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Sample records for coli ef-tu mutants

  1. EF-Tu from the enacyloxin producing Frateuria W-315 strain: Structure/activity relationship and antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Créchet, Jean-Bernard; Malosse, Christian; Hountondji, Codjo

    2016-08-01

    In this report, we have demonstrated that the poly(U)-dependent poly(Phe) synthesis activity of elongator factor Tu (EF-Tu) from the enacyloxin producing strain Frateuria sp. W-315 is inhibited by the antibiotic similarly to that of Escherichia coli EF-Tu. The inhibitory effect of enacyloxin observed in a purified system was the same as that obtained with an S30 extract from E. coli or Frateuria sp. W-315, respectively, suggesting that antibiotic resistance of enacyloxin producing Frateuria sp. W-315 is not due neither to EF-Tu nor to other components of the translation machinery but to a still unknown mechanism. The EF-Tu gene, as PCR amplified from Frateuria W-315 genomic DNA and sequenced represented an ORF of 1191 nucleotides corresponding to 396 amino acids. This protein is larger than the product of tufA from E. coli by only two amino acid residues. Alignment of the amino acid sequence of EF-Tu from E. coli with those of Frateuria and Ralstonia solanacearum indicates on average 80% identical amino acid residues and 9.7% conservative replacements between EF-Tu Frateuria and EF-Tu E. coli, on one hand, and 97% identity and 1.7% conservative replacement between EF-Tu Frateuria and EF-Tu Ralstonia solanacearum, on the other hand. These strong primary structure similarities between EF-Tu from different origins are consistent with the fact that this factor is essential for the translation process in all kingdoms of life. Comparison of the effects of antibiotics on EF-Tu Frateuria and EF-Tu E. coli revealed that enacyloxin, kirromycin and pulvomycin exert a stronger stimulation of the GDP dissociation rate on EF-Tu Frateuria, while the effects of the antibiotics on the GDP association rate were comparable for the two EF-Tu species. Different mutants of EF-Tu E. coli were constructed with the help of site directed mutagenesis by changing one or several residues of EF-Tu E. coli by the corresponding residues of EF-Tu Frateuria. The single A45K substitution did

  2. Design and properties of efficient tRNA:EF-Tu FRET system for studies of ribosomal translation

    PubMed Central

    Chudaev, Maxim; Poruri, Kiran; Goldman, Emanuel; Jakubowski, Hieronim; Jain, Mohit Raja; Chen, Wei; Li, Hong; Tyagi, Sanjay; Mandecki, Wlodek

    2013-01-01

    Formation of the ternary complex between GTP-bound form of elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and aminoacylated transfer RNA (aa-tRNA) is a key event in protein biosynthesis. Here we show that fluorescently modified Escherichia coli EF-Tu carrying three mutations, C137A, C255V and E348C, and fluorescently modified Phe-tRNAPhe form functionally active ternary complex that has properties similar to those of the naturally occurring (unmodified) complex. Similarities include the binding and binding rate constants, behavior in gel retardation assay, as well as activities in tRNA protection and in vitro translation assays. Proper labeling of EF-Tu was demonstrated in MALDI mass spectroscopy experiments. To generate the mutant EF-Tu, a series of genetic constructions were performed. Two native cysteine residues in the wild-type EF-Tu at positions 137 and 255 were replaced by Ala and Val, respectively, and an additional cysteine was introduced either in position 324 or 348. The assembly FRET assay showed a 5- to 7-fold increase of Cy5-labeled EF-Tu E348C mutant fluorescence upon formation of ternary complex with charged tRNAPhe(Cy3-labeled) when the complex was excited at 532 nm and monitored at 665 nm. In a control experiment, we did not observe FRET using uncharged tRNAPhe(Cy3), nor with wild-type EF-Tu preparation that was allowed to react with Cy5 maleimide, nor in the absence of GTP. The results obtained demonstrate that the EF-Tu:tRNA FRET system described can be used for investigations of ribosomal translation in many types of experiments. PMID:23447652

  3. Translational activities of EF-Tu [G222D] which cannot be reconciled with the classical scheme of the polypeptide chain elongation cycle.

    PubMed

    Talens, A; Boon, K; Kraal, B; Bosch, L

    1996-08-23

    We have developed a cell-free system of E. coli that enables us to study the in vitro translation of natural mRNA mediated by wild-type or mutant EF-Tu. Various mutant EF-Tu species have been analyzed, one of which, EF-Tu [G222D], appeared to be virtually unable to mediate the translation of natural mRNA. Since this mutant factor is able to participate in translation in vivo by suppressing nonsense and frameshift mutations in cooperation with EF-Tu [A375T], a revision of the generally accepted scheme of the elongation cycle has been proposed (Bosch, L., Vijgenboom, E., & Zeef, L.A.H., 1996, Biochemistry 36). PMID:8780718

  4. Oxidation of a Cysteine Residue in Elongation Factor EF-Tu Reversibly Inhibits Translation in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Yutthanasirikul, Rayakorn; Nagano, Takanori; Jimbo, Haruhiko; Hihara, Yukako; Kanamori, Takashi; Ueda, Takuya; Haruyama, Takamitsu; Konno, Hiroki; Yoshida, Keisuke; Hisabori, Toru; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka

    2016-03-11

    Translational elongation is susceptible to inactivation by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and elongation factor G has been identified as a target of oxidation by ROS. In the present study we examined the sensitivity to oxidation by ROS of another elongation factor, EF-Tu. The structure of EF-Tu changes dramatically depending on the bound nucleotide. Therefore, we investigated the sensitivity to oxidation in vitro of GTP- and GDP-bound EF-Tu as well as that of nucleotide-free EF-Tu. Assays of translational activity with a reconstituted translation system from Escherichia coli revealed that GTP-bound and nucleotide-free EF-Tu were sensitive to oxidation by H2O2, whereas GDP-bound EF-Tu was resistant to H2O2. The inactivation of EF-Tu was the result of oxidation of Cys-82, a single cysteine residue, and subsequent formation of both an intermolecular disulfide bond and sulfenic acid. Replacement of Cys-82 with serine rendered EF-Tu resistant to inactivation by H2O2, confirming that Cys-82 was a target of oxidation. Furthermore, oxidized EF-Tu was reduced and reactivated by thioredoxin. Gel-filtration chromatography revealed that some of the oxidized nucleotide-free EF-Tu formed large complexes of >30 molecules. Atomic force microscopy revealed that such large complexes dissociated into several smaller aggregates upon the addition of dithiothreitol. Immunological analysis of the redox state of EF-Tu in vivo showed that levels of oxidized EF-Tu increased under strong light. Thus, resembling elongation factor G, EF-Tu appears to be sensitive to ROS via oxidation of a cysteine residue, and its inactivation might be reversed in a redox-dependent manner. PMID:26786107

  5. Structure of the E. coli ribosome-EF-Tu complex at <3 Å resolution by Cs-corrected cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Niels; Neumann, Piotr; Konevega, Andrey L; Bock, Lars V; Ficner, Ralf; Rodnina, Marina V; Stark, Holger

    2015-04-23

    Single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has recently made significant progress in high-resolution structure determination of macromolecular complexes due to improvements in electron microscopic instrumentation and computational image analysis. However, cryo-EM structures can be highly non-uniform in local resolution and all structures available to date have been limited to resolutions above 3 Å. Here we present the cryo-EM structure of the 70S ribosome from Escherichia coli in complex with elongation factor Tu, aminoacyl-tRNA and the antibiotic kirromycin at 2.65-2.9 Å resolution using spherical aberration (Cs)-corrected cryo-EM. Overall, the cryo-EM reconstruction at 2.9 Å resolution is comparable to the best-resolved X-ray structure of the E. coli 70S ribosome (2.8 Å), but provides more detailed information (2.65 Å) at the functionally important ribosomal core. The cryo-EM map elucidates for the first time the structure of all 35 rRNA modifications in the bacterial ribosome, explaining their roles in fine-tuning ribosome structure and function and modulating the action of antibiotics. We also obtained atomic models for flexible parts of the ribosome such as ribosomal proteins L9 and L31. The refined cryo-EM-based model presents the currently most complete high-resolution structure of the E. coli ribosome, which demonstrates the power of cryo-EM in structure determination of large and dynamic macromolecular complexes. PMID:25707802

  6. Chloroplast EF-Tu and thermal aggregation of Rubisco activase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chloroplast protein synthesis elongation factor, EF-Tu, has been implicated in heat tolerance in maize. The recombinant precursor of this protein, pre-EF-Tu, has been found to exhibit chaperone activity and protect heat-labile proteins, such as citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase, from therma...

  7. EF-Tu dynamics during pre-translocation complex formation: EF-Tu·GDP exits the ribosome via two different pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Chen, Chunlai; Kavaliauskas, Darius; Knudsen, Charlotte R.; Goldman, Yale E.; Cooperman, Barry S.

    2015-01-01

    The G-protein EF-Tu, which undergoes a major conformational change when EF-Tu·GTP is converted to EF-Tu·GDP, forms part of an aminoacyl(aa)-tRNA·EF-Tu·GTP ternary complex (TC) that accelerates the binding of aa-tRNA to the ribosome during peptide elongation. Such binding, placing a portion of EF-Tu in contact with the GTPase Associated Center (GAC), is followed by GTP hydrolysis and Pi release, and results in formation of a pretranslocation (PRE) complex. Although tRNA movement through the ribosome during PRE complex formation has been extensively studied, comparatively little is known about the dynamics of EF-Tu interaction with either the ribosome or aa-tRNA. Here we examine these dynamics, utilizing ensemble and single molecule assays employing fluorescent labeled derivatives of EF-Tu, tRNA, and the ribosome to measure changes in either FRET efficiency or fluorescence intensity during PRE complex formation. Our results indicate that ribosome-bound EF-Tu separates from the GAC prior to its full separation from aa-tRNA, and suggest that EF-Tu·GDP dissociates from the ribosome by two different pathways. These pathways correspond to either reversible EF-Tu·GDP dissociation from the ribosome prior to the major conformational change in EF-Tu that follows GTP hydrolysis, or irreversible dissociation after or concomitant with this conformational change. PMID:26338772

  8. Identification of an EF-Tu protein that is periplasm-associated and processed in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Porcella, S F; Belland, R J; Judd, R C

    1996-09-01

    A 44 kDa protein is a dominant component of periplasmic extracts of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Peptide sequence generated from a cyanogen-bromide-cleaved fragment of this protein indicated sequence homology with elongation factor-Tu (EF-Tu). Polyclonal antiserum was made against the 44 kDa protein purified from periplasm extracts of N. gonorrhoeae. The preabsorbed antiserum was immunoblotted against whole-cell lysates on two-dimensional gels. A 44 kDa protein and a smaller 37 kDa protein were recognized by this antiserum. A N. gonorrhoeae gamma phage DNA library was screened and a clone expressing a 44 kDa protein was identified. The DNA insert in this clone contained several genes homologous to genes contained in the str operon of Escherichia coli. One ORF product with a calculated molecular mass of 43 kDa was highly homologous to the EF-TuA of E. coli. A synthetic peptide antiserum specific for a portion of the C terminus of EF-Tu confirmed that the 37 kDa protein in whole-cell lysates of N. gonorrhoeae was a processed form of EF-Tu. Deletion of the tufA gene homologue in N. gonorrhoeae was attempted but was unsuccessful. PMID:8828215

  9. Modification of amino groups in EF-Tu.GTP and the ternary complex EF-Tu.GTP.valyl-tRNAVal.

    PubMed

    Antonsson, B; Leberman, R

    1984-06-15

    In an attempt to describe the binding region of EF-Tu . GTP for aminoacyl-tRNA, the epsilon-amino groups of the lysine residues of the protein molecule in the GTP and ternary complexes were modified with ethyl acetimidate. Using [14C]ethyl acetimidate, tryptic digestion, fractionation of peptides by high-performance liquid chromatography, and amino acid analysis, all reactive lysine residues could be unambiguously identified. 19 of the 23 lysine residues of EF-Tu were labelled under conditions for ternary complex stability. Of these only 8 showed differences in reactivity between free and complexed EF-Tu . GTP. In the ternary complex lysine residues 208 and 390 [Jones, M. D., Petersen, T. E., Nielsen, K. M., Magnusson, S., Sotterup-Jensen, L., Gausing, K. and Clark, B. F. C. (1980) Eur. J. Biochem. 108, 507-526] showed an increase in reactivity (60% and 30% respectively) and residues 2, 4, 237, 248, 263, and 282 showed a decrease in reactivity (between 85% and 37%) compared to the values observed with EF-Tu . GTP. The greatest changes in reactivity were observed for lysine residues 2, 4 and 263. These data can be combined with the available structural information to identify possible areas of contact between the protein and nucleic acid moieties in the ternary complex. PMID:6430701

  10. Kirromycin-induced modifications facilitate the separation of EF-Tu species and reveal intermolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Anborgh, P H; Swart, G W; Parmeggiani, A

    1991-11-01

    A simplified method for the separation of a kirromycin-sensitive tufB-encoded elongation factor Tu (EF-TuBs) from a kirromycin-resistant tufA product (EF-TuAr) was obtained by exploiting the specific increase of negative [corrected] charges induced by the antibiotic, resulting in a retarded elution of kirromycin-bound EF-TuBs on ionic chromatography. The kirromycin-free EF-TuBs is active in poly(Phe) synthesis and shows similar properties to EF-TuAsBs. As expected for these two distinct species, the dissociation of the EF-TuArBs.GTP complex in the presence of kirromycin shows a biphasic curve; in contrast, a monophasic GTP dissociation rate was found for a combination of two mutated EF-Tu species, EF-TuArBo, revealing the existence of intermolecular interactions. These observations prove for the first time the existence of cooperative phenomena between EF-Tu species in vitro, as suggested earlier by in vivo experiments. PMID:1959611

  11. Heat-induced Accumulation of Chloroplast Protein Synthesis Elongation Factor, EF-TU, in Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chloroplast protein synthesis elongation factor, EF-Tu, has been implicated in heat tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.). Chloroplast EF-Tu is highly conserved, and it is possible that this protein may be of importance to heat tolerance in other species including wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In this ...

  12. Heat tolerance and expression of protein synthesis elongation factors, EF-Tu and EF-1a, in spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein elongation factors, EF-Tu and EF-1a, have been implicated in cell response to heat stress. In spring wheat, EF-Tu displays chaperone activity and reduces thermal aggregation of Rubisco activase. Similarly, in mammalian cells, EF-1a displays chaperone-like activity and regulates the expressio...

  13. Do maise and wheat chloroplast protein synthesis elongation factor, EF-Tu, protect Rubisco activase from thermal aggregation and inactivation?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) chloroplast protein synthesis elongation factor, EF-Tu, has been implicated in the development of heat tolerance. The precursor of this protein (pre-EF-Tu) has been shown to display chaperone activity, as it protected heat labile citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase from the...

  14. Elongation Factor-Tu (EF-Tu) proteins structural stability and bioinformatics in ancestral gene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehipawala, Sunil; Nguyen, A.; Tremberger, G.; Cheung, E.; Schneider, P.; Lieberman, D.; Holden, T.; Cheung, T.

    2013-09-01

    A paleo-experimental evolution report on elongation factor EF-Tu structural stability results has provided an opportunity to rewind the tape of life using the ancestral protein sequence reconstruction modeling approach; consistent with the book of life dogma in current biology and being an important component in the astrobiology community. Fractal dimension via the Higuchi fractal method and Shannon entropy of the DNA sequence classification could be used in a diagram that serves as a simple summary. Results from biomedical gene research provide examples on the diagram methodology. Comparisons between biomedical genes such as EEF2 (elongation factor 2 human, mouse, etc), WDR85 in epigenetics, HAR1 in human specificity, DLG1 in cognitive skill, and HLA-C in mosquito bite immunology with EF Tu DNA sequences have accounted for the reported circular dichroism thermo-stability data systematically; the results also infer a relatively less volatility geologic time period from 2 to 3 Gyr from adaptation viewpoint. Comparison to Thermotoga maritima MSB8 and Psychrobacter shows that Thermus thermophilus HB8 EF-Tu calibration sequence could be an outlier, consistent with free energy calculation by NUPACK. Diagram methodology allows computer simulation studies and HAR1 shows about 0.5% probability from chimp to human in terms of diagram location, and SNP simulation results such as amoebic meningoencephalitis NAF1 suggest correlation. Extensions to the studies of the translation and transcription elongation factor sequences in Megavirus Chiliensis, Megavirus Lba and Pandoravirus show that the studied Pandoravirus sequence could be an outlier with the highest fractal dimension and lowest entropy, as compared to chicken as a deviant in the DNMT3A DNA methylation gene sequences from zebrafish to human and to the less than one percent probability in computer simulation using the HAR1 0.5% probability as reference. The diagram methodology would be useful in ancestral gene

  15. Protein synthesis alongation factors EF-Tu and eEF1A: biosynthesis, functions and application in the improvement of heat tolerance in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein synthesis elongation factors EF-Tu and eEF1A (EFs) represent a group of highly conserved and abundant GTPases with an important role in transporting the aminoacyl-tRNA complex to the A site of the ribosome during elongation phase of translation. EF-Tu proteins are located in bacteria and, du...

  16. A conserved P-loop anchor limits the structural dynamics that mediate nucleotide dissociation in EF-Tu

    PubMed Central

    Mercier, Evan; Girodat, Dylan; Wieden, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The phosphate-binding loop (P-loop) is a conserved sequence motif found in mononucleotide-binding proteins. Little is known about the structural dynamics of this region and its contribution to the observed nucleotide binding properties. Understanding the underlying design principles is of great interest for biomolecular engineering applications. We have used rapid-kinetics measurements in vitro and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in silico to investigate the relationship between GTP-binding properties and P-loop structural dynamics in the universally conserved Elongation Factor (EF) Tu. Analysis of wild type EF-Tu and variants with substitutions at positions in or adjacent to the P-loop revealed a correlation between P-loop flexibility and the entropy of activation for GTP dissociation. The same variants demonstrate more backbone flexibility in two N-terminal amino acids of the P-loop during force-induced EF-Tu·GTP dissociation in Steered Molecular Dynamics simulations. Amino acids Gly18 and His19 are involved in stabilizing the P-loop backbone via interactions with the adjacent helix C. We propose that these P-loop/helix C interactions function as a conserved P-loop anchoring module and identify the presence of P-loop anchors within several GTPases and ATPases suggesting their evolutionary conservation. PMID:25566871

  17. Nonchemotactic Mutants of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, John B.; Adler, Julius; Dahl, Margaret M.

    1967-01-01

    We have isolated 40 mutants of Escherichia coli which are nonchemotactic as judged by their failure to swarm on semisolid tryptone plates or to make bands in capillary tubes containing tryptone broth. All the mutants have normal flagella, a fact shown by their shape and reaction with antiflagella serum. All are fully motile under the microscope and all are sensitive to the phage chi. Unlike its parent, one of the mutants, studied in greater detail, failed to show chemotaxis toward oxygen, glucose, serine, threonine, or aspartic acid. The failure to exhibit chemotaxis does not result from a failure to use the chemicals. The swimming of this mutant was shown to be random. The growth rate was normal under several conditions, and the growth requirements were unchanged. Images PMID:5335897

  18. Structure of the Acinetobacter baumannii Dithiol Oxidase DsbA Bound to Elongation Factor EF-Tu Reveals a Novel Protein Interaction Site

    PubMed Central

    Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Kurth, Fabian; Duprez, Wilko; Grøftehauge, Morten K.; King, Gordon J.; Halili, Maria A.; Heras, Begoña; Martin, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    The multidrug resistant bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii is a significant cause of nosocomial infection. Biofilm formation, that requires both disulfide bond forming and chaperone-usher pathways, is a major virulence trait in this bacterium. Our biochemical characterizations show that the periplasmic A. baumannii DsbA (AbDsbA) enzyme has an oxidizing redox potential and dithiol oxidase activity. We found an unexpected non-covalent interaction between AbDsbA and the highly conserved prokaryotic elongation factor, EF-Tu. EF-Tu is a cytoplasmic protein but has been localized extracellularly in many bacterial pathogens. The crystal structure of this complex revealed that the EF-Tu switch I region binds to the non-catalytic surface of AbDsbA. Although the physiological and pathological significance of a DsbA/EF-Tu association is unknown, peptides derived from the EF-Tu switch I region bound to AbDsbA with submicromolar affinity. We also identified a seven-residue DsbB-derived peptide that bound to AbDsbA with low micromolar affinity. Further characterization confirmed that the EF-Tu- and DsbB-derived peptides bind at two distinct sites. These data point to the possibility that the non-catalytic surface of DsbA is a potential substrate or regulatory protein interaction site. The two peptides identified in this work together with the newly characterized interaction site provide a novel starting point for inhibitor design targeting AbDsbA. PMID:24860094

  19. Identification and cloning of two immunogenic C. perfringens proteins, elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO) of Clostridium perfringens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium related poultry diseases such as necrotic enteritis (NE) and gangrenous dermatitis (GD) cause substantial economic losses on a global scale. Two antigenic C. perfringens proteins, elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO), were identified by reaction with...

  20. Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Clark, David P.

    1991-01-01

    The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

  1. Phosphoglucomutase Mutants of Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Adhya, Sankar; Schwartz, Maxime

    1971-01-01

    Bacteria with strongly depressed phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1) activity are found among the mutants of Escherichia coli which, when grown on maltose, accumulate sufficient amylose to be detectable by iodine staining. These pgm mutants grow poorly on galactose but also accumulate amylose on this carbon source. Growth on lactose does not produce high amylose but, instead, results in the induction of the enzymes of maltose metabolism, presumably by accumulation of maltose. These facts suggest that the catabolism of glucose-1-phosphate is strongly depressed in pgm mutants, although not completely abolished. Anabolism of glucose-1-phosphate is also strongly depressed, since amino acid- or glucose-grown pgm mutants are sensitive to phage C21, indicating a deficiency in the biosynthesis of uridine diphosphoglucose or uridine diphosphogalactose, or both. All pgm mutations isolated map at about 16 min on the genetic map, between purE and the gal operon. PMID:4942754

  2. Escherichia coli mutants deficient in exonuclease VII.

    PubMed Central

    Chase, J W; Richardson, C C

    1977-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli having reduced levels of exonuclease VII activity have been isolated by a mass screening procedure. Nine mutants, five of which are known to be of independent origin, were obtained and designated xse. The defects in these strains lie at two or more loci. One of these loci, xseA, lies in the interval between purG and purC; it is 93 to 97% co-transducible with guaA. The order of the genes in this region is purG-xseA guaA,B-purC. The available data do not allow xseA to be ordered with respect to guaA,B. Exonuclease VII purified from E. coli KLC3 xseA3 is more heat labile than exonuclease VII purified from the parent, E. coli PA610 xse+. Therefore, xseA is the structural gene for exonuclease VII. Mutants with defects in the xseA gene show increased sensitivity to nalidixic acid and have an abnormally high frequency of recombination (hyper-Rec phenotype) as measured by the procedure of Konrad and Lehlman (1974). The hyper-Rec character of xseA strains is approximately one-half that of the polAex1 mutant defective in the 5' leads to 3' hydrolytic activity of deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase I. The double mutant, polAex1 xseA7, is twice as hyper-Rec as the polAex1 mutant alone. The xseA- strains are slightly more sensitive to ultraviolet irradiation than the parent strain. Bacteriophages T7, fd, and lambdared grow normally in xseA- strains. Images PMID:320198

  3. Incomplete flagellar structures in Escherichia coli mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, T; Komeda, Y

    1981-01-01

    Escherichia coli mutants with defects in 29 flagellar genes identified so far were examined by electron microscopy for possession of incomplete flagellar structures in membrane-associated fractions. The results are discussed in consideration of the known transcriptional interaction of flagellar genes. Hook-basal body structures were detected in flaD, flaS, flaT, flbC, and hag mutants. The flaE mutant had a polyhook-basal body structure. An intact basal body appeared in flaK mutants. Putative precursors of the basal body were detected in mutants with defects in flaM, flaU, flaV, and flaY. No structures homologous to the flagellar basal body or its parts were detected in mutants with defects in flaA, flaB, flaC, flaG, flaH, flaI, flaL, flaN, flaO, flaP, flaQ, flaR, flaW, flaX, flbA, flbB, and flbD. One flaZ mutant had an incomplete flagellar basal body structure and another formed no significant structure, suggesting that flaZ is responsible for both basal body assembly and the transcription of the hag gene. Images PMID:7007337

  4. Kasugamycin-dependent mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Dabbs, E R

    1978-01-01

    Kasugamycin-dependent mutants have been isolated from Escherichia coli B. They were obtained through mutagenesis with ethyl methane sulfonate or nitrosoguanidine in conjunction with an antibiotic underlay technique. In the case of nitrosoguanidine, dependent mutants were obtained at a frequency of about 3% of survivors growing up in the selection. In the case of ethyl methane sulfonate, the corresponding value was 1%. Nineteen mutants showing a kasugamycin-dependent phenotype were studied. In terms of response to various temperatures and antibiotic concentrations, they were very heterogeneous, although most fell into two general classes. Genetic analysis indicated that in at least some cases, the kasugamycin-dependent phenotype was the product of two mutations. Two-dimensional gel electropherograms revealed alterations in the ribosomal proteins of seven mutants. One mutant had an alteration in protein S13, and one had an alteration in protein L14. Three showed changes in protein S9. Each of two mutants had changes in two proteins, S18 and L11. Three of these mutants additionally had protein S18 occurring in a partly altered, partly unaltered form. Images PMID:363701

  5. Elongation in translation as a dynamic interaction among the ribosome, tRNA, and elongation factors EF-G and EF-Tu

    PubMed Central

    Agirrezabala, Xabier; Frank, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    The ribosome is a complex macromolecular machine that translates the message encoded in the messenger RNA and synthesizes polypeptides by linking the individual amino acids carried by the cognate transfer RNAs (tRNAs). The protein elongation cycle, during which the tRNAs traverse the ribosome in a coordinated manner along a path of more than 100 Å, is facilitated by large-scale rearrangements of the ribosome. These rearrangements go hand in hand with conformational changes of tRNA as well as elongation factors EF-Tu and EF-G – GTPases that catalyze tRNA delivery and translocation, respectively. This review focuses on the structural data related to the dynamics of the ribosomal machinery, which are the basis, in conjunction with existing biochemical, kinetic, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer data, of our knowledge of the decoding and translocation steps of protein elongation. PMID:20025795

  6. Elongation in translation as a dynamic interaction among the ribosome, tRNA, and elongation factors EF-G and EF-Tu.

    PubMed

    Agirrezabala, Xabier; Frank, Joachim

    2009-08-01

    The ribosome is a complex macromolecular machine that translates the message encoded in the messenger RNA and synthesizes polypeptides by linking the individual amino acids carried by the cognate transfer RNAs (tRNAs). The protein elongation cycle, during which the tRNAs traverse the ribosome in a coordinated manner along a path of more than 100 A, is facilitated by large-scale rearrangements of the ribosome. These rearrangements go hand in hand with conformational changes of tRNA as well as elongation factors EF-Tu and EF-G - GTPases that catalyze tRNA delivery and translocation, respectively. This review focuses on the structural data related to the dynamics of the ribosomal machinery, which are the basis, in conjunction with existing biochemical, kinetic, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer data, of our knowledge of the decoding and translocation steps of protein elongation. PMID:20025795

  7. Oxygen sensitivity of an Escherichia coli mutant.

    PubMed

    Adler, H; Mural, R; Suttle, B

    1992-04-01

    Genetic evidence indicates that Oxys-6, an oxygen-sensitive mutant of Escherichia coli AB1157, is defective in the region of the hemB locus. Oxys-6 is capable of growth under aerobic conditions only if cultures are initiated at low-inoculum levels. Aerobic liquid cultures are limited to a cell density of 10(7) cells per ml by the accumulation of a metabolically produced, low-molecular-weight, heat-stable material in complex organic media. Both Oxys-6 and AB1157 cells produce the material, but only aerobic cultures of the mutant are inhibited by it. The material is produced by both intact cells and cell extracts in complex media. This reaction also occurs when the amino acid L-lysine is substituted for complex media. PMID:1551829

  8. Oxygen sensitivity of an Escherichia coli mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Adler, H; Mural, R; Suttle, B

    1992-01-01

    Genetic evidence indicates that Oxys-6, an oxygen-sensitive mutant of Escherichia coli AB1157, is defective in the region of the hemB locus. Oxys-6 is capable of growth under aerobic conditions only if cultures are initiated at low-inoculum levels. Aerobic liquid cultures are limited to a cell density of 10(7) cells per ml by the accumulation of a metabolically produced, low-molecular-weight, heat-stable material in complex organic media. Both Oxys-6 and AB1157 cells produce the material, but only aerobic cultures of the mutant are inhibited by it. The material is produced by both intact cells and cell extracts in complex media. This reaction also occurs when the amino acid L-lysine is substituted for complex media. Images PMID:1551829

  9. An Escherichia coli Mutant That Makes Exceptionally Long Cells

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Elaine B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although Escherichia coli is a very small (1- to 2-μm) rod-shaped cell, here we describe an E. coli mutant that forms enormously long cells in rich media such as Luria broth, as long indeed as 750 μm. These extremely elongated (eel) cells are as long as the longest bacteria known and have no internal subdivisions. They are metabolically competent, elongate rapidly, synthesize DNA, and distribute cell contents along this length. They lack only the ability to divide. The concentration of the essential cell division protein FtsZ is reduced in these eel cells, and increasing this concentration restores division. IMPORTANCE Escherichia coli is usually a very small bacterium, 1 to 2 μm long. We have isolated a mutant that forms enormously long cells, 700 times longer than the usual E. coli cell. E. coli filaments that form under other conditions usually die within a few hours, whereas our mutant is fully viable even when it reaches such lengths. This mutant provides a useful tool for the study of aspects of E. coli physiology that are difficult to investigate with small cells. PMID:25691528

  10. Escherichia coli mutants deficient in deoxyuridine triphosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Hochhauser, S J; Weiss, B

    1978-01-01

    Mutants deficient in deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase) were identified by enzyme assays of randomly chosen heavily mutagenized clones. Five mutants of independent origin were obtained. One mutant produced a thermolabile enzyme, and it was presumed to have a mutation in the structural gene for dUTPase, designated dut. The most deficient mutant had the following associated phenotypes: less than 1% of parental dUTPase activity, prolonged generation time, increased sensitivity to 5'-fluorodeoxyuridine, increased rate of spontaneous mutation, increased rate of recombination (hyper-Rec), an inhibition of growth in the presence of 2 mM uracil, and a decreased ability to support the growth of phage P1 (but not T4 or lambda). This mutation also appeared to be incompatible with pyrE mutations. A revertant selected by its faster growth had regained dUTPase activity and lost its hyper-Rec phenotype. Many of the properties of the dut mutants are compatible with their presumed increased incorporation of uracil into DNA and the subsequent transient breakage of the DNA by excision repair. PMID:148458

  11. Mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Mat-Jan, F; Alam, K Y; Clark, D P

    1989-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the fermentative NAD-linked lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) have been isolated. These mutants showed no growth defects under anaerobic conditions unless present together with a defect in pyruvate formate lyase (pfl). Double mutants (pfl ldh) were unable to grow anaerobically on glucose or other sugars even when supplemented with acetate, whereas pfl mutants can do so. The ldh mutation was found to map at 30.5 min on the E. coli chromosome. The ldh mutant FMJ39 showed no detectable lactate dehydrogenase activity and produced no lactic acid from glucose under anaerobic conditions as estimated by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. We also found that in wild-type strains the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase was conjointly induced by anaerobic conditions and an acidic pH. Despite previous findings that phosphate concentrations affect the proportion of lactic acid produced during fermentation, we were unable to find any intrinsic effect of phosphate on lactate dehydrogenase activity, apart from the buffering effect of this ion. PMID:2644194

  12. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    2002-01-01

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  13. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, M.; Millard, C.S.; Stols, L.

    1998-06-23

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria. 2 figs.

  14. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  15. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    2001-09-25

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  16. Positive control of sulphate reduction in Escherichia coli. Isolation, characterization and mapping oc cysteineless mutants of E. coli K12.

    PubMed

    Jones-Mortimer, M C

    1968-12-01

    To determine to what extent the biosynthesis of cysteine in Escherichia coli resembles that in Salmonella typhimurium, the following experiments were performed. (1) Mutants of E. coli K 12 deficient in the biosynthesis of cysteine were isolated. (2) These mutants were classified by nutritional and biochemical criteria; some mutants lacked a single enzyme of sulphate reduction, other mutants appeared to lack two or more enzymes. (3) The genetic map predicted from the biochemical data alone is shown to be incorrect, and an alternative map, consistent with the genetic data, is proposed for the cys mutants of E. coli. PMID:4882981

  17. Positive control of sulphate reduction in Escherichia coli. Isolation, characterization and mapping of cysteineless mutants of E. coli K 12

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Mortimer, M. C.

    1968-01-01

    To determine to what extent the biosynthesis of cysteine in Escherichia coli resembles that in Salmonella typhimurium, the following experiments were performed. (1) Mutants of E. coli K 12 deficient in the biosynthesis of cysteine were isolated. (2) These mutants were classified by nutritional and biochemical criteria; some mutants lacked a single enzyme of sulphate reduction, other mutants appeared to lack two or more enzymes. (3) The genetic map predicted from the biochemical data alone is shown to be incorrect, and an alternative map, consistent with the genetic data, is proposed for the cys mutants of E. coli. PMID:4882981

  18. Carbon and energy metabolism of atp mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P R; Michelsen, O

    1992-12-01

    The membrane-bound H(+)-ATPase plays a key role in free-energy transduction of biological systems. We report how the carbon and energy metabolism of Escherichia coli changes in response to deletion of the atp operon that encodes this enzyme. Compared with the isogenic wild-type strain, the growth rate and growth yield were decreased less than expected for a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis alone as a source of ATP. Moreover, the respiration rate of a atp deletion strain was increased by 40% compared with the wild-type strain. This result is surprising, since the atp deletion strain is not able to utilize the resulting proton motive force for ATP synthesis. Indeed, the ratio of ATP concentration to ADP concentration was decreased from 19 in the wild type to 7 in the atp mutant, and the membrane potential of the atp deletion strain was increased by 20%, confirming that the respiration rate was not controlled by the magnitude of the opposing membrane potential. The level of type b cytochromes in the mutant cells was 80% higher than the level in the wild-type cells, suggesting that the increased respiration was caused by an increase in the expression of the respiratory genes. The atp deletion strain produced twice as much by-product (acetate) and exhibited increased flow through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glycolytic pathway. These three changes all lead to an increase in substrate level phosphorylation; the first two changes also lead to increased production of reducing equivalents. We interpret these data as indicating that E. coli makes use of its ability to respire even if it cannot directly couple this ability to ATP synthesis; by respiring away excess reducing equivalents E. coli enhances substrate level ATP synthesis. PMID:1447134

  19. Carbon and energy metabolism of atp mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, P R; Michelsen, O

    1992-01-01

    The membrane-bound H(+)-ATPase plays a key role in free-energy transduction of biological systems. We report how the carbon and energy metabolism of Escherichia coli changes in response to deletion of the atp operon that encodes this enzyme. Compared with the isogenic wild-type strain, the growth rate and growth yield were decreased less than expected for a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis alone as a source of ATP. Moreover, the respiration rate of a atp deletion strain was increased by 40% compared with the wild-type strain. This result is surprising, since the atp deletion strain is not able to utilize the resulting proton motive force for ATP synthesis. Indeed, the ratio of ATP concentration to ADP concentration was decreased from 19 in the wild type to 7 in the atp mutant, and the membrane potential of the atp deletion strain was increased by 20%, confirming that the respiration rate was not controlled by the magnitude of the opposing membrane potential. The level of type b cytochromes in the mutant cells was 80% higher than the level in the wild-type cells, suggesting that the increased respiration was caused by an increase in the expression of the respiratory genes. The atp deletion strain produced twice as much by-product (acetate) and exhibited increased flow through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glycolytic pathway. These three changes all lead to an increase in substrate level phosphorylation; the first two changes also lead to increased production of reducing equivalents. We interpret these data as indicating that E. coli makes use of its ability to respire even if it cannot directly couple this ability to ATP synthesis; by respiring away excess reducing equivalents E. coli enhances substrate level ATP synthesis. PMID:1447134

  20. Escherichia coli mutants resistant to uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Jones, M R; Beechey, R B

    1987-10-01

    Two mutant strains of Escherichia coli K 12 Doc-S resistant to the uncoupling agents 4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-2-trifluoromethyl benzimidazole and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone were isolated. These strains, designated TUV and CUV, were capable of (a) growth, (b) the transport of succinate and L-proline and (c) electron-transport-linked oxidative synthesis of ATP in the presence of titres of uncoupler which inhibited these processes in strain Doc-S. The inhibition of transport of L-proline by a fixed titre of uncoupler was sharply pH dependent in strain Doc-S: uptake was unaffected at pH 7.6 but completely inhibited at pH 5.6. This pH dependence was not shown by the resistant strains. We believe that uncouplers were equally accessible to their site(s) of action in the energy-conserving membrane of the sensitive and resistant strains. We conclude that uncoupler resistance in these strains of E. coli has arisen as a consequence of mutations which directly affect a specific site of uncoupler action within the cytoplasmic membrane, rather than as a consequence of a decrease in the permeability of cells to uncoupler. PMID:3329677

  1. Detection and characterization of mammalian DNA polymerase beta mutants by functional complementation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Sweasy, J B; Loeb, L A

    1993-01-01

    We have designed and utilized a bacterial complementation system to identify and characterize mammalian DNA polymerase beta mutants. In this complementation system, wild-type rat DNA polymerase beta replaces both the replicative and repair functions of DNA polymerase I in the Escherichia coli recA718 polA12 double mutant; our 263 DNA polymerase beta mutants replace E. coli polymerase I less efficiently or not at all. Of the 10 mutants that have been shown to contain DNA sequence alterations, 2 exhibit a split phenotype with respect to complementation of the growth defect and methylmethanesulfonate sensitivity of the double mutant; one is a null mutant. The mutants possessing a split phenotype contain amino acid residue alterations within a putative nucleotide binding site of DNA polymerase beta. This approach for the isolation and evaluation of mutants of a mammalian DNA polymerase in E. coli may ultimately lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of this enzyme and to precisely defining its role in vertebrate cells. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8506308

  2. 3-hydroxypyruvate substitutes for pyridoxine in serC mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, S; Dempsey, W B

    1978-01-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 mutants with serC genotype required pyridoxine and serine for normal growth, as do E. coli B mutants of this type. Mutants of the K-12 strain, however, reverted easily to pyridoxine independence without regaining activity in the 3-phosphoserine oxoglutarate transaminase coded for by the serC gene. Both these revertants and the parental type synthesized pyridoxine in normal amounts when 3-hydroxypyruvate was used as a supplement, although neither of these mutants could use this compound to satisfy their serine requirement. Since serine alone was inadequate to provide the nutritional requirement of serC mutants, these mutants must have been unable to synthesize 3-hydroxypyruvate from serine. We suggest that 3-phosphoserine oxoglutarate transaminase in normal E. coli serves as a catalyst for transaminating small amounts of serine to 3-hydroxypyruvate, which is then used in pyridoxine biosynthesis. In serC mutants, this activity is blocked, and these mutants then show a double requirement for serine and pyridoxine. PMID:350858

  3. Improved penicillin amidase production using a genetically engineered mutant of escherichia coli ATCC 11105

    SciTech Connect

    Robas, N.; Zouheiry, H.; Branlant, G.; Branlant, C. )

    1993-01-05

    Penicillin G amidase (PGA) is a key enzyme for the industrial production of penicillin G derivatives used in therapeutics. Escherichia coli ATCC 11105 is the more commonly used strain for PGA production. To improve enzyme yield, the authors constructed various recombinant E. coli HB 101 and ATCC 11105 strains. For each strain, PGA production was determined for various concentrations of glucose and phenylacetic acid (PAA) in the medium. The E. coli strain, G271, was identified as the best performer (800 U NIPAB/L). This strain was obtained as follows: an E. coli ATCC 11105 mutant (E. coli G133) was first selected based on a low negative effect of glucose on PGA production. This mutant was then transformed with a pBR322 derivative containing the PGA gene. Various experiments were made to try to understand the reason for the high productivity of E. coli G271. The host strain, E. coli G133, was found to be mutated in one (or more) gene(s) whose product(s) act(s) in trans on the PGA gene expression. Its growth is not inhibited by high glucose concentration in the medium. Interestingly, whereas glucose still exerts some negative effect on the PGA production by E. coli G133, PGA production by its transformant (E. coli G271) is stimulated by glucose. The reason for this stimulation is discussed. Transformation of E. coli G133 with a pBR322 derivative containing the HindIII fragment of the PGA gene, showed that the performance of E. coli G271 depends both upon the host strain properties and the plasmid structure. Study of the production by the less efficient E. coli HB101 derivatives brought some light on the mechanism of regulation of the PGA gene.

  4. Characterization of Escherichia coli d-Cycloserine Transport and Resistant Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Baisa, Gary; Stabo, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    d-Cycloserine (DCS) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that inhibits d-alanine ligase and alanine racemase activity. When Escherichia coli K-12 or CFT073 is grown in minimal glucose or glycerol medium, CycA transports DCS into the cell. E. coli K-12 cycA and CFT073 cycA mutant strains display increased DCS resistance when grown in minimal medium. However, the cycA mutants exhibit no change in DCS sensitivity compared to their parental strains when grown in LB (CFT073 and K-12) or human urine (CFT073 only). These data suggest that cycA does not participate in DCS sensitivity when strains are grown in a non-minimal medium. The small RNA GvcB acts as a negative regulator of E. coli K-12 cycA expression when grown in LB. Three E. coli K-12 gcvB mutant strains failed to demonstrate a change in DCS sensitivity when grown in LB. This further suggests a limited role for cycA in DCS sensitivity. To aid in the identification of E. coli genes involved in DCS sensitivity when grown on complex media, the Keio K-12 mutant collection was screened for DCS-resistant strains. dadA, pnp, ubiE, ubiF, ubiG, ubiH, and ubiX mutant strains showed elevated DCS resistance. The phenotypes associated with these mutants were used to further define three previously characterized E. coli DCS-resistant strains (χ316, χ444, and χ453) isolated by Curtiss and colleagues (R. Curtiss, III, L. J. Charamella, C. M. Berg, and P. E. Harris, J. Bacteriol. 90:1238–1250, 1965). A dadA mutation was identified in both χ444 and χ453. In addition, results are presented that indicate for the first time that DCS can antagonize d-amino acid dehydrogenase (DadA) activity. PMID:23316042

  5. Selection and properties of Escherichia coli mutants defective in the synthesis of cyclopropane fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, F; Cronan, J E

    1976-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 defective in the synthesis of cyclopropane fatty acids (CFA) have been selected and isolated by a L-[methyl-3H]methionine suicide procedure. Two mutants were isolated. Stationary-phase cultures of both mutants contain less than 0.7% of the CFA content found in the parental strain. The CFA deficiency is attributed to a deficiency of CFA synthetase activity. Extracts of both mutants contain less than 10% of the CFA synthetase activity found in extracts of the parental strain. Experiments in which parental and mutant extracts were mixed indicate that the lack of activity in the mutant strains is not due to an inhibitor of CFA synthetase present in the mutant extracts. We have not yet detected a physiological phenotype for these mutants. These strains grow normally at various temperatures in a variety of media. We have tested survival (colony-forming ability) in response to (i) prolonged incubation in stationary phase, (ii) exposure to drying, and (iii) exposure to detergents, heavy metals, low pH, high salt concentration, and a variety of other environmental conditions. The survival of both mutants is identical to that of the parental strain under all conditions tested. The compositions (excepting the CFA deficiency) and metabolic turnover rates of the phospholipids of both mutant strains are indistinguishable from those of the wild-type strain. The transport of several amino acids also seems normal in these mutants. PMID:1107324

  6. Probing bactericidal mechanisms induced by cold atmospheric plasmas with Escherichia coli mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Perni, Stefano; Shama, Gilbert; Hobman, J. L.; Lund, P. A.; Kershaw, C. J.; Hidalgo-Arroyo, G. A.; Penn, C. W.; Deng, X. T.; Walsh, J. L.; Kong, M. G.

    2007-02-12

    Mechanisms of plasma-induced microbial inactivation have commonly been studied with physicochemical techniques. In this letter, Escherichia coli K-12 and its {delta}recA, {delta}rpoS, and {delta}soxS mutants are employed to discriminate effects of UV photons, OH radicals, and reactive oxygen species produced in atmospheric discharges. This microbiological approach exploits the fact that these E. coli mutants are defective in their resistance against various external stresses. By interplaying bacterial inactivation kinetics with optical emission spectroscopy, oxygen atoms are identified as a major contributor in plasma inactivation with minor contributions from UV photons, OH radicals, singlet oxygen metastables, and nitric oxide.

  7. Probing bactericidal mechanisms induced by cold atmospheric plasmas with Escherichia coli mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perni, Stefano; Shama, Gilbert; Hobman, J. L.; Lund, P. A.; Kershaw, C. J.; Hidalgo-Arroyo, G. A.; Penn, C. W.; Deng, X. T.; Walsh, J. L.; Kong, M. G.

    2007-02-01

    Mechanisms of plasma-induced microbial inactivation have commonly been studied with physicochemical techniques. In this letter, Escherichia coli K-12 and its ΔrecA, ΔrpoS, and ΔsoxS mutants are employed to discriminate effects of UV photons, OH radicals, and reactive oxygen species produced in atmospheric discharges. This microbiological approach exploits the fact that these E. coli mutants are defective in their resistance against various external stresses. By interplaying bacterial inactivation kinetics with optical emission spectroscopy, oxygen atoms are identified as a major contributor in plasma inactivation with minor contributions from UV photons, OH radicals, singlet oxygen metastables, and nitric oxide.

  8. Selection for Spontaneous "Escherichia coli" Streptomycin Mutants Using Basic Fuchsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkosz, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    An exercise that uses a common bacterium, E. coli, in great numbers, to detect a demonstrable change in the ability of some cells to become resistant to the common antibiotic streptomycin is presented. The procedure for preparing and pouring the gradient antibiotic plates is provided. The advantages of using the Basic Fuchsin in the agar are…

  9. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and its mutants in soils.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jincai; Ibekwe, A Mark; Yi, Xuan; Wang, Haizhen; Yamazaki, Akihiro; Crowley, David E; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2011-01-01

    The persistence of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 in the environment poses a serious threat to public health. However, the role of Shiga toxins and other virulence factors in the survival of E. coli O157:H7 is poorly defined. The aim of this study was to determine if the virulence factors, stx₁, stx₂, stx₁₋₂, and eae in E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 play any significant role in the growth of this pathogen in rich media and in soils. Isogenic deletion mutants that were missing one of four virulence factors, stx₁, stx₂, stx₁₋₂, and eae in E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 were constructed, and their growth in rich media and survival in soils with distinct texture and chemistry were characterized. The survival data were successfully analyzed using Double Weibull model, and the modeling parameters of the mutant strains were not significantly different from those of the wild type. The calculated T(d) (time needed to reach the detection limit, 100 CFU/g soil) for loamy sand, sandy loam, and silty clay was 32, 80, and 110 days, respectively. It was also found that T(d) was positively correlated with soil structure (e.g. clay content), and soil chemistry (e.g. total nitrogen, total carbon, and water extractable organic carbon). The results of this study showed that the possession of Shiga toxins and intimin in E. coli O157:H7 might not play any important role in its survival in soils. The double deletion mutant of E. coli O157:H7 (stx₁⁻stx₂⁻) may be a good substitute to use for the investigation of transport, fate, and survival of E. coli O157:H7 in the environment where the use of pathogenic strains are prohibited by law since the mutants showed the same characteristics in both culture media and environmental samples. PMID:21826238

  10. Method for isolating restriction- and modificationless mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, L

    1979-01-01

    A simple method is described for the selection and isolation of restriction- and modificationless mutants in Escherichia coli K-12 by using the following properties: (i) the temperature-sensitive repressor activity of phage lambdacI857; (ii) a mutant of lambda phage defective in integration and the establishment of repression (lambdab2cI); (iii) a virulent lambda phage insensitive to the repressor activity. The final yield of spontaneously arising rk-mk+ and rk-mk- mutants from stationary-phase cultures was about 5% of the surviving cells. Images PMID:368038

  11. Escherichia coli F-18 and E. coli K-12 eda mutants do not colonize the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, N J; Laux, D C; Cohen, P S

    1996-01-01

    The Escherichia coli human fecal isolates F-18 and K-12 are excellent colonizers of the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine. E. coli F-18 and E. coli K-12 eda mutants (unable to utilize glucuronate, galacturonate, and gluconate) were constructed by insertional mutagenesis. Neither the E. coli F-18 eda nor the E. coli K-12 eda mutant was able to colonize the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine, whether they were fed to mice together with their respective parental strains or alone. Complementation of the eda mutants with pTC190 (containing a functional E. coli K-12 eda gene) completely restored the colonization ability of both eda mutants. Relative to their parental strains, the E. coli F-18 eda mutant and the E. coli K-12 eda mutant grew poorly in cecal mucus isolated from mice fed either normal mouse chow or a synthetic diet containing sucrose as the sole carbon source, yet the mutants and parental strains demonstrated identical growth rates in minimal medium with glucose as the carbon source. E. coli F-18 edd eda and E. coli K-12 edd eda double mutants colonized the streptomycin-treated intestine when fed to mice alone; however, when fed simultaneously with their respective parental strains, they were poor colonizers. Since the edd gene is involved only in gluconate metabolism via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, these results implicate the utilization of gluconate and the Entner-Doudoroff pathway as important elements in E. coli colonization of the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine. PMID:8751891

  12. Isolation of an Escherichia coli K4 kfoC mutant over-producing capsular chondroitin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chondroitin sulphate is a complex polysaccharide having important structural and protective functions in animal tissues. Extracted from animals, this compound is used as a human anti-inflammatory drug. Among bacteria, Escherichia coli K4 produces a capsule containing a non-sulphate chondroitin and its development may provide an efficient and cheap fermentative production of the polysaccharide. Results A random N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis was performed on E. coli K4 to isolate mutants showing an increased production of chondroitin. Several mutants were isolated, one of which, here named VZ15, produced about 80% more chondroitin than the wild type E. coli. We found that the mutant has a missense mutation in the codon 313 of kfoC, the gene encoding chondroitin polymerase (K4CP), with a change from arginine to glutamine. A docking analysis to explain the increased productivity of the K4CP enzyme is presented. Conclusion The enhanced chondroitin production by the E. coli K4 mutant reported here shows the validity of the strain improvement strategy for more cost-friendly fermentative processes in the production of this pharmaceutically important but so-far expensive polysaccharide. PMID:20478023

  13. Quinolone-resistant mutants of escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase IV parC gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Y; Kato, J I; Hoshino, K; Akasaka, T; Sato, K; Ikeda, H

    1996-01-01

    Escherichia coli quinolone-resistant strains with mutations of the parC gene, which codes for a subunit of topoisomerase IV, were isolated from a quinolone-resistant gyrA mutant of DNA gyrase. Quinolone-resistant parC mutants were also identified among the quinolone-resistant clinical strains. The parC mutants became susceptible to quinolones by introduction of a parC+ plasmid. Introduction of the multicopy plasmids carrying the quinolone-resistant parC mutant gene resulted in an increase in MICs of quinolones for the parC+ and quinolone-resistant gyrA strain. Nucleotide sequences of the quinolone-resistant parC mutant genes were determined, and missense mutations at position Gly-78, Ser-80, or Glu-84, corresponding to those in the quinolone-resistance-determining region of DNA gyrase, were identified. These results indicate that topoisomerase IV is a target of quinolones in E. coli and suggest that the susceptibility of E. coli cells to quinolones is determined by sensitivity of the targets, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. PMID:8851598

  14. Tumbling chemotaxis mutants of Escherichia coli: possible gene-dependent effect of methionine starvation.

    PubMed Central

    Kondoh, H

    1980-01-01

    Some mutants defective in chemotaxis show incessant tumbling behavior and are called tumbling mutants. Previously described tumbling mutations lie in two genes, cheB and cheZ (41.5 min on Escherichia coli map). Genetic analysis of various tumbling mutants, however, revealed that two more genetic loci, cheC (43 min) and cheE (99.2 min), could also mutate to produce tumbling mutants. The genetic map around cheC was revised: his flaP flaQ flaR flbD flaA (= cheC) flaE. flbD is a new gene. When cells were starved for methionine, the tumbling mutants changed their swimming behavior depending on the che gene mutated. cheZ mutants, like wild-type bacteria, ceased tumbling shortly after removal of methionine. The tumbling of cheB or cheE mutants was depressed after prolonged methionine starvation in the presence of a constant level of an attractant. cheC tumbling mutants appeared unique in that they did not cease tumbling even when cells were deprived of methionine. By contrast, arsenate treatment of the tumbling mutants resulted in smooth swimming of the cells in every case. These results suggest that two different processes are involved in regulation of tumbling; one requiring methionine and the other requiring some phosphorylated compound. PMID:6991478

  15. Unglycosylated recombinant human glutathione peroxidase 3 mutant from Escherichia coli is active as a monomer.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian; Yu, Yang; Xing, Ruiqing; Guo, Xiao; Liu, Dali; Wei, Jingyan; Song, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) is a glycosylated member of GPx family and can catalyze the reaction of different types of peroxides with GSH to form their corresponding alcohols in vitro. The active center of GPx3 is selenocysteine (Sec), which is incorporated into proteins by a specific mechanism. In this study, we prepared a recombinant human GPx3 (rhGPx3) mutant with all Cys changed to Ser from a Cys auxotrophic strain of E. coli, BL21(DE3)cys. Although lacking post-translational modification, rhGPx3 mutant still retained the ability to reduce H2O2 and PLPC-OOH. Study on the quaternary structure suggested that rhGPx3 mutant existed as a monomer in solution, which is different from native tetrameric GPx3. Loss of the catalytic activity was considered to be attributed to both the absence of glycosylation and the failure of the tetramer. Further analysis was performed to compare the structures of rhGPx3 and GPx4 mutant, which were quite similar except for oligomerization loop. The differences of amino acid composition and electrostatic potentials on the oligomerization loop may affect the binding of large substrates to rhGPx3 mutant. This research provides an important foundation for biosynthesis of functionally selenium-containing GPx3 mutant in E.coli. PMID:25331785

  16. Isolation and characterization of hypertoxinogenic (htx) mutants of Escherichia coli KL320(pCG86).

    PubMed Central

    Bramucci, M G; Twiddy, E M; Baine, W B; Holmes, R K

    1981-01-01

    The structural genes for heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) are present on plasmid pCG86. Escherichia coli KL320(pCG86), LT was found to be cell associated. LT was present as a soluble protein in sonic lysates of KL320(pCG86). Thirty-one mutants of KL320(pCG86) that produced increased amounts of extracellular LT were isolated. These hypertoxinogenic (htx) mutants were assigned to four phenotypically distinct classes based on the amounts of cell-associated and extracellular LT in early-stationary-phase cultures. Type 1 and type 2 htx mutants produced significantly increased amounts of cell-associated LT. Type 3 and type 4 htx mutants produced normal or decreased amounts of cell-associated LT was similar to that of the wild type. In the mutants of types 1, 3, and 4, the ratios of extracellular to cell-associated LT were higher than that of the wild type and were characteristic for each strain. Cell lysis or leakage of macromolecular cytoplasmic constituents appeared to be significant for release of LT by mutants of types 1, 3, and 4, because supernatants from cultures of these mutants also contained increased amounts of protein and of the cytoplasmic enzyme glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. In all four representative htx mutants, the hypertoxinogenic phenotypes were dependent on chromosomal mutations. The resident pCG86 plasmids were eliminated from the htx mutants of types 2 and 3. After wild-type plasmid pCG86 was introduced into the cured strains by conjugation, their hypertoxinogenic phenotypes were restored. We conclude that chromosomal loci in E. coli KL320 are important in regulating expression of the LT structural genes of plasmid pCG86. Images PMID:7019086

  17. Furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural tolerance in Escherichia coli ΔacrR regulatory mutants.

    PubMed

    Luhe, Annette Lin; Lim, Chan Yuen; Gerken, Henri; Wu, Jinchuan; Zhao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The presence of the highly toxic furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in the hydrolysate of lignocellulosic biomass prompted the investigation of the Escherichia coli ΔacrR regulatory mutant for higher tolerance to these compounds, to facilitate the production of biofuels and biochemicals, and further biocatalytic conversions. In comparison with the parental strain, the regulatory mutant with the upregulated efflux pump AcrAB-TolC produced moderately better growth and higher tolerance to concentrations of furfural and HMF between 1 and 2 g L(-1) . PMID:24716991

  18. Derivation of glycine from threonine in Escherichia coli K-12 mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, J; Newman, E B

    1975-01-01

    Escherichia coli AT2046 has been shown previously to lack the enzyme serine transhydroxymethylase and to require exogenous glycine for growth as a consequence. Strains JEV73 and JEV73R, mutants derived from strain AT2046, are shown here to be serine transhydroxymethylase deficient, but able to derive their glycine from endogenously synthesized threonine. Leucine is shown to be closely involved in the regulation of biosynthesis of glycine, to spare glycine in strain AT2046T, to replace glycine in strain JEV73, and to increase threonine conversion to glycine in a representative prototroph of E. coli. An interpretation of strains JEV73 and JEV73R as regulatory mutants of strain AT2046 is given. A hypothesis as to the role of leucine as a signal for nitrogen scavenging is suggested. PMID:1097400

  19. Virulence of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 sorbitol-positive mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Fratamico, P M; Buchanan, R L; Cooke, P H

    1993-01-01

    Virulence and pathogenicity of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 sorbitol-positive mutant were investigated with an infant rabbit animal model as well as a battery of in vitro assays. Total cell lysate protein profiles, outer membrane protein profiles, plasmid profiles, and levels of cytotoxic activity against Vero cells were similar in the wild-type and mutant strains. Both adhered to intestinal epithelial cells in culture and reacted with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled antiserum against E. coli O157:H7. The mutant appeared to be similar to the wild type in all respects except in its ability to ferment sorbitol. [14C]sorbitol uptake and sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were notably increased in the mutant strain. Diarrhea developed in rabbits administered the wild-type strain and in those fed the sorbitol-positive mutant. There was greater bacterial attachment and mucosal damage in the cecum and large intestine than in the small intestine. Scanning electron microscopy revealed bacteria adhering as single cells and as aggregates closely associated with mucus. Mucosal lesions consisted of areas of tissue necrosis with sloughing of epithelial cells. By transmission electron microscopy, electron-dense necrotic epithelial cells were visible in areas where bacteria were present, and epithelial cell debris containing bacteria was observed between the villar luminal surfaces. Light microscopy of epithelial cells of intestinal sections of infected rabbits revealed noticeable vacuolation and spherical, pyknotic nuclei. These data indicate that the sorbitol-negative phenotype is not associated with the pathogenicity of E. coli O157:H7. Images PMID:8285715

  20. Biochemical characterization of the chlB mutant of E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.L.; Indermauer, L.W.; Rajagopalan, K.V. )

    1991-03-11

    The chlorate resistant mutants of E. coli exhibit a pleiotropic loss of the activities of several molybdoenzymes suggestive of defective molybdenum cofactor synthesis. Indeed, mutants at the chlA and chlE loci have been shown to be deficient in molybdenum cofactor. ChlB mutants, on the other hand, contain high levels of molybdenum cofactor as measured by conversion to the Form A derivative and by reconstitution of the nitrate reductase in the high molecular weight fraction of extracts of the Neurospora crassa nit-1 mutant. The recent discovery that the molybdenum cofactors of E. coli nitrate reductase and formate dehydrogenase contain molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide (MGD) rather than the simpler molybdopterin (MPT) raised the possibility that the chlB locus could be essential for the biosynthesis of MGD from MPT. To test this, conditions were devised for conversion of MGD to a fluorescent, stable derivative, Form A-GMP, and the absorption, fluorescence and chromatographic properties of Form A-GMP were established. Both Form A, arising from MPT, and Form A-GMP arising from MGD, were quantitated in extracts of wild type and chlB cells. Wild type cells were found to contain both Form A and Form A-GMP. In contrast, chlB cells contained elevated levels of Form A but no Form A-GMP. These results suggest that the chlB gene product is essential for the conversion of MPT to MGD.

  1. Kinetics of tRNA(Pyl) -mediated amber suppression in Escherichia coli translation reveals unexpected limiting steps and competing reactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinfan; Kwiatkowski, Marek; Forster, Anthony C

    2016-07-01

    The utility of ribosomal incorporation of unnatural amino acids (AAs) in vivo is generally restricted by low efficiencies, even with the most widely used suppressor tRNA(Pyl) . Because of the difficulties of studying incorporation in vivo, almost nothing is known about the limiting steps after tRNA charging. Here, we measured the kinetics of all subsequent steps using a purified Escherichia coli translation system. Dipeptide formation from initiator fMet-tRNA(fMet) and tRNA(Pyl) charged with allylglycine or methylserine displayed unexpectedly sluggish biphasic kinetics, ∼30-fold slower than for native substrates. The amplitude of the fast phases increased with increasing EF-Tu concentration, allowing measurement of Kd values of EF-Tu binding, both of which were ∼25-fold weaker than normal. However, binding could be increased ∼30-fold by lowering temperature. The fast phase rates were limited by the surprisingly ∼10-fold less efficient binding of EF-Tu:GTP:AA-tRNA(Pyl) ternary complex to the ribosomes, not GTP hydrolysis or peptide bond formation. Furthermore, processivity was unexpectedly impaired as ∼40% of the dipeptidyl-tRNA(Pyl) could not be elongated to tripeptide. Dipeptide formation was slow enough that termination due to misreading the UAG codon by non-cognate RF2 became very significant. This new understanding provides a framework for improving unnatural AA incorporation by amber suppression. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1552-1559. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26705134

  2. Mutant prevention concentration and phenotypic and molecular basis of fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates and in vitro-selected mutants of Escherichia coli from dogs.

    PubMed

    Gebru, Elias; Damte, Dereje; Choi, Myung-Jin; Lee, Seung-Jin; Kim, Young-Hoan; Park, Seung Chun

    2012-01-27

    The antibacterial activity, selection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) mutants and mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance were investigated by integrating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and in vitro dynamic model approaches. Difloxacin and orbifloxacin, for which the above information has been scarce, were used. A range of area under curve over a 24h interval (AUC(24h))/MIC ratios and selected E. coli strains were investigated using the dynamic models. Continuous incubation for three days in the presence of difloxacin or orbifloxacin resulted in losses in E. coli susceptibility. An AUC(24h)/MIC (AUC(24h)/MPC)-dependent fluoroquinolone activity and selection of E. coli mutants was confirmed. Maximum losses in susceptibility occurred at AUC(24h)/MIC ratios of 54 (orbifloxacin) and 57.3 (difloxacin). AUC(24h)/MIC ratios of 169.8 (orbifloxacin) and 199.5 (difloxacin) were estimated to be protective against the selection of E. coli mutants, and the corresponding ratios based on AUC(24h)/MPC predictions were 34 (orbifloxacin) and 36.3 (difloxacin). When integrating our in vitro data with pharmacokinetic data in dogs, the conventional clinical doses of both drugs were found to be inadequate to attain the above protective values for 90% of the mutant subpopulation (AUC(24h)/MPC(90)). Both target mutations, esp. at codon 83 (Ser to Leu) of gyrA, and overexpression of efflux pumps contributed to resistance development, with mutants also showing decreased susceptibility to enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin. Additional studies would determine the role of mutations found outside the QRDR, at codon 24 of gyrA, and at codon 116 of parC, and establish the significance of these observations in vivo. PMID:21893387

  3. Genome-wide transcriptional response of an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) pst mutant

    PubMed Central

    Crépin, Sébastien; Lamarche, Martin G; Garneau, Philippe; Séguin, Julie; Proulx, Julie; Dozois, Charles M; Harel, Josée

    2008-01-01

    Background Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) are associated with extraintestinal diseases in poultry. The pstSCAB-phoU operon belongs to the Pho regulon and encodes the phosphate specific transport (Pst) system. A functional Pst system is required for full virulence in APEC and other bacteria and contributes to resistance of APEC to serum, to cationic antimicrobial peptides and acid shock. The global mechanisms contributing to the attenuation and decreased resistance of the APEC pst mutant to environmental stresses have not been investigated at the transcriptional level. To determine the global effect of a pst mutation on gene expression, we compared the transcriptomes of APEC strain χ7122 and its isogenic pst mutant (K3) grown in phosphate-rich medium. Results Overall, 470 genes were differentially expressed by at least 1.5-fold. Interestingly, the pst mutant not only induced systems involved in phosphate acquisition and metabolism, despite phosphate availability, but also modulated stress response mechanisms. Indeed, transcriptional changes in genes associated with the general stress responses, including the oxidative stress response were among the major differences observed. Accordingly, the K3 strain was less resistant to reactive oxygen species (ROS) than the wild-type strain. In addition, the pst mutant demonstrated reduced expression of genes involved in lipopolysaccharide modifications and coding for cell surface components such as type 1 and F9 fimbriae. Phenotypic tests also established that the pst mutant was impaired in its capacity to produce type 1 fimbriae, as demonstrated by western blotting and agglutination of yeast cells, when compared to wild-type APEC strain χ7122. Conclusion Overall, our data elucidated the effects of a pst mutation on the transcriptional response, and further support the role of the Pho regulon as part of a complex network contributing to phosphate homeostasis, adaptive stress responses, and E. coli virulence. PMID:19038054

  4. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli pantothenate permease (panF) mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Vallari, D S; Rock, C O

    1985-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 defective in the pantothenate permease (panF) were isolated and characterized. The panF mutation resulted in the complete loss of pantothenate uptake and of the ability to use extracellular vitamin for growth. The growth phenotypes of panF panD, panF panB, and panF panC double mutants showed that the cytoplasmic membrane was impermeable to external pantothenate. Analysis of the intracellular and extracellular metabolites from strain DV1 (panF panD) labeled with beta-[3-3H]alanine demonstrated that a carrier-mediated mechanism for efficient pantothenate efflux remained in the panF mutant. Genetic mapping of this nonselectable allele was facilitated by the isolation of three independent Tn10 insertions close to panF. Two- and three-factor crosses located panF at minute 72 of the E. coli chromosome and established the gene order fabE panF aroE. PMID:2995306

  5. Sequential backbone resonance assignments of the E. coli dihydrofolate reductase Gly67Val mutant: folate complex.

    PubMed

    Puthenpurackal Narayanan, Sunilkumar; Maeno, Akihiro; Wada, Yuji; Tate, Shin-Ichi; Akasaka, Kazuyuki

    2016-04-01

    Occasionally, a mutation in an exposed loop region causes a significant change in protein function and/or stability. A single mutation Gly67Val of E. coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) in the exposed CD loop is such an example. We have carried out the chemical shift assignments for H(N), N(H), C(α) and C(β) atoms of the Gly67Val mutant of E. coli DHFR complexed with folate at pH 7.0, 35 °C, and then evaluated the H(N), N(H), C(α) and C(β) chemical shift changes caused by the mutation. The result indicates that, while the overall secondary structure remains the same, the single mutation Gly67Val causes site-specific conformational changes of the polypeptide backbone restricted around the adenosine-binding subdomain (residues 38-88) and not in the distant catalytic domain. PMID:26482924

  6. Determination of antibiotic hypersensitivity among 4,000 single-gene-knockout mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tamae, Cindy; Liu, Anne; Kim, Katherine; Sitz, Daniel; Hong, Jeeyoon; Becket, Elinne; Bui, Ann; Solaimani, Parrisa; Tran, Katherine P; Yang, Hanjing; Miller, Jeffrey H

    2008-09-01

    We have tested the entire Keio collection of close to 4,000 single-gene knockouts in Escherichia coli for increased susceptibility to one of seven different antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, rifampin, vancomycin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, or metronidazole). We used high-throughput screening of several subinhibitory concentrations of each antibiotic and reduced more than 65,000 data points to a set of 140 strains that display significantly increased sensitivities to at least one of the antibiotics, determining the MIC in each case. These data provide targets for the design of "codrugs" that can potentiate existing antibiotics. We have made a number of double mutants with greatly increased sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, and these overcome the resistance generated by certain gyrA mutations. Many of the gene knockouts in E. coli are hypersensitive to more than one antibiotic. Together, all of these data allow us to outline the cell's "intrinsic resistome," which provides innate resistance to antibiotics. PMID:18621901

  7. Prevention of clinical coliform mastitis in dairy cows by a mutant Escherichia coli vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    González, R N; Cullor, J S; Jasper, D E; Farver, T B; Bushnell, R B; Oliver, M N

    1989-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was undertaken in two commercial California dairies. The treatment group, 246 cows, received three doses of a whole cell bacterin of J5 Escherichia coli (mutant of E. coli O111:B4) plus Freund's incomplete adjuvant vaccine (two in the dry period and one after calving) while 240 unvaccinated cows served as controls. Thirty-five cases of clinical coliform mastitis were diagnosed, six in vaccinated cows and 29 in unvaccinated cows. Bacteria isolated from the clinical cases included 15 E. coli five Klebsiella pneumoniae, three K. oxytoca, three K. ozaenae, five Enterobacter aerogenes, three Serratia marcescens and one Serratia spp. Four control cows were culled, three of them because of chronic coliform mastitis and one because of postcoliform infection agalactia. Incidence rate of clinical gram-negative mastitis was 2.57% in vaccinated cows and 12.77% in unvaccinated cows. The estimated risk ratio, the measure of risk of having clinical gram-negative mastitis for vaccinated cows to unvaccinated cows, was 0.20 (p less than 0.005), indicating a strong relationship between vaccination and lack of clinical gram-negative mastitis. The results of this trial indicate that the administration of the E. coli J5 vaccine is protective against natural challenge to gram-negative bacteria, and reduces the incidence of clinical gram-negative mastitis in dairy cows during the first three months of lactation. PMID:2670166

  8. Escherichia coli mutant with altered respiratory control of the frd operon.

    PubMed Central

    Iuchi, S; Kuritzkes, D R; Lin, E C

    1985-01-01

    In wild-type Escherichia coli, fumarate reductase encoded by the frd operon is inducible by its substrate in the absence of molecular oxygen and nitrate. Synthesis of this enzyme under permissive conditions requires the fnr+ gene product, which is believed to be a pleiotropic regulatory protein that activates transcription. A spontaneous mutant was isolated in which the expression of the frd operon no longer depended on the presence of fumarate or the fnr+ gene product. Aerobic repression of the operon was abolished, but nitrate repression remained intact. Transductional analysis showed that the mutation was closely linked to the frd locus. The mutant phenotype strongly suggests that repression by molecular oxygen and nitrate is mediated by different mechanisms. PMID:3882660

  9. Amdinocillin (Mecillinam) Resistance Mutations in Clinical Isolates and Laboratory-Selected Mutants of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Thulin, Elisabeth; Sundqvist, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Amdinocillin (mecillinam) is a β-lactam antibiotic that is used mainly for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. The objectives of this study were to identify mutations that confer amdinocillin resistance on laboratory-isolated mutants and clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and to determine why amdinocillin resistance remains rare clinically even though resistance is easily selected in the laboratory. Under laboratory selection, frequencies of mutation to amdinocillin resistance varied from 8 × 10−8 to 2 × 10−5 per cell, depending on the concentration of amdinocillin used during selection. Several genes have been demonstrated to give amdinocillin resistance, but here eight novel genes previously unknown to be involved in amdinocillin resistance were identified. These genes encode functions involved in the respiratory chain, the ribosome, cysteine biosynthesis, tRNA synthesis, and pyrophosphate metabolism. The clinical isolates exhibited significantly greater fitness than the laboratory-isolated mutants and a different mutation spectrum. The cysB gene was mutated (inactivated) in all of the clinical isolates, in contrast to the laboratory-isolated mutants, where mainly other types of more costly mutations were found. Our results suggest that the frequency of mutation to amdinocillin resistance is high because of the large mutational target (at least 38 genes). However, the majority of these resistant mutants have a low growth rate, reducing the probability that they are stably maintained in the bladder. Inactivation of the cysB gene and a resulting loss of cysteine biosynthesis are the major mechanism of amdinocillin resistance in clinical isolates of E. coli. PMID:25583718

  10. Lactose permease of Escherichia coli: properties of mutants defective in substrate translocation.

    PubMed Central

    Overath, P; Weigel, U; Neuhaus, J M; Soppa, J; Seckler, R; Riede, I; Bocklage, H; Müller-Hill, B; Aichele, G; Wright, J K

    1987-01-01

    Mutants of lactose permease of Escherichia coli with amino acid changes (Gly-24----Glu; Gly-24----Arg; Pro-28---Ser; Gly-24, Pro-28----Glu-Ser and Gly-24, Pro-28----Arg-Ser) within a putative membrane-spanning alpha-helix (Phe-Gly-Leu-Phe-Phe-Phe-Phe-Tyr-Phe-Phe-Ile-Met-Gly- Ala-Tyr-Phe-Pro-Phe-Phe-Pro-Ile) are incorporated into the cytoplasmic membrane. The mutant proteins retain the ability to bind galactosides, and the affinity for several substrates is actually increased. However, the rate of active transport is decreased to 0.01% of the wild-type rate in the mutants carrying Arg-24 or Arg-24, Ser-28. Kinetic analysis demonstrates that the two mutants require 10 min to cause occupied binding sites for galactoside and H+ to change their exposure from the periplasm to the cytoplasm as compared to 50 ms in the wild type. The effect is less pronounced when these sites are unoccupied. PMID:3303027

  11. Measuring cell wall elasticity on enteroaggregative Escherichia coli wild type and dispersin mutant by AFM

    SciTech Connect

    Beckmann, Melissa; Venkataraman, Sankar; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Nataro, James P; Sullivan, Claretta J; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Allison, David P

    2006-07-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is pathogenic and produces severe diarrhea in humans. A mutant of EAEC that does not produce dispersin, a cell surface protein, is not pathogenic. It has been proposed that dispersin imparts a positive charge to the bacterial cell surface allowing the bacteria to colonize on the negatively charged intestinal mucosa. However, physical properties of the bacterial cell surface, such as rigidity, may be influenced by the presence of dispersin and may contribute to pathogenicity. Using the system developed in our laboratory for mounting and imaging bacterial cells by atomic force microscopy (AFM), in liquid, on gelatin coated mica surfaces, studies were initiated to measure cell surface elasticity. This was carried out in both wild type EAEC, that produces dispersin, and the mutant that does not produce dispersin. This was accomplished using AFM force-distance (FD) spectroscopy on the wild type and mutant grown in liquid or on solid medium. Images in liquid and in air of both the wild-type and mutant grown in liquid and on solid media are presented. This work represents an initial step in efforts to understand the pathogenic role of the dispersin protein in the wild-type bacteria.

  12. Construction of Escherichia coli Mutant with Decreased Endotoxic Activity by Modifying Lipid A Structure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiong; Li, Yanyan; Zhao, Xinxin; Yang, Xue; Liu, Qing; Kong, Qingke

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and its derivatives are widely used for the production of recombinant proteins, but these purified proteins are always contaminated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS is recognized by the toll-like receptor 4 and myeloid differentiation factor 2 complex of mammalian immune cells and leads to release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is a vital step to remove LPS from the proteins before use for therapeutic purpose. In this study, we constructed BL21 (DE3) ∆msbB28 ∆pagP38 mutant, which produces a penta-acylated LPS with reduced endotoxicity. The plasmids harboring pagL and/or lpxE were then introduced into this mutant to further modify the LPS. The new strain (S004) carrying plasmid pQK004 (pagL and lpxE) produced mono-phosphoryated tetra-acylated lipid A, which induces markedly less production of tumor necrosis factor-α in the RAW264.7 and IL-12 in the THP1, but still retains ability to produce recombinant proteins. This study provides a strategy to decrease endotoxic activity of recombinant proteins purified from E. coli BL21 backgrounds and a feasible approach to modify lipid A structure for alternative purposes such as mono-phosphoryl lipid A (MPL) as vaccine adjuvants. PMID:26023843

  13. Construction of Escherichia coli Mutant with Decreased Endotoxic Activity by Modifying Lipid A Structure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiong; Li, Yanyan; Zhao, Xinxin; Yang, Xue; Liu, Qing; Kong, Qingke

    2015-06-01

    Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and its derivatives are widely used for the production of recombinant proteins, but these purified proteins are always contaminated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS is recognized by the toll-like receptor 4 and myeloid differentiation factor 2 complex of mammalian immune cells and leads to release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is a vital step to remove LPS from the proteins before use for therapeutic purpose. In this study, we constructed BL21 (DE3) ∆msbB28 ∆pagP38 mutant, which produces a penta-acylated LPS with reduced endotoxicity. The plasmids harboring pagL and/or lpxE were then introduced into this mutant to further modify the LPS. The new strain (S004) carrying plasmid pQK004 (pagL and lpxE) produced mono-phosphoryated tetra-acylated lipid A, which induces markedly less production of tumor necrosis factor-α in the RAW264.7 and IL-12 in the THP1, but still retains ability to produce recombinant proteins. This study provides a strategy to decrease endotoxic activity of recombinant proteins purified from E. coli BL21 backgrounds and a feasible approach to modify lipid A structure for alternative purposes such as mono-phosphoryl lipid A (MPL) as vaccine adjuvants. PMID:26023843

  14. Defective processing of methylated single-stranded DNA by E. coli alkB mutants

    PubMed Central

    Dinglay, Suneet; Trewick, Sarah C.; Lindahl, Tomas; Sedgwick, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    Escherichia coli alkB mutants are very sensitive to DNA methylating agents. Despite these mutants being the subject of many studies, no DNA repair or other function has been assigned to the AlkB protein or to its human homolog. Here, we report that reactivation of methylmethanesulfonate (MMS)-treated single-stranded DNA phages, M13, f1, and G4, was decreased dramatically in alkB mutants. No such decrease occurred when using methylated λ phage or M13 duplex DNA. These data show that alkB mutants have a marked defect in processing methylation damage in single-stranded DNA. Recombinant AlkB protein bound more efficiently to single- than double-stranded DNA. The single-strand damage processed by AlkB was primarily cytotoxic and not mutagenic and was induced by SN2 methylating agents, MMS, DMS, and MeI but not by SN1 agent N-methyl-N-nitrosourea or by γ irradiation. Strains lacking other DNA repair activities, alkA tag, xth nfo, uvrA, mutS, and umuC, were not defective in reactivation of methylated M13 phage and did not enhance the defect of an alkB mutant. A recA mutation caused a small but additive defect. Thus, AlkB functions in a novel pathway independent of these activities. We propose that AlkB acts on alkylated single-stranded DNA in replication forks or at transcribed regions. Consistent with this theory, stationary phase alkB cells were less MMS sensitive than rapidly growing cells. PMID:10950872

  15. Three classes of Escherichia coli mutants selected for aerobic expression of fumarate reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Iuchi, S; Kuritzkes, D R; Lin, E C

    1986-01-01

    Fumarate reductase (encoded by frd) and succinate dehydrogenase (encoded by sdh) of Escherichia coli are both known to catalyze the interconversion of fumarate and succinate. Fumarate reductase, however, is not inducible aerobically and therefore cannot participate in the dehydrogenation of succinate. Three classes of suppressor mutants, classified as frd oxygen-resistant [frd(Oxr)], constitutive [frd(Con)], and gene amplification [frd(Amp)] mutants, were selected from an sdh strain as pseudorevertants that regained the partial ability to grow aerobically on succinate. All contained increased aerobic levels of fumarate reductase activity. In frd(Oxr) mutants expression of the operon showed increased resistance to aerobic repression. Under anaerobic conditions expression of the operon became less dependent on the fnr+ gene product, a pleiotropic activator protein for genes encoding anaerobic respiratory enzymes. Exogenous fumarate, however, was still required for full induction, and repression by nitrate was undiminished. Thus, aerobic repression and anaerobic nitrate repression appear to involve separate mechanisms. In frd(Con) mutants expression of the operon became highly resistant to aerobic repression. Under anaerobic conditions expression of the operon no longer required the fnr+ gene product or exogenous fumarate and became immune to nitrate repression. In partial diploids bearing an frd(Oxr) or an frd(Con) allele and phi(frd+-lac) there was no mutual regulatory influence between the two genetic loci. Thus, the frd mutations act in cis and hence are probably in the promoter region. In frd(Amp) mutants the frd locus was amplified without significant alteration in the pattern of regulation. PMID:3536878

  16. Transcriptome analysis of all two-component regulatory system mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Taku; Aiba, Hirofumi; Masuda, Yasushi; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Sugiura, Masahito; Wanner, Barry L; Mori, Hirotada; Mizuno, Takeshi

    2002-10-01

    We have systematically examined the mRNA profiles of 36 two-component deletion mutants, which include all two-component regulatory systems of Escherichia coli, under a single growth condition. DNA microarray results revealed that the mutants belong to one of three groups based on their gene expression profiles in Luria-Bertani broth under aerobic conditions: (i) those with no or little change; (ii) those with significant changes; and (iii) those with drastic changes. Under these conditions, the anaeroresponsive ArcB/ArcA system, the osmoresponsive EnvZ/OmpR system and the response regulator UvrY showed the most drastic changes. Cellular functions such as flagellar synthesis and expression of the RpoS regulon were affected by multiple two-component systems. A high correlation coefficient of expression profile was found between several two-component mutants. Together, these results support the view that a network of functional interactions, such as cross-regulation, exists between different two-component systems. The compiled data are avail-able at our website (http://ecoli.aist-nara.ac.jp/xp_analysis/ 2_components). PMID:12366850

  17. Enhanced Biofilm Formation by Escherichia coli LPS Mutants Defective in Hep Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Ryoma; Ramstedt, Madeleine; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Uhlin, Bernt Eric

    2012-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major component of the surface of Gram-negative bacteria and its polysaccharide portion is situated at the outermost region. We investigated the relationship between the polysaccharide portion of LPS and biofilm formation using a series of Escherichia coli mutants defective in genes earlier shown to affect the LPS sugar compositions. Biofilm formation by a deep rough LPS mutant, the hldE strain, was strongly enhanced in comparison with the parental strain and other LPS mutants. The hldE strain also showed a phenotype of increased auto-aggregation and stronger cell surface hydrophobicity compared to the wild-type. Similar results were obtained with another deep rough LPS mutant, the waaC strain whose LPS showed same molecular mass as that of the hldE strain. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis and biofilm formation assay using DNase I revealed that biofilm formation by the hldE strain was dependent on extracellular DNA. Furthermore, a loss of flagella and an increase in amount of outer membrane vesicles in case of the hldE strain were also observed by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. In addition, we demonstrated that a mutation in the hldE locus, which alters the LPS structure, caused changes in both expression and properties of several surface bacterial factors involved in biofilm formation and virulence. We suggest that the implication of these results should be considered in the context of biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces, which is frequently associated with nosocominal infections such as the catheter-associated infections. PMID:23284671

  18. Isolation and characterization of mutants with lesions affecting pellicle formation and erythrocyte agglutination by type 1 piliated Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, S L; Elliott, D A; Blake, M C; Must, L M; Messenger, M; Orndorff, P E

    1990-01-01

    The product of the pilE (also called fimH) gene is a minor component of type 1 pili in Escherichia coli. Mutants that have insertions in the pilE gene are fully piliated but unable to bind to and agglutinate guinea pig erythrocytes, a characteristic of wild-type type 1 piliated E. coli. In this paper we describe the isolation of 48 mutants with point lesions that map to the pilE gene. Such mutants were isolated by using mutT mutagenesis and an enrichment procedure devised to favor the growth of individuals that could form a pellicle in static broth containing alpha-methylmannoside, an inhibitor of erythrocyte binding and pellicle formation. Results indicated that the enrichment favored mutants expressing pilE gene products that were defective in mediating erythrocyte binding. Characterization of 12 of the mutants in greater detail revealed that certain lesions affected pilus number and length. In addition, a mutant that was temperature sensitive for erythrocyte binding was isolated and used to provide evidence that pellicle formation relies on the intercellular interaction of pilE gene products. Our results suggest a molecular explanation for the old and paradoxical observations connecting pellicle formation and erythrocyte agglutination by type 1 piliated E. coli. Images PMID:1977736

  19. Isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive pantothenate kinase (coaA) mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Vallari, D S; Rock, C O

    1987-01-01

    Escherichia coli mutants conditionally defective in the conversion of pantothenate to coenzyme A were isolated and characterized. The gene was designated coaA and localized between argEH and rpoB near min 90 of the chromosome. The coaA15(Ts) mutation caused a temperature-sensitive growth phenotype and temperature-dependent inactivation of pantothenate kinase activity assayed both in vivo and in vitro. At 30 degrees C, coaA15(Ts) extracts contained less than 20% of the wild-type pantothenate kinase activity; the kinase had near normal kinetic constants for the substrates ATP and pantothenate and was inhibited by coenzyme A to the same degree as the wild-type enzyme. These data define the coaA gene as the structural gene for pantothenate kinase. PMID:2824448

  20. Characterization of Escherichia coli Flagellar Mutants That are Insensitive to Catabolite Repression

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Michael; Simon, Melvin

    1974-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, the synthesis of the flagellar organelle is sensitive to catabolite repression. Synthesis requires the presence of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate receptor protein (Crp) and 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP); i.e., mutants that lack Crp or adenylcyclase (Cya) synthesize no flagella. We isolated and characterized a series of mutants (cfs) that restored flagella-forming ability in a Crp strain of E. coli. The mutations in these strains were transferred onto episomes and they were then introduced into a variety of other strains. The presence of the mutation resulted in flagella synthesis in Cya and Crp strains as well as in the wild type grown under conditions of catabolite repression. Deletion analysis and other genetic studies indicated that: (i) the cfs mutations had a dominant effect when they were in the transconfiguration in merodiploids: (ii) they occurred in or very close to the flaI gene: and (iii) their expression required the presence of an intact flaI gene adjacent to the cfs mutation. Biochemical studies showed that the synthesis of at least two flagellar polypeptides, the hook subunit and an amber fragment of flagellin, were absent in strains that carried a cya mutation. Their synthesis was depressed in strains grown under conditions of catabolite repression. The presence of the cfs mutation restored the specific synthesis of these two polypeptides. We suggest that the formation of the flaI gene product is the step in flagellar synthesis that is catabolite sensitive and requires cAMP. We propose a regulatory function for the product of the flaI gene. Images PMID:4373438

  1. The Proteomic Response to Mutants of the Escherichia coli RNA Degradosome

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Li; Zhang, Ang B; Wang, Rong; Marcotte, Edward M; Vogel, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The Escherichia coli RNA degradosome recognizes and degrades RNA through the coordination of four main protein components, the endonuclease RNase E, the exonuclease PNPase, the RhlB helicase and the metabolic enzyme enolase. To help our understanding of the functions of the RNA degradosome, we quantified expression changes of >2,300 proteins by mass spectrometry based shotgun proteomics in E. coli strains deficient in rhlB, eno, pnp (which displays temperature sensitive growth), or rne(1-602) which encodes a C-terminal truncation mutant of RNaseE and is deficient in degradosome assembly. Global protein expression changes are most similar between the pnp and rhlB mutants, confirming the functional relationship between the genes. We observe down-regulation of protein chaperones including GroEL and DnaK (which associate with the degradosome), a decrease in translation related proteins in Δpnp, ΔrhlB and rne(1-602) cells, and a significant increase in the abundance of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Analysis of the observed proteomic changes point to a shared motif, CGCTGG, that may be associated with RNA degradosome targets. Further, our data provide information on the expression modulation of known degradosome-associated proteins, such as DeaD and RNase G, as well as other RNA helicases and RNases – suggesting or confirming functional complementarity in some cases. Taken together, our results emphasize the role of the RNA degradosome in the modulation of the bacterial proteome and provide the first large-scale proteomic description of the response to perturbation of this major pathway of RNA degradation. PMID:23403814

  2. Structure of the Y94F mutant of Escherichia coli thymidylate synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Sue A.; Hyatt, David C.; Honts, Jerry E.; Changchien, Liming; Maley, Gladys F.; Maley, Frank; Montfort, William R.

    2006-09-01

    Mutation of Tyr94 of E. coli thymidylate synthase to phenylalanine leads to a protein with k{sub cat} reduced by a factor of 400. The Y94F structure is essentially identical to the wild-type structure, which is consistent with a catalytic role for the phenolic OH. Tyr94 of Escherichia coli thymidylate synthase is thought to be involved, either directly or by activation of a water molecule, in the abstraction of a proton from C5 of the 2′-deoxyuridine 5′-monophosphate (dUMP) substrate. Mutation of Tyr94 leads to a 400-fold loss in catalytic activity. The structure of the Y94F mutant has been determined in the native state and as a ternary complex with thymidine 5′-monophosphate (dTMP) and 10-propargyl 5,8-dideazafolate (PDDF). There are no structural changes ascribable to the mutation other than loss of a water molecule hydrogen bonded to the tyrosine OH, which is consistent with a catalytic role for the phenolic OH.

  3. Proteomic analysis of beryllium-induced genotoxicity in an Escherichia coli mutant model system.

    PubMed

    Taylor-McCabe, Kirsten J; Wang, Zaolin; Sauer, Nancy N; Marrone, Babetta L

    2006-03-01

    Beryllium is the second lightest metal, has a high melting point and high strength-to-weight ratio, and is chemically stable. These unique chemical characteristics make beryllium metal an ideal choice as a component material for a wide variety of applications in aerospace, defense, nuclear weapons, and industry. However, inhalation of beryllium dust or fumes induces significant health effects, including chronic beryllium disease and lung cancer. In this study, the mutagenicity of beryllium sulfate (BeSO(4)) and the comutagenicity of beryllium with a known mutagen 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) were evaluated using a forward mutant detection system developed in Escherichia coli. In this system, BeSO(4) was shown to be weakly mutagenic alone and significantly enhanced the mutagenicity of MNNG up to 3.5-fold over MNNG alone. Based on these results a proteomic study was conducted to identify the proteins regulated by BeSO(4). Using the techniques of 2-DE and oMALDI-TOF MS, we successfully identified 32 proteins being differentially regulated by beryllium and/or MNNG in the E. coli test system. This is the first study to describe the proteins regulated by beryllium in vitro, and the results suggest several potential pathways for the focus of further research into the mechanisms underlying beryllium-induced genotoxicity. PMID:16447159

  4. Expression of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus RNase H Rescues the Growth Defect of an Escherichia coli Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Andrew G.

    2001-01-01

    A 157-amino-acid fragment of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase encoding RNase H is shown to rescue the growth-defective phenotype of an Escherichia coli mutant. In vitro assays of the recombinant wild-type protein purified from the conditionally defective mutant confirm that it is catalytically active. Mutagenesis of one of the presumptive RNase H-catalytic residues results in production of a protein variant incapable of rescue and which lacks activity in vitro. Analyses of additional active site mutants demonstrate that their encoded variant proteins lack robust activity yet are able to rescue the bacterial mutant. These results suggest that genetic complementation may be useful for in vivo screening of mutant viral RNase H gene fragments and in evaluating their function under conditions that more closely mimic physiological conditions. The rescue system may also be useful in verifying the functional outcomes of mutations based on protein structural predictions and modeling. PMID:11390625

  5. Novel phenotypes of Escherichia coli tat mutants revealed by global gene expression and phenotypic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ize, Bérengère; Porcelli, Ida; Lucchini, Sacha; Hinton, Jay C; Berks, Ben C; Palmer, Tracy

    2004-11-12

    The Tat protein export system serves to export folded proteins harboring an N-terminal twin arginine signal peptide across the cytoplasmic membrane. In this study, we have used gene expression profiling of Escherichia coli supported by phenotypic analysis to investigate how cells respond to a defect in the Tat pathway. Previous work has demonstrated that strains mutated in genes encoding essential Tat pathway components are defective in the integrity of their cell envelope because of the mislocalization of two amidases involved in cell wall metabolism (Ize, B., Stanley, N. R., Buchanan, G., and Palmer, T. (2003) Mol. Microbiol. 48, 1183-1193). To distinguish between genes that are differentially expressed specifically because of the cell envelope defect and those that result from other effects of the tatC deletion, we also analyzed two different transposon mutants of the DeltatatC strain that have their outer membrane integrity restored. Approximately 50% of the genes that were differentially expressed in the tatC mutant are linked to the envelope defect, with the products of many of these genes involved in self-defense or protection mechanisms, including the production of exopolysaccharide. Among the changes that were not explicitly linked to envelope integrity, we characterized a role for the Tat system in iron acquisition and copper homeostasis. Finally, we have demonstrated that overproduction of the Tat substrate SufI saturates the Tat translocon and produces effects on global gene expression that are similar to those resulting from the DeltatatC mutation. PMID:15347649

  6. [Isolation and certain properties of mutant alkaline phosphatase of Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Nesmeianova, M A; Krupianko, V I; Kalinin, A E; Kadyrova, L Iu

    1996-01-01

    Natural and mutant alkaline phosphatases with amino acid substitutions in the processing site and N-terminal domain of the mature polypeptide chain Val for Ala(-1), Gln for Glu (+4) and simultaneously Gln for Glu (+4) and Ala for Arg (+1) have been isolated from the periplasm and cultural fluid of E. coli. It has been found that these substitutions have little effect on the dependence of the enzyme activity on pH, ionic strength and temperature but influence its isoenzymic spectrum and decrease (almost twofold) the maximal rate of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Extracellular enzymes display, in contrast with periplasmic ones, other catalytic properties (Vmax) and binding activity (Km). After translocation through the outer membrane all the enzymes display decreased Vmax and increased Km. These changes are especially well-pronounced in case of the mutant protein PhoA46 which contains an uncleaved signal peptide due to the impossibility of processing resulting from the substitution of Val for Ala(-1). The Vmax for this protein is decreased 20 times, while the Km is increased 4-fold. The protein also shows a higher (in comparison with other proteins) sensitivity towards proteolytic enzymes and is less resistant upon storage. The experimental data suggest that the changes in the N-end of alkaline phosphatase located at a long distance from its active center influence the enzyme function. PMID:8679783

  7. Characterization of DNA helicase II from a uvrD252 mutant of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, B K; Kushner, S R

    1993-01-01

    The loss of DNA helicase II (UvrD) in Escherichia coli results in sensitivity to UV light and increased levels of spontaneous mutagenesis. While the effects of various uvrD alleles have been analyzed in vivo, the proteins produced by these alleles have not been examined in any detail. We have cloned one of these alleles, uvrD252, and determined the site of the mutation conferring the phenotype. In addition, the protein it encodes has been purified to homogeneity and characterized in vitro. The mutation responsible for the phenotype was identified as a glycine-to-aspartic-acid change in the putative ATP-binding domain. In comparison to wild-type DNA helicase II, the UvrD252 enzyme exhibited reduced levels of ATPase activity and a large increase in the Km for ATP. The ability of UvrD252 to unwind DNA containing single-stranded regions, as well as DNA containing only nicks, was reduced in comparison to that of the wild-type enzyme. Possible interpretations of these results in relation to the phenotypes of the uvrD252 mutant are discussed. This represents the first detailed analysis of the biochemical properties of a mutant DNA helicase II protein. Images PMID:8419285

  8. Determination of Hypersensitivity to Genotoxic Agents Among Escherichia coli Single Gene Knockout Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Becket, Elinne; Chen, Frank; Tamae, Cindy; Miller, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary We have tested the KEIO collection of 3985 different viable single gene knockouts in Escherichia coli to identify genes whose loss increases sensitivity to one or more of six different chemotherapeutic agents and mutagens: Bleomycin (BLM), Cisplatin (CPT), ICR-191 (ICR), 5-azacytidine (5AZ), Zebularine (ZEB), and 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (5BdU). We discovered a set of 156 strains that display a significant increase in sensitivity to at least one of the agents tested. Each genotoxic agent generates a distinct “sensitivity profile” that is characteristic of the agent. Comparison with an independent study of sensitivity profiles for an extensive set of antibiotics pinpoints those effects that are relatively specific for each agent. In some cases engineered double mutants have greatly increased effects. These results provide insight into the mechanism of action of each agent, and define targets for the design of co-drugs that can potentiate these agents. An example is the finding that mutants lacking one of several genes in the folate biosynthetic pathway are hypersensitive to ZEB, leading to a demonstration of synergy between trimethoprim and ZEB. PMID:20674514

  9. Determination of hypersensitivity to genotoxic agents among Escherichia coli single gene knockout mutants.

    PubMed

    Becket, Elinne; Chen, Frank; Tamae, Cindy; Miller, Jeffrey H

    2010-09-01

    We have tested the KEIO collection of 3985 different viable single gene knockouts in Escherichia coli to identify genes whose loss increases sensitivity to one or more of six different chemotherapeutic agents and mutagens: Bleomycin (BLM), Cisplatin (CPT), ICR-191 (ICR), 5-azacytidine (5AZ), Zebularine (ZEB), and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (5BdU). We discovered a set of 156 strains that display a significant increase in sensitivity to at least one of the agents tested. Each genotoxic agent generates a distinct "sensitivity profile" that is characteristic of the agent. Comparison with an independent study of sensitivity profiles for an extensive set of antibiotics pinpoints those effects that are relatively specific for each agent. In some cases engineered double mutants have greatly increased effects. These results provide insight into the mechanism of action of each agent, and define targets for the design of co-drugs that can potentiate these agents. An example is the finding that mutants lacking one of several genes in the folate biosynthetic pathway are hypersensitive to ZEB, leading to a demonstration of synergy between trimethoprim and ZEB. PMID:20674514

  10. Altered Regulation of Escherichia coli Biotin Biosynthesis in BirA Superrepressor Mutant Strains

    PubMed Central

    Chakravartty, Vandana

    2012-01-01

    Transcription of the Escherichia coli biotin (bio) operon is directly regulated by the biotin protein ligase BirA, the enzyme that covalently attaches biotin to its cognate acceptor proteins. Binding of BirA to the bio operator requires dimerization of the protein, which is triggered by BirA-catalyzed synthesis of biotinoyl-adenylate (biotinoyl-5′-AMP), the obligatory intermediate of the ligation reaction. Although several aspects of this regulatory system are well understood, no BirA superrepressor mutant strains had been isolated. Such superrepressor BirA proteins would repress the biotin operon transcription in vivo at biotin concentrations well below those needed for repression by wild-type BirA. We isolated mutant strains having this phenotype by a combined selection-screening approach and resolved multiple mutations to give several birA superrepressor alleles, each having a single mutation, all of which showed repression dominant over that of the wild-type allele. All of these mutant strains repressed bio operon transcription in vivo at biotin concentrations that gave derepression of the wild-type strain and retained sufficient ligation activity for growth when overexpressed. All of the strains except that encoding G154D BirA showed derepression of bio operon transcription upon overproduction of a biotin-accepting protein. In BirA, G154D was a lethal mutation in single copy, and the purified protein was unable to transfer biotin from enzyme-bound biotinoyl-adenylate either to the natural acceptor protein or to a biotin-accepting peptide sequence. Consistent with the transcriptional repression data, each of the purified mutant proteins showed increased affinity for the biotin operator DNA in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Surprisingly, although most of the mutations were located in the catalytic domain, all of those tested, except G154D BirA, had normal ligase activity. Most of the mutations that gave superrepressor phenotypes altered residues

  11. Temperature-sensitive recovery of a mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 irradiated with ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Y; Morimyo, M; Suzuki, K

    1971-09-01

    URT-43 is a mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 which gives a much larger number of survivors when ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated bacteria are incubated on agar medium at 30 C than when they are incubated on the medium at 41 C, although in both cases the number of survivors is fewer than that given by its wild-type ancestor. The UV sensitivity of this mutant was found to be markedly influenced by the presence of a high concentration of NaCl or sucrose in the plating medium. Thus, when irradiated bacteria were plated on agar medium containing 2% NaCl or 0.5 m sucrose at 30 C, they exhibited a resistance similar to that of their wild-type ancestor. At 30 C, there was also an extensive recovery in liquid M9 medium supplemented with all of the nutrients required for growth and NaCl or sucrose. At 41 C, however, the recovery was greatly inhibited. Direct chemical analysis of thymine dimers has revealed that no significant amount of the dimer was released from deoxyribonucleic acid during the period of extensive recovery. It was concluded, therefore, that the temperature-sensitive recovery of URT-43 does not accompany excision of the bulk of pyrimidine dimers. To learn the gene function involved in the recovery, double mutants carrying an additional mutation either in a uvr or a rec gene have been investigated for their UV sensitivities and recovery in liquid medium. It was found that recA(-) and recB(-) derivatives retain the ability of undergoing an efficient recovery at a low temperature, whereas uvrB(-) and uvrC(-) derivatives have completely lost this ability. For these reasons, it was concluded that the mechanism responsible for the recovery of URT-43 involves the function controlled by the uvr genes. The results of photoreactivation suggested that most of the entities dealt with during recovery were pyrimidine dimers. PMID:4937778

  12. Temperature-Sensitive Recovery of a Mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 Irradiated with Ultraviolet Light

    PubMed Central

    Shimazu, Y.; Morimyo, M.; Suzuki, K.

    1971-01-01

    URT-43 is a mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 which gives a much larger number of survivors when ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated bacteria are incubated on agar medium at 30 C than when they are incubated on the medium at 41 C, although in both cases the number of survivors is fewer than that given by its wild-type ancestor. The UV sensitivity of this mutant was found to be markedly influenced by the presence of a high concentration of NaCl or sucrose in the plating medium. Thus, when irradiated bacteria were plated on agar medium containing 2% NaCl or 0.5 m sucrose at 30 C, they exhibited a resistance similar to that of their wild-type ancestor. At 30 C, there was also an extensive recovery in liquid M9 medium supplemented with all of the nutrients required for growth and NaCl or sucrose. At 41 C, however, the recovery was greatly inhibited. Direct chemical analysis of thymine dimers has revealed that no significant amount of the dimer was released from deoxyribonucleic acid during the period of extensive recovery. It was concluded, therefore, that the temperature-sensitive recovery of URT-43 does not accompany excision of the bulk of pyrimidine dimers. To learn the gene function involved in the recovery, double mutants carrying an additional mutation either in a uvr or a rec gene have been investigated for their UV sensitivities and recovery in liquid medium. It was found that recA− and recB− derivatives retain the ability of undergoing an efficient recovery at a low temperature, whereas uvrB− and uvrC− derivatives have completely lost this ability. For these reasons, it was concluded that the mechanism responsible for the recovery of URT-43 involves the function controlled by the uvr genes. The results of photoreactivation suggested that most of the entities dealt with during recovery were pyrimidine dimers. PMID:4937778

  13. Sub-optimal phenotypes of double-knockout mutants of Escherichia coli depend on the order of gene deletions.

    PubMed

    Gawand, Pratish; Said Abukar, Fatumina; Venayak, Naveen; Partow, Siavash; Motter, Adilson E; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic networks are characterized by multiple redundant reactions that do not have a clear biological function. The redundancies in the metabolic networks are implicated in adaptation to random mutations and survival under different environmental conditions. Reactions that are not active under wild-type growth conditions, but get transiently activated after a mutation event such as gene deletion are known as latent reactions. Characterization of multiple-gene knockout mutants can identify the physiological roles of latent reactions. In this study, we characterized double-gene deletion mutants of E. coli with the aim of investigating the sub-optimal physiology of the mutants and the possible roles of latent reactions. Specifically, we investigated the effects of the deletion of the glyoxylate-shunt gene aceA (encoding a latent reaction enzyme, isocitrate lyase) on the growth characteristics of the mutant E. coli Δpgi. The deletion of aceA reduced the growth rate of E. coli Δpgi, indicating that the activation of the glyoxylate shunt plays an important role in adaptation of the mutant E. coli Δpgi when no other latent reactions are concurrently inactivated. We also investigated the effect of the order of the gene deletions on the growth rates and substrate uptake rates of the double-gene deletion mutants. The results indicate that the order in which genes are deleted determines the phenotype of the mutants during the sub-optimal growth phase. To elucidate the mechanism behind the difference between the observed phenotypes, we carried out transcriptomic analysis and constraint-based modeling of the mutants. Transcriptomic analysis showed differential expression of the gene aceK (encoding the protein isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase) involved in controlling the isocitrate flux through the TCA cycle and the glyoxylate shunt. Higher acetate production in the E. coli ΔaceA1 Δpgi2 mutant was consistent with the increased aceK expression, which limits the TCA cycle

  14. A Salmonella typhimurium genetic locus which confers copper tolerance on copper-sensitive mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, S D; Wu, H C; Rick, P D

    1997-01-01

    Three distinct clones from a Salmonella typhimurium genomic library were identified which suppressed the copper-sensitive (Cu(s)) phenotype of cutF mutants of Escherichia coli. One of these clones, pCUTFS2, also increased the copper tolerance of cutA, -C, and -E mutants, as well as that of a lipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase (lgt) mutant of E. coli. Characterization of pCUTFS2 revealed that the genes responsible for suppression of copper sensitivity (scs) reside on a 4.36-kb DNA fragment located near 25.4 min on the S. typhimurium genome. Sequence analysis of this fragment revealed four open reading frames (ORF120, ORF627, ORF207, and ORF168) that were organized into two operons. One operon consisted of a single gene, scsA (ORF120), whereas the other operon contained the genes scsB (ORF627), scsC (ORF207), and scsD (ORF168). Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the predicted gene products showed that ScsB, ScsC, and ScsD have significant homology to thiol-disulfide interchange proteins (CutA2, DipZ, CycZ, and DsbD) from E. coli and Haemophilus influenzae, to an outer membrane protein (Com1) from Coxiella burnetii, and to thioredoxin and thioredoxin-like proteins, respectively. The two operons were subcloned on compatible plasmids, and complementation analyses indicated that all four proteins are required for the increased copper tolerance of E. coli mutants. In addition, the scs locus also restored lipoprotein modification in lgt mutants of E. coli. Sequence analyses of the S. typhimurium scs genes and adjacent DNAs revealed that the scs locus is flanked by genes with high homology to the cbpA (predicted curved DNA-binding protein) and agp (acid glucose phosphatase) genes of E. coli located at 22.90 min (1,062.07 kb) and 22.95 min (1,064.8 kb) of the E. coli chromosome, respectively. However, examination of the E. coli chromosome revealed that these genes are absent at this locus and no evidence has thus been obtained for the occurrence of the scs

  15. The utilization of fructose by Escherichia coli. Properties of a mutant defective in fructose 1-phosphate kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Ferenci, T; Kornberg, H L

    1973-02-01

    1. The isolation and properties of a mutant of Escherichia coli devoid of fructose 1-phosphate kinase activity are described. 2. This mutant grew in media containing any one of a variety of substances, including hexoses, hexose 6-phosphates, sugar acids and glucogenic substrates, at rates not significantly different from those at which the parent organism grew on these substrates. However, only the parent grew on fructose or fructose 1-phosphate. 3. Fructose and fructose 1-phosphate inhibit the growth of the mutant, but not of its parent, on other carbon sources. 4. Even though not previously exposed to fructose, the mutant took up [(14)C]fructose rapidly but to only a small extent: [(14)C]fructose 1-phosphate was identified as the predominant labelled product. In contrast, the equally rapid but more extensive uptake of [(14)C]fructose by the parent organism required prior growth in the presence of fructose. PMID:4579702

  16. Novel quinolone resistance mutations of the Escherichia coli DNA gyrase A protein: enzymatic analysis of the mutant proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Hallett, P; Maxwell, A

    1991-01-01

    Using the techniques of gap misrepair mutagenesis and site-directed mutagenesis, we have generated two novel quinolone resistance mutations of the Escherichia coli DNA gyrase A protein. DNA sequencing showed these mutations to be Ser-83----Ala and Gln-106----Arg. The mutant proteins were overproduced and purified, and their enzymatic properties were analyzed and compared with those of the wild-type enzyme. With ciprofloxacin and other quinolones, the inhibition of DNA supercoiling, relaxation, and decatenation and the induction of DNA cleavage were investigated for both wild-type and mutant enzymes. In each assay, the mutant enzymes were found to require approximately 10 times more drug to inhibit the reaction or induce cleavage than was the wild-type enzyme. However, the Ca2(+)-directed DNA cleavage reaction was indistinguishable for wild-type and mutant gyrases. We discuss models for the gyrase-mediated bactericidal effects of quinolone drugs. Images PMID:1850970

  17. Molybdate reduction by Escherichia coli K-12 and its chl mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, A.M.; del Camipillo-Campbell, A.; Villaret, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    During anaerobic growth, Escherichia coli can reduce phosphomolybdate. The reduction can also be carried out by washed cells suspended in buffer at pH 5.7. Phosphate, molybdate, glucose, cells, and anaerobic conditions are required. Reduction is inhibited by 200 ..mu..M chromate, 290 ..mu..M nitrite, 10 mM tungstate, or 20 mM cysteine. Wild-type (chl/sup +/) cells are inhibited by addition of 200 ..mu..M nitrate, but chlA, chlB, and chlE mutants are not. The inhibition of chl/sup +/ cells results from reduction of nitrate to nitrite. This nitrate reduction is not catalyzed by nitrate reductase. Wild-type cells are more sensitive than chl mutants to inhibition by nitrite and cysteine but more resistant to chromate. Pregrowth of chlD cells in 1 mM Na/sub 2/-MoO/sub 4/ increases their sensitivity to nitrite and cysteine, and pregrowth of chl/sup +/ cells in 1 mM Na-MoO/sub 4/ increases their resistance to these agents. Assays of biotin sulfoxide reductase show that the tightness of the chlD block depends on growth conditions; chlD cells grown aerobically in tryptone broth make about 50% as much active enzyme as chl/sup +/ cells, whereas chlD cells grown anaerobically with tryptone plus glucose make less than 10%. The effect of anaerobic pregrowth on the inhibition of molybdate reduction by added nitrate indicates that in vivo nitrate reduction responds to growth conditions in the same manner as biotin sulfoxide reductase does.

  18. Molybdate Reduction by Escherichia coli K-12 and Its chl Mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Allan M.; del Campillo-Campbell, Alice; Villaret, Douglas B.

    1985-01-01

    During anaerobic growth, Escherichia coli can reduce phosphomolybdate. The reduction can also be carried out by washed cells suspended in buffer at pH 5.7. Phosphate, molybdate, glucose, cells, and anaerobic conditions are required. Reduction is inhibited by 200 μ M chromate, 290 μ M nitrite, 10 mM tungstate, or 20 mM cysteine. Wild-type (chl+) cells are inhibited by addition of 200 μ M nitrate, but chlA, chlB, and chlE mutants are not. The inhibition of chl+ cells results from reduction of nitrate to nitrite. This nitrate reduction is not catalyzed by nitrate reductase. Wild-type cells are more sensitive than chl mutants to inhibition by nitrite and cysteine but more resistant to chromate. Pregrowth of chlD cells in 1 mM Na2MoO4 increases their sensitivity to nitrite and cysteine, and pregrowth of chl+ cells in 1 mM Na2MoO4 increases their resistance to these agents. Assays of biotin sulfoxide reductase show that the tightness of the chlD block depends on growth conditions; chlD cells grown aerobically in tryptone broth make about 50% as much active enzyme as chl+ cells, whereas chlD cells grown anaerobically with tryptone plus glucose make less than 10%. The effect of anaerobic pregrowth on the inhibition of molybdate reduction by added nitrate indicates that in vivo nitrate reduction responds to growth conditions in the same manner as biotin sulfoxide reductase does.

  19. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli mutants that lack the heat shock sigma factor sigma 32.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Y N; Kusukawa, N; Erickson, J W; Gross, C A; Yura, T

    1988-01-01

    The product of the Escherichia coli rpoH (htpR) gene, sigma 32, is required for heat-inducible transcription of the heat shock genes. Previous studies on the role of sigma 32 in growth at low temperature and in gene expression involved the use of nonsense and missense rpoH mutations and have led to ambiguous or conflicting results. To clarify the role of sigma 32 in cell physiology, we have constructed loss-of-function insertion and deletion mutations in rpoH. Strains lacking sigma 32 are extremely temperature sensitive and grow only at temperatures less than or equal to 20 degrees C. There is no transcription from the heat shock promoters preceding the htpG gene or the groESL and dnaKJ operons; however, several heat shock proteins are produced in the mutants. GroEL protein is present in the rpoH null mutants, but its synthesis is not inducible by a shift to high temperature. The low-level synthesis of GroEL results from transcription initiation at a minor sigma 70-controlled promoter for the groE operon. DnaK protein synthesis cannot be detected at low temperature, but can be detected after a shift to 42 degrees C. The mechanism of this heat-inducible synthesis is not known. We conclude that sigma 32 is required for cell growth at temperatures above 20 degrees C and is required for transcription from the heat shock promoters. Several heat shock proteins are synthesized in the absence of sigma 32, indicating that there are additional mechanisms controlling the synthesis of some heat shock proteins. Images PMID:2900239

  20. An Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 missense mutant colonizes the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine better than the wild type but is not a better probiotic.

    PubMed

    Adediran, Jimmy; Leatham-Jensen, Mary P; Mokszycki, Matthew E; Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Krogfelt, Karen A; Kazmierczak, Krystyna; Kenney, Linda J; Conway, Tyrrell; Cohen, Paul S

    2014-02-01

    Previously we reported that the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine selected for two different Escherichia coli MG1655 mutants with improved colonizing ability: nonmotile E. coli MG1655 flhDC deletion mutants that grew 15% faster in vitro in mouse cecal mucus and motile E. coli MG1655 envZ missense mutants that grew slower in vitro in mouse cecal mucus yet were able to cocolonize with the faster-growing flhDC mutants. The E. coli MG1655 envZ gene encodes a histidine kinase that is a member of the envZ-ompR two-component signal transduction system, which regulates outer membrane protein profiles. In the present investigation, the envZP41L gene was transferred from the intestinally selected E. coli MG1655 mutant to E. coli Nissle 1917, a human probiotic strain used to treat gastrointestinal infections. Both the E. coli MG1655 and E. coli Nissle 1917 strains containing envZP41L produced more phosphorylated OmpR than their parents. The E. coli Nissle 1917 strain containing envZP41L also became more resistant to bile salts and colicin V and grew 50% slower in vitro in mucus and 15% to 30% slower on several sugars present in mucus, yet it was a 10-fold better colonizer than E. coli Nissle 1917. However, E. coli Nissle 1917 envZP41L was not better at preventing colonization by enterohemorrhagic E. coli EDL933. The data can be explained according to our "restaurant" hypothesis for commensal E. coli strains, i.e., that they colonize the intestine as sessile members of mixed biofilms, obtaining the sugars they need for growth locally, but compete for sugars with invading E. coli pathogens planktonically. PMID:24478082

  1. Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli ΔtonB mutants are safe and protective live-attenuated vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Holden, Karen M; Browning, Glenn F; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Markham, Philip; Marenda, Marc S

    2014-10-10

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) cause colibacillosis, a serious respiratory disease in poultry. Most APEC strains possess TonB-dependent outer membrane transporters for the siderophores salmochelin and aerobactin, which both contribute to their capacity to cause disease. To assess the potential of iron transport deficient mutants as vaccine candidates, the tonB gene was deleted in the APEC wild type strain E956 and a Δfur (ferric uptake repressor) mutant of E956. The growth of the ΔtonB and ΔtonB/Δfur mutants was impaired in iron-restricted conditions, but not in iron-replete media. Day old chicks were exposed to aerosols of the mutants to assess their efficacy as live attenuated vaccines. At day 18, the birds were challenged with aerosols of the virulent parent strain E956. Both mutants conferred protection against colibacillosis; weight gains and lesion scores were significantly different between the vaccinated groups and an unvaccinated challenged control group. Thus mutation of iron uptake systems can be used as a platform technology to generate protective live attenuated vaccines against extraintestinal E. coli infections, and potentially a range of Gram negative pathogens of importance in veterinary medicine. PMID:25205199

  2. A mutant phosphofructokinase produces a futile cycle during gluconeogenesis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Torres, J C; Guixé, V; Babul, J

    1997-01-01

    Strains of Escherichia coli bearing different forms of phosphofructokinase were used to assess the occurrence of futile cycling in cell resuspensions supplied with glycerol as gluconeogenic carbon source. A model was used to simulate results of different kinds of experiments for different levels of futile cycle. The main predictions of the model were experimentally confirmed in a strain with a mutant phosphofructokinase-2 (phosphofructokinase-2*) which is not inhibited by MgATP. The intracellular fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate concentration reaches significantly higher levels in the mutant-bearing strain than in strains with either phosphofructokinase-1 or -2. Also, this strain showed a higher rate and level of in vivo radioactive labelling of fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate, from a trace of [U-14C]glucose supplied during gluconeogenesis, indicating higher kinase activity in these conditions. Cell resuspensions of the mutant-bearing strain produced higher levels of radioactively labelled CO2 when supplied with [U-14C]glycerol as the only carbon source. Simultaneously, fewer glycerol carbons were incorporated into HClO4-insoluble macromolecules. Finally, radioactive CO2 output was measured in resuspensions supplied with glycerol as the major carbon source with traces of either [1-14C]glucose or [6-14C]glucose. It was found that, whereas in the strains with either of the wild-type phosphofructokinase isoenzymes, radioactive CO2 output from [1-14C]glucose was higher than with [6-14C]glucose, the reverse is found for the strain with phosphofructokinase-2*. This result also agrees with the corresponding prediction of the model. Using the radioactivity flux rates predicted by the model, an explanation linking the futile cycle to the differential labelling of CO2 is advanced. Finally, on the basis of these results it is proposed that strains bearing phosphofructokinase-2* sustain higher rates of futile cycling during gluconeogenesis than strains bearing either of the wild

  3. Functional complementation of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis AP endonuclease gene (lamap) in Escherichia coli mutant strains challenged with DNA damage agents

    PubMed Central

    Verissimo-Villela, Erika; Kitahara-Oliveira, Milene Yoko; dos Reis, Ana Beatriz de Bragança; Albano, Rodolpho Mattos; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria; Bello, Alexandre Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    During its life cycle Leishmania spp. face several stress conditions that can cause DNA damages. Base Excision Repair plays an important role in DNA maintenance and it is one of the most conserved mechanisms in all living organisms. DNA repair in trypanosomatids has been reported only for Old World Leishmania species. Here the AP endonuclease from Leishmania (L.) amazonensis was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli mutants defective on the DNA repair machinery, that were submitted to different stress conditions, showing ability to survive in comparison to the triple null mutant parental strain BW535. Phylogenetic and multiple sequence analyses also confirmed that LAMAP belongs to the AP endonuclease class of proteins. PMID:27223868

  4. Adjuvant effect of non-toxic mutants of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin following intranasal, oral and intravaginal immunization.

    PubMed

    De Magistris, M T; Pizza, M; Douce, G; Ghiara, P; Dougan, G; Rappuoli, R

    1998-01-01

    Cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) are known to be very effective mucosal adjuvants, but their toxicity limits their use in humans. We genetically detoxified LT by substituting single residues in the active site of the enzymatic A subunit and obtained mutant molecules that retain mucosal adjuvant activity but are devoid of toxicity. These mutant LT molecules induce mucosal and systemic responses to antigens delivered intranasally, orally and intravaginally in mice. Furthermore, mucosal immunization with these molecules confers protection against systemic challenge with tetanus toxin (TT) and mucosal challenge with Helicobacter pylori. PMID:9554265

  5. Threonine Overproduction in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Expressing a Mutant Desensitized Aspartate Kinase of Escherichia coli1

    PubMed Central

    Shaul, Orit; Galili, Gad

    1992-01-01

    In higher plants, the synthesis of the essential amino acid threonine is regulated primarily by the sensitivity of the first enzyme in its biosynthetic pathway, aspartate kinase, to feedback inhibition by threonine and lysine. We aimed to study the potential of increasing threonine accumulation in plants by means of genetic engineering. This was addressed by the expression of a mutant, desensitized aspartate kinase derived from Escherichia coli either in the cytoplasm or in the chloroplasts of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana Tabacum cv Samsun NN) plants. Both types of transgenic plants exhibited a significant overproduction of free threonine. However, threonine accumulation was higher in plants expressing the bacterial enzyme in the chloroplast, indicating that compartmentalization of aspartate kinase within this organelle was important, although not essential. Threonine overproduction in leaves was positively correlated with the level of the desensitized enzyme. Transgenic plants expressing the highest leaf aspartate kinase activity also exhibited a slight increase in the levels of free lysine and isoleucine, both of which share a common biosynthetic pathway with threonine, but showed no significant change in the level of other free amino acids. The present study proposes a new molecular biological approach to increase the limiting content of threonine in higher plants. PMID:16653099

  6. Chromosomal Fragmentation in "Escherichia Coli": Its Absence in "mutT" Mutants and Its Mechanisms in "seqA" Mutants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotman, Ella Rose

    2009-01-01

    Chromosomal fragmentation in "Escherichia coli" is a lethal event for the cell unless mended by the recombinational repair proteins RecA, RecBCD, and RuvABC. Certain mutations exacerbate problems that cause the cell to be dependent on the recombinational repair proteins for viability. We tested whether the absence of the MutT protein caused…

  7. Expression of Echmr gene from Eichhornia offers multiple stress tolerance to Cd sensitive Escherichia coli Δgsh mutants.

    PubMed

    Thapa, G; Das, D; Gunupuru, L R

    2016-09-01

    The detoxification of heavy metals frequently involves conjugation to glutathione prior to compartmentalization and eflux in higher plants. We have expressed a heavy metal stress responsive (Echmr) gene from water hyacinth, which conferred tolerance to Cd sensitive Escherichia coli Δgsh mutants against heavy metals and abiotic stresses. The recombinant E. coli Δgsh mutant cells showed better growth recovery and survival than control cells under Cd (200 μM), Pb(200 μM), heat shock (50 °C), cold stress at 4 °C for 4 h, and UV-B (20 min) exposure. The enhanced expression of Echmr gene revealed by northern analysis during above stresses further advocates its role in multi-stress tolerance. Heterologous expression of EcHMR from Eichhornia rescued Cd(2+) sensitive E. coli mutants from Cd(2+) toxicity and induced better recovery post abiotic stresses. This may suggests a possible role of Echmr in Cd(II) and desiccation tolerance in plants for enhanced stress response. PMID:27457806

  8. Synthesis of outer membrane proteins in cpxA cpxB mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, J; Sambucetti, L; Silverman, P M

    1983-01-01

    Two major proteins, the murein lipoprotein and the OmpF matrix porin, are deficient in the outer membrane of cpxA cpxB mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. We present evidence that the cpx mutations prevent or retard the translocation of these proteins to the outer membrane. The mutations had no effect on the rate of lipoprotein synthesis. Mutant cells labeled for 5 min with radioactive arginine accumulated as much lipoprotein as otherwise isogenic cpxA+ cpxB+ cells. This lipoprotein accumulated as such; no material synthesized in mutant cells and reactive with antilipoprotein antibodies had the electrophoretic mobility of prolipoprotein. Hence, the initial stages of prolipoprotein insertion into the inner membrane leading to its cleavage to lipoprotein appeared normal. However, after a long labeling interval, mutant cells were deficient in free lipoprotein and lacked lipoprotein covalently bound to peptidoglycan, suggesting that little if any of the lipoprotein synthesized in mutant cells reaches the outer membrane. Immunoreactive OmpF protein could also be detected in extracts of mutant cells labeled for 5 min, but the amount that accumulated was severalfold less in mutant cells than in cpxA+ cpxB+ cells. Analysis of beta-galactosidase synthesis from ompF-lacZ fusion genes showed this difference to be the result of a reduced rate of ompF transcription in mutant cells. Even so, little or none of the ompF protein synthesized in mutant cells was incorporated into the outer membrane. Images PMID:6339479

  9. Mutations Affecting Potassium Import Restore the Viability of the Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase III holD Mutant.

    PubMed

    Durand, Adeline; Sinha, Anurag Kumar; Dard-Dascot, Cloelia; Michel, Bénédicte

    2016-06-01

    Mutants lacking the ψ (HolD) subunit of the Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase III holoenzyme (Pol III HE) have poor viability, but a residual growth allows the isolation of spontaneous suppressor mutations that restore ΔholD mutant viability. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of two suppressor mutations in the trkA and trkE genes, involved in the main E. coli potassium import system. Viability of ΔholD trk mutants is abolished on media with low or high K+ concentrations, where alternative K+ import systems are activated, and is restored on low K+ concentrations by the inactivation of the alternative Kdp system. These findings show that the ΔholD mutant is rescued by a decrease in K+ import. The effect of trk inactivation is additive with the previously identified ΔholD suppressor mutation lexAind that blocks the SOS response indicating an SOS-independent mechanism of suppression. Accordingly, although lagging-strand synthesis is still perturbed in holD trkA mutants, the trkA mutation allows HolD-less Pol III HE to resist increased levels of the SOS-induced bypass polymerase DinB. trk inactivation is also partially additive with an ssb gene duplication, proposed to stabilize HolD-less Pol III HE by a modification of the single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) binding mode. We propose that lowering the intracellular K+ concentration stabilizes HolD-less Pol III HE on DNA by increasing electrostatic interactions between Pol III HE subunits, or between Pol III and DNA, directly or through a modification of the SSB binding mode; these three modes of action are not exclusive and could be additive. To our knowledge, the holD mutant provides the first example of an essential protein-DNA interaction that strongly depends on K+ import in vivo. PMID:27280472

  10. Mutations Affecting Potassium Import Restore the Viability of the Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase III holD Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Adeline

    2016-01-01

    Mutants lacking the ψ (HolD) subunit of the Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase III holoenzyme (Pol III HE) have poor viability, but a residual growth allows the isolation of spontaneous suppressor mutations that restore ΔholD mutant viability. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of two suppressor mutations in the trkA and trkE genes, involved in the main E. coli potassium import system. Viability of ΔholD trk mutants is abolished on media with low or high K+ concentrations, where alternative K+ import systems are activated, and is restored on low K+ concentrations by the inactivation of the alternative Kdp system. These findings show that the ΔholD mutant is rescued by a decrease in K+ import. The effect of trk inactivation is additive with the previously identified ΔholD suppressor mutation lexAind that blocks the SOS response indicating an SOS-independent mechanism of suppression. Accordingly, although lagging-strand synthesis is still perturbed in holD trkA mutants, the trkA mutation allows HolD-less Pol III HE to resist increased levels of the SOS-induced bypass polymerase DinB. trk inactivation is also partially additive with an ssb gene duplication, proposed to stabilize HolD-less Pol III HE by a modification of the single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) binding mode. We propose that lowering the intracellular K+ concentration stabilizes HolD-less Pol III HE on DNA by increasing electrostatic interactions between Pol III HE subunits, or between Pol III and DNA, directly or through a modification of the SSB binding mode; these three modes of action are not exclusive and could be additive. To our knowledge, the holD mutant provides the first example of an essential protein-DNA interaction that strongly depends on K+ import in vivo. PMID:27280472

  11. A mutant crp allele that differentially activates the operons of the fuc regulon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Lin, E C

    1988-05-01

    L-Fucose is used by Escherichia coli through an inducible pathway mediated by a fucP-encoded permease, a fucI-encoded isomerase, a fucK-encoded kinase, and a fucA-encoded aldolase. The adolase catalyzes the formation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and L-lactaldehyde. Anaerobically, lactaldehyde is converted by a fucO-encoded oxidoreductase to L-1,2-propanediol, which is excreted. The fuc genes belong to a regulon comprising four linked operons: fucO, fucA, fucPIK, and fucR. The positive regulator encoded by fucR responds to fuculose 1-phosphate as the effector. Mutants serially selected for aerobic growth on propanediol became constitutive in fucO and fucA [fucO(Con) fucA(Con)], but noninducible in fucPIK [fucPIK(Non)]. An external suppressor mutation that restored growth on fucose caused constitutive expression of fucPIK. Results from this study indicate that this suppressor mutation occurred in crp, which encodes the cyclic AMP-binding (or receptor) protein. When the suppressor allele (crp-201) was transduced into wild-type strains, the recipient became fucose negative and fucose sensitive (with glycerol as the carbon and energy source) because of impaired expression of fucA. The fucPIK operon became hyperinducible. The growth rate on maltose was significantly reduced, but growth on L-rhamnose, D-galactose, L-arabinose, glycerol, or glycerol 3-phosphate was close to normal. Lysogenization of fuc+ crp-201 cells by a lambda bacteriophage bearing crp+ restored normal growth ability on fucose. In contrast, lysogenization of [fucO(Con)fucA(Con)fucPIK(Non)crp-201] cells by the same phage retarded their growth on fucose. PMID:2834341

  12. Cytotoxicity of lawsone and cytoprotective activity of antioxidants in catalase mutant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sauriasari, Rani; Wang, Da-Hong; Takemura, Yoko; Tsutsui, Ken; Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Sano, Kuniaki; Horita, Masako; Wang, Bing-Ling; Ogino, Keiki

    2007-06-01

    Lawsone is an active naphthoquinone derivative isolated from henna (Lawsonia inermis L.), a widely used hair dye. Previous study on the toxicity of lawsone remains unclear since the involvement of oxidative stress and the kind of ROS (reactive oxygen species) involved have not been fully resolved yet. This present study reports the cytotoxic effects of lawsone and henna. We carried out CAT assay (a zone of inhibition test of bacterial growth and colony-forming efficiency test of transformant Escherichia coli strains that express mammalian catalase gene derived from normal catalase mice (Cs(a)) and catalase-deficient mutant mice (Cs(b))), Ames mutagenicity assay and H(2)O(2) generation assay. Lawsone generated H(2)O(2) slightly in phosphate buffer system and was not mutagenic in Ames assay using TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102, both in the absence and presence of metabolic activation. Lawsone exposure inhibited the growth of both Cs(a) and Cs(b) strains in a dose-dependent manner. Mean zone diameter for Cs(a) was 9.75+/-0.96 mm and 12.75+/-1.5 mm for Cs(b). Natural henna leaves did not show toxic effects, whereas two out of four samples of marketed henna products were shown toxicity effects. Catalase abolished zone of inhibition (ZOI) of marketed henna products, eliminated ZOI of lawsone in a dose-dependent manner and low concentration of exogenous MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD eliminated the toxicity. Histidine and DTPA, the metal chelator; BHA and low concentration of capsaicin, the inducer of NADH-quinone reductase, effectively protected Cs(a) and Cs(b) against lawsone in this study. We suggest that lawsone cytotoxicity is probably mediated, at least in part, by the release of O(2)(-), H(2)O(2) and OH(-). PMID:17442476

  13. Effect of Spermidine Analogues on Cell Growth of Escherichia coli Polyamine Requiring Mutant MA261

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Taketo; Sakamoto, Akihiko; Terui, Yusuke; Takao, Koichi; Sugita, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Ishihama, Akira; Igarashi, Kazuei; Kashiwagi, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    The effects of spermidine analogues [norspermidine (NSPD, 33), spermidine (SPD, 34), homospermidine (HSPD, 44) and aminopropylcadaverine (APCAD, 35)] on cell growth were studied using Escherichia coli polyamine-requiring mutant MA261. Cell growth was compared at 32°C, 37°C, and 42°C. All four analogues were taken up mainly by the PotABCD spermidine-preferential uptake system. The degree of stimulation of cell growth at 32°C and 37°C was NSPD ≥ SPD ≥ HSPD > APCAD, and SPD ≥ HSPD ≥ NSPD > APCAD, respectively. However, at 42°C, it was HSPD » SPD > NSPD > APCAD. One reason for this is HSPD was taken up effectively compared with other triamines. In addition, since natural polyamines (triamines and teteraamines) interact mainly with RNA, and the structure of RNA is more flexible at higher temperatures, HSPD probably stabilized RNA more tightly at 42°C. We have thus far found that 20 kinds of protein syntheses are stimulated by polyamines at the translational level. Among them, synthesis of OppA, RpoE and StpA was more strongly stimulated by HSPD at 42°C than at 37°C. Stabilization of the initiation region of oppA and rpoE mRNA was tighter by HSPD at 42°C than 37°C determined by circular dichroism (CD). The degree of polyamine stimulation of OppA, RpoE and StpA synthesis by NSPD, SPD and APCAD was smaller than that by HSPD at 42°C. Thus, the degree of stimulation of cell growth by spermidine analogues at the different temperatures is dependent on the stimulation of protein synthesis by some components of the polyamine modulon. PMID:27434546

  14. ssb Gene Duplication Restores the Viability of ΔholC and ΔholD Escherichia coli Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Duigou, Stéphane; Silvain, Maud; Viguera, Enrique; Michel, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    The HolC-HolD (χψ) complex is part of the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme (Pol III HE) clamp-loader. Several lines of evidence indicate that both leading- and lagging-strand synthesis are affected in the absence of this complex. The Escherichia coli ΔholD mutant grows poorly and suppressor mutations that restore growth appear spontaneously. Here we show that duplication of the ssb gene, encoding the single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB), restores ΔholD mutant growth at all temperatures on both minimal and rich medium. RecFOR-dependent SOS induction, previously shown to occur in the ΔholD mutant, is unaffected by ssb gene duplication, suggesting that lagging-strand synthesis remains perturbed. The C-terminal SSB disordered tail, which interacts with several E. coli repair, recombination and replication proteins, must be intact in both copies of the gene in order to restore normal growth. This suggests that SSB-mediated ΔholD suppression involves interaction with one or more partner proteins. ssb gene duplication also suppresses ΔholC single mutant and ΔholC ΔholD double mutant growth defects, indicating that it bypasses the need for the entire χψ complex. We propose that doubling the amount of SSB stabilizes HolCD-less Pol III HE DNA binding through interactions between SSB and a replisome component, possibly DnaE. Given that SSB binds DNA in vitro via different binding modes depending on experimental conditions, including SSB protein concentration and SSB interactions with partner proteins, our results support the idea that controlling the balance between SSB binding modes is critical for DNA Pol III HE stability in vivo, with important implications for DNA replication and genome stability. PMID:25329071

  15. Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection.

    PubMed

    Baba, Tomoya; Ara, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Miki; Takai, Yuki; Okumura, Yoshiko; Baba, Miki; Datsenko, Kirill A; Tomita, Masaru; Wanner, Barry L; Mori, Hirotada

    2006-01-01

    We have systematically made a set of precisely defined, single-gene deletions of all nonessential genes in Escherichia coli K-12. Open-reading frame coding regions were replaced with a kanamycin cassette flanked by FLP recognition target sites by using a one-step method for inactivation of chromosomal genes and primers designed to create in-frame deletions upon excision of the resistance cassette. Of 4288 genes targeted, mutants were obtained for 3985. To alleviate problems encountered in high-throughput studies, two independent mutants were saved for every deleted gene. These mutants-the 'Keio collection'-provide a new resource not only for systematic analyses of unknown gene functions and gene regulatory networks but also for genome-wide testing of mutational effects in a common strain background, E. coli K-12 BW25113. We were unable to disrupt 303 genes, including 37 of unknown function, which are candidates for essential genes. Distribution is being handled via GenoBase (http://ecoli.aist-nara.ac.jp/). PMID:16738554

  16. Mutants of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin as safe and strong adjuvants for intranasal delivery of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Peppoloni, Samuele; Ruggiero, Paolo; Contorni, Mario; Morandi, Maurizio; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rappuoli, Rino; Podda, Audino; Del Giudice, Giuseppe

    2003-04-01

    Cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin are powerful mucosal adjuvants but their high toxicity hampers their use in humans. Site-directed mutagenesis has allowed the generation of several cholera toxin and E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin mutants with abolished or strongly reduced toxicity that still retain strong mucosal adjuvanticity. Among them, LTK63 (Ser to Lys substitution at position 63 in the A subunit) is completely nontoxic and LTR72 (Ala to Arg at position 72) retains a very low residual enzymatic activity. Both of them have been shown to be safe and effective in enhancing the immunogenicity of intranasally coadministered vaccines, also resulting in protective responses in several animal models. Clinical grade preparations of these mutants have now been produced, tested in animals and proven to be totally safe. Indeed, they did not induce any inflammatory event in the respiratory tract nor, more importantly, in the olfactory bulbs and in the meninges. The fully nontoxic LTK63 mutant has now been successfully tested in human volunteers with a trivalent subunit influenza vaccine. PMID:12899578

  17. Polymorphic Variation in Susceptibility and Metabolism of Triclosan-Resistant Mutants of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Strains Obtained after Exposure to Biocides and Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Curiao, Tânia; Marchi, Emmanuela; Viti, Carlo; Oggioni, Marco R.; Baquero, Fernando; Martinez, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to biocides may result in cross-resistance to other antimicrobials. Changes in biocide and antibiotic susceptibilities, metabolism, and fitness costs were studied here in biocide-selected Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae mutants. E. coli and K. pneumoniae mutants with various degrees of triclosan susceptibility were obtained after exposure to triclosan (TRI), benzalkonium chloride (BKC), chlorhexidine (CHX) or sodium hypochlorite (SHC), and ampicillin or ciprofloxacin. Alterations in antimicrobial susceptibility and metabolism in mutants were tested using Phenotype MicroArrays. The expression of AcrAB pump and global regulators (SoxR, MarA, and RamA) was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the central part of the fabI gene was sequenced. The fitness costs of resistance were assessed by a comparison of relative growth rates. Triclosan-resistant (TRIr) and triclosan-hypersusceptible (TRIhs) mutants of E. coli and K. pneumoniae were obtained after selection with biocides and/or antibiotics. E. coli TRIr mutants, including those with mutations in the fabI gene or in the expression of acrB, acrF, and marA, exhibited changes in susceptibility to TRI, CHX, and antibiotics. TRIr mutants for which the TRI MIC was high presented improved metabolism of carboxylic acids, amino acids, and carbohydrates. In TRIr mutants, resistance to one antimicrobial provoked hypersusceptibility to another one(s). TRIr mutants had fitness costs, particularly marA-overexpressing (E. coli) or ramA-overexpressing (K. pneumoniae) mutants. TRI, BKC, and CIP exposure frequently yielded TRIr mutants exhibiting alterations in AraC-like global regulators (MarA, SoxR, and RamA), AcrAB-TolC, and/or FabI, and influencing antimicrobial susceptibility, fitness, and metabolism. These various phenotypes suggest a trade-off of different selective processes shaping the evolution toward antibiotic/biocide resistance and influencing other adaptive traits. PMID

  18. Restoration of growth by manganese in a mutant strain of Escherichia coli lacking most known iron and manganese uptake systems.

    PubMed

    Taudte, Nadine; German, Nadezhda; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Grass, Gregor; Rensing, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    The interplay of manganese and iron homeostasis and oxidative stress in Escherichia coli can give important insights into survival of bacteria in the phagosome and under differing iron or manganese bioavailabilities. Here, we characterized a mutant strain devoid of all know iron/manganese-uptake systems relevant for growth in defined medium. Based on these results an exit strategy enabling the cell to cope with iron depletion and use of manganese as an alternative for iron could be shown. Such a strategy would also explain why E. coli harbors some iron- or manganese-dependent iso-enzymes such as superoxide dismutases or ribonucleotide reductases. The benefits for gaining a means for survival would be bought with the cost of less efficient metabolism as indicated in our experiments by lower cell densities with manganese than with iron. In addition, this strain was extremely sensitive to the metalloid gallium but this gallium toxicity can be alleviated by low concentrations of manganese. PMID:27003826

  19. Guanine nucleotide metabolism in a mutant strain of Escherichia coli with a temperature sensitive lesion in rRNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Harris, J S; Chaney, S G

    1978-12-21

    We have described a mutant of Escherichia coli (designated 2S142) which shows specific inhibition of rRNA synthesis at 42 degrees C. ppGpp levels increase at the restrictive temperature, as expected. However, when the cells are returned to 30 degrees C, rRNA synthesis resumes before ppGpp levels have returned to normal. Furthermore, when ppGpp levels are decreased by the addition of tetracycline or choramphenicol, rRNA synthesis does not resume at 42 degrees C. Also, a derivative of 2S142 with a temperature-sensitive G factor (which cannot synthesize either protein or ppGpp at 42 degrees C) shows identical kinetics of rRNA shut-off at 42 degrees C as 2S142. Thus, the elevated ppGpp levels in this mutant do not appear to be directly responsible for the cessation of rRNA synthesis at 42 degrees C. PMID:367439

  20. Mutants of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin lacking ADP-ribosyltransferase activity act as nontoxic, mucosal adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Douce, G; Turcotte, C; Cropley, I; Roberts, M; Pizza, M; Domenghini, M; Rappuoli, R; Dougan, G

    1995-02-28

    A nontoxic mutant (LTK7) of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) lacking ADP-ribosylating activity but retaining holotoxin formation was constructed. By using site-directed mutagenesis, the arginine at position 7 of the A subunit was replaced with lysine. This molecule, which was nontoxic in several assays, was able to bind to eukaryotic cells and acted as a mucosal adjuvant for co-administered proteins; BALB/c mice immunized intranasally with LTK7 and ovalbumin developed high levels of serum and local antibodies to ovalbumin and toxin. In addition, mice immunized intranasally with fragment C of tetanus toxin and LTK7 were protected against lethal challenge with tetanus toxin. Thus nontoxic mutants of heat-labile toxin can act as effective intranasal mucosal adjuvants. PMID:7878032

  1. Phenotype microarray analysis of Escherichia coli K-12 mutants with deletions of all two-component systems.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lu; Lei, Xiang-He; Bochner, Barry R; Wanner, Barry L

    2003-08-01

    Two-component systems are the most common mechanism of transmembrane signal transduction in bacteria. A typical system consists of a histidine kinase and a partner response regulator. The histidine kinase senses an environmental signal, which it transmits to its partner response regulator via a series of autophosphorylation, phosphotransfer, and dephosphorylation reactions. Much work has been done on particular systems, including several systems with regulatory roles in cellular physiology, communication, development, and, in the case of bacterial pathogens, the expression of genes important for virulence. We used two methods to investigate two-component regulatory systems in Escherichia coli K-12. First, we systematically constructed mutants with deletions of all two-component systems by using a now-standard technique of gene disruption (K. A. Datsenko and B. L. Wanner, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:6640-6645, 2000). We then analyzed these deletion mutants with a new technology called Phenotype MicroArrays, which permits assays of nearly 2,000 growth phenotypes simultaneously. In this study we tested 100 mutants, including mutants with individual deletions of all two-component systems and several related genes, including creBC-regulated genes (cbrA and cbrBC), phoBR-regulated genes (phoA, phoH, phnCDEFGHIJKLMNOP, psiE, and ugpBAECQ), csgD, luxS, and rpoS. The results of this battery of nearly 200,000 tests provided a wealth of new information concerning many of these systems. Of 37 different two-component mutants, 22 showed altered phenotypes. Many phenotypes were expected, and several new phenotypes were also revealed. The results are discussed in terms of the biological roles and other information concerning these systems, including DNA microarray data for a large number of the same mutants. Other mutational effects are also discussed. PMID:12897016

  2. Initiation of chromosome replication in dnaA and dnaC mutants of Escherichia coli B/r F.

    PubMed Central

    Helmstetter, C E; Krajewski, C A

    1982-01-01

    Regulatory aspects of chromosome replication were investigated in dnaA5 and dnaC2 mutants of the Escherichia coli B/r F. When cultures growing at 25 degrees C were shifted to 41 degrees C for extended periods and then returned to 25 degrees C, the subsequent synchronous initiations of chromosome replication were spaced at fixed intervals. When chloramphenicol was added coincident with the temperature downshift, the extend of chromosome replication in the dnaA mutant was greater than that in the dnaC mutant, but the time intervals between initiations were the same in both mutants. Furthermore, the time interval between the first two initiation events was unaffected by alterations in the rate of rifampin-sensitive RNA synthesis or cell mass increase. In the dnaC2 mutant, the capacities for both initiations were achieved in the absence of extensive DNA replication at 25 degrees C as long as protein synthesis was permitted, but the cells did not progress toward the second initiation at 25 degrees C when both protein synthesis and DNA replication were prevented. Cells of the dnaA5 mutant did not achieve the capacity for the second initiation event in the absence of extensive chromosome replication, although delayed initiation may have taken place. A plausible hypothesis to explain the data is that the minimum interval is determined by the time required for formation of a supercoiled, membrane-attached structure in the vicinity of oriC which is required for initiation of DNA synthesis. PMID:6173377

  3. Cytochrome d but not cytochrome o rescues the toluidine blue growth sensitivity of arc mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Adrian F; Malpica, Roxana; Contreras, Martha; Escamilla, Edgardo; Georgellis, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    The Arc (anoxic redox control) two-component signal transduction system, consisting of the ArcB sensor kinase and the ArcA response regulator, allows adaptive responses of Escherichia coli to changes of O(2) availability. The arcA gene was previously known as the dye gene because null mutants were growth sensitive to the photosensitizer redox dyes toluidine blue and methylene blue, a phenotype whose molecular basis still remains elusive. In this study we report that the toluidine blue O (TBO) effect on the arc mutants is light independent and observed only during aerobic growth conditions. Moreover, 16 suppressor mutants with restored growth were generated and analyzed. Thirteen of those possessed insertion elements upstream of the cydAB operon, rendering its expression ArcA independent. Also, it was found that, in contrast to cythocrome d, cythocrome o was not able to confer toluidine blue resistance to arc mutants, thereby representing an intriguing difference between the two terminal oxidases. Finally, a mechanism for TBO sensitivity and resistance is discussed. PMID:19897650

  4. Quantitative inner membrane proteome datasets of the wild-type and the Δmin mutant of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liang, Suh-Yuen; Lin, Shu-Yu; Chiang, I-Chen; Shih, Yu-Ling

    2016-09-01

    This article presents data that were obtained through measuring the impact of the Min oscillation on membrane proteins in Escherichia coli by quantitative protemoics analysis. We isolated inner membranes from the wild-type and mutant strains to generate proteomics datasets based on NanoLC-nanoESI-MS/MS mass spectrometry using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) method. The datasets included the raw spectral files from four sample replicates and the processed files using Proteome Discoverer that contained a total of 40,072 MS/MS spectra with confident peptide identifier (FDR<0.01) and the peak intensity of the reporter ions. The data was further filtered, which resulted in an inner membrane proteome of unique proteins with quantitation. Proteins of interest, that show significant difference in protein abundance of the mutant membrane, were isolated through statistical filtering. The data is related to "Quantitative proteomics analysis reveals the Min system of Escherichia coli modulates reversible protein association with the inner membrane" (Lee et al., 2016 [1]). PMID:27331106

  5. A signal sequence is not required for protein export in prlA mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Derman, A I; Puziss, J W; Bassford, P J; Beckwith, J

    1993-01-01

    The prlA/secY gene, which codes for an integral membrane protein component of the Escherichia coli protein export machinery, is the locus of the strongest suppressors of signal sequence mutations. We demonstrate that two exported proteins of E.coli, maltose-binding protein and alkaline phosphatase, each lacking its entire signal sequence, are exported to the periplasm in several prlA mutants. The export efficiency can be substantial; in a strain carrying the prlA4 allele, 30% of signal-sequenceless alkaline phosphatase is exported to the periplasm. Other components of the E.coli export machinery, including SecA, are required for this export. SecB is required for the export of signal-sequenceless alkaline phosphatase even though the normal export of alkaline phosphatase does not require this chaperonin. Our findings indicate that signal sequences confer speed and efficiency upon the export process, but that they are not always essential for export. Entry into the export pathway may involve components that so overlap in function that the absence of a signal sequence can be compensated for, or there may exist one or more means of entry that do not require signal sequences at all. Images PMID:8458344

  6. Active site mutants of Escherichia coli dethiobiotin synthetase: effects of mutations on enzyme catalytic and structural properties.

    PubMed

    Yang, G; Sandalova, T; Lohman, K; Lindqvist, Y; Rendina, A R

    1997-04-22

    Five active site residues, Thr11, Glu12, Lys15, Lys37, and Ser41, implicated by the protein crystal structure studies of Escherichia coli DTBS, were mutated to determine their function in catalysis and substrate binding. Nine mutant enzymes, T11V, E12A, E12D, K15Q, K37L, K37Q, K37R, S41A, and S41C, were overproduced in an E. coli strain lacking a functional endogenous DTBS gene and purified to homogeneity. Replacement of Thr11 with valine resulted in a 24,000-fold increase in the Km(ATP) with little or no change in the Kd(ATP), KM(DAPA) and DTBS k(cat), suggesting an essential role for this residue in the steady-state affinity for ATP. The two Glu12 mutants showed essentially wild-type DTBS activity (slightly elevated k(cat)'s). Unlike wild-type DTBS, E12A had the same apparent KM(DAPA) at subsaturating and saturating ATP concentrations, indicating a possible role for Glu12 in the binding synergy between DAPA and ATP. The mutations in Lys15 and Lys37 resulted in loss of catalytic activity (0.01% and <0.9% of wild-type DTBS k(cat) for K15Q and the Lys37 mutant enzymes, respectively) and higher KM's for both DAPA (40-fold and >100-fold higher than wild-type for the K15Q and Lys37 mutant enzymes, respectively) and ATP (1800-fold and >10-fold higher than wild-type for K15Q and the K37 mutant enzymes, respectively). These results strongly suggest that Lys15 and Lys37 are crucial to both catalysis and substrate binding. S41A and S41C had essentially the same k(cat) as wild-type and had moderate increases in the DAPA and ATP KM and Kd (ATP) values. Replacement of Ser41 with cysteine resulted in larger effects than replacement with alanine. These data suggest that the H-bond between N7 of DAPA and the Ser41 side chain is not very important for catalysis. The catalytic behavior of these mutant enzymes was also studied by pulse-chase experiments which produced results consistent with the steady-state kinetic analyses. X-ray crystallographic studies of four mutant enzymes, S

  7. prlA suppression of defective export of maltose-binding protein in secB mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Francetić, O; Hanson, M P; Kumamoto, C A

    1993-07-01

    An Escherichia coli strain containing a signal sequence mutation in the periplasmic maltose-binding protein (MBP) (malE18-1) and a point mutation in the soluble export factor SecB (secBL75Q) is completely defective in export of MBP and unable to grow on maltose (Mal- phenotype). We isolated 95 spontaneous Mal+ revertants and characterized them genetically. Three types of extragenic suppressors were identified: informational (missense) suppressors, a bypass suppressor conferring the Mal+ phenotype in the absence of MBP, and suppressors affecting the prlA gene, which encodes a component of the protein export apparatus. In this study, a novel prlA allele, designated prlA1001 and mapping in the putative second transmembrane domain of the PrlA (SecY) protein, was found. In addition, we isolated a mutation designated prlA1024 which is identical to prlA4-2, the mutation responsible for the signal sequence suppression in the prlA4 (prlA4-1 prlA4-2) double mutant (T. Sako and T. Iino, J. Bacteriol. 170:5389-5391, 1988). Comparison of the prlA1024 mutant and the prlA4 double mutant provides a possible explanation for the isolation of these prlA alleles. PMID:8320219

  8. Synthesis and activities of branched-chain aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in threonine deaminase mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A L; Whitfield, S M; Williams, L S

    1978-01-01

    Valyl-, isoleucyl-, and leucyl-tRNA synthetase activities were examined in an Escherichia coli K-12 strain that possessed a deletion of three genes of the ilv gene cluster, ilvD, A, and C, and in a strain with the same deletion that also carried the lambdadilvCB bacteriophage. It was observed that the branched-chain tRNA synthetase activities of both strains were considerably less than those of the normal strain during growth in unrestricted medium. Furthermore, during an isoleucine limitation, there was a further reduction in isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase activity and an absence of the isoleucine-mediated derepression of valyl-tRNA synthetase formation in both of these mutants, as compared with the normal strain. In addition, it was observed that these branched-chain synthetase activities were reduced in steady-state cultures of several ilvA point mutants. However, upon the introduction of the ilv operon to these ilvA mutants by use of lambda bacteriophage, there was a specific increase in the branched-chain synthetase activities to levels comparable to those of the normal strain. These results support our previous findings that the stability and repression control of synthesis of these synthetases require some product(s) missing in the ilvDAC deletion strain and strongly suggest this component is some form of the ilvA gene product, threonine deaminase. PMID:348689

  9. Novel features of the ISC machinery revealed by characterization of Escherichia coli mutants that survive without iron-sulfur clusters.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naoyuki; Kanazawa, Miaki; Tonosaki, Keitaro; Yokoyama, Nao; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Takahashi, Yasuhiro

    2016-03-01

    Biological assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters is mediated by complex systems consisting of multiple proteins. Escherichia coli possesses two distinct systems called the ISC and SUF machineries encoded by iscSUA-hscBA-fdx-iscX and sufABCDSE respectively. Deletion of both pathways results in absence of the biosynthetic apparatus for Fe-S clusters, and consequent lethality, which has hampered detailed genetic studies. Here we report that modification of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway can offset the indispensability of the Fe-S cluster biosynthetic systems and show that the resulting Δisc Δsuf double mutants can grow without detectable Fe-S cluster-containing proteins. We also constructed a series of mutants in which each isc gene was disrupted in the deletion background of sufABCDSE. Phenotypic analysis of the mutants revealed that Fdx, an essential electron-transfer Fe-S protein in the ISC machinery, is dispensable under anaerobic conditions, which is similar to the situation with IscA. Furthermore, we found that several suppressor mutations in IscU, an Fe-S scaffold protein responsible for the de novo Fe-S cluster assembly, could bypass the essential role of the chaperone system HscA and HscB. These findings pave the way toward a detailed molecular analysis to understand the mechanisms involved in Fe-S cluster biosynthesis. PMID:26560204

  10. New FadB homologous enzymes and their use in enhanced biosynthesis of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates in FadB mutant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Park, Si Jae; Yup Lee, Sang

    2004-06-20

    Recombinant Escherichia coli harboring the medium-chain-length (MCL) polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase gene has been shown to accumulate MCL-PHAs from fatty acids when FadB is inactive. However, the enzymes in fadB mutant E. coli responsible for channeling the beta-oxidation intermediates to PHA biosynthesis have not been fully elucidated. Only recently, two enzymes encoded by yfcX and maoC have been found to be partially responsible for this. In this study, we identified five new FadB homologous enzymes in E. coli: PaaG, PaaF, BhbD, SceH, and YdbU, by protein database search, and examined their roles in the biosynthesis of MCL-PHAs in an fadB mutant E. coli strain. Coexpression of each of these genes along with the Pseudomonas sp. 61-3 phaC2 gene did not allow synthesis of MCL-PHA from fatty acid in recombinant E. coli W3110, which has a fully functional beta-oxidation pathway, but allowed MCL-PHA accumulation in an fadB mutant E. coli WB101. In particular, coexpression of the paaG, paaF, and ydbU genes resulted in a MCL-PHA production up to 0.37, 0.25, and 0.33 g/L, respectively, from 2 g/L of sodium decanoate, which is more than twice higher than that obtained with E. coli WB101 expressing only the phaC2 gene (0.16 g/L). These results suggest that the newly found FadB homologous enzymes, or at least the paaG, paaF, and ydbU genes, are involved in MCL-PHA biosynthesis in an fadB mutant E. coli strain and can be employed for the enhanced production of MCL-PHA. PMID:15137080

  11. Facile Alkaline Lysis of Escherichia coli Cells in High-Throughput Mode for Screening Enzyme Mutants: Arylsulfatase as an Example.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Mei; Yang, Xiaolan; Li, Yuwei; Liu, Hongbo; Pu, Jun; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Liao, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Facile alkaline lysis of Escherichia coli cells in high-throughput (HTP) mode for screening enzyme mutants was tested with Pseudomonas aeruginosa arylsulfatase (PAAS). The alkaline lysis buffer was 1.0 M Tris-HCl at pH 9.0 plus 0.1 % Tween-20 and 2.0 mM 4-aminobenzamidine, mixed with cell suspension at 8:1 to 12:1 ratio for continuous agitation of mixtures in 96-well plates under room temperature; enzymatic activity in lysates was measured with 96-well microplate. PAAS activity tolerated final 0.1 % Tween-20. Individual clones were amplified for 12 h in 0.50 mL TB medium with 48-well plates to enhance the repeatability of induced expression. During continuous agitation of the mixture of cells and the lysis buffer, PAAS activities in lysates were steady from 3 to 9 h and comparable to sonication treatment but better than freezing-thawing. Coefficients of variation of activities of PAAS/mutants in lysates after treatment for 7 h reached ∼22 %. The mutant M72Q had specific activity 2-fold of G138S. By HTP lysis of cells, M72Q was recognized as a positive mutant over G138S with the area under the curve of 0.873. Therefore, for enzymes tolerating concentrated alkaline buffers, the proposed alkaline lysis approach may be generally applicable for HTP lysis of host cells during directed evolution. PMID:26899233

  12. Derepression of colicin E1 synthesis in the constitutive tif mutant strain (spr tif sfi) and in a tif sfi mutant strain of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Tessman, E S; Gritzmacher, C A; Peterson, P K

    1978-01-01

    We show here that expression of the colicin gene of the ColE1 plasmid is greatly derepressed in Escherichia coli K-12 strain DM1187 spr tif sfi, which is a constitutive tif mutant, altered in the lexA gene, and which shows constitutive expression of various pathways of the recA-dependent, lexA-blocked (SOS) repair system. In this strain colicin E1 synthesis is at least 100-fold greater than that observed in uninduced control strains (spr+ tif sfi and spr+ tif+ sfi). This result confirms the regulatory role of the lexA product in colicin E1 synthesis. Colicin yields by the uninduced strain DM1187 are as high as the maximum yields from mitomycin-induced control strains and often are several-fold higher. When the nonconstitutive tif sfi strain GC467 is raised to 43 degrees C to induce the SOS system, a low level of colicin synthesis is observed which is less than one-tenth of the yield obtained by induction with mitomycin C. Addition of adenine at the time of shift-up can increase the colicin yield of tif sfi to about one-third of the yield obtained with mitomycin C. We have also found that colicin overproduction can be detected by altered colony appearance in an overlay assay with colicin-sensitive bacteria. In addition, the lethality of the process of colicin synthesis is observed here without the use of bacteriostatic inducing agents. Images PMID:353034

  13. UDP-N-Acetylmuramic Acid l-Alanine Ligase (MurC) Inhibition in a tolC Mutant Escherichia coli Strain Leads to Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Humnabadkar, Vaishali; Prabhakar, K. R.; Narayan, Ashwini; Sharma, Sreevalli; Guptha, Supreeth; Manjrekar, Praveena; Chinnapattu, Murugan; Ramachandran, Vasanthi; Hameed, Shahul P.; Ravishankar, Sudha

    2014-01-01

    The Mur ligases play an essential role in the biosynthesis of bacterial peptidoglycan and hence are attractive antibacterial targets. A screen of the AstraZeneca compound library led to the identification of compound A, a pyrazolopyrimidine, as a potent inhibitor of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa MurC. However, cellular activity against E. coli or P. aeruginosa was not observed. Compound A was active against efflux pump mutants of both strains. Experiments using an E. coli tolC mutant revealed accumulation of the MurC substrate and a decrease in the level of product upon treatment with compound A, indicating inhibition of MurC enzyme in these cells. Such a modulation was not observed in the E. coli wild-type cells. Further, overexpression of MurC in the E. coli tolC mutant led to an increase in the compound A MIC by ≥16-fold, establishing a correlation between MurC inhibition and cellular activity. In addition, estimation of the intracellular compound A level showed an accumulation of the compound over time in the tolC mutant strain. A significant compound A level was not detected in the wild-type E. coli strain even upon treatment with high concentrations of the compound. Therefore, the lack of MIC and absence of MurC inhibition in wild-type E. coli were possibly due to suboptimal compound concentration as a consequence of a high efflux level and/or poor permeativity of compound A. PMID:25114134

  14. Escherichia coli B/r leuK mutant lacking pseudouridine synthase I activity.

    PubMed

    Searles, L L; Jones, J W; Fournier, M J; Grambow, N; Tyler, B; Calvo, J M

    1986-04-01

    Escherichia coli B/r strain EB146 containing mutation leuK16 has elevated levels of enzymes involved in the synthesis of leucine, valine, isoleucine, histidine, and tryptophan (Brown et al., J. Bacteriol. 135:542-550, 1978). We show here that strain EB146 (leuK16) has properties that are similar to those of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium hisT strains. In tRNA1Leu from both hisT and leuK strains, positions 39 and 41 are uridine residues rather than pseudouridine residues. Furthermore, in tRNA3Leu and tRNA4Leu from a leuK strain, uridine residues at positions 39 and 40, respectively, are unmodified. Pseudouridine synthase I activity is missing in extracts of strain EB146 (leuK16), and extracts of strain EB146 (leuK16) and of a hisT strain do not complement one another in vitro. Four phenotypes of strain EB146 (leuK16), leucine excretion, wrinkled colony morphology, and elevated levels of leu and his enzymes, are complemented by a plasmid having a 1.65-kilobase DNA fragment containing the E. coli K-12 hisT locus. These results indicate that either leuK codes for pseudouridine synthase I (and is thus a hisT locus in reality) or, less likely, it codes for a product that affects the synthesis or activity of pseudouridine synthase I. PMID:3514581

  15. Construction of a dihydrofolate reductase-deficient mutant of Escherichia coli by gene replacement.

    PubMed Central

    Howell, E E; Foster, P G; Foster, L M

    1988-01-01

    The dihydrofolate reductase (fol) gene in Escherichia coli has been deleted and replaced by a selectable marker. Verification of the delta fol::kan strain has been accomplished using genetic and biochemical criteria, including Southern analysis of the chromosomal DNA. The delta fol::kan mutation is stable in E. coli K549 [thyA polA12 (Ts)] and can be successfully transduced to other E. coli strains providing they have mutations in their thymidylate synthetase (thyA) genes. A preliminary investigation of the relationship between fol and thyA gene expression suggests that a Fol- cell (i.e., a dihydrofolate reductase deficiency phenotype) is not viable unless thymidylate synthetase activity is concurrently eliminated. This observation indicates that either the nonproductive accumulation of dihydrofolate or the depletion of tetrahydrofolate cofactor pools is lethal in a Fol- ThyA+ strain. Strains containing the thyA delta fol::kan lesions require the presence of Fol end products for growth, and these lesions typically increase the doubling time of the strain by a factor of 2.5 in rich medium. Images PMID:2838456

  16. Selection of multiple-antibiotic-resistant (mar) mutants of Escherichia coli by using the disinfectant pine oil: roles of the mar and acrAB loci.

    PubMed Central

    Moken, M C; McMurry, L M; Levy, S B

    1997-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli selected for resistance to the disinfectant pine oil or to a household product containing pine oil also showed resistance to multiple antibiotics (tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and nalidixic acid) and overexpressed the marA gene. Likewise, antibiotic-selected Mar mutants, which also overexpress marA, were resistant to pine oil. Deletion of the mar or acrAB locus, the latter encoding a multidrug efflux pump positively regulated in part by MarA, increased the susceptibility of wild-type and mutant strains to pine oil. PMID:9420057

  17. Polymorphic variation in susceptibility and metabolism of triclosan-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains obtained after exposure to biocides and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Curiao, Tânia; Marchi, Emmanuela; Viti, Carlo; Oggioni, Marco R; Baquero, Fernando; Martinez, José Luis; Coque, Teresa M

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to biocides may result in cross-resistance to other antimicrobials. Changes in biocide and antibiotic susceptibilities, metabolism, and fitness costs were studied here in biocide-selected Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae mutants. E. coli and K. pneumoniae mutants with various degrees of triclosan susceptibility were obtained after exposure to triclosan (TRI), benzalkonium chloride (BKC), chlorhexidine (CHX) or sodium hypochlorite (SHC), and ampicillin or ciprofloxacin. Alterations in antimicrobial susceptibility and metabolism in mutants were tested using Phenotype MicroArrays. The expression of AcrAB pump and global regulators (SoxR, MarA, and RamA) was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the central part of the fabI gene was sequenced. The fitness costs of resistance were assessed by a comparison of relative growth rates. Triclosan-resistant (TRI(r)) and triclosan-hypersusceptible (TRI(hs)) mutants of E. coli and K. pneumoniae were obtained after selection with biocides and/or antibiotics. E. coli TRI(r) mutants, including those with mutations in the fabI gene or in the expression of acrB, acrF, and marA, exhibited changes in susceptibility to TRI, CHX, and antibiotics. TRI(r) mutants for which the TRI MIC was high presented improved metabolism of carboxylic acids, amino acids, and carbohydrates. In TRI(r) mutants, resistance to one antimicrobial provoked hypersusceptibility to another one(s). TRI(r) mutants had fitness costs, particularly marA-overexpressing (E. coli) or ramA-overexpressing (K. pneumoniae) mutants. TRI, BKC, and CIP exposure frequently yielded TRI(r) mutants exhibiting alterations in AraC-like global regulators (MarA, SoxR, and RamA), AcrAB-TolC, and/or FabI, and influencing antimicrobial susceptibility, fitness, and metabolism. These various phenotypes suggest a trade-off of different selective processes shaping the evolution toward antibiotic/biocide resistance and influencing other adaptive

  18. Isolation and characterization of an Escherichia coli mutant affected in the regulation of adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Guidi-Rontani, C; Danchin, A; Ullmann, A

    1981-01-01

    A mutant, cyaR1, affecting regulation of adenylate cyclase expression or activity is described. It was obtained as a thermoresistant revertant of a strain harboring a thermosensitive transcription termination factor, rho (rho-15). This mutant failed to synthesize adenosine 3',5'-phosphate and exhibited a carbohydrate-negative phenotype. A secondary mutation at the crp locus (crpC) restored the ability of the mutant to synthesize adenosine 3',5'-phosphate, enabled the expression of catabolite-sensitive operons, and conferred on the strain an extreme sensitivity to catabolite repression. In addition, we showed that the crpC mutation restored the pleiotropic carbohydrate-positive phenotype even in a delta cya background. We interpret this to mean that the adenosine 3',5'-phosphate receptor protein regulates negatively either the activity or synthesis of adenylate cyclase and that the cyaR1 mutation is either in a regulatory protein or a regulatory site of adenylate cyclase. Images PMID:6273380

  19. Active-site mutants altering the cooperativity of E. coli phosphofructokinase.

    PubMed

    Berger, S A; Evans, P R

    1990-02-01

    Crystal structures of the high- and low-activity states of the allosteric enzyme phosphofructokinase implicate three arginines in substrate binding, catalysis and cooperativity. Arginines 162 and 243 reach into the active site from an adjacent subunit and interact with the cooperative substrate fructose 6-phosphate. Mutation of these arginines to serine results in mutant enzymes with reduced substrate binding and lowered cooperativity, but with little change in their catalytic ability (kcat). Arg 72 bridges the two substrates fructose 6-phosphate and ATP, and interacts with the 1-phosphate of the product fructose 1,6-biphosphate. Mutation of this residue to serine reduces the catalytic activity, cooperativity and binding of fructose 6-phosphate and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. In the reverse reaction, the kinetics of wild-type and the Ser 72 mutant with respect to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate are hyperbolic, whereas those of the Ser 162 and Ser 243 mutants are sigmoidal. These results show that each of the three arginines contributes to cooperativity and to the transmission of allosteric signals between the four subunit of the enzyme. PMID:2137204

  20. Discontinuity in DNA replication during expression of accumulated initiation potential in dnaA mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Helmstetter, C E; Krajewski, C A; Leonard, A C; Weinberger, M

    1986-01-01

    Potential for initiation of chromosome replication present in temperature-sensitive, initiation-defective dnaA5 mutants of Escherichia coli B/r incubated at nonpermissive temperature was expressed by shifting to a more permissive temperature (25 degrees C). Upon expression of initiation potential, the rate of [3H]thymidine incorporation varied in a bimodal fashion, i.e., there was an initial burst of incorporation, which lasted 10 to 20 min, then a sudden decrease in incorporation, and finally a second rapid increase in incorporation. Analyses of this incorporation pattern indicated that a round of replication initiated upon expression of initiation potential, but DNA polymerization stopped after replication of 5 to 10% of the chromosome. This round of replication appeared to resume about 30 min later coincident with initiation of a second round of replication. The second initiation was unusually sensitive to low concentrations of novobiocin (ca. 1 microgram/ml) when this inhibitor was added in the presence of chloramphenicol. In the absence of chloramphenicol, novobiocin at this concentration had no detectable effect on DNA replication. It is suggested that cis-acting inhibition, attributable to an attempted second initiation immediately after the first, caused the first round to stall until both it and the second round could resume simultaneously. This DNA replication inhibition, probably caused by overinitiation, could be a consequence of restraints on replication in the vicinity of oriC, possibly topological in nature, which limit the minimum interinitiation interval in E. coli. PMID:3511039

  1. Increased Hydrolysis of Oximino-β-Lactams by CMY-107, a Tyr199Cys Mutant Form of CMY-2 Produced by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Vetouli, E. E.; Bozavoutoglou, E.; Lebessi, E.; Tzelepi, E.; Tzouvelekis, L. S.

    2015-01-01

    The cephalosporinase CMY-107, a Tyr199Cys mutant form of CMY-2 encoded by an IncI self-transferable plasmid carried by an Escherichia coli clinical strain, was characterized. The enzyme hydrolyzed oximino-cephalosporins and aztreonam more efficiently than CMY-2 did. PMID:26438499

  2. Adenomatous polyposis coli mutants dominantly activate Hsf1-dependent cell stress pathways through inhibition of microtubule dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Alexander E.; Kortright, Kaitlyn; Kaplan, Kenneth B.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells up-regulate cell stress pathways, including the protein chaperone Hsp90. Increases in Hsp90 are believed “buffer” mutant protein activities necessary for cancer phenotypes. Activation of the cell stress pathway also alters the transcriptional landscape of cells in ways that are critical for cancer progression. However, it is unclear when and how the cell stress pathway is de-regulated during cancer progression. Here we report that mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) found in colorectal cancer activate cell stress pathways in mouse intestinal crypt cells, prior to loss of heterozygosity at APC or to the appearance of canonical intestinal cancer markers. Hsp90 levels are elevated in normal APC heterozygote crypt cells and further elevated in non-cancer cells adjacent to dysplasias, suggesting that the Hsp90 stress pathway marks the “cancer-field” effect. Expression of mutant APC in normal human epithelial cells is sufficient to activate a cell stress pathway via perturbations in microtubule dynamics. Inhibition of microtubule dynamics is sufficient to activate an Hsf1-dependent increase in gene transcription and protein levels. We suggest that the early activation of this Hsf1 dependent cell stress pathway by mono-allelic mutations in APC can affect cell programming in a way that contributes to cancer onset. PMID:26320184

  3. Efficient production of mutant phytase (phyA-7) derived from Selenomonas ruminantium using recombinant Escherichia coli in pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Chi-Wei Lan, John; Chang, Chih-Kai; Wu, Ho-Shing

    2014-09-01

    A mutant gene of rumen phytase (phyA-7) was cloned into pET23b(+) vector and expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 under the control of the T7 promoter. The study of fermentation conditions includes the temperature impacts of mutant phytase expression, the effect of carbon supplements over induction stage, the inferences of acetic acid accumulation upon enzyme expression and the comparison of one-stage and two-stage operations in batch mode. The maximum value of phytase activity was reached 107.0 U mL(-1) at induction temperature of 30°C. Yeast extract supplement demonstrated a significant increase on both protein concentration and phytase activity. The acetic acid (2 g L(-1)) presented in the modified synthetic medium demonstrated a significant decrease on expressed phytase activity. A two-stage batch operation enhanced the level of phytase activity from 306 to 1204 U mL(-1) in the 20 L of fermentation scale. An overall 3.7-fold improvement in phytase yield (35,375.72-1,31,617.50 U g(-1) DCW) was achieved in the two-stage operation. PMID:24686155

  4. Modulation of dendritic cell endocytosis and antigen processing pathways by Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin and mutant derivatives.

    PubMed

    Petrovska, Liljana; Lopes, Luciene; Simmons, Cameron P; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Dougan, Gordon; Chain, Benjamin M

    2003-03-28

    Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is known to be a potent adjuvant of both the mucosal and systemic immune systems but the mechanism of action leading to adjuvant activity remains incompletely understood. This study investigates the action of LT and LT mutants with impaired enzymatic activity, on the function of dendritic cells. Wild-type LT and LTR72, which retains some ADP ribosyltransferase activity, induced a selective increase in cell surface expression of B7.1, and a selective decrease of CD40 expression on mouse bone marrow derived dendritic cells. LTK63 and LT-B had no obvious effect on the expression of these antigens on similar dendritic cells. LT-treated dendritic cells also showed a profoundly impaired ability to present protein antigen (ovalbumin) to cognate T cells, although this effect was not observed with non-toxic LT mutants. LT and LTR72-treated cells showed a slower rate of receptor-mediated endocytosis as measured by flow cytometric analysis of uptake of fluorescently labelled dextran. Furthermore, confocal microscopy showed changes in the intracellular distribution of endocytosed molecules, and of the class II containing acidic antigen processing compartments. This response of dendritic cells to toxin is likely to play an important role in determining the adjuvant activity of these molecules. PMID:12615441

  5. Genetically Detoxified Mutants of Heat-Labile Toxin from Escherichia coli Are Able To Act as Oral Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Douce, Gill; Giannelli, Valentina; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Lewis, David; Everest, Paul; Rappuoli, Rino; Dougan, Gordon

    1999-01-01

    Detoxified mutants of the Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) act as mucosal adjuvants to intranasally presented coadministered antigens. Here, we compare the adjuvant activity of a panel of detoxified derivatives of LT, using both intranasal (i.n.) and oral (p.o.) routes of administration. The mutants used as adjuvants varied in sensitivity to proteases and toxicity. With keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as the bystander antigen, the immune responses to i.n. immunizations were consistently higher than the equivalent p.o.-delivered proteins. LT-G192, a mutant which demonstrates a 10-fold reduction in toxicity in vitro, demonstrated wild-type adjuvant activity both i.n. and p.o., inducing similar titers of KLH specific antibody in the sera and immunoglobulin A in local mucosal secretions as wild-type LT. In line with previous data, the nontoxic holotoxoid LT-K63 induced intermediate immune responses in both the serum and mucosal secretions which were lower than those achieved with wild-type LT but at least 10-fold higher than those measured when the antigen was administered with LT-B. Although significant levels of local and systemic anti-KLH antibodies were induced following p.o. immunization with LT-K63, cellular proliferative responses to KLH was poor or undetectable. In contrast, LT and LT-G192 induced significant T-cell responses to KLH following p.o. immunization. These proliferating cells secreted both gamma interferon and interleukin-5, suggesting that the type of immune response induced following p.o. coimmunization with LT and purified protein is a mixed Th1/Th2 response. PMID:10456880

  6. Genetically detoxified mutants of heat-labile toxin from Escherichia coli are able to act as oral adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Douce, G; Giannelli, V; Pizza, M; Lewis, D; Everest, P; Rappuoli, R; Dougan, G

    1999-09-01

    Detoxified mutants of the Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) act as mucosal adjuvants to intranasally presented coadministered antigens. Here, we compare the adjuvant activity of a panel of detoxified derivatives of LT, using both intranasal (i.n.) and oral (p.o.) routes of administration. The mutants used as adjuvants varied in sensitivity to proteases and toxicity. With keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as the bystander antigen, the immune responses to i. n. immunizations were consistently higher than the equivalent p.o. -delivered proteins. LT-G192, a mutant which demonstrates a 10-fold reduction in toxicity in vitro, demonstrated wild-type adjuvant activity both i.n. and p.o., inducing similar titers of KLH specific antibody in the sera and immunoglobulin A in local mucosal secretions as wild-type LT. In line with previous data, the nontoxic holotoxoid LT-K63 induced intermediate immune responses in both the serum and mucosal secretions which were lower than those achieved with wild-type LT but at least 10-fold higher than those measured when the antigen was administered with LT-B. Although significant levels of local and systemic anti-KLH antibodies were induced following p.o. immunization with LT-K63, cellular proliferative responses to KLH was poor or undetectable. In contrast, LT and LT-G192 induced significant T-cell responses to KLH following p.o. immunization. These proliferating cells secreted both gamma interferon and interleukin-5, suggesting that the type of immune response induced following p.o. coimmunization with LT and purified protein is a mixed Th1/Th2 response. PMID:10456880

  7. A novel, simple, high-throughput method for isolation of genome-wide transposon insertion mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Miki, Takeyoshi; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Matsuda, Hideo

    2008-01-01

    We developed a novel, simple, high-throughput method for isolation of genome-wide transposon insertion mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. The basic idea of the method is to randomly disrupt the genes on the DNA fragments cloned on the Kohara library by inserting a mini-transposon first, and then transfer the disrupted genes from the lambda vector to the E. coli chromosome by homologous recombination. Using this method, we constructed a set of 8402 Km(r) cis-diploid mutants harboring a mini-Tn10 insertion mutation and the corresponding wild-type gene on a chromosome, as well as a set of 6954 haploid mutants derived from the cis-diploid mutants. The major advantage of the strategy used is that the indispensable genes or sites for growth can be identified. Preliminary results suggest that 415 open reading frames are indispensable for growth in E. coli cells. A total of 6404 haploid mutants were deposited to Genetic Strains Research Center, National Institute of Genetics, Japan (Chapter 26) and are available for public distribution upon request (http://shigen.lab.nig.ac.jp/ecoli/strain/nbrp/resource.jsp). PMID:18392969

  8. Mutagenesis in the lacI gene target of E. coli: improved analysis for lacI(d) and lacO mutants.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, Sarah J; Schaaper, Roel M

    2014-12-01

    The lacI gene of Escherichia coli has been a highly useful target for studies of mutagenesis, particularly for analysis of the specificity (spectrum) of mutations generated under a variety of conditions and in various genetic backgrounds. The gene encodes the repressor of the lac operon, and lacI-defective mutants displaying constitutive expression of the operon are readily selected. DNA sequencing of the lacI mutants has often been confined to the N-terminal region of the protein, as it presents a conveniently short target with a high density of detectably mutable sites. Mutants in this region are easily selected due to their dominance in a genetic complementation test (lacI(d) mutants). A potential complication in these studies is that constitutive expression of lac may also arise due to mutations in the lac operator (lacO mutants). Under some conditions, for example when analyzing spontaneous mutations, lacO mutants can comprise a very high fraction of the constitutive mutants due to a strong base-substitution hotspot in the lac operator. Such mutational hot spots diminish the return of the sequencing effort and do not yield significant new information. For this reason, a procedure to eliminate the lacO mutants prior to DNA sequencing is desirable. Here, we report a simple method that allows screening out of lacO mutants. This method is based on the lack of resistance of lacO mutants to kanamycin under conditions when the kan gene is expressed from a plasmid under control of the lac promoter-operator (lacPO). We show data validating the new approach with sets of known lacI(d) and lacO mutants, and further apply it to the generation of a new collection of spontaneous mutations, where lacO mutants have historically been a significant contributor. PMID:25771873

  9. Dual Roles of Capsular Extracellular Polymeric Substances in Photocatalytic Inactivation of Escherichia coli: Comparison of E. coli BW25113 and Isogenic Mutants.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guocheng; Xia, Dehua; An, Taicheng; Ng, Tsz Wai; Yip, Ho Yin; Li, Guiying; Zhao, Huijun; Wong, Po Keung

    2015-08-01

    The dual roles of capsular extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the photocatalytic inactivation of bacteria were demonstrated in a TiO2-UVA system, by comparing wild-type Escherichia coli strain BW25113 and isogenic mutants with upregulated and downregulated production of capsular EPS. In a partition system in which direct contact between bacterial cells and TiO2 particles was inhibited, an increase in the amount of EPS was associated with increased bacterial resistance to photocatalytic inactivation. In contrast, when bacterial cells were in direct contact with TiO2 particles, an increase in the amount of capsular EPS decreased cell viability during photocatalytic treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that although capsular EPS can protect bacterial cells by consuming photogenerated reactive species, it also facilitates photocatalytic inactivation of bacteria by promoting the adhesion of TiO2 particles to the cell surface. Fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses further confirmed that high capsular EPS density led to more TiO2 particles attaching to cells and forming bacterium-TiO2 aggregates. Calculations of interaction energy, represented by extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) potential, suggested that the presence of capsular EPS enhances the attachment of TiO2 particles to bacterial cells via acid-base interactions. Consideration of these mechanisms is critical for understanding bacterium-nanoparticle interactions and the photocatalytic inactivation of bacteria. PMID:26002903

  10. Dual Roles of Capsular Extracellular Polymeric Substances in Photocatalytic Inactivation of Escherichia coli: Comparison of E. coli BW25113 and Isogenic Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guocheng; Xia, Dehua; Ng, Tsz Wai; Yip, Ho Yin; Li, Guiying; Zhao, Huijun

    2015-01-01

    The dual roles of capsular extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the photocatalytic inactivation of bacteria were demonstrated in a TiO2-UVA system, by comparing wild-type Escherichia coli strain BW25113 and isogenic mutants with upregulated and downregulated production of capsular EPS. In a partition system in which direct contact between bacterial cells and TiO2 particles was inhibited, an increase in the amount of EPS was associated with increased bacterial resistance to photocatalytic inactivation. In contrast, when bacterial cells were in direct contact with TiO2 particles, an increase in the amount of capsular EPS decreased cell viability during photocatalytic treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that although capsular EPS can protect bacterial cells by consuming photogenerated reactive species, it also facilitates photocatalytic inactivation of bacteria by promoting the adhesion of TiO2 particles to the cell surface. Fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses further confirmed that high capsular EPS density led to more TiO2 particles attaching to cells and forming bacterium-TiO2 aggregates. Calculations of interaction energy, represented by extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) potential, suggested that the presence of capsular EPS enhances the attachment of TiO2 particles to bacterial cells via acid-base interactions. Consideration of these mechanisms is critical for understanding bacterium-nanoparticle interactions and the photocatalytic inactivation of bacteria. PMID:26002903

  11. Phosphorylation of D-glucose in Escherichia coli mutants defective in glucosephosphotransferase, mannosephosphotransferase, and glucokinase.

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, S J; Epstein, W

    1975-01-01

    Genetic studies show that Escherichia coli has three enzymes capable of phosphorylating glucose: soluble adenosine 5'-triphosphate-dependent glucokinase, which plays only a minor role in glucose metabolism; an enzyme II, called glucosephosphotransferase, with high specificity for the D-glucose configuration; and another enzyme II, called mannosephosphotransferase, with broader specificity. The former enzyme II is active on glucose and methyl-alpha-glucopyranoside, whereas the latter is active on D-glucose, D-mannose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, D-glucosamine, and D-mannosamine. Mutations leading to loss of glucosephosphotransferase activity and designated by the symbol gpt are between the purB and pyrC markers in a locus previously called cat. The locus of mutations to loss of mannosephosphotransferase, mpt, is between the eda and fadD genes. Mutations to loss of glucokinase, glk, are between the ptsI and dsd genes. PMID:1097393

  12. Functions that Protect Escherichia coli from Tightly Bound DNA-Protein Complexes Created by Mutant EcoRII Methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Morgan L; Kreuzer, Kenneth N

    2015-01-01

    Expression of mutant EcoRII methyltransferase protein (M.EcoRII-C186A) in Escherichia coli leads to tightly bound DNA-protein complexes (TBCs), located sporadically on the chromosome rather than in tandem arrays. The mechanisms behind the lethality induced by such sporadic TBCs are not well studied, nor is it clear whether very tight binding but non-covalent complexes are processed in the same way as covalent DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs). Using 2D gel electrophoresis, we found that TBCs induced by M.EcoRII-C186A block replication forks in vivo. Specific bubble molecules were detected as spots on the 2D gel, only when M.EcoRII-C186A was induced, and a mutation that eliminates a specific EcoRII methylation site led to disappearance of the corresponding spot. We also performed a candidate gene screen for mutants that are hypersensitive to TBCs induced by M.EcoRII-C186A. We found several gene products necessary for protection against these TBCs that are known to also protect against DPCs induced with wild-type M.EcoRII (after 5-azacytidine incorporation): RecA, RecBC, RecG, RuvABC, UvrD, FtsK, XerCD and SsrA (tmRNA). In contrast, the RecFOR pathway and Rep helicase are needed for protection against TBCs but not DPCs induced by M.EcoRII. We propose that stalled fork processing by RecFOR and RecA promotes release of tightly bound (but non-covalent) blocking proteins, perhaps by licensing Rep helicase-driven dissociation of the blocking M.EcoRII-C186A. Our studies also argued against the involvement of several proteins that might be expected to protect against TBCs. We took the opportunity to directly compare the sensitivity of all tested mutants to two quinolone antibiotics, which target bacterial type II topoisomerases and induce a unique form of DPC. We uncovered rep, ftsK and xerCD as novel quinolone hypersensitive mutants, and also obtained evidence against the involvement of a number of functions that might be expected to protect against quinolones. PMID:25993347

  13. A carAB mutant of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli serogroup O2 is attenuated and effective as a live oral vaccine against colibacillosis in turkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Kwaga, J K; Allan, B J; van der Hurk, J V; Seida, H; Potter, A A

    1994-01-01

    Colibacillosis is a serious and economically important disease of the respiratory tract of chickens and turkeys. The serogroups of Escherichia coli commonly associated with colibacillosis in poultry are O1, O2, and O78. Although previous attempts to develop a vaccine have not been very successful, vaccination is still considered the most effective way of controlling the disease. Therefore, our laboratory has been involved in the development of an attenuated live vaccine that will be effective in the prevention of colibacillosis. The carAB operon coding for carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase, an essential enzyme in arginine and pyrimidine metabolism, was selected for study. Generalized transduction was used to transfer a Tn10-generated mutation from a laboratory strain to virulent avian field isolates of E. coli. Molecular techniques were used to determine the point of Tn10 insertion within the carAB operon. The insertion mutants were then cured of the tetracycline resistance gene of the transposon to select for antibiotic-sensitive and stable carAB mutants. The degree of attenuation obtained by the mutation was determined in day-old chickens. Typically, when 100-fold the 50% lethal dose (for the wild type) was given, no more than 50% mortality in the day-old chickens was observed. The deletion mutant of serotype O2 was also found to be avirulent in turkeys rendered susceptible to infection with hemorrhagic enteritis virus A. Turkey poults vaccinated orally at 4 weeks old with either the wild-type E. coli EC317 strain or its carAB mutant EC751 were completely protected from infection following challenge with the homologous wild-type strain. Our data indicate that carAB mutants of virulent avian strains of E. coli will be effective and safe as live oral vaccines for prevention of colibacillosis in poultry. Images PMID:8063392

  14. L-asparaginase genes in Escherichia coli: isolation of mutants and characterization of the ansA gene and its protein product.

    PubMed

    Spring, K J; Jerlström, P G; Burns, D M; Beacham, I R

    1986-04-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli have been isolated which are resistant to beta-aspartyl hydroxamate, a lethal substrate of asparaginase II in fungi and a substrate for asparaginase II in E. coli. Among the many phenotypic classes observed, a single mutant (designated GU16) was found with multiple defects affecting asparaginases I and II and aspartase. Other asparaginase II-deficient mutants have also been derived from an asparaginase I-deficient mutant. The mutant strain, GU16, was unable to utilize asparagine and grew poorly on aspartate as the sole source of carbon; transformation of this strain with an E. coli recombinant plasmid library resulted in a large recombinant plasmid which complemented both these defects. Two subclones were isolated, designated pDK1 and pDK2; the former complemented the partial defect in the utilization of aspartate, although its exact function was not established. pDK2 encoded the asparaginase I gene (ansA), the coding region of which was further defined within a 1.7-kilobase fragment. The ansA gene specified a polypeptide, identified in maxicells, with a molecular weight of 43,000. Strains carrying recombinant plasmids encoding the ansA gene overproduced asparaginase I approximately 130-fold, suggesting that the ansA gene might normally be under negative regulation. Extracts from strains overproducing asparaginase I were electrophoresed, blotted, and probed with asparaginase II-specific antisera; no cross-reaction of the antisera with asparaginase I was observed, indicating that asparaginases I and II are not appreciably related immunologically. When a DNA fragment containing the ansA gene was used to probe Southern blots of restriction endonuclease-digested E. coli chromosomal DNA, no homologous sequences were revealed other than the expected ansA-containing fragments. Therefore, the genes encoding asparaginases I and II are highly sequence related. PMID:3514575

  15. Escherichia coli redox mutants as microbial cell factories for the synthesis of reduced biochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Jimena A.; de Almeida, Alejandra; Godoy, Manuel S.; Mezzina, Mariela P.; Bidart, Gonzalo N.; Méndez, Beatriz S.; Pettinari, M. Julia; Nikel, Pablo I.

    2013-01-01

    Bioprocesses conducted under conditions with restricted O2 supply are increasingly exploited for the synthesis of reduced biochemicals using different biocatalysts. The model facultative aerobe Escherichia coli, the microbial cell factory par excellence, has elaborate sensing and signal transduction mechanisms that respond to the availability of electron acceptors and alternative carbon sources in the surrounding environment. In particular, the ArcBA and CreBC two-component signal transduction systems are largely responsible for the metabolic regulation of redox control in response to O2 availability and carbon source utilization, respectively. Significant advances in the understanding of the biochemical, genetic, and physiological duties of these regulatory systems have been achieved in recent years. This situation allowed to rationally-design novel engineering approaches that ensure optimal carbon and energy flows within central metabolism, as well as to manipulate redox homeostasis, in order to optimize the production of industrially-relevant metabolites. In particular, metabolic flux analysis provided new clues to understand the metabolic regulation mediated by the ArcBA and CreBC systems. Genetic manipulation of these regulators proved useful for designing microbial cells factories tailored for the synthesis of reduced biochemicals with added value, such as poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), under conditions with restricted O2 supply. This network-wide strategy is in contrast with traditional metabolic engineering approaches, that entail direct modification of the pathway(s) at stake, and opens new avenues for the targeted modulation of central catabolic pathways at the transcriptional level. PMID:24688679

  16. A mutant Escherichia coli that attaches peptidoglycan to lipopolysaccharide and displays cell wall on its surface

    PubMed Central

    Grabowicz, Marcin; Andres, Dorothee; Lebar, Matthew D; Malojčić, Goran; Kahne, Daniel; Silhavy, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) forms the surface-exposed leaflet of the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria, an organelle that shields the underlying peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall. Both LPS and PG are essential cell envelope components that are synthesized independently and assembled by dedicated transenvelope multiprotein complexes. We have identified a point-mutation in the gene for O-antigen ligase (WaaL) in Escherichia coli that causes LPS to be modified with PG subunits, intersecting these two pathways. Synthesis of the PG-modified LPS (LPS*) requires ready access to the small PG precursor pool but does not weaken cell wall integrity, challenging models of precursor sequestration at PG assembly machinery. LPS* is efficiently transported to the cell surface without impairing OM function. Because LPS* contains the canonical vancomycin binding site, these surface-exposed molecules confer increased vancomycin-resistance by functioning as molecular decoys that titrate the antibiotic away from its intracellular target. This unexpected LPS glycosylation fuses two potent pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05334.001 PMID:25551294

  17. Reconstitution of maltose transport in malB and malA mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Brass, J M

    1982-01-01

    Pretreatment of lamB cells for 3 h with 10 mM Tris, pH 7.2, containing 25 mM Ca++ resulted in a Ca++-induced shift of the apparent Km of the maltose transport system from about 100 microM to about 15 microM. In contrast to maltose transport in untreated cells, that of Ca++-treated lamB cells was inhibited by anti-MBP (maltose-binding protein) antibodies. The calcium-induced permeability increase of the outer membrane allowed reconstitution of maltose transport in a malE mutant upon exposure to shock fluid or purified MBP. The efficiency of reconstitution, as judged by the Km of the maltose transport system in reconstituted cells, was rather high (Km = 5 microM). Vmax was around 20% of the wild-type. The rapid increase in maltose transport between 2' and 30' of incubation with shock fluid indicated that MBP readily entered the periplasm of Ca++-treated cells. Maltose transport continued for at least 1 h after washing the reconstituted cells. Surprisingly, Ca++ treatment also seemed to allow partial reconstitution of maltose transport in strain SF1701 malT::Tn10 after incubation with cell-free extracts of strain pop1740 malB,malTc. PMID:7041740

  18. Pathogenicity of an Escherichia coli O115:K"V165" mutant negative for F165(1) fimbriae in septicemia of gnotobiotic pigs.

    PubMed

    Ngeleka, M; Jacques, M; Martineau-Doizé, B; Daigle, F; Harel, J; Fairbrother, J M

    1993-03-01

    To evaluate the role of the F165(1) fimbrial system in the pathogenesis of septicemia, 2-day-old germfree pigs were inoculated intragastrically with Escherichia coli O115:K"V165":F165 wild-type strain 5131, its F165(1)-negative TnphoA mutant M48, or E. coli O115:K(-):F165(-) wild-type strain 862B. Pigs were sacrificed at different times (3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 h) postinfection (p.i.). Pigs inoculated with strain 5131 developed clinical signs (anorexia, lameness, reluctance to move, or lack of motor coordination) and were moribund within 48 h p.i., and, at necropsy, infecting bacteria were isolated in various extraintestinal organs. Strain 5131 was isolated as early as 6 h p.i. from the blood of inoculated pigs. Pigs inoculated with mutant M48 developed only mild clinical signs at 96 h p.i. Mutant M48 colonized extraintestinal organs of pigs but to a lesser extent than the parent strain did. In contrast to the parent strain, this mutant was not isolated in the blood of inoculated pigs. Pigs inoculated with strain 862B remained normal during the experiment. All of the strains colonized the mucus layer of the intestine, but no histological changes of intestinal mucosa were observed by either light or electron microscopy. The parent strain, but not the mutant M48, expressed F165(1) in vivo. In a competitive study in which the parent strain and its afimbrial mutant were inoculated simultaneously, clinical signs of septicemia developed 24 h after inoculation, and only the parent strain 5131 was isolated from the blood of inoculated pigs. Our results suggest that the F165(1) fimbrial system of E. coli O115:K"V165" strains may play an important role in the ability of the bacteria to survive in the blood and spread systemically through the porcine host. PMID:8094383

  19. Characterization of a thermosensitive Escherichia coli aspartyl-tRNA synthetase mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, F; Sharples, G J; Lloyd, R G; Eiler, S; Moras, D; Gangloff, J; Eriani, G

    1997-01-01

    The Escherichia coli tls-1 strain carrying a mutated aspS gene (coding for aspartyl-tRNA synthetase), which causes a temperature-sensitive growth phenotype, was cloned by PCR, sequenced, and shown to contain a single mutation resulting in substitution by serine of the highly conserved proline 555, which is located in motif 3. When an aspS fragment spanning the codon for proline 555 was transformed into the tls-1 strain, it was shown to restore the wild-type phenotype via homologous recombination with the chromosomal tls-1 allele. The mutated AspRS purified from an overproducing strain displayed marked temperature sensitivity, with half-life values of 22 and 68 min (at 42 degrees C), respectively, for tRNA aminoacylation and ATP/PPi exchange activities. Km values for aspartic acid, ATP, and tRNA(Asp) did not significantly differ from those of the native enzyme; thus, mutation Pro555Ser lowers the stability of the functional configuration of both the acylation and the amino acid activation sites but has no significant effect on substrate binding. This decrease in stability appears to be related to a conformational change, as shown by gel filtration analysis. Structural data strongly suggest that the Pro555Ser mutation lowers the stability of the Lys556 and Thr557 positions, since these two residues, as shown by the crystallographic structure of the enzyme, are involved in the active site and in contacts with the tRNA acceptor arm, respectively. PMID:9171418

  20. Intragenic reversion mutations that improve export of maltose-binding protein in Escherichia coli malE signal sequence mutants.

    PubMed

    Ryan, J P; Duncan, M C; Bankaitis, V A; Bassford, P J

    1986-03-01

    Escherichia coli strains harboring malE signal sequence point mutations accumulate export-defective precursor maltose-binding protein (MBP) in the cytoplasm. Beginning with these mutants, a number of spontaneous intragenic revertants have been obtained in which export of the MBP to the periplasm is either partially or totally restored. With a single exception, each of the reversion mutations resulted in an increase in the overall hydrophobicity of the signal peptide hydrophobic core by one of five different mechanisms. In some revertants, MBP export was achieved at a rate comparable to the wild type MBP; in other cases, the rate of MBP export was significantly slower than wild type. The results indicate that the overall hydrophobicity of the signal peptide, rather than the absolute length of its uninterrupted hydrophobic core, is a major determinant of MBP export competency. An alteration at residue 19 of the mature MBP also has been identified that provides fairly efficient suppression of the export defect in the adjacent signal peptide, further suggesting that important export information may reside in this region of the precursor protein. PMID:3512555

  1. Properties of a glycogen like polysaccharide produced by a mutant of Escherichia coli lacking glycogen synthase and maltodextrin phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Ji-Yun; Kim, Min-Gyu; Kim, Young-Wan; Ban, Hyun-Seung; Won, Mi-Sun; Park, Jong-Tae; Park, Kwan-Hwa

    2016-01-20

    Escherichia coli mutant TBP38 lacks glycogen synthase (GlgA) and maltodextrin phosphorylase (MalP). When grown on maltose in fed-batch fermentation TBP38 accumulated more than 50-fold higher glycogen-type polysaccharide than its parental strain. The polysaccharides were extracted at different growth stages and migrated as one peak in size-exclusion chromatography. TBP38 produced polysaccharides ranging 2.6 × 10(6)-4.6 × 10(6)Da. A ratio of short side-chains (DP ≦ 12) in the polysaccharides was greater than 50%, and number-average degree of polymerization varied from 9.8 to 8.4. The polysaccharides showed 70-290 times greater water-solubility than amylopectin. Km values using porcine and human pancreatic α-amylases with polysaccharides were 2- to 4-fold larger than that of amylopectin. kcat values were similar for both α-amylases. The TBP38 polysaccharides had 40-60% lower digestibility to amyloglucosidase than amylopectin. Intriguingly, the polysaccharides showed strong immunostimulating effects on mouse macrophage cell comparable to lipopolysaccharides. The lipopolysaccharide contamination levels were too low to account for this effect. PMID:26572397

  2. Expression of accumulated capacity for initiation of chromosome and minichromosome replication in dnaA mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    LaDuca, R J; Helmstetter, C E

    1983-01-01

    Chromosome and minichromosome replication were examined in temperature-sensitive dnaA mutants of Escherichia coli growing at temperatures between permissive and nonpermissive. Periodicities in [14C]thymidine uptake were detected as cultures incubated at intermediate temperatures approached late exponential-early stationary phase of growth. Exposure of the cultures to a nutritional shift-up caused a stimulation of chromosome replication associated with a rapid initiation of new rounds of replication, very similar to that observed after exposure to chloramphenicol. Addition of rifampin also caused a stimulation, but to a much lesser extent. The induced initiations of chromosome replication took place in two waves, as was the case when the cultures were simply shifted to permissive temperature. Minichromosomes were also stimulated to replicate by the addition of chloramphenicol at intermediate temperatures, providing further evidence that the chromosomal region which responded to the chloramphenicol treatment was in the vicinity of oriC. The findings are consistent with the conclusion that the initiations induced by chloramphenicol are consequences of the involvement of the dnaA gene product in a transcriptional step at initiation, as suggested by Orr et al. The results also suggest that the activity of the dnaA gene product is not normally involved in controlling the frequency of initiation of chromosome replication. PMID:6304012

  3. Myristoylation negative msbB-mutants of probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 retain tumor specific colonization properties but show less side effects in immunocompetent mice

    PubMed Central

    Stritzker, Jochen; Hill, Philip J; Gentschev, Ivaylo

    2010-01-01

    Specific colonization of solid tumors by bacteria opens the way to novel approaches in both tumor diagnosis and therapy. However, even non-pathogenic bacteria induce responses by the immune system, which could be devastating for a tumor bearing patient. As such effects are caused e.g., by the lipid A moiety of the lipopolysaccharide, a msbB-mutant of the probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 strain was investigated. Bacteria of the mutant strain did not show any growth defects in culture media when compared to wild-type E. coli Nissle 1917 but were unable to myristoylate lipid A, had less toxic effects on immunocompetent BALB/c mice, and were still able to specifically colonize tumors. Therefore, the modification of lipid A could result in bacterial strains that might be better suited for diagnosis and therapy of tumors than the corresponding wild-type strains, even if those are not considered pathogenic or are of probiotic background. PMID:21326939

  4. Myristoylation negative msbB-mutants of probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 retain tumor specific colonization properties but show less side effects in immunocompetent mice.

    PubMed

    Stritzker, Jochen; Hill, Philip J; Gentschev, Ivaylo; Szalay, Aladar A

    2010-01-01

    Specific colonization of solid tumors by bacteria opens the way to novel approaches in both tumor diagnosis and therapy. However, even non-pathogenic bacteria induce responses by the immune system, which could be devastating for a tumor bearing patient. As such effects are caused e.g., by the lipid A moiety of the lipopolysaccharide, a msbB-mutant of the probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 strain was investigated. Bacteria of the mutant strain did not show any growth defects in culture media when compared to wild-type E. coli Nissle 1917 but were unable to myristoylate lipid A, had less toxic effects on immunocompetent BALB/c mice, and were still able to specifically colonize tumors. Therefore, the modification of lipid A could result in bacterial strains that might be better suited for diagnosis and therapy of tumors than the corresponding wild-type strains, even if those are not considered pathogenic or are of probiotic background. PMID:21326939

  5. A mutant L-asparaginase II signal peptide improves the secretion of recombinant cyclodextrin glucanotransferase and the viability of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Noor Faizah; Hamdan, Salehhuddin; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Murad, Abdul Munir Abdul; Rabu, Amir; Bakar, Farah Diba Abu; Klappa, Peter; Illias, Rosli Md

    2011-05-01

    L-Asparaginase II signal peptide was used for the secretion of recombinant cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) into the periplasmic space of E. coli. Despite its predominant localisation in the periplasm, CGTase activity was also detected in the extracellular medium, followed by cell lysis. Five mutant signal peptides were constructed to improve the periplasmic levels of CGTase. N1R3 is a mutated signal peptide with the number of positively charged amino acid residues in the n-region increased to a net charge of +5. This mutant peptide produced a 1.7-fold enhancement of CGTase activity in the periplasm and significantly decreased cell lysis to 7.8% of the wild-type level. The formation of intracellular inclusion bodies was also reduced when this mutated signal peptide was used as judged by SDS-PAGE. Therefore, these results provide evidence of a cost-effective means of expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli. PMID:21234789

  6. Growth on D-lyxose of a mutant strain of Escherichia coli K12 using a novel isomerase and enzymes related to D-xylase metabolism.

    PubMed

    Stevens, F J; Wu, T T

    1976-12-01

    Escherichia coli K12 cannot grow on D-lyxose, but a mutant was isolated which can utilize D-lyxose as sole source of carbon and energy for growth. D-Lyxose is transported into the bacteria by the D-xylose permease. The mutant constitutively synthesizes a new isomerase which is not inducible in the parent strain under any of the conditions tested. This enzyme, whose native substrate appears to be D-mannose, fortuitously converts D-lyxose into D-xylulose. Its structural gene is located at around 85 min on the E. coli genetic map, away from other known isomerase genes. D-Xylulose is subsequently catabolized by the enzymes of the normal D-xylose metabolic pathway. D-Mannose isomerase was partially purified and some of its properties were examined. PMID:796410

  7. UvrD and UvrD252 counteract RecQ, RecJ, and RecFOR in a rep mutant of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lestini, Roxane; Michel, Bénédicte

    2008-09-01

    Rep and UvrD are two related Escherichia coli helicases, and inactivating both is lethal. Based on the observation that the synthetic lethality of rep and uvrD inactivation is suppressed in the absence of the recombination presynaptic proteins RecF, RecO, or RecR, it was proposed that UvrD is essential in the rep mutant to counteract a deleterious RecFOR-dependent RecA binding. We show here that the synthetic lethality of rep and uvrD mutations is also suppressed by recQ and recJ inactivation but not by rarA inactivation. Furthermore, it is independent of the action of UvrD in nucleotide excision repair and mismatch repair. These observations support the idea that UvrD counteracts a deleterious RecA binding to forks blocked in the rep mutant. An ATPase-deficient mutant of UvrD [uvrD(R284A)] is dominant negative in a rep mutant, but only in the presence of all RecQJFOR proteins, suggesting that the UvrD(R284A) mutant protein is deleterious when it counteracts one of these proteins. In contrast, the uvrD252 mutant (G30D), which exhibits a strongly decreased ATPase activity, is viable in a rep mutant, where it allows replication fork reversal. We conclude that the residual ATPase activity of UvrD252 prevents a negative effect on the viability of the rep mutant and allows UvrD to counteract the action of RecQ, RecJ, and RecFOR at forks blocked in the rep mutant. Models for the action of UvrD at blocked forks are proposed. PMID:18567657

  8. High level accumulation of soluble diphtheria toxin mutant (CRM197) with co-expression of chaperones in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mahamad, Pornpimol; Boonchird, Chuenchit; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2016-07-01

    CRM197 is the diphtheria toxin mutant used in many conjugate vaccines. A fusion CRM197 (fCRM197) containing all the tags conferred by the pET32a vector was produced as a soluble protein in Escherichia coli co-expressing several chaperone proteins in conjunction with low temperature cultivation. Trigger factor (Tf) enhanced formation of soluble fCRM197 (150.69 ± 8.95 μg/mL) to a greater degree than other chaperones when fCRM197 expression was induced at 25 °C for 12 h. However, prolonged cultivation resulted in a progressive reduction of fCRM197 accumulation. In contrast, at 15 °C cells, with or without Tf, fCRM197 accumulated to the highest level at 48 h (153.70 ± 13.14 μg/mL and 150.07 ± 8.13 μg/mL, respectively). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that the formation of inclusion protein as well as cell lysis was reduced in cultures grown at 15 °C. Cell viability was substantially reduced in cells expressing Tf, compared to cultures without Tf, when fCRM197 was induced at 25 °C. The viability of Tf-expressing cells was enhanced when cultured at 15 °C. Both purified fCRM197 and CRM197 efficiently digested lambda DNA (λDNA) at 37 °C (92.78 and 97.45 %, respectively). Digestion efficiency of fCRM197 and CRM197 was reduced at 25 °C (80.80 and 62.73 %, respectively) and at 15 °C (7.34 and 24.79 %, respectively). These results demonstrating nuclease activity, enhanced cell lysis, and reduced cell viability are consistent with the finding of lower fCRM197 yield when cultivation and induction times were prolonged at 25 °C. The present work provides a procedure for the high-level production of soluble fCRM197 using E. coli as a heterologous host. PMID:27020286

  9. Levels of Expression and Immunogenicity of Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strains Expressing Escherichia coli Mutant Heat-Labile Enterotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Covone, M. Giuseppina; Brocchi, Marcelo; Palla, Emanuela; da Silveira, W. Dias; Rappuoli, Rino; Galeotti, Cesira L.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of heterologous gene dosage as well as Salmonella typhimurium strain variability on immune response toward both the heterologous antigen, the nontoxic mutant of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin LTK63, and the carrier Salmonella strain have been analyzed. Effects of a single integration into the host DNA and different-copy-number episomal vectors were compared in S. typhimurium Δcya Δcrp Δasd strains of two different serotypes, UK-1 and SR-11. Expression of the enterotoxin in the different Salmonella isolates in vitro was found to vary considerably and, for the episomal vectors, to correlate with the plasmid copy number. LTK63-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies were highest in mice immunized with the high-level-expression strain. High anti-LTK63 IgG and IgA titers were found to correspond to higher anti-Salmonella immunity, suggesting that LTK63 exerts an adjuvant effect on response to the carrier. Statistically significant differences in anti-LTK63 immune response were observed between groups of mice immunized with the attenuated Δcya Δcrp UK-1 and SR-11 derivatives producing the antigen at the same rate. These data indicate that the same attenuation in S. typhimurium strains of different genetic backgrounds can influence significantly the immune response toward the heterologous antigen. Moreover, delivery of the LTK63 enterotoxin to the immune system by attenuated S. typhimurium strains is effective only when synthesis of the antigen is very high during the initial phase of invasion, while persistence of the S. typhimurium strain in deep tissues has only marginal influence. PMID:9423862

  10. A systematic analysis of TCA Escherichia coli mutants reveals suitable genetic backgrounds for enhanced hydrogen and ethanol production using glycerol as main carbon source.

    PubMed

    Valle, Antonio; Cabrera, Gema; Muhamadali, Howbeer; Trivedi, Drupad K; Ratray, Nicholas J W; Goodacre, Royston; Cantero, Domingo; Bolivar, Jorge

    2015-09-01

    Biodiesel has emerged as an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels; however, the low price of glycerol feed-stocks generated from the biodiesel industry has become a burden to this industry. A feasible alternative is the microbial biotransformation of waste glycerol to hydrogen and ethanol. Escherichia coli, a microorganism commonly used for metabolic engineering, is able to biotransform glycerol into these products. Nevertheless, the wild type strain yields can be improved by rewiring the carbon flux to the desired products by genetic engineering. Due to the importance of the central carbon metabolism in hydrogen and ethanol synthesis, E. coli single null mutant strains for enzymes of the TCA cycle and other related reactions were studied in this work. These strains were grown anaerobically in a glycerol-based medium and the concentrations of ethanol, glycerol, succinate and hydrogen were analysed by HPLC and GC. It was found that the reductive branch is the more relevant pathway for the aim of this work, with malate playing a central role. It was also found that the putative C4-transporter dcuD mutant improved the target product yields. These results will contribute to reveal novel metabolic engineering strategies for improving hydrogen and ethanol production by E. coli. PMID:26058953

  11. Characterization of the sodF gene region of Frankia sp. strain ACN14a and complementation of Escherichia coli sod mutant.

    PubMed

    Maréchal, Joëlle; Santos, Renata; Hammad, Yasser; Alloisio, Nicole; Domenach, Anne-Marie; Normand, Philippe

    2003-04-01

    The Frankia sp. strain ACN14a superoxide dismutase SodF was previously shown to be induced in response to Alnus glutinosa root exudates, and its gene was sequenced. We report here the sequence of the 9-kb genomic segment surrounding the sodF gene and further characterize this gene and its product. Nine ORFs coding for various proteins, such as regulators, acetyl-CoA transferases, and a bacterioferritin A next to the sodF gene, were found. Northern blot analysis showed that the sodF gene was expressed as a major 1-kb transcript, which indicates that it has its own promoter. The sodF gene strongly complemented an Escherichia coli triple mutant (sodA sodB recA), restoring aerobic growth when the gene was expressed from the synthetic tac promoter but when expressed from its own promoter showed only slight rescue, suggesting that it was poorly recognized by the E. coli RNA polymerase. It is noteworthy that this is the first time that a Frankia gene has been reported to complement an E. coli mutant. The superoxide dismutase activity of the protein was inactivated by hydrogen peroxide, indicating that the metal ligand is iron, which is supported by analysis of the protein sequence. Thus, the SodF protein induced in Frankia by root exudates is an iron-containing enzyme similar to the one present in the nodules. PMID:12897839

  12. Soluble expression and purification of the anthrax protective antigen in E. coli and identification of a novel dominant-negative mutant N435C.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gaobing; Feng, Chunfang; Hong, Yuzhi; Guo, Aizhen; Cao, Sha; Dong, Junli; Lin, Ling; Liu, Ziduo

    2010-06-01

    The anthrax toxin is an AB-type bacterium toxin composed of the protective antigen (PA) as the cell-binding B component, and the lethal factor (LF) and edema toxin (EF) as the catalytic A components. The PA component is a key factor in anthrax-related research and recombinant PA can be produced in general in Escherichia coli. However, such recombinant PA always forms inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm of E. coli, making difficult the procedure of its purification. In this study, we found that the solubility of recombinant PA was dramatically enhanced by fusion with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and an induction of its expression at 28 degrees C. The PA was purified to high homogeneity and a yield of 3 mg protein was obtained from 1 l culture by an affinity-chromatography approach. Moreover, we expressed and purified three PA mutants, I394C, A396C, and N435C, which were impaired in expression in previous study. Among them, a novel mutant N435C which conferred dominant-negative inhibitory activity on PA was identified. This new mutant may be useful in designing new antitoxin for anthrax prophylaxis and therapy. PMID:20213183

  13. Anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli K12 with fumarate as terminal electron acceptor. Genetic studies with menaquinone and fluoroacetate-resistant mutants.

    PubMed

    Guest, J R

    1979-12-01

    Fifteen independent menaquinone biosynthesis mutants (men) of Escherichia coli K12, selected for their inability to use fumarate as terminal electron acceptor, were investigated. Two nutritionally distinct groups were detected. The major group (13 mutants) responded to 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate (DHN), 2-succinylbenzoate (SB) and its dilactone, whereas the minor group (2 mutants) only responded to DHN. DHN was at least five times more effective than SB but it inhibited growth at concentrations greater than 10 microM. For anaerobic growth on glucose minimal medium the auxotrophs responded to much lower concentrations of DHN and SB and these intermediates could be replaced by uracil. Anaerobic growth tests showed that glycerol, formate and H2 are good substrates for E. coli when fumarate is the ultimate electron acceptor but growth with lactate or with fumarate alone is poor. All 15 men mutations were located between glpT and purF at approximately 49 min in the E. coli linkage map. Cotransduction frequencies with relevant markers were: nalA (21%), glpT (35%) and purF (15%). The presence of at least three genetically distinct classes (menC and menD, SB-requirers; menB, DHN-requirers) was indicated using abortive transduction as a complementation test and three-factor genetic analysis. The relative orientation nalA...menC-(D,B)...purF was indicated. Fluoroacetate-resistant mutants were isolated and four different classes were identified: ack, lacking acetate kinase; pta, lacking phosphotransacetylase; facA, lacking both of these activities; and facB, which retained both of these enzyme activities. Some of the pta mutants and all of the facA mutants failed to grow on media containing fumarate as terminal electron acceptor or anaerobically on glucose minimal medium. All four types had genetic lesions clustered between the men and purF sites. Average cotransduction frequencies with relevant markers were: nalA (4%), men (27 to 35%) and purF (71 to 80%). PMID:393800

  14. Mutant Analysis of the Escherichia coli FhuA Protein Reveals Sites of FhuA Activity

    PubMed Central

    Endriß, Franziska; Braun, Michael; Killmann, Helmut; Braun, Volkmar

    2003-01-01

    The FhuA outer membrane protein of Escherichia coli actively transports ferrichrome, albomycin, and rifamycin CGP 4832, and confers sensitivity to microcin J25, colicin M, and the phages T1, T5, and φ80. Guided by the FhuA crystal structure and derived predictions on how FhuA might function, mutants were isolated in the cork domain (residues 1 to 160) and in the β-barrel domain (residues 161 to 714). Deletion of the TonB box (residues 7 to 11) completely inactivated all TonB-dependent functions of FhuA. Fixation of the cork to turn 7 of the barrel through a disulfide bridge between introduced C27 and C533 residues abolished ferrichrome transport, which was restored by reduction of the disulfide bond. Deletion of residues 24 to 31, including the switch helix (residues 24 to 29), which upon binding of ferrichrome to FhuA undergoes a large structural transition (17 Å) and exposes the N terminus of FhuA (TonB box) to the periplasm, reduced FhuA transport activity (79% of the wild-type activity) but conferred full sensitivity to colicin M and the phages. Duplication of residues 23 to 30 or deletion of residues 13 to 20 resulted in FhuA derivatives with properties similar to those of FhuA with a deletion of residues 24 to 31. However, a frameshift mutation that changed QSEA at positions 18 to 21 to KKAP abolished almost completely most of FhuA's activities. The conserved residues R93 and R133 among energy-coupled outer membrane transporters are thought to fix the cork to the β-barrel by forming salt bridges to the conserved residues E522 and E571 of the β-barrel. Proteins with the E522R and E571R mutations were inactive, but inactivity was not caused by repulsion of R93 by R522 and R571 and of R133 by R571. Point mutations in the cork at sites that move or do not move upon the binding of ferrichrome had no effect or conferred only slightly reduced activities. It is concluded that the TonB box is essential for FhuA activity. The TonB box region has to be flexible

  15. Evolution of the adhE gene product of Escherichia coli from a functional reductase to a dehydrogenase. Genetic and biochemical studies of the mutant proteins.

    PubMed

    Membrillo-Hernandez, J; Echave, P; Cabiscol, E; Tamarit, J; Ros, J; Lin, E C

    2000-10-27

    The multifunctional AdhE protein of Escherichia coli (encoded by the adhE gene) physiologically catalyzes the sequential reduction of acetyl-CoA to acetaldehyde and then to ethanol under fermentative conditions. The NH(2)-terminal region of the AdhE protein is highly homologous to aldehyde:NAD(+) oxidoreductases, whereas the COOH-terminal region is homologous to a family of Fe(2+)-dependent ethanol:NAD(+) oxidoreductases. This fusion protein also functions as a pyruvate formate lyase deactivase. E. coli cannot grow aerobically on ethanol as the sole carbon and energy source because of inadequate rate of adhE transcription and the vulnerability of the AdhE protein to metal-catalyzed oxidation. In this study, we characterized 16 independent two-step mutants with acquired and improved aerobic growth ability on ethanol. The AdhE proteins in these mutants catalyzed the sequential oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde and to acetyl-CoA. All first stage mutants grew on ethanol with a doubling time of about 240 min. Sequence analysis of a randomly chosen mutant revealed an Ala-267 --> Thr substitution in the acetaldehyde:NAD(+) oxidoreductase domain of AdhE. All second stage mutants grew on ethanol with a doubling time of about 90 min, and all of them produced an AdhE(A267T/E568K). Purified AdhE(A267T) and AdhE(A267T/E568K) showed highly elevated acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activities. It therefore appears that when AdhE catalyzes the two sequential reactions in the counter-physiological direction, acetaldehyde dehydrogenation is the rate-limiting step. Both mutant proteins were more thermosensitive than the wild-type protein, but AdhE(A267T/E568K) was more thermal stable than AdhE(A267T). Since both mutant enzymes exhibited similar kinetic properties, the second mutation probably conferred an increased growth rate on ethanol by stabilizing AdhE(A267T). PMID:10922373

  16. Isolation and Partial Characterization of Temperature-Sensitive Escherichia coli Mutants with Altered Leucyl- and Seryl-Transfer Ribonucleic Acid Synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Low, B.; Gates, F.; Goldstein, T.; Söll, D.

    1971-01-01

    Two temperature-sensitive mutants of Escherichia coli have been found in which the conditional growth is a result of a thermosensitive leucyl-transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) synthetase and seryl-tRNA synthetase, respectively. The corresponding genetic loci, leuS and serS, cotransduce with lip and serC, respectively. As a result of the mutationally altered leucyl-tRNA synthetase, some leucine-, valine-, and isoleucine-forming enzymes were derepressed. Thus, leucyl-tRNA synthetase is involved in the repression of the enzymes needed for the synthesis of branched-chain amino acids. PMID:4942762

  17. Metabolic Flux Analysis of Escherichia coli creB and arcA Mutants Reveals Shared Control of Carbon Catabolism under Microaerobic Growth Conditions▿

    PubMed Central

    Nikel, Pablo I.; Zhu, Jiangfeng; San, Ka-Yiu; Méndez, Beatriz S.; Bennett, George N.

    2009-01-01

    Escherichia coli has several elaborate sensing mechanisms for response to availability of oxygen and other electron acceptors, as well as the carbon source in the surrounding environment. Among them, the CreBC and ArcAB two-component signal transduction systems are responsible for regulation of carbon source utilization and redox control in response to oxygen availability, respectively. We assessed the role of CreBC and ArcAB in regulating the central carbon metabolism of E. coli under microaerobic conditions by means of 13C-labeling experiments in chemostat cultures of a wild-type strain, ΔcreB and ΔarcA single mutants, and a ΔcreB ΔarcA double mutant. Continuous cultures were conducted at D = 0.1 h−1 under carbon-limited conditions with restricted oxygen supply. Although all experimental strains metabolized glucose mainly through the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, mutant strains had significantly lower fluxes in both the oxidative and the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathways. Significant differences were also found at the pyruvate branching point. Both pyruvate-formate lyase and the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex contributed to acetyl-coenzyme A synthesis from pyruvate, and their activity seemed to be modulated by both ArcAB and CreBC. Strains carrying the creB deletion showed a higher biomass yield on glucose compared to the wild-type strain and its ΔarcA derivative, which also correlated with higher fluxes from building blocks to biomass. Glyoxylate shunt and lactate dehydrogenase were active mainly in the ΔarcA strain. Finally, it was observed that the tricarboxylic acid cycle reactions operated in a rather cyclic fashion under our experimental conditions, with reduced activity in the mutant strains. PMID:19561129

  18. Characterization of Escherichia coli lactose carrier mutants that transport protons without a cosubstrate. Probes for the energy barrier to uncoupled transport.

    PubMed

    King, S C; Wilson, T H

    1990-06-15

    The Escherichia coli lactose carrier is an energy-transducing H+/galactoside cotransport protein which strictly couples sugar and proton transport in 1:1 stoichiometry. Here we describe five lactose carrier mutants which catalyze "uncoupled" sugar-independent H+ transport. Symptoms similar to uncoupling by a proton ionophore have been observed in cells expressing these mutant carriers. The mutations occur at two separate loci, encoding substitutions either for alanine 177 (valine) or tyrosine 236 (histidine, asparagine, phenylalanine, or serine). Compared to the parent, cells expressing the valine 177 carrier grew slowly on minimal media with glucose as carbon source. When washed cells were incubated in the absence of added sugars the mutant showed a reduced protonmotive force compared with the parent. Addition of either thiodigalactoside or alpha-p-nitrophenylgalactoside reduced the defect in protonmotive force. Sugar-independent H+ entry rate into cells expressing either the normal carrier or the Val-177 mutant were measured directly using the pH electrode. Following sudden acidification of the external medium (by either oxygen-pulse or acid-pulse) protons entered more rapidly into cells expressing the Val-177 carrier. This novel sugar-independent mode of H+ transport probably depends on an acquired capacity of the Val-177 carrier to bind the transported proton with higher than normal affinity in a transition state involving the binary carrier/H+ complex. PMID:2161839

  19. Isolation and Characterization of 2-Keto-3-Deoxyoctonate-Lipid A from a Heptose-Deficient Mutant of Escherichia coli1

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Seamus A.; Goldfine, Howard

    1972-01-01

    A heptose-deficient mutant of Escherichia coli has been isolated and from it a glycolipid, consisting of lipid A and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate (KDO), has been extracted with diisobutylketone-acetic acid-water. Based on β-hydroxymyristic acid, the extractable glycolipid accounts for a major portion of the total lipid A in this mutant. A glycolipid, purified from the lipid extract by a combination of silicic acid and Sephadex LH-60 chromatography, contains glucosamine, phosphate, KDO, acetyl groups, and fatty acids in the following molar ratios: 1:2:2:1.7:5. These components account for over 80% of the lipid by weight. The fatty acid pattern of the glycolipid is typical of lipid A, the major component being β-hydroxymyristic acid. The lipid also contains an amino sugar which appears to be 4-amino-4-deoxyarabinose. With the use of an ion-exchange paper chromatographic technique, gram-negative bacteria can be rapidly screened for the presence of this glycolipid. The mutant is believed to have a leaky defect in either biosynthesis of heptose or its incorporation into lipopolysaccharide. The lipopolysaccharide from the mutant contains only about a third as much heptose, glucose, and galactose as the parent CR34, a K-12 derivative. Chemical analysis and phage typing suggest that CR34 contains an incomplete core polysaccharide devoid of glucosamine. Images PMID:4559734

  20. Improved expression of human interleukin-2 in high-cell-density fermentor cultures of Escherichia coli K-12 by a phosphotransacetylase mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, K A; Ben-Bassat, A; Dawson, M; de la Puente, V T; Neway, J O

    1990-01-01

    A fluoroacetate-resistant mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 (MM-294) accumulated less acetate in the medium during growth to high cell density in fermentor cultures and was shown to be defective in its phosphotransacetylase activity. The mutant had an improved ability to continue growing during induction of interleukin-2 (IL-2) synthesis, and in fermentor cultures it gave a higher level of specific IL-2 accumulation than its parent during expression under control of the temperature-sensitive pL promoter. In flask cultures at lower cell density, the mutant again produced less acetate than the parent, although both showed a much lower level of acetate accumulation than that seen in fermentors at high cell density. Both showed a higher specific expression level of IL-2 in flask cultures, and there was a greater difference between the mutant and its parent in the final extent of specific IL-2 accumulation in fermentor cultures compared with flask cultures. Thus, the concentration of acetate in the medium, which was much higher in fermentor cultures (greater than or equal to 300 mM after 5 h of induction) than in flask cultures (less than or equal to mM) of the parent organism, was a significant factor in limiting expression of the heterologous protein product, IL-2. The acetate kinase-phosphotransacetylase pathway was therefore a major source of acetate formation in these cultures. Blocking this pathway improved accumulation of IL-2 and did not slow growth. PMID:2187412

  1. Unveiling the photoelectrocatalytic inactivation mechanism of Escherichia coli: Convincing evidence from responses of parent and anti-oxidation single gene knockout mutants.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongwei; Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng; Zhao, Huijun; Wong, Po Keung

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) inactivation mechanism of bacteria using parental Escherichia coli (E. coli) BW25113 and its isogenic mutants deficient in catalase HPI (katG(-), JW3914-1) and Mn-SOD (sodA(-), JW3879-1). BW25113 in the mid-log phase was less susceptible to PEC inactivation than those in early-log and stationary phases, consistent with the peak activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) at mid-log phase (30.6 and 13.0 Unit/ml/OD600). For different strains all in mid-log phase, PEC inactivation efficiency followed the order katG(-) > sodA(-) > BW25113, with the duration of 60, 60 and 90 min for complete inactivation of ∼2 × 10(7) CFU mL(-1) bacteria, respectively. Correspondingly, catalase and SOD levels of BW25113 were also higher than the mutants by 5.9 and 11.7 Unit/mL/OD600, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROSs) concentrations in PEC systems revealed that the inactivation performance coincided with H2O2 levels, rather than OH. Moreover, pre-incubation with H2O2 elevated catalase activities and PEC inactivation resistance of BW25113 were positively correlated. The above results indicated that H2O2 was the dominant PEC generated bactericide, and anti-oxidative enzymes especially catalase contributed greatly to the bacterial PEC resistance capacity. Further tests revealed that PEC treatment raised the intracellular ROSs concentration by more than 3 times, due to the permeated H2O2 and its intracellular derivative, OH. However, oxidative stress response of E. coli, such as increased catalase or SOD were not observed, perhaps because the ROSs overwhelmed the bacterial protective capacity. The accumulated ROSs subsequently caused oxidative damages to E. coli cells, including membrane damage, K(+) leakage, and protein oxidation. Compared with BW25113, the mutants experienced damages earlier and at higher levels, confirming the essential roles of catalase and SOD in the bacterial PEC resistance. PMID

  2. Solvent environments significantly affect the enzymatic function of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase: comparison of wild-type protein and active-site mutant D27E.

    PubMed

    Ohmae, Eiji; Miyashita, Yurina; Tate, Shin-Ichi; Gekko, Kunihiko; Kitazawa, Soichiro; Kitahara, Ryo; Kuwajima, Kunihiro

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the contribution of solvent environments to the enzymatic function of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), the salt-, pH-, and pressure-dependence of the enzymatic function of the wild-type protein were compared with those of the active-site mutant D27E in relation to their structure and stability. The salt concentration-dependence of enzymatic activity indicated that inorganic cations bound to and inhibited the activity of wild-type DHFR at neutral pH. The BaCl2 concentration-dependence of the (1)H-(15)N HSQC spectra of the wild-type DHFR-folate binary complex showed that the cation-binding site was located adjacent to the Met20 loop. The insensitivity of the D27E mutant to univalent cations, the decreased optimal pH for its enzymatic activity, and the increased Km and Kd values for its substrate dihydrofolate suggested that the substrate-binding cleft of the mutant was slightly opened to expose the active-site side chain to the solvent. The marginally increased fluorescence intensity and decreased volume change due to unfolding of the mutant also supported this structural change or the modified cavity and hydration. Surprisingly, the enzymatic activity of the mutant increased with pressurization up to 250MPa together with negative activation volumes of -4.0 or -4.8mL/mol, depending on the solvent system, while that of the wild-type was decreased and had positive activation volumes of 6.1 or 7.7mL/mol. These results clearly indicate that the insertion of a single methylene at the active site could substantially change the enzymatic reaction mechanism of DHFR, and solvent environments play important roles in the function of this enzyme. PMID:24140567

  3. Intranasal immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines with nontoxic mutants of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins as adjuvants protects mice against invasive pneumococcal infections.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, H; Schulz, D; Pizza, M; Rappuoli, R; Jónsdóttir, I

    1999-11-01

    Host defenses against Streptococcus pneumoniae depend largely on phagocytosis following opsonization by polysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and complement. Since colonization of the respiratory mucosa is the first step in pneumococcal pathogenesis, mucosal immune responses may play a significant role. In addition to inducing systemic immune responses, mucosal vaccination with an effective adjuvant has the advantage of inducing mucosal IgA antibodies. The heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) of Escherichia coli is a well-studied mucosal adjuvant, and adjuvant activity of nontoxic LT mutants has been demonstrated for several protein antigens. We investigated the immunogenicity of pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines (PNC) of serotypes 1 and 3 in mice after intranasal (i.n.) immunization by using as an adjuvant the nontoxic LT mutant LT-K63 or LT-R72, which has minimal residual toxicity. Pneumococcal serotype-specific antibodies were measured in serum (IgM, IgG, and IgA) and saliva (IgA), and vaccine-induced protection was evaluated by i.n. challenge with virulent pneumococci of the homologous serotype. When administered with LT mutants, i.n. immunization with both conjugates induced systemic and mucosal immune responses, and serum IgG antibody levels were significantly higher than after subcutaneous immunization. All mice immunized i.n. with PNC-1 and LT mutants were protected against bacteremia and cleared the pneumococci from the lung 24 h after i.n. challenge; pneumococcal density correlated significantly with serum IgG antibody levels. Similarly, the survival of mice immunized i.n. with PNC-3 and LT mutants was significantly prolonged. These results demonstrate that i.n. vaccination with PNC and potent adjuvants can protect mice against invasive and lethal pneumococcal infections, indicating that mucosal vaccination with PNC may be an alternative vaccination strategy for humans. PMID:10531245

  4. Modeling and simulation of the main metabolism in Escherichia coli and its several single-gene knockout mutants with experimental verification

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is quite important to simulate the metabolic changes of a cell in response to the change in culture environment and/or specific gene knockouts particularly for the purpose of application in industry. If this could be done, the cell design can be made without conducting exhaustive experiments, and one can screen out the promising candidates, proceeded by experimental verification of a select few of particular interest. Although several models have so far been proposed, most of them focus on the specific metabolic pathways. It is preferred to model the whole of the main metabolic pathways in Escherichia coli, allowing for the estimation of energy generation and cell synthesis, based on intracellular fluxes and that may be used to characterize phenotypic growth. Results In the present study, we considered the simulation of the main metabolic pathways such as glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate (PP) pathway, and the anapleorotic pathways using enzymatic reaction models of E. coli. Once intracellular fluxes were computed by this model, the specific ATP production rate, the specific CO2 production rate, and the specific NADPH production rate could be estimated. The specific ATP production rate thus computed was used for the estimation of the specific growth rate. The CO2 production rate could be used to estimate cell yield, and the specific NADPH production rate could be used to determine the flux of the oxidative PP pathway. The batch and continuous cultivations were simulated where the changing patterns of extracellular and intra-cellular metabolite concentrations were compared with experimental data. Moreover, the effects of the knockout of such pathways as Ppc, Pck and Pyk on the metabolism were simulated. It was shown to be difficult for the cell to grow in Ppc mutant due to low concentration of OAA, while Pck mutant does not necessarily show this phenomenon. The slower growth rate of the Ppc mutant was properly estimated by taking into account

  5. Quinolone resistance locus nfxD of Escherichia coli is a mutant allele of the parE gene encoding a subunit of topoisomerase IV.

    PubMed Central

    Breines, D M; Ouabdesselam, S; Ng, E Y; Tankovic, J; Shah, S; Soussy, C J; Hooper, D C

    1997-01-01

    The locus nfxD, which contributes to high-level quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli KF111b (gyrAr nfxB nfxD), is only expressed in the presence of a gyrA mutation, and maps to the region of the parC and parE genes, was outcrossed into strain KF130, creating strain DH161 (gyrAr nfxD). DNA sequence analysis of DH161 revealed no changes in the topoisomerase IV parC quinolone resistance-determining region but did identify a single T-to-A mutation in parE at codon 445, leading to a change from Leu to His. Full-length cloned parE+ partially complemented the resistance phenotype in KF111b and DH161, but did not complement the resistance phenotype in strain KF130 (gyrAr). No complementation was seen with cloned, truncated parE+. To confirm these findings, gyrAr was first outcrossed from KF130 into E. coli W3110parE10 [parE temperature sensitive(Ts)] and KL16. The transduced strains KL16 and W3110parE10 were subsequently transformed with plasmids containing cloned parE from DH161 or KL16. Cloned parE from DH161 increased norfloxacin resistance in the parE(Ts) background twofold at 30 degrees C and fourfold at 42 degrees C compared to those for cloned parE from KL16. The same experiment with a non-Ts background revealed a twofold increase in the norfloxacin MIC at both 30 and 42 degrees C. These data identify the nfxD conditional resistance locus as a mutant allele of parE. This report is the first of a quinolone-resistant parE mutant and confirms the role of topoisomerase IV as a secondary target of norfloxacin in E. coli. PMID:8980775

  6. Heterologous expression in Escherichia coli of native and mutant forms of the major intrinsic protein of rat eye lens (MIP26).

    PubMed Central

    Dilsiz, N; Crabbe, M J

    1995-01-01

    The complete cDNA of rat eye lens major intrinsic protein (MIP26) was sequenced using the dideoxy chain termination method. The sequence displayed 89% nucleotide identity and 95% identity at the amino acid level with bovine MIP26 [Gorin, Yancey, Cline, Revel and Horwitz (1984) Cell, 39, 49-54]. Both native and mutant cDNAs coding for rat MIP26 were amplified by PCR and subcloned into the pPOW expression vector for expression of Escherichia coli. A membrane signal peptide (PelB) was used for secretion of MIP26 into the cytoplasmic membrane. A hydrophilic octapeptide tail (FLAG) was fused to either the N- or C-terminus of MIP26 to aid monoclonal antibody-mediated identification and purification. Heterologously expressed MIP26 was identified by using a monoclonal antibody corresponding to the FLAG peptide located at the termini of MIP26. Immunofluorescently labelled monoclonal antibody was used to determine the localization of MIP26 in the cytoplasmic membrane. The majority of the protein was integrated into cell plasma membrane. MIP26 was extracted with n-octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside and then purified on an affinity gel column. Rat MIP26 cDNA contains an -Asn-Gly- sequence at the C-terminus, which has been shown in other proteins to be particularly susceptible to spontaneous deamidation [Takemoto and Emmons (1991) Curr. Eye Res. 10, 863-869]. We therefore modified the MIP26 molecule using a site-directed mutagenesis method to generate a mutant MIP26 at the appropriate asparagine residue (Asn244-->Asp) near the C-terminus. The mutation was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The mutant MIP26 protein was also expressed in E. coli and incorporated predominantly into the cytoplasmic membrane. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7848273

  7. Growth on D-arabitol of a mutant strain of Escherichia coli K12 using a novel dehydrogenase and enzymes related to L-1,2-propanediol and D-xylose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wu, T T

    1976-06-01

    Escherichia coli K12 cannot grow on D-arabitol, L-arabitol, ribitol or xylitol (Reiner, 1975). Using a mutant of E. coli K12 (strain 3; Sridhara et al., 1969) that can grow on L-1,2-propanediol, a second-stage mutant was isolated which can utilize D-arabitol as sole source of carbon and energy for growth. D-Arabitol is probably transported into the bacteria by the same system as that used for the transport of L-1,2-propanediol. The second-stage mutant constitutively synthesizes a new dehydrogenase, which is not present in the parent strain 3. This enzyme, whose native substrate may be D-galactose, apparently dehydrogenates D-arabitol to D-xylulose, and its structural gene is located at 68.5 +/- 1 min on the E. coli genetic map. D-Xylulose is subsequently catabolized by the enzymes of the D-xylose metabolic pathway. PMID:181526

  8. Functional Genomics Via Metabolic Footprinting: Monitoring Metabolite Secretion by Escherichia Coli Tryptophan Metabolism Mutants Using FT–IR and Direct Injection Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kaderbhai, Naheed N.; Broadhurst, David I.; Ellis, David I.; Goodacre, Royston

    2003-01-01

    We sought to test the hypothesis that mutant bacterial strains could be discriminated from each other on the basis of the metabolites they secrete into the medium (their ‘metabolic footprint’), using two methods of ‘global’ metabolite analysis (FT–IR and direct injection electrospray mass spectrometry). The biological system used was based on a published study of Escherichia coli tryptophan mutants that had been analysed and discriminated by Yanofsky and colleagues using transcriptome analysis. Wild-type strains supplemented with tryptophan or analogues could be discriminated from controls using FT–IR of 24 h broths, as could each of the mutant strains in both minimal and supplemented media. Direct injection electrospray mass spectrometry with unit mass resolution could also be used to discriminate the strains from each other, and had the advantage that the discrimination required the use of just two or three masses in each case. These were determined via a genetic algorithm. Both methods are rapid, reagentless, reproducible and cheap, and might beneficially be extended to the analysis of gene knockout libraries. PMID:18629082

  9. Resolution of fluorescence intensity decays of the two tryptophan residues in glutamine-binding protein from Escherichia coli using single tryptophan mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Axelsen, P H; Bajzer, Z; Prendergast, F G; Cottam, P F; Ho, C

    1991-01-01

    Time correlated single photon counting measurements of tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence intensity decay and other spectroscopic studies were performed on glutamine-binding protein (GlnBP) from Escherichia coli. Using site-specifically mutated forms of the protein in which tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) substitute for the Trp residues at positions 32 and 220, we have examined whether wild-type (Wtyp) intensity decay components may be assigned to specific Trp residues. Results indicate that: (a) two exponential intensity decay components are recovered from the Wtyp protein (6.16 ns, 0.46 ns); (b) the long decay component arises from Trp-220 and comprises greater than 90% of the total fluorescence emission; (c) the short component arises from Trp-32 and is highly quenched; (d) all four single-Trp mutants exhibit multiexponential intensity decays, yet equimolar mixtures of two single-Trp mutants yield only two decay components which are virtually indistinguishable from the Wtyp protein; (e) the recovery of additional components in protein mixtures is obscured by statistical noise inherent in the technique of photon counting; (f) various spectroscopic measurements suggest that Trp-Trp interactions occur in the Wtyp protein, but the Wtyp intensity decay may be closely approximated by a linear combination of intensity decays from single-Trp mutants; and (g) inferences derived independently from fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy which pertain to the presence of Trp-Trp interactions and the relative solvent exposure of the two Trp residues are in agreement. PMID:1932553

  10. Fluoroquinolone levels in healthy dog urine following a 20-mg/kg oral dose of enrofloxacin exceed mutant prevention concentration targets against Escherichia coli isolated from canine urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Daniels, J B; Tracy, G; Irom, S J; Lakritz, J

    2014-04-01

    A 3-day course of oral enrofloxacin is effective for treating uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) in dogs when administered 20 mg/kg Q24H. However, emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants of uropathogens is a concern. Urine concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were measured in six healthy dogs following dose of enrofloxacin 20 mg/kg. Mutant prevention concentrations of Escherichia coli isolated from canine UTI were also determined against ciprofloxacin. Urine AUC(24)/MPC ratios considering ciprofloxacin concentrations ranged 3819-7767, indicating that selection of resistant E. coli mutants in dogs with uncomplicated UTIs is unlikely in the bladder given that an AUC(24)/MPC = 39 is considered to be protective against mutant selection for ciprofloxacin. However, additional studies are required to evaluate the effects of this enrofloxacin treatment protocol on bacteria that colonize anatomic sites where fluoroquinolones achieve lower concentrations compared to the urinary bladder. PMID:23859001

  11. Differentiation of arcA, arcB, and cpxA mutant phenotypes of Escherichia coli by sex pilus formation and enzyme regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Iuchi, S; Furlong, D; Lin, E C

    1989-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, mutations in arcA (dye) or arcB anaerobically derepress the synthesis of a multitude of enzymes of aerobic function, and mutations in arcA or cpxA impair F-pilus formation. It is thought that arcA encodes a promoter-recognizing protein, whereas arcB and cpxA encode sensor proteins which interact with the arcA product. In this study we found that anaerobic growth of a wild-type F' strain decreased the synthesis of both the enzymes and the pilus. Although the two arcA mutants examined were both anaerobically derepressed in the enzymes and impaired in aerobic pilus formation as expected, one mutant hyperproduced the pilus anaerobically. The two arcB mutants examined showed normal pilus formation when grown aerobically. When grown anaerobically they developed more pili than the wild-type strain did when grown aerobically. When a cpxA mutant was examined for synthesis of two aerobic enzymes, normal regulation was found. The available data suggest the following. The arcA product anaerobically represses certain genes of aerobic function and activates certain genes related to F function. It appears that the arcB product senses the redox or energy state; absence of the gene function shifts the arcA product to the nonrepressive form for enzyme synthesis for aerobic pathways. The cpxA product, on the other hand, senses the sexual state; absence of the gene function shifts the arcA product to the inactive form for F-pilus synthesis. Images PMID:2565334

  12. Mucosal adjuvanticity and immunogenicity of LTR72, a novel mutant of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin with partial knockout of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, M M; Del Giudice, G; Giannelli, V; Dougan, G; Douce, G; Rappuoli, R; Pizza, M

    1998-04-01

    Heat-labile Escherichia coli enterotoxin (LT) has the innate property of being a strong mucosal immunogen and adjuvant. In the attempt to reduce toxicity and maintain the useful immunological properties, several LT mutants have been produced. Some of these are promising mucosal adjuvants. However, so far, only those that were still toxic maintained full adjuvanticity. In this paper we describe a novel LT mutant with greatly reduced toxicity that maintains most of the adjuvanticity. The new mutant (LTR72), that contains a substitution Ala --> Arg in position 72 of the A subunit, showed only 0.6% of the LT enzymatic activity, was 100,000-fold less toxic than wild-type LT in Y1 cells in vitro, and was at least 20 times less effective than wild-type LT in the rabbit ileal loop assay in vivo. At a dose of 1 microg, LTR72 exhibited a mucosal adjuvanticity, similar to that observed with wild-type LT, better than that induced by the nontoxic, enzymatically inactive LTK63 mutant, and much greater than that of the recombinant B subunit. This trend was consistent for both the amounts and kinetics of the antibody induced, and priming of antigen-specific T lymphocytes. The data suggest that the innate high adjuvanticity of LT derives from the independent contribution of the nontoxic AB complex and the enzymatic activity. LTR72 optimizes the use of both properties: the enzymatic activity for which traces are enough, and the nontoxic AB complex, the effect of which is dose dependent. In fact, in dose-response experiments in mice, 20 microg of LTR72 were a stronger mucosal adjuvant than wild-type LT. This suggests that LTR72 may be an excellent candidate to be tested in clinical trials. PMID:9529328

  13. Production of succinic acid through overexpression of NAD(+)-dependent malic enzyme in an Escherichia coli mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Stols, L; Donnelly, M I

    1997-01-01

    NAD(+)-dependent malic enzyme was cloned from the Escherichia coli genome by PCR based on the published partial sequence of the gene. The enzyme was overexpressed and purified to near homogeneity in two chromatographic steps and was analyzed kinetically in the forward and reverse directions. The Km values determined in the presence of saturating cofactor and manganese ion were 0.26 mM for malate (physiological direction) and 16 mM for pyruvate (reverse direction). When malic enzyme was induced under appropriate culture conditions in a strain of E. coli that was unable to ferment glucose and accumulated pyruvate, fermentative metabolism of glucose was restored. Succinic acid was the major fermentation product formed. When this fermentation was performed in the presence of hydrogen, the yield of succinic acid increased. The constructed pathway represents an alternative metabolic route for the fermentative production of dicarboxylic acids from renewable feedstocks. PMID:9212416

  14. Temperature-Sensitive Mutants of Escherichia coli Requiring Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids for Growth: Isolation and Properties

    PubMed Central

    Harder, Mark E.; Beacham, Ifor R.; Cronan, John E.; Beacham, Kathryn; Honegger, Joy L.; Silbert, David F.

    1972-01-01

    A procedure is described for selection of temperature-sensitive mutants affecting fatty-acid synthesis based upon radiation suicide of wild-type organisms by tritiated acetate selectively incorporated into fatty acids. At 37°, two of the mutants extensively incorporate fatty-acid supplements provided in the medium, and grow for extended periods only when a trans-unsaturated or a combination of saturated and cis-unsaturated fatty acids is available. In vivo fatty-acid synthesis, measured by [14C]acetate incorporation, is temperature-sensitive in these strains relative to protein synthesis and other non-lipid macromolecular syntheses using acetate. The biochemical nature of these mutations has not been identified. PMID:4564200

  15. Identification of four unique clones encoding 10 kDa proteins from Bacillus that cause phenotypic complementation of a phoA mutant strain of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lee, J W; Edwards, C W; Hulett, F M

    1991-03-01

    A number of clones have been isolated from two Bacillus species which complement the PhoA- phenotype of Escherichia coli mutants under conditions that induce the expression of alkaline phosphatase (APase). These clones were initially thought to carry XPases because the transformed host could hydrolyse a common APase substrate, XP (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-phosphate). The sequences of the open reading frames responsible for the phenotypic complementation showed no sequence similarity to ATPases of E. coli, human (bone-liver-kidney, intestinal or placental) or Bacillus. Therefore, these clones were designated as XPA (for X Phosphatase Activity) clones. Four of the clones encoded small (10 kDa), basic, hydrophobic proteins. Two of these, xpaB from B. subtilis 168 and xpaL2 from B. licheniformis MC14, shared 62% identity at both the DNA and the predicted amino acid sequence level. The fact that homologues from two Bacillus strains were cloned indicated that the screen was specific, but not for APase genes. It is clear that phenotypic complementation with cloned DNA from another genus does not ensure the identification of an APase gene. Possible mechanisms for the abnormal phenotypic complementation are discussed. PMID:2033382

  16. The crystal structure of TrxA(CACA): Insights into the formation of a [2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur cluster in an Escherichia coli thioredoxin mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Collet, Jean-Francois; Peisach, Daniel; Bardwell, James C.A.; Xu, Zhaohui

    2010-07-13

    Escherichia coli thioredoxin is a small monomeric protein that reduces disulfide bonds in cytoplasmic proteins. Two cysteine residues present in a conserved CGPC motif are essential for this activity. Recently, we identified mutations of this motif that changed thioredoxin into a homodimer bridged by a [2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur cluster. When exported to the periplasm, these thioredoxin mutants could restore disulfide bond formation in strains lacking the entire periplasmic oxidative pathway. Essential for the assembly of the iron-sulfur was an additional cysteine that replaced the proline at position three of the CGPC motif. We solved the crystalline structure at 2.3 {angstrom} for one of these variants, TrxA(CACA). The mutant protein crystallized as a dimer in which the iron-sulfur cluster is replaced by two intermolecular disulfide bonds. The catalytic site, which forms the dimer interface, crystallized in two different conformations. In one of them, the replacement of the CGPC motif by CACA has a dramatic effect on the structure and causes the unraveling of an extended {alpha}-helix. In both conformations, the second cysteine residue of the CACA motif is surface-exposed, which contrasts with wildtype thioredoxin where the second cysteine of the CXXC motif is buried. This exposure of a pair of vicinal cysteine residues apparently allows thioredoxin to acquire an iron-sulfur cofactor at its active site, and thus a new activity and mechanism of action.

  17. Characterization of a mutant Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin, LT(R192G/L211A), as a safe and effective oral adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Norton, Elizabeth B; Lawson, Louise B; Freytag, Lucy C; Clements, John D

    2011-04-01

    Despite the fact that the adjuvant properties of the heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli (LT) and Vibrio cholerae (CT) have been known for more than 20 years, there are no available oral vaccines containing these molecules as adjuvants, primarily because they are both very potent enterotoxins. A number of attempts with various degrees of success have been made to reduce or eliminate the enterotoxicity of LT and CT so they can safely be used as oral adjuvants or immunogens. In this report we characterize the structural, enzymatic, enterotoxic, and adjuvant properties of a novel mutant of LT, designated LT(R192G/L211A), or dmLT. dmLT was not sensitive to trypsin activation, had reduced enzymatic activity for induction of cyclic AMP in Caco-2 cells, and exhibited no enterotoxicity in the patent mouse assay. Importantly, dmLT retained the ability to function as an oral adjuvant for a coadministered antigen (tetanus toxoid) and to elicit anti-LT antibodies. In vitro and in vivo data suggest that the reduced enterotoxicity of this molecule compared to native LT or the single mutant, LT(R192G), is a consequence of increased sensitivity to proteolysis and rapid intracellular degradation in mammalian cells. In conclusion, dmLT is a safe and powerful detoxified enterotoxin with the potential to function as a mucosal adjuvant for coadministered antigens and to elicit anti-LT antibodies without undesirable side effects. PMID:21288994

  18. Evolved Osmotolerant Escherichia coli Mutants Frequently Exhibit Defective N-Acetylglucosamine Catabolism and Point Mutations in Cell Shape-Regulating Protein MreB

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, James D.; Garcia, Carlos; Olson, Michelle; Callaway, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Biocatalyst robustness toward stresses imposed during fermentation is important for efficient bio-based production. Osmotic stress, imposed by high osmolyte concentrations or dense populations, can significantly impact growth and productivity. In order to better understand the osmotic stress tolerance phenotype, we evolved sexual (capable of in situ DNA exchange) and asexual Escherichia coli strains under sodium chloride (NaCl) stress. All isolates had significantly improved growth under selection and could grow in up to 0.80 M (47 g/liter) NaCl, a concentration that completely inhibits the growth of the unevolved parental strains. Whole genome resequencing revealed frequent mutations in genes controlling N-acetylglucosamine catabolism (nagC, nagA), cell shape (mrdA, mreB), osmoprotectant uptake (proV), and motility (fimA). Possible epistatic interactions between nagC, nagA, fimA, and proV deletions were also detected when reconstructed as defined mutations. Biofilm formation under osmotic stress was found to be decreased in most mutant isolates, coupled with perturbations in indole secretion. Transcriptional analysis also revealed significant changes in ompACGL porin expression and increased transcription of sulfonate uptake systems in the evolved mutants. These findings expand our current knowledge of the osmotic stress phenotype and will be useful for the rational engineering of osmotic tolerance into industrial strains in the future. PMID:24727267

  19. Characterization of a Mutant Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin, LT(R192G/L211A), as a Safe and Effective Oral Adjuvant ▿

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Elizabeth B.; Lawson, Louise B.; Freytag, Lucy C.; Clements, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that the adjuvant properties of the heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli (LT) and Vibrio cholerae (CT) have been known for more than 20 years, there are no available oral vaccines containing these molecules as adjuvants, primarily because they are both very potent enterotoxins. A number of attempts with various degrees of success have been made to reduce or eliminate the enterotoxicity of LT and CT so they can safely be used as oral adjuvants or immunogens. In this report we characterize the structural, enzymatic, enterotoxic, and adjuvant properties of a novel mutant of LT, designated LT(R192G/L211A), or dmLT. dmLT was not sensitive to trypsin activation, had reduced enzymatic activity for induction of cyclic AMP in Caco-2 cells, and exhibited no enterotoxicity in the patent mouse assay. Importantly, dmLT retained the ability to function as an oral adjuvant for a coadministered antigen (tetanus toxoid) and to elicit anti-LT antibodies. In vitro and in vivo data suggest that the reduced enterotoxicity of this molecule compared to native LT or the single mutant, LT(R192G), is a consequence of increased sensitivity to proteolysis and rapid intracellular degradation in mammalian cells. In conclusion, dmLT is a safe and powerful detoxified enterotoxin with the potential to function as a mucosal adjuvant for coadministered antigens and to elicit anti-LT antibodies without undesirable side effects. PMID:21288994

  20. Role of FtsEX in cell division of Escherichia coli: viability of ftsEX mutants is dependent on functional SufI or high osmotic strength.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Manjula

    2007-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, at least 12 proteins, FtsZ, ZipA, FtsA, FtsE/X, FtsK, FtsQ, FtsL, FtsB, FtsW, FtsI, FtsN, and AmiC, are known to localize to the septal ring in an interdependent and sequential pathway to coordinate the septum formation at the midcell. The FtsEX complex is the latest recruit of this pathway, and unlike other division proteins, it is shown to be essential only on low-salt media. In this study, it is shown that ftsEX null mutations are not only salt remedial but also osmoremedial, which suggests that FtsEX may not be involved in salt transport as previously thought. Increased coexpression of cell division proteins FtsQ-FtsA-FtsZ or FtsN alone restored the growth defects of ftsEX mutants. ftsEX deletion exacerbated the defects of most of the mutants affected in Z ring localization and septal assembly; however, the ftsZ84 allele was a weak suppressor of ftsEX. The viability of ftsEX mutants in high-osmolarity conditions was shown to be dependent on the presence of a periplasmic protein, SufI, a substrate of twin-arginine translocase. In addition, SufI in multiple copies could substitute for the functions of FtsEX. Taken together, these results suggest that FtsE and FtsX are absolutely required for the process of cell division in conditions of low osmotic strength for the stability of the septal ring assembly and that, during high-osmolarity conditions, the FtsEX and SufI functions are redundant for this essential process. PMID:17071757

  1. Photochemistry of Wild-Type and N378D Mutant E. coli DNA Photolyase with Oxidized FAD Cofactor Studied by Transient Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Müller, Pavel; Brettel, Klaus; Grama, Laszlo; Nyitrai, Miklos; Lukacs, Andras

    2016-05-01

    DNA photolyases (PLs) and evolutionarily related cryptochrome (CRY) blue-light receptors form a widespread superfamily of flavoproteins involved in DNA photorepair and signaling functions. They share a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor and an electron-transfer (ET) chain composed typically of three tryptophan residues that connect the flavin to the protein surface. Four redox states of FAD are relevant for the various functions of PLs and CRYs: fully reduced FADH(-) (required for DNA photorepair), fully oxidized FADox (blue-light-absorbing dark state of CRYs), and the two semireduced radical states FAD(.-) and FADH(.) formed in ET reactions. The PL of Escherichia coli (EcPL) has been studied for a long time and is often used as a reference system; however, EcPL containing FADox has so far not been investigated on all relevant timescales. Herein, a detailed transient absorption study of EcPL on timescales from nanoseconds to seconds after excitation of FADox is presented. Wild-type EcPL and its N378D mutant, in which the asparagine facing the N5 of the FAD isoalloxazine is replaced by aspartic acid, known to protonate FAD(.-) (formed by ET from the tryptophan chain) in plant CRYs in about 1.5 μs, are characterized. Surprisingly, the mutant protein does not show this protonation. Instead, FAD(.-) is converted in 3.3 μs into a state with spectral features that are different from both FADH(.) and FAD(.-) . Such a conversion does not occur in wild-type EcPL. The chemical nature and formation mechanism of the atypical FAD radical in N378D mutant EcPL are discussed. PMID:26852903

  2. Mucosal immunization of mice using CpG DNA and/or mutants of the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli as adjuvants.

    PubMed

    McCluskie, M J; Weeratna, R D; Clements, J D; Davis, H L

    2001-06-14

    Cholera toxin (CT) and the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) are potent mucosal adjuvants in animals associated, at least in part, with their ability to induce cAMP. While toxicity generally precludes their use in humans, a number of different subunit or genetically detoxified mutants of CT and LT have been developed. Another type of adjuvant that has been shown to be effective at mucosal surfaces comprises synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs (CpG ODN). We have previously demonstrated a synergy between CpG ODN and native toxins after intranasal (IN) administration to mice, and herein have examined whether this synergy is linked to the cAMP activity. The adjuvanticity of CpG ODN was evaluated with IN and oral delivery of tetanus toxoid or the hepatitis B surface antigen, relative to and in combination with native LT holotoxin (LTh), three active site mutants (LTS61F, LTA69G, LTE112K), a protease site mutant (LTR192G), and the B subunit of LT (LTB). At an equivalent dose, the adjuvants could generally be divided into two groups: one that included CpG ODN, LTh, LTR192G, and LTA69G which acted as strong adjuvants; and the second which comprised LTB, LTS61F, and LTE112K, which produced significantly weaker immune responses. When CpG ODN was co-administered with bacterial toxin-derivatives, in most cases, no synergy between CpG and the LT derivatives was found for strength of the humoral response. Nevertheless, for both routes and antigens, CpG ODN combined with any LT derivative induced a more Type 1-like response than LT derivative alone. These results suggest that while the synergy seen previously with native toxins may have been due in part to inherent cAMP activity, it may have also depended on the particular antigen used and the route of immunization. PMID:11395211

  3. Magnesium uptake of Arabidopsis transporters, AtMRS2-10 and AtMRS2-11, expressed in Escherichia coli mutants: Complementation and growth inhibition by aluminum.

    PubMed

    Ishijima, Sumio; Uda, Misaki; Hirata, Tomohiro; Shibata, Makiko; Kitagawa, Nozomi; Sagami, Ikuko

    2015-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg2+) plays a critical role in many physiological processes. Mg2+ transport systems in Salmonella have been well documented, but those in Escherichia coli have not been fully elucidated. We examined the effects of corA, mgtA, yhiD and corC gene deletion on Mg2+ transport in E. coli. We obtained every combination of double, triple and quadruple mutants. The corA and mgtA double mutant required addition of 10 mM Mg2+ to Luria-Bertani (LB) medium for growth, and the corA, mgtA and yhiD triple mutant TM2 required a higher Mg2+ concentration. The Mg2+ requirement of the quadruple mutant was similar to that of TM2. The results demonstrated that either CorA or MgtA is necessary for normal E. coli growth in LB medium and that YhiD plays a role in Mg2+ transport under high Mg2+ growth conditions in E. coli. The Arabidopsis Mg2+ transporters, AtMRS2-10 and AtMRS2-11, were heterologously expressed in TM2 cells. TM2 cells expressing AtMRS2-10 and AtMRS2-11 could grow in LB medium that had been supplemented with 1 mM Mg2+ and without Mg2+ supplementation, respectively, and cell growth was inhibited by 2 mM AlCl3. The results indicated that the growth of TM2 expressing AtMRS2-10 and AtMRS2-11 reflected these AtMRS2 function for Mg2+ and aluminum. The E. coli TM2 cells are useful for functional analysis of Arabidopsis MRS2 proteins. PMID:25772503

  4. Immuno-Stimulatory Activity of Escherichia coli Mutants Producing Kdo2-Monophosphoryl-Lipid A or Kdo2-Pentaacyl-Monophosphoryl-Lipid A

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Biwen; Han, Yaning; Li, Ye; Li, Yanyan; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Lipid A is the active center of lipopolysaccharide which also known as endotoxin. Monophosphoryl-lipid A (MPLA) has less toxicity but retains potent immunoadjuvant activity; therefore, it can be developed as adjuvant for improving the strength and duration of the immune response to antigens. However, MPLA cannot be chemically synthesized and can only be obtained by hydrolyzing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) purified from Gram-negative bacteria. Purifying LPS is difficult and time-consuming and can damage the structure of MPLA. In this study, Escherichia coli mutant strains HWB01 and HWB02 were constructed by deleting several genes and integrating Francisella novicida gene lpxE into the chromosome of E. coli wild type strain W3110. Compared with W3110, HWB01 and HWB02 synthesized very short LPS, Kdo2-monophosphoryl-lipid A (Kdo2-MPLA) and Kdo2-pentaacyl-monophosphoryl-lipid A (Kdo2-pentaacyl-MPLA), respectively. Structural changes of LPS in the outer membranes of HWB01 and HWB02 increased their membrane permeability, surface hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation ability and sensitivity to some antibiotics, but the abilities of these strains to activate the TLR4/MD-2 receptor of HKE-Blue hTLR4 cells were deceased. Importantly, purified Kdo2-MPLA and Kdo2-pentaacyl-MPLA differed from wild type LPS in their ability to stimulate the mammalian cell lines THP-1 and RAW264.7. The purification of Kdo2-MPLA and Kdo2-pentaacyl-MPLA from HWB01 and HWB02, respectively, is much easier than the purification of LPS from W3110, and these lipid A derivatives could be important tools for developing future vaccine adjuvants. PMID:26710252

  5. Enhanced acetohydroxy acid synthase III activity in an ilvH mutant of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Ricca, E; Limauro, D; Lago, C T; de Felice, M

    1988-01-01

    The acetohydroxy acid synthase III isozyme, which catalyzes the first common step in the biosynthesis of isoleucine, leucine, and valine in Escherichia coli K-12, is composed of two subunits, the ilvI and ilvH gene products. A missense mutation in ilvH (ilvH612), which reduced the sensitivity of the enzyme to the end product inhibition by valine, also increased its specific activity and lowered the Km for alpha-acetolactate synthesis. The mutation increased the sensitivity of acetohydroxy acid synthase III to dialysis and heat treatment and reduced the requirement for thiamine pyrophosphate addition to the assay mixture for activity. A strain carrying the ilvH612 mutation grew better than a homologous ilvH+ strain in the presence of leucine. The data indicate that this is a consequence of a more active acetohydroxy acid synthase III isozyme rather than the result of an alteration of the leucine-mediated repression of the ilvIH operon. PMID:3053650

  6. Identification of the enzymatic basis for. delta. -aminolevulinic acid auxotrophy in a hemA mutant of escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Avissar, Y.J.; Beale, S.I. )

    1989-06-01

    The hemA mutation of Escherichia coli K-12 confers a requirement for {delta}-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). Cell extract prepared from the hemA strain SASX41B was incapable of producing ALA from either glutamate or glutamyl-tRNA, whereas extract of the hem{sup +} strain HB101 formed colorimetrically detectable amounts of ALA and transferred label from 1-({sup 14}C)glutamate and 3,4-({sup 3}H)glutamyl-tRNA to ALA. Extracts of both strains converted glutamate-1-semialdehyde to ALA and were capable of aminoacylating tRNA{sup Glu}. Glutamyl-tRNA formed by extracts of both strains could be converted to ALA by the extract of hem{sup +} cells. The extract of hemA cells did not convert glutamyl-tRNA formed by either strain to ALA. However, the hemA cell extract, when supplemented in vitro with glutamyl-tRNA dehydrogenase isolated from Chlorella vulgaris cells, formed about as much ALA as did the unsupplemented hem{sup +} cell extract. We conclude from these observations that the enzyme activity that is lacking in the ALA auxotrophic strain carrying the hemA mutation is that of glutamyl-tRNA dehydrogenase.

  7. Role of an invariant lysine residue in folate binding on Escherichia coli thymidylate synthase: calorimetric and crystallographic analysis of the K48Q mutant

    PubMed Central

    Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A.; Sugich-Miranda, Rocio; Arreola, Rodrigo; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D.; Velazquez-Contreras, Enrique F.; Montfort, William R.; Maley, Frank; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.

    2008-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) catalyzes the reductive methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) using methylene tetrahydrofolate (CH2THF) as cofactor, the glutamate tail of which forms a water-mediated hydrogen-bond with an invariant lysine residue of this enzyme. To understand the role of this interaction, we studied the K48Q mutant of Escherichia coli TS using structural and biophysical methods. The kcat of the K48Q mutant was 430 fold lower than wild-type TS in activity, while the the Km for the (R)-stereoisomer of CH2THF was 300 µM, about 30 fold larger than Km from the wild-type TS. Affinity constants were determined using isothermal titration calorimetry, which showed that binding was reduced by one order of magnitude for folate-like TS inhibitors, such as propargyl-dideaza folate (PDDF) or compounds that distort the TS active site like BW1843U89 (U89). The crystal structure of the K48Q-dUMP complex revealed that dUMP binding is not impaired in the mutamt, and that U89 in a ternary complex of K48Q-nucleotide-U89 was bound in the active site with subtle differences relative to comparable wild type complexes. PDDF failed to form ternary complexes with K48Q and dUMP. Thermodynamic data correlated with the structural determinations, since PDDF binding was dominated by enthalpic effects while U89 had an important entropic component. In conclusion, K48 is critical for catalysis since it leads to a productive CH2THF binding, while mutation at this residue does not affect much the binding of inhibitors that do not make contact with this group. PMID:18403248

  8. Mutant sequences in the rpsL gene of Escherichia coli B/r: mechanistic implications for spontaneous and ultraviolet light mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Timms, A R; Steingrimsdottir, H; Lehmann, A R; Bridges, B A

    1992-03-01

    Mutants able to grow in the presence of 1.2 mg/ml streptomycin were isolated from Escherichia coli WP2 after exposure to ultraviolet light (UV) or in the absence of any treatment (spontaneous), and from a umuC derivative after exposure to UV and delayed photoreversal. These mutants, characterized as streptomycin resistant (Smr) or dependent (Smd), carry mutations in the rpsL gene. This gene was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Mutations induced by UV were largely (76%) of the Smr phenotype, all of which were changes at an A:T base pair at codons 42 or 87. Mutations induced by UV plus delayed photoreversal in the non-UV-mutable umuC122 derivative of WP2 were exclusively of the Smd phenotype and all occurred at G:C base pairs at codons 41, 90 or 91. These results are consistent with current understanding of the mechanism of mutagenesis by UV and delayed photoreversal. A broader spectrum of mutations was seen in the spontaneous series including three-base deletions leading to amino acid loss (2 of codon 93, 1 of codon 87). Of particular note was the number of intragenic second site mutations in the spontaneous series, most if not all of which appeared to be silent with respect to streptomycin phenotype. It is necessary to postulate a high rate of formation of such mutations at some stage during the experiment. One possibility is that spontaneous mutation may often occur in bursts when an error correction mechanism (eg., proofreading, mismatch correction) is temporarily inactive.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1552908

  9. Expression of apple 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase in Escherichia coli: kinetic characterization of wild-type and active-site mutant forms.

    PubMed Central

    White, M F; Vasquez, J; Yang, S F; Kirsch, J F

    1994-01-01

    The pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACC synthase; S-adenosyl-L-methionine methylthioadenosine-lyase, EC 4.4.1.14) catalyzes the conversion of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to ACC and 5'-methylthioadenosine, the committed step in ethylene biosynthesis in plants. Apple ACC synthase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli (3 mg/liter) and purified to near homogeneity. A continuous assay was developed by coupling the ACC synthase reaction to the deamination of 5'-methylthioadenosine by adenosine deaminase (adenosine aminohydrolase, EC 3.5.4.4) from Aspergillus oryzae. The enzyme is dimeric, with kcat = 9s-1 per monomer and Km = 12 microM for AdoMet. The pyridoxal phosphate-binding site of ACC synthase appears to be highly homologous to that of aspartate aminotransferase, suggesting similar roles for corresponding residues. Site-directed mutagenesis of Lys-273, Arg-407, and Tyr-233 (corresponding to residues 258, 386, and 225 in aspartate aminotransferase) and kinetic analyses of the mutants confirms their importance in the ACC synthase mechanism. The Lys-273 to Ala mutant has no detectable activity, supporting the identification of this residue as the base catalyzing C alpha proton abstraction. Mutation of Arg-407 to Lys results in a precipitous drop in kcat/Km and an increase in Km for AdoMet of at least 20-fold, in accordance with its proposed role as principal ligand for the substrate alpha-carboxylate group. Replacement of Tyr-233 with Phe causes a 24-fold increase in the Km for AdoMet and no change in kcat, suggesting that this residue plays a role in orienting the pyridoxal phosphate cofactor in the active site. Images Fig. 4 PMID:7809054

  10. NADPH-dependent reductive biotransformation with Escherichia coli and its pfkA deletion mutant: influence on global gene expression and role of oxygen supply.

    PubMed

    Siedler, Solvej; Bringer, Stephanie; Polen, Tino; Bott, Michael

    2014-10-01

    An Escherichia coli ΔpfkA mutant lacking the major phosphofructokinase possesses a partially cyclized pentose phosphate pathway leading to an increased NADPH per glucose ratio. This effect decreases the amount of glucose required for NADPH regeneration in reductive biotransformations, such as the conversion of methyl acetoacetate (MAA) to (R)-methyl 3-hydroxybutyrate (MHB) by an alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus brevis. Here, global transcriptional analyses were performed to study regulatory responses during reductive biotransformation. DNA microarray analysis revealed amongst other things increased expression of soxS, supporting previous results indicating that a high NADPH demand contributes to the activation of SoxR, the transcriptional activator of soxS. Furthermore, several target genes of the ArcAB two-component system showed a lower mRNA level in the reference strain than in the ΔpfkA mutant, pointing to an increased QH2 /Q ratio in the reference strain. This prompted us to analyze yields and productivities of MAA reduction to MHB under different oxygen regimes in a bioreactor. Under anaerobic conditions, the specific MHB production rates of both strains were comparable (7.4 ± 0.2 mmolMHB  h(-1)  gcdw (-1) ) and lower than under conditions of 15% dissolved oxygen, where those of the reference strain (12.8 mmol h(-1)  gcdw (-1) ) and of the ΔpfkA mutant (11.0 mmol h(-1)  gcdw (-1) ) were 73% and 49% higher. While the oxygen transfer rate (OTR) of the reference strain increased after the addition of MAA, presumably due to the oxidation of the acetate accumulated before MAA addition, the OTR of the ΔpfkA strain strongly decreased, indicating a very low respiration rate despite sufficient oxygen supply. The latter effect can likely be attributed to a restricted conversion of NADPH into NADH via the soluble transhydrogenase SthA, as the enzyme is outcompeted in the presence of MAA by the recombinant NADPH-dependent alcohol

  11. Expression of Escherichia coli glycogen branching enzyme in an Arabidopsis mutant devoid of endogenous starch branching enzymes induces the synthesis of starch-like polyglucans.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Laura; Roussel, Xavier; Courseaux, Adeline; Ndjindji, Ofilia M; Lancelon-Pin, Christine; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Tetlow, Ian J; Emes, Michael J; Pontoire, Bruno; D' Hulst, Christophe; Wattebled, Fabrice

    2016-07-01

    Starch synthesis requires several enzymatic activities including branching enzymes (BEs) responsible for the formation of α(1 → 6) linkages. Distribution and number of these linkages are further controlled by debranching enzymes that cleave some of them, rendering the polyglucan water-insoluble and semi-crystalline. Although the activity of BEs and debranching enzymes is mandatory to sustain normal starch synthesis, the relative importance of each in the establishment of the plant storage polyglucan (i.e. water insolubility, crystallinity and presence of amylose) is still debated. Here, we have substituted the activity of BEs in Arabidopsis with that of the Escherichia coli glycogen BE (GlgB). The latter is the BE counterpart in the metabolism of glycogen, a highly branched water-soluble and amorphous storage polyglucan. GlgB was expressed in the be2 be3 double mutant of Arabidopsis, which is devoid of BE activity and consequently free of starch. The synthesis of a water-insoluble, partly crystalline, amylose-containing starch-like polyglucan was restored in GlgB-expressing plants, suggesting that BEs' origin only has a limited impact on establishing essential characteristics of starch. Moreover, the balance between branching and debranching is crucial for the synthesis of starch, as an excess of branching activity results in the formation of highly branched, water-soluble, poorly crystalline polyglucan. PMID:26715025

  12. Glucose Transporter Mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 with Changes in Substrate Recognition of IICBGlc and Induction Behavior of the ptsG Gene

    PubMed Central

    Zeppenfeld, Tim; Larisch, Christina; Lengeler, Joseph W.; Jahreis, Knut

    2000-01-01

    In Escherichia coli K-12, the major glucose transporter with a central role in carbon catabolite repression and in inducer exclusion is the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent glucose:phosphotransferase system (PTS). Its membrane-bound subunit, IICBGlc, is encoded by the gene ptsG; its soluble domain, IIAGlc, is encoded by crr, which is a member of the pts operon. The system is inducible by d-glucose and, to a lesser degree, by l-sorbose. The regulation of ptsG transcription was analyzed by testing the induction of IICBGlc transporter activity and of a single-copy Φ(ptsGop-lacZ) fusion. Among mutations found to affect directly ptsG expression were those altering the activity of adenylate cyclase (cyaA), the repressor DgsA (dgsA; also called Mlc), the general PTS proteins enzyme I (ptsI) and histidine carrier protein HPr (ptsH), and the IIAGlc and IIBGlc domains, as well as several authentic and newly isolated UmgC mutations. The latter, originally thought to map in the repressor gene umgC outside the ptsG locus, were found to represent ptsG alleles. These affected invariably the substrate specificity of the IICBGlc domain, thus allowing efficient transport and phosphorylation of substrates normally transported very poorly or not at all by this PTS. Simultaneously, all of these substrates became inducers for ptsG. From the analysis of the mutants, from cis-trans dominance tests, and from the identification of the amino acid residues mutated in the UmgC mutants, a new regulatory mechanism involved in ptsG induction is postulated. According to this model, the phosphorylation state of IIBGlc modulates IICGlc which, directly or indirectly, controls the repressor DgsA and hence ptsG expression. By the same mechanism, glucose uptake and phosphorylation also control the expression of the pts operon and probably of all operons controlled by the repressor DgsA. PMID:10913077

  13. Escherichia coli sec mutants accumulate a processed immature form of maltose-binding protein (MBP), a late-phase intermediate in MBP export.

    PubMed

    Ueguchi, C; Ito, K

    1990-10-01

    Protein translocation across the Escherichia coli cytoplasmic membrane may consist of several temporally or topographically distinct steps. Although early events in the translocation pathway have been characterized to some extent, the mechanisms responsible for the trans-bilayer movement of a polypeptide are only poorly understood. This article reports on our attempts to dissect the translocation pathway in vivo. A processed form of maltose-binding protein (MBP) was detected in the spheroplasts of secY and secA temperature-sensitive mutant cells that had been pulse-labeled at the permissive temperature (30 degrees C). This species of molecule was found to have an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of the mature MBP, but a considerable fraction of it was inaccessible to externally added protease. It had not attained the protease-resistant conformation characteristically observed for the exported mature protein. The radioactivity associated with this species decreased during chase and was presumably converted into the exported mature form, a process that required energy, probably the proton motive force, as demonstrated by its inhibition by an energy uncoupler. The spheroplast-associated processed form was more predominantly observed in the presence of a low concentration of chloramphenicol. A similar intermediate was also detected for beta-lactamase in wild-type cells. These results suggest that in a late phase of translocation, the bulk of the polypeptide chain can move through the membrane in the absence of the covalently attached leader peptide, and the secA-secY gene products are somehow involved in this process. We termed the processed intermediates processed immature forms. PMID:2211501

  14. Dissection of β-barrel outer membrane protein assembly pathways through characterizing BamA POTRA 1 mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bennion, Drew; Charlson, Emily S; Coon, Eric; Misra, Rajeev

    2010-09-01

    BamA of Escherichia coli is an essential component of the hetero-oligomeric machinery that mediates β-barrel outer membrane protein (OMP) assembly. The C- and N-termini of BamA fold into trans-membrane β-barrel and five soluble POTRA domains respectively. Detailed characterization of BamA POTRA 1 missense and deletion mutants revealed two competing OMP assembly pathways, one of which is followed by the archetypal trimeric β-barrel OMPs, OmpF and LamB, and is dependent on POTRA 1. Interestingly, our data suggest that BamA also requires its POTRA 1 domain for proper assembly. The second pathway is independent of POTRA 1 and is exemplified by TolC. Site-specific cross-linking analysis revealed that the POTRA 1 domain of BamA interacts with SurA, a periplasmic chaperone required for the assembly of OmpF and LamB, but not that of TolC and BamA. The data suggest that SurA and BamA POTRA 1 domain function in concert to assist folding and assembly of most β-barrel OMPs except for TolC, which folds into a unique soluble α-helical barrel and an OM-anchored β-barrel. The two assembly pathways finally merge at some step beyond POTRA 1 but presumably before membrane insertion, which is thought to be catalysed by the trans-membrane β-barrel domain of BamA. PMID:20598079

  15. Dissection of β-barrel Outer Membrane Protein Assembly Pathways through Characterizing BamA POTRA 1 Mutants of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bennion, Drew; Charlson, Emily S.; Coon, Eric; Misra, Rajeev

    2010-01-01

    Summary BamA of Escherichia coli is an essential component of the hetero-oligomeric machinery that mediates β-barrel outer membrane protein (OMP) assembly. The C- and N-termini of BamA fold into trans-membrane β-barrel and five soluble POTRA domains, respectively. Detailed characterization of BamA POTRA 1 missense and deletion mutants revealed two competing OMP assembly pathways, one of which is followed by the archetypal trimeric β-barrel OMPs, OmpF and LamB, and is dependent on POTRA 1. Interestingly, our data suggest that BamA also requires its POTRA 1 domain for proper assembly. The second pathway is independent of POTRA 1 and is exemplified by TolC. Site-specific cross-linking analysis revealed that the POTRA 1 domain of BamA interacts with SurA, a periplasmic chaperone required for the assembly of OmpF and LamB, but not that of TolC and BamA. The data suggest that SurA and BamA POTRA 1 domain function in concert to assist folding and assembly of most β-barrel OMPs except for TolC, which folds into a unique soluble α-helical barrel and an OM-anchored β-barrel. The two assembly pathways finally merge at some step beyond POTRA 1 but presumably before membrane insertion, which is thought to be catalyzed by the trans-membrane β-barrel domain of Bam A. PMID:20598079

  16. P212A Mutant of Dihydrodaidzein Reductase Enhances (S)-Equol Production and Enantioselectivity in a Recombinant Escherichia coli Whole-Cell Reaction System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pyung-Gang; Kim, Joonwon; Kim, Eun-Jung; Jung, EunOk; Pandey, Bishnu Prasad; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2016-04-01

    (S)-Equol, a gut bacterial isoflavone derivative, has drawn great attention because of its potent use for relieving female postmenopausal symptoms and preventing prostate cancer. Previous studies have reported on the dietary isoflavone metabolism of several human gut bacteria and the involved enzymes for conversion of daidzein to (S)-equol. However, the anaerobic growth conditions required by the gut bacteria and the low productivity and yield of (S)-equol limit its efficient production using only natural gut bacteria. In this study, the low (S)-equol biosynthesis of gut microorganisms was overcome by cloning the four enzymes involved in the biosynthesis from Slackia isoflavoniconvertens into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The reaction conditions were optimized for (S)-equol production from the recombinant strain, and this recombinant system enabled the efficient conversion of 200 μM and 1 mM daidzein to (S)-equol under aerobic conditions, achieving yields of 95% and 85%, respectively. Since the biosynthesis of trans-tetrahydrodaidzein was found to be a rate-determining step for (S)-equol production, dihydrodaidzein reductase (DHDR) was subjected to rational site-directed mutagenesis. The introduction of the DHDR P212A mutation increased the (S)-equol productivity from 59.0 mg/liter/h to 69.8 mg/liter/h in the whole-cell reaction. The P212A mutation caused an increase in the (S)-dihydrodaidzein enantioselectivity by decreasing the overall activity of DHDR, resulting in undetectable activity for (R)-dihydrodaidzein, such that a combination of the DHDR P212A mutant with dihydrodaidzein racemase enabled the production of (3S,4R)-tetrahydrodaidzein with an enantioselectivity of >99%. PMID:26801575

  17. L-cysteine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: nucleotide sequence and expression of the serine acetyltransferase (cysE) gene from the wild-type and a cysteine-excreting mutant.

    PubMed

    Denk, D; Böck, A

    1987-03-01

    Serine acetyltransferase (SAT) from Escherichia coli is subject to feedback inhibition by L-cysteine. A mutant was isolated which excretes L-cysteine because of a lesion in cysE, the structural gene for SAT, rendering the enzyme less feedback sensitive. To analyse the structural basis for this mutation the cysE genes both from wild-type E. coli and the mutant strain were cloned and their nucleotide sequences determined. The cysE gene contained an open reading frame consisting of 819 bp, equivalent to a protein of 273 amino acids. The mutant gene showed a single base change in position 767 resulting in a methionine to isoleucine substitution. A causal connection between this SAT sequence alteration, feedback insensitivity and L-cysteine excretion was demonstrated. The SAT from the wild-type strain was purified. It was composed of a single polypeptide chain migrating in SDS gels according to an Mr of 34,000. As in Salmonella typhimurium, the enzyme was associated in a bifunctional complex with O-acetylserine (thiol)-lyase. PMID:3309158

  18. Evaluation of Hha and Hha SepB Mutant Strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 as Bacterins for Reducing E. coli O157:H7 Shedding in Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 colonizes cattle intestines by using locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded proteins. Induction of systemic immune response against LEE-encoded proteins, therefore, will prove effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 colonization in cattle. Previous studies have demonstra...

  19. In vivo and in vitro studies of transmembrane beta-strand deletion, insertion or substitution mutants of the Escherichia coli K-12 maltoporin.

    PubMed

    Charbit, A; Andersen, C; Wang, J; Schiffler, B; Michel, V; Benz, R; Hofnung, M

    2000-02-01

    LamB of Escherichia coli K12, also called maltoporin, is an outer membrane protein, which specifically facilitates the diffusion of maltose and maltodextrin through the bacterial outer membrane. Each monomer is composed of an 18-stranded antiparallel beta-barrel. In the present work, on the basis of the known X-ray structure of LamB, the effects of modifications of the beta-barrel domain of maltoporin were studied in vivo and in vitro. We show that: (i) the substitution of the pair of strands beta13-beta14 of the E. coli maltoporin with the corresponding pair of strands from the functionally related maltoporin of Salmonella typhimurium yielded a protein active in vivo and in vitro; and (ii) the removal of one pair of beta-strands (deletion beta13-beta14) from the E. coli maltoporin, or its replacement by a pair of strands from the general porin OmpF of E. coli, leads to recombinant proteins that lost in vivo maltoporin activities but still kept channel formation and carbohydrate binding in vitro. We also inserted into deletion beta13-beta14 the portion of the E. coli LamB protein comprising strands beta13 to beta16. This resulted in a protein expected to have 20 beta-strands and which completely lost all LamB-specific activities in vivo and in vitro. PMID:10692155

  20. Association between early inhibition of DNA synthesis and the MICs and MBCs of carboxyquinolone antimicrobial agents for wild-type and mutant [gyrA nfxB(ompF) acrA] Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Chow, R T; Dougherty, T J; Fraimow, H S; Bellin, E Y; Miller, M H

    1988-01-01

    Quinolone antimicrobial agents are known to interact with DNA gyrase, but the mechanism by which bacterial cell death occurs is not fully understood. In order to determine whether there is a correlation between quinolone-induced inhibition of early (i.e., 10 to 15 min) DNA synthesis and potency (MICs and MBCs), we measured the rate of DNA synthesis in log-phase Escherichia coli K-12 by using [3H]thymidine incorporation. Three quinolones (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and difloxacin) were selected based on their decreasing activity against reference strain KL16. All three quinolones caused an early 50% inhibition of DNA synthesis which was proportional to MICs and MBCs (r greater than 0.99). Furthermore, 50% inhibition of DNA synthesis and MICs were nearly identical for mutant strains with an altered quinolone target (gyrA) or with decreased [nfxB(ompF)] or increased (acrA) permeability. There were significant differences (P less than 0.001) between individual quinolones in the degree of DNA synthesis inhibition in nalidixic acid-resistant gyrA and nfxB(ompF) mutant strains. The comparison of the three mutants with the wild-type strain permitted an in vivo examination of the effects of alterations of the drug target or entry on the activity determined by DNA synthesis inhibition and MICs. PMID:3056251

  1. The adjuvant effect of a non-toxic mutant of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli for the induction of measles virus-specific CTL responses after intranasal co-immunization with a synthetic peptide.

    PubMed

    Partidos, C D; Pizza, M; Rappuoli, R; Steward, M W

    1996-12-01

    The intranasal route has been shown to be effective for immunization. However, immunization via this route may require the use of potent and safe adjuvant. The construction of non-toxic mutants of heat labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LT), which is a potent mucosal adjuvant, is a major breakthrough for the development of mucosal vaccines. In this study we have assessed the ability of an LT mutant (LTK63) to act as an adjuvant following intranasal co-immunization with a peptide corresponding to a measles virus cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope. LTK63 was more effective at potentiating the in vivo induction of peptide-specific and measles virus-specific CTL responses than was administration of the peptide in saline. A concentration of 10 micrograms/dose of LTK63 was found to be the most effective in potentiating the in vivo priming of peptide-specific and measles virus-specific CTL responses. These findings highlight the potential of the non-toxic mutant of LT as a safe mucosal adjuvant for use in humans. PMID:9014810

  2. Heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli and its site-directed mutant LTK63 enhance the proliferative and cytotoxic T-cell responses to intranasally co-immunized synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Partidos, C D; Salani, B F; Pizza, M; Rappuoli, R

    1999-04-15

    The adjuvanticity of heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) of Escherichia coli and its non-toxic mutant LTK63 was assessed and compared for intranasal immunization of synthetic peptides. Mice immunized intranasally with LT, or its mutant LTK63, generated strong systemic proliferative and cytotoxic T-cell responses to co-administered synthetic peptides. The wild LT toxin promoted higher peptide-specific proliferative and cytotoxic T-cell responses than the LTK63 mutant. Moreover, the wild-type LT toxin was shown to promote peptide-specific memory CTL responses which were detectable 1 year after intranasal priming. Both LT and LTK63 molecules were shown to be immunogenic, with serum antibody subclasses being predominantly IgG1 and to a lesser extent IgG2a. These findings demonstrate that cellular immune responses to small synthetic peptide antigens administered by the intranasal route can be potentiated with the use of mucosal adjuvants. Moreover, the ability of LT and LTK63 to promote both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses will have relevance to the design and production of future mucosal vaccines. PMID:10369128

  3. EVALUATING THE ROLE OF SDIA AND HHA IN ENHANCED ADHERENCE OF A SDIA HHA DOUBLE MUTANT OF ENTEROHEMORRHAGIC ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adherence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 to biotic (epithelial cells) and abiotic surfaces (biofilm formation) proceeds from an initial reversible adherence to an irreversible stage of intimate adherence. While flagella and fimbriae facilitate initial stage of adherence in both...

  4. Rapid detection of Escherichia coli gyrA and parC mutants in one-day-old broiler chicks in Iran.

    PubMed

    Abdi-Hachesoo, Bahman; Asasi, Keramat; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Vertical and consequently horizontal transmission of quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistant Escherichia coli clones following hatch in chickens enables a massive amplification of these clones into a large population. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance and susceptibility of Iranian E. coli isolates (n=105) from one-day-old chicks to fluoroquinolones and the relation of this resistance with mutations in gyrA and parC genes using PCR-RFLP. For the first time, EcoRV restriction enzyme was used for rapid mutation screening in parC (Ser80Ile). The results showed that the low level of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for ciprofloxacin (0.25-4μg ml-1) and enrofloxacin (0.25-4μg ml-1) corresponded to a single mutation in gyrA, while intermediary to high level of MIC for ciprofloxacin (8 --> 64 μg ml-1) and enrofloxacin (16 --> 64 μg ml-1) were related to 2 mutations in gyrA or 3 mutations, 2 in gyrA and 1 in parC. There was a strong positive correlation (R = 0.93, P < 0.001) between MIC levels of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin among these isolates. The article concludes by stressing that the rising incidence of enrofloxacin resistant E. coli isolates from chicken sources may increase the potential risk of ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli acquisition by humans. PMID:24358491

  5. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  6. Temperature-sensitive mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 with low activities of the L-alanine adding enzyme and the D-alanyl-D-alanine adding enzyme.

    PubMed

    Lugtenberg, E J; v Schijndel-van Dam, A

    1972-04-01

    A number of properties of temperature-sensitive mutants in murein synthesis are described. The mutants grow at 30 C but lyse at 42 C. One mutant possesses a temperature-sensitive d-alanyl-d-alanine adding enzyme, has an impaired rate of murein synthesis in vivo at both 30 and 42 C, and contains elevated levels of uridine diphosphate-N-acetyl-muramyl-tripeptide (UDP-MurNAc-l-Ala-d-Glu-m-diaminopimelic acid) at 42 C. The other mutant possesses an l-alanine adding enzyme with a very low in vitro activity at both 30 and 42 C. Its in vivo rate of murein synthesis is almost normal at 30 C but is much less at 42 C. When the murein precursors were isolated after incubation of the cells in the presence of (14)C-l-alanine, they contained only a fraction of the radioactivity that could be obtained from a wild-type strain. A genetic nomenclature for genes concerned with murein synthesis is proposed. PMID:4552998

  7. Chromosomal model for analysis of a long CTG/CAG tract stability in wild-type Escherichia coli and its nucleotide excision repair mutants.

    PubMed

    Szwarocka, Sylwia T; Staczek, Paweł; Parniewski, Paweł

    2007-07-01

    Many human hereditary neurological diseases, including fragile X syndrome, myotonic dystrophy, and Friedreich's ataxia, are associated with expansions of the triplet repeat sequences (TRS) (CGG/CCG, CTG/CAG, and GAA/TTC) within or near specific genes. Mechanisms that mediate mutations of TRS include DNA replication, repair, and gene conversion and (or) recombination. The involvement of the repair systems in TRS instability was investigated in Escherichia coli on plasmid models, and the results showed that the deficiency of some nucleotide excision repair (NER) functions dramatically affects the stability of long CTG inserts. In such models in which there are tens or hundreds of plasmid molecules in each bacterial cell, repetitive sequences may interact between themselves and according to a recombination hypothesis, which may lead to expansions and deletions within such repeated tracts. Since one cannot control interaction between plasmids, it is also sometimes difficult to give precise interpretation of the results. Therefore, using modified lambda phage (lambdaInCh), we have constructed a chromosomal model to study the instability of trinucleotide repeat sequences in E. coli. We have shown that the stability of (CTG/CAG)68 tracts in the bacterial chromosome is influenced by mutations in NER genes in E. coli. The absence of the uvrC or uvrD gene products greatly enhances the instability of the TRS in the chromosome, whereas the lack of the functional UvrA or UvrB proteins causes substantial stabilization of (CTG/CAG) tracts. PMID:17898841

  8. Evolution of eukaryal tRNA-guanine transglycosylase: insight gained from the heterocyclic substrate recognition by the wild-type and mutant human and Escherichia coli tRNA-guanine transglycosylases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Chen; Brooks, Allen F.; Goodenough-Lashua, DeeAnne M.; Kittendorf, Jeffrey D.; Showalter, Hollis D.; Garcia, George A.

    2011-01-01

    The enzyme tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (TGT) is involved in the queuosine modification of tRNAs in eukarya and eubacteria and in the archaeosine modification of tRNAs in archaea. However, the different classes of TGTs utilize different heterocyclic substrates (and tRNA in the case of archaea). Based on the X-ray structural analyses, an earlier study [Stengl et al. (2005) Mechanism and substrate specificity of tRNA-guanine transglycosylases (TGTs): tRNA-modifying enzymes from the three different kingdoms of life share a common catalytic mechanism. Chembiochem, 6, 1926–1939] has made a compelling case for the divergent evolution of the eubacterial and archaeal TGTs. The X-ray structure of the eukaryal class of TGTs is not known. We performed sequence homology and phylogenetic analyses, and carried out enzyme kinetics studies with the wild-type and mutant TGTs from Escherichia coli and human using various heterocyclic substrates that we synthesized. Observations with the Cys145Val (E. coli) and the corresponding Val161Cys (human) TGTs are consistent with the idea that the Cys145 evolved in eubacterial TGTs to recognize preQ1 but not queuine, whereas the eukaryal equivalent, Val161, evolved for increased recognition of queuine and a concomitantly decreased recognition of preQ1. Both the phylogenetic and kinetic analyses support the conclusion that all TGTs have divergently evolved to specifically recognize their cognate heterocyclic substrates. PMID:21131277

  9. Protection against Helicobacter pylori infection in mice by intragastric vaccination with H. pylori antigens is achieved using a non-toxic mutant of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) as adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, M; Rossi, M; Giannelli, V; Giuliani, M M; Pizza, M; Censini, S; Covacci, A; Massari, P; Pagliaccia, C; Manetti, R; Telford, J L; Douce, G; Dougan, G; Rappuoli, R; Ghiara, P

    1998-01-01

    We have previously shown that infection of mice with H. pylori can be prevented by oral immunization with H. pylori antigens given together with E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) as adjuvant. Since LT cannot be used in humans because of its unacceptable toxicity, we investigated whether protection of mice could be achieved by co-administration of antigens with non-toxic LT mutants. Here we show that CD1/SPF mice are protected against infection after oral vaccination with either purified H. pylori antigens (native and recombinant VacA, urease and CagA), or whole-cell vaccine formulations, given together with the non-toxic mutant LTK63 as a mucosal adjuvant. Furthermore we show that such protection is antigen-specific since immunization with recombinant or native VacA plus LTK63 conferred protection against infection by an H. pylori Type I strain, which expresses VacA, but not against challenge with a Type II strain which is not able to express this antigen. These results show that: (1) protection against H. pylori can be achieved in the mouse model of infection using subunit recombinant constructs plus non-toxic mucosal adjuvants; and (2) this mouse model is an useful tool in testing H. pylori vaccine formulations for eventual use in humans. PMID:9607006

  10. Oral immunization with an attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum mutant as a fowl typhoid vaccine with a live adjuvant strain secreting the B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) lon/cpxR deletion mutant JOL916 was developed as a live vaccine candidate for fowl typhoid (FT), and a SG mutant secreting an Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB), designated JOL1229, was recently constructed as an adjuvant strain for oral vaccination against FT. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective properties of the SG mutant JOL916 and the LTB adjuvant strain JOL1229 in order to establish a prime and boost immunization strategy for each strain. In addition, we compared the increase in body weight, the immunogenicity, the egg production rates, and the bacteriological egg contamination of these strains with those of SG 9R, a widely used commercial vaccine. Results Plasma IgG, intestinal secretory IgA (sIgA), and cell-mediated responses were significantly induced after a boost inoculation with a mixture of JOL916 and JOL1229, and significant reductions in the mortality of chickens challenged with a wild-type SG strain were observed in the immunized groups. There were no significant differences in increases in body weight, cell-mediated immune responses, or systemic IgG responses between our vaccine mixture and the SG 9R vaccine groups. However, there was a significant elevation in intestinal sIgA in chickens immunized with our mixture at 3 weeks post-prime-immunization and at 3 weeks post-boost-immunization, while sIgA levels in SG 9R-immunized chickens were not significantly elevated compared to the control. In addition, the SG strain was not detected in the eggs of chickens immunized with our mixture. Conclusion Our results suggest that immunization with the LTB-adjuvant strain JOL1229 can significantly increase the immune response, and provide efficient protection against FT with no side effects on body weight, egg production, or egg contamination. PMID:23647814

  11. Bioethanol fermentation by recombinant E. coli FBR5 and its robust mutant FBHW using hot-water wood extract hydrolyzate as substrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingjun; Lin, Lu; Sun, Zhijie; Hu, Ruofei; Liu, Shijie

    2010-01-01

    Hemicellulose is a potential by-product currently under-utilized in the papermaking industry. It is a hetero-carbohydrate polymer. For hardwood hemicelluloses, D-xylose is the major component upon depolymerization. At SUNY-ESF, wood extracts were obtained by extracting sugar maple wood chips with hot water at an elevated temperature. The wood extracts were then concentrated and acid hydrolyzed. Ethanologenic bacteria, E. coli FBR5, had a good performance in pure xylose medium for ethanol production. However, FBR5 was strongly inhibited in dilute sulfuric acid hydrolyzate of hot-water wood extract. FBR5 was challenged by hot-water wood extract hydrolyzate in this study. After repeated strain adaptation, an improved strain: E. coli FBHW was obtained. Fermentation experiments indicated that FBHW was resistant to the toxicity of hydrolyzate in the fermentation media of concentrated hydrolyzate, and xylose was completely utilized by the strain to produce ethanol. FBHW was grown in the concentrated hydrolyzate without any detoxification treatment and has yielded 36.8g/L ethanol. PMID:20478373

  12. The Walker A motif mutation recA4159 abolishes the SOS response and recombination in a recA730 mutant of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Šimatović, Ana; Mitrikeski, Petar T; Vlašić, Ignacija; Sopta, Mary; Brčić-Kostić, Krunoslav

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, the RecA protein forms recombinogenic filaments required for the SOS response and DNA recombination. In order to form a recombinogenic filament, wild type RecA needs to bind ATP and to interact with mediator proteins. The RecA730 protein is a mutant version of RecA with superior catalytic abilities, allowing filament formation without the help of mediator proteins. The mechanism of RecA730 filament formation is not well understood, and the question remains as to whether the RecA730 protein requires ATP binding in order to become competent for filament formation. We examined two mutants, recA730,4159 (presumed to be defective for ATP binding) and recA730,2201 (defective for ATP hydrolysis), and show that they have different properties with respect to SOS induction, conjugational recombination and double-strand break repair. We show that ATP binding is essential for all RecA730 functions, while ATP hydrolysis is required only for double-strand break repair. Our results emphasize the similarity of the SOS response and conjugational recombination, neither of which requires ATP hydrolysis by RecA730. PMID:27130282

  13. Expression of deletion mutants of the hepatitis B virus protein HBx in E. coli and characterization of their RNA binding activities.

    PubMed

    Rui, E; de Moura, P R; Kobarg, J

    2001-04-01

    The hepatitis B virus protein HBx has been implicated in the development of liver cancer. It has been shown that the HBx protein is able to bind to single-stranded DNA in a specific manner. This DNA binding activity might be relevant for HBx oncogene character. To study the HBx interaction with nucleic acids in more detail we expressed full-length HBx as well as several N- and C-terminally truncated HBx proteins as 6xHis and GST-fusions in E. coli. Using a gel shift assay, we were able to demonstrate that all of the truncated HBx proteins have the ability to bind to an AU-rich RNA. The affinity of GST-HBx #3 (residues 80-142) was an order of magnitude higher than that of GST-HBx #2 (residues 5-79), indicating that a high affinity RNA binding site is located in HBx C-terminal half. AUF1 is the protein ligand that binds to AU-rich RNA regions present in certain proto-oncogene mRNAs and causes their rapid degradation. By a competitive binding experiment of AUF1 and HBx to the AU-rich RNA oligonucleotide, we show that HBx is able to displace AUF1 from its binding site on the RNA oligonucleotide. This new aspect of HBx function is discussed in the context of cellular transformation. PMID:11226575

  14. Reconstitution of maltose chemotaxis in Escherichia coli by addition of maltose-binding protein to calcium-treated cells of maltose regulon mutants.

    PubMed

    Brass, J M; Manson, M D

    1984-03-01

    Maltose chemotaxis was reconstituted in delta malE cells lacking maltose-binding protein (MBP). Purified MBP was introduced into intact cells during incubation with 250 mM CaCl2 in Tris-hydrochloride buffer at 0 degrees C. After removal of extracellular CaCl2 and MBP, chemotaxis was measured with tethered bacteria in a flow chamber or with free-swimming cells in a capillary assay. About 20% of tethered cells responded to 10(-4) M maltose; the mean response times were about half those of CaCl2-treated wild-type cells (100 s as opposed to 190 s). In capillary tests, the maltose response of reconstituted cells was between 15 and 40% of the aspartate response, about the same percentage as in wild-type cells. The best reconstitution was seen with 0.5 to 1 mM MBP in the reconstitution mixture, which is similar to the periplasmic MBP concentration estimated for maltose-induced wild-type cells. Strains containing large deletions of the malB region and malT mutants lacking the positive regulator gene of the mal regulon also could be reconstituted for maltose chemotaxis, showing that no product of the mal regulon other than MBP is essential for maltose chemotaxis. PMID:6321442

  15. A mutant of Eshcerchia coli K-12, URT-43, with a temperature-sensitive defect at the incision step of the excision repair mechanism.

    PubMed

    Morimyo, M; Suzuki, K; Shimauzu, Y

    1975-02-01

    URT-43, which has a defect in excision repair, exhibits a temperature-dependent ultraviolet survival. It was shown that URT-43 requires protein synthesis but not DNA synthesis for recovery, by examining recovery in a growth medium containing chloramphenicol or nalidixic acid. The recovery of irradiated bacteriophage lambda in URT-43 took place in a medium containing nalidixic acid at 30 degrees, but not at 41 degrees, and chloramphenicol prevented this recovery. These results seem to imply that the product of the mutated gene in URT-43 is labile. URT-43 was confirmed to have a temperature-sensitive mutation at the incision step of the excision repair mechanism by examining the nick formation of parental DNA in alkaline sucrose gradients. The release of pyrimidine dimers was reinvestigated directly by one- and two-dimensional paper-chromatography and indirectly by examining the distribution of DNA molecules synthesized after irradiation. Dimers were excised into the acid-soluble fraction when growing bacteria were incubated, but were not excised when in amino acid starved bacteria. These results suggest that URT-43 is a mutant slowly excising pyrimidine dimers because the product of a mutated gene concerned with the incision step of the excision repair mechanism is unstable. PMID:1093010

  16. Attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine strain CVD 1204 expressing colonization factor antigen I and mutant heat-labile enterotoxin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, H; Levine, M M; Anderson, R J; Losonsky, G; Pizza, M; Barry, E M

    2000-09-01

    A multivalent live oral vaccine against both Shigella spp. and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is being developed based on the hypothesis that protection can be achieved if attenuated shigellae express ETEC fimbrial colonization factors and genetically detoxified heat-labile toxin from a human ETEC isolate (LTh). Two detoxified derivatives of LTh, LThK63 and LThR72, were engineered by substitution-serine to lysine at residue 63, or lysine to arginine at residue 72. The genes encoding these two derivatives were cloned separately on expression plasmids downstream from the CFA/I operon. Following electroporation into S. flexneri 2a vaccine strain CVD 1204, coexpression of CFA/I and LThK63 or LThR72 was demonstrated by Western blot analysis, GM(1) binding assays, and agglutination with anti-CFA/I antiserum. Hemagglutination and electron microscopy confirmed surface expression of CFA/I. Guinea pigs immunized intranasally on days 0 and 15 with CVD 1204 expressing CFA/I and LThK63 or LThR72 exhibited high titers of both serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mucosal secretory IgA anti-CFA/I; 40% of the animals produced antibodies directed against LTh. All immunized guinea pigs also produced mucosal IgA (in tears) and serum IgG anti-S. flexneri 2a O antibodies. Furthermore, all immunized animals were protected from challenge with wild-type S. flexneri 2a. This prototype Shigella-ETEC hybrid vaccine demonstrates the feasibility of expressing multiple ETEC antigens on a single plasmid in an attenuated Shigella vaccine strain and engendering immune responses against both the heterologous antigens and vector strain. PMID:10948101

  17. Immunization with a Double-Mutant (R192G/L211A) of the Heat-Labile Enterotoxin of Escherichia coli Offers Partial Protection against Campylobacter jejuni in an Adult Mouse Intestinal Colonization Model.

    PubMed

    Albert, M John; Haridas, Shilpa; Ebenezer, Mathew; Raghupathy, Raj; Khan, Islam

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that antibodies to cholera toxin (CT) reacted with the major outer membrane proteins (MOMPs) from Campylobacter jejuni strains on Western blot. Further, oral immunization with CT significantly protected against challenge with C. jejuni in an adult mouse colonization model of infection. CT and the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are structurally and functionally related. LT and its mutants including the double-mutant LT (R192G/L211A) (dmLT), are powerful mucosal adjuvants. Unlike LT which is reactogenic, dmLT has been shown to be safe for human use. In the current study, we determined whether rabbit anti-dmLT antibodies reacted with MOMPs from C. jejuni strains and whether immunization with dmLT would afford protection against C. jejuni. On Western blot, the MOMPs from C. jejuni 48 (Penner serotype O:19), C. jejuni 75 (O:3) and C. jejuni 111 (O:1,44) were probed with rabbit antibodies to dmLT or LT-E112K (a non-toxic LT mutant), which showed a lack of reaction. Adult BALB/c mice were orally immunized with dmLT and orally challenged with C. jejuni 48 or 111. Protection from colonization with the challenge bacteria was studied by enumerating Campylobacter colonies in feces daily for 9 days. Vaccination produced robust serum and stool antibody responses to dmLT and no antibody responses to C. jejuni MOMP. Vaccinated mice showed reduced colonization and excretion of both challenge strains compared to control mice. However, the differences were not statistically significant. The protective efficacy of the dmLT vaccine varied from 9.1% to 54.5%. The lack of cross-reaction between the MOMP and dmLT suggests that protection is not mediated by cross-reacting antibodies, but may be due to activation of innate immunity. As dmLT is safe for humans, it could be incorporated into a C. jejuni vaccine to enhance its efficacy. PMID:26540197

  18. Immunization with a Double-Mutant (R192G/L211A) of the Heat-Labile Enterotoxin of Escherichia coli Offers Partial Protection against Campylobacter jejuni in an Adult Mouse Intestinal Colonization Model

    PubMed Central

    Albert, M. John; Haridas, Shilpa; Ebenezer, Mathew; Raghupathy, Raj; Khan, Islam

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that antibodies to cholera toxin (CT) reacted with the major outer membrane proteins (MOMPs) from Campylobacter jejuni strains on Western blot. Further, oral immunization with CT significantly protected against challenge with C. jejuni in an adult mouse colonization model of infection. CT and the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are structurally and functionally related. LT and its mutants including the double-mutant LT (R192G/L211A) (dmLT), are powerful mucosal adjuvants. Unlike LT which is reactogenic, dmLT has been shown to be safe for human use. In the current study, we determined whether rabbit anti-dmLT antibodies reacted with MOMPs from C. jejuni strains and whether immunization with dmLT would afford protection against C. jejuni. On Western blot, the MOMPs from C. jejuni 48 (Penner serotype O:19), C. jejuni 75 (O:3) and C. jejuni 111 (O:1,44) were probed with rabbit antibodies to dmLT or LT-E112K (a non-toxic LT mutant), which showed a lack of reaction. Adult BALB/c mice were orally immunized with dmLT and orally challenged with C. jejuni 48 or 111. Protection from colonization with the challenge bacteria was studied by enumerating Campylobacter colonies in feces daily for 9 days. Vaccination produced robust serum and stool antibody responses to dmLT and no antibody responses to C. jejuni MOMP. Vaccinated mice showed reduced colonization and excretion of both challenge strains compared to control mice. However, the differences were not statistically significant. The protective efficacy of the dmLT vaccine varied from 9.1% to 54.5%. The lack of cross-reaction between the MOMP and dmLT suggests that protection is not mediated by cross-reacting antibodies, but may be due to activation of innate immunity. As dmLT is safe for humans, it could be incorporated into a C. jejuni vaccine to enhance its efficacy. PMID:26540197

  19. Constitutive activation of the fucAO operon and silencing of the divergently transcribed fucPIK operon by an IS5 element in Escherichia coli mutants selected for growth on L-1,2-propanediol.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y M; Lu, Z; Lin, E C

    1989-01-01

    L-1,2-Propanediol is an irretrievable end product of L-fucose fermentation by Escherichia coli. Selection for increased aerobic growth rate on propanediol results in the escalation of basal synthesis of the NAD+-linked oxidoreductase encoded by fucO, a member of the fuc regulon for the utilization of L-fucose. In general, when fucO becomes constitutively expressed, two other simultaneous changes occur: the fucA gene encoding fuculose-1-phosphate aldolase becomes constitutively expressed and the fucPIK operon encoding fucose permease, fucose isomerase, and fuculose kinase becomes noninducible. In the present study, we show that fucO and fucA form an operon which is divergently transcribed from the adjacent fucPIK operon. In propanediol-positive and fucose-negative mutants the cis-controlling region shared by the operons fucAO and fucPIK is lengthened by 1.2 kilobases. DNA hybridization identified the insertion element to be IS5. This element, always oriented in the same direction with the left end (the BglII end) proximal to fucA, apparently causes constitutive expression of fucAO and noninducibility of fucPIK. The DNA of the fucAO operon and a part of the adjacent fucP was sequenced. Images PMID:2553671

  20. Thiophene metabolism by E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the mechanism of degradation of sulfur containing heterocyclic molecules by mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. We previously isolated multiple mutants of E. coli which were selected for improved oxidation of furan and thiophene derivatives. We have focused on the thdA mutation in our subsequent research as it appears to be of central importance in thiophene oxidation. We hope that analysis of the thd gene of E. coli will lead to improvement of our thiophene metabolizing bacterial strains.

  1. Thiophene metabolism by E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the mechanism of degradation of sulfur containing heterocyclic molecules such as those found in coal, by mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. We previously isolated multiple mutants of E. coli which were selected for improved oxidation of furan and thiophene derivatives. We have focused on the thdA mutation in our subsequent research as it appears to be of central importance in thiophene oxidation. We hope that analysis of the thd genes of E. coli will lead to improvement of our thiophene metabolizing bacterial strains. 1 tab.

  2. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  3. Escherichia coli (E. coli)

    MedlinePlus

    ... so you might hear about E. coli being found in drinking water, which are not themselves harmful, but indicate the ... at CDC Foodborne disease Travelers' Health: Safe Food & Water Healthy Swimming E. coli Infection & Farm ... Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  4. Enhancement of laccase activity through the construction and breakdown of a hydrogen bond at the type I copper center in Escherichia coli CueO and the deletion mutant Δα5-7 CueO.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Kunishige; Hirota, Shun; Maeda, Yasuo; Kogi, Hiroki; Shinohara, Naoya; Sekimoto, Madoka; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2011-02-01

    CueO is a multicopper oxidase involved in a copper efflux system of Escherichia coli and has high cuprous oxidase activity but little or no oxidizing activity toward various organic substances. However, its activity toward oxidization of organic substrates was found to be considerably increased by the removal of the methionine-rich helical segment that covers the substrate-binding site (Δα5-7 CueO) [Kataoka, K., et al. (2007) J. Mol. Biol. 373, 141]. In the study presented here, mutations at Pro444 to construct a second NH-S hydrogen bond between the backbone amide and coordinating Cys500 thiolate of the type I copper are shown to result in positive shifts in the redox potential of this copper center and enhanced oxidase activity in CueO. Analogous enhancement of the activity of Δα5-7 CueO has been identified only in the Pro444Gly mutant because Pro444 mutants limit the incorporation of copper ions into the trinuclear copper center. The activities of both CueO and Δα5-7 CueO were also enhanced by mutations to break down the hydrogen bond between the imidazole group of His443 that is coordinated to the type I copper and the β-carboxy group of Asp439 that is located in the outer sphere of the type I copper center. A synergetic effect of the positive shift in the redox potential of the type I copper center and the increase in enzyme activity has been achieved by the double mutation of Pro444 and Asp439 of CueO. Absorption, circular dichroism, and resonance Raman spectra indicate that the characteristics of the Cu(II)-S(Cys) bond were only minimally perturbed by mutations involving formation or disruption of a hydrogen bond from the coordinating groups to the type I copper. This study provides widely applicable strategies for tuning the activities of multicopper oxidases. PMID:21142169

  5. Mutants of Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin Act as Effective Mucosal Adjuvants for Nasal Delivery of an Acellular Pertussis Vaccine: Differential Effects of the Nontoxic AB Complex and Enzyme Activity on Th1 and Th2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Elizabeth J.; McNeela, Edel; Murphy, Geraldine A.; Stewart, Helen; O'hagan, Derek; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rappuoli, Rino; Mills, Kingston H. G.

    1999-01-01

    Mucosal delivery of vaccines is dependent on the identification of safe and effective adjuvants that can enhance the immunogenicity of protein antigens administered by nasal or oral routes. In this study we demonstrate that two mutants of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT), LTK63, which lacks ADP-ribosylating activity, and LTR72, which has partial enzyme activity, act as potent mucosal adjuvants for the nasal delivery of an acellular pertussis (Pa) vaccine. Both LTK63 and LTR72 enhanced antigen-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), secretory IgA, and local and systemic T-cell responses. Furthermore, using the murine respiratory challenge model for infection with Bordetella pertussis, we demonstrated that a nasally delivered diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTPa) combination vaccine formulated with LTK63 as an adjuvant conferred a high level of protection, equivalent to that generated with a parenterally delivered DTPa vaccine formulated with alum. This study also provides significant new information on the roles of the binding and enzyme components of LT in the modulation of Th1 and Th2 responses. LTK63, which lacks enzyme activity, promoted T-cell responses with a mixed Th1–Th2 profile, but LTR72, which retains partial enzyme activity, and the wild-type toxin, especially at low dose, induced a more polarized Th2-type response and very high IgA and IgG antibody titers. Our findings suggest that the nontoxic AB complex has broad adjuvant activity for T-cell responses and that the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of the A subunit also appears to modulate cytokine production, but its effect on T-cell subtypes, as well as enhancing, may be selectively suppressive. PMID:10569737

  6. Mutants of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin act as effective mucosal adjuvants for nasal delivery of an acellular pertussis vaccine: differential effects of the nontoxic AB complex and enzyme activity on Th1 and Th2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E J; McNeela, E; Murphy, G A; Stewart, H; O'hagan, D; Pizza, M; Rappuoli, R; Mills, K H

    1999-12-01

    Mucosal delivery of vaccines is dependent on the identification of safe and effective adjuvants that can enhance the immunogenicity of protein antigens administered by nasal or oral routes. In this study we demonstrate that two mutants of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT), LTK63, which lacks ADP-ribosylating activity, and LTR72, which has partial enzyme activity, act as potent mucosal adjuvants for the nasal delivery of an acellular pertussis (Pa) vaccine. Both LTK63 and LTR72 enhanced antigen-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), secretory IgA, and local and systemic T-cell responses. Furthermore, using the murine respiratory challenge model for infection with Bordetella pertussis, we demonstrated that a nasally delivered diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTPa) combination vaccine formulated with LTK63 as an adjuvant conferred a high level of protection, equivalent to that generated with a parenterally delivered DTPa vaccine formulated with alum. This study also provides significant new information on the roles of the binding and enzyme components of LT in the modulation of Th1 and Th2 responses. LTK63, which lacks enzyme activity, promoted T-cell responses with a mixed Th1-Th2 profile, but LTR72, which retains partial enzyme activity, and the wild-type toxin, especially at low dose, induced a more polarized Th2-type response and very high IgA and IgG antibody titers. Our findings suggest that the nontoxic AB complex has broad adjuvant activity for T-cell responses and that the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of the A subunit also appears to modulate cytokine production, but its effect on T-cell subtypes, as well as enhancing, may be selectively suppressive. PMID:10569737

  7. TLR4-dependent activation of inflammatory cytokine response in macrophages by Francisella elongation factor Tu1

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Jyotika; Mishra, Bibhuti B.; Li, Qun; Teale, Judy M.

    2011-01-01

    The bacterial determinants of pulmonary Francisella induced inflammatory responses and their interaction with host components are not clearly defined. In this study, proteomic and immunoblot analyses showed presence of a cytoplasmic protein elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) in the membrane fractions of virulent F. novicida, LVS and SchuS4, but not in an attenuated F. novicida mutant. EF-Tu was immunodominant in mice vaccinated and protected from virulent F. novicida. Moreover, recombinant EF-Tu induced macrophages to produce inflammatory cytokines in a TLR4 dependent manner. This study shows immune stimulatory properties of a cytoplasmic protein EF-Tu expressed on the membrane of virulent Francisella strains. PMID:21497800

  8. E. Coli

    MedlinePlus

    ... E. coli is short for the medical term Escherichia coli . The strange thing about these bacteria — and lots ... cause a very serious infection. Someone who has E. coli infection may have these symptoms: bad stomach cramps and ...

  9. Resistance of Escherichia coli to Penicillins IX. Genetics and Physiology of Class II Ampicillin-Resistant Mutants That Are Galactose Negative or Sensitive to Bacteriophage C21, or Both

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson-Grennberg, Kerstin G.; Nordström, Kurt; Englund, Per

    1971-01-01

    Ampicillin-resistant mutants of class II are determined by a doubling of chromosomally and episomally mediated ampicillin resistance on agar plates. Several mutants were isolated from a female as well as from an Hfr strain. The mutants differed from each other in various properties such as response to colicin E2 and sodium cholate, response to the phages T4 and C21, and fermentation of galactose. By conjugation and transduction experiments, it was shown that mutations in at least four loci gave the class II phenotype. The mutations were found to be in the galU gene, the ctr gene, and two new genes close to mtl denoted lpsA and lpsB. The carbohydrate compositions of the lipopolysaccharides of the mutants were investigated and found to be changed compared to the parent strains. GalU mutants lacked rhamnose and galactose and had 11% glucose compared to the parent strain. The lpsA mutant also lacked rhamnose and had only traces of galactose and 58% glucose, whereas the lpsB mutant contained 14% rhamnose, traces of galactose, and 81% glucose compared to the parent strain. PMID:4945191

  10. A Derivative of the Thiopeptide GE2270A Highly Selective against Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    He, Cheng-Guang; Gaspari, Eleonora; Maffioli, Sonia; Brandi, Letizia; Spurio, Roberto; Sosio, Margherita; Jabes, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    A chemical derivative of the thiopeptide GE2270A, designated NAI003, was found to possess a substantially reduced antibacterial spectrum in comparison to the parent compound, being active against just a few Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, NAI003 retained low MICs against all tested isolates of Propionibacterium acnes and, to a lesser extent, against Enterococcus faecalis. Furthermore, NAI003 showed a time- and dose-dependent killing of both a clindamycin-resistant and a clindamycin-sensitive P. acnes isolate. Gel shift experiments indicated that, like the parent compound, NAI003 retained the ability to bind to elongation factors Tu (EF-Tus) derived from Escherichia coli, E. faecalis, or P. acnes, albeit with reduced efficiency. In contrast, EF-Tus derived from the NAI003-insensitive Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes did not bind this compound. These results were confirmed by in vitro studies using a hybrid translation system, which indicated that NAI003 can inhibit most efficiently protein synthesis driven by the P. acnes EF-Tu. P. acnes mutants resistant to NAI003 were isolated by direct plating. With one exception, all analyzed strains carried mutations in the tuf gene, encoding EF-Tu. Because of its selective effect on P. acnes in comparison to resident skin flora, NAI003 represents a promising candidate for the topical treatment of acne, which has already completed a phase 1 clinical study. PMID:25987631