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Sample records for cold rolling mill

  1. Research on work roll thermal crown in cold rolling mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Lei; Shen, Mingang; Chen, Xuebo; Wang, Junsheng

    2013-05-01

    The factors which have influence on the work roll thermal crown in cold strip rolling are discussed. The heat transferring in three directions (radial axis and circumference) were considered for calculating the work roll thermal deformation. Therefore, it is a three dimensions unstable system for the work roll temperature calculation. The plastic deformation work and friction heat are calculated by the divided element and digital integration method. The simplified calculation model is built for the heat transferring along work roll. There are four zones for work roll heat transferring: roll gap zone air cooling zone emulsion zone rolls contact zone. The heat transferring between the zones is decided by the temperature difference. The inter temperature field and thermal deformation of work roll can be calculated by two-dimension finite difference method. The work roll temperature and thermal crown of actual application cold rolling mill are analyzed by the model. By the comparison between calculated values and measured values, the work roll thermal calculation model can meet the accuracy requirement of on-line control.

  2. Recycle of valuable products from oily cold rolling mill sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Shen-gen; Tian, Jian-jun; Pan, De-an; Liu, Yang; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2013-10-01

    Oily cold rolling mill (CRM) sludge contains lots of iron and alloying elements along with plenty of hazardous organic components, which makes it as an attractive secondary source and an environmental contaminant at the same time. The compound methods of "vacuum distillation + oxidizing roasting" and "vacuum distillation + hydrogen reduction" were employed for the recycle of oily cold rolling mill sludge. First, the sludge was dynamically vacuum distilled in a rotating furnace at 50 r/min and 600°C for 3 h, which removed almost hazardous organic components, obtaining 89.2wt% ferrous resultant. Then, high purity ferric oxide powders (99.2wt%) and reduced iron powders (98.9wt%) were obtained when the distillation residues were oxidized and reduced, respectively. The distillation oil can be used for fuel or chemical feedstock, and the distillation gases can be collected and reused as a fuel.

  3. Tribological Testing of Anti-Adhesive coatings for Cold Rolling Mill Rolls--Application to TiN-Coated Rolls

    SciTech Connect

    Ould, Choumad; Montmitonnet, Pierre; Gachon, Yves; Badiche, Xavier

    2011-05-04

    Roll life is a major issue in cold strip rolling. Roll wear may result either in too low roll roughness, bringing friction below the minimum requested for strip entrainment; or it may degrade strip surface quality. On the contrary, adhesive wear and transfer (''roll coating'', ''pick up'') may form a thick metallic deposits on the roll which increases friction excessively and degrades strip surface again [1]. The roll surface, with the help of a materials-adapted lubricant, must therefore possess anti-wear and anti-adhesive properties. Thus, High Speed Steeel (HSS) rolls show superior properties compared with standard Cr-steel rolls due to their high carbide surface coverage. Another way to improve wear and adhesion properties of surfaces is to apply hard metallic (hard-Cr) or ceramic coatings. Chromium is renowned for its excellent anti-wear and anti-adhesive properties and may serve as a reference. Here, as a first step towards alternative, optimised coatings, a PVD TiN coating has been deposited on tool steels, as previous attempts have proved TiN to be rather successful in cold rolling experiments [2,3]. Different tribological tests are reported here, giving insight in both anti-adhesive properties and fatigue life improvement.

  4. Tribological Testing of Anti-Adhesive coatings for Cold Rolling Mill Rolls—Application to TiN-Coated Rolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ould, Choumad; Gachon, Yves; Montmitonnet, Pierre; Badiche, Xavier

    2011-05-01

    Roll life is a major issue in cold strip rolling. Roll wear may result either in too low roll roughness, bringing friction below the minimum requested for strip entrainment; or it may degrade strip surface quality. On the contrary, adhesive wear and transfer ("roll coating", "pick up") may form a thick metallic deposits on the roll which increases friction excessively and degrades strip surface again [1]. The roll surface, with the help of a materials-adapted lubricant, must therefore possess anti-wear and anti-adhesive properties. Thus, High Speed Steeel (HSS) rolls show superior properties compared with standard Cr-steel rolls due to their high carbide surface coverage. Another way to improve wear and adhesion properties of surfaces is to apply hard metallic (hard-Cr) or ceramic coatings. Chromium is renowned for its excellent anti-wear and anti-adhesive properties and may serve as a reference. Here, as a first step towards alternative, optimised coatings, a PVD TiN coating has been deposited on tool steels, as previous attempts have proved TiN to be rather successful in cold rolling experiments [2,3]. Different tribological tests are reported here, giving insight in both anti-adhesive properties and fatigue life improvement.

  5. CONTROL FOR ROLLING MILL

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, A.B.; Shaw, W.C.

    1961-06-20

    A plutonium-rolling apparatus is patented that has two sets of feed rolls, shaping rolls between the feed rolls, and grippers beyond the feed rolls, which ready a workpiece for a new pass through the shaping rolls by angularly shifting the workpiece about its axis or transversely moving it on a line parallel to the axes of the shaping rolls. Actuation of each gripper for gripping or releasing the workpiece is produced by the relative positions assumed by the feed rolls adjacent to the gripper as the workpiece enters or leaves the feed rolls.

  6. VIEW OF HANDOPERATED ROLLING MILLS ROLLING STANDS FROM LEFT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF HAND-OPERATED ROLLING MILLS ROLLING STANDS FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: THREE HIGH; THREE HIGH; THREE HIGH; THREE HIGH (OPERATED AS A TWO-HIGH); TWO HIGH TWO HIGH MANUFACTURED BY BLAW-KNOX THREE HIGH MANUFACTURED BY LEWIS FOUNDRY AND MACHINE CO. - Cambria Iron Company, Gautier Works, 12" Mill, Clinton Street & Little Conemaugh River, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  7. Recent developments in semiprocessed cold rolled magnetic lamination steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilinski, E. J.

    2006-09-01

    Over the past 10 years the magnetic property performance of semi-processed cold rolled magnetic lamination steels in North America have approached those of nonoriented, semi-processed silicon steel. This improvement was accomplished via higher alloy levels in conjunction with hot band annealing. New temper rolling strategies can produce weakly oriented steels tailored to specific applications, such as small transformers used in fluorescent lighting ballasts. Recently, production trials for 0.0138 in product cold rolled on tin mills has been undertaken. Efforts to further improve properties through a better understanding of texture control and via implementation of new production processes, such as thin slab or strip casting, continue.

  8. Texture comparison between cold rolled and cryogenically rolled pure copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapeire, L.; Sidor, J.; Martinez Lombardia, E.; Verbeken, K.; De Graeve, I.; Terryn, H.; Kestens, L. A. I.

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, there is a considerable scientific interest in bulk ultrafine grained materials, due to their potential for superior mechanical properties. One of the possible formation methods of nano-grained materials is cryogenic rolling. The influence of rolling at cryogenic temperatures has been investigated. Significant differences in the textures and the microstructures can be observed between the cryogenically rolled copper and conventionally cold rolled copper, reduced to the same thickness.

  9. Strip edge cracking simulation in cold rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, C.; Dubar, L.; Dubar, M.; Dubois, A.

    2011-01-17

    This research work focuses on a specific defect which occurs during cold rolling of steel strips: edge-serration. Investigations on the industrial processes have led to the conclusion that this defect is the result of the edge-trimming and cold rolling sequences. The aim of this research work is to analyze the effect of the cutting process and the cold rolling on cracks occurrence, especially on strip edges.This study is performed using an experimental testing stand called Upsetting Rolling Test (URT). It allows to reproduce cold rolling contact parameters such as forward slip, reduction ratio and friction coefficients. Specimens sampled near trimmed industrial strip edges are deformed using the URT stand. Two sets of specimens with different stress states, obtained by annealing, are submitted to two reduction passes with extreme forward slips.Scanning electron microscopy observations added to 3D optical surface profiler topographies show that on one hand, forward slip has a major effect on cracks opening. On the other hand, cracks opening decreases according to high roll strip speed gradient. Concerning the heat-treated specimens, no crack appeared after all reduction passes, showing a large influence of the cutting process and consequently of the local stress state in the vicinity of the burnish and fracture regions.

  10. DETAIL OF CUTTING ROLLS ON #72 BRASS MILL SLITTER, ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CUTTING ROLLS ON #72 BRASS MILL SLITTER, ONE OF THREE CURRENTLY IN OPERATION. BRASS STRIP IS CUT TO CUSTOMER ORDER; COPPER STRIP IS PRODUCED IN STANDARD SIZES. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  11. Metal flowing of involute spline cold roll-beating forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Fengkui; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Fengshou; Xu, Hongyu; Quan, Jianhui; Li, Yan

    2013-09-01

    The present research on involute spline cold roll-beating forming is mainly about the principles and motion relations of cold roll-beating, the theory of roller design, and the stress and strain field analysis of cold roll-beating, etc. However, the research on law of metal flow in the forming process of involute spline cold roll-beating is rare. According to the principle of involute spline cold roll-beating, the contact model between the rollers and the spline shaft blank in the process of cold roll-beating forming is established, and the theoretical analysis of metal flow in the cold roll-beating deforming region is proceeded. A finite element model of the spline cold roll-beating process is established, the formation mechanism of the involute spline tooth profile in cold roll-beating forming process is studied, and the node flow tracks of the deformation area are analyzed. The experimental research on the metal flow of cold roll-beating spline is conducted, and the metallographic structure variation, grain characteristics and metal flow line of the different tooth profile area are analyzed. The experimental results show that the particle flow directions of the deformable bodies in cold roll-beating deformation area are determined by the minimum moving resistance. There are five types of metal flow rules of the deforming region in the process of cold roll-beating forming. The characteristics of involute spline cold roll-beating forming are given, and the forming mechanism of involute spline cold roll-beating is revealed. This paper researches the law of metal flow in the forming process of involute spline cold roll-beating, which provides theoretical supports for solving the tooth profile forming quality problem.

  12. 5. VIEW OF BERYLLIUM PROCESSING AREA, ROLLING MILL. BERYLLIUM FORMING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF BERYLLIUM PROCESSING AREA, ROLLING MILL. BERYLLIUM FORMING BEGAN IN SIDE A OF THE BUILDING IN 1962. (11/5/73) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. 16. VIEW OF A ROLLING MILL THAT WAS USED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF A ROLLING MILL THAT WAS USED TO CREATE A METAL SHEET (SHOWN). (4/16/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. Study Friction Distribution during the Cold Rolling of Material by Matroll Software

    SciTech Connect

    Abdollahi, H.; Dehghani, K.

    2007-04-07

    Rolling process is one of the most important ways of metal forming. Since the results of this process are almost finished product, therefore controlling the parameters affecting this process is very important in order to have cold rolling products with high quality. Among the parameters knowing the coefficient of friction within the roll gap is known as the most significant one. That is because other rolling parameters such as rolling force, pressure in the roll gap, forward slip, surface quality of sheet, and the life of work rolls are directly influenced by friction. On the other hand, in rolling calculation due to lake of a true amount for coefficient of friction a supposed value is considered for it. In this study, a new software (Matroll), is introduced which can determine the coefficient of friction (COF) and plot the friction hills for an industrial mill. Besides, based on rolling equations, it offers about 30 rolling parameters as outputs. Having the rolling characteristics as inputs, the software is able to calculate the coefficient of friction. Many rolling passes were performed on real industrial aluminum mill. The coefficient of friction was obtained for all passes. The results are in good agreement with the findings of the other researchers.

  15. #43 HOT ROLL, A TWOHIGH REVERSING MILL THAT PRODUCES THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    #43 HOT ROLL, A TWO-HIGH REVERSING MILL THAT PRODUCES THE LONGEST COPPER AND ALLOY STRIP IN THE U.S. INDUSTRY. OVERALL LENGTH OF THE RUN-OUT LINE IS 300'. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  16. 77. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill Company, 1892/1893, (original in possession of New York City Department of Transportation), lattice girder elevation & details - girder G1 - Macombs Dam Bridge, Spanning Harlem River Between 155th Street Viaduct, Jerome Avenue, & East 162nd Street, Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  17. 80. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill Company, 1892/1893, (original in possession of New York City Department of Transportation), lattice girder elevation & details - girder G2 - Macombs Dam Bridge, Spanning Harlem River Between 155th Street Viaduct, Jerome Avenue, & East 162nd Street, Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  18. 78. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill Company, 1892/1893, (original in possession of New York City Department of Transportation), lattice girder elevation & details - girder G2 - Macombs Dam Bridge, Spanning Harlem River Between 155th Street Viaduct, Jerome Avenue, & East 162nd Street, Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  19. 79. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill Company, 1892/1893, (original in possession of New York City Department of Transportation), lattice girder elevation & details - girder G2 - Macombs Dam Bridge, Spanning Harlem River Between 155th Street Viaduct, Jerome Avenue, & East 162nd Street, Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  20. 75. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill Company, 1892/1893, (original in possession of New York City Department of Transportation), lattice girder elevation & details - girder G1 - Macombs Dam Bridge, Spanning Harlem River Between 155th Street Viaduct, Jerome Avenue, & East 162nd Street, Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  1. 76. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill Company, 1892/1893, (original in possession of New York City Department of Transportation), lattice girder elevation & details - girder G1 - Macombs Dam Bridge, Spanning Harlem River Between 155th Street Viaduct, Jerome Avenue, & East 162nd Street, Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  2. The Evolution of the Surface Morphologies and Microstructures of an Unleveled Hot-Rolled Steel Strip During Cold Rolling After Hydrogen Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Yu-An; Shang, Qiuyue; Zang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Lei; Peng, Xingdong; Jia, Pinfeng

    2016-01-01

    The removal of oxide scale from a hot-rolled strip surface can completely eliminate environmental pollution if performed by hydrogen-reduction descaling instead of traditional pickling descaling. However, a large number of cracks appear on the surface of a leveled hot-rolled steel strip after hydrogen reduction. This effect is likely to impede the application of reduction descaling to cold-rolled products. Nevertheless, there are almost no cracks on the surface of an unleveled hot-rolled steel strip if the hot-rolled steel strip is not subjected to repeated bending by the leveler machine. The surface quality of a reduced steel strip will be better than that of a pickled steel strip. To investigate the evolution of the surface morphologies, microstructures, and properties of an unleveled strip steel during cold rolling, unleveled strip steel samples were rolled using a four-high mill after hydrogen reduction and after pickling. The surface morphologies and cross-sectional microstructures of the samples were observed by SEM, and the surface-roughness values were measured using a TR200 profilometer before and after cold-rolling deformation. The evolution of the surface morphologies and cross-sectional microstructures of the sample after cold rolling were analyzed. The results show that the oxide scale formed on the surface turns into a metallic iron layer, and a decarburization layer appears between the metallic iron layer and the steel matrix after hydrogen reduction. Few cracks, besides pores, and bubbles, appeared on the surface of the sample after hydrogen reduction. The pores and bubbles were roll-flattened after five passes of cold rolling. The work hardening degree and mechanical properties of the reduced sample are similar to those of the pickled sample after cold rolling. Compared with the rolled sample after pickling, the surface qualities of the reduced samples are better than those of the pickled samples and better than those of the reduced samples that

  3. Simulation of cold rolling and skin rolling of strips in the deformation zone consisting only of a forward slip zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, E. A.; Shalaevskii, D. L.; Traino, A. I.

    2012-11-01

    The conditions of the appearance of an unusual deformation zone consisting only of a forward slip zone during cold rolling and skin rolling are considered. The energy-force and structure parameters of metal deformation in such deformation zones are simulated. In this case, substantial energy saving is achieved; however, they can only be actualized in a real continuous mill by increasing the forward tension to the level that sharply increases the strip break probability. The process with such a deformation zone can be performed on a pinch-pass mill at an acceptable level of forward tension (up to 35% of the yield strength), and about 50% electric energy can be saved in this case.

  4. Annealing of cold-rolled Fe-40Al single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.; Baker, I.

    1997-12-31

    Single crystals of Fe-40Al were cold-rolled to plastic strains in the range 5% to 48%. Discs cut from the rolled crystals at different rolling strains were heated at 10 K/min in a differential scanning calorimeter from room temperature to 973 K. Three exothermic peaks were observed in the temperature ranges of 440--550 K, 610--650 K, and 860--930 K, all the peaks shifting to lower temperatures with increasing strain. The origins of these peaks are discussed in terms of the disorder and vacancies introduced during rolling.

  5. Optimization of cold rolling process parameters in order to increasing rolling speed limited by chatter vibrations

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Ali; Forouzan, Mohammad R.

    2012-01-01

    Chatter has been recognized as major restriction for the increase in productivity of cold rolling processes, limiting the rolling speed for thin steel strips. It is shown that chatter has close relation with rolling conditions. So the main aim of this paper is to attain the optimum set points of rolling to achieve maximum rolling speed, preventing chatter to occur. Two combination methods were used for optimization. First method is done in four steps: providing a simulation program for chatter analysis, preparing data from simulation program based on central composite design of experiment, developing a statistical model to relate system tendency to chatter and rolling parameters by response surface methodology, and finally optimizing the process by genetic algorithm. Second method has analogous stages. But central composite design of experiment is replaced by Taguchi method and response surface methodology is replaced by neural network method. Also a study on the influence of the rolling parameters on system stability has been carried out. By using these combination methods, new set points were determined and significant improvement achieved in rolling speed. PMID:25685398

  6. Optimization of cold rolling process parameters in order to increasing rolling speed limited by chatter vibrations.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Ali; Forouzan, Mohammad R

    2013-01-01

    Chatter has been recognized as major restriction for the increase in productivity of cold rolling processes, limiting the rolling speed for thin steel strips. It is shown that chatter has close relation with rolling conditions. So the main aim of this paper is to attain the optimum set points of rolling to achieve maximum rolling speed, preventing chatter to occur. Two combination methods were used for optimization. First method is done in four steps: providing a simulation program for chatter analysis, preparing data from simulation program based on central composite design of experiment, developing a statistical model to relate system tendency to chatter and rolling parameters by response surface methodology, and finally optimizing the process by genetic algorithm. Second method has analogous stages. But central composite design of experiment is replaced by Taguchi method and response surface methodology is replaced by neural network method. Also a study on the influence of the rolling parameters on system stability has been carried out. By using these combination methods, new set points were determined and significant improvement achieved in rolling speed. PMID:25685398

  7. Strengthening of a thin austenitic stainless steel coil by cold wavy rolling with no magnetic and dimensional changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhar, K. Chandra; Kashyap, B. P.; Sangal, S.; Misra, R. D. K.

    2015-10-01

    A comparison of the effects of wavy rolling and cold rolling on microstructure variation, phase evolution, tensile and magnetic properties of a thin coil of Fe-18.47Cr-8.10Ni-0.94Mn austenitic stainless steel was made at room temperature. Wavy rolling led to strengthening with no change in magnetic property and thickness, unlike the conventional cold rolling that changed all these properties by deformation induced martensitic transformation, in addition to substructure evolution. The yield strength of 413 MPa and magnetic saturation 3.7 emu/g under mill-annealed condition increased, respectively, to 1208 MPa and 11.8 emu/g, upon four cycles of wavy rolling. While the maximum yield strength of 1790 MPa could be achieved by combining this stage of four cycles of wavy rolling with subsequent 50% conventional cold rolling, the magnetic saturation increased to 73.3 emu/g by deformation induced martensitic transformation caused by the latter.

  8. Linking Grain Boundary Microstructure to Stress Corrosion Cracking of Cold Rolled Alloy 690 in PWR Primary Water

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Thomas, Larry E.

    2012-10-01

    Grain boundary microstructures and microchemistries are examined in cold-rolled alloy 690 tubing and plate materials and comparisons are made to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) behavior in PWR primary water. Chromium carbide precipitation is found to be a key aspect for materials in both the mill annealed and thermally treated conditions. Cold rolling to high levels of reduction was discovered to produce small IG voids and cracked carbides in alloys with a high density of grain boundary carbides. The degree of permanent grain boundary damage from cold rolling was found to depend directly on the initial IG carbide distribution. For the same degree of cold rolling, alloys with few IG precipitates exhibited much less permanent damage. Although this difference in grain boundary damage appears to correlate with measured SCC growth rates, crack tip examinations reveal that cracked carbides appeared to blunt propagation of IGSCC cracks in many cases. Preliminary results suggest that the localized grain boundary strains and stresses produced during cold rolling promote IGSCC susceptibility and not the cracked carbides and voids.

  9. Texture Evolution of a Non-oriented Electrical Steel Cold Rolled at Directions Different from the Hot Rolling Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Youliang; Hilinski, Erik; Li, Jian

    2015-11-01

    With the objective of optimizing the crystallographic texture of non-oriented electrical steel, i.e., reducing the <111>//ND and <110>//RD fibers and promoting the <001>//ND texture, a new rolling scheme was proposed and tested, in which the cold rolling direction (CRD) was intentionally inclined at an angle to the hot rolling direction (HRD) in order to change the orientation flow paths during cold rolling and alter the final texture of the annealed sheets. A non-oriented electrical steel containing 0.88 wt pct Si was hot rolled using conventional routes and annealed, and a number of rectangular plates were cut from the hot band with the longitudinal directions inclined at various angles, i.e., 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 deg, to the HRD. These plates were then cold rolled along the longitudinal directions with a thickness reduction of 72 pct. The cold-rolled samples were annealed, temper rolled and annealed again (final annealing). The texture evolution during hot rolling, hot band annealing, cold rolling, and final annealing was characterized by electron backscatter diffraction and X-ray diffraction techniques. By changing the CRD with respect to the HRD, the initial texture and the orientation flow paths were altered, which resulted in apparent differences in the textures as compared to conventional cold rolling. After temper rolling and final annealing, the recrystallization textures consisted of mainly a <001>//ND fiber and there was almost no <111>//ND fiber. The sample cold rolled at an angle of 60 deg to the HRD had the strongest texture (intensity almost 2× of conventional rolling) with a maximum at the cube {001}<100> orientation—a magnetically favorable orientation for non-oriented electrical steels.

  10. A small economical rolling mill for producing foils used as nuclear targets

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J.P.; Thomas, G.E.

    1996-11-01

    A small, economical rolling mill has found extensive use in the Physics Division Target Development Laboratory for producing foils used in atomic and nuclear physics experiments. This apparatus is quite versatile for its size and enables a large fraction of our target foil requirements to be realized in-house. A description of the rolling mill and some examples of targets produced will be given.

  11. Investigation and Modeling of Recrystallization of Cold Rolled Automotive Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhitelev, P.; Vasilyev, A.; Sokolov, S.; Sokolov, D.; Paligin, R.

    2016-04-01

    Ferrite recrystallization in cold-rolled sheets of automotive steels has been studied using a Geeble 3800 complex. Mathematical models for quantitative description of the process kinetics and prediction of the recrystallized ferrite grain size have been developed. These models enable performing calculations for any arbitrary heating regimes, including those that are used in industrial production practice, and allow taking into account the effects of a fairly wide range variation of the chemical composition of steels.

  12. Effect of roll-compaction and milling conditions on granules and tablet properties.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gandarillas, Lucia; Perez-Gago, Ana; Mazor, Alon; Kleinebudde, Peter; Lecoq, Olivier; Michrafy, Abderrahim

    2016-09-01

    Dry granulation is an agglomeration process used to produce size-enlarged particles (granules), improving the handling properties of powders such as flowability. In this process, powders are compacted using a roll press to produce ribbons, which are milled in granules used further in the tableting process. The granule and tablet properties are influenced by the existence of different designs of the roll compactors, milling systems and the interaction between process parameters and raw material properties. The main objective of this work was to investigate how different roll-compaction conditions and milling process parameters impact on ribbons, granules and tablet properties, highlighting the role of the sealing system (cheek plates and rimmed roll). In this context, two common excipients differing in their mechanical behaviour (MCC and mannitol) are used. The study is based on the analysis of granule size distribution together with the characterization of loss of compactability during die compaction. Results show that the tensile strength of tablets is lower when using granules than when the raw materials are compressed. Moreover, the plastic material (MCC) is more sensitive than the brittle one (mannitol). Regarding the roll-force, it is observed that the higher the roll force, the lower the tensile strength of tablets from granulated material is. These findings are in agreement with the literature. The comparison of sealing systems shows that the rimmed-roll system leads to slightly stronger tablets than the use of cheek plates. In addition, the use of the rimmed-roll system reduces the amount of fines, in particular when high roll force is applied. Overall, it can be concluded that roll-compaction effect is predominant over the milling effect on the production of fines but less significant on the tablet properties. This study points out that the balance between a good flowability by reducing the amount of fines and appropriate tablet strength is achieved with

  13. The Relationship Between Hot and Cold Rolling Parameters and Secondary Recrystallization Behavior in Silicon Steel Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangiri, Mohammadreza

    2015-08-01

    The effect of different hot and cold rolling process variables was evaluated for the secondary recrystallization behavior of silicon steel sheets, and a simple model was developed. On the basis of the model, the following results can be drawn: (a) for complete secondary recrystallization of silicon steel sheets, rolling of cast ingots must precede MnS precipitation start; (b) if it is necessitated, intermediate annealing during hot rolling passes must be carried out in the temperature of about 1000 °C; (c) during hot rolling, the amount of initial strain before the intermediate annealing of rolled strips at 1000 °C must be >70% reduction in thickness; (d) in the two-stage cold rolling method, the thickness reduction in the second cold rolling stage must be <61%; and (e) secondary recrystallization is encouraged by using the non-conventional three-stage cold rolling method with two intermediate anneals.

  14. Texture development in dual-phase cold-rolled 18 pct Ni maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Z.; Farooque, M.; Ul Haq, A.; Khan, A.Q.

    1997-12-01

    Austenite and martensite textures were studied in 18 pct Ni 350-maraging steel as a function of various degrees of cold rolling. The austenite phase in the samples was produced by repeated thermal cycling between ambient and 800 C. The austenite phase thus formed was mechanically unstable and transformed to the martensite phase after 30 pct cold rolling. The texture developed as a result of cold rolling, and its effect upon microstructure and hardness has been studied.

  15. Effect of cold rolling on the precipitation behavior of {delta} phase in INCONEL 718

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.C.; Yao, M.; Chen, Z.L.

    1999-01-01

    Systematic research has been undertaken on the effect of cold rolling on the precipitation kinetics of {delta} phase in INCONEL 718. Above 910 C, cold rolling promotes the precipitation of {delta} phase. Below 910 C, the precipitation of {delta} phase is still preceded by the {gamma}{double_prime} precipitation in cold-rolled INCONEL 718. Cold rolling promotes not only the precipitation of {gamma}{double_prime} phase but also the {gamma}{double_prime} {r_arrow} {delta} transformation. The relationship between the weight percentage of {delta} phase and aging time follows the Avrami equation. Below 910 C, as cold rolling reduction and temperature increase, the time exponent (n) decreases, whereas the rate of {delta} precipitation increases. The apparent activation energy of {delta} precipitation varies in the range of 1113 to 577 kJ/mol for 25 to 65% cold-rolled INCONEL 718 and decreases as cold rolling reduction increases. Precipitation-time-temperature (PTT) diagrams have been determined for the four cold-rolled INCONEL 718. The noses of the PTT curves are located at about 910 C. These curves are shifted significantly to longer times as cold rolling reductions decrease.

  16. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the research is the development of improved technology for the preparation of coal-water slurries, which have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. The fine grinding of coal is a crucial step in the manufacture of coal-water slurries. In this context, currently available grinding mills exhibit poor energy efficiency for size reduction and non-optimum packing characteristics of the ground coal. The first increases the cost of manufacture of coal-water slurries and the second adversely affects their rheological properties. The newly invented choke-fed, high-pressure roll mill is up to 50% more energy efficient and, moreover, there are reasons to believe that it produces a size distribution of ground particles which is closer to the dense packing composition. The high-pressure roll mill (which is perhaps the only really significant innovation in industrial comminution in this century) has lower capital cost, occupies less floor space, shows negligible wear rate, accepts feed with a wide range of moisture contents and, of particular importance, it can be scaled up to grind hundreds of tons of solids per hour. The high-pressure roll mill provides a unique opportunity to develop an improved technology for preparing coal-water slurries. Our research group in the University of California at Berkeley not only has a fully instrumented, laboratory-scale, choke-fed. high-pressure roll mill (the only one of its kind in the United States) but also fully instrumented laboratory ball mills for comparative fine coal preparation purposes. In this research program, our plans are to systematically investigate comminution energy consumption, deagglomeration procedures, and the stability and rheology of coal-water slurry fuel prepared with high-pressure roll mill, and to compare the results with slurry prepared with ball-milled coal.

  17. Influence of 10 % Cold Rolling Reduction on Ageing Behaviour of Hot Rolled Al-Cu-Si-Mn-Mg Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S. K.

    2014-09-01

    In the current study, the effect of 10 % cold rolling on the different ageing phenomena of Al-Cu-Si-Mn-Mg alloy was investigated. Both hot rolled and cold rolled alloys were subjected to both natural and artificial ageing processes. Hardness was measured to understand the change in the mechanical property of the alloy before and after rolling and also during ageing processes. From microscopy, it was evident that the cold rolling and subsequent ageing provided the alloy with a structure in which CuAl2 precipitates were uniformly distributed. The alloy exhibited the peak hardness value of 92 VHN after 2 days of natural ageing, whereas the cold deformed (10 %) alloy exhibited the higher peak hardness value of 139 VHN after 3 days of natural ageing. Peak hardness of the alloy reached 94 VHN, when hot rolled alloy was subjected to ageing at 250 °C for 1 h, whereas 10 % cold rolling followed by ageing (100 °C, 15 min) demonstrated accelerated and elevated hardening. The ageing behaviours thus obtained permit the alloy to provide a range of desirable combinations of strength and ductility for high strength weight saving applications.

  18. Influence of 10 % Cold Rolling Reduction on Ageing Behaviour of Hot Rolled Al-Cu-Si-Mn-Mg Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S. K.

    2014-10-01

    In the current study, the effect of 10 % cold rolling on the different ageing phenomena of Al-Cu-Si-Mn-Mg alloy was investigated. Both hot rolled and cold rolled alloys were subjected to both natural and artificial ageing processes. Hardness was measured to understand the change in the mechanical property of the alloy before and after rolling and also during ageing processes. From microscopy, it was evident that the cold rolling and subsequent ageing provided the alloy with a structure in which CuAl2 precipitates were uniformly distributed. The alloy exhibited the peak hardness value of 92 VHN after 2 days of natural ageing, whereas the cold deformed (10 %) alloy exhibited the higher peak hardness value of 139 VHN after 3 days of natural ageing. Peak hardness of the alloy reached 94 VHN, when hot rolled alloy was subjected to ageing at 250 °C for 1 h, whereas 10 % cold rolling followed by ageing (100 °C, 15 min) demonstrated accelerated and elevated hardening. The ageing behaviours thus obtained permit the alloy to provide a range of desirable combinations of strength and ductility for high strength weight saving applications.

  19. Extended Kalman Filter Based Neural Networks Controller For Hot Strip Rolling mill

    SciTech Connect

    Moussaoui, A. K.; Abbassi, H. A.; Bouazza, S.

    2008-06-12

    The present paper deals with the application of an Extended Kalman filter based adaptive Neural-Network control scheme to improve the performance of a hot strip rolling mill. The suggested Neural Network model was implemented using Bayesian Evidence based training algorithm. The control input was estimated iteratively by an on-line extended Kalman filter updating scheme basing on the inversion of the learned neural networks model. The performance of the controller is evaluated using an accurate model estimated from real rolling mill input/output data, and the usefulness of the suggested method is proved.

  20. Extended Kalman Filter Based Neural Networks Controller For Hot Strip Rolling mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussaoui, A. K.; Abbassi, H. A.; Bouazza, S.

    2008-06-01

    The present paper deals with the application of an Extended Kalman filter based adaptive Neural-Network control scheme to improve the performance of a hot strip rolling mill. The suggested Neural Network model was implemented using Bayesian Evidence based training algorithm. The control input was estimated iteratively by an on-line extended Kalman filter updating scheme basing on the inversion of the learned neural networks model. The performance of the controller is evaluated using an accurate model estimated from real rolling mill input/output data, and the usefulness of the suggested method is proved.

  1. On the impact of forced roll convection on vertical turbulent transport in cold air outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryschka, Micha; Fricke, Jens; Raasch, Siegfried

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the impact of roll convection on the convective boundary layer and vertical transports in different cold air outbreak (CAO) scenarios using large eddy simulations (LES). The organization of convection into rolls was triggered by upstream heterogeneities in the surface temperature, representing ice and water. By changing the sea ice distribution in our LES, we were able to simulate a roll and a nonroll case for each scenario. Furthermore, the roll wavelength was varied by changing the scale of the heterogeneity. The characteristics of the simulated rolls and cloud streets, such as aspect ratios, orientation of the roll axes, and downstream extensions of single rolls agreed closely with observations in CAO situations. The vertical turbulent fluxes, calculated for each simulation, were decomposed into contributions from rolls and from unorganized turbulence. Even though our results confirmed that rolls triggered by upstream heterogeneities can substantially contribute to vertical turbulent fluxes, the total fluxes were not affected by the rolls.

  2. Recrystallization behavior of cold-rolled Zr-1Nb alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hang; Wang, Xitao; Gong, Weijia; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Hailong

    2015-01-01

    The recrystallization behavior of cold-rolled Zr-1Nb alloy was investigated by measuring the micro-Vickers hardness of the specimens annealed for various times. Different deformation reductions and annealing temperatures were coupled to study the effects of deformation and temperature on the recrystallization behavior of Zr-1Nb alloy. The results show that both large deformation reduction and high annealing temperature accelerate the recrystallization process. The microstructural evolution during recrystallization was characterized by optical microscope (OM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) to correlate with the variation of Vickers hardness. The TEM observation also revealed the distribution of different types of Nb-containing precipitates during recrystallization. The Vickers hardness data were fitted by using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation to derive the activation energies for recrystallization, giving the corresponding recrystallization maps. This study provides useful guidelines for the processing of a broad family of zirconium alloys based on Zr-1Nb.

  3. Intermixing in Cu/Ni multilayers induced by cold rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Perepezko, J. H.; Larson, D.; Reinhard, D.

    2015-04-01

    Repeated cold rolling was performed on multilayers of Cu60/Ni40 and Cu40/Ni60 foil arrays to study the details of driven atomic scale interfacial mixing. With increasing deformation, there is a significant layer refinement down to the nm level that leads to the formation of a solid solution phase from the elemental end members. Intriguingly, the composition of the solid solution is revealed by an oscillation in the composition profile across the multilayers, which is different from the smoothly varying profile due to thermally activated diffusion. During the reaction, Cu mixed into Ni preferentially compared to Ni mixing into Cu, which is also in contrast to the thermal diffusion behavior. This is confirmed by observations from X-ray diffraction, electron energy loss spectrum and atom probe tomography. The diffusion coefficient induced by cold rolling is estimated as 1.7 × 10-17 m2/s, which cannot be attributed to any thermal effect. The effective temperature due to the deformation induced mixing is estimated as 1093 K and an intrinsic diffusivity db, which quantifies the tendency towards equilibrium in the absence of thermal diffusion, is estimated as 6.38 × 10-18 m2/s. The fraction of the solid solution phase formed is illustrated by examining the layer thickness distribution and is described by using an error function representation. The evolution of mixing in the solid solution phase is described by a simplified sinusoid model, in which the amplitude decays with increased deformation level. The promoted diffusion coefficient could be related to the effective temperature concept, but the establishment of an oscillation in the composition profile is a characteristic behavior that develops due to deformation.

  4. Intermixing in Cu/Ni multilayers induced by cold rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Perepezko, J. H.; Larson, D.; Reinhard, D.

    2015-04-28

    Repeated cold rolling was performed on multilayers of Cu60/Ni40 and Cu40/Ni60 foil arrays to study the details of driven atomic scale interfacial mixing. With increasing deformation, there is a significant layer refinement down to the nm level that leads to the formation of a solid solution phase from the elemental end members. Intriguingly, the composition of the solid solution is revealed by an oscillation in the composition profile across the multilayers, which is different from the smoothly varying profile due to thermally activated diffusion. During the reaction, Cu mixed into Ni preferentially compared to Ni mixing into Cu, which is also in contrast to the thermal diffusion behavior. This is confirmed by observations from X-ray diffraction, electron energy loss spectrum and atom probe tomography. The diffusion coefficient induced by cold rolling is estimated as 1.7 × 10{sup −17} m{sup 2}/s, which cannot be attributed to any thermal effect. The effective temperature due to the deformation induced mixing is estimated as 1093 K and an intrinsic diffusivity d{sub b}, which quantifies the tendency towards equilibrium in the absence of thermal diffusion, is estimated as 6.38 × 10{sup −18} m{sup 2}/s. The fraction of the solid solution phase formed is illustrated by examining the layer thickness distribution and is described by using an error function representation. The evolution of mixing in the solid solution phase is described by a simplified sinusoid model, in which the amplitude decays with increased deformation level. The promoted diffusion coefficient could be related to the effective temperature concept, but the establishment of an oscillation in the composition profile is a characteristic behavior that develops due to deformation.

  5. Effects of microalloying on hot-rolled and cold-rolled Q&P steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo de Araujo, Ana Luiza

    Third generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have been a major focus in steel development over the last decade. The premise of these types of steel is based on the potential to obtain excellent combinations of strength and ductility with low-alloy compositions by forming mixed microstructures containing retained austenite (RA). The development of heat treatments able to achieve the desired structures and properties, such as quenching and partitioning (Q&P) steels, is driven by new requirements to increase vehicle fuel economy by reducing overall weight while maintaining safety and crashworthiness. Microalloying additions of niobium (Nb) and vanadium (V) in sheet products are known to provide strengthening via grain refinement and precipitation hardening and may influence RA volume fraction and transformation behavior. Additions of microalloying elements in Q&P steels have not been extensively studied to date, however. The objective of the present study was to begin to understand the potential roles of Nb and V in hot-rolled and cold-rolled Q&P steel. For that, a common Q&P steel composition was selected as a Base alloy with 0.2C-1.5Si-2.0Mn (wt. %). Two alloys with an addition of Nb (0.02 and 0.04 wt. %) and one with an addition of V (0.06 wt. %) to the Base alloy were investigated. Both hot-rolled and cold-rolled/annealed Q&P simulations were conducted. In the hot-rolled Q&P study, thermomechanical processing was simulated via hot torsion testing in a GleebleRTM 3500, and four coiling temperatures (CT) were chosen. Microstructural evaluation (including RA measurements via electron backscattered diffraction - EBSD) and hardness measurements were performed for all alloys and coiling conditions. The analysis showed that Nb additions led to overall refinement of the prior microstructure. Maximum RA fractions were measured at the 375 °C CT, and microalloying was associated with increased RA in this condition when compared to the Base alloy. A change in

  6. Microstructure, Texture, and Deep Drawability Under Two Different Cold-Rolling Processes in Ferritic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Yu, Fu-xiao; Misra, R. D. K.; Zhang, Xiang-jun; Zhang, Shu-min; Liu, Zhen-yu

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, the through-thickness texture evolution and grain colony distribution in ferritic stainless steel under two different cold-rolling processes have been investigated with the aim to enhance deep drawability. It was shown that in the case of conventional cold-rolling process, at the surface, mid-thickness between the surface and the center, and center layers, all the textures consisted of very sharp α-fiber and weak γ-fiber with a peak at {111}<110> after cold rolling, and non-uniform γ-fiber recrystallization textures were formed after final annealing. In case of two-step cold-rolling process, by contrast, all the textures were dominated by sharp α-fiber and weak γ-fiber after cold rolling to 50% reduction, and {111}<112> became the prominent component after subsequent annealing. The α-fiber and γ-fiber with a peak at {111}<112> were intensified after cold rolling to 60% reduction, resulting in the formation of uniform γ-fiber recrystallization textures after final annealing. Furthermore, after two-step cold-rolling process, the final sheet exhibited a more homogeneous distribution of grain colonies. Therefore, the deep drawability of final sheet was significantly improved after two-step cold-rolling process. It was elucidated that the selective growth mechanism was responsible for the characteristics of γ-fiber recrystallization texture under conventional cold-rolling process, whereas γ-fiber recrystallization texture development was controlled by the oriented nucleation mechanism in the two-step cold-rolling process.

  7. Soft Starting Arrangements Availables for Hot Rolling Mills for Energy Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisen, A. M.; Bapat, P. M.; Gagnuly, S. K.

    2012-07-01

    The conventional rolling mills in India are producing a major part of structural steel requirement of the country. The energy conservation in these rolling mills can be achieved mainly by reducing the size of the prime mover i.e. main electric motor. The power consumption per ton can be considerably decreased through proper selection of electric motor since it has been an observation by many surveyors[1] that the selection of electric motor of the rolling mill has been almost five to ten times on the higher side which can be easily verified from the power consumption and motor working data.Flywheel is a mechanical storage device. Largest size of flywheels are frequently recommended for smooth running of rolling mills. The main difficulty encountered in selecting large capacity flywheel or flywheel gear box system is the starting of the mill with smaller capacity electric motor. The starting characteristic of electric motor is not suitable for starting such rolling mill with very high inertia flywheel. In such condition it becomes very essential to introduce the soft starting arrangement for the electric motor so that considerably small size motor can start the flywheel effectively.Soft starters are used for the smooth start-up control of three-phase induction motors. The soft starter is functionally located between the Flywheel and the electric motor. In selecting the correct soft starter to suit the application the peculiarities of the soft start should be considered. In the prevailing conditions we use the motor of high horse power due to the fact that the flywheel requires high torque to be driven initially. For the same reason the efficiency of the flywheel is very low initially. Once the flywheel stores sufficient power which is required at the start up, the flywheel then requires less power than given initially. If we somehow are able to increase the efficiency of the flywheel using a flexible electrical, mechanical, hydraulic or flexible drives with

  8. Cold rolling induced alloying behaviors in metallic multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe

    Phase transformation and atomic scale intermixing induced by deformation are important and fundamental issues in the mechanical alloying processes. Repeated cold rolling and folding experiments were performed on the metallic multilayers in order to study the deformation driven behaviors. Various binary systems such as isomorphous, eutectic and thermodynamically immiscible systems were studied. Moreover, monometallic Pd, Pt and Fe were selected in order to study the deformation driven recrystallization behavior. In Cu/Ni multilayers, the composition of the solid solution is revealed by an oscillation in the composition profile across the multilayers, which is different from the smoothly varying profile due to thermally activated diffusion. During the reaction, Cu mixed into Ni preferentially compared to Ni mixing into Cu, which is also in contrast to the thermal diffusion behavior. During the cold rolling of multilayers of Ni and V, deformation induces phase transformation and an interfacial mixing with suppression of nucleation of intermetallic phases. The results also demonstrate that between pure Ni and V layers a metastable fcc solid solution phase forms in Ni70V30, a metastable bcc solid solution phase forms in Ni30V70 and metastable fcc and bcc solid solution phases form in Ni57V43. Compared to the stored energy due to dislocation and interfaces, the excess chemical free energy from the interfacial mixing is the largest portion of total stored energy from deformation, which represents a form of mechanochemical transduction. The difference in the intermixing behaviors between Cu/Ni and Ni/V systems is due to that the systems have different heat of mixing and interface characters. Deformation of Cu/Fe multilayers yields a smooth and monotonic variation in the composition profile. From the local composition consumption it is revealed that that Fe mixes into Cu preferentially than Cu mixing into Fe. The room temperature deformation driven recrystallization was

  9. Feasibility of cold rolling titanium strip cast by the plasma melt overflow process

    SciTech Connect

    Gaspar, T.A.; Sukonnik, I.M.; Bird, R.K.; Brewer, W.D.

    1995-12-31

    A new fabrication method tailored specifically for titanium alloys and intermetallics combined direct strip casting and cold rolling to produce foil products by completely eliminating hot working steps. Titanium strips 0.4-mm- to 0.7-mm-thick and 100-mm-wide were cast by the plasma melt overflow process. The cast strips were cold rolled to 0.15-mm-thick, fully dense foils. The effect of thermal and mechanical treatments on the microstructure of the cast strip was investigated. The cold rolled foils were characterized by measurement of average surface roughness, chemical composition, gas content and tensile properties.

  10. Comparative study on the corrosion behavior of the cold rolled and hot rolled low-alloy steels containing copper and antimony in flue gas desulfurization environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. A.; Kim, J. G.; He, Y. S.; Shin, K. S.; Yoon, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    The correlation between the corrosion and microstructual characteristics of cold rolled and hot rolled low-alloy steels containing copper and antimony was established. The corrosion behavior of the specimens used in flue gas desulfurization systems was examined by electrochemical and weight loss measurements in an aggressive solution of 16.9 vol % H2SO4 + 0.35 vol % HCl at 60°C, pH 0.3. It has been shown that the corrosion rate of hot rolled steel is lower than that of cold rolled steel. The corrosion rate of cold rolled steel was increased by grain refinement, inclusion formation, and preferred grain orientation.

  11. Enhancing Thermal Conductivity of Mg-Sn Alloy Sheet by Cold Rolling and Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiuyan; Tang, Aitao; Ma, Shida; Pan, Hucheng; Song, Bo; Gao, Zhengyuan; Rashad, Muhammad; Pan, Fusheng

    2016-05-01

    In present work, effect of cold rolling and aging on thermal conductivity (TC) of the as-extruded Mg-2Sn alloy was studied. Experimental results revealed that TC of as-extruded sheet decreases to value of ~105.4 W/m/K after 18% reduction rolling. TC increases with increase in aging time and regains the highest value of 126 W/m/K. Enhanced TC of cold-rolled Mg-Sn alloys is attributed to the defects annihilation, residual stress release, and precipitations. The more pronounced rolling reduction would induce more second-phase precipitations, and thus TC of the 18% rolled alloy is larger than that of 5% rolled alloys. Texture is also an important factor affecting thermal conductivity of Mg alloys, and double-peak texture is not beneficial for thermal transportation. The result would shed light on the novel design of highly conductive Mg sheet.

  12. Enhancing Thermal Conductivity of Mg-Sn Alloy Sheet by Cold Rolling and Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiuyan; Tang, Aitao; Ma, Shida; Pan, Hucheng; Song, Bo; Gao, Zhengyuan; Rashad, Muhammad; Pan, Fusheng

    2016-06-01

    In present work, effect of cold rolling and aging on thermal conductivity (TC) of the as-extruded Mg-2Sn alloy was studied. Experimental results revealed that TC of as-extruded sheet decreases to value of ~105.4 W/m/K after 18% reduction rolling. TC increases with increase in aging time and regains the highest value of 126 W/m/K. Enhanced TC of cold-rolled Mg-Sn alloys is attributed to the defects annihilation, residual stress release, and precipitations. The more pronounced rolling reduction would induce more second-phase precipitations, and thus TC of the 18% rolled alloy is larger than that of 5% rolled alloys. Texture is also an important factor affecting thermal conductivity of Mg alloys, and double-peak texture is not beneficial for thermal transportation. The result would shed light on the novel design of highly conductive Mg sheet.

  13. EBSD study on crystallographic texture and microstructure development of cold-rolled FePd alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hung-Pin; Ng, Tin-San; Kuo, Jui-Chao; Chen, Yen-Chun; Chen, Chun-Liang; Ding, Shi-Xuan

    2014-07-01

    The crystallographic texture and microstructure of FePd alloy after cold-rolling deformation were investigated using electron backscatter diffraction. The major orientations of twin copper and copper after 50% thickness reduction were observed in face-centered cubic-disordered FePd alloy, whereas the main orientation was obtained from brass type after 90% cold rolling. Increase in cold rolling resulted in the change of preferred orientation from copper to brass. Decrease in orientation intensity of copper also increased that of Goss and brass. - Highlights: • The evolution of texture and microstructure in FePd alloy was investigated after cold rolling using EBSD. • Increasing in reduction leads to the change of texture from Copper-type to Brass-type. • The reduction of Copper orientation results in increasing in Goss and Brass orientations.

  14. Annealing texture of a cold-rolled Fe-Mn-Al-Si-C alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Basudev; Ray, Ranjit Kumar

    2015-09-01

    The study of recrystallization texture of a cold deformed Fe-Mn-Al-Si-C alloy, with about 30% Mn, has been discussed in this paper. The alloy is fully austenitic at room temperature, and therefore, principal FCC rolling textures were developed in this material at different stages of cold rolling. The present study was undertaken to observe the transformation of FCC rolling texture during recrystallization of a heavily cold deformed specimen. It was observed that isothermal annealing at 750 °C led to a weak recrystallisation texture, which was quite similar to the deformation texture developed at the early stage of cold rolling. During recovery stage, a strong Bs/Goss-type texture was developed, which was identified as a new observation in this work.

  15. The influence of cold rolling on the precipitation of delta phase in Inconel 718 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.C.; Xiao, F.R.; Yao, M.; Chen, Z.L.; Jiang, Z.Q.; Wang, S.G.

    1997-07-01

    The precipitation of intermetallic phases in Inconel 718 has been extensively studied. It has been found that the major intermetallic phases that precipitate in the austenite matrix are the metastable {gamma}{double_prime} (DO{sub 22} structure) and {gamma}{prime} (L1{sub 2} structure) phases and the equilibrium {delta} (DOa structure) phase. The {delta} phase can form during processing or during services. The precipitation of {delta} phase during aging has been studied in the solution treated Inconel 718. However, there are only a few studies on the precipitation of {delta} phase in cold rolled Inconel 718. R.P. Singh et al. found that more of the {delta} phase precipitated in the 50% cold rolled material compared to the 30% cold rolled material at lower temperatures, but they did not give information on the precipitation of {delta} phase in cold rolled Inconel 718 at higher temperature. The {delta} phase has a big influence on mechanical properties in Inconel 718. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the volume fraction of {delta} phase. Usually, the volume fraction of {delta} phase was measured by quantitative metallographic techniques and quantitative chemistry phase analysis. In the present work, the volume fraction of {delta} phase in cold rolled Inconel 718 at 910 C for different time is measured by X-ray diffraction techniques, and the influence of cold rolling on the morphology and the volume fraction of {delta} phase is investigated.

  16. Control of surface thermal scratch of strip in tandem cold rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinshan; Li, Changsheng

    2014-07-01

    The thermal scratch seriously affects the surface quality of the cold rolled stainless steel strip. Some researchers have carried out qualitative and theoretical studies in this field. However, there is currently a lack of research on effective forecast and control of thermal scratch defects in practical production, especially in tandem cold rolling. In order to establish precise mathematical model of oil film thickness in deformation zone, the lubrication in cold rolling process of SUS410L stainless steel strip is studied, and major factors affecting oil film thickness are also analyzed. According to the principle of statistics, mathematical model of critical oil film thickness in deformation zone for thermal scratch is built, with fitting and regression analytical method, and then based on temperature comparison method, the criterion for deciding thermal scratch defects is put forward. Storing and calling data through SQL Server 2010, a software on thermal scratch defects control is developed through Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 by MFC technique for stainless steel in tandem cold rolling, and then it is put into practical production. Statistics indicate that the hit rate of thermal scratch is as high as 92.38%, and the occurrence rate of thermal scratch is decreased by 89.13%. Owing to the application of the software, the rolling speed is increased by approximately 9.3%. The software developed provides an effective solution to the problem of thermal scratch defects in tandem cold rolling, and helps to promote products surface quality of stainless steel strips in practical production.

  17. Evolutions of Microstructure and Properties During Cold Rolling of 19Cr Duplex Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Qingxuan; Xu, Wanjian; Wu, Zhaoyu; Li, Jun; Xu, Yulai; Xiao, Xueshan; Hu, Jincheng; Jiang, Laizhu

    2016-07-01

    Evolutions of microstructure, mechanical, and corrosion properties of 19Cr (Fe-18.9Cr-10.1Mn-0.3Ni-0.261N-0.030C-0.5Si) duplex stainless steel have been investigated during cold rolling at room temperature. Dislocation slip dominated deformation mode of ferrite phase. However, deformation mechanism of austenite phase was different with the increasing cold-rolling reductions. Dislocation slip and strengthening effect of twin boundaries caused pile-up phenomenon at the initial deformation stage. When the amount of cold-rolling reduction attained greater than 50 pct, induced α'-martensite appeared in deformed austenite phase. Hardness of austenite phase was higher than that of the deformed ferrite because of its higher strengthening effect during cold-rolling process. Cold-rolling deformation caused deterioration of the pitting corrosion resistance in 3.5 wt pct NaCl aqueous solution. Pitting corrosion always initiated in the ferrite phase and the phase boundary in the solution-treated alloy. Additional pitting holes appeared in deformed austenite phase because of the decrease in corrosion resistance caused by dislocation accumulation and induced α'-martensite.

  18. Customized maximal-overlap multiwavelet denoising with data-driven group threshold for condition monitoring of rolling mill drivetrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinglong; Wan, Zhiguo; Pan, Jun; Zi, Yanyang; Wang, Yu; Chen, Binqiang; Sun, Hailiang; Yuan, Jing; He, Zhengjia

    2016-02-01

    Fault identification timely of rolling mill drivetrain is significant for guaranteeing product quality and realizing long-term safe operation. So, condition monitoring system of rolling mill drivetrain is designed and developed. However, because compound fault and weak fault feature information is usually sub-merged in heavy background noise, this task still faces challenge. This paper provides a possibility for fault identification of rolling mills drivetrain by proposing customized maximal-overlap multiwavelet denoising method. The effectiveness of wavelet denoising method mainly relies on the appropriate selections of wavelet base, transform strategy and threshold rule. First, in order to realize exact matching and accurate detection of fault feature, customized multiwavelet basis function is constructed via symmetric lifting scheme and then vibration signal is processed by maximal-overlap multiwavelet transform. Next, based on spatial dependency of multiwavelet transform coefficients, spatial neighboring coefficient data-driven group threshold shrinkage strategy is developed for denoising process by choosing the optimal group length and threshold via the minimum of Stein's Unbiased Risk Estimate. The effectiveness of proposed method is first demonstrated through compound fault identification of reduction gearbox on rolling mill. Then it is applied for weak fault identification of dedusting fan bearing on rolling mill and the results support its feasibility.

  19. Softening Behavior of a Cold Rolled High-Mn Twinning-Induced Plasticity Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dastranjy Nezhadfar, P.; Rezaeian, A.; Sojudi Papkiadeh, M.

    2015-10-01

    The present study deals with the static and dynamic microstructural evolution of a high-Mn twinning-induced plasticity steel. Static recrystallization (SRX) is considered through cold rolling followed by annealing with different holding times. Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) was explored by hot compression tests at different temperatures and strain rates. The microstructural observations demonstrated that new grains nucleate at the prior grain boundaries and grain size decreased when cold rolling was followed by annealing. Additionally to the grain size reduction due to the SRX, nucleation sites for DRX increased. It is shown that flow stress level increased as a result of grain refinement caused by static and DRX.

  20. Influence of the angle between cold rolling direction and hot rolling direction on the texture evolution of non-oriented electrical steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y.; Hilinski, E.; Attard, M.; Bibby, D.; Santos, R.; Zavadil, R.

    2015-04-01

    In processing non-oriented electrical steel sheets using conventional rolling schemes, the most common texture components obtained after final annealing are the magnetically unfavourable <111>//ND (γ) and <110>//RD (α) fibres. A lot of researches have been carried out trying to optimize the processes to produce the favourable <001>//ND (θ) fibre. However, since the final texture is formed through a series of texture evolution steps during the solidification, hot rolling, cold rolling and annealing processes, it is quite challenging to tailor the texture of the final product. In this study, a new rolling scheme was examined, in which the cold rolling direction (CRD) was inclined to the hot rolling direction (HRD) at an angle from 0° to 90° (with a 15° increment). This was intended to alter the texture commonly produced by cold rolling along the HRD, and to optimize the final recrystallization texture. The cold rolling and recrystallization textures of two non-oriented electrical steels with 0.9% and 2.8% Si were measured. It was found that the inclination of CRD to HRD has a substantial effect on the cold rolling texture for both steels, but only in the low Si steel, does it lead to significantly different recrystallization textures. A strong cube texture was produced at an inclination angle of 60°, and the <111>//ND (γ) fibre was significantly weakened or essentially disappeared. The core losses of these steels were measured by Epstein frame method and the results showed a ∼10% difference among strips cold rolled at different angles. A minimum core loss occurred at a 45° inclination angle in the low Si steel.

  1. Characterization of the deformation texture after tensile test and cold rolling of a Ti-6Al-4V sheet alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdi, B.; Azzeddine, H.; Badji, R.; Ji, V.; Alili, B.; Bradai, D.

    2015-04-01

    The deformation texture after cold rolling and tensile test of an industrial Ti-6Al-4V sheet alloy was studied using X-ray diffraction. The alloy was subjected to a cold rolling to different thickness reductions (from 20% to 60%) and then tensile tests have been carried out along three directions relatively to the rolling direction (0°, 45° and 90°). The experimental results were compared to the existing literature and discussed in terms of active plastic deformation mechanisms.

  2. Statistical analysis on static recrystallization texture evolution in cold-rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun-Ho; Ahn, Tae-Hong; Choi, Hyun-Sik; Chung, Jung-Man; Kim, Dong-Ik; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Han, Heung Nam

    2013-08-01

    Cast AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy, comprising Mg with 3.27 wt% Al and 0.96 wt% Zn, was cold rolled and subsequently annealed. Global texture evolutions in the specimens were observed by X-ray diffractometry after the thermomechanical processing. Image-based microstructure and texture for the deformed, recrystallized, and grown grains were observed by electron backscattered diffractometry. Recrystallized grains could be distinguished from deformed ones by analyzing grain orientation spread. Split basal texture of ca. ±10-15° in the rolling direction was observed in the cold-rolled sample. Recrystallized grains had widely spread basal poles at nucleation stage; strong {0001} basal texture developed with grain growth during annealing. PMID:23920167

  3. A novel real-time fuzzy-based diagnostic system of roll eccentricity influence in finishing hot strip mills

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, D.F.; Lopez, J.M.; Suarez, F.J.; Garcia, J.; Obeso, F.; Gonzalez, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    This paper proposes a method for the diagnosis of the influence of roll eccentricity on the strip thickness at the exit of a finishing hot strip mill (FHSM). Each strip thickness defect on exit is related to a roll of the FHSM, allowing the implementation of an optimal policy for the substitution and maintenance of the rolls, thereby maintaining the required quality level of the strip. This policy allows the minimization of roll changes and the concentration of several changes at the same time, reducing production costs. Fuzzy logic is used to compare spectra, looking for common patterns, which allows for a totally automated diagnostic system. Moreover, an innovative estimate of roll eccentricity based on a least-squares algorithm has been developed, which provides higher accuracy than classical algorithms, as well as a drastic reduction in the time required to perform eccentricity tests.

  4. A Study of the Batch Annealing of Cold-Rolled HSLA Steels Containing Niobium or Titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chao; Garcia, C. Isaac; Choi, Shi-Hoon; DeArdo, Anthony J.

    2015-08-01

    The batch annealing behavior of two cold-rolled, microalloyed HSLA steels has been studied in this program. One steel was microalloyed with niobium while the other with titanium. A successfully batch annealed steel will exhibit minimum variation in properties along the length of the coil, even though the inner and outer wraps experience faster heating and cooling rates and lower soaking temperatures, i.e., the so-called "cold spot" areas, than the mid-length portion of the coil, i.e., the so-called "hot spot" areas. The variation in strength and ductility is caused by differences in the extent of annealing in the different areas. It has been known for 30 years that titanium-bearing HSLA steels show more variability after batch annealing than do the niobium-bearing steels. One of the goals of this study was to try to explain this observation. In this study, the annealing kinetics of the surface and center layers of the cold-rolled sheet were compared. The surface and center layers of the niobium steel and the surface layer of the titanium steel all showed similar annealing kinetics, while the center layer of the titanium steel exhibited much slower kinetics. Metallographic results indicate that the stored energy of the cold-rolled condition, as revealed by grain center sub-grain boundary density, appeared to strongly influence the annealing kinetics. The kinetics were followed by the Kernel Average Misorientation reconstruction of the microstructure at different stages on annealing. Possible pinning effects caused by microalloy precipitates were also considered. Methods of improving uniformity and increasing kinetics, involving optimizing both hot-rolled and cold-rolled microstructure, are suggested.

  5. Finger milling-cutter CNC generating hypoid pinion tooth surfaces based on modified-roll method and machining simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Genggeng; Deng, Xiaozhong; Wei, Bingyang; Lei, Baozhen

    2011-05-01

    The two coordinate systems of cradle-type hypoid generator and free-form CNC machine tool by application disc milling-cutter to generate hypoid pinion tooth surfaces based on the modified-roll method were set up, respectively, and transformation principle and method for machine-tool settings between the two coordinate systems was studied. It was presented that finger milling-cutter was mounted on imagined disc milling-cutter and its motion was controlled directly by CNC shafts to replace disc milling-cutter blades effective cutting motion. Finger milling-cutter generation accomplished by ordered circular interpolation was determined, and interpolation center, starting and ending were worked out. Finally, a hypoid pinion was virtually machined by using CNC machining simulation software VERICUT.

  6. Finger milling-cutter CNC generating hypoid pinion tooth surfaces based on modified-roll method and machining simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Genggeng; Deng, Xiaozhong; Wei, Bingyang; Lei, Baozhen

    2010-12-01

    The two coordinate systems of cradle-type hypoid generator and free-form CNC machine tool by application disc milling-cutter to generate hypoid pinion tooth surfaces based on the modified-roll method were set up, respectively, and transformation principle and method for machine-tool settings between the two coordinate systems was studied. It was presented that finger milling-cutter was mounted on imagined disc milling-cutter and its motion was controlled directly by CNC shafts to replace disc milling-cutter blades effective cutting motion. Finger milling-cutter generation accomplished by ordered circular interpolation was determined, and interpolation center, starting and ending were worked out. Finally, a hypoid pinion was virtually machined by using CNC machining simulation software VERICUT.

  7. Transport, mixing and stretching in a chaotic Stokes flow: The two-roll mill

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, T.J.; Wiggins, S. )

    1989-01-01

    We present the outline and preliminary results of an analytical and numerical study of transport, mixing, and stretching in a chaotic Stokes' flow in a two-roll mill apparatus. We use the theory of dynamical systems to describe the rich behavior and structure exhibited by these flows. The main features are the homoclinic tangle which functions as the backbone of the chaotic mixing region, the Smale horseshoe, and the island chains. We then use our detailed knowledge of these structures to develop a theory of transport and stretching of fluid in the chaotic regime. In particular, we show how a specific set of tools for adiabatic chaos- the adiabatic Melnikov function lobe area and flux computations and the adiabatic switching method is ideally suited to develop this theory of transport, mixing and stretching in time-dependent two-dimensional Stokes' flows. 19 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Texture and magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steels processed by an unconventional cold rolling scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Youliang; Hilinski, Erik J.

    2016-05-01

    Two non-oriented electrical steels containing 0.9 wt% and 2.8 wt% of silicon were processed using an unconventional cold rolling scheme, i.e. the cold rolling direction (CRD) was intentionally inclined at an angle to the hot rolling direction (HRD) so that the initial texture before cold rolling and the rotation paths of crystals during cold deformation were both altered as compared to conventional cold rolling along the original HRD. The cold-rolled steel strips were then annealed, skin-pass rolled and final annealed. The texture and microstructure of the materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and optical microscopy, and considerable differences in average grain size and texture were observed at different inclination angles. The magnetic properties of the steel strips were measured at 400 Hz and 1.0 T/1.5 T using a specially designed Epstein frame, and apparent differences were also noticed at various angles. The magnetic quality of texture was evaluated using different texture factors/parameters and compared to the measured magnetic properties. Although apparent improvement on the magnetic quality of texture can be noted by inclining the CRD to HRD, the trend does not match the measured magnetic properties at 400 Hz, which may have been affected by other parameters in addition to crystallographic texture.

  9. Cu/single-walled carbon nanotube laminate composites fabricated by cold rolling and annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Hui; Housten, William; Zhao, Yimin; Qiu Zhu, Yan

    2007-05-01

    The remarkable mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have attracted extensive research interest as structural and functional materials. In particular, SWCNTs have been used to reinforce polymers and ceramic composites and great progress has been made. For metal matrix composites, the limitation of the conventional manufacturing process and the difficulty in dispersing nanotubes within metal matrices hinder the development of metal matrix composites. In this paper, we demonstrate a successful fabrication of Cu/SWCNT laminate composites by combined techniques of cold rolling and annealing, using 19 layers of large-area SWCNT films sandwiched between 20 layers of Cu thin foils. The tensile strength and Young's modulus of the resultant laminate composites are 361 MPa and 132 GPa, respectively, exhibiting an improvement over the comparative pure Cu foils processed under identical conditions. These results suggest that good interfacial adhesions between nanotubes and the Cu matrix have been achieved after the rolling-annealing-rolling processes.

  10. Kinetics of individual grains during recrystallization of cold-rolled copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, F. X.; Zhang, Y. B.; Poulsen, S. O.; Schell, N.; Pantleon, W.; Jensen, D. Juul

    2015-04-01

    The formation of a recrystallization texture is closely related to the nucleation and growth of recrystallizing grains, which may vary from grain to grain. Cube texture is a commonly observed recrystallization texture in face centered cubic metals of medium to high stacking fault energy after heavy cold-rolling and annealing. In this work, recrystallization of pure copper cold-rolled to a von Mises strain of 2.7 was investigated in situ using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction. Growth curves of 835 grains were determined, and the curves of cube and noncube grains were compared. It was found that the nucleation times of cube grains and non-cube grains were similar, whereas the growth rates of a few but not all cube grains were high. Effects hereof for the development of the cube texture were discussed.

  11. In Search of the Attributes Responsible for Sliver Formation in Cold Rolled Steel Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Itishree; Das, Prasun; Bhattacharjee, Debashish; Datta, Shubhabrata

    2016-06-01

    Surface quality is one of the most important characteristics of cold rolled (CR) steel sheets for its application in consumer goods industries. The actual cause of sliver formation is very difficult to determine, as it is revealed only after the final cold rolling of the steel. A thorough investigation on searching the root cause of sliver formation in CR steel is done here using several statistical tools towards mining the industrial data for extraction of knowledge. As the complex interactions between the variables make it difficult to identify the cause, it is seen that findings from different techniques differed to a certain extent. Still it is revealed that 21 variables could be short listed as major contributor for sliver formation, but those are found to be from all the areas of the processing. This leads to the conclusion that no particular process variable or particular processing could be held responsible for sliver formation.

  12. Quality Parameters Defined by Chebyshev Polynomials in Cold Rolling Process Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Judin, Mika; Nylander, Jari; Larkiola, Jari; Verho, Martti

    2011-05-04

    The thickness profile of hot strip is of importance to profile, flatness and shape of the final cold rolled product. In this work, strip thickness and flatness profiles are decomposed into independent components by solving Chebyshev polynomials coefficients using matrix calculation. Four terms are used to characterize most common shapes of thickness and flatness profile. The calculated Chebyshev coefficients from different line measurements are combined together and analysed using neural network tools. The most common types of shapes are classified.

  13. Influence of thermal treatment on magnetocaloric properties of Gd cold rolled ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taskaev, Sergey V.; Buchelnikov, Vasiliy D.; Pellenen, Anatoliy P.; Kuz'min, Michael D.; Skokov, Konstantin P.; Karpenkov, Dmitry Yu.; Bataev, Dmitry S.; Gutfleisch, Oliver

    2013-05-01

    This work reports the influence of heat treatment on the magnetocaloric effect of cold-rolled Gd ribbons. A significant depression of magnetic and thermodynamical properties occurs in severely deformed ribbons. However, it is possible to recover the initial values, characteristic of polycrystals by way of heat treatment. The heat treatment regimes are directly connected with the degree of plastic deformation. The proposed approach is convenient for manufacturing magnetocaloric materials in the form of thin ribbons for magnetic refrigerators.

  14. Microstructural evolution in a low carbon steel during cold rolling and subsequent annealing.

    PubMed

    Ghassemali, E; Kermanpur, A; Najafizadeh, A

    2010-09-01

    Cold rolling with subsequent annealing of lath martensite structure could lead to the formation of nanostructures in low carbon steels. In the present work, the microstructural evolution of a 0.13% C steel during this process was studied. The specimens were austenitized at 950 degrees C followed by quenching in ice-brine to get martensitic structure. The quenched samples were aged at 200 degrees C for 30 min. These specimens were cold rolled up to 90% reduction in thickness without any intermediate annealing and then annealed at the temperatures from 400 to 600 degrees C. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy and color metallography was used to investigate the microstructure. Microscopic investigations showed that a multiphase nanostructure composed of equiaxed ferrite grains with the mean grain size of about 188 nm and small blocks of tempered martensite can be achieved under annealing at 400 degrees C for 90 min. Formation of the nanostructure was discussed from the viewpoint of characteristics of the martensite starting structure. Fragmentation of martensite lathes in cold rolling stage play an important role on recrystallization at annealing stage to get the ultrafine structure. PMID:21133169

  15. The effects of cold rolling on the microstructural and spall response of 1100 aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. L.; Chen, C. Q.; Ramesh, K. T.; Dandekar, D. P.

    2013-09-01

    As received 1100-O aluminum was cold rolled (CR) to 30%, 70%, and 80% reduction, respectively, to study the effects of microstructural evolution on the spall response using plate impact experiments. Previous results show a sharp increase in pullback velocity for 1100-O aluminum with increase in peak shock stress between 4.0 and 8.3 GPa due to hardening, followed by a decrease for peak shock stresses up to 12.0 GPa possibly due to softening. This maximum was not observed for the 30% CR, which showed only an increase in pullback velocity over the shock stress range of 4.0-12.0 GPa due to hardening (net increase in dislocation density). For the 70% CR aluminum, no change was observed in the pullback velocity over the range tested (4.0-11.0 GPa) probably due to saturation in dislocation density. Similar observations were made for the 80% CR, that is, no change was observed in the spall response between 4.0 GPa and 11.0 GPa. However, variations were observed in the spall response for the 80% CR, and these variations are attributed to material inhomogeneity possibly caused by increased cold rolling beyond saturation. The results also show a significant increase in Hugoniot Elastic Limit with increase in percent cold rolling.

  16. Recrystallization Texture Transition in Fe-2.1 Wt Pct Si Steel by Different Cold Rolling Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Ning; Sha, Yuhui; Zhang, Fang; Liu, Jinlong; Zuo, Liang

    2015-05-01

    The competition dependent on cold rolling reduction among main recrystallization texture components in Fe-2.1 wt pct Si sheets was investigated from the hot band characterized by strong Cube ({001}<100>) at center layer and weak Goss ({110}<001>) at quarter layer. The deformation and recrystallization textures through thickness were both analyzed by X-ray diffraction technique. Goss, Cube, and {111}<112> components dominate the recrystallization texture in sequence with the cold rolling reduction increasing from 60 to 90 pct. This recrystallization texture transition with cold rolling reduction can be explained in terms of the number and nature of nucleation sites for various texture components. A variety of final recrystallization textures are proposed for non-oriented silicon steel by designing texture and microstructure of hot band and cold rolling reduction.

  17. Influence of cold rolling degree and ageing treatments on the precipitation hardening of 2024 and 7075 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naimi, A.; Yousfi, H.; Trari, M.

    2013-08-01

    In the present work, the precipitation hardening of 2024 and 7075 aluminum alloys is investigated as a function of cold rolling degree, ageing time and temperature using Vickers microhardness measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It is found that a variation in such parameters can improve the hardness and plays an important role in the precipitation hardening process. At specific ageing temperature, the large cold rolled 7075 alloy exhibits two peaks of hardness. Moreover, for both alloys, the increment of hardness during ageing decreases with increasing the cold rolling degree. While in some cases microhardness measurements give impression that the precipitation reaction is slowed down by deformation, DSC analysis indicates that the precipitation is much accelerated since only a slight deformation decreases strongly the temperatures of reactions. However, the degree of cold rolling does not play a crucial role.

  18. Data-based hybrid tension estimation and fault diagnosis of cold rolling continuous annealing processes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Chai, Tianyou; Wang, Hong; Qin, Si-Zhao Joe

    2011-12-01

    The continuous annealing process line (CAPL) of cold rolling is an important unit to improve the mechanical properties of steel strips in steel making. In continuous annealing processes, strip tension is an important factor, which indicates whether the line operates steadily. Abnormal tension profile distribution along the production line can lead to strip break and roll slippage. Therefore, it is essential to estimate the whole tension profile in order to prevent the occurrence of faults. However, in real annealing processes, only a limited number of strip tension sensors are installed along the machine direction. Since the effects of strip temperature, gas flow, bearing friction, strip inertia, and roll eccentricity can lead to nonlinear tension dynamics, it is difficult to apply the first-principles induced model to estimate the tension profile distribution. In this paper, a novel data-based hybrid tension estimation and fault diagnosis method is proposed to estimate the unmeasured tension between two neighboring rolls. The main model is established by an observer-based method using a limited number of measured tensions, speeds, and currents of each roll, where the tension error compensation model is designed by applying neural networks principal component regression. The corresponding tension fault diagnosis method is designed using the estimated tensions. Finally, the proposed tension estimation and fault diagnosis method was applied to a real CAPL in a steel-making company, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:21954208

  19. Effect of Cold Rolling Reduction Rate on Secondary Recrystallized Texture in 3 Pct Si-Fe Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, Takeshi; Shingaki, Yukihiro; Hayakawa, Yasuyuki

    2013-04-01

    The phenomenon of secondary recrystallization in 3 pct Si-Fe electrical steel subjected to relatively high cold rolling reduction rates has been investigated. The texture of the secondary recrystallized sample that has a cold rolling reduction rate of 97.2 pct consists mainly of {110}<112> component, which is quite different from the ideal Goss ({110}<001>) texture obtained after lower cold rolling reduction rates. The grain boundary character distribution (GBCD) analysis on the primary recrystallized sample with a cold rolling reduction rate of 97.2 pct indicates that the {110}<112> component has the highest frequency of high energy (HE) boundary with a misorientation angle between 20 and 45 deg, whereas the Goss component in the sample subjected to lower cold rolling reduction rates has the highest frequency of HE boundary. These results indicate that the component with the highest frequency of HE boundary surrounding it after primary recrystallization has the privilege to outgrow other components during secondary recrystallization. However, the GBCD analysis for coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundary points out that the Goss component has the highest frequency of CSL boundaries in the primary recrystallized texture irrespective of the cold rolling reduction applied. These results suggest that the HE model can predict the orientation relationship between the primary and secondary recrystallized textures better than the CSL model.

  20. Hot and cold rolling of high nitrogen Cr-Ni and Cr-Mn austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Iiola, R.; Hanninen, H.; Kauppi, T.

    1998-10-01

    Behavior of austenitic Cr-Ni-(0.14--0.50)N and Cr-Mn-(0.78--1.00)N steels in hot and cold rolling was investigated by rolling experiments and mechanical testing. Structure of the steels in the as-cast condition and fracture surfaces after the rolling experiments were investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Resistance to deformation was calculated using rolling forces in hot rolling. Increase in strength in the rolling experiments was related to the nitrogen content of the steels. Resistance to deformation during hot rolling increased with decreasing rolling temperature and with increasing nitrogen content. In some steels, hot rolling led to edge cracking, which was more a function of impurity than nitrogen content. Microscopy revealed that the edge cracking occurred along grain boundaries and second phase particles. For the cold-rolled steels, the highest achievable reductions were limited due to a crocodiling phenomenon, that is, opening of the strip end. Fracture type at the opened strip end was a brittle-like fracture.

  1. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the high-pressure roll mill grinding of coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; De, A.

    1996-08-01

    The preparation of coal water slurries to replace fuel oil for direct combustion has become an important field in modem coal technology. The U.S. Department of Energy has planned or has underway several demonstration projects to burn coal-water slurries to replace fuel oil is attractive not only because there is an assured domestic supply of coal, but also on various technoeconomic grounds. Coal-water slurries combine the handling flexibility of fuel oil in power plants and various other industrial applications. This report discusses the rheology of coal-water slurries and the correlation to the coal preparation by grinding with a choke-fed high pressure roll mill. Performance of the roll mills and energy consumption are described.

  2. Using automatic particle counting to monitor aluminum cold mill coolant{copyright}

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, D.L.

    1995-08-01

    A comprehensive program of testing and evaluation of aluminum cold rolling coolant conditions has been conducted using an automatic particle counting instrument. The project had three objectives. First, there was a need to know at what level of coolant particle contamination is surface cleanliness of an aluminum sheet affected during the rolling process. Secondly, is application of particle counting technology a reliable tool for troubleshooting coolant filtration systems and finally, what are the advantages of analyzing rolling coolants for contamination levels? A testing program was designed and performed over a two-year period. The test results revealed that mineral seal and synthetic-type coolants can begin to affect aluminum sheet surface cleanliness levels when particle sizes greater than five microns are in excess of 10,000 particles power 100 milliliters of rolling coolant. After performing over 3,000 separate tests, it was very clean that particle count levels are direct indicators of how well a filtration facility is performing. Through the application of particle counting, a number of conditions in coolant filtration facilities can be readily detected. Such items as defective filter valving, torn or fractured filter cloth, damaged filter parts, improper equipment operation and many other factors will directly impact the operation of aluminum cold rolling coolant filters. 11 figs.

  3. Genetic based sensorless hybrid intelligent controller for strip loop formation control between inter-stands in hot steel rolling mills.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, S; Palanisamy, V; Duraiswamy, K

    2008-04-01

    Safe operating environment is essential for all complex industrial processes. The safety issues in steel rolling mill when the hot strip passes through consecutive mill stands have been considered in this paper. Formation of sag in strip is a common problem in the rolling process. The excessive sag can lead to scrap runs and damage to machinery. Conventional controllers for mill actuation system are based on a rolling model. The factors like rise in temperature, aging, wear and tear are not taken into account while designing a conventional controller. Therefore, the conventional controller cannot yield a requisite controlled output. In this paper, a new Genetic-neuro-fuzzy hybrid controller without tension sensor has been proposed to optimize the quantum of excessive sag and reduce it. The performance of the proposed controller has been compared with the performance of fuzzy logic controller, Neuro-fuzzy controller and conventional controller with the help of data collected from the plant. The simulation results depict that the proposed controller has superior performance than the other controllers. PMID:18093589

  4. Investigation of the influence of the chemical composition of HSLA steel grades on the microstructure homogeneity during hot rolling in continuous rolling mills using a fast layer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtchen, M.; Rimnac, A.; Warczok, P.; Kozeschnik, E.; Bernhard, C.; Bragin, S.; Kawalla, R.; Linzer, B.

    2016-03-01

    The newly developed LaySiMS simulation tool provides new insight for inhomogeneous material flow and microstructure evolution in an endless strip production (ESP) plant. A deepened understanding of the influence of inhomogeneities in initial material state, temperature profile and material flow and their impact on the finished product can be reached e.g. by allowing for variable layer thickness distributions in the roll gap. Coupling temperature, deformation work and work hardening/recrystallization phenomena accounts for covering important effects in the roll gap. The underlying concept of the LaySiMS approach will be outlined and new insight gained regarding microstructural evolution, shear and inhomogeneous stress and strain states in the roll gap as well as local residual stresses will be presented. For the case of thin slab casting and direct rolling (TSDR) the interrelation of inhomogeneous initial state, micro structure evolution and dissolution state of micro alloying elements within the roughing section of an ESP line will be discussed. Special emphasis is put on the influence of the local chemical composition arising from direct charging on throughthickness homogeneity of the final product. It is concluded that, due to the specific combination of large reductions in the high reduction mills (HRM) and the highly inhomogeneous inverse temperature profile, the ESP-concept provides great opportunities for homogenizing the microstructure across the strip thickness.

  5. Influence of carbon content on cold rolling and recrystallization texture in polycrystalline 3% Si-Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, M.; Shingaki, Y.; Imamura, T.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2015-04-01

    The influence of carbon content on cold rolling and recrystallization texture in polycrystalline 3%Si-Fe under the relatively high rolling reduction condition has been investigated. The main component of recrystallization texture was {554}<225> orientation in ultra low carbon (ULC) 3%Si-Fe and {411}<148> orientation in low carbon (LC) 3%Si-Fe. The origin of {411}<148> recrystallization texture development in LC 3%Si-Fe is discussed in terms of the rotation of deformation twin from {100}<011> to {411}<148> orientation with the generation of the slip bands inside the neighboring matrix grain {111}<011>. The rotation axis of this crystal rotation was estimated <112> axis. Assuming the single slip system activation in BCC metal, crystal rotation around <112> axis indicates an activation of {110}<111> slip system. In terms of Schmid factor, {112}<111> slip system must be activated in {100}<011> matrix. This is not in agreement with the estimation of {110}<111> slip system activation. Detailed observation on the cold rolled sample revealed that common slip plane passed through the deformation twin and surrounding deformed matrix grains. It is considered that slip plane matching (SPM) with neighboring grains activates the lower Schmid factor slip system in deformation twin. These results suggest that not only Schmid factor but also SPM with neighboring grains should be considered to decide the active slip systems in polycrystalline metals.

  6. EBSD characterization of twinning in cold-rolled CP-Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Duan, Y.L.; Xu, G.F.; Peng, X.Y.; Dai, C.; Zhang, L.G.; Li, Z.

    2013-10-15

    This work presents the use of a mechanical testing system and the electron backscatter diffraction technique to study the mechanical properties and twinning systems of cold-rolled commercial purity titanium, respectively. The dependence of twinning on the matrix orientation is analyzed by the distribution map of Schmid factor. The results showed that the commercial purity titanium experienced strong strain hardening and had excellent formability during rolling. Both the (112{sup ¯}2)<112{sup ¯}3{sup ¯}> compressive twins and (101{sup ¯}2)<101{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}> tensile twins were dependent on the matrix orientation. The Schmid factor of a grain influenced the activation of a particular twinning system. The specific rolling deformation of commercial purity titanium controlled the number and species of twinning systems and further changed the mechanical properties. - Highlights: • CP-Ti experienced strain hardening and had excellent formability. • Twins were dependent on the matrix orientation. • Schmid factor of a grain influenced the activation of a twinning system. • Rolling deformation controlled twinning systems and mechanical properties.

  7. Texture Prediction of Cold and Hot Rolled Titanium Using Processing Path Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bouhattate, Jamaa; Li, Dongsheng; Castello Branco, Gilberto A.; Bacaltchuk, Cristiane M.; Garmestani, Hamid

    2010-04-01

    Titanium alloys have very attractive properties, which are highly dependent on the material microstructure. Accurately predicting the microstructure of such materials during processing for materials design is, therefore, very important. In this work texture evolution of titanium alloys cold rolled at room temperature and hot rolled at 260oC is simulated using a processing path model. Texture coefficients, a set of weights in spherical harmonics expansion of texture, are utilized as descriptors of materials to represent the texture state of polycrystalline materials during processing. This model is based on the conservation principle in the orientation space. Deriving from experimental texture input at different deformation stages, the texture evolution matrix was calculated. This matrix is used to predict texture evolution for the specified deformation mode. The simulated texture evolution results agree well with experimental results.

  8. Anisotropy of thermal fatigue properties of cold-rolled TiNi sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Mulder, Ir.J.H.; Beyer, J. . Lab. for Materials Science); Thoma, P.E )

    1994-04-01

    The texture of cold-rolled and heat-treated TiNi sheet has been measured and designated as (110)<1[anti 1]0>[sub p]. This material has been used in thermal fatigue tests during and after which the anisotropy and development of several thermomechanical properties, such as transformation temperatures and strains, have been measured. Furthermore, the resulting changes of texture after thermal fatigue are presented. The observed effects are explained on the basis of the parent texture and the specific martensite variants that are formed according to the lattice correspondence between austenite (P) and martensite (M).

  9. Texture evolution in grain-oriented electrical steel during hot band annealing and cold rolling.

    PubMed

    Shin, S M; Birosca, S; Chang, S K; De Cooman, B C

    2008-06-01

    The optimization of magnetic and physical properties of electrical steel is imperative for many engineering applications. The key factors to improve magnetic properties are the steel composition as well as control of the crystallographic orientation and microstructure of the steel during processing. However, this requires careful control of processing at all stages of production. Under certain conditions of deformation and annealing, electrical steel can be produced to have favourable texture components. For grain-oriented (GO) electrical steels that are used in most transformer cores, a pronounced {110} <001> Goss texture plays a vital role to achieve low power losses and high permeability. Essentially, Goss texture develops during secondary re-crystallization in GO electrical steels; however, the mechanism of the abnormal Goss grain growth is still disputed in the literature. In the current study, the influence of the annealing conditions on the development of annealing, cold rolling and re-crystallization textures of hot-rolled GO electrical steel were investigated in detail following each processing step. Furthermore, the orientation data from electron backscatter diffraction were used to evaluate the orientation-dependent stored energy of deformed grains after hot rolling. In the light of new findings in the present study, annealing and deformation texture development mechanisms were critically reviewed. PMID:18503668

  10. Thermal Response on the Microstructure and Texture of ECAP and Cold-Rolled Pure Magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Somjeet; Singh, D. Satyaveer; Beausir, Benoît; Toth, Laszlo S.; Suwas, Satyam

    2015-06-01

    This paper deals with dynamic recrystallization (DRX), static recrystallization, and grain growth phenomena of pure magnesium after equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) by route A and BC at 523 K (250 °C) followed by 80 pct cold rolling. The ECAP-deformed and the subsequently rolled samples were annealed at 373 K and 773 K (100 °C and 500 °C). The associated changes in the microstructure and texture were studied using electron back-scattered diffraction. ECAP produced an average grain size of ~12 to 18 µm with B and C2 fiber textures. Subsequent rolling led to an average grain size ~8 to 10 µm with basal texture fiber parallel to ND. There was no noticeable increase in the average grain size on annealing at 373 K (100 °C). However, significant increase in the average grain size occurred at 773 K (500 °C). The occurrence of different DRX mechanisms was detected: discontinuous dynamic recrystallization was attributed to basal slip activity and continuous dynamic recovery and recrystallization to prismatic/pyramidal slip systems. Only continuous static recrystallization could be observed on annealing.

  11. NASA Ares I Launch Vehicle First Stage Roll Control System Cold Flow Development Test Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butt, Adam; Popp, Christopher G.; Holt, Kimberly A.; Pitts, Hank M.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I launch vehicle is the selected design, chosen to return humans to the moon, Mars, and beyond. It is configured in two inline stages: the First Stage is a Space Shuttle derived five-segment Solid Rocket Booster and the Upper Stage is powered by a Saturn V derived J-2X engine. During launch, roll control for the First Stage (FS) is handled by a dedicated Roll Control System (RoCS) located on the connecting Interstage. That system will provide the Ares I with the ability to counteract induced roll torque while any induced yaw or pitch moments are handled by vectoring of the booster nozzle. This paper provides an overview of NASA s Ares I FS RoCS cold flow development test program including detailed test objectives, types of tests run to meet those objectives, an overview of the results, and applicable lessons learned. The test article was built and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. The FS RoCS System Development Test Article (SDTA) is a full scale, flight representative water flow test article whose primary objective was to obtain fluid system performance data to evaluate integrated system level performance characteristics and verify analytical models. Development testing and model correlation was deemed necessary as there is little historical precedent for similar large flow, pulsing systems such as the FS RoCS. The cold flow development test program consisted of flight-similar tanks, pressure regulators, and thruster valves, as well as plumbing simulating flight geometries, combined with other facility grade components and structure. Orifices downstream of the thruster valves were used to simulate the pressure drop through the thrusters. Additional primary objectives of this test program were to: evaluate system surge pressure (waterhammer) characteristics due to thruster valve operation over a range of mission duty cycles at various feed system pressures, evaluate temperature transients and heat transfer in the

  12. Production of iron aluminides by strip casting followed by cold rolling at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Blackford, J.R.; Buckley, R.A.; Jones, H.; Sellars, C.M.

    1996-05-15

    The high resistance of iron aluminides to sulfidizing and oxidizing environments at high temperatures offers potential for structural application as lower cost alternatives to 300 and 400 series stainless steels and some nickel-base alloys. They are, however, subject to ductility limitations at room temperature which compel careful processing in order to achieve optimum properties in the final product. The standard melt-processing route of casting to ingot followed by hot and warm working to bar, plate or sheet is critically dependent on, for example, control of grain size in the initial cast structure, and the low ductility of the ingot structure at room temperature rules out cold working as a possibility at that stage. The purpose of this contribution is to report results of initial trials involving strip casting from the melt followed directly by cold-rolling and heat treatment. A previous communication reported results of an alternative novel route, that of co-rolling of elemental foils followed by heat treatment.

  13. Chemical banding revealed by chemical etching in a cold-rolled metastable stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Celada, C.; Toda-Caraballo, I.; Kim, B.; San Martín, D.

    2013-10-15

    The current work describes the metallographic characterization of the initial microstructure of a cold rolled precipitation hardening semi-austenitic stainless steel (12Cr–9Ni–4Mo–2Cu–1Ti, in wt.%). The use of the Lichtenegger and Blöch (L–B) color etching solution has been shown to reveal not only the phases present in the microstructure, but also the existence of chemical banding along the rolling direction. The L–B reagent has been found to color the microstructure in bands depending on what alloying elements have segregated to each band. Two-dimensional electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) maps have shown that Ni, Cu and Ti segregate together in the bands, while Cr has an opposite behavior. Mo has a mixed segregation behavior although much weaker than the other elements and more prompt to segregate like Ni does. A direct comparison of light optical micrographs with the EPMA maps of the same area of the microstructure has enable to establish a direct relationship between the alloying element band concentration and the resulting etching color contrast obtained with the L–B reagent. Thermodynamic calculations predict that solidification in this steel takes place with ferrite as the primary phase. Equilibrium partitioning coefficient calculations seem to support the observed segregation patterns. - Highlights: • A cold rolled metastable stainless steel has been characterized thoroughly. • EPMA shows that Ni, Cu and Ti segregate together; Cr in an opposite way. • L–B color etching is sensitive to the segregation of these chemical elements. • This chemical banding has been reduced by applying a homogenization heat treatment. • Partitioning coefficient calculations agree with the observed segregation patterns.

  14. Microstructure Evolution during Cold Rolling in a Nanocrystalline Ni-Fe Alloy Determined by Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Li; Ungar, Prof Tomas; Wang, Y. D.; Morris, James R; Tichy, G.; Lendvai, J.; Wang, Y. L.; Ren, Y.; Choo, H.; Liaw, Peter K

    2009-01-01

    Stress softening after cold rolling is observed in an electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy. The grain-size distribution becomes much broader after the cold rolling. Microstructure changes, though moderate, such as simultaneously decreased dislocation and twin densities with grain growth during cold rolling, are systematically proved by synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction, and transmission-electron microscopy and differential-scanning calorimetry (DSC). The amorphous fractions in the form of grain boundaries are evidenced by the diffuse-background scatterings and large DSC values. Partial dislocation separation calculation, a dislocation mean free path and annihilation model, and texture development together reveal that the current nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy exhibits the combined behavior of perfect dislocation slip and grain-boundary mediated deformation.

  15. Numerical study of strain-rate effect in cold rolls forming of steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falsafi, J.; Demirci, E.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    Cold roll forming (CRF) is a well-known continuous manufacturing process, in which a flat strip is deformed by successive rotating pairs of tools, without changing the material thickness. In the past decades, to lessen the process-development efforts, finite-element simulations have been increasingly employed to improve the process design and predict the manufacturing-induced defects. One of the important aspects in design of the CRF process is consideration of resulting strains in the final product as the material passes through several complex forming stands. Sufficient knowledge of longitudinal strain in the workpiece is required to set various process parameters. Increasing a process speed in a roll forming operation can bring cost advantages, but the influence of the forming speed on the strain distribution should be explored. This study is focussed on a strain-rate effect in the CRF process of steel sheets. The strain-rate dependency of a plastic behaviour observed in most metals can affect the finished product's quality as well as process parameters. This paper investigates the influence of the strain rate on longitudinal strains induced in the roll forming operation by incorporating a phenomenological Johnson-Cook constitutive model, which allows studying the impact of the process speed on the output product. Taking advantage of 3D finite element analysis, a roll forming process was simulated using MCS.Marc, comprising a complete set of forming stations. Through the changing of the process speed, the strain rate impact on longitudinal peak strains and forming length was investigated. The results highlight the effect of the strain rate on edge thinning and subsequent undesirable distortions in the product.

  16. Effects of Recrystallization on Microstructure and Texture Evolution of Cold-Rolled Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Haitao; Dong, Peng; Zeng, Shangwu; Wu, Bo

    2016-05-01

    The effects of recrystallization during annealing process on microstructure and texture evolution of cold-rolled Ti-6Al-4V alloy plates were investigated. The plates after cold rolling with a thickness reduction of 5, 10, and 15% were annealed under different conditions of 750 °C for 1 h, 800 °C for 1 h, and 800 °C for 1.5 h, respectively. It was found out that the recrystallization temperature decreased with increasing rolling reduction due to higher storage energy, while the extension of annealing time caused grain growth. For the cold-rolled plate with a reduction of 10%, the resulting microstructure showed more equal-axis grains after annealing at 800 °C for 1 h, among different conditions. Moreover, the XRD results showed that the cold-rolled plate composed mainly of {0001} <10-10> basal texture, {10-11} <1-210> and {01-12} <10-10> pyramidal textures, and {01-10} <10-10> prismatic texture, and that the weak {10-11} <1-210> texture was transformed to components {01-12} <10-10> and {01-10} <10-10>, which were expected to improve formability. Electron back-scattered diffraction results ascertained that two mechanisms, i.e., recrystallization sites of preferred orientations and favorable grain growth both played important roles in static recrystallization.

  17. Effects of Annealing Treatment Prior to Cold Rolling on the Edge Cracking Phenomenon of Ferritic Lightweight Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Seok Su; Lee, Byeong-Joo; Kwak, Jai-Hyun; Lee, Sunghak

    2014-08-01

    Effects of annealing treatment from 923 K to 1023 K (650 °C to 750 °C) prior to cold rolling on the edge cracking phenomenon of a ferritic lightweight steel were investigated. The edge cracking was severely found in the hot-rolled and 923 K (650 °C)-annealed steels after cold rolling, whereas it hardly occurred in the 1023 K (750 °C)-annealed steel. As the annealing temperature increased, lamellar κ-carbides were dissolved and coarsened, and most of the κ-carbides continuously formed along boundaries between ferrite and κ-carbide bands disappeared. Microstructural observation of the deformed region of tensile specimens revealed that the removal of band boundary κ-carbides reduced the difference in tensile elongation along the longitudinal direction (LD) and transverse direction (TD), which consequently led to the reduction in edge cracking. The 1023 K (750 °C)-annealed steel showed fine ferrite grain size, weak texture, and decomposed band structure after subsequent cold rolling and intercritical annealing, because κ-carbides actively worked as nucleation sites of ferrite and austenite. The present annealing treatment prior to cold rolling, which was originally adopted to prevent edge cracking, also beneficially modified the final microstructure of lightweight steel.

  18. Effects of Recrystallization on Microstructure and Texture Evolution of Cold-Rolled Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Haitao; Dong, Peng; Zeng, Shangwu; Wu, Bo

    2016-04-01

    The effects of recrystallization during annealing process on microstructure and texture evolution of cold-rolled Ti-6Al-4V alloy plates were investigated. The plates after cold rolling with a thickness reduction of 5, 10, and 15% were annealed under different conditions of 750 °C for 1 h, 800 °C for 1 h, and 800 °C for 1.5 h, respectively. It was found out that the recrystallization temperature decreased with increasing rolling reduction due to higher storage energy, while the extension of annealing time caused grain growth. For the cold-rolled plate with a reduction of 10%, the resulting microstructure showed more equal-axis grains after annealing at 800 °C for 1 h, among different conditions. Moreover, the XRD results showed that the cold-rolled plate composed mainly of {0001} <10-10> basal texture, {10-11} <1-210> and {01-12} <10-10> pyramidal textures, and {01-10} <10-10> prismatic texture, and that the weak {10-11} <1-210> texture was transformed to components {01-12} <10-10> and {01-10} <10-10>, which were expected to improve formability. Electron back-scattered diffraction results ascertained that two mechanisms, i.e., recrystallization sites of preferred orientations and favorable grain growth both played important roles in static recrystallization.

  19. Transverse Crack Modeling of Continuously Casted Slabs through Finite Element Method in Roughing Rolling at Wide Strip Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesin, A.; Salganik, V.; Pustovoytov, D.

    2010-06-01

    In the pipe billet production at the wide strip mills of hot rolling big metal losses are caused by surface defects that affect most parts of the finished strips. The rolling surface defects are referred to the breach of steelmaking technology. Specialists mostly face defects of metal surface such as "scab" and "crack". The only area suffered from these defects is a slab edge. This area has the least surface temperature at the unbending of the continuous-casting machine, and together with deep buckles made by reciprocating motion of the crystallizer it is mostly subjected to transverse cracks that can be up to several millimeters. Each surface defect of the continuously casted slab will further turn into the surface defect of the strip bar. For some grade sets, mostly made of pipe steel grades the amount of strips with these defects can reach up to 60-70%. The area that is mostly prone to these defects is the edge of the strip. The work reveals investigation of the form change peculiarities in the transverse cracks of the continuously casted slab in roughing rolling in the horizontal rollers. The finite element method with software DEFORM 3D V6.1 has been applied in modeling. The work gives a form change mechanism of transverse cracks of slabs in deformation. Further crack growth in rolling is assessed due to Cockroft-Latham criteria.

  20. Effects of cold rolling on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Mn-Mo-Ti-Cr maraging steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmudi, Abbas; Nedjad, Syamak Hossein; Behnam, Mir Masud Jabbari

    2011-10-01

    Effects of cold rolling on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Mn-Mo-Ti-Cr maraging steels were studied. To investigate the microstructure and mechanical properties, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, tensile test, and hardness test were used. The results show that the solution-annealing treatment in the cold-rolled steel redounds to the formation of submicrocrystalline Fe2(Mo, Ti) Laves phase particles, which are stable at high temperatures. These secondary Laves phase particles prevent from recrystallization at high temperatures and correspond to semi-brittle fracture in the subsequent aging treatment.

  1. Effects of Severe Cold Rolling on Exfoliation Corrosion Behavior of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Cr Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lianghua; Liu, Zhiyi; Li, Yao; Han, Xiangnan; Chen, Xu

    2012-06-01

    The exfoliation corrosion (EXCO) behavior of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Cr alloy after severe cold rolling was investigated by optical microscope, transmission electron microscope, and electrochemical technique. The results show that the EXCO resistance decreased with increasing cold rolling reduction because of the grain boundaries which were decorated with the continuously distributed particles . After the solution treatment, the samples with different reductions retained the fibrous grains, and the elongated grains accelerated the growth of the corrosion cracks according to crack propagation analysis. Furthermore, the increase of deformation enhanced the degree of recrystallization, while the number of corrosion cells increased greatly when in the electrolyte, which tended to reduce the resistance to EXCO.

  2. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, September 1--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the research is the development of improved technology for the preparation of coal-water slurries, which have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. The fine grinding of coal is a crucial step in the manufacture of coal-water slurries. In this context, currently available grinding mills exhibit poor energy efficiency for size reduction and non-optimum packing characteristics of the ground coal. The first increases the cost of manufacture of coal-water slurries and the second adversely affects their rheological properties. The newly invented choke-fed, high-pressure roll mill is up to 50% more energy efficient and, moreover, there are reasons to believe that it produces a size distribution of ground particles which is closer to the dense packing composition. The high-pressure roll mill (which is perhaps the only really significant innovation in industrial comminution in this century) has lower capital cost, occupies less floor space, shows negligible wear rate, accepts feed with a wide range of moisture contents and, of particular importance, it can be scaled up to grind hundreds of tons of solids per hour. The high-pressure roll mill provides a unique opportunity to develop an improved technology for preparing coal-water slurries. Our research group in the University of California at Berkeley not only has a fully instrumented, laboratory-scale, choke-fed. high-pressure roll mill (the only one of its kind in the United States) but also fully instrumented laboratory ball mills for comparative fine coal preparation purposes. In this research program, our plans are to systematically investigate comminution energy consumption, deagglomeration procedures, and the stability and rheology of coal-water slurry fuel prepared with high-pressure roll mill, and to compare the results with slurry prepared with ball-milled coal.

  3. Development of Cold-Rolled Dual-Phase Steels with Tensile Strength Above 1000 MPa and Good Bendability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Gejza; Sinaiová, Iveta; Hvizdoš, Pavol; Juhar, L'uboš

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the most important results of the study oriented on development of low-silicon (<0.03Si), precipitation-strengthened, fine-grained, cold-rolled dual-phase (DP) steels with tensile strength greater than 1000 MPa, primarily intended for the automotive industry. For this purpose, extensive systematic investigations were conducted with the aim to optimize the composition/processing conditions with regard to the microstructural effects on tensile properties and bendability of DP steels. Within this study, influence of the addition of Mn, Cr, Mo and/or both Mo and Ti on the microstructure and tensile properties of eight steels molded in the form of ~20 kg ingots processed by controlled rolling has been investigated. The effect of simulated coiling temperature on hot-rolled steels followed by cold rolling and intercritical annealing at temperatures 1023 K and 1073 K (750 °C and 800 °C) as well as the interaction between ferrite recrystallization and austenite formation were examined. Investigation of the effect of intercritical annealing on the structure-property relationships was carried out on steels in both the hot-rolled and cold-rolled states. It was found that in spite of strength above 1000 MPa, good bendability (steel strip may have been bent to 180 deg at radius of 0.5 mm) can be achieved in the cold-rolled intercritically annealed steel with nominal composition 0.15-C-1.2Mn-0.02Si-0.2Mo-0.1Ti by more or less homogeneous distribution of fine Ti precipitates (<5 nm) within fine ferrite grains (<2 μm) and about 35 pct martensite volume fraction in the microstructure of DP steel.

  4. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti-Mo alloys cold-rolled and heat treated

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Yinglong; Luo Dongmei

    2011-10-15

    In this study, the microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti-10Mo and Ti-20Mo alloys (mass%) are investigated to assess the potential use in biomedical applications. The microstructures are examined by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties are determined from uniaxial tensile tests. The experimental results indicate that the microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti-Mo alloys are dependent upon the cold rolling, solution heat treatment, and Mo content. The Ti-10Mo alloy exhibits ({alpha}'' + {beta}) and ({beta} + {omega}) phases under the cold rolling (CR) and solution treatment (ST), respectively. By contrast, the Ti-20Mo alloy comprises only {beta} phase under such conditions. The quenched Ti-20Mo alloy has the lowest elastic modulus and CR Ti-20Mo alloy has the highest tensile strength. The quenched Ti-10Mo alloy exhibits the excellent ductility and two-stage yielding from stress-strain curves due to the stress-induced martensite transformation from {beta} to {alpha}'' during tensile deformation. These Ti-Mo alloys exhibit low yield strength and good ductility, and they are more suitable for biomedical applications than the conventional metallic biomaterials from the viewpoint of better mechanical compatibility. The quenched Ti-10Mo alloy has some advantages over the other {beta} binary Ti-Mo alloys for biomedical applications. {beta} type Ti-Mo-Sn alloys are expected to be promising candidates for novel metallic biomaterials. - Highlights: {yields} The microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti-Mo alloys are dependent upon the cold rolling, solution heat treatment, and Mo content. {yields} The quenched Ti-10Mo alloy exhibits the excellent ductility and two-stage yielding due to stress-induced martensite transformation from beta to alpha double prime during tensile deformation. {yields} The Ti-Mo alloys are more suitable for biomedical applications than the conventional metallic

  5. A comparative experimental and numerical study to investigate the relative merits of convectors and ``C'' inserts in cooling cold-rolled coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Tathagata; Chakraborty, Debadi; Singh, Vikas

    2006-12-01

    The coil cooling and storage unit (CCSU) is used to cool cold-rolled coils to the temper rolling temperature after the annealing cycle is over at the batch annealing furnace (BAF) in a cold rolling mill (CRM). In the CCSU, the coils are kept on the cooling bases for any fixed time irrespective of the grade and tonnage. Therefore, the need for a mathematical model to accurately predict the cooling time of the coils was felt. The current study involves experimental and numerical analysis of a stack of coils with respect to heat transfer and fluid flow. A comparative study was carried out to ascertain the relative merits of convectors and “C” inserts (CIs) in the cooling the coils. The air flow distribution for the case of different convectors and CIs was measured by means of a full scale physical model. Two different mathematical models were applied to model the fluid flow and flow distribution through the stack of coils. The first flow model uses the hydraulic resistance concept for estimating the air flow rate distribution, whereas the second flow model uses commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software and predicts the velocity distribution in the flow path between two coils in a stack. The predictions from these two models compare well with the experimental data. The flow models were used to calculate the average heat-transfer coefficient in different flow passages in a stack. The heat-transfer coefficients thus obtained were used to tune and validate a two-dimensional transient heat-transfer model of coils. The heat-transfer model predicts the cooling time of coils accurately and also suggests a possible reduction of cooling time if CIs are used in place of convectors.

  6. Nanocrystalline Advanced High Strength Steel Produced by Cold Rolling and Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Daniel M.; Van Aken, David C.

    2016-05-01

    An advanced high strength steel of composition Fe-0.11C-2.46Si-11.5Mn-0.38Al-0.029N (wt pct) was produced with a yield strength of 790 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 1300 MPa, and a total elongation of 28 pct. Conventional processing of hot-band steel by cold rolling and annealing at 873 K (600 °C) was used to produce a nanocrystalline structure with an average grain diameter 112 ± 25 nm (68 pct confidence level). Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were utilized to characterize the nanocrystalline steel, which consisted of γ-austenite, ɛ-martensite, and α-ferrite.

  7. Change in magnetic properties of a cold rolled and thermally aged Fe-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D. G.; Ryu, K. S.; Kobayashi, S.; Takahashi, S.; Cheong, Y. M.

    2010-05-01

    The variation in magnetic properties of a Fe-1%Cu model alloy due to a cold rolling and a thermal aging has been evaluated to simulate the radiation damage of reactor pressure vessel of nuclear power plant. The thermal aging was conducted at 500 °C with different aging times in series. The hysteresis loops, magnetic Barkhausen noise (BN) and Vickers microhardness were measured for prestrained, strained, and thermal aged samples. The coercivity increased by a plastic strain and decreased by thermal aging, The BN decreased in the prestrained and strained samples but large changes were observed in the strained sample. These results were interpreted in terms of the domain wall motion signified by a change in the mean free path associated with microinternal stress and copper rich precipitates.

  8. Parameter Optimization During Forging Process of a Novel High-Speed-Steel Cold Work Roll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jing; Liu, Ligang; Sun, Yanliang; Li, Qiang; Ren, Xuejun; Yang, Qingxiang

    2016-01-01

    The forging of high-speed-steel (HSS) roll has always been a technical problem in manufacturing industry. In this study, the forging process of a novel HSS cold work roll was simulated by deform-3D on the basis of rigid-viscoplastic finite element model. The effect of heating temperature and forging speed on temperature and stress fields during forging process was simulated too. The results show that during forging process, the temperature of the contact region with anvils increases. The stress of the forging region increases and distributes un-uniformly, while that of the non-forging region is almost zero. With increasing forging time, Z load on anvil increases gradually. With increasing heating temperature or decreasing forging speed, the temperature of the whole billet increases, while the stress and Z load on anvil decrease. In order to ensure the high efficiency and safety of the forging process, the heating temperature and the forging speed are chosen as 1160 °C and 16.667 mm/s, respectively.

  9. High temperature deformation mechanism of 15CrODS ferritic steels at cold-rolled and recrystallized conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugino, Yoshito; Ukai, Shigeharu; Oono, Naoko; Hayashi, Shigenari; Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Masuda, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Sato, Eiichi

    2015-11-01

    The ODS ferritic steels realize potentially higher operating temperature due to structural stability by the dispersed nano-size oxide particles. The deformation process and mechanism of 15CrODS ferritic steels were investigated at 1073 K and 1173 K for the cold-rolled and recrystallized conditions. Tensile and creep tests were conducted at the stress in parallel (LD) and perpendicular (TD) directions to the grain boundaries. Strain rate varied from 10-1 to 10-9 s-1. For the LD specimens, deformation in the cold rolled and recrystallized conditions is reinforced by finely dispersed oxide particles. The dominant deformation process for the recrystallized TD specimen is controlled through the grain boundary sliding and stress accommodation via diffusional creep at temperature of 1173 K and lower strain rate less than 10-4 s-1. The grain boundary sliding couldn't be rate-controlling process at 1073 K for the as-cold rolled TD specimen, where a dynamic recovery of the dislocation produced by cold-rolling is related to the deformation process.

  10. Kinetics of Ferrite Recrystallization and Austenite Formation During Intercritical Annealing of the Cold-Rolled Ferrite/Martensite Duplex Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaheri, Y.; Kermanpur, A.; Najafizadeh, A.; Kalashami, A. Ghatei

    2016-03-01

    Ultrafine-grained, dual-phase (UFG DP) steels were produced by a new route using an uncommon cold-rolling and subsequent intercritical annealing of ferrite/martensite duplex starting microstructures. The effects of processing parameters such as rolling reduction, intercritical annealing temperature, and time on the microstructural evaluations have been studied. UFG DP steels with an average grain size of about 1 to 2 μm were achieved by short intercritical annealing of the 80 pct cold-rolled duplex microstructures. The kinetics of ferrite recrystallization and austenite formation were studied based on the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) model. The proposed model for describing the isothermal austenite formation kinetics was applied successfully to the nonisothermal conditions. It was found that complete recrystallization of ferrite before the austenite formation led to the formation of a large extent randomly distributed austenite in the ferrite matrix and a chain-networked structure.

  11. Precipitation in cold-rolled Al–Sc–Zr and Al–Mn–Sc–Zr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy

    SciTech Connect

    Vlach, M.; Stulikova, I.; Smola, B.; Kekule, T.; Kudrnova, H.; Danis, S.; Gemma, R.; Ocenasek, V.; Malek, J.; Tanprayoon, D.; Neubert, V.

    2013-12-15

    The effects of cold-rolling on thermal, mechanical and electrical properties, microstructure and recrystallization behaviour of the AlScZr and AlMnScZr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy were studied. The powder was produced by atomising in argon with 1% oxygen and then consolidated by hot extrusion at 350 °C. The electrical resistometry and microhardness together with differential scanning calorimetry measurements were compared with microstructure development observed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. Fine (sub)grain structure developed and fine coherent Al{sub 3}Sc and/or Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) particles precipitated during extrusion at 350 °C in the alloys studied. Additional precipitation of the Al{sub 3}Sc and/or Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) particles and/or their coarsening was slightly facilitated by the previous cold rolling. The presence of Sc,Zr-containing particles has a significant antirecrystallization effect that prevents recrystallization at temperatures minimally up to 420 °C. The precipitation of the Al{sub 6}Mn- and/or Al{sub 6}(Mn,Fe) particles of a size ∼ 1.0 μm at subgrain boundaries has also an essential antirecrystallization effect and totally suppresses recrystallization during 32 h long annealing at 550 °C. The texture development of the alloys seems to be affected by high solid solution strengthening by Mn. The precipitation of the Mn-containing alloy is highly enhanced by a cold rolling. The apparent activation energy of the Al{sub 3}Sc particles formation and/or coarsening and that of the Al{sub 6}Mn and/or Al{sub 6}(Mn,Fe) particle precipitation in the powder and in the compacted alloys were determined. The cold deformation has no effect on the apparent activation energy values of the Al{sub 3}Sc-phase and the Al{sub 6}Mn-phase precipitation. - Highlights: • The Mn, Sc and Zr additions to Al totally suppresses recrystallization at 550 °C. • The Sc,Zr-containing particle

  12. Method of Maintaining the Required Values of Surface Roughness and Prediction of Technological Conditions for Cold Sheet Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valíček, J.; Harničárová, M.; Kušnerová, M.; Zavadil, J.; Grznárik, R.

    2014-06-01

    The paper is based on results obtained from topography of surfaces of sheets rolled from deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697, non-alloy low-carbon structural steel EN 10263-2:2004 and aluminium. The presented results document correctness of the assumption that the rolling force Froll increases with the increasing reduction Δh and the quality of the rolled surface is improved at the simultaneous increasing of strength of rolled sheets and the decreasing of size of structural grains. The experiment was performed on the two-high rolling stand DUO 210 SVa, which enables only non-continuous technology in contrast to the rolling mill with continuous reduction on one sheet in several degrees on rolling trains, in consequence of which the obtained height parameters of the section are in close correlation with the predicted dependence. Contribution of the work consists in the creation of a mathematical model (algorithm) for predicting technological parameters of the two-high rolling stand DUO 210 SVa at change of the absolute reduction Δh, for example for a deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697 and non-alloy lowcarbon structural steel PN EN 10263-2:2004 and aluminium, and also in the development of a method of calculation applicable to any material being rolled in general, because the authors have found that various materials can be differentiated by a derived analytical criterion IKP. This criterion is a function of ratio between the modulus of elasticity of reference material and that of actually rolled material. The reference material is here deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697. Verification was carried out by measuring changes of final surface roughness profile and final strength of rolled sheets of the stated materials in relation to reductions and those were compared with theoretically predicted values. It is possible to identify and predict on the basis of this algorithm an instant state of surface topography in respect to variable

  13. Texture and Formability of One-Step and Two-Step Cold-Rolled and Annealed Interstitial Free High-Strength Steel Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humane, M. M.; Minj, R. K.; Peshwe, D. R.; Paretkar, R. K.

    2011-06-01

    In the current experimental investigation, a comparative study has been carried out to understand the development of texture under different conditions, viz. controlled hot-rolled, one-step cold-rolled (CR) and annealed, and two-step cold-rolled and annealed conditions. Mechanical properties were determined and experimental formability limit diagrams (FLDs) were plotted after both one-step and two-step cold-rolled and annealed conditions. From the tabulated data, it was found that hot band texture of 85 to 90 pct deformation was strong and the main orientations were ( {112} )[ {1bar{1}0} ] and ( {332} )[ {bar{1}bar{1}3} ]. One-step cold rolling developed the strong and uniform α-fiber and γ-fiber at 80 pct cold reduction. The strong and uniform new γ-fiber was obtained at the one-step 80 pct CR annealed condition. In addition, the highest drawability was found at the one-step 80 pct CR annealed condition. In two-step cold rolling, orientation ( {223} )[ {1bar{1}0} ] was the main texture component along with extremely strong γ-fiber. Moreover, batch annealing of two-step cold-rolled steel sheets developed exceptionally strong and uniform γ-fiber, and all mechanical properties were enhanced significantly except yield strength. From FLDs, it is observed that the formability properties of interstitial free (IF) high-strength (HS) steel sheets were excellent at both one-step and two-step cold-rolled and annealed conditions. However, the two-step cold-rolling and annealing process was found to be superior to the one-step process. The data of this investigation may be used at the industrial level to design the entire processing of IF-HS steel sheets.

  14. The microstructure and creep behavior of cold rolled udimet 188 sheet.

    PubMed

    Boehlert, C J; Longanbach, S C

    2011-06-01

    Udimet 188 was subjected to thermomechanical processing (TMP) in an attempt to understand the effects of cold-rolling deformation on the microstructure and tensile-creep behavior. Commercially available sheet was cold rolled to varying amounts of deformation (between 5-35% reduction in sheet thickness) followed by a solution treatment at 1,464 K (1,191 °C) for 1 h and subsequent air cooling. This sequence was repeated four times to induce a high-volume fraction of low-energy grain boundaries. The resultant microstructure was characterized using electron backscattered diffraction. The effect of the TMP treatment on the high-temperature [1,033-1,088 K (760-815 °C)] creep behavior was evaluated. The measured creep stress exponents (6.0-6.8) suggested that dislocation creep was dominant at 1,033 K (760 °C) for stresses ranging between 100-220 MPa. For stresses ranging between 25-100 MPa at 1,033 K (760 °C), the stress exponents (2.3-2.8) suggested grain boundary sliding was dominant. A significant amount of grain boundary cracking was observed both on the surface and subsurface of deformed samples. To assess the mechanisms of crack nucleation, in situ scanning electron microscopy was performed during the elevated-temperature tensile-creep deformation. Cracking occurred preferentially along general high-angle grain boundaries (GHAB) and less than 25% of the cracks were found on low-angle grain boundaries (LAB) and coincident site lattice boundaries (CSLB). Creep rupture experiments were performed at T = 1,088 K (815 °C) and σ = 165 MPa and the greatest average time-to-rupture was exhibited by the TMP sheet with the greatest fraction of LAB+CSLB. However, a clear correlation was not exhibited between the grain boundary character distribution and the minimum creep rates. The findings of this work suggest that although grain boundary engineering may be possible for this alloy, simply relating the fraction of grain boundary types to the creep resistance is not

  15. Heat fluxes and roll circulations over the western Gulf Stream during an intense cold-air outbreak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Ferguson, Michael P.

    1991-01-01

    Turbulence and heat fluxes in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) for three aircraft stacks near the western Gulf Stream front, observed during the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE) January 28, 1986 cold-air outbreak, has been studied using mixed-layer scaling. The GOES image and stability parameter indicates that these three stacks were in the roll vortex regime. The turbulence structure in the MABL is studied for this case, as well as the significance of roll vortices to heat fluxes. The roll circulations are shown to contribute significantly to the sensible (temperature) and latent heat (moisture) fluxes with importance increasing upward. The results suggest that the entrainment at the MABL top might affect the the budgets of temperature and humidity fluxes in the lower MABL, but not in the unstable surface layer.

  16. Characterization of a cold-rolled 2101 lean duplex stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Bassani, Paola; Breda, Marco; Brunelli, Katya; Mészáros, Istvan; Passaretti, Francesca; Zanellato, Michela; Calliari, Irene

    2013-08-01

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) may be defined as a category of steels with a two-phase ferritic-austenitic microstructure, which combines good mechanical and corrosion properties. However, these steels can undergo significant microstructural modification as a consequence of either thermo-mechanical treatments (ferrite decomposition, which causes σ- and χ-phase formation and nitride precipitation) or plastic deformation at room temperature [austenite transformation into strain-induced martensite (SIM)]. These secondary phases noticeably affect the properties of DSS, and therefore are of huge industrial interest. In the present work, SIM formation was investigated in a 2101 lean DSS. The material was subjected to cold rolling at various degrees of deformation (from 10 to 80% thickness reduction) and the microstructure developed after plastic deformation was investigated by electron backscattered diffraction, X-ray diffraction measurements, and hardness and magnetic tests. It was observed that SIM formed as a consequence of deformations higher than ~20% and residual austenite was still observed at 80% of thickness reduction. Furthermore, a direct relationship was found between microstructure and magnetic properties. PMID:23721654

  17. 3D microband boundary alignments and transitions in a cold rolled commercial purity aluminum alloy

    SciTech Connect

    George, C.; Soe, B.; King, K.; Quadir, M.Z.; Ferry, M.; Bassman, L.

    2013-05-15

    In the study of microband formation during plastic deformation of face centered cubic metals and alloys, two theories have been proposed regarding the orientations of their boundaries: (i) they are aligned parallel to crystallographic planes associated with dislocation glide (i.e. (111) planes in FCC metals), or (ii) they are aligned in accordance with the macroscopic stress state generated during deformation. In this study, high resolution 3D electron backscatter diffraction (3D EBSD) was used to investigate the morphology and crystallographic nature of microband boundaries within a 19 × 9 × 8.6 μm volume of a deformed grain in commercial purity aluminum cold rolled to 22% reduction. It was found that microband boundaries correspond to both theories of orientation. Additionally, a single surface may contain both crystallographic and non-crystallographic alignments. Misorientations across boundaries in the regions of microband triple junctions have been identified for both boundary alignments. - Highlights: ► Reconstruction of a 3D volume of crystallographic orientations from EBSD data ► Subgrain features accurately reconstructed using specially designed strategies. ► Microband boundaries contain crystallographic and non-crystallographic alignments. ► Boundaries form by crystallographic process but rotate to non-crystallographic.

  18. Austenite Formation in a Cold-Rolled Semi-austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celada Casero, Carola; San Martín, David

    2014-04-01

    The progress of the martensite ( α') to austenite ( γ) phase transformation has been thoroughly investigated at different temperatures during the continuous heating of a cold-rolled precipitation hardening metastable stainless steel at a heating rate of 0.1 K/s. Heat-treated samples have been characterized using different experimental complementary techniques: high-resolution dilatometry, magnetization, and thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements, micro-hardness-Vickers testing, optical/scanning electron microscopy, and tensile testing. The two-step transformation behavior observed is thought to be related to the presence of a pronounced chemical banding in the initial microstructure. This banding has been characterized using electron probe microanalysis. Unexpectedly, dilatometry measurements seem unable to locate the end of the transformation accurately, as this technique does not detect the second step of this transformation (last 20 pct of it). It is shown that once the starting ( A S) and finishing ( A F) transformation temperatures have been estimated by magnetization measurements, the evolution of the volume fractions of austenite and martensite can be evaluated by TEP or micro-hardness measurement quite reliably as compared to magnetization measurements. The mechanical response of the material after being heated to temperatures close to A S, A F, and ( A F - A S)/2 is also discussed.

  19. Gradation of Nanostructures in Cold-Rolled and Annealed Ti-Ni Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoshkin, S.; Brailovski, V.; Dubinskiy, S.; Inaekyan, K.; Kreitcberg, A.

    2016-03-01

    Nanostructures formed in Ti-50.26 at.%Ni shape memory alloy as a result of post-deformation annealing (PDA) at 400 °C (1 h) after cold rolling (CR) in the e = 0.3-1.9 true strain range are classified and quantitatively studied. The statistical quantitative transmission electron microscopy analysis of bright and dark field images and selected area diffraction patterns reveal the following regularities. Two types of nanostructure form in B2-austenite as a result of PDA after CR: (a) a nanosubgrained structure, which consists of subgrains formed as a result of polygonization of the initially highly dislocated substructure; (b) a nanocrystalline structure, which represents a combination of the deformation-induced nano-grains grown during PDA and new nano-grains formed during crystallization of the amorphous phase. After moderate CR (e = 0.3), mainly nanosubgrained structure forms as a result of PDA. After CR of moderate-to-high intensity (e = 0.5-1.0) followed by PDA, the structure is mixed (nanosubgrained+nanocrystalline). After high-intensity CR (e = 1.2-1.9) and PDA, the structure is mainly nanocrystalline. This nanostructure identification allows adequate analysis of the nature of the parent phase boundaries in the thermomechanically processed Ti-Ni alloys and of their effect on the transformation and mechanical behaviors.

  20. Effect of severe plastic deformation on the specific heat and magnetic properties of cold rolled Gd sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taskaev, S.; Skokov, K.; Khovaylo, V.; Buchelnikov, V.; Pellenen, A.; Karpenkov, D.; Ulyanov, M.; Bataev, D.; Usenko, A.; Lyange, M.; Gutfleisch, O.

    2015-03-01

    We report on specific heat and magnetic properties of thin Gd sheets obtained by means of a cold rolling technique. At temperatures well below Curie temperature TC, the cold rolling has a minor impact on the specific heat Cp. However, a well defined λ-type anomaly of Cp seen in the vicinity of TC in a polycrystalline Gd sample is markedly suppressed in the severely deformed samples. Depression of the λ peak is due to a large decrease of magnetization that presumably originates in a local magnetic anisotropy induced by the severe plastic deformation. Results of calculation of magnetocaloric effect from the Cp and magnetization data indicate that the magnetocaloric effect gradually decreases as the degree of plastic deformation increases. This trend is further confirmed by the direct measurements of the adiabatic temperature change ΔTad.

  1. Performance Optimization of Cold Rolled Type 316L Stainless Steel by Sand Blasting and Surface Linishing Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, B.; Heine, B.; Engelberg, D. L.

    2016-03-01

    Sand blasting followed by a surface linishing treatment was applied to optimize the near-surface microstructure of cold rolled type 316L stainless steel. The introduction of cold rolling led to the formation of α-martensite. Specimens with large thickness reductions (40, 53%) were more susceptible to localized corrosion. The application of sand blasting produced a near-surface deformation layer containing compressive residual stresses with significantly increased surface roughness, resulting in reduced corrosion resistance. The most resistant microstructure was obtained with the application of a final linishing treatment after sand blasting. This treatment produced microstructures with compressive near-surface residual stresses, reduced surface roughness, and increased resistance to localized corrosion.

  2. Analysis of Magnetic Minor Hysteresis Loops in Thermally Aged and Cold-rolled Fe-Cu Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, F.; Kobayashi, S.; Murakami, T.; Takahashi, S.; Kamada, Y.; Kikuchi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Neutron irradiation causes the formation of Cu precipitate in reactor pressure vessel steel and makes the steel susceptible to rupture. In the present study, we have examined magnetic minor hysteresis loops of Fe-1wt%Cu alloy after thermally ageing at 753 K and subsequent cold rolling to elucidate the effects of Cu precipitation on magnetic properties. Minor-loop coefficients, obtained from scaling power laws between field-dependent parameters of minor hysteresis loops, decrease with ageing time and show a local maximum around 200 min, reflecting the growth of Cu precipitates with ageing. For the alloy cold-rolled after ageing, the minor-loop properties linearly increase with reduction and show a good relationship with mechanical properties such as DBTT and hardness. These observations indicate that the analysis method using magnetic minor loops can be an useful technique of nondestructive evaluation of irradiation embrittlement and subsequent deformation hardening in reactor pressure vessel steels.

  3. Annealing textures for drawability: Influence of the degree of cold rolling reduction for low-carbon and extra low-carbon ferritic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Pero-Sanz, J.; Ruiz-Delgado, M.; Martinez, V.; Verdeja, J.I.

    1999-11-01

    This work considers the optimization of deep drawing properties by studying the influence of hot rolling conditions, cold reduction rate, and final annealing on the evolution of steel sheet textures. Two steels have been selected: a low-C steel used for enameling applications, and an extra-low-C steel of the interstitial-free type. Results show that the intensity of {l{underscore}brace}111{r{underscore}brace} component--and, consequently, drawability--is considerably higher in the textures of cold-rolled and annealed sheets than in hot-rolled sheets. It is suggested that drawability of sheets annealed after cold rolling improves if greater than conventional reduction rates are used during rolling. Finally, it is shown that, contrary to what has sometimes been claimed, improved of the ``r'' coefficient are not accompanied by a pancake morphology of the ferrite grains.

  4. Lipoid pneumonia caused by oil mist exposure from a steel rolling tandem mill

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, M.R.; Balmes, J.R.; Robins, J.M.; Smith, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    Five of nine active tandem mill operators exposed at work to aerosolized hydrocarbon mist were referred for evaluation of respiratory complaints. The worker with the longest exposure had reduced lung volumes; he was admitted to the hospital for detailed study. Exercise studies revealed work load limited by ventilation and arterial oxygen desaturation. Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy revealed evidence of lipoid pneumonia. Assessment of the mill revealed levels of respirable oil mist by personal samplers throughout the area far below the currently accepted standard of 5 mg/M3. These findings confirm a 20-year-old hypothesis of J.G. Jones regarding the hazard of oil mist in this industrial setting.

  5. Effects of Cold Rolling and Strain-Induced Martensite Formation in a SAF 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breda, Marco; Brunelli, Katya; Grazzi, Francesco; Scherillo, Antonella; Calliari, Irene

    2015-02-01

    Duplex stainless steels (DSSs) are biphasic steels having a ferritic-austenitic microstructure that allows them to combine good mechanical and corrosion-resistance properties. However, these steels are sensitive to microstructural modifications, such as ferrite decomposition at high temperatures and the possibility of strain-induced martensite (SIM) formation from cold-worked austenite, which can significantly alter their interesting features. In the present work, the effects of cold rolling on the developed microstructural features in a cold-rolled SAF 2205 DSS and the onset of martensitic transformation are discussed. The material was deformed at room temperature from 3 to 85 pct thickness reduction, and several characterization techniques (scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, hardness measurements, and time-of-flight-neutron diffraction) were employed in order to fully describe the microstructural behavior of the steel. Despite the low stacking fault energy of DSS austenite, which contributed to SIM formation, the steel was found to be more stable than other stainless steel grades, such as AISI 304L. Rolling textures were similar to those pertaining to single-phase materials, but the presence of the biphasic (Duplex) microstructure imposed deformation constraints that affected the developed microstructural features, owing to phases interactions. Moreover, even if an intensification of the strain field in austenite was revealed, retarded SIM transformation kinetics and lower martensite amounts with respect to AISI 304L were observed.

  6. Computational and Experimental Investigation of the Shock Compression Response of Cold-Rolled Ni/Al Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Specht, Paul; Thadhani, Naresh; Weihs, Timothy

    2013-06-01

    Heterogeneities at the meso-scale strongly influence the shock compression response of composite materials. In reactive material mixtures, such as Ni and Al, these heterogeneities greatly affect material mixing, heating, and activation, often initiating a reaction. Cold-rolled multilayered composites of Ni and Al provide a unique and potentially beneficial reactive material system, due to their full density, periodic layering, and intimate particle contacts. The shock-compression response of cold-rolled Ni/Al multilayers was investigated under uniaxial strain loading conditions using plate-impact experiments. Time-resolved diagnostics, including VISAR, PDV, and PVDF stress gauges, were used to obtain the equilibrium Hugoniot response of the multilayers. The experimental results were coupled with a computational investigation using the multi-material, finite-volume, Eulerian hydrocode CTH, developed by Sandia National Laboratories. The computations employed real, heterogeneous microstructures, obtained from optical microscopy, enabling their correlation with the experimental results to provide validation of the models and computational method used for describing the response of the cold-rolled Ni/Al multilayers. Research funded by ONR/MURI grant No. N00014-07-1-0740.

  7. Operating results confirm high efficiency of continuous rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Masselot, J.M.; Pradayrol, G.; Boughton, J.R.

    1995-09-01

    Started up in the middle of 1986, Sollac Sainte-Agathe`s coupled pickle line and cold rolling mill has overtaken the original capacity and quality targets. The results and how they were achieved will be presented. Attention is directed to the features of the key sections which include: pickel line entry; process (scale breaker/tension leveler, pickling tank, rinse tanks); side trimming; mill entry; rolling; and mill exit. The performance reached is the result of optimized global design and involvement of operational staff in an adapted organization. On the basis of the results already obtained, new objectives and the means for achieving them are presented.

  8. Efficient anti-corrosive coating of cold-rolled steel in a seawater environment using an oil-based graphene oxide ink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhbabu, Y. N.; Sivakumar, B.; Singh, J. K.; Bapari, H.; Pramanick, A. K.; Sahu, Ranjan K.

    2015-04-01

    We report the production of an efficient anti-corrosive coating of cold-rolled (CR) steel in a seawater environment (~3.5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution) using an oil-based graphene oxide ink. The graphene oxide was produced by heating Aeschynomene aspera plant as a carbon source at 1600 °C in an argon atmosphere. The ink was prepared by cup-milling the mixture of graphene oxide and sunflower oil for 10 min. The coating of ink on the CR steel was made using the dip-coating method, followed by curing at 350 °C for 10 min in air atmosphere. The results of the potentiodynamic polarization show that the corrosion rate of bare CR steel decreases nearly 10 000-fold by the ink coating. Furthermore, the salt spray test results show that the red rusting in the ink-coated CR steel is initiated after 100 h, in contrast to 24 h and 6 h in the case of oil-coated and bare CR steel, respectively. The significant decrease in the corrosion rate by the ink-coating is discussed based on the impermeability of graphene oxide to the corrosive ions.We report the production of an efficient anti-corrosive coating of cold-rolled (CR) steel in a seawater environment (~3.5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution) using an oil-based graphene oxide ink. The graphene oxide was produced by heating Aeschynomene aspera plant as a carbon source at 1600 °C in an argon atmosphere. The ink was prepared by cup-milling the mixture of graphene oxide and sunflower oil for 10 min. The coating of ink on the CR steel was made using the dip-coating method, followed by curing at 350 °C for 10 min in air atmosphere. The results of the potentiodynamic polarization show that the corrosion rate of bare CR steel decreases nearly 10 000-fold by the ink coating. Furthermore, the salt spray test results show that the red rusting in the ink-coated CR steel is initiated after 100 h, in contrast to 24 h and 6 h in the case of oil-coated and bare CR steel, respectively. The significant decrease in the corrosion rate by the ink-coating is

  9. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BUILDING THAT HOUSES THE HOT ROLL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BUILDING THAT HOUSES THE HOT ROLL MILL, ALSO KNOWN AS THE NO. 31 HOT ROLL MILL; LOOKING SOUTHWEST - American Brass Company, Kenosha Works, Hot Roll Mill, Kenosha, Kenosha County, WI

  10. Experimental and numerical investigation on cold flat rolling processes of DC04 sheets with special focus on residual stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, A.; Mehner, T.; Binotsch, C.; Sieber, M.; Awiszus, B.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    The process of cold flat rolling is a widespread industrial technique to manufacture semi-finished products, e.g., for the automotive or homewares industry. Basic knowledge of the process regarding dimensioning and adjustment of defined characteristics is already state of the art. However, a detailed consideration and analysis with respect to local inhomogeneous residual stresses in several process steps mostly remains disregarded. A broad understanding of the process due to the distribution of residual stresses in the workpiece and the direction of the stress tensors allows for a definition of the characteristics of the workpiece even before the actual manufacturing process. For that purpose, it is necessary to perform numerical investigations by means of the finite element analysis (FEA) of cold flat rolling processes. Within this contribution, several approaches for the calibration of the FEA with the real flat rolling process will be addressed and discussed. To ensure that the numerical consideration provides realistic results, this calibration is indispensable. General parameters such as geometry, height reduction, rolling temperature, process time, and the rolling speed are considered as well as a photogrammetric survey, and calculated residual stresses with results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) will be compared. In the course of the experiments, a good agreement between the stress results of the FEA and the XRD was found in the center of the specimen. In combination with the allocation of the stress orientations, the agreement close to the edges is also fine. Some issues that cause differences between the FEA and the experiment are dis-cussed.

  11. Tribology and Tool Wear of Hot Dip Galvanized Zinc Magnesium Alloys on Cold Rolled Steel Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, A. E.; Berger, E.; Freudenthaler, J.; Leomann, F.; Walch, C.

    2011-05-01

    Recently zinc based coatings on cold rolled steel with improved functionality in terms of forming and/or corrosion behaviour have been intensively investigated in the steel industry1,2,3. One of the most promising products are zinc magnesium alloys produced in hot dip galvanizing process. These coatings were already introduced in construction industry a few years ago1. With some modifications the improved properties of the coating are also interesting for automotive industry. In the present work the tribological potential of hot dip galvanized zinc magnesium coatings (HDG/ZM) produced at an industrial line under regular production, was studied in terms of sliding properties, adhesive and abrasive tool wear. First a short introduction into surface morphology of HDG/ZM will be given. For the tribological characterization of the material, which is the main topic of the contribution, different tests were performed on hot dip galvanised zinc magnesium material and results were compared with classic hot dip galvanized zinc coating (HDG/Z). The investigations are mainly based on the strip draw test which allows the determination of the friction coefficient directly by using a constant contact pressure. Deep drawing property was tested by forming model cups. The abrasive tool wear was tested using a standard test for material used in automotive industry. The adhesive tool wear was investigated by characterizing the coating material transferred to the tool in the strip draw test. All performed tests show an improved drawability of HDG/ZM compared to classical HDG/Z reference material. However the most promising difference between HDG/ZM and HDG/Z is that galling was found to be less for HDG/ZM than for HDG/Z. Therefore HDG/ZM is an interesting system not only with respect to corrosion protection but also in terms of tribology and provides clear advantages in formability.

  12. Biaxial Tensile Test of Cold Rolled IF Steel Sheet for Large Plastic Strain Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enatsu, Ryotaro; Kuwabara, Toshihiko

    2011-08-01

    Deformation behavior of cold rolled IF steel sheet (SPCE) under biaxial tension has been investigated for large plastic strain range over 15%. The test material was bent and TIG welded to form a tubular specimen with an outer diameter of 46.2 mm and wall thickness of 0.8 mm. The tubular specimens have been subjected to linear stress paths in the first quadrant of stress space with the use of a servo-controlled tension-internal pressure testing machine developed by one of the authors [T. Kuwabara, K. Yoshida, K. Narihara, S. Takahashi, Anisotropic plastic deformation of extruded aluminum alloy tube under axial forces and internal pressure, Int. J. Plasticity 21, 101-117 (2005)]. Moreover, biaxial tensile tests using a cruciform specimen have also been carried out to more precisely measure the deformation behavior for a small strain range following initial yielding. True stress-true plastic strain curves, contours of plastic work in stress space and the directions of plastic strain rates have been measured and compared with those calculated using selected yield functions: the von Mises, Hill's quadratic and Yld2000-2d [Barlat, F., Brem, J.C., Yoon, J.W., Chung, K., Dick, R.E., Lege, D.J., Pourboghrat, F., Choi, S.H., Chu, E., Plane stress yield function for aluminum alloy sheets—Part 1: Theory. Int. J. Plasticity 19, 1297-1319 (2003)]. The plastic deformation behavior up to a work equivalent plastic strain of ɛ0p = 0.19 has been successfully measured. It is found that the test material exhibits differential hardening and that the Yld2000-2d yield function with an exponent of six most closely predicts the contours of plastic work and the directions of plastic strain rates.

  13. Development of environmentally friendly non-chrome conversion coatings for cold-rolled steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinming

    Steel producers use various organic and inorganic coatings to protect cold-rolled steel (CRS) sheets from corrosion during shipment and storage. It is well known that CRS sheets can be protected from corrosion by galvanizing, phosphating, chromating, topcoating with organic, or their combinations. The chromate rinsing is particularly effective for preventing white rusting of galvanized steel. But there is an increasing interest in a replacement for the chromating process because of environmental and health concerns. The objective of the present work is to develop a chrome-free conversion coating for steel sheets. Various carboxylic acids and their salts have been studied for coating phosphated electrogalvanized (EG) steel sheets, including 10-undecenoic acid (UA), oleic acid (OA), and other fatty acids such as stearic acid (SA) and palmitic acid (PA). When they were used alone, or subsequently coated with resin, they could produce a highly hydrophobic surface and improve the corrosion resistance. Thiols such as 1-octadecanethiol (ODT) can form a self-assembled monolayer on metal substrates. This close-packed monolayer could provide an excellent corrosion resistance for EG steel sheets. It was capable of withstanding 50˜60 hours of salt spray test (SST) although its thickness was only a few nanometers. The EG steel itself usually started rusting only after 2˜4 hours of salt spray. In another coating system, thiols were mixed with a conventional resin to improve the corrosion resistance of EG steel. This new technique gave 100˜120 hours of corrosion resistance. When the resin was applied directly on EG steel surface, its corrosion resistance was less than 72 hours. It was shown that further optimization of this technique increased the corrosion resistance to 200 hours and more in the standard SST.

  14. Local Thickening of Stainless Tube Considering Dimension Variation of the Cold Roll Formed Tube Billet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Jinn-Jong; Yu, Cheng-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    A stud end consists of tube body and a flange in order to connect two tubes to form a long straight or angled pipe line. The flange is thicker than the tube body to strengthen the pipe connection. A thicker round hollow disk is usually welded to a straight tube to get the flange of the tube end and then machined to the specified dimension of the two-piece type stud end. A one-piece type stud end of tube proposed here is produced via the local thickening of tube end, flaring, and flange forging processes. The roundness of raw tube is not promised in the cold roll forming (CRF) process, which causes the inaccuracy of dimensions, wrinkling, and folding defects during the local thickening process of tube end. In this paper, a preform process was proposed to correct the dimension of the tube to be thickened. The CRF tube billets were measured and preformed to the required dimensions before thickening. The proposed preforming process was able to resize and control the dimensions and roundness of the tube billet to prevent irregular movement of billet. A three-staged punch profile was designed to prevent the folding defect during the thickening process. Experiments of resizing and thickening were carried out to verify the simulation results and the proposed punch profile design. The CAE simulations demonstrated the defects of folding are very sensitive to the dimension variation of tube billet. The experimental results of thickening process were in good agreement with the simulation predictions using the perfect (with preforming process) and the imperfect (original CRF) tube billets. The proposed pre-forming process and the punch profile designs were able to minimize the surface defects of tube local thickening.

  15. Tribology and Tool Wear of Hot Dip Galvanized Zinc Magnesium Alloys on Cold Rolled Steel Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, A. E.; Berger, E.; Freudenthaler, J.; Leomann, F.; Walch, C.

    2011-05-04

    Recently zinc based coatings on cold rolled steel with improved functionality in terms of forming and/or corrosion behaviour have been intensively investigated in the steel industry. One of the most promising products are zinc magnesium alloys produced in hot dip galvanizing process. These coatings were already introduced in construction industry a few years ago. With some modifications the improved properties of the coating are also interesting for automotive industry. In the present work the tribological potential of hot dip galvanized zinc magnesium coatings (HDG/ZM) produced at an industrial line under regular production, was studied in terms of sliding properties, adhesive and abrasive tool wear.First a short introduction into surface morphology of HDG/ZM will be given. For the tribological characterization of the material, which is the main topic of the contribution, different tests were performed on hot dip galvanised zinc magnesium material and results were compared with classic hot dip galvanized zinc coating (HDG/Z). The investigations are mainly based on the strip draw test which allows the determination of the friction coefficient directly by using a constant contact pressure. Deep drawing property was tested by forming model cups. The abrasive tool wear was tested using a standard test for material used in automotive industry. The adhesive tool wear was investigated by characterizing the coating material transferred to the tool in the strip draw test.All performed tests show an improved drawability of HDG/ZM compared to classical HDG/Z reference material. However the most promising difference between HDG/ZM and HDG/Z is that galling was found to be less for HDG/ZM than for HDG/Z. Therefore HDG/ZM is an interesting system not only with respect to corrosion protection but also in terms of tribology and provides clear advantages in formability.

  16. The Work Softening by Deformation-Induced Disordering and Cold Rolling of 6.5 wt pct Si Steel Thin Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianglong; Li, Haoze; Zhang, Weina; Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Guodong; Luo, Zhonghan; Zhang, Fengquan

    2016-09-01

    As-cast strip of 6.5 wt pct Si steel was fabricated by twin-roll strip casting. After hot rolling at 1323 K (1050 °C), thin sheets with the thickness of 0.35 mm were produced by warm rolling at 373 K (100 °C) with rolling reductions of 15, 25, 35, 45, 55, and 65 pct. Influence of warm rolling reduction on ductility was investigated by room temperature bending test. The measurement of macro-hardness showed that "work softening" could begin when the warm rolling reduction exceeded 35 pct. The room temperature ductility of the thin sheets gradually increased with the increase of warm rolling reductions, and the plastic deformation during bending began to form when the warm rolling reduction was greater than 45 pct, the 65 pct rolled thin sheet exhibited the maximum plastic deformation of about 0.6 pct during bending at room temperature, with a few small dimples having been observed on the fracture surfaces. B2-ordered domains were formed in the 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 pct rolled specimens, and their average size decreased with the increase of warm rolling reductions. By contrast, no B2-ordered domain could be found in the 65 pct rolled specimen. It had been observed that large-ordered domains could be split into several small parts by the slip of partial super-dislocations during warm rolling, which led to significant decrease of the order degree to cause the phenomenon of deformation-induced disordering. On the basis of these results, cold rolling schedule was developed to successfully fabricate 0.25-mm-thick sheets with good surface qualities and magnetic properties from warm rolled sheets.

  17. The Work Softening by Deformation-Induced Disordering and Cold Rolling of 6.5 wt pct Si Steel Thin Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianglong; Li, Haoze; Zhang, Weina; Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Guodong; Luo, Zhonghan; Zhang, Fengquan

    2016-06-01

    As-cast strip of 6.5 wt pct Si steel was fabricated by twin-roll strip casting. After hot rolling at 1323 K (1050 °C), thin sheets with the thickness of 0.35 mm were produced by warm rolling at 373 K (100 °C) with rolling reductions of 15, 25, 35, 45, 55, and 65 pct. Influence of warm rolling reduction on ductility was investigated by room temperature bending test. The measurement of macro-hardness showed that "work softening" could begin when the warm rolling reduction exceeded 35 pct. The room temperature ductility of the thin sheets gradually increased with the increase of warm rolling reductions, and the plastic deformation during bending began to form when the warm rolling reduction was greater than 45 pct, the 65 pct rolled thin sheet exhibited the maximum plastic deformation of about 0.6 pct during bending at room temperature, with a few small dimples having been observed on the fracture surfaces. B2-ordered domains were formed in the 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 pct rolled specimens, and their average size decreased with the increase of warm rolling reductions. By contrast, no B2-ordered domain could be found in the 65 pct rolled specimen. It had been observed that large-ordered domains could be split into several small parts by the slip of partial super-dislocations during warm rolling, which led to significant decrease of the order degree to cause the phenomenon of deformation-induced disordering. On the basis of these results, cold rolling schedule was developed to successfully fabricate 0.25-mm-thick sheets with good surface qualities and magnetic properties from warm rolled sheets.

  18. Efficient anti-corrosive coating of cold-rolled steel in a seawater environment using an oil-based graphene oxide ink.

    PubMed

    Singhbabu, Y N; Sivakumar, B; Singh, J K; Bapari, H; Pramanick, A K; Sahu, Ranjan K

    2015-05-01

    We report the production of an efficient anti-corrosive coating of cold-rolled (CR) steel in a seawater environment (∼3.5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution) using an oil-based graphene oxide ink. The graphene oxide was produced by heating Aeschynomene aspera plant as a carbon source at 1600 °C in an argon atmosphere. The ink was prepared by cup-milling the mixture of graphene oxide and sunflower oil for 10 min. The coating of ink on the CR steel was made using the dip-coating method, followed by curing at 350 °C for 10 min in air atmosphere. The results of the potentiodynamic polarization show that the corrosion rate of bare CR steel decreases nearly 10,000-fold by the ink coating. Furthermore, the salt spray test results show that the red rusting in the ink-coated CR steel is initiated after 100 h, in contrast to 24 h and 6 h in the case of oil-coated and bare CR steel, respectively. The significant decrease in the corrosion rate by the ink-coating is discussed based on the impermeability of graphene oxide to the corrosive ions. PMID:25869204

  19. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, June 1, 1995--August 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this research is the development of improved technology for the preparation of coal-water slurries that have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. This should be of major importance to the United States in its efforts to reduce dependence on imported oil and to rely more on its enormous low-cost coal resources. In accordance with this objective, in the first stage of this project, considerable work was conducted to standardize experimental procedures for sample preparation, coal grinding, and Theological measurements to assure reproducibility of the experimental results. Since a Haake RV-12 viscometer with an MV-DIN sensor system was found to give the most reproducible results for measurement of slurry viscosities, it has subsequently been used for all of our Theological measurements. Methods were developed for applying the acoustophoresis technique for studying the electrokinetic behavior of concentrated coal-water suspensions. These measurements were carried out using this technique to identify the potential of chemical additives for functioning as reagents for effective dispersion. Detailed investigations of the effect of solids content and chemical additives on the rheology of coal-water slurries, prepared with fines produced by the ball milling of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, were conducted during the first phase of our research program. These experiments were to provide a baseline against which the rheological behavior of slurries prepared with fines produced by high-pressure roll milling or hybrid high-pressure roll mill/ball mill grinding could be compared.

  20. Characterization on carbide of a novel steel for cold work roll during solidification process

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, J.; Liu, L.G.; Li, Q.; Sun, Y.L.; Gao, Y.K.; Ren, X.J.; Yang, Q.X.

    2013-05-15

    A novel steel for cold work roll was developed in this work. Its phase structures were determined by X-ray diffraction, and phase transformation temperatures during the cooling process were measured by Differential Scanning Calorimeter. The Fe–C isopleths of the steel were calculated by Thermo-Calc to preliminarily determine the characteristic temperatures of the different phases. Then the specimens were quenched at these characteristic temperatures. The typical microstructures were observed by Optical Microscopy and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Disperse Spectroscopy. The results show that α-Fe, MC, M{sub 2}C and M{sub 7}C{sub 3} precipitate when the specimen is cooled slowly to room temperature. According to the DSC curve and the Fe–C isopleths, the characteristic temperatures of the phase transformation and carbide precipitation are chosen as 1380 °C, 1240 °C, 1200 °C and 1150 °C respectively. Primary austenite precipitates at 1380 °C, then eutectic reaction occurs in residual liquid after quenching and the eutectic microstructures distribute along the crystal grain boundary. The eutectic MC is leaf-like and eutectic M{sub 2}C is fibrous-like. Both of them precipitate in ternary eutectic reaction simultaneously at 1240 °C, grow together in the form of dendrite along the crystal grain boundary. Secondary MC precipitates from the austenitic matrix at 1200 °C and nucleates at the position where eutectic MC located accompanied by the dissolving of eutectic carbides. The mixed secondary M{sub 2}C and M{sub 7}C{sub 3} precipitate at 1150 °C. The secondary M{sub 2}C is strip-like and honeycomb-like, while the M{sub 7}C{sub 3} is chrysanthemum-like and maze-like. - Highlights: • The solidification process was analyzed by Thermo-Calc, DSC, XRD and SEM observation. • Primary and secondary carbides precipitated during solidification were determined. • The three dimensional morphologies of all carbides was observed. • The

  1. Microstructural Evolution and Recrystallization Kinetics of a Cold-Rolled, Ferrite-Martensite Structure During Intercritical Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etesami, S. A.; Enayati, M. H.

    2016-05-01

    The recrystallization behavior of 80 pct, cold-rolled, low-carbon, dual-phase steel during intercritical annealing for different times was studied. The annealed microstructures showed that the recrystallization initially occurred in the deformed martensitic regions. The values of Avrami exponent for recrystallization varied from 3.8 to 4 with an activation energy of 46.9 kJ/mol. This study also introduced a novel method for the production of bimodal grain structures in low-carbon, ferrite-martensite steel.

  2. The evolution of recrystallized texture of cold-rolled pure copper annealed with a magnetic field in the transverse direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, T.; Wang, Y.; Sun, W.; Zhao, X.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the effect of magnetic field annealing was investigated on the evolution of recrystallized texture of a cold-rolled pure copper sheet. During magnetic field annealing the transverse direction of the specimen was set to be parallel to the magnetic field. It was found, although, altering the orientation of the specimen to the magnetic field direction during annealing does not change the type of the recrystallized texture component, the intensity of cube texture in the specimen with field is higher than that without field.

  3. Microstructural Evolution and Recrystallization Kinetics of a Cold-Rolled, Ferrite-Martensite Structure During Intercritical Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etesami, S. A.; Enayati, M. H.

    2016-07-01

    The recrystallization behavior of 80 pct, cold-rolled, low-carbon, dual-phase steel during intercritical annealing for different times was studied. The annealed microstructures showed that the recrystallization initially occurred in the deformed martensitic regions. The values of Avrami exponent for recrystallization varied from 3.8 to 4 with an activation energy of 46.9 kJ/mol. This study also introduced a novel method for the production of bimodal grain structures in low-carbon, ferrite-martensite steel.

  4. Evidence for viscous flow nature in Zr60Al15Ni25 metallic glass subjected to cold rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhijie; Hao, Weixin; Hu, Yong; Song, Kaikai; Stoica, Mihai; Scudino, Sergio; Eckert, Jürgen

    2013-07-01

    The microstructure changes of Zr60Al15Ni25 metallic glass upon cold rolling and their influences on the thermally induced crystallization kinetics are investigated. The results show that atomic redistribution occurs within the localized zones in the glassy matrix, resulting from the softening of the shear modulus, which retards the crystallization behaviors during the subsequent heating. The present work provides direct evidence for the viscous flow nature in a metallic glass subjected to plastic deformation, during which the softened zones act as potential shear transformation zones.

  5. Effects of Two-Stage Cold Rolling Schedule on Microstructure and Texture Evolution of Strip Casting Grain-Oriented Silicon Steel with Extra-Low Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hong-Yu; Liu, Hai-Tao; Liu, Wen-Qiang; Wang, Yin-Ping; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2016-04-01

    A 0.27 mm-thick grain-oriented silicon steel sheet with extra-low carbon was successfully produced by a novel processing route including strip casting, normalizing, two-stage cold rolling with an intermediate annealing, primary annealing, and secondary recrystallization annealing. The evolutions of microstructure and texture along the whole processing route were investigated with a special emphasis on the effects of two-stage cold rolling schedule. It was found that Goss orientation originated in the first cold rolling due to shear banding and relatively strong Goss texture evolved through the whole thickness after intermediate annealing. This is significantly different from the results in conventional process in which the origin of Goss texture is in the hot rolling stage and Goss texture only develops below the sheet surface. Besides, it was found that cold rolling schedule had significant influences on microstructure homogeneity, evolution of λ-fiber texture in primary annealed state and, thus, on secondary recrystallization. In case of appropriate cold rolling schedule, a homogeneous microstructure with Goss texture, relatively strong γ-fiber texture and medium α-fiber texture was observed in the primary annealed strip. Although Goss texture in primary annealed state was much weaker than that in two-stage route in conventional process, a perfect secondary recrystallization microstructure was produced and the magnetic induction B8 was as high as 1.85 T. By contrast, when the cold rolling schedule was inappropriate, the primary annealed strips exhibited inhomogeneous microstructure, together with weak γ-fiber texture, medium α-fiber and λ-fiber texture. Finally, the sheets showed incomplete secondary recrystallization microstructure in which a large number of fine grains still existed.

  6. Strong <001> recrystallization texture component in 6.5 wt% Si electrical steel thin sheets by secondary cold rolling and annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hongjiang; Zhang, Zhihao; Mo, Yuanke; Xie, Jianxin

    2016-12-01

    In order to prepare thin sheet with a strong <001> texture component, secondary cold rolling and recrystallization annealing were carried out on a raw sheet of high silicon electrical steel (6.5 wt% Si). The raw sheet was obtained through a process of directional solidification, followed by warm and cold rolling, and annealing. The effects of secondary cold rolling reduction, annealing temperature and holding time on the recrystallization microstructure and texture were investigated. The formation of strong <001> texture component was analyzed. The results showed that the <001> texture component could be enhanced when the sheets were prepared through appropriate secondary cold rolling and annealing. It was ascribed to the cube and Goss recrystallized grains had frequency advantages as well as size advantages during nucleation. Furthermore, the cube and Goss recrystallized grains were easy to grow larger due to the advantage on grain boundary energy and surface energy. The samples prepared through secondary cold rolling with the reduction of 30% and annealing at 1300 °C for 1-5 h exhibited good magnetic properties. The magnetic induction B8 of the samples was 1.335-1.398 T and the core loss P10/50 and P10/400 were 0.383-0.391 W/kg and 5.935-6.422 W/kg, respectively.

  7. Accelerated carbonation using municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater: Performance evaluation and reaction kinetics.

    PubMed

    Chang, E-E; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Yang, Liuhanzi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Kim, Hyunook; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-09-01

    Accelerated carbonation of alkaline wastes including municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWI-BA) and the cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was investigated for carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation under different operating conditions, i.e., reaction time, CO2 concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, particle size, and CO2 flow rate. The MSWI-BA before and after carbonation process were analyzed by the thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The MSWI-BA exhibits a high carbonation conversion of 90.7%, corresponding to a CO2 fixation capacity of 102g perkg of ash. Meanwhile, the carbonation kinetics was evaluated by the shrinking core model. In addition, the effect of different operating parameters on carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was statistically evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) using experimental data to predict the maximum carbonation conversion. Furthermore, the amount of CO2 reduction and energy consumption for operating the proposed process in refuse incinerator were estimated. Capsule abstract: CO2 fixation process by alkaline wastes including bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater was developed, which should be a viable method due to high conversion. PMID:26025583

  8. Effects of cold rolling deformation on microstructure, hardness, and creep behavior of high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shi-Cheng; Sun, Gui-Xun; Jiang, Zhong-Hao; Ji, Chang-Tao; Liu, Jia-An; Lian, Jian-She

    2014-02-01

    Effects of cold rolling deformation on the microstructure, hardness, and creep behavior of high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel (HNASS) are investigated. Microstructure characterization shows that 70% cold rolling deformation results in significant refinement of the microstructure of this steel, with its average twin thickness reducing from 6.4 μm to 14 nm. Nanoindentation tests at different strain rates demonstrate that the hardness of the steel with nano-scale twins (nt-HNASS) is about 2 times as high as that of steel with micro-scale twins (mt-HNASS). The hardness of nt-HNASS exhibits a pronounced strain rate dependence with a strain rate sensitivity (m value) of 0.0319, which is far higher than that of mt-HNASS (m = 0.0029). nt-HNASS shows more significant load plateaus and a higher creep rate than mt-HNASS. Analysis reveals that higher hardness and larger m value of nt-HNASS arise from stronger strain hardening role, which is caused by the higher storage rate of dislocations and the interactions between dislocations and high density twins. The more significant load plateaus and higher creep rates of nt-HNASS are due to the rapid relaxation of the dislocation structures generated during loading.

  9. 32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: End of mill into which cane was fed between top and bottom roll. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  10. Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and yield strength of a cold-rolled enameling steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, D.; Yu, Q.; Lin, C.; An, D.; Dai, T.; Krakauer, B. W.; Zhu, M.

    2015-06-01

    The mechanisms of yield strength reduction of a cold-rolled enameling steel after enamel-fire annealing at 760°C by air cooling, and the effect of the tempering process on the microstructure and yield strength, are studied by combining experiments and thermodynamic calculations. The results show that after heat treatment at 760°C and air cooling, the lump phase, enriched with the element carbon, appears along the ferrite grain boundaries, which leads to yield strength reduction. After tempering at 200°C∼400°C, the lump phase disappears gradually and is transformed to lamellar pearlite as the tempering temperature increases, resulting in the yield strength increasing.

  11. Forming a perfect cubic texture in thin copper-yttrium alloy strips during cold rolling and annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Rodionov, D. P.; Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Akshentsev, Yu. N.; Egorova, L. Yu.; Suaridze, T. R.

    2016-03-01

    The structure of strips produced from the Cu-1 wt % Y binary alloy using cold deformation by rolling to the degree of deformation of 99%, followed by recrystallization annealing, as well as the process of texture formation in these strips, is studied. The possibility of forming a perfect cubic texture in a thin strip made of a binary yttrium-modified copper-based alloy has been shown in principle, which opens the prospect of the use of this alloy to produce substrates for strip high-temperature superconductors of the second generation. The optimum conditions of annealing have been determined, which make it possible to form a perfect biaxial texture in the Cu-1 wt % Y alloy with a content of cubic grains {001}<100> ± 10° on the surface of the textured strip of over 95%.

  12. Effect of Austenitizing Temperature on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Semi-High-Speed Steel Cold-Forged Rolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiong; Sun, Da-Le; Liu, Chang-Sheng

    2009-10-01

    The effect of austenitizing temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of semi-high-speed steel (S-HSS) cold-forged rolls was investigated. Low-temperature austenitizing below 1313 K induced carbide coarsening during subsequent tempering at 973 K due to the nucleation effect of undissolved M7C3. On the other hand, the heavy dissolution of M7C3 above 1353 K caused the fine carbide formation on lath and plate boundaries, which retarded the subgrain growth during tempering. The increase in strength with increasing austenitizing temperature was attributed to the fine carbide distribution and the high dislocation density. Furthermore, as the austenitizing temperature increased, the impact energy markedly reduced, due to the large prior austenite grain size and the high strength. Finally, based on the microstructure and mechanical properties, an optimal austenitizing temperature range between 1313 and 1333 K was determined.

  13. Influence of Static Precipitation on Microstructure and Texture of Annealed Cold-Rolled Mg-Al-Sn Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, Abu Syed Humaun; Sanjari, Mehdi; Su, Jing; Jung, In-Ho; Yue, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    The final mechanical properties of wrought magnesium alloys are mostly controlled by its microstructure and crystallographic orientation or texture. In the sheet form of common magnesium alloys, grain coarsening occurs during annealing, which only serves to strengthen the undesirable basal texture. One method to alleviate this problem is by stopping grain coarsening. Hence the aim of this work is to investigate the effect of static precipitation on microstructure and texture evolution during annealing at various temperatures after cold rolling. Mg-Al-Sn alloys were designed using thermodynamic modeling software, FactSageTM. It was found that static precipitates can only form extensively, after static recrystallization, at the recrystallized grain boundaries, and these retard grain growth during annealing. Presence of precipitates at the recrystallized grain boundaries also retard the strengthening of basal texture during annealing, related to grain coarsening.

  14. Influence of dispersoids on microstructure evolution and work hardening of aluminium alloys during tension and cold rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qinglong; Holmedal, Bjørn; Li, Yanjun

    2013-08-01

    The influence of dispersoids on work hardening of aluminium during tension and cold rolling has been studied by comparing Al-Mn alloys containing similar amounts of solutes but various dispersoid densities. The microstructure evolution with deformation strain was examined in transmission and scanning electron microscopy. It is found that a high density of fine dispersoids strengthens the materials significantly, but their strengthening effect diminishes as the strain increases. From a series of Bauschinger tests, it is found that the internal stress, due to particles, increases rapidly at the initial stage of deformation, but saturates at strains larger than 5%. It is concluded that the internal stress makes a small contribution to the work hardening and contributes to less than 10% of the total flow stress during monotonic loading at strains larger than 5%. The work-hardening behaviour has been correlated to the corresponding microstructure, and the strengthening mechanisms are discussed.

  15. Rapid Transformation Annealing: a Novel Method for Grain Refinement of Cold-Rolled Low-Carbon Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesch, C.; Álvarez, P.; Bleck, W.; Gil Sevillano, J.

    2007-09-01

    A novel heat treatment, rapid transformation annealing (RTA) is introduced, which uses the refining effect of the phase transformation during recrystallization annealing. The RTA is comprised of rapid heating including the full or partial phase transformation of cold-rolled, nonrecrystallized, or partly recrystallized α microstructure to γ microstructure combined with subsequent rapid cooling to ambient temperature. In this way, a substantial grain refinement compared to conventional industrial annealing of cold-rolled strip can be realized. Minimum homogeneous grain sizes of 2.3 μm are produced in microalloyed high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels. A plain low-carbon steel shows despite any microalloying grain sizes of about 2.5 μm. Grain refinement results in a substantial increase in strength and in a pronounced strain hardening in the ΘIV stage. Simultaneously, the uniform and total elongation slightly decrease, which is a physical consequence of Considère’s instability criterion. By a refinement from 4.2 to 2.3 μm, the yield and tensile strength of a HSLA grade can be increased by about 130 MPa to 535 and 650 MPa, while the total elongation is reduced by about four percentage points to 21 pct, i.e., a still moderate formability is provided. In general, the ductility-strength relationship remains similar to the conventional behavior. For all investigated steel grades, the Hall Petch (HP) relationship is fulfilled. Furthermore, it is proved that RTA cycles can be realized in pilot scale as far as induction heating devices are applied.

  16. Accelerated carbonation using municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater: Performance evaluation and reaction kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, E-E; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Yang, Liuhanzi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Kim, Hyunook; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Carbonation was performed using CO{sub 2}, wastewater and bottom ash in a slurry reactor. • A maximum capture capacity of 102 g CO{sub 2} per kg BA was achieved at mild conditions. • A maximum carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was predicted to be 95% by RSM. • The CO{sub 2} emission from Bali incinerator could be expected to reduce by 6480 ton/y. • The process energy consumption per ton CO{sub 2} captured was estimated to be 180 kW h. - Abstract: Accelerated carbonation of alkaline wastes including municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWI-BA) and the cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was investigated for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) fixation under different operating conditions, i.e., reaction time, CO{sub 2} concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, particle size, and CO{sub 2} flow rate. The MSWI-BA before and after carbonation process were analyzed by the thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The MSWI-BA exhibits a high carbonation conversion of 90.7%, corresponding to a CO{sub 2} fixation capacity of 102 g per kg of ash. Meanwhile, the carbonation kinetics was evaluated by the shrinking core model. In addition, the effect of different operating parameters on carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was statistically evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) using experimental data to predict the maximum carbonation conversion. Furthermore, the amount of CO{sub 2} reduction and energy consumption for operating the proposed process in refuse incinerator were estimated. Capsule abstract: CO{sub 2} fixation process by alkaline wastes including bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater was developed, which should be a viable method due to high conversion.

  17. 34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Side view of mill. Vertical drive shaft lying on ground in foreground. When drive-shaft was in upright position its bevel gear was meshed with the bevel gear of the top roll, transmitting the animals'circular motion around the drive shaft to the horizontal rolls. The foundation is of portland cement. The heavy timber mill bed, between the mill and the portland cement foundation has rolled away. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  18. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6: MICROSTRUCTURAL ENGINEERING IN HOT-STRIP MILLS Part 2 of 2: Constitutive Behavior Modeling of Steels Under Hot-Rolling Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yi-Wen Cheng; Patrick Purtscher

    1999-07-30

    This report describes the development of models for predicting (1) constitutive behaviors and (2) mechanical properties of hot-rolled steels as functions of chemical composition, microstructural features, and processing variables. The study includes the following eight steels: A36, DQSK, HSLA-V, HSLA-Nb, HSLA-50/Ti-Nb, and two interstitial-free (IF) grades. These developed models have been integrated into the Hot-Strip Mill Model (HSMM), which simulates the hot strip rolling mills and predicts the mechanical properties of hot-rolled products. The HSMM model has been developed by the University of British Columbia-Canada as a part of project on the microstructural engineering in hot-strip mills.

  19. Rolling Process Modeling Report. Finite-Element Model Validation and Parametric Study on various Rolling Process parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Soulami, Ayoub; Lavender, Curt A.; Paxton, Dean M.; Burkes, Douglas

    2015-06-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been investigating manufacturing processes for the uranium-10% molybdenum alloy plate-type fuel for high-performance research reactors in the United States. This work supports the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Material Management and Minimization Reactor Conversion Program. This report documents modeling results of PNNL’s efforts to perform finite-element simulations to predict roll-separating forces for various rolling mill geometries for PNNL, Babcock & Wilcox Co., Y-12 National Security Complex, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Idaho National Laboratory. The model developed and presented in a previous report has been subjected to further validation study using new sets of experimental data generated from a rolling mill at PNNL. Simulation results of both hot rolling and cold rolling of uranium-10% molybdenum coupons have been compared with experimental results. The model was used to predict roll-separating forces at different temperatures and reductions for five rolling mills within the National Nuclear Security Administration Fuel Fabrication Capability project. This report also presents initial results of a finite-element model microstructure-based approach to study the surface roughness at the interface between zirconium and uranium-10% molybdenum.

  20. [Comparison of texture distribution of cold rolled DC and CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy at different positions through thickness direction by XRD].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-biao; Ma, Min; Yang, Qing-xiang; Wang, Shan; Liu, Wen-chang; Zhao, Ying-mei

    2013-09-01

    To provide gist of DC AA 5052 and CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy to industry production and application, the texture variation of cold rolled sheets through thickness direction was studied by X-ray diffraction method, and the difference in texture at surface, quarter and center layer was analyzed. The hot plates of direct chill cast (DC) AA 5052 and continuous cast (CC) AA 5052 aluminum alloy were annealed at 454 degrees C for 4 hours and then cold rolled to different reductions. The strength and volume fraction of the fiber in CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy is larger than in DC AA 5052 aluminum alloy after same rolling reduction The volume fraction of the recrystallization texture cube in the CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy is less than in the DC AA 5052 aluminum alloy, which result in that CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy needs less cold rolling reduction than DC AA 5052 aluminum alloy for generating the texture with same intensity and volume fraction at surface layer, quarter layer and center layer. The manufacturability and performance of CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy is superior to DC AA 5052 aluminum alloy for use in stamping. PMID:24369675

  1. Formation of Highly Misoriented Fragments at Hot Band Grain Boundaries During Cold Rolling of Interstitial-Free Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afrin, Nasima; Quadir, Md. Zakaria; Ferry, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The deformation heterogeneities that form in the vicinity of prior hot band grain boundaries in a 75 pct cold-rolled interstitial-free steel have been investigated by 3D electron backscatter diffraction. Grain boundary-affected regions occupy a large fraction of the overall material volume. The coexistence of several features, such as steep orientation gradients up to 5 deg/ μm, high-angle boundary networks, and thin, elongated grain boundary fragments, has confirmed the highly complex nature of these regions. Most notably, these thin boundary fragments were found to be significantly misoriented from any of the deformed grains immediately adjacent to the boundary. Overall, grain boundary regions adopt the so-called `deformation banding' mode of deformations on both the micro ( e.g., steep gradients)- and nano ( e.g., thin fragments)-length scales. Grain boundary structures comprise the essential features to act as preferred sites for recrystallization. The discovery of numerous thin grain boundary fragments in the deformation microstructure provides a plausible explanation for the origin of recrystallized grains with orientations other than those found within the adjoining deformed grains in the vicinity of grain boundaries; this phenomenon has been commonly observed in texture data for many years but remained unexplained.

  2. The influence of microchemistry on the recrystallization texture of cold-rolled Al-Mn-Fe-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, K.; Li, Y. J.; Marthinsen, K.

    2015-04-01

    The recrystallization textures of a cold-rolled Al-Mn-Fe-Si model alloy with three different microchemistry states after non-isothermal annealing were studied. The microstructure and texture evolution have been characterized by EBSD. It is clearly demonstrated that the actual microchemistry state as determined by the homogenization procedure strongly influence the recrystallized grain size and recrystallization texture after nonisothermal annealing. High Mn content in solid solution promotes stronger concurrent precipitation and retards recrystallization, which finally leads to a coarse grain structure, accompanied by strong P {011}<566> and/or M {113}<110> texture components and a ND- rotated cube {001}<310> component. A refined grain structure with Cube {001}<100> and/or a weak P component as the main texture components were obtained when the pre-existing dispersoids are coarser and fewer, and concurrent precipitation is limited. The different recrystallization textures are discussed with respect to the effect of second-phase particles using two different heating rates.

  3. Effects of overaging temperature on the microstructure and properties of 600 MPa cold-rolled dual-phase steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Chun-fu; Zheng, Zhi-wang; Zhang, Gong-ting; Chang, Jun; Zhang, Shen-gen; Liu, Bo

    2016-08-01

    C-Mn steels prepared by annealing at 800°C for 120 s and overaging at 250-400°C were subjected to pre-straining (2%) and baking treatments (170°C for 20 min) to measure their bake-hardening (BH2) values. The effects of overaging temperature on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and BH2 behavior of 600 MPa cold-rolled dual-phase (DP) steel were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and tensile tests. The results indicated that the martensite morphology exhibited less variation when the DP steel was overaged at 250-350°C. However, when the DP steel was overaged at 400°C, numerous non-martensite and carbide particles formed and yield-point elongation was observed in the tensile curve. When the overaging temperature was increased from 250 to 400°C, the yield strength increased from 272 to 317 MPa, the tensile strength decreased from 643 to 574 MPa, and the elongation increased from 27.8% to 30.6%. Furthermore, with an increase in overaging temperature from 250 to 400°C, the BH2 value initially increases and then decreases. The maximum BH2 value of 83 MPa was observed for the specimen overaged at 350°C.

  4. Effects of Annealing Treatment Prior to Cold Rolling on Delayed Fracture Properties in Ferrite-Austenite Duplex Lightweight Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Seok Su; Song, Hyejin; Kim, Jung Gi; Kwak, Jai-Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Lee, Sunghak

    2016-02-01

    Tensile properties of recently developed automotive high-strength steels containing about 10 wt pct of Mn and Al are superior to other conventional steels, but the active commercialization has been postponed because they are often subjected to cracking during formation or to the delayed fracture after formation. Here, the delayed fracture behavior of a ferrite-austenite duplex lightweight steel whose microstructure was modified by a batch annealing treatment at 1023 K (750 °C) prior to cold rolling was examined by HCl immersion tests of cup specimens, and was compared with that of an unmodified steel. After the batch annealing, band structures were almost decomposed as strong textures of {100}<011> α-fibers and {111}<112> γ-fibers were considerably dissolved, while ferrite grains were refined. The steel cup specimen having this modified microstructure was not cracked when immersed in an HCl solution for 18 days, whereas the specimen having unmodified microstructure underwent the delayed fracture within 1 day. This time delayed fracture was more critically affected by difference in deformation characteristics such as martensitic transformation and deformation inhomogeneity induced from concentration of residual stress or plastic strain, rather than the difference in initial microstructures. The present work gives a promise for automotive applications requiring excellent mechanical and delayed fracture properties as well as reduced specific weight.

  5. High-resolution electron microscopy observation and dislocation reaction mechanism of fivefold twinning in a Cu-rich precipitate in a cold rolled ferritic steel containing copper

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ling; Wang, Wei; Chen, Bolin; Zhou, Xiying; Li, Zhongwen; Zhou, Bangxin; Wang, Lumin

    2014-09-15

    Ferritic steels containing copper have been studied as model systems for clusters/precipitate formation in reactor pressure vessel steels. The samples were aged at 400 °C for 4000 h and subsequently cold rolled to 30% reduction at room temperature. The microstructural characteristics of the samples were analyzed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Direct evidence was found that the fivefold twinning occurs via simultaneous emission of two Shockley partial dislocations from two particular α-Fe/Cu interfaces, and then the pileup tips of the twofold twin. - Highlights: • Fivefold twin is observed in a Cu-rich precipitate in cold rolled ferritic steels. • A dislocation reaction mechanism for the fivefold twin formation is proposed. • Two particular mismatching α-Fe/Cu-rich precipitate interfaces play a critical role.

  6. Effect of Annealing on Mechanical Properties and Formability of Cold Rolled Thin Sheets of Fe-P P/M Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Shefali; Ravi Kumar, D.; Aravindan, S.

    2016-08-01

    Phosphorus in steel is known to increase strength and hardness and decrease ductility. Higher phosphorus content (more than 0.05%), however, promotes brittle behavior due to segregation of Fe3P along the grain boundaries which makes further mechanical working of these alloys difficult. In this work, thin sheets of Fe-P alloys (with phosphorus in range of 0.1-0.35%) have been developed through processing by powder metallurgy followed by hot rolling and cold rolling. The effect of phosphorus content and annealing parameters (temperature and time) on microstructure, mechanical properties, formability in biaxial stretching and fracture behavior of the cold rolled and annealed sheets has been studied. A comparison has also been made between the properties of the sheets made through P/M route and the conventional cast route with similar phosphorus content. It has been shown that thin sheets of Fe-P alloys with phosphorous up to 0.35% possessing a good combination of strength and formability can be produced through rolling of billets of these alloys made through powder metallurgy technique without the problem of segregation.

  7. Effect of Starting Microstructure on the Grain Refinement in Cold-Rolled Low-Carbon Steel During Annealing at Two Different Heating Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Anish; Mandal, Madhumanti; Mandal, Abhisek; Basiruddin Sk, Md.; Mukherjee, Subrata; Chakrabarti, Debalay

    2016-01-01

    Cold-rolled samples of different starting microstructures, namely ferrite-pearlite (F+P) and ferrite-martensite structures, with blocky martensite (F+Mb) and fibrous martensite (F+Mf) morphologies were reheated at two different heating rates (1 and 300 K/s) to sub-critical and inter-critical annealing temperatures [773 K to 1173 K (500 °C to 900 °C)] and immediately water quenched. Grain refinement after annealing of cold-rolled samples depends on the rate of recovery, recrystallization, transformation, and grain growth. Rapid recrystallization during annealing weakened the recrystallization-transformation interaction in F+P sample. Higher rate of ferrite recovery reduced the driving force for recrystallization, which weakened the recrystallization-transformation interaction during annealing of F+Mb sample. As a result, coarser grain structures were obtained after annealing of cold-rolled F+P and F+Mb starting structures. Strong recrystallization-transformation interaction and suppression of grain growth by uniformly distributed carbide particles and austenite islands (after transformation) offered finest ferrite grain size and best combination of strength and ductility in F+Mf sample.

  8. The evolution with strain of the stored energy in different texture components of cold-rolled IF steel revealed by high resolution X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wauthier-Monnin, A.; Chauveau, T.; Castelnau, O.; Réglé, H.; Bacroix, B.

    2015-06-15

    During the deformation of low carbon steel by cold-rolling, dislocations are created and stored in grains depending on local crystallographic orientation, deformation, and deformation gradient. Orientation dependent dislocation densities have been estimated from the broadening of X-ray diffraction lines measured on a synchrotron beamline. Different cold-rolling levels (from 30% to 95% thickness reduction) have been considered. It is shown that the present measurements are consistent with the hypothesis of the sole consideration of screw dislocations for the analysis of the data. The presented evolutions show that the dislocation density first increases within the α fiber (=(hkl)<110>) and then within the γ fiber (=(111)). A comparison with EBSD measurements is done and confirms that the storage of dislocations during the deformation process is orientation dependent and that this dependence is correlated to the cold-rolling level. If we assume that this dislocation density acts as a driving force during recrystallization, these observations can explain the fact that the recrystallization mechanisms are generally different after moderate or large strains. - Highlights: • Dislocation densities are assessed by XRD in main texture components of a steel sheet. • Dislocation densities vary with both strain and texture components. • The analysis relies on the sole presence of screw dislocations. • The measured dislocation densities include the contribution of both SSD and GND.

  9. Cold-atom quantum simulator for SU(2) Yang-Mills lattice gauge theory.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Erez; Cirac, J Ignacio; Reznik, Benni

    2013-03-22

    Non-Abelian gauge theories play an important role in the standard model of particle physics, and unfold a partially unexplored world of exciting physical phenomena. In this Letter, we suggest a realization of a non-Abelian lattice gauge theory-SU(2) Yang-Mills in (1 + 1) dimensions, using ultracold atoms. Remarkably, and in contrast to previous proposals, in our model gauge invariance is a direct consequence of angular momentum conservation and thus is fundamental and robust. Our proposal may serve as well as a starting point for higher-dimensional realizations. PMID:25166817

  10. 2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761899. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1899. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Top roll and one bottom roll, mill housing or cheeks, and spur pinion gears. The broken projection on the mill beside the bottom roll indicates the location of the cane tray. The cane juice crushed from the cane flowed into the juice tray below the bottom rolls. It then flowed into a wooden gutter and through a short tunnel in the mill's masonry enclosure and on to the boiling house for further processing. The opening at the base of the masency wall (In the photograph) is where the gutter ran from the mill to the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  11. In-Situ Agglomeration and De-agglomeration by Milling of Nano-Engineered Lubricant Particulate Composites for Cold Spray Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neshastehriz, M.; Smid, I.; Segall, A. E.

    2014-10-01

    Nano-engineered self-lubricating particles comprised of hexagonal-boron-nitride powder (hBN) encapsulated in nickel have been developed for cold spray coating of aluminum components. The nickel encapsulant consists of several nano-sized layers, which are deposited on the hBN particles by electroless plating. In the cold spray deposition, the nickel becomes the matrix in which hBN acts as the lubricant. The coating demonstrated a very promising performance by reducing the coefficient of friction by almost 50% and increasing the wear resistance more than tenfold. The coatings also exhibited higher bond strength, which was directly related to the hardenability of the particles. During the encapsulation process, the hBN particles agglomerate and form large clusters. De-agglomeration has been studied through low- and high-energy ball milling to create more uniform and consistent particle sizes and to improve the cold spray deposition efficiency. The unmilled and milled particles were characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, BET, and hardness tests. It was found that in low-energy ball milling, the clusters were compacted to a noticeable extent. However, the high-energy ball milling resulted in breakup of agglomerations and destroyed the nickel encapsulant.

  12. 33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: From above the mill showing the three 15' x 22' horizontal rolls, mill frame or cheeks, portland cement foundation, and lower part of vertical drive shaft lying next mill in foreground. The loose metal piece resting on top of the mill frame matched the indented portion of the upper frame to form a bracket and bearing for the drive shaft when it was in its proper upright position. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  13. 35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Bevel gear at lower end of vertical drive shaft in foreground turned bevel gear of top roll when the vertical drive shaft was in place in the brass-bearing socket in the middle ground of the photograph. The bolts above the top roll and at the side of the two bottom rolls adjusted the pressure and position of the rolls' brass bearings. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  14. 31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: View down at the mill from top of the mill's circular masonry enclosure. Mill animals circling above the mill, on top of the enclosure, dragged booms radiating from the drive shaft to power the mill. The drive-shaft is no longer in its upright positon but is lying next to the mill in the foreground. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  15. Development of a novel nanoparticle formulation of thymoquinone with a cold wet-milling system and its pharmacokinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Nihei, Takuya; Suzuki, Hiroki; Aoki, Asako; Yuminoki, Kayo; Hashimoto, Naofumi; Sato, Hideyuki; Seto, Yoshiki; Onoue, Satomi

    2016-09-10

    The present study aimed to develop a nanoparticle (NP) formulation of thymoquinone (TQ), a potent anti-oxidant chemical, with use of a cold wet-milling (CWM) system to improve its dissolution behavior and pharmacokinetic properties. The NP formulation of TQ (TQ/CWM) was prepared by CWM system, and its physicochemical properties were characterized in terms of particle size distribution, morphology, crystallinity, and dissolution. The photochemical properties of TQ were also examined upon UV/VIS absorption, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and photostability. Pharmacokinetic studies were carried out in rats. Application of the CWM system to TQ led to successful development of nano-sized TQ. The mean diameter of TQ in TQ/CWM was calculated to be 143nm, and TQ particles in TQ/CWM were found to be amorphous. There was a marked improvement in dissolution rate compared with TQ. TQ showed significant generation of singlet oxygen and superoxide upon exposure to simulated sunlight, suggesting its high photoreactivity, and solid samples such as TQ and TQ/CWM exhibited higher photostability than TQ solution. In comparison with TQ, enhanced TQ exposure was observed with a ca. 6-fold increase of oral bioavailability, and the Tmax was shown to be a quarter. From these findings, the NP approach employing the CWM system might be a promising dosage option for improving the nutraceutical values of TQ. PMID:27451272

  16. Evidence for viscous flow nature in Zr{sub 60}Al{sub 15}Ni{sub 25} metallic glass subjected to cold rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Zhijie; Hao Weixin; Hu Yong; Song Kaikai; Eckert, Juergen; Stoica, Mihai; Scudino, Sergio

    2013-07-08

    The microstructure changes of Zr{sub 60}Al{sub 15}Ni{sub 25} metallic glass upon cold rolling and their influences on the thermally induced crystallization kinetics are investigated. The results show that atomic redistribution occurs within the localized zones in the glassy matrix, resulting from the softening of the shear modulus, which retards the crystallization behaviors during the subsequent heating. The present work provides direct evidence for the viscous flow nature in a metallic glass subjected to plastic deformation, during which the softened zones act as potential shear transformation zones.

  17. Influence of annealing treatment on micro/macro-texture and texture dependent magnetic properties in cold rolled FeCo-7.15V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasani, S.; Shamanian, M.; Shafyei, A.; Behjati, P.; Nezakat, M.; Fathi-Moghaddam, M.; Szpunar, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    The influence of annealing treatment on macro- and micro-texture of cold-rolled FeCo-7.15V ferromagnetic ultra-thin foils were studied. The microstructural studies performed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) showed the formation of paramagnetic precipitations ((Fe, Co)3V) during annealing. During cold rolling of the FeCo-7.15V magnet, the texture components of type (113) [ 1 1 bar 0 ] , (001) [ 1 1 bar 0 ] , (111) [ 1 1 bar 0 ] , and (111) [ 1 2 bar 1 ] , all related to α and γ-fibers were formed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and local texture measurements performed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) were made on the annealed samples. Both methods revealed that the recrystallized samples have texture characterized by γ fiber component, when the recovered samples were characterized by α fiber component. The grain boundary character distribution (GBCD) and microstructures of the material were analyzed using EBSD. The experimental results showed that annealing at 870 °C for 2 h resulted in a high frequency of twin boundaries. The maximum CSL density could reach 7.5% under annealing conditions: at 870 °C for 2 h. Finally, in order to investigate the texture influence on the magnetic properties, magnetic properties of the samples were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed an improvement in remanence induction (Br) with the formation of hard axis <100>.

  18. Quantitative analysis of texture evolution of cold-rolled direct-chill-cast and continuous-cast AA5052 and AA5182 aluminum alloys during isothermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y. M.; Liu, W. C.; Morris, J. G.

    2004-11-01

    The as-received direct-chill-cast (DC) and continuous-cast (CC) AA5052 and AA5182 hot bands were preheated at 454 °C for 4 hours, followed by cold rolling to an 80 pct reduction in thickness. The texture evolution of these cold-rolled samples during isothermal annealing was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The variation in texture volume fractions with annealing time was quantitatively analyzed by using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation. The differences in recrystallization textures between the AA5052 and AA5182 alloys and between the DC and CC alloys were compared. It was found that the AA5052 alloy possessed a stronger cube recrystallization texture than the AA5182 alloy for the DC and CC materials. The recrystallization textures of the AA5182 alloy were affected strongly by the annealing temperature. As the annealing temperature increased, the cube recrystallization texture strengthened, whereas the R texture weakened. The annealing temperature had little influence on the recrystallization textures of the AA5052 alloy. The DC AA5052 and 5182 alloys also exhibited stronger cube recrystallization textures than the corresponding CC alloys. For the DC and CC AA5052 alloys, the n value in the JMAK-type equation increased with an increase in the annealing temperature, while the n values varied only slightly with the annealing temperature for the DC and CC AA5182 alloys.

  19. Microstructures, Mechanical Properties, and Strain Hardening Behavior of an Ultrahigh Strength Dual Phase Steel Developed by Intercritical Annealing of Cold-Rolled Ferrite/Martensite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaheri, Y.; Kermanpur, A.; Najafizadeh, A.

    2015-07-01

    A dual phase (DP) steel was produced by a new process utilizing an uncommon cold-rolling and subsequent intercritical annealing of a martensite-ferrite duplex starting structure. Ultrafine grained DP steels with an average grain size of about 2 μm and chain-networked martensite islands were achieved by short intercritical annealing of the 80 pct cold-rolled duplex microstructure. The strength of the low carbon steel with the new DP microstructure was reached about 1300 MPa (140 pct higher than that of the as-received state, e.g., 540 MPa), without loss of ductility. Tensile testing revealed good strength-elongation balance for the new DP steels (UTS × UE ≈ 11,000 to 15,000 MPa pct) in comparison with the previous works and commercially used high strength DP steels. Two strain hardening stages with comparable exponents were observed in the Holloman analysis of all DP steels. The variations of hardness, strength, elongation, and strain hardening behavior of the specimens with thermomechanical parameters were correlated to microstructural features.

  20. 1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Large rectangular piece lying in front of the mill is the top of the mill frame appearing in its proper place in 1928 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  1. Contrasting the Microstructural and Mechanical Response to Shock Loading of Cold-Rolled Copper with Annealed Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Daniel L.; Pang, Bo; Millett, Jeremy C. F.; Whiteman, Glenn; Jones, Ian P.; Chiu, Yu-Lung

    2015-10-01

    The response of copper to shock loading and cold working is well documented. Both shock loaded and cold-worked annealed copper display a high dislocation density and increased yield strength. However, as of yet no work has been carried out on the microstructure of shock-loaded cold-worked copper. Both annealed and cold-worked copper have been tested using a gas gun to ascertain the effect of shock loading on cold-worked copper. The annealed copper was loaded to a peak pressure of 5 GPa and the cold-worked copper was loaded to peak pressures of 6 and 10 GPa. It was found that the shock-loaded cold-worked copper had a higher hardness than the shock-loaded annealed copper and that the hardness of the cold-worked copper increased with peak shock pressure. Each specimen analyzed displayed different variations on the classic shocked copper microstructure, which was ascribed to the different momentum trapping apparatus used.

  2. Cold-rolling behavior of biomedical Ni-free Co-Cr-Mo alloys: Role of strain-induced ε martensite and its intersecting phenomena.

    PubMed

    Mori, Manami; Yamanaka, Kenta; Chiba, Akihiko

    2015-03-01

    Ni-free Co-Cr-Mo alloys are some of the most difficult-to-work metallic materials used commonly in biomedical applications. Since the difficulty in plastically deforming them limits their use, an in-depth understanding of their plastic deformability is of crucial importance for both academic and practical purposes. In this study, the microstructural evolution of a Co-29Cr-6Mo-0.2N (mass%) alloy during cold rolling was investigated. Further, its work-hardening behavior is discussed while focusing on the strain-induced face-centered cubic (fcc) γ→hexagonal close-packed (hcp) ε martensitic transformation (SIMT). The planar dislocation slip and subsequent SIMT occurred even in the initial stage of the deformation process owing to the low stability of the γ-phase and contributed to the work hardening behavior. However, the amount of the SIMTed ε-phase did not explain the overall variation in work hardening during cold rolling. It was found that the intersecting of the SIMTed ε-plates enhanced local strain evolution and then produced fine domain-like deformation microstructures at the intersections. Consequently, the degree of work hardening was reduced during subsequent plastic deformation, resulting in the alloy exhibiting a two-stage work hardening behavior. The results obtained in this study suggest that the interaction between ε-martensites, and ultimately its relaxation mechanism, is of significant importance; therefore, this aspect should be addressed in detail; the atomic structures of the γ-matrix/ε-martensite interfaces, the phenomenon of slip transfer at the interfaces, and the slipping behavior of the ε-phase itself are needed to be elucidated for further increasing the cold deformability of such alloys. PMID:26594780

  3. Asymmetric cold/warm rolling simulation by crystal plasticity multi-scale finite element analysis based on crystallographic homogenization

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Koshiro; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Kuramae, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Hideo; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study is forming a high formability aluminum alloy sheet metal by controlling the microcrystal structure and the texture. So asymmetric rolling is applied to the material process. Analysis method is crystal plasticity multi-scale finite element analysis based on crystallographic homogenization.

  4. 2. INTERIOR VIEW OF MILL, SHOWING THE TWOHIGH HANDOPERATED MILLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR VIEW OF MILL, SHOWING THE TWO-HIGH HAND-OPERATED MILLS (ON THE LEFT HAND SIDE), PRIOR TO THEIR OPERATION; THIS PHOTO WAS TAKEN FROM THE OVERHEAD CRANE - American Brass Company, Kenosha Works, Hot Roll Mill, Kenosha, Kenosha County, WI

  5. 30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1885-1870. View: Masonry-lined passage-way leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away. Bridges over the passageways, no longer in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  6. Effect of texture and grain size on the magnetic flux density and core loss of cold-rolled high silicon steel sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jing; Yang, Ping; Mao, Weimin; Ye, Feng

    2015-11-01

    The effects of texture and grain size on the magnetic flux density and core loss (50-20 kHz) of 0.23 mm-thick cold-rolled high silicon steel sheets are investigated by means of electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), loss separation, and anisotropy parameter (ε) calculation. A model of the hysteresis loss coefficient kh considering average grain size and ε is established. The magnetic flux density at 800 A/m (B8) is closely related to the volume fraction of η-fiber-oriented grains, while the magnetic flux density at 5000 A/m (B50) is closely related to the volume fractions of γ- and λ-fiber-oriented grains in high silicon steel. The hysteresis loss of high silicon steel can be greatly reduced by increasing the grain size and optimizing the texture of the sheets. Although increases in frequencies decrease the effect of texture on core loss, the effect cannot be ignored. As annealing temperature and time increase, the relative difference in core loss between the rolling direction (RD) and the transverse direction (TD) is maintained at higher frequencies because of increases in grain size, decreases in γ texture, and maintenance of a strong η texture. Texture and grain size jointly affect the high-frequency core loss of high silicon steel.

  7. The Effect of Fe Content on Recrystallization Texture Evolution, Microstructures, and Earing of Cold Rolled Continuous Cast AA5052 Alloy Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiyu; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Yuanbin; Xu, Bin; Zeng, Qiang; Liu, Yansheng; Tong, Lirong; Zhai, Tongguang; Li, Zhong

    2016-04-01

    Continuous cast AA5052 Al alloys, containing iron contents of 0.120 and 0.466 wt pct, respectively, were cold rolled and annealed at temperatures ranging from 505 K to 755 K (232 °C to 482 °C). The recrystallization textures in the two alloys were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and electron back scatter diffraction, respectively. It was found that higher Fe content promoted the formation of deformation textures and retarded the formation of cube texture in the two alloys. Most cube-oriented grains formed in both these alloys were associated with coarse particles, whereas the P—{011}<566>, R—{123}<634>, and Goss or randomly oriented grains were often related to particle stringers consisted of fine particles along the rolling direction. It was also found that the volume fraction of each texture component was a Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov-type function of annealing temperature in the two alloys. The texture evolution rate with the annealing temperature was calculated from this function and used to determine the onset temperature of each recrystallization texture component.

  8. The critical parameters in in-situ MgB2 wires and tapes with ex-situ MgB2 barrier after hot isostatic pressure, cold drawing, cold rolling and doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajda, D.; Morawski, A.; Zaleski, A. J.; Häßler, W.; Nenkov, K.; Rindfleisch, M. A.; Żuchowska, E.; Gajda, G.; Czujko, T.; Cetner, T.; Hossain, M. S. A.

    2015-05-01

    MgB2 precursor wires were prepared using powder in tube technique by Institute of High Pressure PAS in Warsaw. All samples were annealed under isostatic pressure generated by liquid Argon in the range from 0.3 GPa to 1 GPa. In this paper, we show the effects of different processing routes, namely, cold drawing (CD), cold rolling (CR), hot isostatic pressure (HIP) and doping on critical current density (Jc), pinning force (Fp), irreversible magnetic-field (Birr), critical temperature (Tc), n value, and dominant pinning mechanism in MgB2/Fe wires with ex situ MgB2 barrier. The results show that medium pressures (˜0.35 GPa) lead to high Jc in low and medium magnetic fields (0 T - 9 T). On the other hand, higher pressures (˜1 GPa) lead to enhanced Jc in high magnetic fields (above 9 T). Transport measurements show that CD, CR, and HIP have small effects on Birr and Tc, but CD, CR, HIP, and doping enhance Jc and Fp in in situ MgB2 wires with ex situ MgB2 barrier. Transport measurements on in situ undoped MgB2 wire with ex situ MgB2 barrier yield a Jc of about 100 A/mm2 at 4.2 K in 6 T, at 10 K in 4 T and at 20 K in 2 T. The results also show that cold drawing causes increase of n value.

  9. The Influence of Grain Size on Twinning and Microstructure Refinement During Cold Rolling of Commercial-Purity Titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherebtsov, S. V.; Dyakonov, G. S.; Salishchev, G. A.; Salem, A. A.; Semiatin, S. L.

    2016-08-01

    Microstructure evolution in commercial-purity titanium (CP Ti) with various initial grain sizes (1, 7, 15, and 30 μm) during plane-strain multipass rolling to a true thickness strain of 2.66 at 293 K (20 °C) was established. The degree of deformation twinning was found to be strongly dependent on grain size. Twinning was rare in the material with a grain size of 1 μm. For all grain sizes >15 μm, the occurrence of twinning reached a similar, maximum level. Concurrently, the propensity for twinning enhanced the kinetics of microstructure refinement particularly for the initially coarse-grain materials. Due to the extensive twinning-induced microstructure refinement, rolling of coarse-grain (15 μm) CP Ti to a true thickness strain of 2.66 resulted in the formation of an ultrafine microstructure with a grain/subgrain size of 200-300 nm, a value similar to that attained for the initially micrometer-scale microstructure. The effect of grain size on twinning in titanium was discussed in the context of a disclination model.

  10. Characterization of the Level of Plastic Deformation in Cold-Rolled TI-6AL-4V Samples by Thermoelectric Power Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreon, H.; Medina, A.; Ruiz, A.

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents experimental data that illustrates the intrinsic sensitivity of the thermoelectric contact technique based on the Seebeck effect, in order to detect the presence of anisotropy due to plastic deformation produced by the manufacturing process of cold working at different degrees of reduction in thickness, namely 40, 60 and 80% in Ti-6AL-4V. The results describe the behaviour of the thermoelectric power (TEP) coefficient with respect to the anisotropy and microstructure in a highly textured material that presents both morphological and crystallographic texture. Ultrasonic measurements of shear wave velocity were also conducted in order to obtain a direct correlation between the presence of a significant anisotropy in the cold-rolled Ti-6AL-4V samples and the TEP measurements, before and after heat treatment (annealing). TEP measurements offer a means to assess the evolution of the level of plastic deformation, which allows for a better correlation between texture-induced anisotropy and the material microstructural and properties.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LEVEL OF PLASTIC DEFORMATION IN COLD-ROLLED TI-6AL-4V SAMPLES BY THERMOELECTRIC POWER MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Carreon, H.; Medina, A.; Ruiz, A.

    2009-03-03

    This paper presents experimental data that illustrates the intrinsic sensitivity of the thermoelectric contact technique based on the Seebeck effect, in order to detect the presence of anisotropy due to plastic deformation produced by the manufacturing process of cold working at different degrees of reduction in thickness, namely 40, 60 and 80% in Ti-6AL-4V. The results describe the behaviour of the thermoelectric power (TEP) coefficient with respect to the anisotropy and microstructure in a highly textured material that presents both morphological and crystallographic texture. Ultrasonic measurements of shear wave velocity were also conducted in order to obtain a direct correlation between the presence of a significant anisotropy in the cold-rolled Ti-6AL-4V samples and the TEP measurements, before and after heat treatment (annealing). TEP measurements offer a means to assess the evolution of the level of plastic deformation, which allows for a better correlation between texture-induced anisotropy and the material microstructural and properties.

  12. A study of the hot and cold deformation of twin-roll cast magnesium alloy AZ31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askari, Hesam; Young, John; Field, David; Kridli, Ghassan; Li, Dongsheng; Zbib, Hussein

    2014-02-01

    Recent advances in twin-roll casting (TRC) technology of magnesium have demonstrated the feasibility of producing magnesium sheets in the range of widths needed for automotive applications. However, challenges in the areas of manufacturing, material processing and modelling need to be resolved in order to fully utilize magnesium alloys. Despite the limited formability of magnesium alloys at room temperature due to their hexagonal close-packed crystalline structure, studies have shown that the formability of magnesium alloys can be significantly improved by processing the material at elevated temperatures and by modifying their microstructure to increase ductility. Such improvements can potentially be achieved by processes such as superplastic forming along with manufacturing techniques such as TRC. In this work, we investigate the superplastic behaviour of twin-roll cast AZ31 through mechanical testing, microstructure characterization and computational modelling. Validated by the experimental results, a novel continuum dislocation dynamics-based constitutive model is developed and coupled with viscoplastic self-consistent model to simulate the deformation behaviour. The model integrates the main microstructural features such as dislocation densities, grain shape and grain orientations within a self-consistent viscoplasticity theory with internal variables. Simulations of the deformation process at room temperature show large activity of the basal and prismatic systems at the early stages of deformation and increasing activity of pyramidal systems due to twinning at the later stages. The predicted texture at room temperature is consistent with the experimental results. Using appropriate model parameters at high temperatures, the stress-strain relationship can be described accurately over the range of low strain rates.

  13. Large-scale Evaluation of Nickel Aluminide Rolls in a Heat-Treat Furnace at Bethelehem Steel's (Now ISG) Burns Harbor Plate Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Mengel, J.

    2003-12-16

    At Bethlehem Steel Burns Harbor Plate Division (now ISG Burns Harbor Plate Inc.)'s annealing furnace, new nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls provide greater high-temperature strength and wear resistance compared to the conventional H series cast austenitic alloys currently used in the industry. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem (ISG) partnered under a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology's Emerging Technology Deployment Program to demonstrate and evaluate the nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated energy efficient large commercial annealing furnace system. Many challenges were involved in this project, including developing welding procedures for joining nickel aluminide intermetallic alloys with H-series austenitic alloys, developing commercial cast roll manufacturing specifications, working with several commercial suppliers to produce a quantity of high quality, reproducible nickel aluminide rolls for a large steel industrial annealing furnace, installing and demonstrating the capability of the rolls in this furnace, performing processing trials to evaluate the benefits of new equipment and processes, and documenting the findings. Updated furnace equipment including twenty-five new automated furnace control dampers have been installed replacing older design, less effective units. These dampers, along with upgraded flame-safety control equipment and new AC motors and roll-speed control equipment, are providing improved furnace control and additional energy efficiency. Energy data shows up to a 34% energy reduction from baseline after the installation of upgraded furnace damper controls along with up to a 34% reduction in greenhouse gases, potential for an additional 3 to 6% energy reduction per campaign of light-up and shutdown, and a 46% energy reduction from baseline for limited trials of a combination of improved damper control and straight-through plate processing. The straight-through processing

  14. Comparison of Inclusions in Cold Drawn Wire and Precursor Hot-Rolled Rod Coil in VIM-VAR Nickel-Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sczerzenie, Frank; Paul, Graeme; Belden, Clarence

    2011-07-01

    Inclusion content is important for the mechanical behavior and performance of Nitinol wires, particularly in fatigue-rated devices. The purpose of this work was to make a quantitative comparison between inclusion populations in cold drawn wires and the precursor populations in hot-rolled rod coil. Inclusion content was examined in a series of VIM-VAR alloys with different transformation temperatures (TTR) controlled by the Ni to Ti ratio. This range of chemistry was chosen to assess the effect of Ni to Ti ratio on inclusion formation. In order to understand the differences in behavior between carbides and intermetallic oxides in wire drawing, carbides, and intermetallic oxide inclusions were measured separately using optical metallography pursuant to ASTM F2063. In VIM-VAR alloys at higher Ni to Ti ratios about 50.79 a/o Ni the formation of intermetallic oxides appears to be suppressed in the as-cast material through the presence of carbon and the precipitation of eutectic TiC in place of eutectic Ti4Ni2O x . The structure of VIM-VAR alloy also varies after hot working depending on the TTR of the alloy. Higher TTR binary alloys with lower Ni to Ti ratios tend to have more and larger intermetallic oxides and fewer and smaller carbides after hot working. Microsegregation plays a role in inclusion formation. That is, during solidification, C, O, N diffuse to the interdendritic regions. This increases the potential for the precipitation of nonmetallic species. Carbides and intermetallic oxides behave differently in hot working and cold drawing. The change in maximum carbide size from coil to wire is very near zero for all Ni to Ti ratios. The change in maximum inclusion size from coil to wire is driven mainly by the fracture of intermetallic oxides and the formation of intermetallic oxide stringers.

  15. Kinetic modeling on CO₂ capture using basic oxygen furnace slag coupled with cold-rolling wastewater in a rotating packed bed.

    PubMed

    Chang, E-E; Chen, Tse-Lun; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2013-09-15

    In this study, direct and indirect carbonation of basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) coupled with cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was carried out via a rotating packed bed (RPB). The solid products were qualitatively characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and quantitatively analyzed with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The leachate was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The results indicate that the maximum achievable carbonation conversion (MACC) of BOFS was 90.7%, corresponding to a capture capacity of 0.277 g CO₂/g of BOFS, by direct carbonation with CRW under a rotation speed of 750 rpm at 30 °C for 20 min. In addition, CO₂ mass balance among the gas, liquid, and solid phases within an RPB was well-developed, with an error less than 10%, to confirm the actual CO₂ capture capacity of BOFS with precision and accuracy. Furthermore, a reaction kinetic model based on mass balance was established to determine the reaction rate constant for various liquid agents (CRW and pure water). It was concluded that co-utilization of alkaline wastes including BOFS and CRW via the RPB is a novel approach for both enhancing CO₂ capture capacity and reducing the environmental impacts of alkaline wastes. PMID:23892160

  16. The effects of cold rolling orientation and water chemistry on stress corrosion cracking behavior of 316L stainless steel in simulated PWR water environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junjie; Lu, Zhanpeng; Xiao, Qian; Ru, Xiangkun; Han, Guangdong; Chen, Zhen; Zhou, Bangxin; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2016-04-01

    Stress corrosion cracking behaviors of one-directionally cold rolled 316L stainless steel specimens in T-L and L-T orientations were investigated in hydrogenated and deaerated PWR primary water environments at 310 °C. Transgranular cracking was observed during the in situ pre-cracking procedure and the crack growth rate was almost not affected by the specimen orientation. Locally intergranular stress corrosion cracks were found on the fracture surfaces of specimens in the hydrogenated PWR water. Extensive intergranular stress corrosion cracks were found on the fracture surfaces of specimens in deaerated PWR water. More extensive cracks were found in specimen T-L orientation with a higher crack growth rate than that in the specimen L-T orientation with a lower crack growth rate. Crack branching phenomenon found in specimen L-T orientation in deaerated PWR water was synergistically affected by the applied stress direction as well as the preferential oxidation path along the elongated grain boundaries, and the latter was dominant.

  17. Effect of cold rolling on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al0.25CoCrFe1.25Ni1.25 high-entropy alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Gao, M. C.; Ma, S. G.; Yang, H. J.; Wang, Z. H.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Qiao, J. W.

    2015-08-05

    Cold rolling can break down the as-cast dendrite microstructure and thus may have pronounced impact on the mechanical behavior of the alloy. In the present study, the effect of cold rolling on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al0.25CoCrFe1.25Ni1.25 high-entropy alloy in the face-centered cubic structure was investigated. With increasing the thickness reduction from cold rolling, the hardness, the yield strength, and the fracture strength increased at the cost of reducing ductility. At the thickness reduction of 80%, the tensile strength (hardness) was 702 MPa (406 MPa), 1.62 (2.43) times that in the as-cast condition. Compared to traditional alloys, Al0.25CoCrFe1.25Ni1.25 has the highest hardening rate with respect to CR thickness reduction. Lastly, the phase relation and the mixing properties of Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of AlxCoCrFe1.25Ni1.25 were predicted using the CALPHAD method.

  18. Effect of cold rolling on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al0.25CoCrFe1.25Ni1.25 high-entropy alloy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Z.; Gao, M. C.; Ma, S. G.; Yang, H. J.; Wang, Z. H.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Qiao, J. W.

    2015-08-05

    Cold rolling can break down the as-cast dendrite microstructure and thus may have pronounced impact on the mechanical behavior of the alloy. In the present study, the effect of cold rolling on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al0.25CoCrFe1.25Ni1.25 high-entropy alloy in the face-centered cubic structure was investigated. With increasing the thickness reduction from cold rolling, the hardness, the yield strength, and the fracture strength increased at the cost of reducing ductility. At the thickness reduction of 80%, the tensile strength (hardness) was 702 MPa (406 MPa), 1.62 (2.43) times that in the as-cast condition. Compared to traditional alloys, Al0.25CoCrFe1.25Ni1.25more » has the highest hardening rate with respect to CR thickness reduction. Lastly, the phase relation and the mixing properties of Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of AlxCoCrFe1.25Ni1.25 were predicted using the CALPHAD method.« less

  19. The Small-RNA Profiles of Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) Reproductive Tissues in Response to Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shiran, Behrouz; Rabei, Mohammad; Fallahi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is an important environmental stress that threatens the production of Prunus trees. However, little information is available regarding molecular response of these plants to the frost stress. Using high throughput sequencing, this study was conducted to identify differentially expressed miRNAs, both the conserved and the non-conserved ones, in the reproductive tissues of almond tolerant H genotype under cold stress. Analysis of 50 to 58 million raw reads led to identification of 174 unique conserved and 59 novel microRNAs (miRNAs). Differential expression pattern analysis showed that 50 miRNA families were expressed differentially in one or both of almond reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Out of these 50 miRNA families, 12 and 15 displayed up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively. The distribution of conserved miRNA families indicated that miR482f harbor the highest number of members. Confirmation of miRNAs expression patterns by quantitative real- time PCR (qPCR) was performed in cold tolerant (H genotype) alongside a sensitive variety (Sh12 genotype). Our analysis revealed differential expression for 9 miRNAs in anther and 3 miRNAs in ovary between these two varieties. Target prediction of miRNAs followed by differential expression analysis resulted in identification of 83 target genes, mostly transcription factors. This study comprehensively catalogued expressed miRNAs under different temperatures in two reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Results of current study and the previous RNA-seq study, which was conducted in the same tissues by our group, provide a unique opportunity to understand the molecular basis of responses of almond to cold stress. The results can also enhance the possibility for gene manipulation to develop cold tolerant plants. PMID:27253370

  20. The Small-RNA Profiles of Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) Reproductive Tissues in Response to Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Marzieh; Ghazanfari, Farahnaz; Fadaei, Adeleh; Ahmadi, Laleh; Shiran, Behrouz; Rabei, Mohammad; Fallahi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is an important environmental stress that threatens the production of Prunus trees. However, little information is available regarding molecular response of these plants to the frost stress. Using high throughput sequencing, this study was conducted to identify differentially expressed miRNAs, both the conserved and the non-conserved ones, in the reproductive tissues of almond tolerant H genotype under cold stress. Analysis of 50 to 58 million raw reads led to identification of 174 unique conserved and 59 novel microRNAs (miRNAs). Differential expression pattern analysis showed that 50 miRNA families were expressed differentially in one or both of almond reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Out of these 50 miRNA families, 12 and 15 displayed up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively. The distribution of conserved miRNA families indicated that miR482f harbor the highest number of members. Confirmation of miRNAs expression patterns by quantitative real- time PCR (qPCR) was performed in cold tolerant (H genotype) alongside a sensitive variety (Sh12 genotype). Our analysis revealed differential expression for 9 miRNAs in anther and 3 miRNAs in ovary between these two varieties. Target prediction of miRNAs followed by differential expression analysis resulted in identification of 83 target genes, mostly transcription factors. This study comprehensively catalogued expressed miRNAs under different temperatures in two reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Results of current study and the previous RNA-seq study, which was conducted in the same tissues by our group, provide a unique opportunity to understand the molecular basis of responses of almond to cold stress. The results can also enhance the possibility for gene manipulation to develop cold tolerant plants. PMID:27253370

  1. Roll-to-Roll production of carbon nanotubes based supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jingyi; Childress, Anthony; Karakaya, Mehmet; Roberts, Mark; Arcilla-Velez, Margarita; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao

    2014-03-01

    Carbon nanomaterials provide an excellent platform for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). However, current industrial methods for producing carbon nanotubes are expensive and thereby increase the costs of energy storage to more than 10 Wh/kg. In this regard, we developed a facile roll-to-roll production technology for scalable manufacturing of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with variable density on run-of-the-mill kitchen Al foils. Our method produces MWNTs with diameter (heights) between 50-100 nm (10-100 μm), and a specific capacitance as high as ~ 100 F/g in non-aqueous electrolytes. In this talk, the fundamental challenges involved in EDLC-suitable MWNT growth, roll-to-roll production, and device manufacturing will be discussed along with electrochemical characteristics of roll-to-roll MWNTs. Research supported by NSF CMMI Grant1246800.

  2. 12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. Masonry-lined passageway leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away after milling. Bridges over the passageways, not in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. View shows area prior to substantial overgrowth existing in 1978 views of the area. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  3. Pilot-plant rolling of sintered tungsten sections

    SciTech Connect

    Vydrin, V.N.; Barkov, L.A.; Matveev, V.A.; Mebel, V.S.; Pastukhov, V.V.

    1985-05-01

    In this paper the results are presented of the development and industrial adoption of a new process for rolling sintered tungsten sections on the specialized single-stand MK-380 rolling mill with four-roll phases, designed at the Chelyabinsk Polytechnic Institute. It is concluded that compared with rotary forging, pressing, and rolling on a duo mill, rolling in four-roll passes ensures greater processing productivity, reduces losses of metal, requires fewer operators, and results in better quality of stock and improved operating characteristics of parts.

  4. Cold Stress Tolerance in Psychrotolerant Soil Bacteria and Their Conferred Chilling Resistance in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) under Low Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Parthiban; Kim, Kiyoon; Krishnamoorthy, Ramasamy; Mageswari, Anbazhagan; Selvakumar, Gopal; Sa, Tongmin

    2016-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the culturable diversity of psychrotolerant bacteria persistent in soil under overwintering conditions, evaluate their ability to sustain plant growth and alleviate chilling stress in tomato. Psychrotolerant bacteria were isolated from agricultural field soil samples colleced during winter and then used to study chilling stress alleviation in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv Mill). Selective isolation after enrichment at 5°C yielded 40 bacterial isolates. Phylogenetic studies indicated their distribution in genera Arthrobacter, Flavimonas, Flavobacterium, Massilia, Pedobacter and Pseudomonas. Strains OS211, OB146, OB155 and OS261 consistently improved germination and plant growth when a chilling stress of 15°C was imposed and therefore were selected for pot experiments. Tomato plants treated with the selected four isolates exhibited significant tolerance to chilling as observed through reduction in membrane damage and activation of antioxidant enzymes along with proline synthesis in the leaves when exposed to chilling temperature conditions (15°C). Psychrotolerant physiology of the isolated bacteria combined with their ability to improve germination, plant growth and induce antioxidant capacity in tomato plants can be employed to protect plants against chilling stress. PMID:27580055

  5. D STAND DELIVERY END OF #44 TANDEM BREAKDOWN MILL WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    D STAND DELIVERY END OF #44 TANDEM BREAKDOWN MILL WITH UPCOILER. BACKUP ROLLS, 40 TONS. WORK ROLLS, 20 TONS., C. 1900. OPERATING SPEED, 600'/MINUTE. AUTOMATIC GAUGE CONTROL. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  6. Technological, physico-chemical and sensory properties of raw and cooked meat batter incorporated with various levels of cold milled flaxseed powder.

    PubMed

    Yogesh, K; Langoo, B A; Sharma, S K; Yadav, D N

    2015-03-01

    Flaxseed has been proven for its multidimensional health benefits and can be used for development of emulsion type functional meat products. In view of this the incorporation of cold milled flaxseed powder (FSP) in meat batter at level 1-5 % was investigated. The results revealed that incorporation significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the total fluid release (TFR), fat release (FR) and water release (WR) of raw meat batter. The surface and internal color values were differed significantly (P < 0.05) among treatments at initial as well as during refrigerated storage period. Texture values especially hardness and chewiness values were found less (P < 0.05) in FSP treated samples and textural properties in FSP treated samples were not deteriorated during storage as compared to control samples. Thus incorporation of FSP had some beneficial effects on physico-chemical properties and textural properties which were also stable during storage period. However the redness values and sensory scores were observed less in FSP treated samples. PMID:25745231

  7. Sources of Variation for Long-Flow Experimental Milling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flour milling quality of new wheat cultivars routinely is measured on long-flow experimental flour mills with multiple break and reduction rolls that produce many mill streams. To determine the relative contributions of genotypes, production years, and error to the variation in long-flow milling tr...

  8. EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, BUFFALO PLANT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ROLL SHOP. 8" BAR MILL DESIGNED AND BUILT BY DONNER STEEL CO. (PREDECESSOR OF REPUBLIC), 1919-1920. FOR DESCRIPTION OF ORIGINAL MILL SEE "IRON AGE", 116\\4 (23 JULY 1925): 201-204. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  9. Effect of cold rolling on the oxidation resistance of T91 steel in oxygen-saturated stagnant liquid lead-bismuth eutectic at 450 °C and 550 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hong; Ye, Zhongfei; Wang, Pei; Li, Dianzhong; Zhang, Yutuo; Li, Yiyi

    2016-08-01

    The compatibility of T91 steels having different preparation processes with oxygen-saturated stagnant lead-bismuth eutectic have been investigated at 450 °C and 550 °C. It is found that cold rolling decreases the thickness of the oxide scale of T91 steel by forming a continuous enhanced Cr-rich belt in the inner oxide layer next to the internal oxidation zone, which is attributed to the rapid diffusion of Cr induced by numerous non-equilibrium grain boundaries and migrating dislocations.

  10. Hot rolling of thick uranium molybdenum alloys

    DOEpatents

    DeMint, Amy L.; Gooch, Jack G.

    2015-11-17

    Disclosed herein are processes for hot rolling billets of uranium that have been alloyed with about ten weight percent molybdenum to produce cold-rollable sheets that are about one hundred mils thick. In certain embodiments, the billets have a thickness of about 7/8 inch or greater. Disclosed processes typically involve a rolling schedule that includes a light rolling pass and at least one medium rolling pass. Processes may also include reheating the rolling stock and using one or more heavy rolling passes, and may include an annealing step.

  11. VOLATILIZED LUBRICANT EMISSIONS FROM STEEL ROLLING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the volatilization of lubricants used in steel rolling. Data from nine steel mills were used to: define the volatilized portion of lubricants used in rolling; and prepare total oil, grease, and hydraulic material balances for actual and typi...

  12. Direct evidence for grain boundary motion as the dominant restoration mechanism in the steady-state regime of extremely cold-rolled copper

    PubMed Central

    Renk, O.; Hohenwarter, A.; Wurster, S.; Pippan, R.

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-fine-grained high-purity copper (99.99%) deformed by means of high-pressure torsion into the steady-state regime was subjected to additional rolling deformation. The microstructural changes as a function of the applied strain were analysed by means of orientation imaging microscopy. It was found that after a distinctive rolling strain a steady state with respect to microstructural features such as grain size, misorientation distribution and texture evolves again. A special spilt specimen technique was used to perform quasi in situ observations of the microstructure between additional strain increments. Profound insights into the local deformation and restoration processes within the steady-state regime were gained. The observations lead to the conclusion that grain boundary migration perpendicular to the rolling direction leads to the disappearance of certain grains, enabling the occurrence of a steady state. PMID:25232288

  13. Direct evidence for grain boundary motion as the dominant restoration mechanism in the steady-state regime of extremely cold-rolled copper.

    PubMed

    Renk, O; Hohenwarter, A; Wurster, S; Pippan, R

    2014-09-15

    Ultra-fine-grained high-purity copper (99.99%) deformed by means of high-pressure torsion into the steady-state regime was subjected to additional rolling deformation. The microstructural changes as a function of the applied strain were analysed by means of orientation imaging microscopy. It was found that after a distinctive rolling strain a steady state with respect to microstructural features such as grain size, misorientation distribution and texture evolves again. A special spilt specimen technique was used to perform quasi in situ observations of the microstructure between additional strain increments. Profound insights into the local deformation and restoration processes within the steady-state regime were gained. The observations lead to the conclusion that grain boundary migration perpendicular to the rolling direction leads to the disappearance of certain grains, enabling the occurrence of a steady state. PMID:25232288

  14. Processes for the production of ultra-pure metals from oxide and their cold rolling to ultra-thin foils for use as targets and as reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, S.; Guo-ji, Xu; Ingelbrecht, C.; Pomeroy, M. J.

    2002-03-01

    A wide variety of metals have been reduced from their oxides with high (>90%) yields using metallothermic reduction, hydrogen reduction or electrowinning. The high yields during metallothermic reduction were achieved by careful design of the collector and crucible orifice. Whilst each of the three techniques gave rise to reasonably (>99%) pure metals, subsequent carefully controlled vacuum distillation, using a system with especially designed crucible, baffle and collector systems, resulted in ultra-high-purity metals being produced. Using a stainless steel pack rolling technique, metals derived either directly from the reduction routes or following subsequent distillation could be rolled to foils thinner than previously reported in the literature in the majority of cases.

  15. Metal rolling - Asymmetrical rolling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexa, V.; Raţiu, S.; Kiss, I.

    2016-02-01

    The development of theory and practice related to the asymmetric longitudinal rolling process is based on the general theory of metalworking by pressure and symmetric rolling theory, to which a large number of scientists brought their contribution. The rolling of metal materials was a serious problem throughout history, either economically or technically, because the plating technologies enabled the consumption of raw materials (scarce and expensive) to be reduced, while improving the mechanical properties. Knowing the force parameters related to asymmetric rolling leads to the optimization of energy and raw material consumption. This paper presents data on symmetric rolling process, in order to comparatively highlight the particularities of the asymmetric process.

  16. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical report No. 7, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of this research is the development of improved technology for the preparation of coal-water slurries that have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. This should be of major importance to the United States in its efforts to reduce dependence on imported oil and to rely more on its enormous low-cost coal resources. According to this objective, Quarterly Report No. 1 presented preliminary results on the rheological behavior of coal-water slurries prepared from Pittsburgh No. 8 coal that had been ground in a ball mill under various conditions. Quarterly Report No. 2 summarized the results of studies on the effects of solids content and water immobilization on the rheological behavior of coal-water slurries, including the role of different viscometers, such as the Haake Rotovisco RV-12 and Brookfield Synchro-Lectric LVT on the measured results. In Quarterly Report No. 3, the authors compared the rheological behavior of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal-water slurries using different sensor system. In Quarterly Report No. 4, studies on the role of the initial mixing procedure in the preparation of coal-water slurries were summarized. In Quarterly Report No. 5, the evaluation of the effect of a cationic surfactant (TMAE) and an anionic surfactant (2-TEPA) on the rheological behavior and the aggregative stability of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal-water slurries was presented. In Quarterly Report No. 6, the effect of nonionic surfactants (Triton X series) on the aggregative stability of coal-water slurries was studied by measuring the relative sedimentation volume and floc size distribution.

  17. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

    2005-02-01

    Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

  18. 'We are left in the cold': nurses' perceptions and responses to antiretroviral treatment roll-out in the Free State, South Africa.

    PubMed

    de Wet, Katinka; du Plooy, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    The unprecedented roll-out of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa is a complex process where no previous endeavour exists that can measure, predict, or direct an intervention of this scale. In the Free State province, unique characteristics and problems distinguish its ART programme, although countrywide problems also occur within the province. The Free State province faces high vacancy rates among its health-care workers, the programme has lower patient enrolment rates because of an obsession with quality to the detriment of quantity, and various incidents of ART shortages have also shook the province. The ART roll-out intervention thus far has been largely nurse-driven (however not nurse initiated), and they form what many refer to as the 'backbone' of the programme. In order to respond to the challenges faced by these front-line ART providers, continuous transformations inevitably take place to respond to new needs associated with the roll-out programme, but also to strengthen the primary health-care system in general. The objective of this article is to present a typology of contradictory contextual factors in the antiretroviral programme as identified through group interviews that were conducted with PNs at public health-care clinics in the five districts of the Free State province during 2005 and 2006. We intend to show that transformations often have contradictory and problematic outcomes as expressed and perceived by the nurses themselves. This unprecedented endeavour of ART roll-out inevitably has to treasure and support its most valued implementers, i.e. the front-line providers who are not only professionals in the health-care setting, but also social agents in a wider contextual framework. PMID:23237019

  19. Rolling Reloaded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Simon A.; Nieminen, John M.

    2008-01-01

    Not so long ago a new observation about rolling motion was described: for a rolling wheel, there is a set of points with instantaneous velocities directed at or away from the centre of the wheel; these points form a circle whose diameter connects the centre of the wheel to the wheel's point of contact with the ground (Sharma 1996 "Eur. J. Phys."…

  20. 1. Front view of steam engine and mill, looking NE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Front view of steam engine and mill, looking NE, showing (l to r) 6-column beam engine, flywheel, reduction gears and 3-roll cane mill. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  1. 2. 3/4 view looking SW showing threeroll can mill, reduction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 3/4 view looking SW showing three-roll can mill, reduction gear, flywheel with steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  2. MAIN DRIVE MOTOR FOR BLISS #43 HOT ROLL. THIS WESTINGHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAIN DRIVE MOTOR FOR BLISS #43 HOT ROLL. THIS WESTINGHOUSE UNIT HAS SINCE BEEN REPLACED BY A 5000 HP TOSHIBA MOTOR. REHEAT FURNACES ARE SHOWN BEHIND MILL MOTOR. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  3. Roll Casting of Al-25%Si

    SciTech Connect

    Haga, Toshio; Harada, Hideto; Watari, Hisaki

    2011-05-04

    Strip casting of Al-25%Si strip was tried using an unequal diameter twin roll caster. The diameter of the lower roll (large roll) was 1000 mm and the diameter of the upper roll (small roll) was 250 mm. Roll material was mild steel. The sound strip could be cast at the speeds ranging from 8 m/min to 12 m/min. The strip did not stick to the roll without the parting material. The primary Si, which existed at centre area of the thickness direction, was larger than that which existed at other area. The size of the primary Si was smaller than 0.2 mm. Eutectic Si was smaller 5 {mu}m. The as-cast strip was ranging from 2 mm to 3 mm thick and its width was 100 mm. The as-cast strip could be hot rolled down to 1 mm. The hot rolled strip was cold rolled. The primary Si became smaller and the pore occurred around the primary Si after the rolling.

  4. [Comporison Sduty of Microstructure by Metallographicalk on the Polarized Light and Texture by XRD of CC 5083 and CC 5182 Aluminium Alloy after Cold Rolling and Recrystallization].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-biao; Li, Yong-wei; Tan, Yuan-biao; Ma, Min; Wang, Xue-min; Liu, Wen-chang

    2015-03-01

    At present the study of relation between microstructure, texture and performance of CC 5083 aluminium alloy after cold tolling and recrystallization processes is still finitude. So that the use of the CC 5083 aluminium alloy be influenced. Be cased into electrical furnace, hot up with unlimited speed followed the furnace hot up to different temperature and annealed 2h respectively, and be cased into salt-beth furnace, hot up quickly to different temperature and annealed 30 min respectively for CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy after cold roling with 91.5% reduction. The microstructure be watched use metallographic microscope, the texture be inspected by XRD. The start temperature of recrystallization and grain grow up temperature within annealing in the electric furnace of CC 5083 aluminum alloy board is 343 degrees C, and the shap of grain after grow up with long strip (the innovation point ); The start temperature of recrystallization within annealling in the salt bath furnace of CC 5083 is 343 degrees C. The start temperature and end temperature of recrystallization within annealling of CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy is 371 degrees C. The grain grow up outstanding of cold rooled CC 5152 aluminum alloy after annealed with 454 degrees C in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace. The start temperature of grain grow up of CC 5083 alluminurn alloy annealed in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace respectively is higher than the start temperature of grain grow up of CC 5182 alluminum alloy annealed in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace respectively. The strat temperature of recrystallization grain grow up is higher than which annealled with other three manner annealing process. The recrystallization temperature of CC 5182 annealed in the salt bath furnace is higher than which annealed in the electric furnace. The recrystallization temperature of the surface layer of CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy is higher than the inner layer (the innovation

  5. On the Influence of Surface Heterogeneities onto Roll Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryschka, M.; Drüe, C.; Raasch, S.; Etling, D.

    2009-04-01

    Roll convection is a common phenomenon in atmospheric convective boundary layers (CBL) with background wind. Roll convection is observed both over land and over sea for different synoptic situations. There is still some debate about the different types of roll convection and their causes or rather the necessary conditions for their appearance. The stability parameter ζ = -zi•L (zi: boundary layer height, L: Monin-Obukhov stability length) is widely used as a predictor for roll convection, since numerous studies suggest that convective rolls only appear when 0 < ζ < 20. In other words, roll development becomes unlikely for strong surface heating and weak vertical wind shear. In contrast to those studies the presence of roll convection in almost any polar cold air outbreak (as can be seen in numerous satellite images as cloud streets) reveals that even for large ζ roll convection can develop. Some studies report roll convection in cold air outbreaks for ζ = 250. Our large eddy simulations (LES) on roll convection suggests that the contrasting results concerning the dependency of roll convection on ζ are due to two different types of roll convection: One type which develops purely by self organization if ζ < 20 ("free rolls") and another type which is triggered by heterogeneities in surface temperature and develops also for large ζ ("forced rolls"). We think that most of the cloud streets observed in polar cold air outbreaks over open water are due to rolls of forced type which are tied to upstream located heterogeneities in the sea-ice distribution. The results of this study suggests that the omission of surface inhomogeneities in previous LES is the reason for the absence of rolls in all LES with strong surface heating and weak vertical wind shear so far. In this contribution we will present a large eddy simulation which successfully represents forced rolls under such conditions.

  6. ORE BUCKET ON TRAM. NOTE THAT BUCKET ROLLS ALONG UPPER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ORE BUCKET ON TRAM. NOTE THAT BUCKET ROLLS ALONG UPPER, STATIONARY SUSPENSION CABLE, PULLED BY LOWER, MOVING TRACTION CABLE. FOREGROUND CABLES ARE FOR BUCKET'S TRIP FROM MINE TO MILL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  7. Rolling of 316L Stainless Steel with Rough Rolls to Potentially Obtain Superficial Nanograins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camurri, Carlos; Gallegos, Alejo; Carrasco, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    316L stainless steel plates of 5-mm thickness, normalized at 900 °C, were cold rolled with different reductions and number of passes using rolls with three different surface roughnesses: grain heights of 0.17 and 0.33 mm and rhomboid-shaped grains of 1.5-mm height. Subsequently, the rolled samples were annealed at 275 °C for 1 h in an effort to achieve superficial nanograins. The plates laminated using low-roughness rolls had continuous superficial microcrystallization when they were rolled for at least 26 passes. For samples made with rougher rolls, the recrystallized superficial grains formed on the surface (sized ~10-15 μm) were smaller than those below the surface; this behavior was caused by the major deformation induced by repeated indentations. The superficial recrystallization of the sample also tended to be more continuous for higher number of passes; micrographs of the penetration profiles of indentation in the samples rolled with high-roughness rolls revealed that a sample rolled 24 times had not yet reached the steady surface topology. As a conclusion, in order to successfully form superficial nanograins, very low-roughness rolls must be used as well as a small absolute reduction per pass, followed by annealing. These rolling conditions generate a continuous field of highly superficial deformations, which act as nucleation centers for nanograins during annealing.

  8. Computer-aided analysis and design of the shape rolling process for producing turbine engine airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahoti, G. D.; Akgerman, N.; Altan, T.

    1978-01-01

    Mild steel (AISI 1018) was selected as model cold rolling material and Ti-6A1-4V and Inconel 718 were selected as typical hot rolling and cold rolling alloys, respectively. The flow stress and workability of these alloys were characterized and friction factor at the roll/workpiece interface was determined at their respective working conditions by conducting ring tests. Computer-aided mathematical models for predicting metal flow and stresses, and for simulating the shape rolling process were developed. These models utilized the upper bound and the slab methods of analysis, and were capable of predicting the lateral spread, roll separating force, roll torque, and local stresses, strains and strain rates. This computer-aided design system was also capable of simulating the actual rolling process, and thereby designing the roll pass schedule in rolling of an airfoil or a similar shape.

  9. Thermal modeling of roll and strip interfaces in rolling processes. Part 2: Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, A.A.

    1999-02-12

    Part 1 of this paper reviewed the modeling approaches and correlations used to study the interface heat transfer phenomena of the roll-strip contact region in rolling processes. The thermal contact conductance approach was recommended for modeling the interface phenomena. To illustrate, the recommended approach and selected correlations are adopted in the present study for modeling of the roll-strip interface region. The specific values of the parameters used to correlate the corresponding thermal contact conductance for the typical cold and hot rolling of steels are first estimated. The influence of thermal contact resistance on the temperature distributions of the roll and strip is then studied. Comparing the present simulation results with previously published experimental and analytical results shows that the thermal contact conductance approach and numerical models used can reliably simulate the heat transfer behavior of the rolling process.

  10. Numerical Modeling of Tube Forming by HPTR Cold Pilgering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornin, D.; Pachón-Rodríguez, E. A.; Vanegas-Márquez, E.; Mocellin, K.; Logé, R.

    2016-07-01

    For new fast-neutron sodium-cooled Generation IV nuclear reactors, the candidate cladding materials for the very strong burn-up are ferritic and martensitic oxide dispersion strengthened grades. Classically, the cladding tube is cold formed by a sequence of cold pilger milling passes with intermediate heat treatments. This process acts upon the geometry and the microstructure of the tubes. Consequently, crystallographic texture, grain sizes and morphologies, and tube integrity are highly dependent on the pilgering parameters. In order to optimize the resulting mechanical properties of cold-rolled cladding tubes, it is essential to have a thorough understanding of the pilgering process. Finite Element Method (FEM) models are used for the numerical predictions of this task; however, the accuracy of the numerical predictions depends not only on the type of constitutive laws but also on the quality of the material parameters identification. Therefore, a Chaboche-type law which parameters have been identified on experimental observation of the mechanical behavior of the material is used here. As a complete three-dimensional FEM mechanical analysis of the high-precision tube rolling (HPTR) cold pilgering of tubes could be very expensive, only the evolution of geometry and deformation is addressed in this work. The computed geometry is compared to the experimental one. It is shown that the evolution of the geometry and deformation is not homogeneous over the circumference. Moreover, it is exposed that the strain is nonhomogeneous in the radial, tangential, and axial directions. Finally, it is seen that the dominant deformation mode of a material point evolves during HPTR cold pilgering forming.

  11. 6. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH INSIDE OF 22' BAR MILL MOTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH INSIDE OF 22' BAR MILL MOTOR ROOM AT MOTOR/GEAR DRIVE ASSEMBLY FOR THE THREE HIGH, 28 ROUGHING ROLL STAND. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  12. 8. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE OF THE 22' BAR MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE OF THE 22' BAR MILL MOTOR ROOM AT THE REVERSING MOTOR/GEAR DRIVE ASSEMBLY FOR THE TWO-HIGH 22 FINISHING ROLL STANDS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  13. 7. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST INSIDE OF 22' BAR MILL MOTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST INSIDE OF 22' BAR MILL MOTOR ROOM AT MOTOR/GEAR DRIVE ASSEMBLY FOR THE THREE HIGH, 28 ROUGHING ROLL STAND. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  14. DISCHARGE END OF 8" MILL REHEATING FURNACE, SHOWING MOTOROPERATED PEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISCHARGE END OF 8" MILL REHEATING FURNACE, SHOWING MOTOR-OPERATED PEEL BAR PUSHER WITH PINCH ROLLS FOR MOVING BILLETS ENDWISE OUT THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE FURNACE TOWARD THE CONTINUOUS ROUGHING TRAIN. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  15. Mathematical modeling of deformation during hot rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, D.; Stachowiak, R.G.; Samarasekera, I.V.; Brimacombe, J.K.

    1994-12-31

    The deformation that occurs in the roll bite during the hot rolling of steel, particularly the strain-rate and strain distribution, has been mathematically modeled using finite-element analysis. In this paper three different finite-element models are compared with one another and with industrial measurements. The first model is an Eulerian analysis based on the flow formulation method, while the second utilizes an Updated Lagrangian approach. The third model is based on a commercially available program DEFORM which also utilizes a Lagrangian reference frame. Model predictions of strain and strain-rate distribution, particularly near the surface of the slab, are strongly influenced by the treatment of friction at the boundary and the magnitude of the friction coefficient or shear factor. Roll forces predicted by the model have been compared with industrial rolling loads from a seven-stand hot-strip mill.

  16. 13. INTERIOR VIEW OF REFINING MILL, SHOWING NO. RF2450 EXHAUSTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR VIEW OF REFINING MILL, SHOWING NO. RF-24-50 EXHAUSTER ON NO. 3 ROLL MILL, INSTALLED IN 1944. DRIED AND CRUSHED BENTONITE WAS BLOWN UP INTO A FINISHED PRODUCT BIN - Clay Spur Bentonite Plant & Camp, Refining Mill, Clay Spur Siding on Burlington Northern Railroad, Osage, Weston County, WY

  17. Evidence of divergent selection for drought and cold tolerance at landscape and local scales in Abies alba Mill. in the French Mediterranean Alps.

    PubMed

    Roschanski, Anna M; Csilléry, Katalin; Liepelt, Sascha; Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Huard, Frédéric; Ullrich, Kristian K; Postolache, Dragos; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Fady, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    Understanding local adaptation in forest trees is currently a key research and societal priority. Geographically and ecologically marginal populations provide ideal case studies, because environmental stress along with reduced gene flow can facilitate the establishment of locally adapted populations. We sampled European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) trees in the French Mediterranean Alps, along the margin of its distribution range, from pairs of high- and low-elevation plots on four different mountains situated along a 170-km east-west transect. The analysis of 267 SNP loci from 175 candidate genes suggested a neutral pattern of east-west isolation by distance among mountain sites. F(ST) outlier tests revealed 16 SNPs that showed patterns of divergent selection. Plot climate was characterized using both in situ measurements and gridded data that revealed marked differences between and within mountains with different trends depending on the season. Association between allelic frequencies and bioclimatic variables revealed eight genes that contained candidate SNPs, of which two were also detected using F(ST) outlier methods. All SNPs were associated with winter drought, and one of them showed strong evidence of selection with respect to elevation. Q(ST)-F(ST) tests for fitness-related traits measured in a common garden suggested adaptive divergence for the date of bud flush and for growth rate. Overall, our results suggest a complex adaptive picture for A. alba in the southern French Alps where, during the east-to-west Holocene recolonization, locally advantageous genetic variants established at both the landscape and local scales. PMID:26676992

  18. Milling dynamics. I - Attritor dynamics: Results of a cinematographic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rydin, R. W.; Maurice, D.; Courtney, T. H.

    1993-01-01

    The motions of grinding media and powder in an attritor canister were studied by means of filming the agitated charge and frame-by-frame scrutiny of the footage. In conjunction with auxiliary experiments, this permitted semiquantitative analysis of the milling action. In particular, the mill can be divided into several regions characterized by different balances between direct impacts and rolling/sliding of the grinding media. Simple calculations suggest that impacts are more capable of effecting mechanical alloying (MA) than are rolling or sliding events in an attritor. Powder circulation within an operating mill was also investigated. Based on the results and the accompanying analysis, concepts for improved attritor design are presented.

  19. Quantifying texture evolution during hot rolling of AZ31 Twin Roll Cast strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelova, S.; Schaeben, H.

    2015-04-01

    Multi-pass rolling experiments with an AZ31 Twin Roll Cast (TRC) alloy were performed on an industrial scaled four-high rolling mill. Within the rolling with an intermediate annealing the evolution of texture was investigated. To quantify the extent of preferred crystallographic orientation experimental X-ray pole figures were measured after different process steps and analyzed using the free and open Matlab® toolbox MTEX for texture analysis. The development of the fiber texture was observed and analyzed in dependence on rolling conditions. In the initial state the specimen exhibits a texture composed of a weak basal texture and a cast texture with {0001}-planes oriented across the rolling direction. During the following rolling process a fiber texture was developed. The expected strength increment of the fiber texture was quantitatively confirmed in terms of volume portions of the orientation density function around the fiber and in terms of the canonical parameters of fitted pseudo Bingham distributions. On the results of this work a model for prediction of the texture evolution during the strip rolling of magnesium in the examined parameter range was developed.

  20. New technology for recyclingmaterials from oily cold rollingmill sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Shen-gen; Tian, Jian-jun; Pan, De-an; Meng, Ling; Liu, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Oily cold rolling mill (CRM) sludge is one of metallurgical industry solid wastes. The recycle of these wastes can not only protect the environment but also permit their reutilization. In this research, a new process of "hydrometallurgical treatment + hydrothermal synthesis" was investigated for the combined recovery of iron and organic materials from oily CRM sludge. Hydrometallurgical treatment, mainly including acid leaching, centrifugal separation, neutralization reaction, oxidizing, and preparation of hydrothermal reaction precursor, was first utilized for processing the sludge. Then, micaceous iron oxide (MIO) pigment powders were prepared through hydrothermal reaction of the obtained precursor in alkaline media. The separated organic materials can be used for fuel or chemical feedstock. The quality of the prepared MIO pigments is in accordance with the standards of MIO pigments for paints (ISO 10601-2007). This clean, effective, and economical technology offers a new way to recycle oily CRM sludge.

  1. Rolling-Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Anderson, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Rolling element bearings are a precision, yet simple, machine element of great utility. A brief history of rolling element bearings is reviewed and the type of rolling element bearings, their geometry and kinematics, as well as the materials they are made from and the manufacturing processes they involve are described. Unloaded and unlubricated rolling element bearings, loaded but unlubricated rolling element bearings and loaded and lubricated rolling element bearings are considered. The recognition and understanding of elastohydrodynamic lubrication covered, represents one of the major development in rolling element bearings.

  2. Computer-aided analysis and design of the shape rolling process for producing turbine engine airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahoti, G. D.; Akgerman, N.; Altan, T.

    1978-01-01

    Mild steel (AISI 1018) was selected as model cold-rolling material and Ti-6Al-4V and INCONEL 718 were selected as typical hot-rolling and cold-rolling alloys, respectively. The flow stress and workability of these alloys were characterized and friction factor at the roll/workpiece interface was determined at their respective working conditions by conducting ring tests. Computer-aided mathematical models for predicting metal flow and stresses, and for simulating the shape-rolling process were developed. These models utilize the upper-bound and the slab methods of analysis, and are capable of predicting the lateral spread, roll-separating force, roll torque and local stresses, strains and strain rates. This computer-aided design (CAD) system is also capable of simulating the actual rolling process and thereby designing roll-pass schedule in rolling of an airfoil or similar shape. The predictions from the CAD system were verified with respect to cold rolling of mild steel plates. The system is being applied to cold and hot isothermal rolling of an airfoil shape, and will be verified with respect to laboratory experiments under controlled conditions.

  3. Multi-stage FE simulation of hot ring rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Geijselaers, H. J. M.; van den Boogaard, A. H.

    2013-05-01

    As a unique and important member of the metal forming family, ring rolling provides a cost effective process route to manufacture seamless rings. Applications of ring rolling cover a wide range of products in aerospace, automotive and civil engineering industries [1]. Above the recrystallization temperature of the material, hot ring rolling begins with the upsetting of the billet cut from raw stock. Next a punch pierces the hot upset billet to form a hole through the billet. This billet, referred to as preform, is then rolled by the ring rolling mill. For an accurate simulation of hot ring rolling, it is crucial to include the deformations, stresses and strains from the upsetting and piercing process as initial conditions for the rolling stage. In this work, multi-stage FE simulations of hot ring rolling process were performed by mapping the local deformation state of the workpiece from one step to the next one. The simulations of upsetting and piercing stages were carried out by 2D axisymmetric models using adaptive remeshing and element erosion. The workpiece for the ring rolling stage was subsequently obtained after performing a 2D to 3D mapping. The commercial FE package LS-DYNA was used for the study and user defined subroutines were implemented to complete the control algorithm. The simulation results were analyzed and also compared with those from the single-stage FE model of hot ring rolling.

  4. Microstructure and texture of asymmetrically rolled aluminium and titanium after deformation and recrystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronski, M.; Wierzbanowski, K.; Wronski, S.; Bacroix, B.

    2015-08-01

    Asymmetric rolling is used to modify material properties and to reduce forces and torques applied during deformation. This geometry of deformation is relatively easy to implement on existing industrial rolling mills and it can provide large volumes of a material. The results of the study of microstructure and crystallographic texture in asymmetrically rolled aluminium 6061 and titanium (grade 2) are presented in this work. These characteristics were determined using the EBSD technique and X-ray diffraction. The rolling asymmetry was realized using two identical rolls, driven by independent motors, rotating with different angular velocities. It was found that asymmetric rolling leads to microstructural refinement and texture rotation (around the transverse direction). The impact of asymmetric rolling on microstructural refinement appears also in recrystallized samples of both materials. On the other hand, texture rotation, caused by asymmetric rolling, persists after annealing in titanium but not in aluminium samples.

  5. 4. ROLL LATHE OF THE MAIN ROLL SHOP. THE LATHE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. ROLL LATHE OF THE MAIN ROLL SHOP. THE LATHE WAS CLOSED WITH TWO ROLLS IN PLACE, AND THE LOWER ROLL WAS TURNED TO MATCH THE UPPER ROLL. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Main Roll Shop, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  6. Internal roll compression system

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Graydon E.

    1985-01-01

    This invention is a machine for squeezing water out of peat or other material of low tensile strength; the machine including an inner roll eccentrically positioned inside a tubular outer roll, so as to form a gradually increasing pinch area at one point therebetween, so that, as the rolls rotate, the material is placed between the rolls, and gets wrung out when passing through the pinch area.

  7. Multilayer roll bonded aluminium foil: processing, microstructure and flow stress

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, C.Y.; Nielsen, P.; Hansen, N

    2004-08-02

    Bulk aluminium has been produced by warm-rolling followed by cold-rolling of commercial purity (99% purity) aluminium foil. The bonding appeared perfect from observation with the naked eye, light and transmission electron microscopy. By comparison with bulk aluminium of similar purity (AA1200) rolled to a similar strain (90%RA), the roll-bonded metal showed a much higher density of high-angle grain boundaries, similar strength and improved thermal stability. This study has implications for a number of applications in relation to the processing of aluminium. Roll bonding is of interest as a method for grain size refinement; oxide-containing materials have increased strength, enhanced work-hardening behaviour, and exhibit alterations in recrystallisation behaviour. The behaviour of the hard oxide film is of interest in aluminium processing, and has been investigated by characterising the size and distribution of oxide particles in the roll-bonded samples.

  8. Validation of the Hot Strip Mill Model

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Shulkosky; David Rosberg; Jerrud Chapman

    2005-03-30

    The Hot Strip Mill Model (HSMM) is an off-line, PC based software originally developed by the University of British Columbia (UBC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) under the AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program. The HSMM was developed to predict the temperatures, deformations, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip or plate rolled in a hot mill. INTEG process group inc. undertook the current task of enhancing and validating the technology. With the support of 5 North American steel producers, INTEG process group tested and validated the model using actual operating data from the steel plants and enhanced the model to improve prediction results.

  9. Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Are Cold Sores? Article Chapters What Are Cold Sores? Cold ... January 2012 Previous Next Related Articles: Canker and Cold Sores Aloe Vera May Help Relieve Mouth Sores ...

  10. In-Orbit Construction with a Helical Seam Pipe Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilhooley, N.

    The challenges of building large structures in space, and in particular a torus habitat, require novel processes. One potential method is to manufacture helical seam (also called spiral) pipe in orbit using a pipe mill. These machines turn rolls of steel or alloy into fully formed, welded and inspected pipe, pressure vessels and silos of various diameters. Pipe mills are highly automated and efficient in a factory environment and are increasingly being used for in-situ repair. By constructing in-orbit (on-orbit assembly) the launch vehicle can supply full payloads of compact, robust rolls of material; and the installation design is less restricted by fairing constraints and modular limitations. The use of a pipe mill is discussed as a possible construction method, for comparison an example design envelope is shown and further pipe mill products are considered.