surface. The lasers are rapidly and precisely stepped in wavelength across the CO2 line and an O2 line region during the measurement. The direct detection receiver uses a telescope and photon counting detectors, and measures the background light and energies of the laser echoes from the surface along with scattering from any aerosols in the path. The gas extinction and column densities for the CO2 and O2 gases are estimated from the ratio of the on- and off- line signals via the DIAL technique. Time gating is used to isolate the laser echo signals from the surface, and to reject laser photons scattered in the atmosphere. The time of flight of the laser pulses are also used to estimate the height of the scattering surface and to identify cases of mixed cloud and ground scattering. We have developed an airborne lidar to demonstrate the CO2 measurement from the NASA Glenn Lear-25 aircraft. The airborne lidar steps the pulsed laser's wavelength across the selected CO2 line with 20 steps per scan. The line scan rate is 450 Hz, the laser pulse widths are 1 usec, and laser pulse energy is 24 uJ. The time resolved laser backscatter is collected by a 20 cm telescope, detected by a photomultiplier and is recorded by a photon counting system. We made initial airborne measurements on flights during fall 2008. Laser backscatter and absorption measurements were made over a variety of land and water surfaces and through thin clouds. The atmospheric CO2 column measurements using the 1572.33 nm CO2 lines. Two flights were made above the

  11. Pulsed Airborne Lidar measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption and Line Shapes from 3-13 km altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, James; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham; Weaver, Clark; Mao, Jianping; Sun, Xiaoli; Hasselbrack, William

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a pulsed lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's planned ASCENDS space mission. Our technique uses two pulsed laser transmitters allowing simultaneous measurement of a CO2 absorption line in the 1570 nm band, O2 extinction in the Oxygen A-band and surface height and backscatter. The lidar measures the energy and time of flight of the laser echoes reflected from the atmosphere and surface. The lasers are rapidly and precisely stepped in wavelength across the CO2 line and an O2 line region during the measurement. The direct detection receiver uses a telescope and photon counting detectors, and measures the background light and energies of the laser echoes from the surface along with scattering from any aerosols in the path. The gas extinction and column densities for the CO2 and O2 gases are estimated from the ratio of the on- and off- line signals via the DIAL technique. Time gating is used to isolate the laser echo signals from the surface, and to reject laser photons scattered in the atmosphere. The time of flight of the laser pulses are also used to estimate the height of the scattering surface and to identify cases of mixed cloud and ground scattering. We have developed an airborne lidar to demonstrate the CO2 measurement from the NASA Glenn Lear-25 aircraft. The airborne lidar steps the pulsed laser's wavelength across the selected CO2 line with 20 steps per scan. The line scan rate is 450 Hz, the laser pulse widths are 1 usec, and laser pulse energy is 24 uJ. The time resolved laser backscatter is collected by a 20 cm telescope, detected by a photomultiplier and is recorded by a photon counting system. We made initial airborne measurements on flights during fall 2008. Laser backscatter and absorption measurements were made over a variety of land and water surfaces and through thin clouds. The atmospheric CO2 column measurements using the 1572.33 nm CO2 lines. Two flights were made above the

  12. Influence of Rayleigh-Doppler broadening on the selection of H2O dial system parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ismail, S.; Browell, E. V.

    1986-01-01

    Computer simulations have enabled the performance of a H2O Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system to be studied by spectrally analyzing the forward propagating and backscattered laser energy. The simulations were done for a high altitude (21 km) DIAL system operating in a nadir-viewing mode. The influence of Rayleigh Doppler broadening on DIAL measurement accuracies were evaluated and show that the Rayleigh broadening influence, which can be corrected to first order in regions free of large aerosol gradients, reduces the sensitivity of DIAL H2O measurement errors in the upper tropospheric region. The ability to correct the Rayleigh broadening and the selection of H2O DIAL parameters when all the systematic effects are combined, were discussed.

  13. Method for tracing simulated CO2 leak in terrestrial environment with a 13CO2 tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moni, Christophe; Rasse, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Facilities for the geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) schemes will be designed to prevent any leakage from the defined 'storage complex'. However, developing regulations and guidance throughout the world (e.g. the EC Directive and the USEPA Vulnerability Evaluation Framework) recognize the importance of assessing the potential for environmental impacts from CO2 storage. RISCS, a European (FP7) project, aims to improve understanding of those impacts that could plausibly occur in the hypothetical case that unexpected leakage occurs. As part of the RISCS project the potential impacts that an unexpected CO2 leaks might have on a cropland ecosystems was investigated. A CO2 exposure field experiment based on CO2 injection at 85 cm depth under an oats culture was designed. To facilitate the characterization of the simulated leaking zone the gas used for injection was produced from natural gas and had a δ13C of -46‰. The aim of the present communication is to depict how the injected gas was traced within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum using 13CO2 continuous cavity ring-down spectrometry (CRDS). Four subsurface experimental injection plots (6m x 3m) were set up. In order to test the effects of different intensity of leakage, the field experiment was designed as to create a longitudinal CO2 gradient for each plot. For this purpose gas supply pipes were inserted at one extremity of each plot at the base of a 45 cm thick layer of sand buried 40 cm below the surface under the clayey plough layer of Norwegian moraine soils. Soil CO2 concentration and isotopic signature were punctually recorded: 1) in the soil at 20 cm depth at 6 positions distributed on the central transect, 2) at the surface following a (50x50 cm) grid sampling pattern, and 3) in the canopy atmosphere at 10, 20, 30 cm along three longitudinal transects (seven sampling point per transect). Soil CO2 fluxes and isotopic signature were finally

  14. Saturated CO2 inhibits microbial processes in CO2-vented deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Beer, D.; Haeckel, M.; Neumann, J.; Wegener, G.; Inagaki, F.; Boetius, A.

    2013-08-01

    This study focused on biogeochemical processes and microbial activity in sediments of a natural deep-sea CO2 seepage area (Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal system, Japan). The aim was to assess the influence of the geochemical conditions occurring in highly acidic and CO2 saturated sediments on sulfate reduction (SR) and anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM). Porewater chemistry was investigated from retrieved sediment cores and in situ by microsensor profiling. The sites sampled around a sediment-hosted hydrothermal CO2 vent were very heterogeneous in porewater chemistry, indicating a complex leakage pattern. Near the vents, droplets of liquid CO2 were observed emanating from the sediments, and the pH reached approximately 4.5 in a sediment depth > 6 cm, as determined in situ by microsensors. Methane and sulfate co-occurred in most sediment samples from the vicinity of the vents down to a depth of 3 m. However, SR and AOM were restricted to the upper 7-15 cm below seafloor, although neither temperature, low pH, nor the availability of methane and sulfate could be limiting microbial activity. We argue that the extremely high subsurface concentrations of dissolved CO2 (1000-1700 mM), which disrupt the cellular pH homeostasis, and lead to end-product inhibition. This limits life to the surface sediment horizons above the liquid CO2 phase, where less extreme conditions prevail. Our results may have to be taken into consideration in assessing the consequences of deep-sea CO2 sequestration on benthic element cycling and on the local ecosystem state.

  15. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O'Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

    2006-01-01

    During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  16. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canadell, J. G.; Raupach, M. R.; Houghton, R. A.

    2008-11-01

    An understanding of the regional contributions and trends of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is critical to design mitigation strategies aimed at stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gases. Here we report CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and land use change in Africa for various time periods. Africa was responsible for an average of 500 TgC y-1 for the period 2000 2005. These emissions resulted from the combustion of fossil fuels (260 TgC y-1) and land use change (240 TgC y-1). Over this period, the African share of global emissions from land use change was 17%. For 2005, the last year reported in this study, African fossil fuel emissions were 285 TgC accounting for 3.7% of the global emissions. The 2000 2005 growth rate in African fossil fuel emissions was 3.2% y-1, very close to the global average. Fossil fuel emissions per capita in Africa are among the lowest in the world, at 0.32 tC y-1 compared to the global average of 1.2 tC y-1. The average amount of carbon (C) emitted as CO2 to produce 1 US of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Africa in 2005 was 187 gC/, close to the world average of 199 gC/. With the fastest population growth in the world and rising per capita GDP, Africa is likely to increase its share of global emissions over the coming decades although emissions from Africa will remain low compared to other continents.

  17. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canadell, J. G.; Raupach, M. R.; Houghton, R. A.

    2009-03-01

    An understanding of the regional contributions and trends of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is critical to design mitigation strategies aimed at stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gases. Here we report CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and land use change in Africa for various time periods. Africa was responsible for an average of 500 Tg C y-1 for the period 2000-2005. These emissions resulted from the combustion of fossil fuels (260 Tg C y-1) and land use change (240 Tg C y-1). Over this period, the African share of global emissions from land use change was 17%. For 2005, the last year reported in this study, African fossil fuel emissions were 285 Tg C accounting for 3.7% of the global emissions. The 2000-2005 growth rate in African fossil fuel emissions was 3.2% y-1, very close to the global average. Fossil fuel emissions per capita in Africa are among the lowest in the world, at 0.32 t C y-1 compared to the global average of 1.2 t C y-1. The average amount of carbon (C) emitted as CO2 to produce 1 US{} of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Africa was 187 g C/ in 2005, close to the world average of 199 g C/. With the fastest population growth in the world and rising per capita GDP, Africa is likely to increase its share of global emissions over the coming decades although emissions from Africa will remain low compared to other continents.

  18. CO2 laser ranging systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filippi, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    The conceptual design and error performance of a CO2 laser ranging system are analyzed. Ranging signal and subsystem processing alternatives are identified, and their comprehensive evaluation yields preferred candidate solutions which are analyzed to derive range and range rate error contributions. The performance results are presented in the form of extensive tables and figures which identify the ranging accuracy compromises as a function of the key system design parameters and subsystem performance indexes. The ranging errors obtained are noted to be within the high accuracy requirements of existing NASA/GSFC missions with a proper system design.

  19. [Laryngomalacia treated with CO2 laser].

    PubMed

    Larsen, Dalia Gustaityté; Berg, Jette Scheby; Illum, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Laryngomalacia is the most common laryngeal anomaly which causes inspiratory stridor in newborns. The disease is usually self-limiting and resolves before the age of two years. We present a case of severe laryngomalacia with feeding disorder and airway obstruction which needed surgical management--supraglottoplasty. The shortened aryepiglottic folds were incised using CO(2) laser and jet ventilation. The patient was observed at the hospital for one week after surgery and discharged. Four weeks after treatment, the patient was free of airway obstruction and feeding problems. PMID:20594541

  20. Disentangling the effects of CO2 and short-lived climate forcer mitigation.

    PubMed

    Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Meinshausen, Malte; Shindell, Drew T; Hare, William; Klimont, Zbigniew; Velders, Guus J M; Amann, Markus; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2014-11-18

    Anthropogenic global warming is driven by emissions of a wide variety of radiative forcers ranging from very short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), like black carbon, to very long-lived, like CO2. These species are often released from common sources and are therefore intricately linked. However, for reasons of simplification, this CO2-SLCF linkage was often disregarded in long-term projections of earlier studies. Here we explicitly account for CO2-SLCF linkages and show that the short- and long-term climate effects of many SLCF measures consistently become smaller in scenarios that keep warming to below 2 °C relative to preindustrial levels. Although long-term mitigation of methane and hydrofluorocarbons are integral parts of 2 °C scenarios, early action on these species mainly influences near-term temperatures and brings small benefits for limiting maximum warming relative to comparable reductions taking place later. Furthermore, we find that maximum 21st-century warming in 2 °C-consistent scenarios is largely unaffected by additional black-carbon-related measures because key emission sources are already phased-out through CO2 mitigation. Our study demonstrates the importance of coherently considering CO2-SLCF coevolutions. Failing to do so leads to strongly and consistently overestimating the effect of SLCF measures in climate stabilization scenarios. Our results reinforce that SLCF measures are to be considered complementary rather than a substitute for early and stringent CO2 mitigation. Near-term SLCF measures do not allow for more time for CO2 mitigation. We disentangle and resolve the distinct benefits across different species and therewith facilitate an integrated strategy for mitigating both short and long-term climate change. PMID:25368182

  1. The Use of a Pseudo Noise Code for DIAL Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burris, J.; Sun, X.; Abshire, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    Retrievals of CO2 profiles within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are required to understand CO2 transport over regional scales and for validating the future space borne CO2 remote sensing instrument, such as the CO2 Laser Sounder, for the ASCENDS mission. We report the use of a return-to- zero (RZ) pseudo noise (PN) code modulation technique for making range resolved measurements of CO2 within the PBL using commercial, off-the-shelf, components. Conventional, range resolved, measurements require laser pulse widths that are shorter than the desired spatial resolution and have pulse spacing such that returns from only a single pulse are observed by the receiver at one time (for the PBL pulse separations must be >~2000m). This imposes a serious limitation when using available fiber lasers because of the resulting low duty cycle (<0.001) and consequent low average laser output power. RZ PN code modulation enables a fiber laser to operate at much higher duty cycles (approaching 0.1) thereby more effectively utilizing the amplifier’s output. This results in an increase in received counts by approximately two orders of magnitude. The approach involves employing two, back to back, CW fiber amplifiers seeded at the appropriate on and offline CO2 wavelengths (~1572 nm) using distributed feedback diode lasers modulated by a PN code at rates significantly above 1 megahertz. An assessment of the technique, discussions of measurement precision and error sources as well as preliminary data will be presented.

  2. On Leakage from Geologic Storage Reservoirs of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-02-14

    Large amounts of CO2 would need to be injected underground to achieve a significant reduction of atmospheric emissions. The large areal extent expected for CO2 plumes makes it likely that caprock imperfections will be encountered, such as fault zones or fractures, which may allow some CO2 to escape from the primary storage reservoir. Leakage of CO2 could also occur along wellbores. Concerns with escape of CO2 from a primary geologic storage reservoir include (1) acidification of groundwater resources, (2) asphyxiation hazard when leaking CO2 is discharged at the land surface, (3) increase in atmospheric concentrations of CO2, and (4) damage from a high-energy, eruptive discharge (if such discharge is physically possible). In order to gain public acceptance for geologic storage as a viable technology for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2, it is necessary to address these issues and demonstrate that CO2 can be injected and stored safely in geologic formations.

  3. Soil air CO2 concentration as an integrative parameter of soil structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Corinna; Gaertig, Thorsten; Fründ, Heinz-Christian

    2015-04-01

    soil CO2-measuring apparatus based on NDIR technology. Ex situ determination of gas diffusivity indicate comparable results: There are significant differences in gas diffusivity between the wheel track of the 8-year-old skidding track and the reference soil, but no significant differences between the 18-year-old wheel track and the reference soil. Considering the parameter bulk density, no coherent results are delivered. Apparently, soil CO2 concentration is a suitable indicator of soil aeration deficiency and consequently soil compaction and structure regeneration. In further studies, soil compaction and regeneration of acidic silty soils and loamy sandy soils will be investigated using both CO2 logger and established soil physical parameters to validate this method.

  4. The Field-Laboratory for CO2 Storage 'CO2SINK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Würdemann, Hilke; Möller, Fabian; Kühn, Michael; Borm, Günter; Schilling, Frank R.

    2010-05-01

    The first European onshore geological CO2 storage project in a saline aquifer CO2SINK is designed as a field size experiment to better understand in situ storage processes and to test various monitoring techniques. This EU project is run by 18 partners from universities, research institutes and industry out of 9 European countries (www.co2sink.org). The CO2 is injected into Upper Triassic sandstones (Stuttgart Formation) of a double-anticline at a depth of 650 m. The Stuttgart Formation represents a flu vial environment comprised of sandstone channels and silty to muddy deposits. The anticline forms a classical multibarrier system: The first caprock is a playa type mudstone of the Weser and Arnstadt formations directly overlying the Stuttgart formation. Laboratory tests revealed permeabilities in a µDarcy-range. The second main caprock is a tertiary clay, the so-called Rupelton. To determine the maximum injection pressure modified leak-off tests (without fracturing the caprock) were performed resulting in values around 120 bar. Due to safety standards the pressure threshold is set to 82 bar until more experience on the reservoir behaviour is available. The sealing property of the secondary cap rock is well known from decades of natural gas storage operations at the testing site and was the basis for the permission to operate the CO2 storage by the mining authority. Undisturbed, initial reservoir conditions are 35 °C and 62 bar. The initial reservoir fluid is highly saline with about 235 g/l total dissolved solids primarily composed of sodium chloride with notable amounts of calcium chloride. The initial pH value is 6.6. Hydraulic tests as well as laboratory tests revealed a permeability between 50 and 100 mDarcy for the sand channels of the storage formation. Within twenty months of storage operation, about 30,000 t of CO2 have been injected. Spreading of the CO2 plume is monitored by a broad range of geophysical techniques. The injection well and the two

  5. Wheat response to CO2 enrichment: CO2 exchanges transpiration and mineral uptakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, M.; Ducloux, H.; Richaud, C.

    1986-01-01

    When simulating canopies planted in varied densities, researchers were able to demonstrate that increase of dry matter production by enhancing CO2 quickly becomes independant of increase of leaf area, especially above leaf area index of 2; dry matter gain results mainly from photosynthesis stimulation per unit of surface (primary CO2 effect). When crop density is low (the plants remaining alone a longer time), the effects of increasing leaf surface (tillering, leaf elongation here, branching for other plants etc.) was noticeable and dry matter simulation factor reached 1.65. This area effect decreased when canopy was closed in, as the effect of different surfaces no longer worked. The stimulation of photosynthesis reached to the primary CO2 effect. The accumulation in dry matter which was fast during that phase made the original weight advantage more and more neglectible. Comparison with short term measurements showed that first order long term effect of CO2 in wheat is predictible with short term experiment, from the effect of CO2 on photosynthesis measured on reference sample.

  6. Pulsed Airborne Lidar measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption and Line Shapes from 3-13 km altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Weaver, C. J.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Sun, X.

    2009-12-01

    We have developed a lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA’s planned ASCENDS mission. Our technique uses two pulsed laser transmitters allowing simultaneous measurement of a CO2 absorption line in the 1570 nm band, O2 extinction in the Oxygen A-band and surface height and backscatter. The lidar measures the energy and time of flight of the laser echoes reflected from the atmosphere and surface. The lasers are stepped in wavelength across the CO2 line and an O2 line region during the measurement. The receiver uses a telescope and photon counting detectors, and measures the background light and energies of the laser echoes from the surface along with scattering from any aerosols in the path. The gas extinction and column densities for the CO2 and O2 gases are estimated from the ratio of the on- and off- line signals via the DIAL technique. Time gating is used to isolate the laser echo signals from the surface, and to reject laser photons scattered in the atmosphere. We have developed an airborne lidar to demonstrate the CO2 measurement from the NASA Glenn Lear-25 aircraft. The airborne lidar steps the pulsed laser’s wavelength across a selected CO2 line with 20 steps per scan. The line scan rate is 450 Hz, laser pulse energy is 25 uJ and laser pulse widths are 1 usec. The time resolved laser backscatter is collected by a 20 cm telescope, detected by a photomultiplier and is recorded by a photon counting system. We made initial airborne measurements on flights during October and December 2008. Laser backscatter and absorption measurements were made over a variety of land and water surfaces and through thin and broken clouds. Atmospheric CO2 column measurements using the 1571.4, 1572.02 and 1572.33 nm CO2 lines. Two flights were made above the DOE SGP ARM site at altitudes from 3-8 km. These flights were coordinated with DOE investigators who flew an in-situ CO2 sensor on a Cessna aircraft under the path. The

  7. Public Acceptance for Geological CO2-Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, F.; Ossing, F.; Würdemann, H.; Co2SINK Team

    2009-04-01

    Public acceptance is one of the fundamental prerequisites for geological CO2 storage. In highly populated areas like central Europe, especially in the vicinity of metropolitan areas like Berlin, underground operations are in the focus of the people living next to the site, the media, and politics. To gain acceptance, all these groups - the people in the neighbourhood, journalists, and authorities - need to be confident of the security of the planned storage operation as well as the long term security of storage. A very important point is to show that the technical risks of CO2 storage can be managed with the help of a proper short and long term monitoring concept, as well as appropriate mitigation technologies e.g adequate abandonment procedures for leaking wells. To better explain the possible risks examples for leakage scenarios help the public to assess and to accept the technical risks of CO2 storage. At Ketzin we tried the following approach that can be summed up on the basis: Always tell the truth! This might be self-evident but it has to be stressed that credibility is of vital importance. Suspiciousness and distrust are best friends of fear. Undefined fear seems to be the major risk in public acceptance of geological CO2-storage. Misinformation and missing communication further enhance the denial of geological CO2 storage. When we started to plan and establish the Ketzin storage site, we ensured a forward directed communication. Offensive information activities, an information centre on site, active media politics and open information about the activities taking place are basics. Some of the measures were: - information of the competent authorities through meetings (mayor, governmental authorities) - information of the local public, e.g. hearings (while also inviting local, regional and nation wide media) - we always treated the local people and press first! - organizing of bigger events to inform the public on site, e.g. start of drilling activities (open

  8. CO2 exchange in Thuringia, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthoni, P. M.; Knohl, A.; Freibauer, A.; Ziegler, W.; Kolle, O.; Schulze, E.-D.

    2003-04-01

    Eddy covariance technique is used to measure the net CO_2 exchange (NEE) over forest and agricultural areas in Thuringia, Germany. Measurements are performed at a managed and unmanaged Beech stand, a managed Spruce stand and an agricultural field with Winter Wheat in 2001 and Potato in 2002. Large contrasts were found in NEE rates between the ecosystems. Though managed and unmanaged Beech had very similar NEE rates, main differences between those two sites arose because of an earlier leaf emergence at the managed beech site. Spruce had higher NEE in spring but substantially lower NEE in summer than the Beech stands. Overall resulting in a substantially lower annual NEE, which is mainly attributable to an almost two times higher ecosystem respiration, despite lower ecosystem temperatures at the Spruce site. Crops had high NEE uptake rates, but growing season length is short compared to the forest ecosystems. Therefore agricultural land had moderate annual NEE uptake rates (1--2tC ha-1), but when harvest is taken into account the agricultural ecosystems are a source for CO_2 (1--3tC ha-1). Forests cover about 30% of the area in Thuringia, 50% is agriculture, and 20% grassland and other land-use types. Agriculture seems to loose carbon and forest gain carbon, indicating that Thuringia would probably be a carbon source, or not be statistically different from being carbon neutral.

  9. CO2 Laser Absorption in Ablation Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Eckel, Hans-Albert; Tegel, Jochen; Schall, Wolfgang O.

    2006-05-02

    The impulse formation by laser ablation is limited by the premature absorption of the incident laser radiation in the initially produced cloud of ablation products. The power fraction of a CO2 laser pulse transmitted through a small hole in a POM sample for pulse energies of 35 to 150 J focused on a spot of 2 cm2 has been compared with the incident power. The plasma formation in vacuum and in air of 3500 Pa and the spread of the shock wave with velocities of 1.6 to 2.4 km/s in the low pressure air was observed by Schlieren photography. A sharp edged dark zone with a maximum extension of 10 to 12 mm away from the target surface develops within 5 {mu}s independently of the pressure and is assumed to be a plasma. In order to find out, if this is also the zone where the majority of the incident laser radiation is absorbed, a CO2 probe laser beam was directed through the expansion cloud parallel to and at various distances from the sample surface. The time behavior of the absorption signal of the probe beam has been measured and an absorption wave could be observed.

  10. Uncertainty in gridded CO2 emissions estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogue, Susannah; Marland, Eric; Andres, Robert J.; Marland, Gregg; Woodard, Dawn

    2016-05-01

    We are interested in the spatial distribution of fossil-fuel-related emissions of CO2 for both geochemical and geopolitical reasons, but it is important to understand the uncertainty that exists in spatially explicit emissions estimates. Working from one of the widely used gridded data sets of CO2 emissions, we examine the elements of uncertainty, focusing on gridded data for the United States at the scale of 1° latitude by 1° longitude. Uncertainty is introduced in the magnitude of total United States emissions, the magnitude and location of large point sources, the magnitude and distribution of non-point sources, and from the use of proxy data to characterize emissions. For the United States, we develop estimates of the contribution of each component of uncertainty. At 1° resolution, in most grid cells, the largest contribution to uncertainty comes from how well the distribution of the proxy (in this case population density) represents the distribution of emissions. In other grid cells, the magnitude and location of large point sources make the major contribution to uncertainty. Uncertainty in population density can be important where a large gradient in population density occurs near a grid cell boundary. Uncertainty is strongly scale-dependent with uncertainty increasing as grid size decreases. Uncertainty for our data set with 1° grid cells for the United States is typically on the order of ±150%, but this is perhaps not excessive in a data set where emissions per grid cell vary over 8 orders of magnitude.

  11. Factors affecting the direct mineralization of CO2 with olivine.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soonchul; Fan, Maohong; DaCosta, Herbert F M; Russell, Armistead G

    2011-01-01

    Olivine, one of the most abundant minerals existing in nature, is explored as a CO2 carbonation agent for direct carbonation of CO2 in flue gas. Olivine based CO2 capture is thermodynamically favorable and can form a stable carbonate for long-term storage. Experimental results have shown that water vapor plays an important role in improving CO2 carbonation rate and capacities. Other operation conditions including reaction temperature, initial CO2 concentration, residence time corresponding to the flow rate of CO2 gas stream, and water vapor concentration also considerably affect the performance of the technology. PMID:22128528

  12. Estimation of continuous anthropogenic CO2: model-based evaluation of CO2, CO, δ13C(CO2) and Δ14C(CO2) tracer methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardag, S. N.; Gerbig, C.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Levin, I.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate different methods for estimating anthropogenic CO2 using modeled continuous atmospheric concentrations of CO2 alone, as well as CO2 in combination with the surrogate tracers CO, δ13C(CO2) and Δ14C(CO2). These methods are applied at three hypothetical stations representing rural, urban and polluted conditions. We find that, independent of the tracer used, an observation-based estimate of continuous anthropogenic CO2 is not yet feasible at rural measurement sites due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of anthropogenic CO2 estimates at such settings. The tracers δ13C(CO2) and CO provide an accurate possibility to determine anthropogenic CO2 continuously, only if all CO2 sources in the catchment area are well characterized or calibrated with respect to their isotopic signature and CO to anthropogenic CO2 ratio. We test different calibration strategies for the mean isotopic signature and CO to CO2 ratio using precise Δ14C(CO2) measurements on monthly integrated as well as on grab samples. For δ13C(CO2), a calibration with annually averaged 14C(CO2) grab samples is most promising, since integrated sampling introduces large biases into anthropogenic CO2 estimates. For CO, these biases are smaller. The precision of continuous anthropogenic CO2 determination using δ13C(CO2) depends on measurement precision of δ13C(CO2) and CO2, while the CO method is mainly limited by the variation in natural CO sources and sinks. At present, continuous anthropogenic CO2 could be determined using the tracers δ13C(CO2) and/or CO with a precision of about 30 %, a mean bias of about 10 % and without significant diurnal discrepancies. Hypothetical future measurements of continuous Δ14C(CO2) with a precision of 5 ‰ are promising for anthropogenic CO2 determination (precision ca. 10-20 %) but are not yet available. The investigated tracer-based approaches open the door to improving, validating and reducing biases of highly resolved emission inventories using atmospheric

  13. Carbon Dioxide Exchanges in Leaves. I. Discrimination Between 14CO2 and 12CO2 in Photosynthesis 1

    PubMed Central

    Yemm, E. W.; Bidwell, R. G. S.

    1969-01-01

    In order to measure CO2 exchange reactions by leaves using isotopes of CO2, it is necessary to know precisely the discrimination against 14CO2 by leaves. Earlier determinations of discrimination are at variance, and may be inaccurate because of assumptions made about the rate of photorespiration. Maize leaves evolve little or no CO2 in light, and so provide suitable material for this measurement. Discrimination against 14CO2 in photosynthesis by maize leaves is almost precisely the same as in CO2 absorption by NaOH solution, amounting to 2.1 and 2.0% respectively. The agreement between these values and their close approximation to the relative rates of diffusion of 12CO2 and 14CO2, calculated from Graham's law, shows that diffusion into the leaf is primarily responsible for discrimination against 14CO2 in photosynthesis. PMID:16657206

  14. Recent advances in efficient long-life, eye-safe solid state and CO2 lasers for laser radar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. V.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Brockman, P.; Bair, C. H.; Schryer, D. R.; Upchurch, B. T.; Wood, G. M.

    1989-01-01

    The key problems in the development of eye-safe solid-state lasers are discussed, taking into account the energy transfer mechanisms between the complicated energy level manifolds of the Tm, Ho, Er ion dopants in hosts with decreasing crystal fields such as YAG or YLF. Optimization of energy transfer for efficient lasing through choice of dopant concentration, power density, crystal field and temperature is addressed. The tailoring of energy transfer times to provide efficient energy extraction for short pulses used in DIAL and Doppler lidar is considered. Recent advances in Pt/SnO2 oxide catalysts and other noble metal/metal oxide combinations for CO2 lasers are discussed. Emphasis is given to the dramatic effects of small quantities of H2O vapor for increasing the activity and lifetime of Pt/SnO2 catalysts and to increased lifetime operation with rare isotope (C-12)(O-18)2 lasing mixtures.

  15. Interface characteristics in Co2MnSi/Ag/Co2MnSi trilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Hong; Wang, Guangzhao; Yuan, Hongkuan

    2016-05-01

    Interface characteristics of Co2MnSi/Ag/Co2MnSi trilayer have been investigated by means of first-principles. The most likely interface is formed by connecting MnSi-termination to the bridge site between two Ag atoms. As annealed at high temperature, the formation of interface DO3 disorder is most energetically favorable. The spin polarization is reduced by both the interface itself and interface disorder due to the interface state occurs in the minority-spin gap. As a result, the magneto-resistance ratio has a sharp drop based on the estimation of a simplified modeling.

  16. The spectroscopic foundation of CO2 climate forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, M. G.; Daniels, T.; Kratz, D. P.; Collins, W.; Feldman, D.; Lawler, J. E.; Anderson, L. W.; Fahey, D. W.; Hunt, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    The radiative forcing (RF) of carbon dioxide (CO2) is the leading contribution to climate change from anthropogenic activities. Calculating CO2 RF requires detailed knowledge of spectral line parameters and lineshape functions for thousands of infrared absorption lines. A reliable spectroscopic characterization of CO2 forcing is therefore a critical input to scientific and policy-oriented assessments of present climate and future climate change. Our study is partly motivated by a recent assertion that CO2 RF values, and hence predictions of climate sensitivity to elevated CO2, have a significant high bias because the CO2 spectroscopic parameters being used are incorrect. Our results show that CO2 RF in a variety of atmospheres is remarkably insensitive to known uncertainties in the three main CO2 spectroscopic parameters: the line strengths, half widths, and line shapes. We demonstrate that this is due largely to the definition of CO2 RF, which is the difference between the CO2 longwave net flux at the tropopause for doubled CO2 concentrations from the preindustrial era. We also assess the effects of sub-Lorentzian wings of CO2 lines and find that the computed RF is largely insensitive to the spectral lineshape function. Overall, the spectroscopic uncertainty in present-day CO2 RF is less than a few percent. Our study highlights the basics and subtleties of RF calculations, addressing interests of the expert and non-expert.

  17. Geophysical Implications of Enceladus' CO2 Frost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, D.; Davies, A. G.; Johnson, T. V.; Castillo, J. C.; Lunine, J. I.

    2013-12-01

    CO2 frost has been reported on the surface of Enceladus [1]. We suggest that the frost originated from shallow gas pockets below the surface. These pockets are a natural consequence of the ocean water circulation hypothesis [2]. They are different from the plume chambers [3] and would constitute a previously unrecognized structure in the surface. The oceanic circulation uses gas bubbles to make seawater buoyant and bring up water, chemicals, and heat from a warm ocean at depth [2]. The ocean water rises through the icy crust and near the surface it spreads out laterally beneath a relatively thin ice cap, following the pattern indicated by the thermal anomalies identified in Cassini data [4,5]. Topography on the bottom of this cap ice is conducive to the formation of gas pockets. As the ocean water flows horizontally, the gas bubbles in it continue to rise vertically. Even though their vertical migration may be slow and even if the flow is relatively turbulent, some bubbles reach recesses in the bottom of the ice cap and, over time, pop and form gas pockets. The gas pockets are envisioned as being ruptured by the regular fissuring of ice in the South Polar Region. Hurford et al. [6] have modelled the tidally controlled openings of rifts in the SPR. If one of these rifts reaches a gas pocket, CO2 gas may come to the surface. The tortuosity and other properties of its route will determine if it vents as a seep or a jet. If enough gas is vented and the molecules in the transient cloud have many collisions, some of them will be scattered to the surface and freeze. It was noted by Brown, et al. [1] that the frost deposits may not be permanent and that an active replenishment processes might be necessary. Studies of CO2 frost on Iapetus suggest that migration can be significant [7]. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. al., Science 311, 1425-1428, 2006. [2] Matson D. L. et al., Icarus 221, 53

  18. Statistical evaluation and modeling of Internet dial-up traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faerber, Johannes; Bodamer, Stefan; Charzinski, Joachim

    1999-08-01

    In times of Internet access being a popular consumer applications even for `normal' residential users, some telephone exchanges are congested by customers using modem or ISDN dial-up connections to their Internet Service Providers. In order to estimate the number of additional lines and switching capacity required in an exchange or a trunk group, Internet access traffic must be characterized in terms of holding time and call interarrival time distributions. In this paper, we analyze log files tracing the usage of the central ISDN access line pool at University of Stuttgart for a period of six months. Mathematical distributions are fitted to the measured data and the fit quality is evaluated with respect to the blocking probability caused by the synthetic traffic in a multiple server loss system. We show how the synthetic traffic model scales with the number of subscribers and how the model could be applied to compute economy of scale results for Internet access trunks or access servers.

  19. Diode laser based water vapor DIAL using modulated pulse technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Phong Le Hoai; Abo, Makoto

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a diode laser based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for measuring lower-tropospheric water vapor profile using the modulated pulse technique. The transmitter is based on single-mode diode laser and tapered semiconductor optical amplifier with a peak power of 10W around 800nm absorption band, and the receiver telescope diameter is 35cm. The selected wavelengths are compared to referenced wavelengths in terms of random error and systematic errors. The key component of modulated pulse technique, a macropulse, is generated with a repetition rate of 10 kHz, and the modulation within the macropulse is coded according to a pseudorandom sequence with 100ns chip width. As a result, we evaluate both single pulse modulation and pseudorandom coded pulse modulation technique. The water vapor profiles conducted from these modulation techniques are compared to the real observation data in summer in Japan.

  20. Dial a feeling: Detecting moderation of affect decline during ostracism

    PubMed Central

    Wesselmann, Eric D.; Wirth, James H.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Williams, Kipling D.

    2013-01-01

    Ostracism, being excluded and ignored, is a common and painful experience. Previous research has found ostracism's immediate effects robust to moderation by individual differences. However, this could be the result of using retrospective measures taken after the ostracism occurs, rather than assessing the effects of ostracism throughout the episode. Participants completed measures of loneliness and social avoidance and distress before either being ostracized or included in a virtual ball-toss game, Cyberball. During Cyberball, participants recorded second-by-second phenomenological affect using a dial device. Individual differences in loneliness and social avoidance and distress moderated affective reactions throughout ostracism and inclusion. Lonely individuals, compared to less-lonely individuals, had slower affect decrease when ostracized but quicker affective increase when included. Additionally, socially-avoidant individuals recovered more slowly from ostracism than less-avoidant individuals. Replicating previous research, moderation by individual differences was not detected with measures taken only at end of the interaction or with retrospective measures. PMID:23585705

  1. Experimental Investigations into CO2 Interactions with Injection Well Infrastructure for CO2 Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Amer; Shi, Ji-Quan; Durucan, Sevket; Nash, Graham; Korre, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Wellbore integrity is an essential requirement to ensure the success of a CO2 Storage project as leakage of CO2 from the injection or any other abandoned well in the storage complex, could not only severely impede the efficiency of CO2 injection and storage but also may result in potential adverse impact on the surrounding environment. Early research has revealed that in case of improper well completions and/or significant changes in operating bottomhole pressure and temperature could lead to the creation of microannulus at cement-casing interface which may constitute a preferential pathway for potential CO2 leakage during and post injection period. As a part of a European Commission funded CO2CARE project, the current research investigates the sealing behaviour of such microannulus at the cement-casing interface under simulated subsurface reservoir pressure and temperature conditions and uses the findings to develop a methodology to assess the overall integrity of CO2 storage. A full scale wellbore experimental test set up was constructed for use under elevated pressure and temperature conditions as encountered in typical CO2 storage sites. The wellbore cell consists of an assembly of concentric elements of full scale casing (Diameter= 0.1524m), cement sheath and an outer casing. The stainless steel outer ring is intended to simulate the stiffness offered by the reservoir rock to the displacement applied at the wellbore. The Central Loading Mechanism (CLM) consists of four case hardened shoes that can impart radial load onto the well casing. The radial movement of the shoes is powered through the synchronised movement of four precision jacks controlled hydraulically which could impart radial pressures up to 15 MPa. The cell body is a gas tight enclosure that houses the wellbore and the central loading mechanism. The setup is enclosed in a laboratory oven which acts both as temperature and safety enclosure. Prior to a test, cement mix is set between the casing and

  2. Alexandrite laser transmitter development for airborne water vapor DIAL measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chyba, Thomas H.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Higdon, Noah S.; DeYoung, Russell J.; Browell, Edward V.

    1995-01-01

    In the DIAL technique, the water vapor concentration profile is determined by analyzing the lidar backscatter signals for laser wavelengths tuned 'on' and 'off' a water vapor absorption line. Desired characteristics of the on-line transmitted laser beam include: pulse energy greater than or equal to 100 mJ, high-resolution tuning capability (uncertainty less than 0.25 pm), good spectral stability (jitter less than 0.5 pm about the mean), and high spectral purity (greater than 99 percent). The off-line laser is generally detuned less than 100 pm away from the water vapor line. Its spectral requirements are much less stringent. In our past research, we developed and demonstrated the airborne DIAL technique for water vapor measurements in the 720-nm spectral region using a system based on an alexandrite laser as the transmitter for the on-line wavelength and a Nd:YAG laser-pumped dye laser for the off-line wavelength. This off-line laser has been replaced by a second alexandrite laser. Diode lasers are used to injection seed both lasers for frequency and linewidth control. This eliminates the need for the two intracavity etalons utilized in our previous alexandrite laser and thereby greatly reduces the risk of optical damage. Consequently, the transmitted pulse energy can be substantially increased, resulting in greater measurement range, higher data density, and increased measurement precision. In this paper, we describe the diode injection seed source, the two alexandrite lasers, and the device used to line lock the on-line seed source to the water vapor absorption feature.

  3. Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    This revision of the 2011 report, Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources, evaluates biogenic CO2 emissions from stationary sources, including a detailed study of the scientific and technical issues associated with assessing biogenic carbon dioxide...

  4. Enhanced Molecular Sieve CO2 Removal Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Susan; ElSherif, Dina; MacKnight, Allen

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to quantitatively characterize the performance of two major types of molecular sieves for two-bed regenerative carbon dioxide removal at the conditions compatible with both a spacesuit and station application. One sorbent is a zeolite-based molecular sieve that has been substantially improved over the materials used in Skylab. The second sorbent is a recently developed carbon-based molecular sieve. Both molecular sieves offer the potential of high payoff for future manned missions by reducing system complexity, weight (including consumables), and power consumption in comparison with competing concepts. The research reported here provides the technical data required to improve CO2 removal systems for regenerative life support systems for future IVA and EVA missions.

  5. CO2 laser therapy of rhinophyma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Peggy; Jovanovic, Sergije; Sedlmaier, Benedikt W.

    2000-06-01

    Laser treatment of skin changes has become common practice in recent years. High absorption of the CO2 laser wavelength in water is responsible for its low penetration dpt in biological tissue. Shortening the tissue exposure time minimizes thermic side effects of laser radiation such as carbonization and coagulation. This can be achieved with scanner systems that move the focused laser beam over a defined area by microprocessor-controlled rapidly rotating mirrors. This enables controlled and reliable removal of certain dermal lesions, particularly hypertrophic scars, scars after common acne, wrinkles and rhinophyma. Laser ablation of rhinophyma is a stress-minimizing procedure for the surgeon and the patient, since it is nearly bloodless and can be performed under local anaesthesia. Cosmetically favorable reepithelization of the lasered surfaces is achieved within a very short period of time.

  6. Spaceborne CO2 laser communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, J. H.; Mcavoy, N.; Johnson, E. H.; Goodwin, F. E.; Peyton, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    Projections of the growth of earth-sensing systems for the latter half of the 1980's show a data transmission requirement of 300 Mbps and above. Mission constraints and objectives lead to the conclusion that the most efficient technique to return the data from the sensing satellite to a ground station is through a geosynchronous data relay satellite. Of the two links that are involved (sensing satellite to relay satellite and relay satellite to ground), a laser system is most attractive for the space-to-space link. The development of CO2 laser systems for space-to-space applications is discussed with the completion of a 300 Mpbs data relay receiver and its modification into a transceiver. The technology and state-of-the-art of such systems are described in detail.

  7. Atmospheric effects on CO2 laser propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murty, S. S. R.; Bilbro, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was made of the losses encountered in the propagation of CO2 laser radiation through the atmosphere, particularly as it applies to the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center Pulsed Laser Doppler System. As such it addresses three major areas associated with signal loss: molecular absorption, refractive index changes in a turbulent environment, and aerosol absorption and scattering. In particular, the molecular absorption coefficients of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrous oxide are calculated for various laser lines in the region of 10.6 mu m as a function of various pressures and temperatures. The current status in the physics of low-energy laser propagation through a turbulent atmosphere is presented together with the analysis and evaluation of the associated heterodyne signal power loss. Finally, aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficients are calculated for various aerosol distributions and the results incorporated into the signal-to-noise ratio equation for the Marshall Space Flight Center system.

  8. Bosch CO2 Reduction System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. F.; King, C. D.; Keller, E. E.

    1975-01-01

    Refinements in the design of a Bosch CO2 reduction unit for spacecraft O2 production are described. Sealing of the vacuum insulation jacket was simplified so that high vacuum and high insulation performance are easily maintained. The device includes a relatively simple concentric shell recuperative heat exchanger which operates at approximately 95% temperature effectiveness and helps lower power consumption. The influence of reactor temperature, pressure, and recycle gas composition on power consumption was investigated. In general, precise control is not required since power consumption is not very sensitive to moderate variations of these parameters near their optimum values. There are two process rate control modes which match flow rate to process demand. Catalyst conditioning, support, and packing pattern developments assure consistent starts, reduced energy consumption, and extended cartridge life. Operation levels for four or five men were maintained with overall power input values of 50 to 60 watts per man.

  9. CO2 Sequestration and Recycle by Photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Steven S.C. Chuang

    2004-02-01

    Visible light-photocatalysis could provide a cost-effective route to recycle CO2 to useful chemicals or fuels. Research is planned to study the reactivity of adsorbates, their role in the photosynthesis reaction, and their relation to the nature of surface sites during photosynthesis of methanol and hydrocarbons from CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O. The year two research focus catalyst screening and IR studies. Key research results show Pd/TiO2 exhibits the highest activity for hydrocarbon synthesis from photocatalytic reactions. The in situ IR could successfully monitor the adsorbate hydrocarbon species on Cu/TiO2. Year III research will focus on developing a better understanding of the key factors which control the catalyst activity.

  10. Anterior capsulotomy using the CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barak, Adiel; Ma-Naim, Tova; Rosner, Mordechai; Eyal, Ophir; Belkin, Michael

    1998-06-01

    Continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC) is the preferred technique for removal of the anterior capsule during cataract surgery due to this technique assuring accurate centration of the intraocular lens. During modern cataract surgery, especially with small or foldable intra ocular lenses, centration of the lens is obligatory. Radial tears at the margin of an anterior capsulotomy may be associated with the exit of at least one loop of an intraocular lens out of the capsular bag ('pea pod' effect) and its subsequent decentration. The anterior capsule is more likely to ream intact if the continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC) technique is used. Although manual capsulorhexis is an ideal anterior capsulectomy technique for adults, many ophthalmologists are still uncomfortable with it and find it difficult to perform, especially in complicated cases such as these done behind small pupil, cataract extraction in children and pseudoexfoliation syndrome. We have developed a technique using a CO2 laser system for safe anterior capsulotomy and tested it in animal eyes.

  11. Nominal hazard distances for CO2 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkes, J. A.; Tyrer, J.; Bandle, A. M.

    Several values of nominal hazard distances (NHD's) for CO2 lasers are reported for different industrial laser systems. For the same laser system the NHD is increased in welding as opposed to cutting applications because a longer focal length lens is used. In most systems the NHD decreases with decreasing laser power because the beam diameter remains approximately the same for a given laser. If the same series of lasers are compared, each with increasing maximum power output, the NHD generally increases, nonlinearly with increasing power. However, in the 1.5 kW and 3 kW region the hazard distance may decrease with increasing power. This decrease is attributed to the increase in laser beam diameter arising from the transition between TEM00 and a TEM01 mode at this point.

  12. CO2 laser milling of hard tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Martin; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Klasing, Manfred; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Drilling of bone and tooth tissue belongs to recurrent medical procedures (screw- and pin-bores, bores for implant inserting, trepanation etc.). Small round bores can be in general quickly produced with mechanical drills. Problems arise however by angled drilling, by the necessity to fulfill the drilling without damaging of sensitive soft tissue beneath the bone, or by the attempt to mill precisely noncircular small cavities. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The "milling" is done with a CO2 laser (10.6 μm) with pulse duration of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled galvanic beam scanner and with a fine water-spray, which helps to avoid thermal side-effects. The damaging of underlying soft tissue can be prevented through control of the optical or acoustical ablation signal. The ablation of hard tissue is accompanied with a strong glowing, which is absent during the laser beam action on soft tissue. The acoustic signals from the diverse tissue types exhibit distinct differences in the spectral composition. Also computer image analysis could be a useful tool to control the operation. Laser "milling" of noncircular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth is particularly interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser "milling" of the cavities without thermal damage and with minimal tapering. It included exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines and their combinations), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, optimal position of the spray. The optimized results give evidences for the applicability of the CO2 laser for biologically tolerable "milling" of deep cavities in the hard tissue.

  13. Atmospheric measurement of point source fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Keller, E. D.; Baisden, W. T.; Brailsford, G.; Bromley, T.; Norris, M.; Zondervan, A.

    2013-11-01

    We use the Kapuni Gas Treatment Plant to examine methodologies for atmospheric monitoring of point source fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions. The Kapuni plant, located in rural New Zealand, removes CO2 from locally extracted natural gas and vents that CO2 to the atmosphere, at a rate of ~0.1 Tg carbon per year. The plant is located in a rural dairy farming area, with no other significant CO2ff sources nearby, but large, diurnally varying, biospheric CO2 fluxes from the surrounding highly productive agricultural grassland. We made flask measurements of CO2 and 14CO2 (from which we derive the CO2ff component) and in situ measurements of CO2 downwind of the Kapuni plant, using a Helikite to sample transects across the emission plume from the surface up to 100 m a.g.l. We also determined the surface CO2ff content averaged over several weeks from the 14CO2 content of grass samples collected from the surrounding area. We use the WindTrax plume dispersion model to compare the atmospheric observations with the emissions reported by the Kapuni plant, and to determine how well atmospheric measurements can constrain the emissions. The model has difficulty accurately capturing the fluctuations and short-term variability in the Helikite samples, but does quite well in representing the observed CO2ff in 15 min averaged surface flask samples and in ~1 week integrated CO2ff averages from grass samples. In this pilot study, we found that using grass samples, the modeled and observed CO2ff emissions averaged over one week agreed to within 30%. The results imply that greater verification accuracy may be achieved by including more detailed meteorological observations and refining 14CO2 sampling strategies.

  14. Assessment of CO2 flux measurements in different soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Szlavecz, K.; Musaloiu, R.; Cupchup, J.; Pitz, S.

    2008-12-01

    Accurate measurements of soil CO2 efflux are extraordinarily challenging due to the very properties of CO2 transport in a porous medium of soil. The most commonly used method today is the chamber method, which provides direct measurements of CO2 efflux at the soil surface, but it can not measure the soil CO2 flux continuously. In order to develop new measurement methods in soil CO2 efflux, small solid-state CO2 sensors have been used to continuously to monitor soil CO2 profiles by burying these sensors at different soil depths. Using this method we compared soil CO2 efflux of four different soil types: forests soil, grassland soil (collected in Maryland) commercial potting soil and pure sand as control. CO2 concentration varied between 500 ppm in sand and 8000 ppm in forest soil at depth 12 cm. CO2 flux had the following order: Forest (0.3~0.4 mg CO2 m-2 s-1), potting soil (0.1~0.14 mg CO2 m-2 s-1 ), grassland (0.03~0.05 mg CO2 m-2 s-1), sand ( 0 mg CO2 m-2 s-1 ). Exponential relationship between temperature and CO2 flux was established for forest soil and potting soil only. Leaf litter, often thick layer in many terrestrial ecosystems and a significant source of CO2 production, is not part of the of the diffusivity models. We are currently conducting experiments which include the effect of leaf litter and soil invertebrates into soil respiration.

  15. Assessing the impact of cloud slicing techniques on estimates of surface CO2 exchange using atmospheric inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, A. E.; Kawa, S. R.; Crowell, S.; Browell, E. V.; Abshire, J. B.; Ramanathan, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Typically more than half of the earth's surface is cloudy at any one point in time. Passive CO2 satellite instruments such as GOSAT and OCO-2 have historically filtered out these scenes, as being too difficult to interpret. However, with the advent of active sensing technologies coupled with ranging capabilities, many of these limitations are being lifted. While, the remote sensing community continues to grapple with the radiative-transfer aspects of the cloud-top CO2 retrieval problem, the carbon cycling community has begun to consider what parts of the carbon cycle might be constrained with this new stream of data. Using cloud data derived from CALIPSO, a simulated carbon cycle, and state of the art atmospheric inversion models, we will investigate the impact of "above cloud" partial-column retrievals of CO2 upon estimates of surface CO2 flux. In particular, we will investigate (1) the general constraint imposed upon surface CO2 fluxes, by retrievals over spatially and time coherent cloud structures around the globe as well as (2) the partitioning of gross primary production and respiration CO2 flux terms by differencing full-column and above-cloud partial column CO2 over scenes with optically thick low clouds.

  16. SOLUBILITY OF ORGANIC BIOCIDES IN SUPERCRITICAL CO2 AND CO2+ COSOLVENT MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solubilities of four organic biocides in supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO2) were measured using a dynamic flowr apparatus over a pressure range of 10 to 30 MPa and temperature of 35-80 degrees C. The biocides studied were: Amical-48 (diiodomethyl p-tolyl sulfone), chlorothalo...

  17. Optical properties of CO2 ice and CO2 snow in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    The project was to measure the optical constants of CO2 ice in the spectral regions of weak absorption. Many previous measurements had been made by others in the strong absorption bands, but the weak regions had been poorly measured or not measured at all. In these regions the emissivity of CO2 frost and CO2 clouds is quite sensitive to particle sizes and to the value of the absorption coefficient, so the new measurements will have applications to energy budget and remote sensing of the Martian surface and atmosphere. During the time period covered by this grant, a method was developed for growing clear crystals of CO2, 4 cm in length. An apparatus was constructed for accurate measurement of spectral transmission through these crystals, for wavelengths 0.18-3.8 micrometers, covering the near-ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions, bounded by the strong ultraviolet absorption and the 4.3-micrometer band. Our new best estimate of the spectral absorption coefficient (expressed as imaginary refractive index) is shown. It is a composite result of many measurements on dozens of crystals. Now that we have a good dataset for the shortwave absorption spectrum, the focus of the research has moved to the thermal infrared, for which a Fourier Transform interferometer has been adapted for use with C02-ice crystals.

  18. Industrial CO2 Removal: CO2 Capture from Ambient Air and Geological Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.

    2011-06-08

    This abstract and its accompanying presentation will provide an overview of two distinct industrial processes for removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere as a means of addressing anthropogenic climate change. The first of these is carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) coupled with large scale biomass production (hereafter referred to as bioCCS). The second is CO2 capture from ambient air via industrial systems (hereafter referred to as direct air capture (DAC)). In both systems, the captured CO2 would be injected into deep geologic formations so as to isolate it from the atmosphere. The technical literature is clear that both of these technologies are technically feasible as of today (IPCC, 2005; Keith, 2009; Lackner, 2009; Luckow et al., 2010; Ranjan and Herzog, 2011). What is uncertain is the relative cost of these industrial ambient-air CO2 removal systems when compared to other emissions mitigation measures, the ultimate timing and scale of their deployment, and the resolution of potential site specific constraints that would impact their ultimate commercial deployment.

  19. Development of Field-deployable Diode-laser-based Water Vapor Dial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham Le Hoai, Phong; Abo, Makoto; Sakai, Tetsu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a field-deployable diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) has been developed for lower-tropospheric water vapor observation in Tokyo, Japan. A photoacoustic cell is used for spectroscopy experiment around absorption peaks of 829.022 nm and 829.054 nm. The water vapor density extracted from the observational data agrees with the referenced radiosonde data. Furthermore, we applied modulated pulse technique for DIAL transmitter. It enables DIAL to measure water vapor profile for both low and high altitude regions.

  20. Precise measurements of the total concentration of atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2/12CO2 isotopic ratio using a lead-salt laser diode spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Croizé, Laurence; Mondelain, Didier; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Delmotte, Marc; Schmidt, Martina

    2008-04-01

    We have developed a tunable diode laser spectrometer, called SIMCO (spectrometer for isotopic measurements of CO(2)), for determining the concentrations of (12)CO(2) and (13)CO(2) in atmospheric air, from which the total concentration of CO(2) and the isotopic composition (expressed in delta units) delta(13)CO(2) are calculated. The two concentrations are measured using a pair of lines around 2290.1 cm(-1), by fitting a line profile model, taking into account the confinement narrowing effect to achieve a better accuracy. Using the Allan variance, we have demonstrated (for an integration time of 25 s) a precision of 0.1 ppmv for the total CO(2) concentration and of 0.3[per thousand] for delta(13)CO(2). The performances on atmospheric air have been tested during a 3 days campaign by comparing the SIMCO instrument with a gas chromatograph (GC) for the measurement of the total CO(2) concentration and with an isotopic ratio mass spectrometer (MS) for the isotopic composition. The CO(2) concentration measurements of SIMCO are in very good agreement with the GC data with a mean difference of Delta(CO(2))=0.16+/-1.20 ppmv for a comparison period of 45 h and the linearity of the concentration between the two instruments is also very good (slope of correlation: 0.9996+/-0.0003) over the range between 380 and 415 ppmv. For delta(13)CO(2), the comparison with the MS data shows a larger mean difference of Delta(delta(13)CO(2))=(-1.9+/-1.2)[per thousand], which could be partly related to small residual fluctuations of the overall SIMCO instrument response. PMID:18447517

  1. DIAL measurement of lower tropospheric ozone over Saga (33.24° N, 130.29° E), Japan, and comparison with a chemsitry-climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, O.; Sakai, T.; Nagai, T.; Morino, I.; Maki, T.; Deushi, M.; Shibata, K.; Kajino, M.; Kawasaki, T.; Akaho, T.; Takubo, S.; Okumura, H.; Arai, K.; Nakazato, M.; Matsunaga, T.; Yokota, T.; Kawakami, S.; Kita, K.; Sasano, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We have improved an ozone DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system, originally developed in March 2010. The improved DIAL system consists of a Nd:YAG laser and a 2 m Raman cell filled with 8.1 × 105 Pa of CO2 gas which generate four Stokes lines (276, 287, 299, and 312 nm) of stimulated Raman scattering, and two receiving telescopes with diameters of 49 and 10 cm. Using this system, 44 ozone profiles were observed in the 1-6 km altitude range over Saga (33.24° N, 130.29° E) in 2012. High ozone concentration layers were observed at around 2 km altitude during April and May. Ozone column amounts within the 1-6 km altitude range were almost constant from January to March, and increased from late April to July. From mid-July through August, ozone column amounts decreased greatly because of exchanges of continental and maritime air masses. Then in mid-September they increased again within 1-6 km, and subsequently decreased slowly, becoming almost constant by December. The Meteorological Research Institute's Chemistry-Climate Model version 2 (MRI-CCM2) successfully predicted most of these ozone variations with the following exceptions. MRI-CCM2 could not predict the high ozone-mixing ratios measured at around 2 km altitude on 5 May and 11 May, possibly in part because emissions were assumed in the model to be constant (climatological data were used). Ozone-mixing ratios predicted by MRI-CCM2 were low in the 2-6 km range on 7 July and high in the 1-4 km range on 19 July compared with those measured by DIAL.

  2. DIAL measurement of lower tropospheric ozone over Saga (33.24° N, 130.29° E), Japan, and comparison with a chemistry-climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, O.; Sakai, T.; Nagai, T.; Morino, I.; Maki, T.; Deushi, M.; Shibata, K.; Kajino, M.; Kawasaki, T.; Akaho, T.; Takubo, S.; Okumura, H.; Arai, K.; Nakazato, M.; Matsunaga, T.; Yokota, T.; Kawakami, S.; Kita, K.; Sasano, Y.

    2014-05-01

    We have improved an ozone DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system, originally developed in March 2010. The improved DIAL system consists of a Nd:YAG laser and a 2 m Raman cell filled with 8.1 × 105 Pa of CO2 gas which generate four Stokes lines (276, 287, 299, and 312 nm) of stimulated Raman scattering, and two receiving telescopes with diameters of 49 and 10 cm. Using this system, 44 ozone profiles were observed in the 1-6 km altitude range over Saga (33.24° N, 130.29° E) in 2012. High-ozone layers were observed at around 2 km altitude during April and May. Ozone column amounts within the 1-6 km altitude range were almost constant (19.1 DU on average) from January to March, and increased to 26.7 DU from late April to July. From mid-July through August, ozone column amounts decreased greatly to 14.3 DU because of exchanges of continental and maritime air masses. Then in mid-September they increased again to 22.1 DU within 1-6 km, and subsequently decreased slowly to 17.3 DU, becoming almost constant by December. The Meteorological Research Institute's chemistry-climate model version 2 (MRI-CCM2) successfully predicted most of these ozone variations with the following exceptions. MRI-CCM2 could not predict the high-ozone volume mixing ratios measured at around 2 km altitude on 5 May and 11 May, possibly in part because emissions were assumed in the model to be constant (climatological data were used). Ozone volume mixing ratios predicted by MRI-CCM2 were low in the 2-6 km range on 7 July and high in the 1-4 km range on 19 July compared with those measured by DIAL.

  3. Molecular simulations of CO2 and mixed CH4-CO2 hydrates intercalated on smectites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martos-Villa, Rubén; Sainz-Díaz, C. Ignacio; Mata Campo, M. Pilar

    2013-04-01

    Natural gas hydrates (NGH) are crystalline compounds consisting of methane molecules encaged in cavities of a hydrogen-bonded network of water molecules. Gas hydrates have a general formula X?nH2O, where X is the guest molecule within a water cage, and n is the hydration number per guest molecule. The crystal structure sI consists of 46 water molecules per unit cell, forming two dodecahedron (small 512) and six tetradecahedron (large 51262) cages and is formed when small guest molecules such as methane or carbon dioxide are trapped. Considerable amounts of methane hydrates can be found in permafrost regions and sediments of the ocean floor in outer continental margin regions where medium pressures, low temperatures and high methane gas concentration in water can be reached. Gas hydrates are important because hydrate decomposition would cause the methane release into atmosphere causing great impact on Earth's climate. On the other hand, these NGH are seen as a potential major energy resource. The recent increase in anthropogenic CO2 gas released to the atmosphere and its contribution to global warming, makes necessary to investigate new ways of CO2 storage. The possibility of replacing natural gas by CO2 from NGH has been investigated. There are thermodynamic evidences that support the replacement in hydrate at appropriate conditions. The comparison of their hydrate phase equilibrium conditions suggests the occurrence of a transition zone between both hydrate equilibrium curves where CO2 hydrates can exist while CH4 hydrates dissociate into methane gas and water. Any further investigation of the mixed CH4-CO2 gas hydrate properties could lead to major breakthroughs in the fields of unconventional resource production and carbon sequestration. Clay minerals are major constituents of ocean sediments, the study of interactions between these minerals with hydrates on the seafloor can be useful to determine variations on hydrate stability field, and to know the properties

  4. 40 CFR 98.473 - Calculating CO2 received.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calculating CO2 received. 98.473... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Injection of Carbon Dioxide § 98.473 Calculating CO2 received. (a) You must calculate and report the annual mass of CO2 received by pipeline using the procedures...

  5. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 STORAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of the...

  6. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 SEQUESTRATION (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of the...

  7. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of t...

  8. Temporal characteristics of atmospheric CO2 in urban Nanjing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaoxian; Wang, Tijian; Talbot, Robert; Xie, Min; Mao, Huiting; Li, Shu; Zhuang, Bingliang; Yang, Xiuqun; Fu, Congbin; Zhu, Jialei; Huang, Xing; Xu, Runying

    2015-02-01

    Although China is a big carbon dioxide (CO2) emitter, in situ measurements of atmospheric CO2 are sparse in urban China. The mixing ratio of carbon dioxide (CO2) and its influencing factors in urban Nanjing were investigated in this study, from the 18th of January to the 31st of December 2011. The annual average mixing ratio of CO2 was 406.5 ± 20.0 ppmv over the study period. The signal analysis using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm showed that CO2 had different cycles as a result of multiple controlling factors. The seasonal and intra-seasonal fluctuations of CO2 were mainly caused by the terrestrial biospheric uptake and emission and atmospheric oscillation. The weekly variation of CO2 was largely influenced by traffic volume. The diurnal cycle of CO2 presented a bimodal pattern in winter (DJF) probably due to the rush hour emissions. The seasonal mean CO2/CO correlation slope varied from 0.024 ppmv/ppbv to 0.029 ppmv/ppbv, comparable to the fossil fuel combustion emission ratio. The diurnal pattern of CO2/CO was irregular, indicating random anthropogenic emissions in an urban area. Firework setting was a large source of CO2 during the Spring Festival holiday. The backward trajectories by the HYSPLIT model showed that the local anthropogenic emissions contributed the most to the high CO2 mixing ratio in the urban area.

  9. SURFACTANT ENHANCEMENT OF LIQUID CO2 FOR SURFACE CLEANING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this research activity is to develop the technical basis for a liquid CO2 (LCO2) based surface cleaning technology for metals and fabrics utilizing CO2 compatible surfactants. The use of CO2 is considered attractive for surface cleaning since it is abundant, cheap t...

  10. Experimental investigation of CO2 condensation process using cryogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheonkyu; Yoo, Junghyun; Lee, Jisung; Park, Hana; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2014-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the dominant gas molecules that causes greenhouse effect, i.e. global warming. Numerous studies have been carried out to regulate the emission of CO2 to reduce greenhouse gas. The liquid CO2 is a convenient form of transportation compared to high-pressurized gaseous CO2. Therefore, the direct liquefaction mechanism of CO2 at low temperature draws technical attention recently. In particular, cold thermal energy of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) could be a candidate to condense gaseous CO2, especially in the LNG powered ship. In this paper, the detailed direct condensation process of CO2 using LN2 with intermittent solidification is investigated. Pressurized CO2 at 600 kPa is directly liquefied in a vessel by liquid nitrogen which is supplied into the coiled tube heat exchanger inside the CO2 vessel. The heat exchanger temperature is controlled from 130 K to 205 K to regulate the solidification and sublimation of CO2 by duty control with cryogenic solenoid valve. The characteristics of CO2 condensation process with cryogen are analyzed from the measurement results. The results show that the solidification causes the significant degradation of CO2 condensation heat transfer. Finally, the condensation rate with and without solidification is compared.

  11. 40 CFR 98.443 - Calculating CO2 geologic sequestration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CO2 concentration in the flow and the density of CO2 at standard conditions, according to Equation RR... well in quarter p (standard cubic meters). D = Density of CO2 at standard conditions (metric tons per... another facility without being injected into your well in quarter p (metric tons). D = Density of the...

  12. GLOBAL MITIGATION OF NON-CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mitigation of noncarbon dioxide (non-CO2) greenhouse gas emissions can be a relatively inexpensive supplement to CO2-only mitigation strategies. The non-CO2 gases include methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and a number of high global warming potential (high- GWP) or fluorinated gases. These ga...

  13. 40 CFR 98.423 - Calculating CO2 supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculating CO2 supply. 98.423 Section...) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Carbon Dioxide § 98.423 Calculating CO2 supply. (a) Calculate the annual mass of CO2 captured, extracted, imported, or exported through each flow meter...

  14. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.433 Quantity of CO2: General. Each CO2 system must...

  15. Designing an oscillating CO2 concentration experiment for field chambers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Questions have arisen about photosynthetic response to fluctuating carbon dioxide (CO2), which might affect yield in free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) systems and in open top chambers. A few studies have been conducted based on CO2 controlled to cycles of fixed time-periods and fixed, large amplitude....

  16. EFFECTS OF CO2 ON COMPETITION BETWEEN RICE AND BARNYARDGRASS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The atmospheric CO2 concentration is increasing. ffects of elevated CO2 on rice production could occur not only through direct impacts to rice, but also indirectly via ecosystem responses. hanged competitiveness with elevated CO2 could occur between rice hich has the C3 type of p...

  17. 40 CFR 98.423 - Calculating CO2 supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Carbon Dioxide § 98.423 Calculating CO2 supply. (a) Except... process units that capture a CO2 stream and either measure it after segregation or do not segregate the... = Flow meter. (ii) For facilities with production process units that capture a CO2 stream and measure...

  18. 40 CFR 98.423 - Calculating CO2 supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Carbon Dioxide § 98.423 Calculating CO2 supply. (a) Except... process units that capture a CO2 stream and either measure it after segregation or do not segregate the... = Flow meter. (ii) For facilities with production process units that capture a CO2 stream and measure...

  19. Lipid accumulation and CO2 utilization of Nannochloropsis oculata in response to CO2 aeration.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Sheng-Yi; Kao, Chien-Ya; Tsai, Ming-Ta; Ong, Seow-Chin; Chen, Chiun-Hsun; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    In order to produce microalgal lipids that can be transformed to biodiesel fuel, effects of concentration of CO(2) aeration on the biomass production and lipid accumulation of Nannochloropsis oculata in a semicontinuous culture were investigated in this study. Lipid content of N. oculata cells at different growth phases was also explored. The results showed that the lipid accumulation from logarithmic phase to stationary phase of N. oculata NCTU-3 was significantly increased from 30.8% to 50.4%. In the microalgal cultures aerated with 2%, 5%, 10% and 15% CO(2), the maximal biomass and lipid productivity in the semicontinuous system were 0.480 and 0.142 g L(-1)d(-1) with 2% CO(2) aeration, respectively. Even the N. oculata NCTU-3 cultured in the semicontinuous system aerated with 15% CO(2), the biomass and lipid productivity could reach to 0.372 and 0.084 g L(-1)d(-1), respectively. In the comparison of productive efficiencies, the semicontinuous system was operated with two culture approaches over 12d. The biomass and lipid productivity of N. oculata NCTU-3 were 0.497 and 0.151 g L(-1)d(-1) in one-day replacement (half broth was replaced each day), and were 0.296 and 0.121 g L(-1)d(-1) in three-day replacement (three fifth broth was replaced every 3d), respectively. To optimize the condition for long-term biomass and lipid yield from N. oculata NCTU-3, this microalga was suggested to grow in the semicontinuous system aerated with 2% CO(2) and operated by one-day replacement. PMID:18722767

  20. The Use of a Pseudo Noise Code for DIAL Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burris, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Retrievals of CO2 profiles within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are required to understand CO2 transport over regional scales and for validating the future space borne CO2 remote sensing instrument, such as the CO2 Laser Sounder, for the ASCENDS mission, We report the use of a return-to-zero (RZ) pseudo noise (PN) code modulation technique for making range resolved measurements of CO2 within the PBL using commercial, off-the-shelf, components. Conventional, range resolved, measurements require laser pulse widths that are s#rorter than the desired spatial resolution and have pulse spacing such that returns from only a single pulse are observed by the receiver at one time (for the PBL pulse separations must be greater than approximately 2000m). This imposes a serious limitation when using available fiber lasers because of the resulting low duty cycle (less than 0.001) and consequent low average laser output power. RZ PN code modulation enables a fiber laser to operate at much higher duty cycles (approaching 0.1) thereby more effectively utilizing the amplifier's output. This results in an increase in received counts by approximately two orders of magnitude. The approach involves employing two, back to back, CW fiber amplifiers seeded at the appropriate on and offline CO2 wavelengths (approximately 1572 nm) using distributed feedback diode lasers modulated by a PN code at rates significantly above 1 megahertz. An assessment of the technique, discussions of measurement precision and error sources as well as preliminary data will be presented.

  1. Sensory Transduction of the CO2 Response of Guard Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Eduardo Zeiger

    2003-06-30

    Stomata have a key role in the regulation of gas exchange and intercellular CO2 concentrations of leaves. Guard cells sense internal and external signals in the leaf environment and transduce these signals into osmoregulatory processes that control stomatal apertures. This research proposal addresses the characterization of the sensory transduction of the CO2 signal in guard cells. Recent studies have shown that in Vicia leaves kept at constant light and temperature in a growth chamber, changes in ambient CO2 concentrations cause large changes in guard cell zeaxanthin that are linear with CO2-dependent changes in stomatal apertures. Research proposed here will test the hypothesis that zeaxanthin function as a transducer of CO2 signals in guard cells. Three central aspects of this hypothesis will be investigated: CO2 sensing by the carboxylation reaction of Rubisco in the guard cell chloroplast, which would modulate zeaxanthin concentrations via changes in lumen pH; transduction of the CO2 signal by zeaxanthin via a transducing cascade that controls guard cell osmoregulation; and blue light dependence of the CO2 signal transduction by zeaxanthin, required for the formation of an isomeric form of zeaxanthin that is physiologically active as a transducer. The role of Rubisco in CO2 sensing will be investigated in experiments characterizing the stomatal response to CO2 in the Arabidopsis mutants R100 and rca-, which have reduced rates of Rubisco-dependent carboxylation. The role of zeaxanthin as a CO2 transducer will be studied in npq1, a zeaxanthin-less mutant. The blue light-dependence of CO2 sensing will be studied in experiments characterizing the stomatal response to CO2 under red light. Arabidopsis mutants will also be used in further studies of an acclimation of the stomatal response to CO2, and a possible role of the xanthophyll cycle of the guard cell chloroplast in acclimations of the stomatal response to CO2. Studies on the osmoregulatory role of sucrose in

  2. Application of the CO2-PENS risk analysis tool to the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stauffer, P.H.; Pawar, R.J.; Surdam, R.C.; Jiao, Z.; Deng, H.; Lettelier, B.C.; Viswanathan, H.S.; Sanzo, D.L.; Keating, G.N.

    2011-01-01

    We describe preliminary application of the CO2-PENS performance and risk analysis tool to a planned geologic CO2 sequestration demonstration project in the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU), located in south western Wyoming. We use data from the RSU to populate CO2-PENS, an evolving system-level modeling tool developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This tool has been designed to generate performance and risk assessment calculations for the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. Our approach follows Systems Analysis logic and includes estimates of uncertainty in model parameters and Monte-Carlo simulations that lead to probabilistic results. Probabilistic results provide decision makers with a range in the likelihood of different outcomes. Herein we present results from a newly implemented approach in CO 2-PENS that captures site-specific spatially coherent details such as topography on the reservoir/cap-rock interface, changes in saturation and pressure during injection, and dip on overlying aquifers that may be impacted by leakage upward through wellbores and faults. We present simulations of CO 2 injection under different uncertainty distributions for hypothetical leaking wells and faults. Although results are preliminary and to be used only for demonstration of the approach, future results of the risk analysis will form the basis for a discussion on methods to reduce uncertainty in the risk calculations. Additionally, we present ideas on using the model to help locate monitoring equipment to detect potential leaks. By maintaining site-specific details in the CO2-PENS analysis we provide a tool that allows more logical presentations to stakeholders in the region. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. CO2 Fixation into Novel CO2 Storage Materials Composed of 1,2-Ethanediamine and Ethylene Glycol Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tianxiang; Guo, Bo; Han, Limin; Zhu, Ning; Gao, Fei; Li, Qiang; Li, Lihua; Zhang, Jianbin

    2015-07-20

    A new CO2 fixation process into solid CO2 -storage materials (CO2 SMs) under mild conditions has been developed. The novel application of amine-glycol systems to the capture, storage, and utilization of CO2 with readily available 1,2-ethanediamine (EDA) and ethylene glycol derivatives (EGs) was demonstrated. Typically, the CO2 SMs were isolated in 28.9-47.5 % yields, followed by extensive characterization using (13) C NMR, XRD, and FTIR. We found that especially the resulting poly-ethylene-glycol-300-based CO2 SM (PCO2 SM) product could be processed into stable tablets for CO2 storage; the aqueous PCO2 SM solution exhibited remarkable CO2 capturing and releasing capabilities after multiple cycles. Most importantly, the EDA and PEG 300 released from PCO2 SM were found to act as facilitative surfactants for the multiple preparation of CaCO3 microparticles with nano-layer structure. PMID:25952008

  4. Determining CO2 storage potential during miscible CO2 enhanced oil recovery: noble gas and stable isotope tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jenna L.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Hunt, Andrew; Beebe, Thomas L; Parker, Andrew D; Warwick, Peter; Drake, Ronald; John E. McCray

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are fueling anthropogenic climate change. Geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 in depleted oil reservoirs is one option for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere while enhancing oil recovery. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites in the United States for permanent CO2 storage, an active multi-stage miscible CO2 flooding project in the Permian Basin (North Ward Estes Field, near Wickett, Texas) was investigated. In addition, two major natural CO2 reservoirs in the southeastern Paradox Basin (McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon) were also investigated as they provide CO2 for EOR operations in the Permian Basin. Produced gas and water were collected from three different CO2 flooding phases (with different start dates) within the North Ward Estes Field to evaluate possible CO2 storage mechanisms and amounts of total CO2 retention. McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon were sampled for produced gas to determine the noble gas and stable isotope signature of the original injected EOR gas and to confirm the source of this naturally-occurring CO2. As expected, the natural CO2 produced from McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon is a mix of mantle and crustal sources. When comparing CO2 injection and production rates for the CO2 floods in the North Ward Estes Field, it appears that CO2 retention in the reservoir decreased over the course of the three injections, retaining 39%, 49% and 61% of the injected CO2 for the 2008, 2010, and 2013 projects, respectively, characteristic of maturing CO2 miscible flood projects. Noble gas isotopic composition of the injected and produced gas for the flood projects suggest no active fractionation, while δ13CCO2 values suggest no active CO2 dissolution into formation water, or mineralization. CO2 volumes capable of dissolving in residual formation fluids were also estimated along with the potential to store pure-phase supercritical CO2. Using a combination of

  5. Shuttle Coherent Atmospheric Lidar Experiment (SCALE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilbro, J.; Beranek, R.; Fitzjarrald, D.; Mabry, J.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study to design and accommodate a simplified version of a coherent lidar system capable of performing tropospheric wind measurements are outlined. The following topics are addressed: system sensitivity, orbital analysis, science experiments, preliminary system design, accommodations, and the space qualification of a 2J CO2 laser.

  6. CO(2) homeostasis during periodic breathing in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Berger, K I; Ayappa, I; Sorkin, I B; Norman, R G; Rapoport, D M; Goldring, R M

    2000-01-01

    The contribution of apnea to chronic hypercapnia in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has not been clarified. Using a model (D. M. Rapoport, R. G. Norman, and R. M. Goldring. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 2302-2309, 1993), we previously illustrated failure of CO(2) homeostasis during periodic breathing resulting from temporal dissociation between ventilation and perfusion ("temporal V/Q mismatch"). This study measures acute kinetics of CO(2) during periodic breathing and addresses interapnea ventilatory compensation for maintenance of CO(2) homeostasis in 11 patients with OSA during daytime sleep (37-171 min). Ventilation and expiratory CO(2) and O(2) fractions were measured on a breath-by-breath basis by means of a tight-fitting full facemask. Calculations included CO(2) excretion, metabolic CO(2) production, and CO(2) balance (metabolic CO(2) production - exhaled CO(2)). CO(2) balance was tabulated for each apnea/hypopnea event-interevent cycle and as a cumulative value during sleep. Cumulative CO(2) balance varied (-3,570 to +1,388 ml). Positive cumulative CO(2) balance occurred in the absence of overall hypoventilation during sleep. For each cycle, positive CO(2) balance occurred despite increased interevent ventilation to rates as high as 45 l/min. This failure of CO(2) homeostasis was dependent on the event-to-interevent duration ratio. The results demonstrate that 1) periodic breathing provides a mechanism for acute hypercapnia in OSA, 2) acute hypercapnia during periodic breathing may occur without a decrease in average minute ventilation, supporting the presence of temporal V/Q mismatch, as predicted from our model, and 3) compensation for CO(2) accumulation during apnea/hypopnea may be limited by the duration of the interevent interval. The relationship of this acute hypercapnia to sustained chronic hypercapnia in OSA remains to be further explored. PMID:10642388

  7. CO2 storage capacity estimation: Methodology and gaps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bachu, S.; Bonijoly, D.; Bradshaw, J.; Burruss, R.; Holloway, S.; Christensen, N.P.; Mathiassen, O.M.

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of CO2 capture and geological storage (CCGS) technology at the scale needed to achieve a significant and meaningful reduction in CO2 emissions requires knowledge of the available CO2 storage capacity. CO2 storage capacity assessments may be conducted at various scales-in decreasing order of size and increasing order of resolution: country, basin, regional, local and site-specific. Estimation of the CO2 storage capacity in depleted oil and gas reservoirs is straightforward and is based on recoverable reserves, reservoir properties and in situ CO2 characteristics. In the case of CO2-EOR, the CO2 storage capacity can be roughly evaluated on the basis of worldwide field experience or more accurately through numerical simulations. Determination of the theoretical CO2 storage capacity in coal beds is based on coal thickness and CO2 adsorption isotherms, and recovery and completion factors. Evaluation of the CO2 storage capacity in deep saline aquifers is very complex because four trapping mechanisms that act at different rates are involved and, at times, all mechanisms may be operating simultaneously. The level of detail and resolution required in the data make reliable and accurate estimation of CO2 storage capacity in deep saline aquifers practical only at the local and site-specific scales. This paper follows a previous one on issues and development of standards for CO2 storage capacity estimation, and provides a clear set of definitions and methodologies for the assessment of CO2 storage capacity in geological media. Notwithstanding the defined methodologies suggested for estimating CO2 storage capacity, major challenges lie ahead because of lack of data, particularly for coal beds and deep saline aquifers, lack of knowledge about the coefficients that reduce storage capacity from theoretical to effective and to practical, and lack of knowledge about the interplay between various trapping mechanisms at work in deep saline aquifers. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd

  8. On the proportionality between global temperature change and cumulative CO2 emissions during periods of net negative CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zickfeld, Kirsten; MacDougall, Andrew H.; Damon Matthews, H.

    2016-05-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that global mean surface air warming is approximately proportional to cumulative CO2 emissions. This proportional relationship has received considerable attention, as it allows one to calculate the cumulative CO2 emissions (‘carbon budget’) compatible with temperature targets and is a useful measure for model inter-comparison. Here we use an Earth system model to explore whether this relationship persists during periods of net negative CO2 emissions. Negative CO2 emissions are required in the majority of emissions scenarios limiting global warming to 2 °C above pre-industrial, with emissions becoming net negative in the second half of this century in several scenarios. We find that for model simulations with a symmetric 1% per year increase and decrease in atmospheric CO2, the temperature change (ΔT) versus cumulative CO2 emissions (CE) relationship is nonlinear during periods of net negative emissions, owing to the lagged response of the deep ocean to previously increasing atmospheric CO2. When corrected for this lagged response, or if the CO2 decline is applied after the system has equilibrated with the previous CO2 increase, the ΔT versus CE relationship is close to linear during periods of net negative CO2 emissions. A proportionality constant—the transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions (TCRE)‑ can therefore be calculated for both positive and net negative CO2 emission periods. We find that in simulations with a symmetric 1% per year increase and decrease in atmospheric CO2 the TCRE is larger on the upward than on the downward CO2 trajectory, suggesting that positive CO2 emissions are more effective at warming than negative emissions are at subsequently cooling. We also find that the cooling effectiveness of negative CO2 emissions decreases if applied at higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  9. CO 2-water-basalt interaction. Numerical simulation of low temperature CO 2 sequestration into basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gysi, Alexander P.; Stefánsson, Andri

    2011-09-01

    The interaction between CO 2-rich waters and basaltic glass was studied using reaction path modeling in order to get insight into the water-rock reaction process including secondary mineral composition, water chemistry and mass transfer as a function of CO 2 concentration and reaction progress ( ξ). The calculations were carried out at 25-90 °C and pCO 2 to 30 bars and the results were compared to recent experimental observations and natural systems. A thermodynamic dataset was compiled from 25 to 300 °C in order to simulate mineral saturations relevant to basalt alteration in CO 2-rich environment including revised key aqueous species for mineral dissolution reactions and apparent Gibbs energies for clay and carbonate solid solutions observed to form in nature. The dissolution of basaltic glass in CO 2-rich waters was found to be incongruent with the overall water composition and secondary mineral formation depending on reaction progress and pH. Under mildly acid conditions in CO 2 enriched waters (pH <6.5), SiO 2 and simple Al-Si minerals, Ca-Mg-Fe smectites and Ca-Mg-Fe carbonates predominated. Iron, Al and Si were immobile whereas the Mg and Ca mobility depended on the mass of carbonate formed and water pH. Upon quantitative CO 2 mineralization, the pH increased to >8 resulting in Ca-Mg-Fe smectite, zeolites and calcite formation, reducing the mobility of most dissolved elements. The dominant factor determining the reaction path of basalt alteration and the associated element mobility was the pH of the water. In turn, the pH value was determined by the concentration of CO 2 and extent of reaction. The composition of the carbonates depended on the mobility of Ca, Mg and Fe. At pH <6.5, Fe was in the ferrous oxidation state resulting in the formation of Fe-rich carbonates with the incorporation of Ca and Mg. At pH >8, the mobility of Fe and Mg was limited due to the formation of clays whereas Ca was incorporated into calcite, zeolites and clays. Competing

  10. Vibration characteristic of high power CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kuo

    2015-02-01

    High power CO2 laser is widely used in various scientific, industrial and military applications. Vibration is a common phenomenon during laser working process, it will affect the working performance of high power CO2 laser, vibration must be strictly controlled in the condition where the laser pointing is required. This paper proposed a method to investigate the vibration characteristic of high power CO2 laser. An experiment device with vibration acceleration sensor was established to measure vibration signal of CO2 laser, the measured vibration signal was mathematically treated using space-frequency conversion, and then the vibration characteristic of high power CO2 laser can be obtained.

  11. Transpiration affects soil CO2 production in a dry grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh, János; Fóti, Szilvia; Pintér, Krisztina; Burri, Susanne; Eugster, Werner; Papp, Marianna; Nagy, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Although soil CO2 efflux can be highly variable on the diel time scale, it is often measured during daytime only. However, to get a full understanding of soil CO2 efflux and its impact on carbon cycle processes, looking at diurnal processes is crucial. Therefore, our aim was to investigate how diel variation in soil CO2 efflux from a dry, sandy grassland in Hungary depends on variations in potential drivers, such as gross primary production (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). In order to reach this goal, we combined measurements of CO2 and H2O fluxes by eddy covariance, soil chambers and soil CO2 gradient system. Surface CO2 fluxes were partitioned into the three CO2 production components originating from the three soil layers to clarify the timing and the source of the CO2 within the top 50 cm of the soil. CO2 production rates during the growing season were higher during nighttime than during daytime. This diel course was not only driven by soil temperature and soil moisture, but also by ET. This was shown by changes of ET causing a hysteresis loop in the diel response of CO2 production to soil temperature. CO2 production was coupled to soil temperature at night and during midday (12-14 h), when ET remained relatively constant. However, when ET was changing over time, CO2 production was decoupled from soil temperature. In order to disentangle these effects, we carried out time-lag analyses between CO2 production and efflux residuals after having subtracted the main effects of soil temperature and soil water content from measured CO2 fluxes. The results showed a strong negative correlation between ET rates and residuals of soil CO2 production, and a less strong, but still significantly time-lagged positive correlation between GPP and residuals of soil CO2 production. Thus, we could show that there is a rapid negative response of soil CO2 production rates to transpiration (suggesting CO2 transport in the xylem stream) and a delayed positive response to GPP

  12. Floral CO2 reveals flower profitability to moths.

    PubMed

    Thom, Corinna; Guerenstein, Pablo G; Mechaber, Wendy L; Hildebrand, John G

    2004-06-01

    The hawkmoth Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), an experimentally favorable Lepidopteran that is highly sensitive to carbon dioxide (CO2), feeds on the nectar of a range of flowering plants, such as Datura wrightii (Solanaceae). Newly opened Datura flowers give off dramatically elevated levels of CO2 and offer ample nectar. Thus, floral CO2 emission could indicate food-source profitability. This study documents that foraging Manduca moths prefer surrogate flowers that emit high levels of CO2, characteristic of newly opened Datura flowers. We show for the first time that CO2 may play an important role in the foraging behavior of nectar-feeding insects. PMID:15303329

  13. Effects of Elevated CO2 Atmospheric CO2 on Soil Efflux in Conventional and Conservation Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 can affect both the quantity and quality of plant tissues, which will impact the cycling and storage of carbon within plant/soil systems and the rate of CO2 release back to the atmosphere. Research is needed to more accurately quantify the effects of elevated CO2 on soil CO...

  14. Prairie Heating And CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) project: Semi-arid grassland responses to elevated CO2 and warming.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The new multi-factor Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment is a field experiment for subjecting a northern mixed-grass prairie, with and without weeds, to elevated CO2 and warming. This new experiment combines Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) technology with a newly designed ceramic heater system for exp...

  15. Investigation on the Dielectric Properties of CO2 and CO2-Based Gases Based on the Boltzmann Equation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Wu, Yi; Rong, Mingzhe; Guo, Anxiang; Han, Guiquan; Lu, Yanhui

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the dielectric properties of CO2, CO2/air, CO2/O2, CO2/N2, CO2/CF4, CO2/CH4, CO2/He, CO2/H2, CO2/NH3 and CO2/CO were investigated based on the Boltzmann equation analysis, in which the reduced critical electric field strength (E/N)cr of the gases was derived from the calculated electron energy distribution function (EEDF) by solving the Boltzmann transport equation. In this work, it should be noted that the fundamental data were carefully selected by the published experimental results and calculations to ensure the validity of the calculation. The results indicate that if He, H2, N2 and CH4, in which there are high ionization coefficients or a lack of attachment reactions, are added into CO2, the dielectric properties will decrease. On the other hand, air, O2, NH3 and CF4 (ranked in terms of (E/N)cr value in increasing order) have the potential to improve the dielectric property of CO2 at room temperature. supported in part by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2015CB251002), the Science and Technology Project Funds of the Grid State Corporation of China (No. SGSNK00KJJS1501564), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51221005, 51577145), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China, and the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, China

  16. A CO2 concentration gradient facility for testing CO2 enrichment and soil effects on grassland ecosystem function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuing increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations mandate techniques for examining impacts on terrestrial ecosystems. Most experiments examine only two or a few levels of CO2 concentration and a single soil type, but if CO2 can be varied as a gradient from subambient to superambient concentra...

  17. Detection and reconnaissance of pollutant clouds by CO2 lidar (MIRELA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Philippe; Duvent, Jean-Louis; Gotoff, Steven W.

    1997-10-01

    To determine the presence of a pollutant cloud int he atmosphere, France and the United States have collaborated on the development of a DIAL and DISC LIDAR. This system called MIRELA, is financed by the DGA and ERDEC. It was developed in cooperation with the CILAS company and uses a frequency agile CO2 laser designed and manufactured by the Hughes Aircraft Company. Before using a LIDAR for the remote detection of atmospheric pollutants, the optical characteristics of the products to be detected must be known. This basic characterization is used to define the parameters of the system and select the detection technologies and algorithms. A simulation with the HITRAN data base provides a set of expected measurements. Comparison with the real results is excellent. The tests were run on realistic clouds. The backscattered signal received from the aerosols at the front of the cloud was detected as well as the return from a target placed beyond the cloud thus a transmission measurements was taken simultaneously with the backscattering measurement. These measurements show that the backscattering signals are characteristic of the cloud and will be used to detect and identify the products.

  18. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-01-01

    Tomco Equipment Company has participated in the dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, CO2) cleaning industry for over ten years as a pioneer in the manufacturer of high density, dry ice cleaning pellet production equipment. For over four years Tomco high density pelletizers have been available to the dry ice cleaning industry. Approximately one year ago Tomco introduced the DI-250, a new dry ice blast unit making Tomco a single source supplier for sublimable media, particle blast, cleaning systems. This new blast unit is an all pneumatic, single discharge hose device. It meters the insertion of 1/8 inch diameter (or smaller), high density, dry ice pellets into a high pressure, propellant gas stream. The dry ice and propellant streams are controlled and mixed from the blast cabinet. From there the mixture is transported to the nozzle where the pellets are accelerated to an appropriate blasting velocity. When directed to impact upon a target area, these dry ice pellets have sufficient energy to effectively remove most surface coatings through dry, abrasive contact. The meta-stable, dry ice pellets used for CO2 cleaning, while labeled 'high density,' are less dense than alternate, abrasive, particle blast media. In addition, after contacting the target surface, they return to their equilibrium condition: a superheated gas state. Most currently used grit blasting media are silicon dioxide based, which possess a sharp tetrahedral molecular structure. Silicon dioxide crystal structures will always produce smaller sharp-edged replicas of the original crystal upon fracture. Larger, softer dry ice pellets do not share the same sharp-edged crystalline structures as their non-sublimable counterparts when broken. In fact, upon contact with the target surface, dry ice pellets will plastically deform and break apart. As such, dry ice cleaning is less harmful to sensitive substrates, workers and the environment than chemical or abrasive cleaning systems. Dry ice cleaning system

  19. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-03-01

    Tomco Equipment Company has participated in the dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, CO2) cleaning industry for over ten years as a pioneer in the manufacturer of high density, dry ice cleaning pellet production equipment. For over four years Tomco high density pelletizers have been available to the dry ice cleaning industry. Approximately one year ago Tomco introduced the DI-250, a new dry ice blast unit making Tomco a single source supplier for sublimable media, particle blast, cleaning systems. This new blast unit is an all pneumatic, single discharge hose device. It meters the insertion of 1/8 inch diameter (or smaller), high density, dry ice pellets into a high pressure, propellant gas stream. The dry ice and propellant streams are controlled and mixed from the blast cabinet. From there the mixture is transported to the nozzle where the pellets are accelerated to an appropriate blasting velocity. When directed to impact upon a target area, these dry ice pellets have sufficient energy to effectively remove most surface coatings through dry, abrasive contact. The meta-stable, dry ice pellets used for CO2 cleaning, while labeled 'high density,' are less dense than alternate, abrasive, particle blast media. In addition, after contacting the target surface, they return to their equilibrium condition: a superheated gas state. Most currently used grit blasting media are silicon dioxide based, which possess a sharp tetrahedral molecular structure. Silicon dioxide crystal structures will always produce smaller sharp-edged replicas of the original crystal upon fracture. Larger, softer dry ice pellets do not share the same sharp-edged crystalline structures as their non-sublimable counterparts when broken. In fact, upon contact with the target surface, dry ice pellets will plastically deform and break apart. As such, dry ice cleaning is less harmful to sensitive substrates, workers and the environment than chemical or abrasive cleaning systems. Dry ice cleaning system

  20. Observational constraints on the global atmospheric CO2 budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tans, Pieter P.; Fung, Inez Y.; Takahashi, Taro

    1990-01-01

    Observed atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and data on the partial pressures of CO2 in surface ocean waters are combined to identify globally significant sources and sinks of CO2. The atmospheric data are compared with boundary layer concentrations calculated with the transport fields generated by a general circulation model (GCM) for specified source-sink distributions. In the model the observed north-south atmospheric concentration gradient can be maintained only if sinks for CO2 are greater in the Northern than in the Southern Hemisphere. The observed differences between the partial pressure of CO2 in the surface waters of the Northern Hemisphere and the atmosphere are too small for the oceans to be the major sink of fossil fuel CO2. Therefore, a large amount of the CO2 is apparently absorbed on the continents by terrestrial ecosystems.

  1. Economics show CO2 EOR potential in central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dubois, M.K.; Byrnes, A.P.; Pancake, R.E.; Willhite, G.P.; Schoeling, L.G.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) may be the key to recovering hundreds of millions of bbl of trapped oil from the mature fields in central Kansas. Preliminary economic analysis indicates that CO2 EOR should provide an internal rate of return (IRR) greater than 20%, before income tax, assuming oil sells for $20/bbl, CO2 costs $1/Mcf, and gross utilization is 10 Mcf of CO2/bbl of oil recovered. If the CO2 cost is reduced to $0.75/Mcf, an oil price of $17/bbl yields an IRR of 20%. Reservoir and economic modeling indicates that IRR is most sensitive to oil price and CO2 cost. A project requires a minimum recovery of 1,500 net bbl/acre (about 1 million net bbl/1-mile section) under a best-case scenario. Less important variables to the economics are capital costs and non-CO2 related lease operating expenses.

  2. Ab Initio Screening of CO2-philic Groups.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ziqi; Saito, Tomonori; Jiang, De-En

    2015-04-23

    Ab initio calculations were used to identify CO2-philic groups. Over 55 neutral molecules were screened for CO2 affinity via binding energetics. It is found that poly(ethylene oxide)s (PEO) oligomers with more than three repeating units are good CO2-binding groups, consistent with the high-performance of PEO-based materials for CO2/N2 separation. More interestingly, two triazole groups linked with a methylene chain are also excellent for CO2 binding with a favorable interaction of more than 28 kJ/mol, indicating that polymers or covalent-organic frameworks (COFs) with triazoles may be utilized for CO2 capture. This work provides a useful guide to introduce promising organic groups into polymeric membranes and COFs for CO2/N2 separation media. PMID:25825811

  3. Comparison of ozone profiles obtained with NIES DIAL and SAGE II measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakane, Hideaki; Sasano, Yasuhiro; Hayashida-Amano, Sachiko; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Matsui, Ichiro; Minato, Atsushi; Mccormick, M. P.

    1993-01-01

    Ozone profiles obtained with the Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) (Tsukuba, Japan) were compared with data provided by the satellite sensor SAGE II. The SAGE II data were selected based on criteria of spatial and temporal differences between the DIAL and the SAGE II measurements: five degrees in latitude and 15 degrees in longitude, within a latitudinal band from 31 deg to 41 deg N, and within one, three and five days after or before the DIAL measurements. Results show very good agreement for the individual and the zonal-mean profiles. The average mean difference between the DIAL and the SAGE II measurements over the altitudes 15-50 km was about 10 percent.

  4. Field Tests And Signature Analysis Of An Imaging CO2 Laser Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. Y.; Bartholomew, B. J.; Streiff, M. L.; Starr, E. F.; Pruitt, P. A.

    1983-12-01

    A coherent, imaging CO2 laser radar has been built and tested in the field. This laser radar uses a single-waveguide CO2 laser and heterodyne detection. Two acousto-optic frequency shifters generate the IF frequency. An acousto-optic standing-wave device provides the 15 MHz intensity modulation used for ranging. The sensor includes a two-axis, dual-aperture galvonometer scanner with selectable field of view and depression angles. The optical system fits on an easily transportable 3 ft by 4 ft optical bench. Both reflectance and range images are produced. The range imagery analysis shows a range resolution of approximately one foot. Statistical analysis of the reflectance data from a military truck, the dirt ground, and an asphalt road shows that they are Rayleigh distributed. The reflectivities of these objects are determined to be around two percent through comparison with laboratory reflectometer measurements.

  5. Formation and Evaluation of Protective Layer over Magnesium Melt Under CO2/Air Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Samar; Sohn, Hong Yong

    2015-02-01

    Molten magnesium oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air causing melt loss and handling difficulties. The use of certain additive gases to form a protective MgO layer over a magnesium melt has been proposed. The oxidation behavior of molten magnesium in air that contains various concentrations of CO2 was investigated, including the kinetics of the oxide layer growth. Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis unit in the temperature range of 943 K to 1043 K (670 °C to 770 °C). Results showed that a thin, coherent, and protective MgO-C layer was formed under the test conditions. The thicknesses of this layer formed under CO2/air ranged from 500 nm to 12 μm. Rate parameters were calculated and a model for the process was developed. The morphology and composition of the surface films were studied using SEM and EDS.

  6. Conductive-cooled 2-micron laser development for wind and CO2 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Kohei; Ishii, Shoken; Yasui, Motoaki; Itabe, Toshikazu; Sato, Atsushi; Asai, Kazuhiro; Fukuoka, Hirotake; Ishikawa, Takayoshi

    2012-11-01

    We have developing two types of 2micron conductive-cooled lasers for wind and CO2 measurements. One type of lasers is side pumped Tm,Ho:YLF laser operated at 20-40Hz. The laser rod is cooled down to -80C and laser diodes are operated at normal temperature in a vacuum container. With this type of laser, we have built up a coherent lidar system which is used to measure wind and CO2 concentration. Ho:YLF laser end-pumped by Tm:fiber laser is another type oscillator which will be operated at high repetition rate of 200-300 Hz in normal temperature. The laser will have an amplifier. These lasers are conductive-cooled, solid-state, eye-safe and suitable for space applications.

  7. CO2 Condensation Models for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colaprete, A.; Haberle, R.

    2004-01-01

    During the polar night in both hemispheres of Mars, regions of low thermal emission, frequently referred to as "cold spots", have been observed by Mariner 9, Viking and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. These cold spots vary in time and appear to be associated with topographic features suggesting that they are the result of a spectral-emission effect due to surface accumulation of fine-grained frost or snow. Presented here are simulations of the Martian polar night using the NASA Ames General Circulation Cloud Model. This cloud model incorporates all the microphysical processes of carbon dioxide cloud formation, including nucleation, condensation and sedimentation and is coupled to a surface frost scheme that includes both direct surface condensation and precipitation. Using this cloud model we simulate the Mars polar nights and compare model results to observations from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Model predictions of "cold spots" compare well with TES observations of low emissivity regions, both spatially and as a function of season. The model predicted frequency of CO2 cloud formation also agrees well with MOLA observations of polar night cloud echoes. Together the simulations and observations in the North indicate a distinct shift in atmospheric state centered about Ls 270 which we believe may be associated with the strength of the polar vortex.

  8. Plywood Inlays Thourgh CO2 Laser Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Margarida C.; Araujo, J. L.; Teixeira, M. Ribau; Rodrigues, F. Carvalho

    1989-07-01

    Furniture with inlays is rather expensive. This is so on two accounts: Firstly, furniture with inlays is generally manufactured with solid wood.Secondly,wood carving and figure cutting are both time consuming and they produce a high rate of rejections. To add to it all the cutting and carving of minute figures requires an outstanding craftmanship. In fact the craftman is in most instance the artist and also the manufacturer. While desiring that the high artistic level is maintained in the industry the search for new method to produce inlays for furniture in not son expensive materials and to produce them in a repetitive and flexible way laser cutting of plywood was found to be quite suitable. This paper presents the charts for CO2 laser cutting of both positive and negatives in several types of plywood. The main problem is not so much the cutting of the positive and negatives pieces but to be able to cut the piece in a way that the fitting is done without any problems caused by the ever present charring effect, which takes palce at the edges of the cut pieces. To minimise this aspect positive and negative pieces have to be cut under stringent focusing conditions and with slight different scales. The condittions for our machine are presented.

  9. A centrifuge CO2 pellet cleaning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, C. A.; Fisher, P. W.; Nelson, W. D.; Schechter, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    An advanced turbine/CO2 pellet accelerator is being evaluated as a depaint technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The program, sponsored by Warner Robins Air Logistics Center (ALC), Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, has developed a robot-compatible apparatus that efficiently accelerates pellets of dry ice with a high-speed rotating wheel. In comparison to the more conventional compressed air 'sandblast' pellet accelerators, the turbine system can achieve higher pellet speeds, has precise speed control, and is more than ten times as efficient. A preliminary study of the apparatus as a depaint technology has been undertaken. Depaint rates of military epoxy/urethane paint systems on 2024 and 7075 aluminum panels as a function of pellet speed and throughput have been measured. In addition, methods of enhancing the strip rate by combining infra-red heat lamps with pellet blasting and by combining the use of environmentally benign solvents with the pellet blasting have also been studied. The design and operation of the apparatus will be discussed along with data obtained from the depaint studies.

  10. CO2 laser welding fused silica.

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Scott T.; MacCallum, Danny O'Neill; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert

    2005-08-01

    The feasibility of laser welding of fused silica (aka quartz) has been demonstrated recently by others. An application requiring hermetic sealing of a thin, pressure-bearing quartz diaphragm to a thicker frame led us to explore this technique. We found that laser welding techniques normally used for metallic parts caused scorching and uneven melting. Contrary to standard practices (near focus, high travel speed, high power density), successful welds in fused silica required a broad heat source applied over a large area under a slow rotation to gradually heat the glass through the annealing, softening and finally working temperatures. Furthermore, good mechanical contact between the parts to be joined played an even more important role in this process than in typical metallic joints. A 50 W CO2 laser with 4 f.l. ZnSe2 lens and rotary head was used to weld 0.425 OD, 0.006-0.010 thick, disks to 0.500 OD tubing with 0.125 walls. Several joint geometries and beam orientations were investigated. Temperature profiles were measured and compared to an FEM thermal model. We will discuss the effects of laser power, travel speed, number of passes, joint geometry and part thicknesses on achieving hermeticity and cosmetically-acceptable joints.

  11. CO2 Budget and Rectification Airborne Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grainger, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this award was to supply a platform for the airborne measurements of gases associated with the CO2 Budget and Regional Airborne Study (COBRA). The original program was to consist of three field programs: the first was to be in 1999, the second in 2000, and the third in 2001. At the end of the second field program, it was agreed that the science could better be served by making the measurements in northern Brazil, rather than in North America. The final North American program would be postponed until after two field programs in Brazil. A substantial amount of effort was diverted into making plans and preparations for the Brazil field programs. The Brazil field programs were originally scheduled to take place in the Fall of 2002 and Spring of 2003. Carrying out the field program in Brazil was going to logistically much more involved than a program in the US. Shipping of equipment, customs, and site preparations required work to begin many months prior to the actual measurement program. Permission to fly in that country was also not trivial and indeed proved to be a major obstacle. When we were not able to get permission to fly in Brazil for the 2002 portion of the experiment, the program was pushed back to 2003. When permission by the Brazilian government was not given in time for a Spring of 2003 field program, the experiment was postponed again to begin in the Fall of 2003.

  12. Development of optical MEMS CO2 sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeal, Mark P.; Moelders, Nicholas; Pralle, Martin U.; Puscasu, Irina; Last, Lisa; Ho, William; Greenwald, Anton C.; Daly, James T.; Johnson, Edward A.; George, Thomas

    2002-09-01

    Inexpensive optical MEMS gas and chemical sensors offer chip-level solutions to environmental monitoring, industrial health and safety, indoor air quality, and automobile exhaust emissions monitoring. Previously, Ion Optics, Inc. reported on a new design concept exploiting Si-based suspended micro-bridge structures. The devices are fabricated using conventional CMOS compatible processes. The use of photonic bandgap (PBG) crystals enables narrow band IR emission for high chemical selectivity and sensitivity. Spectral tuning was accomplished by controlling symmetry and lattice spacing of the PBG structures. IR spectroscopic studies were used to characterize transmission, absorption and emission spectra in the 2 to 20 micrometers wavelength range. Prototype designs explored suspension architectures and filament geometries. Device characterization studies measured drive and emission power, temperature uniformity, and black body detectivity. Gas detection was achieved using non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopic techniques, whereby target gas species were determined from comparison to referenced spectra. A sensor system employing the emitter/detector sensor-chip with gas cell and reflective optics is demonstrated and CO2 gas sensitivity limits are reported.

  13. A Multi-scale Approach for CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis in CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Z.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Middleton, R. S.; Pan, F.; Ampomah, W.; Yang, C.; Jia, W.; Lee, S. Y.; McPherson, B. J. O. L.; Grigg, R.; White, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Using carbon dioxide in enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is a promising technology for emissions management because CO2-EOR can dramatically reduce carbon sequestration costs in the absence of greenhouse gas emissions policies that include incentives for carbon capture and storage. This study develops a multi-scale approach to perform CO2 accounting and risk analysis for understanding CO2 storage potential within an EOR environment at the Farnsworth Unit of the Anadarko Basin in northern Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil-water flow and transport in the Marrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major risk metrics: CO2 injection rate, CO2 first breakthrough time, CO2 production rate, cumulative net CO2 storage, cumulative oil and CH4 production, and water injection and production rates. A global sensitivity analysis indicates that reservoir permeability, porosity, and thickness are the major intrinsic reservoir parameters that control net CO2 injection/storage and oil/CH4 recovery rates. The well spacing (the distance between the injection and production wells) and the sequence of alternating CO2 and water injection are the major operational parameters for designing an effective five-spot CO2-EOR pattern. The response surface analysis shows that net CO2 injection rate increases with the increasing reservoir thickness, permeability, and porosity. The oil/CH4 production rates are positively correlated to reservoir permeability, porosity and thickness, but negatively correlated to the initial water saturation. The mean and confidence intervals are estimated for quantifying the uncertainty ranges of the risk metrics. The results from this study provide useful insights for understanding the CO2 storage potential and the corresponding risks of commercial-scale CO2-EOR fields.

  14. Coherent detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, C. R.; Church, S.; Gaier, T.; Lai, R.; Ruf, C.; Wollack, E.

    2009-03-01

    Coherent systems offer significant advantages in simplicity, testability, control of systematics, and cost. Although quantum noise sets the fundamental limit to their performance at high frequencies, recent breakthroughs suggest that near-quantum-limited noise up to 150 or even 200 GHz could be realized within a few years. If the demands of component separation can be met with frequencies below 200 GHz, coherent systems will be strong competitors for a space CMB polarization mission. The rapid development of digital correlator capability now makes space interferometers with many hundreds of elements possible. Given the advantages of coherent interferometers in suppressing systematic effects, such systems deserve serious study.

  15. Linear operating region in the ozone dial photon counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrawis, Madeleine

    1995-01-01

    Ozone is a relatively unstable molecule found in Earth's atmosphere. An ozone molecule is made up of three atoms of oxygen. Depending on where ozone resides, it can protect or harm life on Earth. High in the atmosphere, about 15 miles up, ozone acts as a shield to protect Earth's surface from the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation. Without this shield, we would be more susceptible to skin cancer, cataracts, and impaired immune systems. Closer to Earth, in the air we breathe, ozone is a harmful pollutant that causes damage to lung tissue and plants. Since the early 1980's, airborne lidar systems have been used for making measurements of ozone. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique is used in the remote measurement of O3. This system allows the O3 to be measured as function of the range in the atmosphere. Two frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers are used to pump tunable dye lasers. The lasers are operating at 289 nm for the DIAL on-line wavelength of O3, and the other one is operated at 300 nm for the off-line wavelength. The DIAL wavelengths are produced in sequential laser pulses with a time separation of 300 micro s. The backscattered laser energy is collected by telescopes and measured using photon counting systems. The photon counting system measures the light signal by making use of the photon nature of light. The output pulse from the Photo-Multiplier Tube (PE), caused by a photon striking the PMT photo-cathode, is amplified and passed to a pulse height discriminator. The peak value of the pulse is compared to a reference voltage (discrimination level). If the pulse amplitude exceeds the discrimination level, the discriminator generates a standard pulse which is counted by the digital counter. Non-linearity in the system is caused by the overlapping of pulses and the finite response time of the electronics. At low count rates one expects the system to register one event for each output pulse from the PMT corresponding to a photon incident upon the

  16. Ozone Radiative Feedback in Global Warming Simulations with CO2 and non-CO2 Forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponater, M.; Rieger, V.; Dietmüller, S.

    2015-12-01

    It has been found that ozone radiative feedback acts to reduce the climate sensitivity in global warming simulations including interactive atmospheric chemistry, if the radiative forcing origins from CO2 increase. The effect can be traced to a negative feedback from stratospheric ozone changes and it is amplified by a reduced positive feedback from stratospheric water vapor.These findings cannot be simply transferred to simulations in which the warming is driven by a non-CO2 radiative forcing. Using a perturbation of surface NOx and CO emissions as an example, we demonstrate that a tropospheric ozone feedback may have significant impacts on physical feedbacks. These interactions can act to an extent that the effect of a negative ozone feedback can be reversed by changes in other feedbacks, thus increasing the climate sensitivity instead of reducing it. We also address some conceptual issues showing up as chemical feedbacks are added to set of physical feedbacks in simulation with interactive chemistry.

  17. CO2-PENS: A CO2 Sequestration Systems Model Supporting Risk-Based Decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, P. H.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Guthrie, G. D.; Pawar, R. J.; Kaszuba, J. P.; Carey, J. W.; Lichtner, P. C.; Ziock, H. J.; Dubey, M. K.; Olsen, S. C.; Chipera, S. J.; Fessenden-Rahn, J. E.

    2005-12-01

    The Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is studying the injection of CO2 into geologic repositories. We are formulating the problem as science based decision framework that can address issues of risk, cost, and technical requirements at all stages of the sequestration process. The framework is implemented in a system model that is capable of performing stochastic simulations to address uncertainty in different geologic sequestration scenarios, including injection into poorly characterized brine aquifers. Processes level laboratory experiments, field experiments, modeling, economic data, and risk theory are used to support the system level model that will be the basis for decision making. The current system model, CO2-PENS, is already proving to be useful in showing complex interactions between the different components of the framework. The system model also provides a consistent platform to document decisions made during the site selection, implementation, and closure periods.

  18. Interpenetrating Metal-Metalloporphyrin Framework for Selective CO2 Uptake and Chemical Transformation of CO2.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Tsai, Chen-Yen; Wojtas, Lukasz; Thiounn, Timmy; Lin, Chu-Chieh; Ma, Shengqian

    2016-08-01

    Herein we report a robust primitive cubic (pcu)-topology metal-metalloporphyrin framework (MMPF), MMPF-18, which was constructed from a ubiquitous secondary building unit of a tetranuclear zinc cluster, Zn4(μ4-O)(-COO)6, and a linear organic linker of 5,15-bis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (H2bcpp). The strong π-π stacking from porphyrins and the lengthy H2bcpp ligand affords a 4-fold-interpenetrating network along with reduced void spaces and confined narrow channels. Thereby, MMPF-18 presents segmented pores and high-density metalloporphyrin centers for selective CO2 uptake over CH4 and size-selective chemical transformation of CO2 with epoxides forming cyclic carbonates under ambient conditions. PMID:27337152

  19. Supersonic Technology for CO2 Capture: A High Efficiency Inertial CO2 Extraction System

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: Researchers at ATK and ACENT Laboratories are developing a device that relies on aerospace wind-tunnel technologies to turn CO2 into a condensed solid for collection and capture. ATK’s design incorporates a special nozzle that converges and diverges to expand flue gas, thereby cooling it off and turning the CO2 into solid particles which are removed from the system by a cyclonic separator. This technology is mechanically simple, contains no moving parts and generates no chemical waste, making it inexpensive to construct and operate, readily scalable, and easily integrated into existing facilities. The increase in the cost to coal-fired power plants associated with introduction of this system would be 50% less than current technologies.

  20. Monitoring and Modeling CO2 Dynamics in the Vadose Zone near an Abandoned Historic Oil Well: Implications for Detecting CO2 Leakage at Geological CO2 Sequestration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C.; Romanak, K.; Hovorka, S.; Reedy, R. C.; Trevino, R.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    Soil-gas monitoring is proposed for detecting CO2 leakage at geological CO2 sequestration sites. At the Cranfield oil field, about 25 km east of Natchez, Mississippi, an integrated near-surface monitoring program is being implemented where supercritical CO2 is being injected for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The purpose of the study is to understand how natural factors may affect soil CO2 monitoring at geologic carbon storage sites. A near-surface observatory, constructed on an engineered well pad near a 1950’s era open pit and plugged and abandoned well, was used to monitor atmospheric parameters such as air temperature, relative humility, barometric pressure, wind speed and direction, solar radiation, and precipitation. Soil temperature, soil CO2 concentrations, water content, and matric potential were also monitored at various depths to a maximum of 5 m in the vadose zone. The integrated monitoring system was installed in September 2009 and continued collecting data each half hour for about 240 days. CO2 concentrations measured at 1.5 m depth are about two times that of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and show daily fluctuations. However, CO2 concentrations measured at 3 m depth decreased from 11% in November 2009 to 9% in January 2010, then gradually increased to 10.5% in June 2010. There should be no CO2 contribution from root respiration because the engineered pad is bare of vegetation. Monitored CO2 in the vadose zone at this site most likely is derived from oxidation of methane with a suspected source related to the 1950’s era plugged and abandoned well. A 1-D numerical model was also used to simulate variably saturated water flow, CO2 transport, CH4 oxidation for understanding mechanisms that dominate CO2 transport at this site. Results of this study suggest that CO2 transport in the vadose zone is very complicated and can be affected by many factors including precipitation, barometric pressure, soil temperature, oxidation of methane, and therefore may

  1. Effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on denitrifying and nitrifying popualtions at terrestrial CO2 leakeage analogous sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christine, Dictor Marie; Catherine, Joulian; Valerie, Laperche; Stephanie, Coulon; Dominique, Breeze

    2010-05-01

    CO2 capture and geological storage (CCS) is recognized to be an important option for carbon abatement in Europe. One of the risks of CCS is the leakage from storage site. A laboratory was conducted on soil samples sampled near-surface from a CO2 leakage analogous site (Latera, Italy) in order to evaluate the impact of an elevated soil CO2 concentration on terrestrial bacterial ecosystems form near surface terrestrial environments and to determine a potential bacterial indicator of CO2 leakage from storage site. Surveys were conducted along a 50m long transect across the vent centre, providing a spectrum of CO2 flux rates, soil gas concentrations and compositions (Beaubien et al., 2007). A bacterial diversity studies, performed by CE-SSCP technique, on a soil profile with increasing CO2 soil concentrations (from 0.3% to 100%) showed that a change on bacterial diversity was noted when CO2 concentration was above 50 % of CO2. From this result, 3 soil samples were taken at 70 cm depth in 3 distinct zones (background soil CO2 content, soil CO2 content of 20% and soil CO2 content of 50%). Then theses soil samples were incubated under closed jars flushed with different air atmospheres (20, 50 and 90 % of CO2) during 18 months. At initial, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months, some soil samples were collected in order to estimate the denitrifying, nitrifying activities as a function of CO2 concentration content and times. Theses enzymatic activities were chosen because one occurs under anaerobic conditions (denitrification) and the other occurs under aerobic conditions (nitrification). Both of them were involved in the nitrogen cycle and are major actors of soil function and groundwater quality preservation. Metabolic diversity using BIOLOG Ecoplates was determined on every soil samples. Physico-chemical parameters (e.g. pH, bulk chemistry, mineralogy) were analyzed to have some information about the evolution of the soil during the incubation with increasing soil CO2 concentrations

  2. Improved Efficiency of Miscible CO2 Floods and Enhanced Prospects for CO2 Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Grigg, Reid B.; Schechter, David S.

    1999-10-15

    The goal of this project is to improve the efficiency of miscible CO2 floods and enhance the prospects for flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. This report provides results of the second year of the three-year project that will be exploring three principles: (1) Fluid and matrix interactions (understanding the problems). (2) Conformance control/sweep efficiency (solving the problems. 3) Reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery (predicting results).

  3. The Wettability of Shale by CO2 and Its Impact on Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiltinan, E. J.; Cardenas, M. B.; Espinoza, D. N.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    The geologic sequestration of CO2 is widely considered as a potential solution for decreasing anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 emissions. Wettability of fluids within reservoir materials is a critical factor in determining the efficiency of structural and residual trapping, two major mechanisms of geologic sequestration. Individual reservoir minerals are often targeted for wettability studies. Current practice applies these results, recorded under laboratory conditions, to in-situ reservoir rock; however the wide variety of measured contact angles reported in the literature calls this practice into question. To address these issues and to study the wettability of shale caprock, resedimentation techniques are employed. These techniques allow for the creation of synthetic shales with controlled, homogeneous mineralogies. In addition, the systematic variation of the mineralogy allows for the characterization of shale wettability as a function of mineralogical composition. A novel design has been developed and used to conduct wettability experiments at reservoir conditions using high resolution X-ray computer tomography. Using this technique the wettability of resedimented shales and natural shales are compared at different reservoir conditions. Next, Lattice Boltzmann modelling methods are used to simulate capillary entry pressure into a shale capillary. Adhesion parameters along the wall are tuned to the results of the synthetic shales and heterogeneity is incorporated to estimate the capillary entry pressure into a natural shale. Understanding the mineralogical components of shale wetting allows for the prediction of capillary entry pressure based on shale mineralogy which can be used to help select secure CO2 storage sites.

  4. Ambient CO2, fish behaviour and altered GABAergic neurotransmission: exploring the mechanism of CO2-altered behaviour by taking a hypercapnia dweller down to low CO2 levels.

    PubMed

    Regan, Matthew D; Turko, Andy J; Heras, Joseph; Andersen, Mads Kuhlmann; Lefevre, Sjannie; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark; Brauner, Colin J; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Nilsson, Göran E

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that projected rises of aquatic CO2 levels cause acid-base regulatory responses in fishes that lead to altered GABAergic neurotransmission and disrupted behaviour, threatening fitness and population survival. It is thought that changes in Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) gradients across neural membranes interfere with the function of GABA-gated anion channels (GABAA receptors). So far, such alterations have been revealed experimentally by exposing species living in low-CO2 environments, like many oceanic habitats, to high levels of CO2 (hypercapnia). To examine the generality of this phenomenon, we set out to study the opposite situation, hypothesizing that fishes living in typically hypercapnic environments also display behavioural alterations if exposed to low CO2 levels. This would indicate that ion regulation in the fish brain is fine-tuned to the prevailing CO2 conditions. We quantified pH regulatory variables and behavioural responses of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, a fish native to the hypercapnic Mekong River, acclimated to high-CO2 (3.1 kPa) or low-CO2 (0.04 kPa) water. We found that brain and blood pH was actively regulated and that the low-CO2 fish displayed significantly higher activity levels, which were reduced after treatment with gabazine, a GABAA receptor blocker. This indicates an involvement of the GABAA receptor and altered Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) ion gradients. Indeed, Goldman calculations suggest that low levels of environmental CO2 may cause significant changes in neural ion gradients in P. hypophthalmus. Taken together, the results suggest that brain ion regulation in fishes is fine-tuned to the prevailing ambient CO2 conditions and is prone to disruption if these conditions change. PMID:26739687

  5. Atmospheric contributions to the column variance in direct-detection dial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milton, M. J. T.; Woods, P. T.

    1986-01-01

    One of the most important parameters of a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system is the delay time between the on and off resonant pulses. It is important that this delay time is sufficiently small to ensure that the atmosphere is effectively frozen between the pulses. Therefore, most Dial systems were designed with two lasers firing alternately less than 1 msec apart. Despite the importance of this parameter in the design of DIAL systems and its contribution to the overall error of a column measurement, very little is known about the size of the error for the case of a direct-detection system using atmospheric backscatter. The ultraviolet DIAL system uses two independent YAG/dye lasers and is therefore suitable for measuring the effects of different pulse delays on the variance of column measurements for a variety of atmospheric conditions. A set of DIAL returns were acquired with the two lasers tuned to the same wavelength and with a range of pulse delay times between 250 microseconds and several minutes. This data set was recorded in full on a computer and was used both to test different averaging techniques and also to evaluate atmospheric contributions to DIAL columns.

  6. User perceptions of the knowledge underpinning practice orientation dial (KUPOD) as a tool to enhance learning.

    PubMed

    Borlase, Jeanette; Abelson-Mitchell, Nadine

    2008-01-01

    The concern of academics and clinicians about the alleged dichotomy between theoretical concepts and the practice of nursing has been the catalyst for the development of a pocket-sized aid for nurses, known as the Knowledge Underpinning Practice Orientation Dial (KUPOD [N]/The Dial). A mixed method approach was used incorporating a questionnaire and a focus group of educators. The Dial was introduced, as part of a module, undertaken by a cohort of second-year Diploma in Nursing (Adult Branch) students. Twenty-eight students returned the questionnaire (response rate=85%). Results revealed that the Dial was easy to use in a variety of situations and locations. Respondents used the Dial within clinical and classroom settings and for self directed study. They reported that it was a practical and effective aid to learning, assisting in correlating theory and practice. It supported reflection and enhanced confidence in the clinical area, indicating that this economically produced tool helps to bridge the theory-practice gap. The Dial is now being introduced as a learning resource to a wider range of students. PMID:18086449

  7. A relationship between dissolved CO2 and the non-volatile chemistry of rainwater.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, Brian; Pfrang, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of a volatile acid component in UK rainwater in 2009 implicated CO2, and speculated `a concentrating mechanism (that) could mean that this weakly soluble molecule is recycled at a faster rate than inferred by its Henry's Law constant'. Last year's EGU Presentation 2015-3386 confirmed that the `saturated CO2 content (of UK rainwater) is insignificant, the bulk transport being the volatile component'. However the atmospheric capture mechanism remains enigmatic. For pure water, improved temperature control has discounted the predicted upturn in the Henry coefficient for 450Pa CO2 as the temperature approached freezing point (http://presentations.copernicus.org/EGU2015-3386_presentation.pptx), and the focus has therefore turned to rainwater chemistry. For a mid-range sample the Henry value was: • significantly higher than pure water at 20'C; • but decreasing with lower temperatures. The higher Henry constant might suggest that, as an acid anhydride, CO2 is subject to selective capture where cloud water is alkaline (terrestrial dust or marine aerosol). Analysis has however shown no simple relationship between [CO2]aq and either acidity or conductivity of the carrier water. Seeking therefore a coherent distribution, stripped CO2 was plotted against Δ[H+], from which this paper presents a tight wedge-shaped distribution of 263 UK rain/snow events. The inference is that [CO2]aq is not related directly to [H+], but possibly to Group 1 and 2 cations from marine aerosol that are buffering the cloud water acidity. By contrast, the unexpected decrease in CO2 yield with lower temperatures proved to be an artefact of a progressively slower rate of de-gassing, cooler samples still equilibrating after 100 minutes. An ultrasound stripper is therefore being developed to speed the Henry measurements, and for reproducibility it is proposed to dilute a proprietary `standard Atlantic sea water' to a representative range of conductivities, to be called `standard

  8. The Mechanism of Diopside-Water-Supercritical CO2 Reaction:Relevance to CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, D.; Dong, S.; Zhao, L.; Teng, H.

    2013-12-01

    In order to study fundamental mineral carbonation process and reaction extent relevance to CO2 geological sequestration, in situ Raman spectroscopy was used to detect the silicate mineral diopside (CaMgSi2O6)-H2O-scCO2 reaction. In the experiment, diopside bulk grain (0.09g) and grinded powder (0.09g, 200mesh) were put into the sample pool of in situ Raman spectroscopy apparatus in water-saturated condition (10μlH2O: experimental H2O mole fraction in CO2 is 8.1×10-2, solubility of H2O in CO2 at experimental condition is 4.8×10-3), setting at the temperature of 60 degrees centigrade and the pressure of 7.9MPa. Experiment was done following the Lambert-Beer's law:Iv=KLCI0, which shows that Raman intensity(Iv) is proportional to the substance concentration(C)(K, L and I0 are constant in this experiment). The Raman spectrum analysis was performed at the beginning day, day 13, day 28 and day 42 successively. The results indicate that at day 13, a new peak appeared at 1124cm-1 , revealing that in water-saturated scCO2 condition, diopside is converted to huntite (Mg3Ca(CO3)4). The intensity ratio of diopside(1014cm-1) and huntite varies from 4.51:1(beginning) to 2.59:1(day 13) and then to 3.46:1(day 28). However, at day 42, almost no huntite remained in the experiment settings. According to Beer's law, we can conclude that the concentration of huntite increased firstly and then decreased after day 13 until we could not detect it at day 49. The XRD, SEM and FTIR test at day 49 also support the conclusion above. The huntite might form at the very first stage and then got dissolved into HCO3-; further experiments need to be conducted to detect HCO3-. The Raman test on the bulk grain also shows a similar trend as powder, but the reaction of the grain is much slower than powder. Besides, from the test on the grain at day 28, the water film could been detected 100-150μm above the surface of the grain with the thickness of 50-150μm.

  9. Volumetrics of CO2 storage in deep saline formations.

    PubMed

    Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Capobianco, Ryan M; Dilmore, Robert; Goodman, Angela; Guthrie, George; Rimstidt, J Donald; Bodnar, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Concern about the role of greenhouse gases in global climate change has generated interest in sequestering CO(2) from fossil-fuel combustion in deep saline formations. Pore space in these formations is initially filled with brine, and space to accommodate injected CO(2) must be generated by displacing brine, and to a lesser extent by compression of brine and rock. The formation volume required to store a given mass of CO(2) depends on the storage mechanism. We compare the equilibrium volumetric requirements of three end-member processes: CO(2) stored as a supercritical fluid (structural or stratigraphic trapping); CO(2) dissolved in pre-existing brine (solubility trapping); and CO(2) solubility enhanced by dissolution of calcite. For typical storage conditions, storing CO(2) by solubility trapping reduces the volume required to store the same amount of CO(2) by structural or stratigraphic trapping by about 50%. Accessibility of CO(2) to brine determines which storage mechanism (structural/stratigraphic versus solubility) dominates at a given time, which is a critical factor in evaluating CO(2) volumetric requirements and long-term storage security. PMID:22916959

  10. Enhanced CO2 Dissolution in Heterogeneous Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, K.; Neufeld, J. A.; Bickle, M. J.; Hallworth, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term and secure geological storage of CO2 through technologies such as Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) within reservoirs is seen as a technological means to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The long-term viability of this technology is reliant on the structural and secondary trapping of supercritical CO2 within heterogeneous reservoirs. Secondary trapping, primarily through the dissolution of CO2 into ambient reservoir brine to produce a denser fluid, is capable of retaining CO2 in the subsurface and thus reducing the risks of storage. To model secondary trapping we need to understand how the flow of CO2 through heterogeneous reservoir rocks enhances dissolution of supercritical CO2 in reservoir brines. Here we experimentally investigate the dissolution of CO2 in reservoir brines in layered, heterogeneous geological formations. Using analogue experiments, designed to approximate an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) setting, the processes of mixing, dispersion and dissolution are examined. These are compared against test results from non-layered, homogeneous porous media experiments. We find that heterogeneities significantly enhance mixing, particularly between adjacent porous layers. During fluid propagation, pore-scale viscous fingers grow and retreat, thereby providing an increased surface area between the flow and the ambient reservoir fluid. This enhanced mixing is predicted to substantially increase the dissolution of CO2 in reservoir brines. Both permeability and viscosity differences are found to have a significant effect on the interface between the two fluids, and therefore the likely amount of dissolution of CO2.

  11. Buoyant dispersal of CO2 during geological storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, M. A.; Woods, A. W.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage is currently the only technology that may allow significant reductions in CO2 emissions from large point sources. Seismic images of geological CO2 storage show the rise of CO2 is influenced by horizontal shales. The buoyant CO2 spreads beneath impermeable barriers until a gap allows its upward migration. The large number and small scale of these barriers makes the prediction of the CO2 migration path and hence the magnitude of CO2 trapping very challenging. We show that steady buoyancy dominated flows in complex geometries can be modeled as a cascade of flux partitioning events. This approach allows the analysis of two-dimensional plume dispersal from a horizontal injection well. We show that the plume spreads laterally with height y above the source according to (y/h)1/2 L, where L is the width of the shales and h is their vertical separation. The fluid volume below successive shale layers, and therefore the magnitude of trapped CO2, increase as (y/h)5/4 above the source, so that every additional layer of barriers traps more CO2 than the one below. Upscaling small scale flow barriers by reducing the vertical permeability, common in numerical simulations of CO2 storage, does not capture the dispersion and trapping of the CO2 plume by the flow barriers.

  12. Sequestration of dissolved CO2 in the Oriskany formation.

    PubMed

    Dilmore, Robert M; Allen, Douglas E; Jones, J Richard McCarthy; Hedges, Sheila W; Soong, Yee

    2008-04-15

    Experiments were conducted to determine the solubility of CO2 in a natural brine solution of the Oriskany formation under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. These data were collected at temperatures of 22 and 75 degrees C and pressures between 100 and 450 bar. Experimentally determined data were compared with CO2 solubility predictions using a model developed by Duan and Sun (Chem. Geol. 2003, 193, 257-271). Model results compare well with Oriskany brine CO2 solubility data collected experimentally, suggesting that the Duan and Sun model is a reliable tool for estimating solution CO2 capacity in high salinity aquifers in the temperature and pressure range evaluated. The capacity for the Oriskany formation to sequester dissolved CO2 was calculated using results of the solubility models, estimation of the density of CO2 saturated brine, and available geographic information system (GIS) information on the formation depth and thickness. Results indicate that the Oriskany formation can hold approximately 0.36 gigatonnes of dissolved CO2 if the full basin is considered. When only the region where supercritical CO2 can exist (temperatures greaterthan 31 degrees C and pressures greaterthan 74 bar) is considered, the capacity of the Oriskany formation to sequester dissolved CO2 is 0.31 gigatonnes. The capacity estimate considering the potential to sequester free-phase supercritical CO2 if brine were displaced from formation pore space is 8.8 gigatonnes in the Oriskany formation. PMID:18497120

  13. Photorespiration in Air and High CO(2)-Grown Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    PubMed

    Shelp, B J; Canvin, D T

    1981-12-01

    Oxygen inhibition of photosynthesis and CO(2) evolution during photorespiration were compared in high CO(2)-grown and air-grown Chlorella pyrenoidosa, using the artificial leaf technique at pH 5.0. High CO(2) cells, in contrast to air-grown cells, exhibited a marked inhibition of photosynthesis by O(2), which appeared to be competitive and similar in magnitude to that in higher C(3) plants. With increasing time after transfer to air, the photosynthetic rate in high CO(2) cells increased while the O(2) effect declined. Photorespiration, measured as the difference between (14)CO(2) and (12)CO(2) uptake, was much greater and sensitive to O(2) in high CO(2) cells. Some CO(2) evolution was also present in air-grown algae; however, it did not appear to be sensitive to O(2). True photosynthesis was not affected by O(2) in either case. The data indicate that the difference between high CO(2) and air-grown algae could be attributed to the magnitude of CO(2) evolution. This conclusion is discussed with reference to the oxygenase reaction and the control of photorespiration in algae. PMID:16662134

  14. Polyurethane Foam-Based Ultramicroporous Carbons for CO2 Capture.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chao; Song, Jian; Qin, Zhangfeng; Wang, Jianguo; Fan, Weibin

    2016-07-27

    A series of sustainable porous carbon materials were prepared from waste polyurethane foam and investigated for capture of CO2. The effects of preparation conditions, such as precarbonization, KOH to carbon precursor weight ratio, and activation temperature, on the porous structure and CO2 adsorption properties were studied for the purpose of controlling pore sizes and nitrogen content and developing high-performance materials for capture of CO2. The sample prepared at optimum conditions shows CO2 adsorption capacities of 6.67 and 4.33 mmol·g(-1) at 0 and 25 °C under 1 bar, respectively, which are comparable to those of the best reported porous carbons prepared from waste materials. The HCl treatment experiment reveals that about 80% of CO2 adsorption capacity arises from physical adsorption, while the other 20% is due to the chemical adsorption originated from the interaction of basic N groups and CO2 molecules. The relationship between CO2 uptake and pore size at different temperatures indicates that the micropores with pore size smaller than 0.86 and 0.70 nm play a dominant role in the CO2 adsorption at 0 and 25 °C, respectively. It was found that the obtained carbon materials exhibited high recyclability and high selectivity to adsorption of CO2 from the CO2 and N2 mixture. PMID:27376177

  15. Drilling and production - Economics show CO2 EOR potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dubois, M.K.; Byrnes, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    CO2 EOR may be the key to recovering hundreds of millions of bbl of trapped oil from the mature fields in central Kansas. A simple model aided in assessing the economics of CO2 EOR for central Kansas and the Midcontinent. The model used CO2 Prophet, a DOE freeware reservoir numerical simulation program, to determine reservoir performance, including injected and produced fluid rates, and CO2 utilization. Economic parameters, e.g., oil price, CO2 costs, capital costs, net revenue interest, production taxes, and lease operating expenses, are typical for anticipated conditions in the region and present price climate. Preliminary economic analysis shows that CO2 EOR should give an internal rate of return (IRR) > 20%, before income tax, assuming oil sells for $20/bbl, CO2 costs $1/million cu ft, and gross utilization is 10 million cu ft of CO2/bbl of oil recovered. If the CO2 is reduced to $0.75/million cu ft, an oil price of $17/bbl yields an IRR of 20%. Reservoir and economic modeling shows that IRR is most sensitive to oil price and CO2 cost.

  16. Sequestration of Dissolved CO2 in the Oriskany Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmore, R.M.; Allen, D.E.; McCarthy-Jones, J.R.; Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee

    2008-04-15

    Experiments were conducted to determine the solubility of CO2 in a natural brine solution of the Oriskany formation under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. These data were collected at temperatures of 22 and 75 °C and pressures between 100 and 450 bar. Experimentally determined data were compared with CO2 solubility predictions using a model developed by Duan and Sun (Chem. Geol. 2003, 193, 257-271). Model results compare well with Oriskany brine CO2 solubility data collected experimentally, suggesting that the Duan and Sun model is a reliable tool for estimating solution CO2 capacity in high salinity aquifers in the temperature and pressure range evaluated. The capacity for the Oriskany formation to sequester dissolved CO2 was calculated using results of the solubility models, estimation of the density of CO2 saturated brine, and available geographic information system (GIS) information on the formation depth and thickness. Results indicate that the Oriskany formation can hold approximately 0.36 gigatonnes of dissolved CO2 if the full basin is considered. When only the region where supercritical CO2 can exist (temperatures greater than 31° C and pressures greater than 74 bar) is considered, the capacity of the Oriskany formation to sequester dissolved CO2 is 0.31 gigatonnes. The capacity estimate considering the potential to sequester free-phase supercritical CO2 if brine were displaced from formation pore space is 8.8 gigatonnes in the Oriskany formation.

  17. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2006-04-24

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhousegases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrialsources into deep geological formations such as brine formations ordepleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research has and is being conducted toimprove understanding of factors affecting particular aspects ofgeological CO2 storage, such as performance, capacity, and health, safetyand environmental (HSE) issues, as well as to lower the cost of CO2capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasis todate on system-level analyses of geological CO2 storage that considergeological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailedrepresentations of engineering components and associated economic models.The objective of this study is to develop a system-level model forgeological CO2 storage, including CO2 capture and separation,compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, and CO2injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailedreservoir simulations of CO2 injection and potential leakage withassociated HSE effects. The platform of the system-level modelingisGoldSim [GoldSim, 2006]. The application of the system model is focusedon evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gasrecovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. The reservoirsimulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2 simulator,EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO2 or methane andnitrogen. Using this approach, the economic benefits of enhanced gasrecovery can be directly weighed against the costs, risks, and benefitsof CO2 injection.

  18. Bubble nucleation in polymer–CO2 mixtures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofei; Cristancho, Diego E; Costeux, Stéphane; Wang, Zhen-Gang

    2013-10-28

    We combine density-functional theory with the string method to calculate the minimum free energy path of bubble nucleation in two polymer–CO2 mixture systems, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)–CO2 and polystyrene (PS)–CO2. Nucleation is initiated by saturating the polymer liquid with high pressure CO2 and subsequently reducing the pressure to ambient condition. Below a critical temperature (Tc), we find that there is a discontinuous drop in the nucleation barrier as a function of increased initial CO2 pressure (P0), as a result of an underlying metastable transition from a CO2-rich-vapor phase to a CO2-rich-liquid phase. The nucleation barrier is generally higher for PS–CO2 than for PMMA–CO2 under the same temperature and pressure conditions, and both higher temperature and higher initial pressure are required to lower the nucleation barrier for PS–CO2 to experimentally relevant ranges. Classical nucleation theory completely fails to capture the structural features of the bubble nucleus and severely underestimates the nucleation barrier. PMID:26029777

  19. Common freshwater cyanobacteria grow in 100% CO2.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David J; Sullivan, Shannon L; Price, Amanda L; Zimmerman, Shawn M

    2005-02-01

    Cyanobacteria and similar organisms produced most of the oxygen found in Earth's atmosphere, which implies that early photosynthetic organisms would have lived in an atmosphere that was rich in CO2 and poor in O2. We investigated the tolerance of several cyanobacteria to very high (>20 kPa) concentrations of atmospheric CO2. Cultures of Synechococcus PCC7942, Synechocystis PCC7942, Plectonema boryanum, and Anabaena sp. were grown in liquid culture sparged with CO2-enriched air. All four strains grew when transferred from ambient CO2 to 20 kPa partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), but none of them tolerated direct transfer to 40 kPa pCO2. Synechococcus and Anabaena survived 101 kPa (100%) pCO2 when pressure was gradually increased by 15 kPa per day, and Plectonema actively grew under these conditions. All four strains grew in an anoxic atmosphere of 5 kPa pCO2 in N2. Strains that were sensitive to high CO2 were also sensitive to low initial pH (pH 5-6). However, low pH in itself was not sufficient to prevent growth. Although mechanisms of damage and survival are still under investigation, we have shown that modern cyanobacteria can survive under Earth's primordial conditions and that cyanobacteria-like organisms could have flourished under conditions on early Mars, which probably had an atmosphere similar to early Earth's. PMID:15711170

  20. Sequestering CO2 in the Built Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantz, B. R.

    2009-12-01

    Calera’s Carbonate Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation (CMAP) technology with beneficial reuse has been called, “game-changing” by Carl Pope, Director of the Sierra Club. Calera offers a solution to the scale of the carbon problem. By capturing carbon into the built environment through carbonate mineralization, Calera provides a sound and cost-effective alternative to Geologic Sequestration and Terrestrial Sequestration. The CMAP technology permanently converts carbon dioxide into a mineral form that can be stored above ground, or used as a building material. The process produces a suite of carbonate-containing minerals of various polymorphic forms. Calera product can be substituted into blends with ordinary Portland cements and used as aggregate to produce concrete with reduced carbon, carbon neutral, or carbon negative footprints. For each ton of product produced, approximately half a ton of carbon dioxide can be sequestered using the Calera process. Coal and natural gas are composed of predominately istopically light carbon, as the carbon in the fuel is plant-derived. Thus, power plant CO2 emissions have relatively low δ13C values.The carbon species throughout the CMAP process are identified through measuring the inorganic carbon content, δ13C values of the dissolved carbonate species, and the product carbonate minerals. Measuring δ13C allows for tracking the flue gas CO2 throughout the capture process. Initial analysis of the capture of propane flue gas (δ13C ˜ -25 ‰) with seawater (δ13C ˜ -10 ‰) and industrial brucite tailings from a retired magnesium oxide plant in Moss Landing, CA (δ13C ˜ -7 ‰ from residual calcite) produced carbonate mineral products with a δ13C value of ˜ -20 ‰. This isotopically light carbon, transformed from flue gas to stable carbonate minerals, can be transferred and tracked through the capture process, and finally to the built environment. CMAP provides an economical solution to global warming by producing

  1. Impact of atmospheric CO2 levels on continental silicate weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, E.; GoddéRis, Y.; Labat, D.; Roelandt, C.; Oliva, P.; Guerrero, B.

    2010-07-01

    Anthropogenic sources are widely accepted as the dominant cause for the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Here we use the B-WITCH model to quantify the impact of increased CO2 concentrations on CO2 consumption by weathering of continental surfaces. B-WITCH couples a dynamic biogeochemistry model (LPJ) and a process-based numerical model of continental weathering (WITCH). It allows simultaneous calculations of the different components of continental weathering fluxes, terrestrial vegetation dynamics, and carbon and water fluxes. The CO2 consumption rates are estimated at four different atmospheric CO2 concentrations, from 280 up to 1120 ppmv, for 22 sites characterized by silicate lithologies (basalt, granite, or sandstones). The sensitivity to atmospheric CO2 variations is explored, while temperature and rainfall are held constant. First, we show that under 355 ppmv of atmospheric CO2, B-WITCH is able to reproduce the global pattern of weathering rates as a function of annual runoff, mean annual temperature, or latitude for silicate lithologies. When atmospheric CO2 increases, evapotranspiration generally decreases due to progressive stomatal closure, and the soil CO2 pressure increases due to enhanced biospheric productivity. As a result, vertical drainage and soil acidity increase, promoting CO2 consumption by mineral weathering. We calculate an increase of about 3% of the CO2 consumption through silicate weathering (mol ha-1 yr-1) for 100 ppmv rise in CO2. Importantly, the sensitivity of the weathering system to the CO2 rise is not uniform and heavily depends on the climatic, lithologic, pedologic, and biospheric settings.

  2. Total (fumarolic + diffuse soil) CO2 output from Furnas volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedone, M.; Viveiros, F.; Aiuppa, A.; Giudice, G.; Grassa, F.; Gagliano, A. L.; Francofonte, V.; Ferreira, T.

    2015-10-01

    Furnas volcano, in São Miguel island (Azores), being the surface expression of rising hydrothermal steam, is the site of intense carbon dioxide (CO2